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Sample records for mouse ovarian steroidogenesis

  1. Modulation of steroidogenesis by vitamin D3 in granulosa cells of the mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Amidi, Fardin; Alleyassin, Ashraf; Soleimani, Masoud; Shirazi, Reza; Shabani Nashtaei, Maryam

    2017-03-27

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovarian morphology, anovulation or oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. It is shown that disruption in the steroidogenesis pathway caused by excess androgen in PCOS is a critical element of abnormal folliculogenesis and failure in dominant follicle selection. Vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of ovulatory dysfunction and can influence genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vitamin D3 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and activities in granulosa cell using a PCOS mouse model. In our study, the PCOS mouse model was developed by the injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for 20 days. The mRNA and protein expression levels of genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells were compared between polycystic and normal ovaries using real-time PCR and Western blotting assays. Granulosa cells of DHEA-induced PCOS mice were then cultured with and without vitamin D3 and mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes and serum 17beta-estradiol and progesterone levels were investigated using qRT-PCR, western blot, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Steroidogenic enzymes including Cyp11a1, StAR, Cyp19a1, and 3β-HSD were upregulated in granulosa cells of PCOS mice when compared to normal mice. Treatment with vitamin D3 decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes in cultured granulosa cells. Vitamin D3 also decreased aromatase and 3β-HSD activity that leads to decreased 17beta-estradiol and progesterone release. This study suggests that vitamin D3 could modulate the steroidogenesis pathway in granulosa cells of PCOS mice that may lead to improving follicular development and maturation. This is a step towards a possible conceivable treatment for PCOS.

  2. Monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products inhibit follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Clara H.; Gao, Liying; Dettro, Tyler; Wagner, Elizabeth D.; Ricke, William A.; Plewa, Michael J.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases, but the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in water leads to the formation of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs have been shown to be toxic, but their effects on the ovary are not well defined. This study tested the hypothesis that monohalogenated DBPs (chloroacetic acid, CAA; bromoacetic acid, BAA; iodoacetic acid, IAA) inhibit antral follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian follicles. Antral follicles were isolated and cultured with either vehicle or DBPs (0.25–1.00 mM of CAA; 2–15 µM of BAA or IAA) for 48 and 96 h. Follicle growth was measured every 24 h and the media were analyzed for estradiol levels at 96 h. Exposure to DBPs significantly inhibited antral follicle growth and reduced estradiol levels compared to controls. These data demonstrate that DBP exposure caused ovarian toxicity in vitro. PMID:27151372

  3. Monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products inhibit follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Clara H; Gao, Liying; Dettro, Tyler; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Ricke, William A; Plewa, Michael J; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-07-01

    Water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases, but the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in water leads to the formation of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs have been shown to be toxic, but their effects on the ovary are not well defined. This study tested the hypothesis that monohalogenated DBPs (chloroacetic acid, CAA; bromoacetic acid, BAA; iodoacetic acid, IAA) inhibit antral follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian follicles. Antral follicles were isolated and cultured with either vehicle or DBPs (0.25-1.00mM of CAA; 2-15μM of BAA or IAA) for 48 and 96h. Follicle growth was measured every 24h and the media were analyzed for estradiol levels at 96h. Exposure to DBPs significantly inhibited antral follicle growth and reduced estradiol levels compared to controls. These data demonstrate that DBP exposure caused ovarian toxicity in vitro.

  4. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis, but does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R. Hannon, Patrick R. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-11-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P{sub 4}) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for HSD3B, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10 μg/mL), pregnenolone (1 μg/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P{sub 4}, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 1}), and 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E{sub 2}. Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P{sub 4}, A, T, and E{sub 1} that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival. - Highlights: • Mono-OH MXC inhibited antral follicle steroidogenesis, growth, and survival. • Pregnenolone partially restored steroidogenesis

  5. Silver nanoparticles disrupt regulation of steroidogenesis in fish ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Degger, Natalie; Tse, Anna C K; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2015-12-01

    Despite the influx of silver nanoparticles (nAg) into the marine environment, their effects on fish reproduction remain completely unexplored. Using ovarian primary cells from marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), in vitro studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of two differently coated nAg particles (Oleic Acid, (OA) nAg and Polyvinylpyrrolidone, (PVP) nAg) on fish ovarian tissues, using AgNO3 as a positive control. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and expression of key genes regulating steroidogenesis (StAR, CYP 19a, CYP 11a, 3βHSD and 20βHSD) were determined by Q-RT-PCR. EC50 values for PVP nAg, OA nAg and AgNO3 were 7.25μgL(-1), 924.4μgL(-1), and 42.0μgL(-1) respectively, showing that toxicity of silver was greatly enhanced in the PVP coated nano-form. Down regulation of CYP 19a was observed in both nAg and AgNO3 treatments, while down regulation of 3βHSD was only found in the OA nAg and AgNO3 treatments. For the first time, our results demonstrated that nAg can affect specific genes regulating steroidogenesis, implicating nAg as a potential endocrine disruptor.

  6. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate impairs steroidogenesis in ovarian follicular cells of prepuberal mice.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fang-Nong; Liu, Jing-Cai; Li, Lan; Ma, Jun-Yu; Liu, Xue-Lian; Liu, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Chen, Hong; De Felici, Massimo; Dyce, Paul W; Shen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer which is widely used in the manufacture of plastics. As a common environmental contaminant and recognized endocrine disrupting chemical, DEHP is able to deregulate the functions of a variety of tissues, including the reproductive system both in males and females. In order to investigate the possible effects of DEHP on the first wave of folliculogenesis, occurring in the mouse ovary postnatally, mice were administered 20 or 40 μg/kg DEHP through intraperitoneal injection at days 5, 10 and 15 post partum (dpp). Following DEHP treatment the gene expression profile of control and exposed ovaries was compared by microarray analyses at 20 dpp. We found that in the exposed ovaries DEHP significantly altered the transcript levels of several immune response and steroidogenesis associated genes. In particular, DEHP significantly decreased the expression of genes essential for androgen synthesis by theca cells including Lhcgr, Cyp17a1, Star and Ldlr. Immunohistochemistry and immune flow cytometry confirmed reduced expression of LHCGR and CYP17A1 proteins in the exposed theca cells. These effects were associated to a significant reduction in ovarian concentrations of progesterone, 17β-estradiol and androstenedione along with a reduction of LH in the serum. Although we did not find a significant reduction of the number of primary, secondary or antral follicles in the DEHP exposed ovaries when compared to controls, we did observe that theca cells showed an altered structure of the nuclear envelope, fewer mitochondria, and mitochondria with a reduced number of cristae. Collectively, these results demonstrate a deleterious effect of DEHP exposure on ovarian steroidogenesis during the first wave of folliculogenesis that could potentially affect the correct establishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and the onset of puberty.

  7. Control of ovarian steroidogenesis in insects: a locust neurohormone is active in vitro on blowfly ovaries.

    PubMed

    Manière, G; Vanhems, E; Rondot, I; Delbecque, J P

    2009-09-15

    Ovarian steroidogenesis controlling insect reproduction is mainly regulated by brain gonadotropins liberated from corpora cardiaca (CC). Till now, different neurohormones have been identified in two insect groups only, locusts and mosquitoes, and it is unknown whether they could be active in other insects. In order to complete previous observations on the control of ovarian steroidogenesis in the blowfly, Phormia regina, we examined whether neuropeptides isolated from locust CC have an effect in vitro on ovarian steroidogenesis in our dipteran model. Our experiments showed that crude extracts from locust CC efficiently stimulated steroidogenesis in blowfly isolated previtellogenic ovaries. However, such an activity was observed neither with authenticated neuroparsins (NPs), the putative homologs of the ovarian ecdysteroidogenic hormone of mosquitoes, nor with ovarian maturing peptide (OMP), the putative locust steroidogenic neurohormone. Partial purifications of CC extracts were then performed using methanol and/or acidic ethanol extractions followed by reverse phase HPLC and collected fractions were assayed in vitro. A significant steroidogenic activity was found in a single group of acidic fractions, well separated from OMP and NPs, which was associated to slight but significant anti-insulin immunoreactivity. In conclusion, a locust CC neurohormone, different from NPs and OMP, is able to stimulate ecdysteroidogenesis in blowfly ovaries. Though this active factor has not been fully characterized, its behavior during extraction or HPLC and its immunoreactivity strongly suggest it could be an insulin-like peptide. This is in agreement with previous studies demonstrating the role of such peptides as steroidogenic gonadotropins in blowflies and several other insects.

  8. Leptin siRNA promotes ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis and affects steroidogenesis by increasing NPY2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaomeng; Kou, Xinxin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Guomei; Jia, Tianming

    2017-10-30

    Leptin has been found to be involved in the ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Loss of neuropeptide Y (NPY) can correct the obesity syndrome of mutant mice lacking of leptin (ob/ob). However, the association of NPY and leptin in ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian steroidogenesis has not been investigated. Here, C57BL/6J ob/ob mice and C57BL/6J (control) mice were intraperitoneally injected with PBS, leptin (0.4μg/g bodyweight) or BIIE0246 (NPY2 receptor [NPY2R] antagonist, 30μg/kg bodyweight) every day for 15days. We found that NPY2R mRNA expression in mouse ovary was suppressed by leptin treatment, but increased by leptin deficiency. Leptin or BIIE0246 treatment significantly increased E2, but notably decreased progesterone in both mice. A lower level of E2 and a higher level of progesterone was observed in ob/ob mice than in control mice. Further, we then knocked down leptin expression in human ovarian granulosa cells by siRNA transfection and treated the cells with DMSO or BIIE0246. In vitro experiments confirmed the findings in mice. siLeptin treatment decreased the secretion of E2, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and the cell proliferation, but increased the secretion of progesterone and cell apoptosis. Western blotting analysis of PCNA, Bcl-2 and Bax confirmed the results of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of JAK2 and STAT3 was also suppressed by knocking down leptin. All the effects of siLeptin on ovarian granulosa cells were partially reversed by BIIE0246. In conclusion, knockdown of leptin significantly affected ovarian steroidogenesis and ovarian function through NPY. siLeptin transfection impaired the activation of JAK2/STAT3 and contributed to ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis partially through up-regulating NPY2R expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Defects in insulin signaling pathways in ovarian steroidogenesis and other tissues in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Argyrakopoulou, Georgia; Economou, Frangiskos; Kandaraki, Eleni; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age today. Women with PCOS often demonstrate defective ovarian steroid biosynthesis and present with hyperandrogenemia. Moreover, 50-70% of PCOS women are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic. Insulin acts on the ovary via its own receptor and interacts with gonadotrophins, modulating steroidogenesis. The precise role of insulin and the molecular mechanisms that take place are not yet completely explicated. This review will be focused on insulin's action on the ovary and other target tissues, describing the intracellular signaling pathways implicated in steroidogenesis and their defects in women with PCOS.

  10. Regulatory mechanism of Toona sinensis on mouse leydig cell steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poon, Song Ling; Leu, Sew-Fen; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Liu, Ming-Yie; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2005-02-11

    Toona sinensis (TS), a kind of arbor, widely distributes nowadays in Asia. The leaves of TS have been used as an effective nutritious food in Chinese society for a long time. It was reported that Toona sinensis can induce apoptosis of cancer cells, reduce plasma glucose in diabetic rats, and improve lipolysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte and its uptake of glucose. It has also been shown that TS may increase dynamic activity of human sperm. Thus, we are interested to investigate whether Toona sinensis has any effect on mouse Leydig cell testosterone production, which correlates to sperm activity. Primary mouse Leydig cells were purified to conduct the in vitro experiments. Different concentrations of crude Toona sinensis were added to primary mouse Leydig cells and the testosterone production was determined. The results showed that crude TS significantly inhibited both basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated testosterone productions in dose dependent manner, respectively (P<0.05). Crude TS also reduced the forskolin- and dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP)-stimulated testosterone production (P<0.05), which indicated that crude TS might affect protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction pathway at the site after the formation of cyclic AMP. Moreover, TS inhibited Leydig cell steroidogenesis by suppressing the activity of steroidogenic enzymes including P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, 20 alpha-hydroxylase and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P<0.05). In summary, these results suggested that TS inhibited steroidogenesis by suppressing the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in normal mouse Leydig cells.

  11. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Sharada; Gao, Liying; Gonnering, Marni; Helferich, William; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. PMID:26876617

  12. Ovarian steroidogenesis and the role of sex steroid hormones on ovarian growth and maturation of the Japanese eel.

    PubMed

    Kazeto, Yukinori; Tosaka, Ryota; Matsubara, Hajime; Ijiri, Shigeho; Adachi, Shinji

    2011-11-01

    Three sex steroid hormones, estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), are well established as primary estrogen, androgen, and progestin, respectively, in teleost fish. Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, would be a suitable candidate to study ovarian steroid physiology of fish because the ovarian growth and steroidogenesis is dormant under laboratory condition but can be induced by administration of exogenous gonadotropic reagents. In this review, we summarized our work on the function and production of sex steroid hormones in the ovary of the Japanese eel during ovarian growth and oocyte maturation artificially induced by treatment with extract of salmon pituitary. In vitro and in vivo assays suggest that 11-KT and E2 play primary roles in previtellogenic and vitellogenic growth of oocytes, respectively, whereas DHP is essential for induction of final oocyte maturation. We also reviewed the correlation between ovarian steroidogenesis to produce these sex steroid hormones, serum titers and gene expression.

  13. Adrenal steroidogenesis following prenatal dexamethasone exposure in the spiny mouse.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Tracey A; Ratnayake, Udani; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Moritz, Karen M; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W

    2014-05-01

    Antenatal stress disturbs the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenal steroidogenesis. We investigated the effect of brief maternal exposure to high glucocorticoids (dexamethasone (DEX)) at mid- and late-pregnancy on adrenal structure and production of steroids in spiny mouse. Pregnant spiny mice were treated for 60 h with 125 μg/kg DEX or saline s.c. by osmotic minipump at day 20 (0.5) or 30 (0.75) of gestation. Immunohistochemical expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory-protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD), 17-hydroxylase,17-20lyase (P450C17), and cytochromeb5 (CYTB5) was determined in adrenals on postnatal (P) day 170±20. DHEA, testosterone, and cortisol were measured by RIA. Maternal DEX at 20 days significantly reduced the expression of STAR, P450C17 (CYP17A1), and CYTB5 in the adrenal zona reticularis (ZR) of adult offspring, with greater change in male vs female offspring (P<0.05). Plasma DHEA was decreased in male offspring from DEX-treated (6.84±1.24 ng/ml) vs saline-treated (13±0.06 ng/ml; P=0.01) dams, and the DHEA:cortisol ratio was lower in males (P<0.05). Testosterone levels increased in male offspring from DEX (266.03±50.75 pg/ml) vs saline (83.47±32.3 pg/ml, P<0.05)-treated dams. DEX treatment at 0.75 gestation had no significant effect on any parameters measured. This study shows that brief exposure to excess glucocorticoid has long-term impacts on the ZR and adrenal steroidogenesis, affecting the secretion of DHEA and testosterone in male offspring, an effect produced at 0.5 but not at 0.75 gestation. DHEA is important for brain development, and its suppression in adult life might contribute to the neurobehavioral pathologies that can arise after illness and stress during pregnancy.

  14. Effects of resistin on porcine ovarian follicle steroidogenesis in prepubertal animals: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistin was first reported to be an adipocyte-specific hormone, but recent studies have indicated a connection between resistin and reproductive function. However, it is not yet known if resistin is expressed by the ovary and if it can affect steroidogenesis in ovarian follicles from prepubertal pigs. Methods In this study, using real time PCR, immunoblotting, and ELISA, we quantified resistin expression and concentration in maturing ovarian follicles (small, 3–4 mm; medium, 4–5 mm; large, 6–7 mm) collected from prepubertal pigs. In addition, the dose-responsive effects of recombinant human resistin (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) on steroid hormone (i.e., progesterone [P4], androstendione [A4], testosterone [T], and estradiol [E2]) secretion in culture medium and steroidogenic enzyme (i.e., CYP11A1, 3betaHSD, CYP17A1, 17betaHSD, and CYP19A1) expression in ovarian follicles were determined. Results We observed that resistin gene and protein expression increased significantly (P < 0.05) during follicular growth, with large follicles expressing the highest level of this adipokine. Recombinant resistin also increased P4, A4, and T secretion by up-regulating the steady state levels of CYP11A1, 3betaHSD, CYP17A1, and 17betaHSD. Recombinant resistin had no effects on E2 secretion and CYP19A1 expression in ovarian follicles. Conclusion Our results show resistin expression in ovarian follicles from prepubertal pigs for the first time. We also show that recombinant resistin stimulates steroidogenesis in ovarian follicles by increasing the expression of CYP11A1, 3betaHSD, CYP17A1, and 17betaHSD. The presence of resistin in the porcine ovary and its direct effects on steroidogenesis suggest that resistin is a new regulator of ovary function in prepubertal animals. PMID:23680257

  15. Post-tubal sterilization problems correlated with ovarian steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, J F; Milne, B J

    1988-11-01

    Mid-luteal phase total urinary oestrogen excretion was found to be significantly reduced in women who had previously undergone tubal sterilization at least two years before assay; pregnanediol levels at or below 2.0 mg/24 hrs were significantly more frequent for the study group. These findings indicate that reduced ovarian function is associated with that procedure. The major problems declared as having been experienced subsequent to tubal sterilization were classified into three categories; some women declared problems in more than one category: (1) Abnormal uterine bleeding and/or menorrhagia, (2) Physical problems, (3) Psychological and/or psychiatric problems. Category 1 was associated with a significant fall in total oestrogen excretion, and category 2 with a significant fall in both total oestrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Analysis of category 3 will be published elsewhere. A negative correlation between total oestrogens and cholesterol was observed.

  16. Resveratrol potentiates effects of simvastatin on inhibition of rat ovarian theca-interstitial cells steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by ovarian enlargement, hyperplastic theca compartment and increased androgen production due to, at least in part, excessive expression of several key genes involved in steroidogenesis. Previously, our group has demonstrated that simvastatin, competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a rate-limiting step of the mevalonate pathway, reduces rat-theca interstitial cell steroidogenesis by inhibiting Cyp17a1 gene expression, the key enzyme of the androgen biosynthesis pathway. Recently, we demonstrated that resveratrol, a bioflavonoid abundant in red grapes, decreases rat theca-interstitial cell steroidogenesis and this suppressive effect is mediated through mechanisms independent of the mevalonate pathway. The present study evaluated the effect of combining simvastatin and resveratrol treatments on rat theca-interstitial cell steroidogenesis. Methods Rat theca-interstitial cells isolated from 30 day-old female rats were cultured for up to 48 h with or without simvastatin (1 μM) and/or resveratrol (3-10 μM). Steroidogenic enzymes gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real time PCR and steroid levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results Resveratrol potentiated inhibitory effects of simvastatin on androstenedione and androsterone production in theca-interstitial cells. This suppressive effect correlated with profound inhibition in Cyp17a1 mRNA expression in the presence of a combination of resveratrol and simvastatin. Conclusions The present findings indicate that resveratrol potentiates the simvastatin-induced inhibitory effect on theca-interstitial cell androgen production, raising the possibility of development of novel treatments of PCOS. PMID:24524197

  17. Involvement of the oestrogenic receptors in superior mesenteric ganglion on the ovarian steroidogenesis in rat.

    PubMed

    Vega Orozco, Adriana; Daneri, Cristina; Anesetti, Gabriel; Cabrera, Ricardo; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana M

    2012-02-01

    Oestradiol (E(2)) is a key hormone in the regulation of reproductive processes. The aims of this work were a) to examine the distributions of oestrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ in the neurons of the superior mesenteric ganglion (SMG) in the oestrus stage by immunohistochemistry, b) to demonstrate whether E(2) in the SMG modifies progesterone (P(4)), androstenedione (A(2)) and nitrite release in the ovarian compartment on oestrus day and c) to demonstrate whether E(2) in the ganglion modifies the activity and gene expression in the ovary of the steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD). The ex vivo SMG-ovarian nervous plexus-ovary system was used. E(2), tamoxifen (Txf) and E(2) plus Txf were added in the ganglion to measure ovarian P(4) release, while E(2) alone was added to measure ovarian A(2) and nitrites release. Immunohistochemistry revealed cytoplasmic ERα immunoreactivity only in the neural somas in the SMG. E(2) increased ovarian P(4) and A(2) release at 15, 30 and 60 min but decreased nitrites. The activity and gene expression of 3β-HSD increased, while the activity and gene expression of 20α-HSD did not show changes with respect to the control. Txf in the ganglion diminished P(4) release only at 60 min. E(2) plus Txf in the ganglion reverted the effect of E(2) alone and the inhibitory effect of Txf. The results of this study demonstrate that ERα activation in the SMG has an impact on ovarian steroidogenesis in rats, thus providing evidence for the critical role of peripheral system neurons in the control of ovarian functions under normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and ovarian function--implications for regulating steroidogenesis, differentiation, and tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Komar, Carolyn M

    2005-08-30

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of transcription factors involved in varied and diverse processes such as steroidogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, cell cycle, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. These processes are critical for normal ovarian function, and all three PPAR family members--alpha, delta, and gamma, are expressed in the ovary. Most notably, the expression of PPARgamma is limited primarily to granulosa cells in developing follicles, and is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). Although much has been learned about the PPARs since their initial discovery, very little is known regarding their function in ovarian tissue. This review highlights what is known about the roles of PPARs in ovarian cells, and discusses potential mechanisms by which PPARs could influence ovarian function. Because PPARs are activated by drugs currently in clinical use (fibrates and thiazolidinediones), it is important to understand their role in the ovary, and how manipulation of their activity may impact ovarian physiology as well as ovarian pathology.

  19. Genistein exposure inhibits growth and alters steroidogenesis in adult mouse antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Peretz, Jackye; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Helferich, William G; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-02-15

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36μM) for 18-96h. Every 24h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genistein Exposure Inhibits Growth and Alters Steroidogenesis in Adult Mouse Antral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreya; Peretz, Jackye; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Helferich, William G.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone phytoestrogen commonly found in plant products such as soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas. Genistein, like other phytoestrogens, has the potential to mimic, enhance, or impair the estradiol biosynthesis pathway, thereby potentially altering ovarian follicle growth. Previous studies have inconsistently indicated that genistein exposure may alter granulosa cell proliferation and hormone production, but no studies have examined the effects of genistein on intact antral follicles. Thus, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that genistein exposure inhibits follicle growth and steroidogenesis in intact antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) for 18 – 96 hours (h). Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to assess growth. At the end of each culture period, the media were pooled to measure hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were collected to measure expression of cell cycle regulators and steroidogenic enzymes. The results indicate that genistein (36 μM) inhibits growth of mouse antral follicles. Additionally, genistein (6.0 and 36 μM) increases progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, but decreases estrone and estradiol levels. The results also indicate that genistein alters the expression of steroidogenic enzymes at 24, 72 and 96 h, and the expression of cell cycle regulators at 18 h. These data indicate that genistein exposure inhibits antral follicle growth by inhibiting the cell cycle, alters sex steroid hormone levels, and dysregulates steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles. PMID:26792615

  1. A regulatory role of androgen in ovarian steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Toru; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Hosoya, Takeshi; Fujita, Shiho; Nishiyama, Yuki; Iwata, Nahoko; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Otsuka, Fumio

    2017-09-01

    Excess androgen and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in the ovarian follicle has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here we investigated the impact of androgen and IGF-I on the regulatory mechanism of ovarian steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. It was revealed that androgen treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) amplified progesterone synthesis in the presence of FSH and IGF-I, whereas it had no significant effect on estrogen synthesis by rat granulosa cells. In accordance with the effects of androgen on steroidogenesis, DHT enhanced the expression of progesterogenic factors and enzymes, including StAR, P450scc and 3βHSD, and cellular cAMP synthesis induced by FSH and IGF-I. Of note, treatment with DHT and IGF-I suppressed Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and transcription of the BMP target gene Id-1, suggesting that androgen and IGF-I counteract BMP signaling that inhibits FSH-induced progesterone synthesis in rat granulosa cells. DHT was revealed to suppress the expression of BMP-6 receptors, consisting of ALK-2, ALK-6 and ActRII, while it increased the expression of inhibitory Smads in rat granulosa cells. In addition, IGF-I treatment upregulated androgen receptor (AR) expression and DHT treatment suppressed IGF-I receptor expression on rat granulosa cells. Collectively, the results indicate that androgen and IGF-I mutually interact and accelerate progesterone production, at least in part, by regulating endogenous BMP signaling in rat granulosa cells. Cooperative effects of androgen and IGF-I counteract endogenous BMP-6 activity in rat granulosa cells, which is likely to be functionally linked to the steroidogenic property shown in the PCOS ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of midazolam on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    So, Edmund Cheung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsing, Chung-His; Poon, Paul Wai-Fung; Leu, Sew-Fen; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2010-02-01

    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a putative receptor in Leydig cells, modulates steroidogenesis. Since benzodiazepines are commonly used in regional anesthesia, their peripheral effects need to be defined. Therefore, this study set out to investigate in vitro effects of the benzodiazepine midazolam (MDZ) on Leydig cell steroidogenesis, and the possible underlying mechanisms. The effects of MDZ on steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cells and MA-10 Leydig tumor cells were determined by radioimmunoassay. PBR, P450scc, 3beta-HSD and StAR protein expression induced by MDZ was determined by Western blotting. Inhibitors of the signal transduction pathway and a MDZ antagonist were used to investigate the intracellular cascades activated by MDZ. In both cell types, MDZ-stimulated steroidogenesis in dose- and time-dependent manners, and induced the expression of PBR and StAR proteins, but had no effect on P450scc and 3beta-HSD expressions. Moreover, H89 (PKA inhibitor) and GF109203X (PKC inhibitor) attenuated MDZ-stimulated steroid production. Interestingly, the MDZ antagonist (flumazenil) did not decrease MDZ-induced steroid production in both cell types. These results highly indicated that MDZ-induced steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells via PKA and PKC pathways, along with the expression of PBR and StAR proteins. In addition, MDZ at high dosages induced rounding-up, membrane blebbing, and then death in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, midazolam could induce Leydig tumor cell steroidogenesis, and high dose of midazolam could induce apoptosis in Leydig tumor cells.

  3. Vitamin D regulates steroidogenesis and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) production in human ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Parikh, G; Varadinova, M; Suwandhi, P; Araki, T; Rosenwaks, Z; Poretsky, L; Seto-Young, D

    2010-09-01

    Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) is expressed in both animal and human ovarian tissue, however, the role of vitamin D in human ovarian steroidogenesis is unknown. Cultured human ovarian cells were incubated in tissue culture medium supplemented with appropriate substrates, with or without 50 pM-150 pM or 50 nM-150 nM of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and in the presence or absence of insulin. Progesterone, testosterone, estrone, estradiol, and IGFBP-1 concentrations in conditioned tissue culture medium were measured. Vitamin D receptor was present in human ovarian cells. 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulated progesterone production by 13% (p<0.001), estradiol production by 9% (p<0.02), and estrone production by 21% (p<0.002). Insulin and 1,25-(OH)2D3 acted synergistically to increase estradiol production by 60% (p<0.005). 1,25-(OH)2D3 alone stimulated IGFBP-1 production by 24% (p<0.001), however, in the presence of insulin, 1,25-(OH)2D3 enhanced insulin-induced inhibition of IGFBP-1 production by 13% (p<0.009). Vitamin D stimulates ovarian steroidogenesis and IGFBP-1 production in human ovarian cells likely acting via vitamin D receptor. Insulin and vitamin D synergistically stimulate estradiol production. Vitamin D also enhances inhibitory effect of insulin on IGFBP-1 production.

  4. Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S. Craig, Zelieann R. Hernandez-Ochoa, Isabel Paulose, Tessie Leslie, Traci C. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2011-06-15

    The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E{sub 2}) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24 h for 96 h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E{sub 2} metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E{sub 2}, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P{sub 4}) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels. - Highlights: > MXC inhibits steroidogenesis > MXC inhibits steroidogenic enzymes > MXC induces metabolic enzymes

  5. Effects of Tremella mesenterica on steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lo, H-C; Chen, Y-W; Chien, C-H; Tseng, C-Y; Kuo, Y-M; Huang, B-M

    2005-01-01

    Tremella mesenterica (TM), a yellow jelly mushroom, has been traditionally used as food and crude medicine to improve several kinds of symptoms in Chinese society for a long time. Recent studies have illustrated that the fractions of fruiting bodies of TM exhibit a significant hypoglycemic activity in diabetic mouse models, which usually suffer from sexual dysfunction. In a previous study, we showed that TM reduced plasma testosterone production in normal rats without any positive effect in diabetic rats. It evolved a question of TM directly regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis. In this study, MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells were treated with vehicle, different dosages of TM with or without human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 50 ng/ml) to clarify the effects. Results showed that TM at different dosages (0.01-10 mg/ml) did not have any effect on MA-10 cell steroidogenesis (p > 0.05). In the presence of hCG, there was an inhibitory trend that TA suppressed MA-10 cell progesterone production at 3 hr treatment with a statistically significant difference by the 10 mg/ml TM (p < 0.05). In time course effect, TM alone did not have any effect on MA-10 cell steroidogenesis from at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 hr (p > 0.05). However, TM did reduce hCG-treated MA-10 cell progesterone production at 1, 2 and 3 hr (p < 0.05), respectively. To determine whether TM would have adverse effects on MA-10 cell steroidogenesis in the presence of hCG, MTT assay and recovery studies were conducted. MTT assay indicated that TM had no effect on surviving cells. In addition, with the removal of TM, and then the addition of hCG (2 and 4 hr), progesterone levels were restored within 4 hr. Taken together, present studies suggested that TM suppressed hCG-treated steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells without any toxicity effect.

  6. The regulatory mechanism of Tremella mesenterica on steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Wen; Lo, Hui-Chen; Yang, Jyuer-Ger; Chien, Chi-Hsien; Lee, Shi-Hsiung; Tseng, Chi-Yu; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2006-07-04

    Tremella mesenterica (TM), a yellow jelly mushroom, has been traditionally used as tonic food to improve body condition in Chinese society for a long time. We have previously demonstrated that TM reduced in vitro hCG-treated steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells without any toxicity effect. In the present study, the mechanism how TM suppressed hCG-treated steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells was investigated. MA-10 cells were treated with vehicle, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 50 ng/ml), or different reagents with or without TM to clarify the effects. TM significantly suppressed progesterone production with the presences of forskolin (10 and 100 microM) or dbcAMP (0.5 and 1mM), respectively, in MA-10 cells (p<0.05), which indicated that TM suppressed steroidogenesis after PKA activation along the signal pathway. Beyond our expectation, TM induced the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein with or without hCG treatments. However, TM profoundly decreased P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) enzyme activities without any influences on the expression of both enzymes. These inhibitions on steroidogenic enzyme activities might counteract the stimulation of StAR protein expression. In conclusion, results suggest that TM suppressed hCG-treated steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells by inhibiting PKA signal pathway and steroidogenic enzyme activities.

  7. Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reyland, M.E.; Forgez, P.; Prack, M.M.; Williams, D.L. ); Gwynne, J.T. )

    1991-03-15

    The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. To investigate the role of apoE in adrenal cholesterol homeostasis, the authors have expressed a human apoE genomic clone in the Y1 mouse adrenocortical cell line. Y1 cells do not express endogenous apoE mRNA or protein. Expression of apoE in Y1 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in basal steroidogenesis; secretion of fluorogenic steroid was reduced 7- to {gt}100-fold relative to Y1 parent cells. Addition of 5-cholesten-3{beta},25-idol failed to overcome the suppression of steroidogenesis in these cells. Cholesterol esterification under basal conditions, as measured by the production of cholesteryl ({sup 14}C)oleate, was similar in the Y1 parent and the apoE-transfected cell lines. Upon incubation with adrenocorticotropin or dibutyryl cAMP, production of cholesteryl ({sup 14}C)oleate decreased 5-fold in the Y1 parent cells but was unchanged in the apoE-transfected cell lines. These results suggest that apoE may be an important modulator of cholesterol utilization and steroidogenesis in adrenal cells.

  8. Steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig cells is altered via fatty acid import into the mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rone, Malena B; Midzak, Andrew S; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Ye, Xiaoying; Blonder, Josip; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria are home to many cellular processes, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, and in steroid-synthesizing cells, they are involved in cholesterol import and metabolism, which is the initiating step in steroidogenesis. The formation of macromolecular protein complexes aids in the regulation and efficiency of these mitochondrial functions, though because of their dynamic nature, they are hard to identify. To overcome this problem, we used Blue-Native PAGE with whole-gel mass spectrometry on isolated mitochondria from control and hormone-treated MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells. The presence of multiple mitochondrial protein complexes was shown. Although these were qualitatively similar under control and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated conditions, quantitative differences in the components of the complexes emerged after hCG treatment. A prominent decrease was observed with proteins involved in fatty acid import into the mitochondria, implying that mitochondrial beta-oxidation is not essential for steroidogenesis. To confirm this observation, we inhibited fatty acid import utilizing the CPT1a inhibitor etomoxir, resulting in increased steroid production. Conversely, stimulation of mitochondrial beta-oxidation with metformin resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in steroidogenesis. These changes were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial respiration and in the lactic acid formed during glycolysis. Taken together, these results suggest that upon hormonal stimulation, mitochondria efficiently import cholesterol for steroid production at the expense of other lipids necessary for energy production, specifically fatty acids required for beta-oxidation.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and ovarian function – implications for regulating steroidogenesis, differentiation, and tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Carolyn M

    2005-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of transcription factors involved in varied and diverse processes such as steroidogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, cell cycle, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. These processes are critical for normal ovarian function, and all three PPAR family members – alpha, delta, and gamma, are expressed in the ovary. Most notably, the expression of PPARgamma is limited primarily to granulosa cells in developing follicles, and is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). Although much has been learned about the PPARs since their initial discovery, very little is known regarding their function in ovarian tissue. This review highlights what is known about the roles of PPARs in ovarian cells, and discusses potential mechanisms by which PPARs could influence ovarian function. Because PPARs are activated by drugs currently in clinical use (fibrates and thiazolidinediones), it is important to understand their role in the ovary, and how manipulation of their activity may impact ovarian physiology as well as ovarian pathology. PMID:16131403

  10. Involvement of calcium and calmodulin in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) and modulation by Aroclor 1254.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Abby D; Thomas, Peter

    2005-12-01

    The involvement of calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis was investigated in Atlantic croaker. Treatment with the calcium ionophores A23187 and ionomycin caused a 2- to 5-fold increase in basal steroid accumulation by croaker ovarian tissue in vitro. A23187 potentiated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced testosterone (T) accumulation, whereas it inhibited accumulation of estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and the conversion of T to E(2), suggesting that intracellular calcium modulates aromatase enzyme activity. Gonadotropin stimulation of ovarian steroidogenesis was decreased in the presence of EGTA and inhibitors of voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate-receptors (IP(3)Rs), indicating that releases of calcium from both intracellular and extracellular stores are components of the signal transduction pathways initiated by gonadotropin. Calmodulin is also involved in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in croaker, since the calmodulin inhibitors W-7 and trifluoperazine (TFP) attenuated hCG-stimulated T and E(2) accumulation. These results are broadly similar to those reported previously in goldfish and suggest that the major calcium-dependent signaling pathways involved in gonadotropin stimulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in tetrapods are also present in teleosts. In addition, the involvement of calcium in the regulation of aromatase activity was demonstrated for the first time in a vertebrate ovary. Finally, acute exposure to 0.001-1 ppm Aroclor 1254 induced up to a 5-fold increase in hCG-stimulated E(2) accumulation, and this effect was attenuated by co-treatment with inhibitors of VSCCs and calmodulin, suggesting the existence of a novel mechanism of endocrine disruption by an environmental contaminant involving alteration of calcium-dependent signaling pathways regulating steroidogenesis.

  11. Infantile 4-tert-octylphenol exposure transiently inhibits rat ovarian steroidogenesis and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression

    SciTech Connect

    Myllymaeki, S.A. . E-mail: saanmy@utu.fi; Karjalainen, M.; Haavisto, T.E.; Toppari, J.; Paranko, J.

    2005-08-22

    Phenolic compounds, such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), have been shown to interfere with rat ovarian steroidogenesis. However, little is known about steroidogenic effects of infantile OP exposure on immature ovary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of infantile OP exposure on plasma FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels in 14-day-old female rats. The effect on ovarian steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and FSH receptor (FSHr) expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Ex vivo analysis was carried out for follicular estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cAMP production. Sprague-Dawley rats were given OP (0, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg) subcutaneously on postnatal days 6, 8, 10, and 12. On postnatal day 14, plasma FSH was decreased and progesterone increased significantly at a dose of 100 mg OP/kg. In addition, the highest OP dose advanced the time of vaginal opening in puberty. OP had no effect on infantile LH and estradiol levels or ovarian FSHr content. Ovarian StAR protein content and ex vivo hormone and cAMP production were decreased at all OP doses compared to controls. However, hormone levels recovered independent on FSH and even increased above the control level during a prolonged culture. On postnatal day 35, no statistically significant differences were seen between control and OP-exposed animals in plasma FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels, or in ovarian StAR protein content. The results indicate that the effect of OP on the infantile ovary is reversible, while more permanent effects in the hypothalamus and pituitary, as described earlier, are involved in the reduction of circulating FSH levels and premature vaginal opening.

  12. Effects of T-2 toxin on the regulation of steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian Ying; Zhang, Yong Fa; Li, Yuan Xiao; Guan, Gui Ping; Kong, Xiang Feng; Liang, Ai Min; Ma, Kai Wang; Da Li, Guang; Bai, Xue Fei

    2016-10-01

    T-2 toxin is one of the mycotoxins, a group of type A trichothecenes produced by several fungal genera including Fusarium species, which may lead to the decrease of testosterone secretion in primary Leydig cells derived from mouse testis. The previous study demonstrated T-2 toxin decrease the testosterone biosynthesis in the primary Leydig cells derived from the mouse testis directly. In this study, we further examined the direct biological effects of T-2 toxin on the process of steroidogenesis, primarily in Leydig cells of mice. Leydig cells of mature mouse were purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation and the cell purity was determined by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) staining. To examine the decrease in T-2 toxin-induced testosterone secretion, we measured the transcription level of three key steroidogenic enzymes including 3β-HSD-1, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme, and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein in T-2 toxin/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) co-treated cells. Our previous study showed that T-2 toxin (10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9) M) significantly suppressed hCG (10 ng/ml)-induced testosterone secretion. The studies demonstrated that the suppressive effect is correlated with a decrease in the level of transcription of 3β-HSD-1, P450scc, and StAR (p < 0.05).

  13. Transplantation Into the Mouse Ovarian Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Harlan, Blaine A.; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic transplantation assays in mice are invaluable for studies of cell regeneration and neoplastic transformation. Common approaches for orthotopic transplantation of ovarian surface and tubal epithelia include intraperitoneal and intrabursal administration of cells. The respective limitations of these methods include poorly defined location of injected cells and limited space volume. Furthermore, they are poorly suited for long-term structural preservation of transplanted organs. To address these challenges, we have developed an alternative approach, which is based on the introduction of cells and tissue fragments into the mouse fat pad. The mouse ovarian fat pad is located in the immediate vicinity of the ovary and uterine tube (aka oviduct, fallopian tube), and provides a familiar microenvironment for cells and tissues of these organs. In our approach fluorescence-labeled mouse and human cells, and fragments of the uterine tube are engrafted by using minimally traumatic dorsal incision surgery. Transplanted cells and their outgrowths are easily located in the ovarian fat pad for over 40 days. Long-term transplantation of the entire uterine tube allows correct preservation of all principle tissue components, and does not result in adverse side effects, such as fibrosis and inflammation. Our approach should be uniquely applicable for answering important biological questions such as differentiation, regenerative and neoplastic potential of specific cell populations. Furthermore, it should be suitable for studies of microenvironmental factors in normal development and cancer. PMID:27684746

  14. RNA-seq based gene expression analysis of ovarian granulosa cells exposed to zearalenone in vitro: significance to steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Rui-Qian; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Wang, Yu-Feng; Ji, Chuan-Liang; Feng, Yan-Zhong; Yu, Jie; Ge, Wei; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Shi-Duo; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a natural contaminant of various food and feed products representing a significant problem worldwide. Since the occurrence of ZEA in grains and feeds is frequent, the present study was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of ZEA on steroid production and gene expression of porcine granulosa cells, using RNA-seq analysis. Porcine granulosa cells were administered 10 μM and 30 μM ZEA during 72 h of culture in vitro. Following ZEA treatment the gene expression profile of control and exposed granulosa cells was compared using RNA-seq analysis. The results showed that in the exposed granulosa cells ZEA significantly altered the transcript levels, particularly steroidogenesis associated genes. Compared with the control group, 10 μM and 30 μM ZEA treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of EDN1, IER3, TGFβ and BDNF genes and significantly reduced the mRNA expression of IGF-1 and SFRP2 genes. In particular, ZEA significantly decreased the expression of genes essential for estrogen synthesis including FSHR, CYP19A1 and HSD17β in granulosa cells. Furthermore, Q-PCR and Western-blot analysis also confirmed reduced expression of these genes in ZEA exposed granulosa cells. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of 17β-estradiol concentrations in the culture medium of granulosa cells. Collectively, these results demonstrated a concretely deleterious effect of ZEA exposure on the mRNA expression of steroidogenesis related genes and the production of steroid hormones in porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. PMID:28969048

  15. Comparison of effects of different statins on growth and steroidogenesis of rat ovarian theca-interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Sokalska, Anna; Stanley, Scott D; Villanueva, Jesus A; Ortega, Israel; Duleba, Antoni J

    2014-02-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the cellular production of cholesterol and other products of the mevalonate pathway. Statins exert hepatic and extrahepatic effects, modulating the function of various tissues and organs, including ovaries. Previously, we have demonstrated that simvastatin inhibited cellular proliferation and reduced androgen production by ovarian theca-interstitial cells. The above actions are of translational relevance to the most common endocrine disorder among women in reproductive age: polycystic ovary syndrome. However, different statins may have distinctly different profiles of effects on cholesterol and androgens. The present study was designed to compare the effects of several statins on growth and steroidogenesis of rat theca-interstitial cells. The cells were incubated in the absence (control) or in the presence of simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, or pravastatin. Assessment of effects of statins on cell growth was carried out by evaluation of DNA synthesis and by estimation of the number of viable cells. Effects on steroidogenesis were evaluated by quantification of steroid production and expression of mRNA for the key enzyme regulating androgen production: Cyp17a1. Among tested statins, simvastatin exerted the greatest inhibitory effects on all tested parameters. The rank order of the effects of the tested statins is as follows: simvastatin > lovastatin > atorvastatin ≥ pravastatin. While the lipophilicity is likely to play a major role in determining the ability of statins to act on nonhepatic cells, other factors unique to individual cell types are also likely to be relevant.

  16. T-2 toxin inhibits gene expression and activity of key steroidogenesis enzymes in mouse Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian Ying; Zhang, Yong Fa; Meng, Xiang Ping; Li, Yuan Xiao; Ma, Kai Wang; Bai, Xue Fei

    2015-08-01

    T-2 toxin is one of the mycotoxins, a group of type A trichothecenes produced by several fungal genera including Fusarium species, which may lead to the decrease of the testosterone secretion in the primary Leydig cells derived from the mouse testis. The previous study demonstrated the effects of T-2 toxin through direct decrease of the testosterone biosynthesis in the primary Leydig cells derived from the mouse testis. In this study, we further examined the direct biological effects of T-2 toxin on steroidogenesis production, primarily in Leydig cells of mice. Mature mouse Leydig cells were purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation and the cell purity was determined by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) staining. To examine T-2 toxin-induced testosterone secretion decrease, we measured the transcription levels of 3 key steroidogenic enzymes and 5 enzyme activities including 3β-HSD-1, P450scc, StAR, CYP17A1, and 17β-HSD in T-2 toxin/human chorionicgonadotropin (hCG) co-treated cells. Our previous study showed that T-2 toxin (10(-7) M, 10(-8) M and 10(-9) M) significantly suppressed hCG (10 ng/ml)-induced testosterone secretion. The studies demonstrated that the suppressive effect is correlated with the decreases in the levels of transcription of 3β-HSD-1, P450scc, and StAR (P<0.05) and also in enzyme activities of 3β-HSD-1, P450scc, StAR, CYP17A1, and 17β-HSD (P<0.05).

  17. Effects of high levels of glucose on the steroidogenesis and the expression of adiponectin receptors in rat ovarian cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabrolle, Christine; JeanPierre, Eric; Tosca, Lucie; Ramé, Christelle; Dupont, Joëlle

    2008-01-01

    Background Reproductive dysfunction in the diabetic female rat is associated with altered folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the reduction of steroid production have not been described. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that has insulin-sensitizing actions including stimulation of glucose uptake in muscle and suppression of glucose production in liver. Adiponectin acts via two receptor isoforms – AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 – that are regulated by hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in liver and muscle. We have recently identified AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in rat ovary. However, their regulation in ovaries of diabetic female rat remains to be elucidated. Methods We incubated rat primary granulosa cells in vitro with high concentrations of glucose (5 or 10 g/l) + or - FSH (10-8 M) or IGF-1 (10-8 M), and we studied the ovaries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ) in vivo. The levels of oestradiol and progesterone in culture medium and serum were measured by RIA. We used immunoblotting to assay key steroidogenesis factors (3beta HSD, p450scc, p450 aromatase, StAR), and adiponectin receptors and various elements of signalling pathways (MAPK ERK1/2 and AMPK) in vivo and in vitro. We also determined cell proliferation by [3H] thymidine incorporation. Results Glucose (5 or 10 g/l) impaired the in vitro production in rat granulosa cells of both progesterone and oestradiol in the basal state and in response to FSH and IGF-1 without affecting cell proliferation and viability. This was associated with substantial reductions in the amounts of 3beta HSD, p450scc, p450 aromatase and StAR proteins and MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, glucose did not affect the abundance of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 proteins. In vivo, as expected, STZ treatment of rats caused hyperglycaemia and insulin, adiponectin and resistin deficiencies. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol levels were also reduced in STZ rats. However, the amounts of 3beta HSD

  18. Genetically-defined ovarian cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Morin, Patrice J; Weeraratna, Ashani T

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the deadliest of gynaecological cancers, is a disease that remains difficult to detect early and treat efficiently. A significant challenge for researchers in the field is that the aetiology of EOC and the molecular pathways important for its development are poorly understood. Moreover, precursor lesions have not been readily identifiable, making the mechanisms of EOC progression difficult to delineate. In order to address these issues, several genetically-defined ovarian mouse models have been generated in the past 15 years. However, because of the recent suggestion that most EOCs may not originate from the ovarian surface 'epithelium', but from other tissues of the female genital tract, some models may need to be re-evaluated within this new paradigm. In this review, we examine several genetically-defined EOC models and discuss how the new paradigm may explain some of the features of these models. A better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the current EOC mouse models will undoubtedly allow us to utilize these tools to better understand the biology of the disease and develop new approaches for EOC prevention, detection, and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. MCL1 is a key regulator of steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Guang-Yu, Li; Hai-Yan, Lan; Ji-Hong, Liang; Yun-Cong, Mo; Xue-Lian, Deng; Chun-Yu, Lin; Wen-Yong, Su

    2016-03-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1), an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL2 family, is expressed abundantly in the testis. Previous characterization revealed that MCL1 is expressed exclusively in the Leydig cells in the mouse testis, yet what it does in these cells remains unknown. We therefore analyzed testosterone biosynthesis in isolated primary Leydig cells and the MA-10 cell line, in which MCL1 was knocked down using an siRNA strategy. The mRNA abundance of the steroidogenic genes Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Srd5a, and the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor Lhcgr were significantly reduced following MCL1 knockdown. Of the two enzymes required for testosterone biosynthesis, STAR and P450 SCC (encoded by Cyp11a1) enzyme abundance was also reduced following Mcl1 siRNA treatment, possibly leading to the reduced production of sex steroid precursors, and testosterone in these knockdown cells. Despite its classification as an anti-apoptosis protein, Mcl1 siRNA treatment did not affect cell survival. Collectively, our findings indicate that MCL1 plays a pivotal role in Leydig-cell steroidogenesis, and might provide novel insights into metabolic regulation in this cell. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 226-235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Astaxanthin protects steroidogenesis from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in mouse Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jyun-Yuan; Lee, Yue-Jia; Chou, Mei-Chia; Chang, Renin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Liang, Yao-Jen; Wu, Leang-Shin

    2015-03-16

    Androgens, especially testosterone produced in Leydig cells, play an essential role in development of the male reproductive phenotype and fertility. However, testicular oxidative stress may cause a decline in testosterone production. Many antioxidants have been used as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers to eliminate oxidative stress to protect steroidogenesis. Astaxanthin (AST), a natural extract from algae and plants ubiquitous in the marine environment, has been shown to have antioxidant activity in many previous studies. In this study, we treated primary mouse Leydig cells or MA-10 cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to cause oxidative stress. Testosterone and progesterone production was suppressed and the expression of the mature (30 kDa) form of StAR protein was down-regulated in MA-10 cells by H2O2 and cAMP co-treatment. However, progesterone production and expression of mature StAR protein were restored in MA-10 cells by a one-hour pretreatment with AST. AST also reduced ROS levels in cells so that they were lower than the levels in untreated controls. These results provide additional evidence of the potential health benefits of AST as a potential food additive to ease oxidative stress.

  1. Ovarian Mouse Models with Targeted Fallopian Tubal Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    serous subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer may also arise from the fallopian epithelium. This shift in cell-of-origin for ovarian cancer has...hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancer may arise from fallopian tubal epithelium are lacking. Therefore, in this proposal we generated a mouse...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To test the idea that ovarian cancer arises from oviductal

  2. Expression of orexins and their precursor in the porcine ovary and the influence of orexins on ovarian steroidogenesis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nitkiewicz, Anna; Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-07-01

    Orexins A and B are hypothalamic neuropeptides associated with homeostasis and the reproductive system. The aim of the study was to compare the expression of the prepro-orexin gene and the intensity of orexins immunoreactivity in the porcine ovary (corpora lutea, granulosa and theca interna cells) during four different stages of the oestrous cycle (days: 2-3, 10-12, 14-16 and 17-19) and to examine the in vitro effect of orexins on the secretion of steroid hormones by porcine luteal, granulosa and theca interna cells. The highest expression of prepro-orexin mRNA was observed in theca interna cells on days 17-19 of the oestrous cycle. The highest content of immunoreactive orexin A was noted in corpora lutea on days 10-12 and the highest level of immunoreactive orexin B on days 14-16 of the cycle. Immunoreactive orexin A concentrations were higher in theca interna cells than in granulosa cells, whereas similar levels of immunoreactive orexin B were observed in both cell types. Under in vitro conditions, at the concentration of 10 nM, orexins A and B inhibited FSH-induced oestradiol secretion by granulosa cells. The obtained results suggest that the pattern of orexin peptide expression in the porcine ovary is related to the animals' hormonal status. Our findings imply that orexins can affect porcine reproductive functions through modulation of ovarian steroidogenesis.

  3. Steroidogenesis in MA-10 Mouse Leydig Cells Is Altered via Fatty Acid Import into the Mitochondria1

    PubMed Central

    Rone, Malena B.; Midzak, Andrew S.; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Fan, Jinjiang; Ye, Xiaoying; Blonder, Josip; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondria are home to many cellular processes, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, and in steroid-synthesizing cells, they are involved in cholesterol import and metabolism, which is the initiating step in steroidogenesis. The formation of macromolecular protein complexes aids in the regulation and efficiency of these mitochondrial functions, though because of their dynamic nature, they are hard to identify. To overcome this problem, we used Blue-Native PAGE with whole-gel mass spectrometry on isolated mitochondria from control and hormone-treated MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells. The presence of multiple mitochondrial protein complexes was shown. Although these were qualitatively similar under control and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated conditions, quantitative differences in the components of the complexes emerged after hCG treatment. A prominent decrease was observed with proteins involved in fatty acid import into the mitochondria, implying that mitochondrial beta-oxidation is not essential for steroidogenesis. To confirm this observation, we inhibited fatty acid import utilizing the CPT1a inhibitor etomoxir, resulting in increased steroid production. Conversely, stimulation of mitochondrial beta-oxidation with metformin resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in steroidogenesis. These changes were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial respiration and in the lactic acid formed during glycolysis. Taken together, these results suggest that upon hormonal stimulation, mitochondria efficiently import cholesterol for steroid production at the expense of other lipids necessary for energy production, specifically fatty acids required for beta-oxidation. PMID:25210128

  4. Regulatory Role of Gonadotropins and Local Factors Produced by Ovarian Follicles on In Vitro Resistin Expression and Action on Porcine Follicular Steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rak, Agnieszka; Drwal, Eliza; Karpeta, Anna; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Ł

    2015-06-01

    Resistin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, is thought to be important in reproduction. Our previous study demonstrated resistin expression in porcine ovarian follicles and its direct effect on steroidogenesis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of gonadotropins and the local ovarian factors, such as insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1) and steroids (progesterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol), on the expression and secretion of resistin, as well as its steroidogenic action. Porcine ovarian follicles were exposed to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) at 50-150 ng/ml, IGF1 (10-100 ng/ml), and steroids at 10(-8) to 10(-6) M for 24 h. Then, mRNA, protein expression, and medium concentration of resistin were determined using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA, respectively. In the subsequent experiments, ovarian follicles were exposed to resistin and/or FSH, LH, IGF1, and steroids, and ovarian steroidogenesis was analyzed. Additionally, we examined the direct effect of resistin on the protein expression of receptors for gonadotropins and investigated local factors. The results showed that gonadotropins and steroids have stimulatory effects but that IGF1 has an inhibitory effect on resistin expression and secretion. Resistin decreased gonadotropins and local hormone-induced steroid secretion and inhibited 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 aromatase protein expression. Additionally, we demonstrated that resistin increased the expression of receptors for progesterone and testosterone. These findings all show that the expression and function of resistin are regulated by gonadotropins and local factors produced by ovarian follicles. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Disruption of the salmon reproductive endocrine axis through prolonged nutritional stress: changes in circulating hormone levels and transcripts for ovarian genes involved in steroidogenesis and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoji; Adam Luckenbach, J; Goetz, Frederick W; Young, Graham; Swanson, Penny

    2011-07-01

    Mechanisms regulating the normal progression of ovarian follicular growth versus onset of atresia in fishes are poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we exposed immature female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to prolonged fasting to induce follicular atresia and monitored body growth, development of the ovarian follicles, changes in reproductive hormones, and transcripts for ovarian genes. Prolonged fasting reduced body and ovary weight and increased the appearance of atretic follicles relative to normally fed controls. Endocrine analyses showed that fasting reduced plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), estradiol-17β (E2), and pituitary, but not plasma, levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Transcripts for ovarian fsh receptor (fshr) and steroidogenesis-related genes, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd3b), and P450 aromatase (cyp19a1a) were significantly lower in fasted fish. Ovarian expression of apoptosis-related genes, such as Fas-associated death domain (fadd), caspase 8 (casp8), caspase 3 (casp3), and caspase 9 (casp9) were significantly elevated in fasted fish compared to fed fish, indicating that apoptosis is involved in the process of atresia in this species. Interestingly, some genes such as fadd, casp8, casp3, and hsd3b, were differentially expressed prior to increases in the number of atretic follicles and reductions in hormone levels induced by fasting, and may therefore have potential as early indicators of atresia. Together these results suggest that prolonged nutritional stress may disrupt the reproductive system and induce follicular atresia in part via reductions in ovarian IGF and FSH signaling, and downstream effects on steroidogenesis-related genes and E2 production.

  6. Biochemical and molecular effects of gestational and lactational coexposure to lead and cadmium on ovarian steroidogenesis are associated with oxidative stress in F1 generation rats.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Prakash; Pandya, Chirayu; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Sarita

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have characterized the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in ovarian steroidogenesis disruption by heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium coexposure, on F1 generation offspring. In this study, adult pregnant female rats were treated subcutaneously (0.05 mg/kg of body weight per day) with sodium acetate (control), lead acetate, and cadmium acetate separately and in combination throughout gestational and lactational period, and all animals from each of the experimental groups were sacrificed by decapitation on postnatal day 56 for various assays. The activities of key steroidogenic enzymes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) decreased in all the metal-treated groups. But the most significant decrease in the activities was observed in the cadmium-treated group, whereas the combined exposure group showed an intermediate effect. Serum estradiol and progesterone levels were also significantly altered in all the metal-treated groups, with the cadmium-exposed group showing maximum reductions as compared with the control group. The inhibitory effects of lead and cadmium on ovarian steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA levels along with CYP11 mRNA levels were also observed. Ovarian cholesterol content measured also showed significant depletion in all the metal-treated groups, with the cadmium-exposed group showing the maximum depletion. The activities of ovarian enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were all significantly diminished along with significant depletion in nonenzymatic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was elevated significantly in all the metal-treated groups. In conclusion, lead and cadmium inhibit ovarian steroidogenesis by downregulating StAR gene expression along with inhibiting activities of steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant system.

  7. Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steroidogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Banu, Sakhila K. Samuel, Jawahar B.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Aruldhas, Michael M.

    2008-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) is used in a wide range of industries. Cr-VI from chromate industries and atmospheric emissions contribute to the Cr contamination in the environment. Cr is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects including ovotoxicity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the basic mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity, and the protective role of vitamin C on ovarian follicular development and function in Cr(VI)-induced reproductive toxicity using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Lactating rats received potassium dichromate (200 mg/L) with or without vitamin C (500 mg/L), through drinking water from postpartum days 1-21. During postnatal days (PND) 1-21 the pups received Cr(VI) via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards, and euthanized on PND-21, -45 and -65. Cr(VI) decreased steroidogenesis, GH and PRL, increased FSH and did not alter LH. Cr(VI) delayed puberty, decreased follicle number, and extended estrous cycle. Spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells were treated with 12.5 {mu}M (IC{sub 50}) potassium dichromate for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment. Cr(VI) decreased the mRNA expressions of StAR, SF-1, 17{beta}-HSD-1, 17{beta}-HSD-2, FSHR, LHR, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. Vitamin C pre-treatment protected ovary and granulosa cells from the deleterious effects of Cr(VI) toxicity, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Cr(VI) toxicity could be a potential risk to the reproductive system in developing females, and vitamin C plays a protective role against Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity.

  8. Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Sun, Fei; Cao, Huang-Ming; Ma, Qin-Yun; Pan, Chun-Ming; Ma, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Jiang, He; Song, Huai-Dong; Chen, Ming-Dao

    2009-12-25

    Obesity is frequently associated with malfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyperaldosteronism, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been proposed. A previous study found that adiponectin receptor mRNA was expressed in human adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the expression of adiponectin receptors in adrenal glands has not been confirmed at the protein level or in other species. Furthermore, it is unclear whether adiponectin receptors expressed in adrenal cells are functional. We found, for the first time, that adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mRNA and protein were expressed in mouse adrenal and adrenocortical Y-1 cells. However, adiponectin itself was not expressed in mouse adrenal or Y-1 cells. Furthermore, adiponectin acutely reduced basal levels of corticosterone and aldosterone secretion. ACTH-induced steroid secretion was also inhibited by adiponectin, and this was accompanied by a parallel change in the expression of the key genes involved in steroidogenesis. These findings indicate that adiponectin may take part in the modulation of steroidogenesis. Thus, adiponectin is likely to have physiological and/or pathophysiological significance as an endocrine regulator of adrenocortical function.

  9. Effects of resistin on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in the vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajit; Suragani, Madhuri; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-11-01

    The bat Scotophilus heathi exhibit prolonged anovulatory condition known as delayed ovulation coinciding with the period of extensive fat accumulation. The present study was undertaken to find out whether extensive accumulation of fat in S. heathi is responsible for suppression of ovarian activity by increasing production of adipokine resistin in the bat. This was achieved by (a) investigating variation in serum resistin level in relation to the changes in the body fat mass and (b) evaluating the effect of resistin treatment on ovarian activity with reference to steroid synthesis. An attempt was also made to determine whether resistin mediate its effects on ovary through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling mechanism. The results showed significant seasonal variation in serum resistin level with the peak level coinciding with the period of maximum fat accumulation, high circulating androgen level and period of anovulation. The treatment with resistin to the bat caused increase in androstenedione due to stimulatory effects on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, but decrease in estradiol level due to inhibitory effect on aromatase. Resistin treatment increased androgen receptor protein together with increased insulin receptor but not through conventional luteinizing hormone receptor and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mediated pathways. This study further showed that resistin treatment increases androstenedione synthesis and up-regulates insulin receptor in the ovary through STAT3 mediated pathways. These findings suggest that obese women through increased resistin synthesis may causes development of non-ovulatory antral follicles through insulin receptor signaling cascade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ovarian tissue culture in the presence of VEGF and fetuin stimulates follicle growth and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Ebrahim; Najafi, Atefeh; Moeini, Ashraf; Pirjani, Reihaneh; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Mikaeili, Saideh; Salehi, Ensieh; Adutwum, Emmanuel; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Khosravi, Fariba; Barati, Mahmood; Abolhassani, Farid

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation together with follicle culture provides a promising technique for fertility preservation in cancer patients. The study aimed to evaluate follicle parameters in a culture medium supplemented with VEGFA165 and/or fetuin. Vitrified-warmed ovarian cortical pieces were divided randomly into four culture groups consisting of basic culture medium (control), and the basic culture medium supplemented with VEGFA165, fetuin or both. After six days of culture, we evaluated the following: percentage of resting, primary and secondary growing follicles; survival rate; steroid hormones production; levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity; and developmental and antioxidant gene expression. The addition of VEGFA165 alone or in combination with fetuin to the culture medium caused resting follicle activation and increased the number of growing follicles. In the VEGFA165 group, we found a significant increase in the concentrations of 17β-estradiol at day 6 and progesterone from 4th day of the culture period. In the VEGFA165 + fetuin group, the concentration of 17β-estradiol rose at day 4 of the culture period. The levels of BMP15, GDF9 and INHB mRNAs were increased in all treated groups. In the fetuin and fetuin + VEGFA165 groups, we observed a high level of total antioxidant capacity and expression of SOD1 and CAT genes, low reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels and increased number of viable follicles. In conclusion, the present study provides useful evidence that supplementation of culture medium with VEGFA165 + fetuin leads to primordial follicle activation and development and increased percentage of healthy secondary growing follicles. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Craig, Zelieann R; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Paulose, Tessie; Leslie, Traci C; Flaws, Jodi A

    2011-06-15

    The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E₂) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24 h for 96 h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E₂ metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E₂, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P₄) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels.

  12. Development of a Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth R.; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology. A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant) mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1–5% (it is not a null mutation). Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer. Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention. PMID:24616881

  13. Mono(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Accelerates Early Folliculogenesis and Inhibits Steroidogenesis in Cultured Mouse Whole Ovaries and Antral Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant present in common consumer products. DEHP potentially targets the ovary through its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, the direct effects of MEHP on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis, two processes essential for reproductive and nonreproductive health, are unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that MEHP directly accelerates early folliculogenesis via overactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a pathway that regulates primordial follicle quiescence and activation, and inhibits the synthesis of steroid hormones by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. Neonatal ovaries from CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days with vehicle control, DEHP, or MEHP (0.2–20 μg/ml) to assess the direct effects on folliculogenesis and PI3K signaling. Further, antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or MEHP (0.1–10 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of MEHP on steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes. In the neonatal ovaries, MEHP, but not DEHP, decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels and increased phosphorylated protein kinase B levels, leading to a decrease in the percentage of germ cells and an increase in the percentage of primary follicles. In the antral follicles, MEHP decreased the mRNA levels of 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase leading to a decrease in testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Collectively, MEHP mediates the effect of DEHP on accelerated folliculogenesis via overactivating PI3K signaling and inhibits steroidogenesis by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. PMID:25810477

  14. Evidence that the inhibitory effects of stress on reproduction in teleost fish are not mediated by the action of cortisol on ovarian steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, N W; Van der Kraak, G; Peter, R E

    1995-09-01

    Ovarian follicles of goldfish, common carp, and the sparid Pagrus auratus (New Zealand snapper) were incubated in vitro to assess the effects of cortisol (F) on ovarian steroidogenesis. Unstimulated goldfish follicles produced little testosterone (T) or 17 beta-estradiol (E2), whereas both carp and snapper follicles spontaneously produced E2 and to a lesser extent T. Goldfish follicles produced increased amounts of E2 in response to treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), whereas carp and snapper follicles did not. However, stimulation of carp follicles with maturational carp gonadotropin (cGTH-II) resulted in dose-dependent increases in production of E2. Treatment of follicles of all three species with T resulted in E2 production to levels as high as or higher than those following treatment with hCG or cGtH-II. Cotreatment of follicles with T and hCG or cGTH-II did not result in higher E2 production than treatment with T alone. Goldfish follicles treated with 25-hydroxycholesterol showed increases in E2 production that were similar to those occurring following treatment with T. Treatment of follicles with F at a range of doses up to 1 microgram.ml-1 had no inhibitory effect on T or E2 production in any treatment combination in any of the species examined. In several cases, follicles incubated with T and/or hCG produced more E2 in the presence of F than they did without F. The results suggest either that the observed inhibitory effects of stress in a range of teleost species are not mediated by F or that they arise higher in the endocrine pathway than at the level of ovarian steroidogenesis.

  15. Preclinical humanized mouse model with ectopic ovarian tissues

    PubMed Central

    FU, SHILONG; WANG, JUE; SUN, WU; XU, YI; ZHOU, XIAOYU; CHENG, WENJUN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish human ovarian stroma within the mouse subcutaneously, in order for the resulting stroma to serve as a useful preclinical tool to study the progression of human ovarian cancer in a humanized ovarian microenvironment. Normal human ovarian tissues were subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and then the implants were identified by immunohistochemistry. The implants became vascularized and retained their original morphology for about 4 weeks following implantation. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin-7 confirmed the ovarian origin of the epithelial cells. CD34 staining demonstrated human-derived vessels. Positive estrogen receptor and partially-positive progesterone receptor staining indicated the estrogen and progesterone dependence of the implants. Only vascular pericytes expressed α-smooth muscle actin, indicating the normal ovarian origin of the xenografts. Human ovarian tissue successfully survived in SCID mice and retained its original properties. This humanized mouse model may be used as preclinical tool to investigate ovarian cancer. PMID:25120592

  16. Noradrenaline modulates the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovary. The importance of its interrelation on the ovarian steroidogenesis and apoptosis on dioestrus II in rat.

    PubMed

    Bronzi, Cynthia D; Orozco, Adriana S Vega; Rodriguez, Diego; Rastrilla, Ana María; Sosa, Zulema Y; Casais, Marilina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if noradrenaline (NA), added in the coeliac ganglion -superior ovarian nerve- ovary system (CG-SON-O) and in ovary incubation, modifies the release of ovarian progesterone (P4), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and oestradiol (E2), and the expression of 3β-HSD and 20α-HSD and proapoptotic bax and antiapoptotic bcl-2 on dioestrus II in the rat. The CG-SON-O system and the ovary were removed and placed in one cuvette containing Krebs-Ringer solution (control groups), and NA was added to the ganglion compartment in the ex vivo system and in the ovary compartment in the ovary incubation (experimental groups). P4, GnRH and E2 were measured by RIA, and gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. In the ex-vivo system, the release of ovarian P4 and GnRH and the expression of 3β-HSD and bax decreased; E2 and bcl-2 increased, and the bax/bcl-2 ratio decreased. However, in the ovary incubation, P4, GnRH, the expression of 3β-HSD and bax increased; E2, the expression of 20α-HSD and bcl-2 decreased while the bax/bcl-2 ratio increased, thus favoring apoptosis. The peripheral nervous system protected the ovary from the apoptotic mechanisms while in the ovary incubation the effect was reverted. Our results indicate that NA regulates ovarian steroidogenesis and apoptosis by modulating GnRH release from the coeliac ganglion and ovary, being NA a possible generator of a GnRH-gonadotropins axis in the ovary. This work is expected to contribute with new evidence of the clinical importance of catecholamines and GnRH in therapy and prevention of ovarian pathologies.

  17. Exposure to an Extremely-Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Stimulates Adrenal Steroidogenesis via Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase Activity in a Mouse Adrenal Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Kawata, Shiyori; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Kadoriku, Fumiya; Kitamura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) are generated by power lines and household electrical devices. In the last several decades, some evidence has shown an association between ELF-MF exposure and depression and/or anxiety in epidemiological and animal studies. The mechanism underlying ELF-MF-induced depression is considered to involve adrenal steroidogenesis, which is triggered by ELF-MF exposure. However, how ELF-MFs stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis is controversial. In the current study, we investigated the effect of ELF-MF exposure on the mouse adrenal cortex-derived Y-1 cell line and the human adrenal cortex-derived H295R cell line to clarify whether the ELF-MF stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis directly. ELF-MF exposure was found to significantly stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis (p < 0.01–0.05) and the expression of adrenal steroid synthetic enzymes (p < 0.05) in Y-1 cells, but the effect was weak in H295R cells. Y-1 cells exposed to an ELF-MF showed significant decreases in phosphodiesterase activity (p < 0.05) and intracellular Ca2+ concentration (p < 0.01) and significant increases in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration (p < 0.001–0.05) and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (p < 0.05). The increase in cAMP was not inhibited by treatment with NF449, an inhibitor of the Gs alpha subunit of G protein. Our results suggest that ELF-MF exposure stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis via an increase in intracellular cAMP caused by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity in Y-1 cells. The same mechanism may trigger the increase in adrenal steroid secretion in mice observed in our previous study. PMID:27100201

  18. Ovarian abnormalities in the staggerer mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Guastavino, Jean-Marie; Boufares, Salima; Crusio, Wim E

    2005-08-24

    Disturbances in several reproductive functions of the staggerer cerebellar mutant mouse have been observed. In this study, reproductive efficiency of staggerer mice was compared to normal mice by recording the number of pups produced and the number of oocytes occurring. It was found that staggerer mothers produced smaller litters than controls and the number of oocytes produced in their ovaries was reduced by the staggerer mutation. These results indicate a pleiotropic effect on fertility of the Rora(sg) gene underlying the cerebellar abnormalities of the staggerer mutant.

  19. Effects of the Yangjing Capsule Extract on Steroidogenesis and Apoptosis in Mouse Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dalin; Cui, Yugui; Jin, Baofang; Zhang, Xindong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Gao, Chao

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of Yangjing capsule on testosterone secretion in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). Methods. MLTC-1 cells were treated with the Yangjing capsule extract for 24 h. The testosterone level in medium was measured by radioimmunoassay. The expression of steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B) in the cells was examined using real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Additionally, MLTC-1 cells were treated for 48 h in a serum-free medium. The cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression of activated caspase-3 was analyzed using RT-PCR and a colorimetric protease assay. Results. The Yangjing capsule extract increased testosterone production and the expression of StAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B mRNAs and proteins compared with the control. H89 significantly inhibited these effects. The medicine improved the viability of MLTC-1 cells, decreased the number of cells in G0/G1 phase, and increased the number of cells in S-phase, as well as prevented cell apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3. Conclusion. The Yangjing capsule can stimulate MLTC-1 cells to secrete testosterone and may be an alternative treatment for diseases characterized by insufficient testosterone production. PMID:23259004

  20. Modulation of mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis through a specific arginine-vasopressin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Tahri-Joutei, A.; Pointis, G.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of specific vasopressin binding sites was investigated in purified mouse Leydig cells using tritiated arginine-vasopressin. Binding of radioligand was saturable, time- and temperature-dependent and reversible. (/sup 3/H)-AVP was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity and low capacity. Binding displacements with specific selection analogs of AVP indicated the presence of V/sub 1/ subtype receptors on Leydig cells. The ability of AVP to displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding was greater than LVP and oxytocin. The unrelated peptides, somatostatin and substance P, were less potent, while neurotensin and LHRH did not displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding. The time-course effects of AVP-pretreatment on basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone and cAMP accumulations were studied in primary culture of Leydig cells. Basal testosterone accumulation was significantly increased by a 24 h AVP-pretreatment of Leydig cells. This effect was potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor (MIX) and was concomitantly accompanied by a slight but significant increase in cAMP accumulation. AVP-pretreatment of the cells for 72 h had no effect on basal testosterone accumulation, but exerted a marked inhibitory effect on the hCG-stimulated testosterone accumulation. This reduction of testosterone accumulation occurred even in the presence of MIX and was not accompanied by any significant change of cAMP levels.

  1. Development of a syngeneic mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most cases of ovarian cancer are epithelial in origin and diagnosed at advanced stage when the cancer is widely disseminated in the peritoneal cavity. The objective of this study was to establish an immunocompetent syngeneic mouse model of disseminated epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) to facilitate laboratory-based studies of ovarian tumor biology and preclinical therapeutic strategies. Methods Individual lines of TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice were phenotypically characterized and backcrossed to inbred C57BL/6 mice. In addition to a previously described line of EOC-prone mice, two lines (TgMISIIR-TAg-Low) were isolated that express the oncogenic transgene, but have little or no susceptibility to tumor development. Independent murine ovarian carcinoma (MOVCAR) cell lines were established from the ascites of tumor-bearing C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice, characterized and tested for engraftment in the following recipient mice: 1) severe immunocompromised immunodeficient (SCID), 2) wild type C57BL/6, 3) oophorectomized tumor-prone C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic and 4) non-tumor prone C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg-Low transgenic. Lastly, MOVCAR cells transduced with a luciferase reporter were implanted in TgMISIIR-TAg-Low mice and in vivo tumor growth monitored by non-invasive optical imaging. Results Engraftment of MOVCAR cells by i.p. injection resulted in the development of disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis in SCID, but not wild type C57BL/6 mice. Oophorectomized tumor-prone TgMISIIR-TAg mice developed peritoneal carcinomas with high frequency, rendering them unsuitable as allograft recipients. Orthotopic or pseudo-orthotopic implantation of MOVCAR cells in TgMISIIR-TAg-Low mice resulted in the development of disseminated peritoneal tumors, frequently accompanied by the production of malignant ascites. Tumors arising in the engrafted mice bore histopathological resemblance to human high-grade serous EOC and exhibited a similar pattern of peritoneal

  2. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are reversible.

  3. Ovarian hormones through Wnt signalling regulate the growth of human and mouse ovarian cancer initiating lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nagendra, Prathima B.; Goad, Jyoti; Nielsen, Sarah; Rassam, Loui; Lombard, Janine M.; Nahar, Pravin; Tanwar, Pradeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most deadly gynaecological disease largely because the majority of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed at later stages when cancer has spread to other vital organs. Therefore, the initial stages of this disease are poorly characterised. Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have a genetic predisposition for developing OC, but not all of these women develop the disease. Epidemiological findings show that lifestyle factors such as contraceptive use and pregnancy, a progesterone dominant state, decrease the risk of getting OC. How ovarian hormones modify the risk of OC is currently unclear. Our study identifies activated Wnt signalling to be a marker for precursor lesions of OC and successfully develops a mouse model that mimics the earliest events in pathogenesis of OC by constitutively activating βcatenin. Using this model and human OC cells, we show that oestrogen promotes and progesterone suppresses the growth of OC cells. PMID:27588493

  4. Endocrine disruptor effect of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on porcine ovarian cell steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Ortega, Andrea; Betancourt, Miguel; Rosas, Patricia; Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco G; Chavira, Roberto; Bonilla, Edmundo; Casas, Eduardo; Ducolomb, Yvonne

    2017-10-02

    Previous studies with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) indicate that they act as endocrine disruptors, in addition to inducing alterations and damaging reproductive health; however, the biological mechanisms by which these disorders are produced are not yet understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of PFOS and PFOA on in vitro steroidogenic secretion in porcine theca and granulosa cells, with or without gonadotropic stimulation. Granulosa and theca cells were isolated and cultured. Cell nature was performed by immunocytochemistry. PFOS and PFOA effect on steroid secretion was analyzed by chemiluminescence. In the present study, alterations in steroidogenic secretion were found when administering PFOS (0.12, 1.2, 12, 120 or 240μM) or PFOA (0.012, 0.12, 1.2, 12 or 24μM) to theca and granulosa cells. When theca and granulosa cells were stimulated with 500ng/mL LH or 500ng/mL FHS, respectively and immediately followed with 1.2μM of PFOS or PFOA, the perfluorinated compounds inhibited the secretion of steroid hormones in both stimulated cell types. The results indicate that PFOS and PFOA act on steroidogenic ovarian cells as endocrine disruptors, which could affect the dependent functions of sexual steroids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effect of doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity on mouse ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; He, Wan Hong; Feng, Ling Lin; Huang, Hao Guang

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity on mouse ovarian granulosa cells. After granulosa cells were treated with doxorubicin at the final concentrations of 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 μg/ml for 24 h, cell apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining or caspase-3/7 fluorescence probe; ROS was determined by 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe; mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by rhodamine-123 fluorescence probe; and mRNA expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, FSHR, StAR, P450scc and P450arom were analyzed by RT-PCR. Results indicated that doxorubicin could induce apoptosis of granulosa cells (p < 0.01); increase ROS generation (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01); decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.05); increase mRNA expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 (p < 0.001); enhance mRNA expression level of StAR (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001); and inhibit mRNA expression level of P450scc in granulosa cells (p < 0.05 or p < 0.001). The mRNA expression levels of FSHR and P450arom were not influenced by doxorubicin. We suggest that the ovarian toxicity of doxorubicin was associated with apoptosis of granulosa cells, ROS accumulation, and decline of mitochondrial membrane potential in granulosa cells. In addition, cell apoptosis was regulated by Bax, Bcl-2, and p53, and hormone generation could be influenced by StAR and P450scc.

  6. A mouse surgical model for metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Kaartinen, M Johanna; Laguë, Marie-Noëlle; Paquet, Marilène; Huneault, Louis M; Boerboom, Derek

    2009-12-01

    We recently described a genetically engineered mouse model that develops ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) that mimic many aspects of the advanced human disease, including distant dissemination. However, because the primary tumors killed their hosts before metastases were able to form, the use of these mice to study metastatic disease required the development of a simple, reliable, and humane surgical protocol for the excision of large GCTs from debilitated mice. Here we describe a protocol involving multimodal anesthesia, tumor removal through ventral midline celiotomy and perioperative fluid therapy, and analgesia that led to the postoperative survival of more than 90% of mice, despite the removal of tumors representing as much as 10% of the animal's body weight. Intraabdominal recurrence of the GCT did not occur in surviving animals, but most developed pulmonary or adrenal metastases (or both) by 12 wk after surgery. We propose that this mouse model of metastatic GCT will serve as a useful preclinical model for the development of novel treatment modalities and diagnostic techniques. Furthermore, our results delineate anesthetic and surgical principles for the removal of large abdominal tumors from mice that will be applicable to other models of human cancers.

  7. Multi-modality optical imaging of ovarian cancer in a post-menopausal mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini Faith; Marion, Samuel L.; Bentley, David L.; Brewer, Molly A.; Utzinger, Urs; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2011-03-01

    Our goal is to use optical imaging to detect cancer development on the sub cellular scale. By determining the microscopic changes that precede ovarian cancer we hope to develop a minimally invasive screening test for high risk patients. A mouse ovarian cancer model has been developed by treating mice with 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide to induce ovarian failure and 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce ovarian cancer. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) we have obtained co-registered en face images of sixty-seven mouse ovaries ex vivo and forty-two ovaries in vivo. Preliminary analysis indicates that OCT and MPM can visualize ovarian microstructure. During the next year we will be completing a long term survival study using post-menopausal mice that have been treated with DMBA to induce cancer and imaged in vivo at time points before and after treatment.

  8. The Increased Expression of Connexin and VEGF in Mouse Ovarian Tissue Vitrification by Follicle Stimulating Hormone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzhou; Chen, Jie; Wu, Hao; Pei, Xiuying; Chang, Qing; Ma, Wenzhi; Ma, Huiming; Hei, Changchun; Zheng, Xiaomin; Cai, Yufang; Zhao, Chengjun; Yu, Jia; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian follicular damages were caused by cryoinjury during the process of ovarian vitrification and ischemia/reperfusion during the process of ovarian transplantation. And appropriate FSH plays an important role in antiapoptosis during ovarian follicle development. Therefore, in this study, 0.3 IU/mL FSH was administered into medium during mouse ovarian cryopreservation by vitrification to ascertain the function of FSH on ovarian vitrification and avascular transplantation. The results suggested that the expressions of Cx37, Cx43, apoptotic molecular caspase-3, and angiogenesis molecular VEGF were confirmed using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time PCR, and the results suggested that the treatment with FSH remarkably increased the number of morphologically normal follicles in vitrified/warmed ovaries by upregulating the expression of Cx37, Cx43, VEGF, and VEGF receptor 2, but downregulating the expression of caspase-3. In addition, the vitrified/warmed ovaries were transplanted, and the related fertility was analyzed, and the results suggested that the fertility, neoangiogenesis, and follicle reserve were remarkably increased in the FSH administrated group. Taken together, administration of 0.3 IU/mL FSH during ovarian cryopreservation by vitrification can maintain ovarian survival during ovarian vitrification and increases the blood supply with avascular transplantation via upregulation of Cx43, Cx37, and VEGF/VEGFR2, as well as through its antiapoptotic effects.

  9. A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    ovarian cancer. The study also provides us with future directions, and we plan to seek future support to use flox-p53 mutant mice to create additional...and genetic mutations leads to the development of ovarian cancer. The study also provides us with future directions, and we plan to seek future...further advance. 2. Introduction This project is to use a unique Wv mouse model to study the interaction of reproductive factors and genetic

  10. A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    morphology (Figure 4A,B), resembling papillo endometrial and serous carcinoma morphology. The addition of p27 (-/-) background often led to lymphoma...Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiangxi (Mike) Xu, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University...NUMBER A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0095 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  11. Effects of Angiopoietin-2 on Transplanted Mouse Ovarian Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Hye Won; Lee, Jaewang; Kim, Eun Jung; Kong, Hyun Sun; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of ovarian tissue (OT) is currently the only clinical option to restore fertility with cryopreserved OT. However, follicle loss caused by ischemia and slow revascularization occurs in transplanted OT. To shorten the ischemic period and promote angiogenesis, some angiogenic factors have been used. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is one of the major angiogenic factors and has been reported to promote blood vessels and increase vascular permeability in ischemic and/or hypoxic environment. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Ang2 on follicle integrity and revascularization of transplanted mouse OT. Five-week-old B6D2F1 female mice were divided into a control group and two Ang2 groups, followed by ovary collection and vitrification. After warming, the ovaries were autotransplanted into kidney capsules with/without Ang2 injection (50 or 500 ng/kg), and then the mice were sacrificed at days 2, 7, 21, and 42 after transplantation. A total 2,437 follicles in OT grafts were assessed for follicular density, integrity, and classification by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptosis and revascularization were evaluated by using TUNEL assay and CD31 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both Ang2 groups showed remarkable increase in morphologically intact follicle ratio across all grafting durations except D21. The numbers of CD31(+) vessels were significantly increased in both Ang2 groups compared with the control group at all durations, except in the 50 ng Ang2 group at D42. However, the mean numbers of follicles of the grafts, apoptosis ratios, and serum FSH levels showed no significant differences among the groups. Our results show that Ang2 treatment significantly increased the intact follicle ratios and the number of blood vessels of the mouse OT grafts. However, further studies performed with large animal or human OT are necessary before

  12. Tetraploid cells from cytokinesis failure induce aneuploidy and spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lei; Zhang, Tianwei; Yi, Qiyi; Huang, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Wei; Hao, Qiaomei; Guo, Zongyou; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-08-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium and are characterized by aneuploid karyotypes. Aneuploidy, a consequence of chromosome instability, is an early event during the development of ovarian cancers. However, how aneuploid cells are evolved from normal diploid cells in ovarian cancers remains unknown. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses of a mouse syngeneic ovarian cancer model revealed that diploid mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells (MOSECs) experienced an intermediate tetraploid cell stage, before evolving to aneuploid (mainly near-tetraploid) cells. Using long-term live-cell imaging followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we demonstrated that tetraploid cells originally arose from cytokinesis failure of bipolar mitosis in diploid cells, and gave rise to aneuploid cells through chromosome mis-segregation during both bipolar and multipolar mitoses. Injection of the late passage aneuploid MOSECs resulted in tumor formation in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we reveal a pathway for the evolution of diploid to aneuploid MOSECs and elucidate a mechanism for the development of near-tetraploid ovarian cancer cells.

  13. The nuclear receptor NR2F2 activates star expression and steroidogenesis in mouse MA-10 and MLTC-1 Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Villarroel, Raifish E; Robert, Nicholas M; Martin, Luc J; Brousseau, Catherine; Tremblay, Jacques J

    2014-07-01

    Testosterone production is dependent on cholesterol transport within the mitochondrial matrix, an essential step mediated by a protein complex containing the steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein. In steroidogenic Leydig cells, Star expression is hormonally regulated and involves several transcription factors. NR2F2 (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays critical roles in cell differentiation and lineage determination. Conditional NR2F2 knockout prior to puberty leads to male infertility due to insufficient testosterone production, suggesting that NR2F2 could positively regulate steroidogenesis and Star expression. In this study we found that NR2F2 is expressed in the nucleus of some peritubular myoid cells and in interstitial cells, mainly in steroidogenically active adult Leydig cells. In MA-10 and MLTC-1 Leydig cells, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated NR2F2 knockdown reduces basal steroid production without affecting hormone responsiveness. Consistent with this, we found that STAR mRNA and protein levels were reduced in NR2F2-depleted MA-10 and MLTC-1 cells. Transient transfections of Leydig cells revealed that a -986 bp mouse Star promoter construct was activated 3-fold by NR2F2. Using 5' progressive deletion constructs, we mapped the NR2F2-responsive element between -131 and -95 bp. This proximal promoter region contains a previously uncharacterized direct repeat 1 (DR1)-like element to which NR2F2 is recruited and directly binds. Mutations in the DR1-like element that prevent NR2F2 binding severely blunted NR2F2-mediated Star promoter activation. These data identify an essential role for the nuclear receptor NR2F2 as a direct activator of Star gene expression in Leydig cells, and thus in the control of steroid hormone biosynthesis.

  14. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Induced by Fanconi Anemia E Mutation in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chun; Begum, Khurshida; Overbeek, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    In most cases of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), the cause of the depletion of ovarian follicles is unknown. Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins are known to play important roles in follicular development. Using random insertional mutagenesis with a lentiviral transgene, we identified a family with reduced fertility in the homozygous transgenic mice. We identified the integration site and found that the lentivirus had integrated into intron 8 of the Fanconi E gene (Fance). By RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, we found that Fance transcript levels were significantly reduced. The Fance homozygous mutant mice were assayed for changes in ovarian development, follicle numbers and estrous cycle. Ovarian dysplasias and a severe lack of follicles were seen in the mutant mice. In addition, the estrous cycle was disrupted in adult females. Our results suggest that POI has been induced by the Fance mutation in this new mouse model.

  15. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Induced by Fanconi Anemia E Mutation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chun; Begum, Khurshida; Overbeek, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    In most cases of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), the cause of the depletion of ovarian follicles is unknown. Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins are known to play important roles in follicular development. Using random insertional mutagenesis with a lentiviral transgene, we identified a family with reduced fertility in the homozygous transgenic mice. We identified the integration site and found that the lentivirus had integrated into intron 8 of the Fanconi E gene (Fance). By RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, we found that Fance transcript levels were significantly reduced. The Fance homozygous mutant mice were assayed for changes in ovarian development, follicle numbers and estrous cycle. Ovarian dysplasias and a severe lack of follicles were seen in the mutant mice. In addition, the estrous cycle was disrupted in adult females. Our results suggest that POI has been induced by the Fance mutation in this new mouse model. PMID:26939056

  16. New Mouse Model May Aid in Developing Effective Therapies for Ovarian Cancer | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A new genetically engineered mouse model appears promising as an effective tool for preclinical testing of novel therapies for ovarian cancer, which tends to be diagnosed in late stage. There are few effective treatments for the disease.

  17. New Mouse Model May Aid in Developing Effective Therapies for Ovarian Cancer | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A new genetically engineered mouse model appears promising as an effective tool for preclinical testing of novel therapies for ovarian cancer, which tends to be diagnosed in late stage. There are few effective treatments for the disease.

  18. The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) acts as a gatekeeper of ovarian steroidogenesis inhibiting the granulosa cell response to both FSH and LH.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Sandro; D'Ippolito, Giovanni; Sena, Paola; Marsella, Tiziana; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Maggi, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Tirelli, Alessandra; Giulini, Simone; La Marca, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has a negative and inhibitory role in many functions of human granulosa-lutein cells (hGCs) including notoriously the reduction of the aromatase CYP19A1 expression induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). No data have been provided on the possible role of AMH in modulating the response to luteinizing hormone (LH) (alone or combined with FSH) as well as its effect on other enzymes involved in steroidogenesis including aromatase P450scc. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AMH as regulator of the basal and stimulated steroids production by hGCs. Primary culture of hGCs were incubated with hormones AMH, LH, and FSH, alone or in combination. The CYP19A1 and P450scc messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, normalized by housekeeping ribosomal protein S7 (RpS7) gene, was evaluated by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Each reaction was repeated in triplicate. Negative controls using corresponding amount of vehicle control for each hormone treatment were performed. AMH did not modulate the basal mRNA expression of both aromatase genes at any of the concentrations tested. Meanwhile, the strong mRNA induction of CYP19A1 and P450scc generated by a 24-h gonadotropin treatment (alone and combined) was suppressed by 20 ng/ml AMH added to culture medium. These findings contribute in clarifying the relationship between hormones regulating the early phase of steroidogenesis confirming that AMH is playing a suppressive role on CYP19A1 expression stimulated by gonadotropin in hGCs. Furthermore, a similar inhibitory effect for AMH was observed on P450scc gene expression when activated by gonadotropin treatment.

  19. Expression of apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) in porcine ovarian follicles and in vitro effect of apelin on steroidogenesis and proliferation through APJ activation and different signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rak, A; Drwal, E; Rame, Ch; Knapczyk-Stwora, K; Słomczyńska, M; Dupont, J; Gregoraszczuk, E L

    2017-07-01

    Apelin was thought to be an adipocyte-specific hormone, but recent studies indicate a link between apelin and female reproductive function. Using real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA, we demonstrated expression of apelin and its receptor (APJ) in ovarian follicles of different sizes from mature pigs. Apelin concentration in the follicular fluid, and expression of both apelin and APJ, increased with follicular growth; greatest values were found in large follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed the positive staining for apelin and APJ in membranes of granulosa, than theca cells. Furthermore, we observed strong expression of apelin in oocytes and APJ in the zona pellucida. The effect of apelin (0.02, 0.2, 2 and 20 ng/ml) on basal and IGF1- and FSH-induced steroid hormone (progesterone [P4], and estradiol [E2]) secretion, steroidogenic enzyme (3βHSD and CYP19A1) expression and cell proliferation (Alamar blue) was determined. Apelin was found to increase basal steroid secretion, but decrease IGF1- and FSH-induced steroid secretion, and 3βHSD and CYP19 expression. Apelin also increased cell proliferation and the phosphorylation level of 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase/Akt (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). AMPKα was involved in the action of apelin in P4 production, and MAPK/ERK and Akt/PI3 mediated the proliferative effect of apelin. However, these effects on steroid secretion and cell proliferation were abolished when cultured in the presence of ML221, an APJ antagonist. In conclusion, apelin appears to regulate ovarian follicular functions such as steroidogenesis and proliferation via APJ activation and different signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ovarian Mouse Models with Targeted Fallopian Tubal Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    target genetic deletions to the oviductal epithelium. We are currently performing selective genetic deletion of ovarian cancer genes, such as TP53 ...fallopian epithelium, oviductal epithelium, BRCA1, Rb, TP53 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  1. 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-containing ligands of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) behave as agonists and antagonists of steroidogenesis in a mouse leydig tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Midzak, Andrew; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Lopedota, Angela; Franco, Massimo; Altomare, Cosimo D; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-08-30

    Ligands of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) are known for their ability to potently and dose-dependently stimulate steroid biosynthesis in steroidogenic cells. In this study, we investigated a number of 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamide derivatives, analogs of alpidem, for their ability to bind TSPO and to affect steroidogenesis in a mouse Leydig tumor cell line. We observed that not only some compounds behaved as agonists, stimulating steroidogenesis (e.g., 3 and 4) with EC50 values (15.9 and 6.99μM) close to that determined for FGIN-1-27 used as positive control (7.24μM), but two compounds, namely 5 and 6, which on the other hand are the most lipophilic ones in the investigated series, behaved as antagonists, by significantly inhibiting steroid production at concentrations at least twenty times lower than the cytotoxic ones. To our surprise, the newly synthesized compound 3, which is a strict analog of alpidem bearing at the para position of the 2-phenyl group a methoxy group instead of chlorine, achieved a ten-fold stimulation of the steroid production (for comparison FGIN-1-27 achieved 1.6-fold stimulation). Within the limits of the examined property space, some unprecedented SARs were unveiled, which can help in understanding the key molecular factors underlying the transition from agonism to antagonism in the steroidogenesis process. Besides the substitution pattern and the physicochemical features (mainly hydrogen bonding potential) of the substituents at the positions C(6) and C(8) of the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine nucleus, and at the para position of the 2-phenyl group, the structure-activity relationship analysis suggested lipophilicity, whose increase seems to be generally related to steroidogenesis inhibition, and steric hindrance, which appeared as a stimulation-limiting factor, as two main properties to control in the design or optimization of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-based TSPO ligands endowed with potential in modulating the

  2. Characterization of human ovarian carcinomas in a SCID mouse model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Silver, D F; Yang, N P; Oflazoglu, E; Hempling, R E; Piver, M S; Repasky, E A

    1999-02-01

    This study characterizes a murine model which is promising for the study of the growth and natural history of ovarian cancer and for testing of new therapies for its treatment. Intact portions of 20 different human ovarian cancer surgical specimens were implanted in over 60 severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice using techniques previously developed in our laboratory. Growth of xenografts was evaluated by gross examination and histopathologic analysis. Confirmation of the human origin of the tumor outgrowth was obtained using in situ hybridization analysis. By histological evaluation, all of the patients' tumors showed evidence of invasive growth in at least 1 of the mice implanted with portions of each surgical specimen and these tumors remained morphologically similar to the parent tumors for a long period of time. Furthermore, 65% (13/20) of the xenografts grew rapidly enough (i.e., reached a diameter of 1-2 cm within 2-6 months) to allow passage to subsequent SCID mice. Among the passaged xenografts, 3 eventually developed metastases in a distribution pattern similar to that of naturally occurring ovarian cancer and 2 developed ascites without evidence of further metastatic spread. Upon evaluation of sera from tumor-bearing mice, human antibodies presumably derived from immunoglobulin-secreting cells present in the original tumor specimen were identified. In support of this, human B cells and plasma cells could be seen within the tumor xenograft for more than 6 months following implantation. In summary, transplantation of surgical specimens from ovarian cancer patients into SCID mice results in an attractive model for the study of the natural history of ovarian cancer and may also be useful for analysis or new experimental therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this disease.

  3. Epithelialization of mouse ovarian tumor cells originating in the fallopian tube stroma

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yuanyuan; Choi, Pui-Wah; Trachtenberg, Alexander J.; Ng, Allen C.; Kuo, Winston P.; Ng, Shu-Kay; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma accounts for 90% of all ovarian cancer and is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. Recent studies have suggested that fallopian tube fimbriae can be the origin of cells for high-grade serous subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). A mouse HGSOC model with conditional Dicer-Pten double knockout (Dicer-Pten DKO) developed primary tumors, intriguingly, from the fallopian tube stroma. We examined the growth and epithelial phenotypes of the Dicer-Pten DKO mouse tumor cells contributable by each gene knockout. Unlike human ovarian epithelial cancer cells that expressed full-length E-cadherin, the Dicer-Pten DKO stromal tumor cells expressed cleaved E-cadherin fragments and metalloproteinase 2, a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Although the Dicer-Pten DKO tumor cells lost the expression of mature microRNAs as expected, they showed high levels of tRNA fragment expression and enhanced AKT activation due to the loss of PTEN function. Introduction of a Dicer1-expressing construct into the DKO mouse tumor cells significantly reduced DNA synthesis and the cell growth rate, with concurrent diminished adhesion and ZO1 epithelial staining. Hence, it is likely that the loss of Dicer promoted mesenchymal-epithelial transition in fallopian tube stromal cells, and in conjunction with Pten loss, further promoted cell proliferation and epithelial-like tumorigenesis. PMID:27602775

  4. Examination of diagnostic features in multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography images of ovarian tumorigenesis in a mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jennifer M.

    Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease owing to the non-specific symptoms and suspected rapid progression, leading to frequent late stage detection and poor prognosis. Medical imaging methods such as CT, MRI and ultrasound as well as serum testing for cancer markers have had extremely poor performance for early disease detection. Due to the poor performance of available screening methods, and the impracticality and ineffectiveness of taking tissue biopsies from the ovary, women at high risk for developing ovarian cancer are often advised to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery results in many side effects and is most often unnecessary since only a fraction of high risk women go on to develop ovarian cancer. Better understanding of the early development of ovarian cancer and characterization of morphological changes associated with early disease could lead to the development of an effective screening test for women at high risk. Optical imaging methods including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are excellent tools for studying disease progression owing to the high resolution and depth sectioning capabilities. Further, these techniques are excellent for optical biopsy because they can image in situ non-destructively. In the studies described in this dissertation OCT and MPM are used to identify cellular and tissue morphological changes associated with early tumor development in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. This work is organized into three specific aims. The first aim is to use the images from the MPM phenomenon of second harmonic generation to quantitatively examine the morphological differences in collagen structure in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The second aim is to examine the differences in endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The third and final aim is to identify changes in ovarian microstructure resulting from early

  5. Pathway-Specific Engineered Mouse Allograft Models Functionally Recapitulate Human Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabova, Ludmila; Bupp, Sujata; Kamal, Muhaymin; Householder, Deborah B.; Hernandez, Lidia; Schlomer, Jerome J.; Baran, Maureen L.; Yi, Ming; Stephens, Robert M.; Annunziata, Christina M.; Martin, Philip L.; Van Dyke, Terry A.

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate from ovarian cancers can be attributed to late-stage diagnosis and lack of effective treatment. Despite enormous effort to develop better targeted therapies, platinum-based chemotherapy still remains the standard of care for ovarian cancer patients, and resistance occurs at a high rate. One of the rate limiting factors for translation of new drug discoveries into clinical treatments has been the lack of suitable preclinical cancer models with high predictive value. We previously generated genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models based on perturbation of Tp53 and Rb with or without Brca1 or Brca2 that develop serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) closely resembling the human disease on histologic and molecular levels. Here, we describe an adaptation of these GEM models to orthotopic allografts that uniformly develop tumors with short latency and are ideally suited for routine preclinical studies. Ovarian tumors deficient in Brca1 respond to treatment with cisplatin and olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, whereas Brca1-wild type tumors are non-responsive to treatment, recapitulating the relative sensitivities observed in patients. These mouse models provide the opportunity for evaluation of effective therapeutics, including prediction of differential responses in Brca1-wild type and Brca1–deficient tumors and development of relevant biomarkers. PMID:24748377

  6. Morphologic responses of the mouse ovarian surface epithelium to ovulation and steroid hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Gotfredson, Garry S; Murdoch, William J

    2007-02-01

    Ovarian cancer of surface epithelial origin is an ovulation- and endocrine-related disease. It appears that a cell transformed by genotoxins generated at follicular rupture is propagated during postovulatory wound repair. A consequent steroid hormonal imbalance favoring the mitogenic estrogens is a prospective predisposing factor in ovarian neoplasia. Protection against epithelial ovarian cancer is conferred by progesterone. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute effects of ovulation and steroid hormonal exposure on morphologic responses of surface epithelial cells of mouse ovaries. Follicular development and ovulation were induced in immature animals with equine and human (=Day 0) choriogonadotropins, respectively. On Day 2 (approximately 36 hrs after ovulation), surface epithelial classifications presented in histologic sections were altered from simple (single-layered) squamous and cuboidal toward stratification; this trend was reversed (i.e., reverted to the control status) on Days 4-8. Shifts in the ovarian epithelium from simple to stratified were accentuated following postovulatory (Days 1-8) treatment with estradiol. Surface epithelia of ovaries obtained after 1 week of progesterone administration were exclusively of a simple phenotype. We conclude that the proliferative/procarcinogenic reaction of the ovarian surface epithelium to ovulation is exacerbated by estrogen and counteracted by progesterone.

  7. Regulation of Cytoskeleton Organization by Sphingosine in a Mouse Cell Model of Progressive Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Creekmore, Amy L.; Heffron, C. Lynn; Brayfield, Bradley P.; Roberts, Paul C.; Schmelz, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a multigenic disease and molecular events driving ovarian cancer progression are not well established. We have previously reported the dysregulation of the cytoskeleton during ovarian cancer progression in a syngeneic mouse cell model for progressive ovarian cancer. In the present studies, we investigated if the cytoskeleton organization is a potential target for chemopreventive treatment with the bioactive sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine. Long-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of sphingosine but not other sphingolipid metabolites led to a partial reversal of a cytoskeleton architecture commonly associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes towards an organization reminiscent of non-malignant cell phenotypes. This was evident by increased F-actin polymerization and organization, a reduced focal adhesion kinase expression, increased α-actinin and vinculin levels which together led to the assembly of more mature focal adhesions. Downstream focal adhesion signaling, the suppression of myosin light chain kinase expression and hypophosphorylation of its targets were observed after treatment with sphingosine. These results suggest that sphingosine modulate the assembly of actin stress fibers via regulation of focal adhesions and myosin light chain kinase. The impact of these events on suppression of ovarian cancer by exogenous sphingosine and their potential as molecular markers for treatment efficacy warrants further investigation. PMID:24970173

  8. Expression and localization of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in buffalo ovarian follicle during different stages of development and modulatory role of FGF2 on steroidogenesis and survival of cultured buffalo granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S R; Thakur, N; Somal, A; Parmar, M S; Reshma, R; Rajesh, G; Yadav, V P; Bharti, M K; Bharati, Jaya; Paul, A; Chouhan, V S; Sharma, G T; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the expression and localization of FGF and its functional receptors in the follicle of buffalo and the treatment of FGF2 on mRNA expression of CYP19A1 (aromatase), PCNA, and BAX (BCL-2 associated X protein) in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). Follicles were classified into four groups based on size and E2 level in follicular fluid (FF): F1, 4-6mm diameter, E2<0.5ng/ml of FF; F2, 7-9mm, E2=0.5-5ng/ml; F3, 10-13mm, E2=5-40ng/ml; F4, >14mm, E2>180ng/ml. The qPCR studies revealed that the mRNA expression of FGF1, FGF2 and FGF7 were maximum (P<0.05) in theca interna (TI) whereas the transcripts of FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR2IIIB and FGFR2IIIC were up-regulated (P<0.05) in GCs of F4 follicles. Protein expression of most members were maximum (P<0.05) in F4 follicles except FGFR3 and FGFR4. All members were localized in GC and TI with a stage specific immunoreactivity. Primary culture of GCs with treatment of FGF2 at different dose-time combinations revealed that the mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of CYP19A1 and PCNA were maximum (P<0.05) whereas BAX was minimum (P<0.05) with 200ng/ml at 72h of incubation. The findings indicate that FGF family members are expressed in a regulated manner in buffalo ovarian follicles during different stages of development where FGF2 may promote steroidogenesis and GC survival through autocrine and paracrine manner.

  9. The effect of celecoxib on tumor growth in ovarian cancer cells and a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Anuj; Sheng, Xiugui; Schuler, Kevin M.; Zhong, Yan; Han, Xiaoyun; Jones, Hannah M.; Gehrig, Paola A.; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, on (1) proliferation and apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cell lines and primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells, and (2) inhibition of tumor growth in a genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer under obese and non-obese conditions. Celecoxib inhibited cell proliferation in three ovarian cancer cell lines and five primary cultures of human ovarian cancer after 72 hours of exposure. Treatment with celecoxib resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cellular adhesion and invasion and reduction of expression of hTERT mRNA and COX-2 protein in all of the ovarian cancer cell lines. In the KpB mice fed a high fat diet (obese) and treated with celecoxib, tumor weight decreased by 66% when compared with control animals. Among KpB mice fed a low fat diet (non-obese), tumor weight decreased by 46% after treatment with celecoxib. In the ovarian tumors from obese and non-obese KpB mice, treatment with celecoxib as compared to control resulted in decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis and reduced COX-2 and MMP9 protein expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Celecoxib strongly decreased the serum level of VEGF and blood vessel density in the tumors from the KpB ovarian cancer mouse model under obese and non-obese conditions. This work suggests that celecoxib may be a novel chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment and be potentially beneficial in both obese and non-obese women. PMID:27074576

  10. Expression and localization of angiopoietin family in buffalo ovarian follicles during different stages of development and modulatory role of angiopoietins on steroidogenesis and survival of cultured buffalo granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S R; Thakur, N; Somal, A; Parmar, M S; Yadav, V P; Bharati, Jaya; Bharti, M K; Paul, A; Verma, M R; Chouhan, V S; Sharma, G Taru; Singh, G; González, L A; D'Occhio, M J; Sarkar, M

    2016-10-15

    The present study investigated the expression and localization of angiopoietin (ANPT) family members in buffalo ovarian follicles of different size. It also looked at the role of ANPTs in estradiol secretion and mRNA expression of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling pathway cellular proliferation (phosphoinositide-dependant kinase and protein kinase B [AKT]) and proapoptotic (BAD) factors with caspase 3 in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). The mRNA and protein expression of ANPT-1 was greatest (P < 0.05), whereas ANPT-2 was reduced (P < 0.05) in preovulatory follicles as compared to F1 follicle. Tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1 transcripts and protein expression did not change in all follicular groups, whereas tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2 mRNA was highest (P < 0.05) in theca interna but not GC layer of preovulatory follicle. All members of ANPT family were localized in GC and theca interna showing a stage specific immunoreactivity. Cultured GCs were treated with ANPT-1 and ANPT-2 separately at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL and in combination at 100 ng/mL for three incubation periods (24, 48, and 72 hours). Estradiol secretion was highest (P < 0.05) at 100 ng/mL at 72 hours of incubation when GCs were treated with either protein alone. The mRNA expression of phosphoinositide-dependant kinase and AKT was highest (P < 0.05), and BAD with caspase 3 was lowest (P < 0.05) at 100 ng/mL at 72 hours of incubation, when cultured GCs were treated separately with each protein or in combination. The immuoreactivity of AKT, pAKT, and pBAD were maximal, whereas BAD was minimal with 100 ng/mL at 72 hours when cultured GCs treated with either protein alone. The findings indicate that ANPTs are expressed in a regulated manner in buffalo ovarian follicle during different stages of development where they may promote steroidogenesis and GC survival through autocrine and paracrine

  11. Molecular and clinical implementations of ovarian cancer mouse avatar models

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Amira A.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Haluska, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Innovation in oncology drug development has been hindered by lack of preclinical models that reliably predict clinical activity of novel therapies in cancer patients. Increasing desire for individualize treatment of patients with cancer has led to an increase in the use of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) engrafted into immune-compromised mice for preclinical modeling. Large numbers of tumor-specific PDX models have been established and proved to be powerful tools in pre-clinical testing. A subset of PDXs, referred to as Avatars, establish tumors in an orthotopic and treatment naïve fashion that may represent the most clinical relevant model of individual human cancers. This review will discuss ovarian cancer (OC) PDX models demonstrating the opportunities and limitations of these models in cancer drug development, and describe concepts of clinical trials design in Avatar guided therapy. PMID:26408297

  12. Fathead Minnow Steroidogenesis: In Silico Analyses Reveals Tradeoffs Between Nominal Target Efficacy and Robustness to Cross-talk

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the formulation and evaluation of a mechanistic mathematical model of fathead minnow ovarian steroidogenesis. The model presented in the present study was adpated from other models developed as part of an integrated, multi-disciplinary computational toxicolog...

  13. Fathead Minnow Steroidogenesis: In Silico Analyses Reveals Tradeoffs Between Nominal Target Efficacy and Robustness to Cross-talk

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the formulation and evaluation of a mechanistic mathematical model of fathead minnow ovarian steroidogenesis. The model presented in the present study was adpated from other models developed as part of an integrated, multi-disciplinary computational toxicolog...

  14. Translocator protein: pharmacology and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Midzak, Andrew; Zirkin, Barry; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-08-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO; 18k Da) is an evolutionarily conserved outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) protein highly expressed in steroid-synthesizing cells and found to possess a number of physiological and drug-binding partners. Extensive pharmacological, biochemical and cell biological research over the years has led to a model of TSPO involvement in mitochondrial cholesterol transport and promotion of steroid synthesis, a model guiding the design of drugs useful in stimulating neurosteroid synthesis and alleviating psychopathological symptoms. The involvement of TSPO in these processes has been called into question; however, with the publication of TSPO-deletion mouse models which saw no changes in steroid production. Here, we review work characterizing TSPO in steroidogenesis and offer perspective to research into TSPO pharmacology and its involvement in steroid biosynthesis. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P.; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J.; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (P<0.01) by at least twofold between two groups of the cell lines. Of the 181 genes, 109 and 72 genes were overexpressed in highly and moderately aggressive cell lines, respectively. Analysis of the 109 and 72 genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tool revealed two cancer-related gene networks. One was associated with the highly aggressive cell lines and affiliated with MYC gene, and another was associated with the moderately aggressive cell lines and affiliated with the androgen receptor (AR). Finally, the gene enrichment analysis indicated that the overexpressed 89 genes (out of 109 genes) in highly aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. The cancer-relevant significant gene ontology (GO) terms included Cell cycle, DNA metabolic process, and Programmed cell death. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian

  16. Hepsin colocalizes with desmosomes and induces progression of ovarian cancer in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jiangyong; Mu, David; Ergel, Burce; Singavarapu, Rajasekhar; Duan, Zhenfeng; Powers, Scott; Oliva, Esther; Orsulic, Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Hepsin is a serine protease that is widely expressed in different tissues and cell types, most prominently in the normal liver and kidney. Overexpression of hepsin has been associated with prostate cancers, ovarian cancers and renal cell carcinomas. The physiological functions of hepsin in normal tissues and tumors are poorly understood. To gain insight into its function in ovarian cancer, we analyzed the expression and subcellular localization of hepsin protein in ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors. We showed that the membrane-associated hepsin protein is present at desmosomal junctions, where it colocalizes with its putative proteolytic substrate hepatocyte growth factor. Consistent with the growing evidence that desmosomal junctions and their constituents play a role in cancer progression, we demonstrated that overexpression of hepsin promotes ovarian tumor growth in a mouse model. The ability of ectopic hepsin to induce tumor growth in mice is abrogated by the mutation of 3 critical residues in the catalytic domain, thus implicating the enzymatic activity of hepsin in promoting tumor progression.

  17. Dielectrophoretic differentiation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts using contactless dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Kittur, Harsha; Sano, Michael B.; C. Roberts, Paul; Schmelz, Eva M.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies in women. The primary challenge is the detection of the cancer at an early stage, since this drastically increases the survival rate. In this study we investigated the dielectrophoretic responses of progressive stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, as well as mouse fibroblast and macrophage cell lines, utilizing contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP). cDEP is a relatively new cell manipulation technique that has addressed some of the challenges of conventional dielectrophoretic methods. To evaluate our microfluidic device performance, we computationally studied the effects of altering various geometrical parameters, such as the size and arrangement of insulating structures, on dielectrophoretic and drag forces. We found that the trapping voltage of MOSE cells increases as the cells progress from a non-tumorigenic, benign cell to a tumorigenic, malignant phenotype. Additionally, all MOSE cells display unique behavior compared to fibroblasts and macrophages, representing normal and inflammatory cells found in the peritoneal fluid. Based on these findings, we predict that cDEP can be utilized for isolation of ovarian cancer cells from peritoneal fluid as an early cancer detection tool. PMID:22536308

  18. Inhibition of EGFR-AKT Axis Results in the Suppression of Ovarian Tumors In Vitro and in Preclinical Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Parul; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. Genetic alterations including overexpression of EGFR play a crucial role in ovarian carcinogenesis. Here we evaluated the effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in ovarian tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of 12 µmol PEITC resulted in drastically suppressing ovarian tumor growth in a preclinical mouse model. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that PEITC suppress the growth of SKOV-3, OVCAR-3 and TOV-21G human ovarian cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Growth inhibitory effects of PEITC were mediated by inhibition of EGFR and AKT, which are known to be overexpressed in ovarian tumors. PEITC treatment caused significant down regulation of constitutive protein levels as well as phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 in various ovarian cancer cells. In addition, PEITC treatment drastically reduced the phosphorylation of AKT which is downstream to EGFR and disrupted mTOR signaling. PEITC treatment also inhibited the kinase activity of AKT as observed by the down regulation of p-GSK in OVCAR-3 and TOV-21G cells. AKT overexpression or TGF treatment blocked PEITC induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that PEITC targets EGFR/AKT pathway in our model. In conclusion, our study suggests that PEITC could be used alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents to treat ovarian cancer. PMID:22952709

  19. Cellular therapy in combination with cytokines improves survival in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Susan B; Ahmad, Sarfraz; McGann, Hasina C; Banks, Robert K; Stavitzski, Nicole M; Srivastava, Milan; Ali, Ghazanfar; Finkler, Neil J; Edwards, John R; Holloway, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Studies have shown enhanced survival of ovarian cancer patients in which the tumors are infiltrated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and natural killer cells showing the importance of immune surveillance and recognition in ovarian cancer. Therefore, in this study, we tested cellular immunotherapy and varying combinations of cytokines (IL-2 and/or pegylated-IFNα-2b) in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. SKOV3-AF2 ovarian cancer cells were injected intra-peritoneally (IP) into athymic nude mice. On day 7 post-tumor cell injection, mice were injected IP with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; 5 × 10(6) PBMC) and cytokine combinations [IL-2 ± pegylated-IFNα-2b (IFN)]. Cytokine injections were continued weekly for IFN (12,000 U/injection) and thrice weekly for IL-2 (4000 U/injection). Mice were euthanized when they became moribund due to tumor burden at which time tumor and ascitic fluid were measured and collected. Treatment efficacy was measured by improved survival at 8 weeks and overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. We observed that the mice tolerated all treatment combinations without significant weight loss or other apparent illness. Mice receiving PBMC plus IL-2 showed improved median survival (7.3 weeks) compared to mice with no treatment (4.2 weeks), IL-2 (3.5 weeks), PBMC (4.0 weeks), or PBMC plus IL-2 and IFN (4.3 weeks), although PBMC plus IL-2 was not statistically different than PBMC plus IFN (5.5 weeks, p > 0.05). We demonstrate that cytokine-stimulated cellular immune therapy with PBMC and IL-2 was well tolerated and resulted in survival advantage compared to untreated controls and other cytokine combinations in the nude-mouse model.

  20. VEGF and FGF2 Improve Revascularization, Survival, and Oocyte Quality of Cryopreserved, Subcutaneously-Transplanted Mouse Ovarian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lu, Chung-Hao; Chang, Hsiao-Ho; Hsieh, Cheng-En; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. Autologous subcutaneous transplantation of vitrified-thawed mouse ovarian tissues treated with (experimental group) or without (control group) VEGF and FGF2 was performed. After transplantation to the inguinal region for two or three weeks, graft survival, angiogenesis, follicle development, and oocyte quality were examined after gonadotropin administration. VEGF coupled with FGF2 (VEGF/FGF2) promoted revascularization and significantly increased the survival rate of subcutaneously-transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissues compared with untreated controls. The two growth factors did not show long-term effects on the ovarian grafts. In contrast to the untreated ovarian grafts, active folliculogenesis was revealed as the number of follicles at various stages and of mature oocytes in antral follicles after gonadotropin administration were remarkably higher in the VEGF/FGF2-treated groups. Although the fertilization rate was similar between the VEGF/FGF2 and control groups, the oocyte quality was much better in the VEGF/FGF2-treated grafts as demonstrated by the higher ratio of blastocyst development. Introducing angiogenic factors, such as VEGF and FGF2, may be a promising strategy to improve revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. PMID:27483256

  1. MicroRNA-764-3p regulates 17β-estradiol synthesis of mouse ovarian granulosa cells by targeting steroidogenic factor-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianlian; Li, Cong; Li, Rong; Deng, Youlin; Tan, Yixin; Tong, Chao; Qi, Hongbo

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have reported that microRNA-764-3p (miR-764-3p) is one of the most up-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) in TGF-β1-stimulated mouse ovarian granulosa cells. However, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of miR-764-3p in granulosa cell function during follicular development. In this study, we found that overexpression of miR-764-3p inhibited 17β-estradiol (E2) synthesis of granulosa cells through directly targeting steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). MiR-764-3p inhibited SF-1 by affecting its messenger RNA (mRNA) stability, which subsequently suppressed the expression levels of Cyp19a1 gene (aromatase, a downstream target of SF-1). In addition, SF-1 was involved in regulation of miR-764-3p-mediated Cyp19a1 expression in granulosa cells which contributed, at least partially, to the effects of miR-764-3p on granulosa cell E2 release. These results suggest that miR-764-3p functions to decrease steroidogenesis by targeting SF-1, at least in part, through inactivation of Cyp19a1. Taken together, our data provide mechanistic insights into the roles of miR-764-3p on E2 synthesis. Understanding of potential miRNAs affecting estrogen synthesis will help to diagnose and treat steroid-related diseases.

  2. Obesity accelerates mouse mammary tumor growth in the absence of ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Nomeli P; Perkins, Susan N; Smith, Nicole C P; Berrigan, David; Berendes, David M; Varticovski, Lyuba; Barrett, J Carl; Hursting, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    Obesity increases incidence and mortality of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. Suitable animal models are needed to elucidate potential mechanisms for this association. To determine the effects of obesity on mammary tumor growth, nonovariectomized and ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice of various body weights (lean, overweight, and obese) were implanted subcutaneously with mammary tumor cells from syngeneic Wnt-1 transgenic mice. In mice, the lean phenotype was associated with reduced Wnt-1 tumor growth regardless of ovarian hormone status. Ovariectomy delayed Wnt-1 tumor growth consistent with the known hormone responsiveness of these tumors. However, obesity accelerated tumor growth in ovariectomized but not in nonovariectomized animals. Diet-induced obesity in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer enhanced tumor growth, specifically in the absence of ovarian hormones. These results support epidemiological evidence that obesity is associated with increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal but not premenopausal women. In contrast, maintaining a lean body weight phenotype was associated with reduced Wnt-1 tumor growth regardless of ovarian hormone status.

  3. Mouse ovarian follicles secrete factors affecting the growth and development of like-sized ovarian follicles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Spears, Norah; Baker, Stuart; Srsen, Vlastimil; Lapping, Rebecca; Mullan, Julie; Nelson, Robert; Allison, Vivian

    2002-12-01

    A series of experiments have been carried out to determine whether follicles secrete factors able to affect the growth and development of other, like-sized follicles. Late preantral mouse ovarian follicles were either cocultured or cultured in media conditioned by previously cultured follicles. In particular, the experiments examined whether follicles do secrete such factors, whether the level of FSH in the culture media can affect that process, and what the nature of such secretory factor(s) might be. First, pairs of follicles were cocultured across a polycarbonate membrane containing pores. This showed that communication between the follicles resulted in the stimulation of growth and that the stimulation was due, at least in part, to the production of secretory factor(s). In subsequent experiments, follicles were cultured in media that had been preconditioned by previously cultured follicles. The concentration of FSH in the cultures determined the effect of the conditioned media: conditioned media was stimulatory to follicle growth when levels of FSH remained high throughout the culture, but inhibitory when FSH levels were dropped midway through the cultures. Heat inactivation removed this inhibitory effect, showing that the factor was likely to be a protein; addition of follistatin to the conditioned media did not alter its effect, indicating that the factor was unlikely to be activin. We have shown through a series of culture experiments that mouse follicles secrete factor(s) that can affect the development of other like-sized follicles when cultured from the late preantral to Graafian stages. Furthermore, we have shown that the effect (or production) of such factors is dependent on the FSH environment of the follicles.

  4. Effectiveness of slow freezing and vitrification for long-term preservation of mouse ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, G A; Kim, H Y; Kim, J W; Lee, G; Lee, E; Ahn, J Y; Park, J H; Lim, J M

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between cryo-damage and ART outcome after cryopreservation of mouse ovarian tissues with different methods. Either a vitrification or a slow freezing was employed for the cryopreservation of B6CBAF1 mouse ovaries and follicle growth and the preimplantation development of intrafollicular oocytes following parthenogenesis or IVF were monitored. Both cryopreservation protocols caused significant damage to follicle components, including vacuole formation and mitochondrial deformities. Regardless of the cryopreservation protocols employed, a sharp (P < 0.0001) decrease in follicle viability and post-thaw growth was detected. When IVF program was employed, significant (P < 0.05) decrease in cleavage and blastocyst formation was notable in both modes of cryopreservation. However, such retardation was not found when oocytes were parthenogenetically activated. In the IVF oocytes, slow freezing led to better development than vitrification. In conclusion, a close relationship between cryopreservation and ART methods should be considered for the selection of cryopreservation program.

  5. Cryopreservation of mouse ovarian tissue following prolonged exposure to an Ischemic environment.

    PubMed

    Cleary, M; Snow, M; Paris, M; Shaw, J; Cox, S L; Jenkin, G

    2001-03-01

    In cases in which ovarian tissue is to be cryopreserved for tissue or gene banking it is important to maintain its integrity and viability. This study examined how delays between the death of an animal and the collection/cryopreservation of its ovarian tissue influenced follicle viability. Mouse ovaries were placed in PBS+antibiotic (in vitro) or left within the body (in situ) at room temperature for 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h following the death of the donor. These ovaries were cryopreserved at 1 degrees C/min on dry ice or in a -84 degrees C freezer using a passive cooling device or by conventional slow cooling (0.3 degrees C/min). The ovaries were grafted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized recipient mice and collected 2 weeks later, and the size and number of follicles were determined. Cryopreserved ovarian tissue grafted immediately after the death of the donor contained numerous viable and healthy follicles independent of the cooling procedure (dry ice, 134 +/- 32; -84 degrees C, 165 +/- 54; slow, 214 +/- 55 follicles per half ovary). Tissues stored in vitro before cryopreservation retained viable follicles up to 12 h after death (dry ice, 30 +/- 15; -84 degrees C, 86 +/- 45; slow, 93 +/- 33), whereas tissue left in situ had significantly reduced follicle numbers within 3 h of death (dry ice, 36 +/- 12; -84 degrees C, 19 +/- 6; slow, 28 +/- 7). No significant difference was found between the cooling rates tested, indicating that a passive cooling container which cools at 1 degrees C/min is a suitable alternative to conventional slow cooling. We conclude that ovarian tissues for cryobanking should be cryopreserved as soon as possible after collection or death of the animal to ensure maximal follicular survival.

  6. Retinoic Acid Regulates Calcium Signaling to Promote Mouse Ovarian Granulosa Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Demczuk, Michael; Huang, Huiya; White, Carl; Kipp, Jingjing L

    2016-09-01

    Normal development of ovarian follicles is critical for female reproduction and endocrine function. We have identified retinoic acid (RA) and the RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1 as regulators of ovarian follicle development and showed that RA and a CYP26 inhibitor stimulated ovarian granulosa cell proliferation. The mechanism underpinning RA-dependent proliferation, however, is not known. The current study was designed to examine the role of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling in mediating the effects of RA on primary mouse granulosa cell proliferation. In single-cell Ca(2+) imaging experiments, treatment of cultured granulosa cells with RA increased the steady-state Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores. This correlated with increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and enhanced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-dependent Ca(2+) release. In proliferation assays, RA treatment or Cyp26b1 knockdown stimulated proliferation, whereas Cyp26b1 overexpression inhibited proliferation. When RA was given together with 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB), a blocker of IP3R-dependent ER Ca(2+) release and SOCE, with xestospongin C, a selective IP3R- receptor antagonist, or with 3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl)pyrazole (BTP-2), a specific SOCE blocker, the stimulatory effect of RA on cell proliferation was abolished. Further investigation showed that treatment with 2-APB or BTP-2 inhibited RA induction of RA response element (RARE) activation in granulosa cells, confirming an important role for Ca(2+) signaling in mediating RA actions. Overall, these data support a model in which RA regulates ovarian follicle development by stimulating granulosa cell proliferation and that this stimulatory effect is at least in part driven by the modulation of Ca(2+) signaling.

  7. Microarray proteomic analysis discriminates tumorigenic mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells of divergent aggressive potential.

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Ulises; Best, Lionel; Munroe, David J

    2010-12-01

    Cancer is an intrinsically heterogeneous disease. Tumors classified under the same etiology and histological type may display divergent growth and invasion properties, resulting in different progression rates and clinical outcomes. Here, we approached this subject in a syngeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Antibody microarrays were applied to obtain the proteomic profiles of IF5 and IG10, two spontaneously transformed mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cell lines of cognate clonal origin but different tumorigenic behavior in vivo. Repeated dye-swap allowed filter out about 40% of inconsistent signals from a total of 224 arrayed antibodies. Two-class comparison tests resulted in 31 differentially expressed proteins (adjusted p < 0.05). Proteins of the ErbB and focal adhesion signaling pathways showed higher levels in IG10, the most aggressive cell. In contrast, the less aggressive IF5 cell was enriched in proteins related to nuclear chromatin organization and cell-cycle. Additionally, comparison between protein levels and mRNA levels of MOSE cells resulted in a positive rank correlation for 50-60% of protein-mRNA pairs (p < 1.7 × 10(-5)). Importantly, the protein profile of IG10 is linked to invasion and chemotherapy response in human ovarian tumors while the IF5 profile is associated to growth control. The minimal IG10 network contained the proteins Jun, Smad4, Myc, Atf2, and Pak1 as major nodes while Chek2, Mdm2 and Ccna2 were the predominant nodes of the IF5 network. The molecular basis accounting for a high aggressive potential not necessarily related to an increased tumor growth capacity is discussed on a pathway-network basis.

  8. miR-22 inhibits mouse ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fang; Hu, Lingqing; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Xiao; Xiao, Juxia

    2016-02-24

    Granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis has been shown to be involved in follicular atresia, which is a degenerative process in ovarian follicles of mammals. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of follicular atresia, particularly by microRNAs, is not well known. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of miR-22 in healthy follicles (HF), early atretic follicles (EAF), and progressively atretic follicles (PAF). Flow cytometry was performed to assess the apoptosis of mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) treated with miR-22 mimics or negative control (NC) mimics. Regulation of the expression of SIRT1 by miR-22 was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay system. To investigate the roles of SIRT1 in mGC apoptosis, the endogenous SIRT1 gene in mGCs was knocked down using an siRNA specific for SIRT1. miR-22 was increased during follicular atresia and suppressed granulosa cell apoptosis. The results of the luciferase reporter assay indicated that SIRT1 was a target gene of miR-22. In addition, knockdown of SIRT1 attenuated apoptosis in mGCs. miR-22 inhibits mGC apoptosis by downregulating SIRT1 directly in vitro. This study provides important insights into understanding the regulation mechanism of ovarian follicle atresia.

  9. miR-22 inhibits mouse ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fang; Hu, Lingqing; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Xiao; Xiao, Juxia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis has been shown to be involved in follicular atresia, which is a degenerative process in ovarian follicles of mammals. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of follicular atresia, particularly by microRNAs, is not well known. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of miR-22 in healthy follicles (HF), early atretic follicles (EAF), and progressively atretic follicles (PAF). Flow cytometry was performed to assess the apoptosis of mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) treated with miR-22 mimics or negative control (NC) mimics. Regulation of the expression of SIRT1 by miR-22 was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay system. To investigate the roles of SIRT1 in mGC apoptosis, the endogenous SIRT1 gene in mGCs was knocked down using an siRNA specific for SIRT1. miR-22 was increased during follicular atresia and suppressed granulosa cell apoptosis. The results of the luciferase reporter assay indicated that SIRT1 was a target gene of miR-22. In addition, knockdown of SIRT1 attenuated apoptosis in mGCs. miR-22 inhibits mGC apoptosis by downregulating SIRT1 directly in vitro. This study provides important insights into understanding the regulation mechanism of ovarian follicle atresia. PMID:26912776

  10. Pcsk6 mutant mice exhibit progressive loss of ovarian function, altered gene expression, and formation of ovarian pathology.

    PubMed

    Mujoomdar, Michelle L; Hogan, Laura M; Parlow, Albert F; Nachtigal, Mark W

    2011-03-01

    Bioactivation of precursor proteins by members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family is essential for normal reproduction. The Pcsk6 gene is a member of the PC family that is expressed in numerous ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and oocytes. We hypothesized that loss of PCSK6 would produce adverse effects in the mouse ovary. Mice incapable of expressing PCSK6 (Pcsk6(tm1Rob)) were obtained, and reproductive parameters (serum hormones, whelping interval, estrus cyclicity, and fertility) were compared to Pcsk6(+/+) mice. While Pcsk6(tm1Rob) female mice are fertile, they manifest reduced reproductive capacity at an accelerated rate relative to Pcsk6(+/+) mice. Reproductive senescence is typically reached by 9 months of age and is correlated with loss of estrus cyclicity, elevated serum FSH levels, and gross alterations in ovarian morphology. A wide range of ovarian morphologies were identified encompassing mild, such as an apparent reduction in follicle number, to moderate--ovarian atrophy with a complete absence of follicles--to severe, manifesting as normal ovarian structures replaced by benign ovarian tumors, including tubulostromal adenomas. Targeted gene expression profiling highlighted changes in RNA expression of molecules involved in processes such as steroidogenesis, gonadotropin signaling, transcriptional regulation, autocrine/paracrine signaling, cholesterol handling, and proprotein bioactivation. These results show that PCSK6 activity plays a role in maintaining normal cellular and tissue homeostasis in the ovary.

  11. Mouse Ovarian Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Resist Chemotherapy and Retain Ability to Initiate Oocyte-Specific Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sriraman, Kalpana; Anand, Sandhya; Bhutda, Smita

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate stem cells in adult mouse ovary, the effect of chemotherapy on them and their potential to differentiate into germ cells. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) that were SCA-1+/Lin−/CD45−, positive for nuclear octamer-binding transforming factor 4 (OCT-4), Nanog, and cell surface stage-specific embryonic antigen 1, were identified in adult mouse ovary. Chemotherapy resulted in complete loss of follicular reserve and cytoplasmic OCT-4 positive progenitors (ovarian germ stem cells) but VSELs survived. In ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cell cultures from chemoablated ovary, proliferating germ cell clusters and mouse vasa homolog/growth differentiation factor 9-positive oocyte-like structure were observed by day 6, probably arising as a result of differentiation of the surviving VSELs. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) exerted a direct stimulatory action on the OSE and induced stem cells proliferation and differentiation into premeiotic germ cell clusters during intact chemoablated ovaries culture. The FSH analog pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment to chemoablated mice increased the percentage of surviving VSELs in ovary. The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of potential VSELs in mouse ovaries and show that they survive chemotherapy, are modulated by FSH, and retain the ability to undergo oocyte-specific differentiation. These results show relevance to women who undergo premature ovarian failure because of oncotherapy. PMID:25779995

  12. Light delivery and dosimetry for photodynamic therapy in an ovarian cancer mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar D.; Dabrowski, W.; Holdsworth, David W.; Blake, J.; Kato, D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    1994-07-01

    The Swiss nude mouse model is currently used as an animal model to investigate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in ovarian cancer treatment. The disease requires treatment illumination of the entire abdominal cavity. The close proximity of the internal organs in the abdomen of a mouse and the vastly different optical properties of these organs present a challenge to light delivery and dosimetry. In this study the efficacy of different internal and transcutaneous light delivery geometries was investigated by scanning a transverse plane of the peritoneum with optical fiber fluence-rate detectors. The placement of the implanted optical fibers in the abdominal cavity was verified post mortem in selected animals by high resolution CT imaging. Preliminary experiments were performed to correlate the biological response with actual total fluence delivered to the abdominal cavity. Optical fiber fluence rate detectors were implanted in the peritoneum and abdominal cavity and the animal was treated with PDT. Cell survival of one hour post light treatment harvested cells from the peritoneum was used as a biological response quantifier.

  13. Preservation of primordial follicles from lions by slow freezing and xenotransplantation of ovarian cortex into an immunodeficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, C; Hribal, R; Ringleb, J; Bertelsen, M F; Rasmusen, K; Andersen, C Y; Kristensen, S G; Jewgenow, K

    2012-12-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is considered an important tool in the conservation of endangered species, but often the most limiting factor of ART is the availability of mature oocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of preserving female germ cells from ovaries of female lions (Panthera leo). Good quality cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated and subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM). In addition, ovarian cortex was obtained and cut into pieces for culture and cryopreservation by slow freezing. The survival of ovarian follicles was assessed by histology. Frozen-thawed samples of ovarian cortex samples were xenotransplanted under the skin of ovariectomized immunodeficient mouse for 28 days. Overall, 178 intact COCs were obtained from 13 lions, but only 28.1% were matured in vitro indicating insufficient IVM conditions. In contrast, almost all follicles within the ovarian cortex survived culture when the original sample was from a young healthy lion collected immediately after euthanasia. Within the xenotransplants, the number of primordial follicles decreased after 28 days by 20%, but the relation between primordial and growing follicles changed in favour of follicular growth. Female gamete rescue from valuable felids may be performed by slow freeze cryopreservation of ovarian cortex. Although the IVM protocol for lions is not yet optimized, mature oocytes may be obtained after long-term xenotransplantation and IVM and could potentially represent one way of salvage of endangered felid species in the future.

  14. Effects of Three Different Types of Antifreeze Proteins on Mouse Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Hye Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian tissue (OT) cryopreservation is effective in preserving fertility in cancer patients who have concerns about fertility loss due to cancer treatment. However, the damage incurred at different steps during the cryopreservation procedure may cause follicular depletion; hence, preventing chilling injury would help maintain ovarian function. Objective This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different antifreeze proteins (AFPs) on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation. Methodology Ovaries were obtained from 5-week-old B6D2F1 mice, and each ovary was cryopreserved using two-step vitrification and four-step warming procedures. In Experiment I, ovaries were randomly allocated into fresh, vitrification control, and nine experimental groups according to the AFP type (FfIBP, LeIBP, type III) and concentration (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL) used. After vitrification and warming, 5,790 ovarian follicles were evaluated using histology and TUNEL assays, and immunofluorescence for τH2AX and Rad51 was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and repair (DDR), respectively. In Experiment II, 20 mice were randomly divided into two groups: one where the vitrification and warming media were supplemented with 10 mg/mL LeIBP, and the other where media alone were used (control). Ovaries were then autotransplanted under both kidney capsules 7 days after vitrification together with the addition of 10 mg/mL LeIBP in the vitrification-warming media. After transplantation, the ovarian follicles, the percentage of apoptotic follicles, the extent of the CD31-positive area, and the serum FSH levels of the transplanted groups were compared. Principal Findings In Experiment I, the percentage of total grade 1 follicles was significantly higher in the 10 mg/mL LeIBP group than in the vitrification control, while all AFP-treated groups had significantly improved grade 1 primordial follicle numbers compared with those of the vitrification

  15. Folate Receptor-Targeted Multimodality Imaging of Ovarian Cancer in a Novel Syngeneic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new transplantable ovarian tumor model is presented using a novel folate receptor (FR) positive, murine ovarian cancer cell line that emulates the human disease and induces widespread intraperitoneal (i.p.) tumors in immunocompetent mice within 4–8 weeks of implantation. Tumor development was monitored using a new positron emission tomography (PET) FR-targeting reporter with PET/computerized tomography (PET/CT) and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) using a commercial FR-targeting reporter. Conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also performed. Adult female C57BL/6 mice were injected i.p. with 6 × 106 MKP-L FR+ cells. Imaging was performed weekly beginning 2 weeks after tumor induction. The albumin-binding, FR-targeting ligand cm09 was radiolabeled with the positron emitter 68Ga and used to image the tumors with a small animal PET/CT. The FR-reporter FolateRSense 680 (PerkinElmer) was used for FMT and flow cytometry. Preclinical MRI (7 T) without FR-targeting was compared with the PET and FMT molecular imaging. Tumors were visible by all three imaging modalities. PET/CT had the highest imaging sensitivity at 3–3.5 h postadministration (mean %IA/g mean > 6) and visualized tumors earlier than the other two modalities with lower kidney uptake (mean %IA/g mean < 17) than previously reported FR-targeting agents in late stage disease. FMT showed relatively low FR-targeted agent in the bladder and kidneys, but yielded the lowest anatomical image resolution. MRI produced the highest resolution images, but it was difficult to distinguish tumors from abdominal organs during early progression since a FR-targeting MRI reporter was not used. Nevertheless, there was good correlation of imaging biomarkers between the three modalities. Tumors in the mouse ovarian cancer model could be detected using FR-targeted imaging as early as 2 weeks post i.p. injection of tumor cells. An imaging protocol should combine one or more of the modalities, e

  16. Validating a mouse model of ovarian cancer for early detection through imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Despite advances in treatment strategies, ovarian cancer remains the deadliest gynecological malignancy and the 5th largest cancer killer in women. Located deep in the body, with few early symptoms and no effective screening technique, ovarian cancer has remained stubbornly difficult to understand, much less effectively combat. Ovarian cancer is almost always discovered at an advanced stage. |

  17. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. Methods: To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P < 0.001). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model-hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax

  18. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-10-05

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P < 0.001). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model-hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decreased in the

  19. Analysis of second-harmonic-generation microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini F.; Marion, Samuel L.; Brewer, Molly A.; Davis, John R.; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J.; Utzinger, Urs; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging of mouse ovaries ex vivo was used to detect collagen structure changes accompanying ovarian cancer development. Dosing with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene resulted in histologically confirmed cases of normal, benign abnormality, dysplasia, and carcinoma. Parameters for each SHG image were calculated using the Fourier transform matrix and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Cancer versus normal and cancer versus all other diagnoses showed the greatest separation using the parameters derived from power in the highest-frequency region and GLCM energy. Mixed effects models showed that these parameters were significantly different between cancer and normal (P<0.008). Images were classified with a support vector machine, using 25% of the data for training and 75% for testing. Utilizing all images with signal greater than the noise level, cancer versus not-cancer specimens were classified with 81.2% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, and cancer versus normal specimens were classified with 77.8% sensitivity and 79.3% specificity. Utilizing only images with greater than of 75% of the field of view containing signal improved sensitivity and specificity for cancer versus normal to 81.5% and 81.1%. These results suggest that using SHG to visualize collagen structure in ovaries could help with early cancer detection. PMID:22894485

  20. Analysis of second-harmonic-generation microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jennifer M; Rice, Photini F; Marion, Samuel L; Brewer, Molly A; Davis, John R; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Utzinger, Urs; Hoyer, Patricia B; Barton, Jennifer K

    2012-07-01

    Second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging of mouse ovaries ex vivo was used to detect collagen structure changes accompanying ovarian cancer development. Dosing with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene resulted in histologically confirmed cases of normal, benign abnormality, dysplasia, and carcinoma. Parameters for each SHG image were calculated using the Fourier transform matrix and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Cancer versus normal and cancer versus all other diagnoses showed the greatest separation using the parameters derived from power in the highest-frequency region and GLCM energy. Mixed effects models showed that these parameters were significantly different between cancer and normal (P<0.008). Images were classified with a support vector machine, using 25% of the data for training and 75% for testing. Utilizing all images with signal greater than the noise level, cancer versus not-cancer specimens were classified with 81.2% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, and cancer versus normal specimens were classified with 77.8% sensitivity and 79.3% specificity. Utilizing only images with greater than of 75% of the field of view containing signal improved sensitivity and specificity for cancer versus normal to 81.5% and 81.1%. These results suggest that using SHG to visualize collagen structure in ovaries could help with early cancer detection.

  1. The Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Physiology of Human Steroidogenesis and Its Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Steroidogenesis entails processes by which cholesterol is converted to biologically active steroid hormones. Whereas most endocrine texts discuss adrenal, ovarian, testicular, placental, and other steroidogenic processes in a gland-specific fashion, steroidogenesis is better understood as a single process that is repeated in each gland with cell-type-specific variations on a single theme. Thus, understanding steroidogenesis is rooted in an understanding of the biochemistry of the various steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors and the genes that encode them. The first and rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone by a single enzyme, P450scc (CYP11A1), but this enzymatically complex step is subject to multiple regulatory mechanisms, yielding finely tuned quantitative regulation. Qualitative regulation determining the type of steroid to be produced is mediated by many enzymes and cofactors. Steroidogenic enzymes fall into two groups: cytochrome P450 enzymes and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. A cytochrome P450 may be either type 1 (in mitochondria) or type 2 (in endoplasmic reticulum), and a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may belong to either the aldo-keto reductase or short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase families. The activities of these enzymes are modulated by posttranslational modifications and by cofactors, especially electron-donating redox partners. The elucidation of the precise roles of these various enzymes and cofactors has been greatly facilitated by identifying the genetic bases of rare disorders of steroidogenesis. Some enzymes not principally involved in steroidogenesis may also catalyze extraglandular steroidogenesis, modulating the phenotype expected to result from some mutations. Understanding steroidogenesis is of fundamental importance to understanding disorders of sexual differentiation, reproduction, fertility, hypertension, obesity, and physiological homeostasis. PMID:21051590

  2. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits growth of mouse ovarian antral follicles through an oxidative stress pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei Craig, Zelieann R. Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S. Gupta, Rupesh K. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-15

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer that has been shown to inhibit growth of mouse antral follicles, however, little is known about the mechanisms by which DEHP does so. Oxidative stress has been linked to follicle growth inhibition as well as phthalate-induced toxicity in non-ovarian tissues. Thus, we hypothesized that DEHP causes oxidative stress and that this leads to inhibition of the growth of antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice (age 31–35 days) were cultured with vehicle control (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]) or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) ± N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant at 0.25–1 mM). During culture, follicles were measured daily. At the end of culture, follicles were collected and processed for in vitro reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays to measure the presence of free radicals or for measurement of the expression and activity of various key antioxidant enzymes: Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that DEHP inhibits the growth of follicles compared to DMSO control and that NAC (0.25–1 mM) blocks the ability of DEHP to inhibit follicle growth. Furthermore, DEHP (10 μg/ml) significantly increases ROS levels and reduces the expression and activity of SOD1 compared to DMSO controls, whereas NAC (0.5 mM) rescues the effects of DEHP on ROS levels and SOD1. However, the expression and activity of GPX and CAT were not affected by DEHP treatment. Collectively, these data suggest that DEHP inhibits follicle growth by inducing production of ROS and by decreasing the expression and activity of SOD1. -- Highlights: ► DEHP inhibits growth and increases reactive oxygen species in ovarian antral follicles in vitro. ► NAC rescues the effects of DEHP on the growth and reactive oxygen species levels in follicles. ► DEHP decreases the expression and activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which can be rescued by NAC, in antral

  3. Dysregulated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Leads to Ovarian Epithelial Tumorigenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Pawar, Sandeep; Haschek, Wanda M.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of ovarian epithelial cancer is poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate experimental model for studying the onset and progression of this disease. We have created a mutant mouse model in which aberrant estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. In these mice, termed ERαd/d, the ERα gene was conditionally deleted in the anterior pituitary, but remained intact in the hypothalamus and the ovary. The loss of negative-feedback regulation by estrogen (E) at the level of the pituitary led to increased production of luteinizing hormone (LH) by this tissue. Hyperstimulation of the ovarian cells by LH resulted in elevated steroidogenesis, producing high circulating levels of steroid hormones, including E. The ERαd/d mice exhibited formation of palpable ovarian epithelial tumors starting at 5 months of age with 100% penetrance. By 15 months of age, 80% of ERαd/d mice die. Besides proliferating epithelial cells, these tumors also contained an expanded population of luteinized stromal cells, which acquire the ability to express P450 aromatase and synthesize E locally. In response to the elevated levels of E, the ERα signaling was accentuated in the ovarian epithelial cells of ERαd/d mice, triggering increased ERα-dependent gene expression, abnormal cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Consistent with these findings, treatment of ERαd/d mice with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, markedly reduced circulating E and ovarian tumor volume. We have, therefore, developed a unique animal model, which serves as a useful tool for exploring the involvement of E-dependent signaling pathways in ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. PMID:24603706

  4. In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy in a mouse model of ovarian neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jennifer M.; Marion, Samuel L.; Rice, Photini Faith; Bentley, David L.; Besselsen, David; Utzinger, Urs; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2013-03-01

    Our goal is to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to detect early tumor development in a mouse model of ovarian neoplasia. We hope to use information regarding early tumor development to create a diagnostic test for high-risk patients. In this study we collect in vivo images using OCT, second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence from non-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD)-dosed and VCD-dosed mice. VCD causes follicular apoptosis (simulating menopause) and leads to tumor development. Using OCT and MPM we visualized the ovarian microstructure and were able to see differences between non-VCD-dosed and VCD-dosed animals. This leads us to believe that OCT and MPM may be useful for detecting changes due to early tumor development.

  5. Tracking NF-κB activity in tumor cells during ovarian cancer progression in a syngeneic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling is an important link between inflammation and peritoneal carcinomatosis in human ovarian cancer. Our objective was to track NF-kappaB signaling during ovarian cancer progression in a syngeneic mouse model using tumor cells stably expressing an NF-kappaB reporter. Methods ID8 mouse ovarian cancer cells stably expressing an NF-kappaB-dependent GFP/luciferase (NGL) fusion reporter transgene (ID8-NGL) were generated, and injected intra-peritoneally into C57BL/6 mice. NGL reporter activity in tumors was non-invasively monitored by bioluminescence imaging and measured in luciferase assays in harvested tumors. Ascites fluid or peritoneal lavages were analyzed for inflammatory cell and macrophage content, and for mRNA expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. 2-tailed Mann-Whitney tests were used for measuring differences between groups in in vivo experiments. Results In ID8-NGL cells, responsiveness of the reporter to NF-kappaB activators and inhibitors was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. ID8-NGL tumors in C57BL/6 mice bore histopathological resemblance to human high-grade serous ovarian cancer and exhibited similar peritoneal disease spread. Tumor NF-kappaB activity, measured by the NGL reporter and by western blot of nuclear p65 expression, was markedly elevated at late stages of ovarian cancer progression. In ascites fluid, macrophages were the predominant inflammatory cell population. There were elevated levels of the M2-like pro-tumor macrophage marker, mannose-receptor, during tumor progression, and reduced levels following NF-kappaB inhibition with thymoquinone. Conclusions Our ID8-NGL reporter syngeneic model is suitable for investigating changes in tumor NF-kappaB activity during ovarian cancer progression, how NF-kappaB activity influences immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, and effects of NF-kappaB-targeted treatments in future studies. PMID:24020521

  6. Sphingolipid Metabolites Modulate Dielectric Characteristics of Cells in a Mouse Ovarian Cancer Progression Model

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Elvington, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, conventional cancer treatment regimens often rely upon highly toxic chemotherapeutics or target oncogenes that are variably expressed within the heterogeneous cell population of tumors. These challenges highlight the need for novel treatment strategies that 1) are non-toxic yet able to at least partially reverse the aggressive phenotype of the disease to a benign or very slow-growing state, and 2) act on the cells independently of variably expressed biomarkers. Using a label-independent rapid microfluidic cell manipulation strategy known as contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP), we investigated the effect of non-toxic concentrations of two bioactive sphingolipid metabolites, sphingosine (So), with potential anti-tumor properties, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a tumor-promoting metabolite, on the intrinsic electrical properties of early and late stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cancer cells. Previously, we demonstrated that electrical properties change as cells progress from a benign early stage to late malignant stages. Here, we demonstrate an association between So treatment and a shift in the bioelectrical characteristics of late stage MOSE (MOSE-L) cells towards a profile similar to that of benign MOSE-E cells. Particularly, the specific membrane capacitance of MOSE-L cells shifted toward that of MOSE-E cells, decreasing from 23.94±2.75 to 16.46±0.62 mF/m2 after So treatment, associated with a decrease in membrane protrusions. In contrast, S1P did not reverse the electrical properties of MOSE-L cells. This work is the first to indicate that treatment with non-toxic doses of So correlates with changes in the electrical properties and surface roughness of cells. It also demonstrates the potential of cDEP to be used as a new, rapid technique for drug efficacy studies, and eventually designing more personalized treatment regimens. PMID:23609351

  7. A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    and an in- crease in pituitary gonadotropins follows because of the lack of feedback inhibition that is normally medi- ated through progesterone ...of pten in ovarian surface epithelial cells were found to develop endometriosis and endometrioid carcinomas.41 Because both mutations are present in... endometriosis and endo- metrioid ovarian cancer in humans, this model seems to recapitulate the genotype and histomorphology associ- ated with the

  8. Disease Heterogeneity and Immune Biomarkers in Preclinical Mouse Models of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, epithelial ovarian tumors have been thought to develop from the ovarian surface epithelium into four major histotypes: serous, endometrioid...fact that macro-dissected tissue consisted mostly of epithelium . However, a weak band for wild type Pten could be detected in the ex vivo isolated...of the uterine lesions in mice sacrificed early, potentially before tumor onset, showed glandular hyperplasia with cystic dilation (Fig. S3). KrasPten

  9. Disease Heterogeneity and Immune Biomarkers in Preclinical Mouse Models of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    transitional adenocarcinomas) were believed to arise in the coelomic epithelium that covers the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) which then undergoes...metaplasia and changes to müllerian -like epithelium before malignant transformation. More recently, however, it has been suggested that they could...insights on the role of ovarian epithelium and the surrounding tissue and potentially provide new drugable targets. Our studies on plasma miRNAs

  10. Increase in Sialylation and Branching in the Mouse Serum N-glycome Correlates with Inflammation and Ovarian Tumour Progression

    PubMed Central

    Saldova, Radka; Piccard, Helene; Pérez-Garay, Marta; Harvey, David J.; Struwe, Weston B.; Galligan, Marie C.; Berghmans, Nele; Madden, Stephen F.; Peracaula, Rosa; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Rudd, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological cancer and is often diagnosed in late stage, often as the result of the unavailability of sufficiently sensitive biomarkers for early detection, tumour progression and tumour-associated inflammation. Glycosylation is the most common posttranslational modification of proteins; it is altered in cancer and therefore is a potential source of biomarkers. We investigated the quantitative and qualitative effects of anti-inflammatory (acetylsalicylic acid) and pro-inflammatory (thioglycolate and chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose) drugs on glycosylation in mouse cancer serum. A significant increase in sialylation and branching of glycans in mice treated with an inflammation-inducing compound was observed. Moreover, the increases in sialylation correlated with increased tumour sizes. Increases in sialylation and branching were consistent with increased expression of sialyltransferases and the branching enzyme MGAT5. Because the sialyltransferases are highly conserved among species, the described changes in the ovarian cancer mouse model are relevant to humans and serum N-glycome analysis for monitoring disease treatment and progression might be a useful biomarker. PMID:24023608

  11. Efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on nude mouse models of metastatic and disseminated human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasunori; Miwa, Shinji; Zhang, Yong; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Yano, Shuya; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Toneri, Makoto; Bouvet, Michael; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2014-11-01

    We report here the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) on mouse models of disseminated and metastatic ovarian cancer. The proliferation-inhibitory efficacy of A1-R on human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3-GFP, OVCAR-3-RFP) was initially demonstrated in vitro. Orthotopic and dissemination mouse models of ovarian cancer were made with the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3-GFP. After tumor implantation, the mice were treated with A1-R (5 × 10(7)  colony-forming units [CFU], i.v.), and there were no severe adverse events observed. In the orthotopic model, tumor volume after treatment was 276 ± 60.8 mm(3), compared to 930 ± 342 mm(3) in the untreated control group (P = 0.022). There was also a significant difference in survival between treated mice and untreated mice in a peritoneal dissemination model (P = 0.005). The results of this report demonstrate that A1-R is effective for highly aggressive human ovarian cancer in metastatic and dissemination mouse models and suggest its clinical potential for this highly treatment-resistant disease.

  12. Ultrastructural and Morphalogical Changes of Mouse Ovarian Tissues Following Direct Cover Vitrification with Different Cryoprotectants

    PubMed Central

    Ghavami, Maryam; Mohammadnejad, Daryoush; Beheshti, Rahim; Solmani-rad, Jafar; Abedelahi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation of mammalian ovaries has been reported with different levels of success. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue may be a potential alternative for treatment of infertility and many attempts have been done to improve the efficiency of ovarian cryopreservation. The objective of the present study was to compare the direct cover vitrification (DCV) with ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and EG plus DMSO. Methods: Eighty five mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their ovaries were cryopreserved in the presence of 5% EG or DMSO alone or as mixture, 10% EG or DMSO alone or as mixture and a group with ascending concentrations of cryoprotectants. After toxicity testing and vitrification warming, the ovaries were fixed for histological and ultrastructural studies. In addition, the viability of mechanically isolated follicles was studied by trypan blue staining. All data were compared by ANOVA (p<0.05). Results: Ovarian tissues frozen in EG plus DMSO in ascending concentrations retained a higher percentage of morphologically normal and or viable follicles than tissues frozen in 10 M EG plus DMSO or in either concentration of EG and DMSO alone (p<0.001). Ultrastructural analysis of ovarian tissues frozen in ascending concentrations of EG plus DMSO showed that these follicles were well preserved and it was very similar to the control group. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue in EG plus DMSO is the most effective method for preserving the structural integrity of follicles within the ovary. PMID:26913232

  13. Novel approach for the detection of intraperitoneal micrometastasis using an ovarian cancer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Alvero, Ayesha B.; Kim, Dongin; Lima, Eydis; Sumi, Natalia J.; Lee, Jung Seok; Cardenas, Carlos; Pitruzzello, Mary; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Buza, Natalia; Fahmy, Tarek; Mor, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have the best overall survival when maximal surgical effort is accomplished. However, despite numerous technological advances, surgery still relies primarily on white-light reflectance and the surgeon’s vision. As such, micrometastases are usually missed and most patients clinically classified as a complete responder eventually recur and succumb to the disease. Our objective is to develop optical enhancers which can aid in the visualization of ovarian cancer micrometastasis. To this end we developed a nanoparticle (NP) platform, which is specifically targeted to the tumor microenvironment. Targeting is achieved by coating FDA-approved PLGA-PEG NP with the peptide sequence RGD, which binds with high affinity to αVβ3 integrins present in both the tumor-associated neovasculature and on the surface of ovarian cancer cells. Administration of the NP platform carrying fluorescent dyes to mice bearing intraperitoneal ovarian cancer allowed visualization of tumor-associated vasculature and its contrast against normal blood vessels. More importantly, we demonstrate the visualization of intraperitoneal ovarian cancer micrometastasis as small as 100 μm with optimal resolution. Finally, we demonstrate that the fluorescent dye cargo was able to penetrate intra-tumorally. Such modality could be used to allow microscopic surgical debulking to assure maximal surgical effort. PMID:28120873

  14. Embryonic development after exposure of mouse oocyte to various amount of ovarian endometriotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hashin; Jeong, Mina; Kim, Seul Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the fertilization and blastocyst-forming rate in mice cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) after the exposure of human ovarian endometriotic fluid. Endometriotic fluid was obtained from a single patient by aspiration at the time of a laparoscopic cystectomy and serially diluted. COCs were obtained from 46-week-old female BDF1 mice. After exposure to ovarian endometriotic fluid for five minutes, the COCs were washed three times and the oocytes were then fertilized by mice sperm. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rate and the proportion of hatching/hatched blastocyst in the four treatment groups were not inferior to those in non-exposure group. PMID:27462598

  15. First In-Mouse Development and Application of a Surgically Relevant Xenograft Model of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Helland, Øystein; Popa, Mihaela; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Molven, Anders; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Bjørge, Line; McCormack, Emmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Preclinical models of epithelial ovarian cancer have not been exploited to evaluate the clinical standard combination therapy of surgical debulking with follow-up chemotherapy. As surgery is critical to patient survival, here we establish a combined surgical/chemotherapy xenograft model of epithelial ovarian cancer and demonstrate its translational relevance. Experimental Design SKOV-3luc+ ovary cancer cells were injected topically into the ovaries of immunodeficient mice. Disease development and effect of clinical standard treatment including hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy and removal of metastasis with follow up chemotherapy (carboplatin 12 mg/kg + paclitaxel 15 mg/kg) was evaluated by clinical parameters. Tumor burden was quantified by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Results The xenograft ovarian tumors developed were poorly differentiated and multicystic and the disease disseminated into the peritoneal cavity. When compared to the controls with a mean survival time of 4.9 weeks, mice treated with surgery and chemotherapy, surgery or chemotherapy demonstrated significantly improved mean survival of 16.1 weeks (p = 0.0008), 12.7 weeks (p = 0.0008), or 10.4 weeks (p = 0.008), respectively. Conclusion Combined surgical intervention and adjuvant chemotherapy was demonstrated for the first time in an orthotopic xenograft model of ovarian cancer. Similar to observation in human studies the combined approach resulted in the longest medial survival time, advocating application of this strategy in future preclinical therapeutic development for this disease. PMID:24594904

  16. Membrane receptor cross talk in gonadotropin-, IGF-I-, and insulin-mediated steroidogenesis in fish ovary: An overview.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dilip; Majumder, Suravi; Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Gupta, Shreyasi; Guha, Payel; Kumar, Dhynendra

    2017-01-01

    Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for survival and reproduction of all animals. The pathways that regulate gonadal steroidogenesis are therefore conserved among animals from the steroidogenic enzymes to the intracellular signaling molecules and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the activity of these enzymes. Regulation of fish ovarian steroidogenesis in vitro by gonadotropin (GtH) and GPCRs revealed interaction between adenylate cyclase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) and also MAP kinase pathway. Recent studies revealed another important pathway in GtH-induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis: cross talk between GPCRs and membrane receptor tyrosine kinases. Gonadotropin binding to Gαs-coupled membrane receptor in fish ovary leads to production of cAMP which in turn trans-activate the membrane-bound epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This is followed by activation of ERK1/2 signaling that promotes steroid production. Interestingly, GtH-induced trans-activation of EGFR in the fish ovary uniquely requires matrix-metalloproteinase-mediated release of EGF. Inhibition of these proteases blocks GtH-induced steroidogenesis. Increased cAMP production in fish ovarian follicle upregulate follicular cyp19a1a mRNA expression and aromatase activity leading to increased biosynthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2). Evidence for involvement of SF-1 protein in inducing cyp19a1a mRNA and aromatase activity has also been demonstrated. In addition to GtH, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and bovine insulin can alone induced steroidogenesis in fish ovary. In intact follicles and isolated theca cells, IGF-I and insulin had no effect on GtH-induced testosterone and 17a,hydroxysprogeaterone production. GtH-stimulated E2 and 17,20bdihydroxy-4-pregnane 3-one production in granulosa cells however, was significantly increased by IGF-I and insulin. Both IGF-I and insulin mediates their signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases leading to activation of PI3

  17. Comparison of 211At-PRIT and 211At-RIT of ovarian microtumors in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Frost, Sofia H L; Bäck, Tom; Chouin, Nicolas; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jacobsson, Lars; Elgqvist, Jörgen; Jensen, Holger; Albertsson, Per; Lindegren, Sture

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Purpose: Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) against intraperitoneal (i.p.) ovarian microtumors using avidin-conjugated monoclonal antibody MX35 (avidin-MX35) and (211)At-labeled, biotinylated, succinylated poly-l-lysine ((211)At-B-PLsuc) was compared with conventional radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using (211)At-labeled MX35 in a nude mouse model. Mice were inoculated i.p. with 1×10(7) NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. After 3 weeks, they received PRIT (1.0 or 1.5 MBq), RIT (0.9 MBq), or no treatment. Concurrently, 10 additional animals were sacrificed and examined to determine disease progression at the start of therapy. Treated animals were analyzed with regard to presence of tumors and ascites (tumor-free fraction; TFF), 8 weeks after therapy. Tumor status at baseline was advanced: 70% of sacrificed animals exhibited ascites. The TFFs were 0.35 (PRIT 1.0 MBq), 0.45 (PRIT 1.5 MBq), and 0.45 (RIT). The 1.5-MBq PRIT group exhibited lower incidence of ascites and fewer tumors >1 mm than RIT-treated animals. PRIT was as effective as RIT with regard to TFF; however, the size distribution of tumors and presence of ascites indicated that 1.5-MBq PRIT was more efficient. Despite advanced disease in many animals at the time of treatment, PRIT demonstrated good potential to treat disseminated ovarian cancer.

  18. Identification of miRNAs during mouse postnatal ovarian development and superovulation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hamid Ali; Zhao, Yi; Wang, Li; Li, Qian; Du, Yu-Ai; Dan, Yi; Huo, Li-Jun

    2015-07-08

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in regulation of gene expression in wide array of tissues including the ovary through sequence complementarity at post-transcriptional level. Tight regulation of multitude of genes involved in ovarian development and folliculogenesis could be regulated at transcription level by these miRNAs. Therefore, tissue specific miRNAs identification is considered a key step towards understanding the role of miRNAs in biological processes. To investigate the role of microRNAs during ovarian development and folliculogenesis we sequenced eight different libraries using Illumina deep sequencing technology. Different developmental stages were selected to explore miRNAs expression pattern at different stages of gonadal maturation with/without treatment of PMSG/hCG for superovulation. From massive sequencing reads, clean reads of 16-26 bp were selected for further analysis of differential expression analysis and novel microRNA annotation. Expression analysis of all miRNAs at different developmental stages showed that some miRNAs were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed at different stages. Among differentially expressed miRNAs we reported 61 miRNAs with a fold change of more than 2 at different developmental stages among all libraries. Among the up-regulated miRNAs, mmu-mir-1298 had the highest fold change with 4.025 while mmu-mir-150 was down-regulated more than 3 fold. Furthermore, we found 2659 target genes for 20 differentially expressed microRNAs using seven different target predictions programs (DIANA-mT, miRanda, miRDB, miRWalk, RNAhybrid, PICTAR5, TargetScan). Analysis of the predicted targets showed certain ovary specific genes targeted by single or multiple microRNAs. Furthermore, pathway annotation and Gene ontology showed involvement of these microRNAs in basic cellular process. These results suggest the presence of different miRNAs at different stages of ovarian development and

  19. ESR1 inhibits hCG-induced steroidogenesis and proliferation of progenitor Leydig cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeong Seok; Koh, Il Kyoo; Choi, Bomi; Gye, Myung Chan

    2017-03-07

    Oestrogen is an important regulator in reproduction. To understand the role of oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) in Leydig cells, we investigated the expression of ESR1 in mouse Leydig cells during postnatal development and the effects of oestrogen on steroidogenesis and proliferation of progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs). In Leydig cells, the ESR1 expression was low at birth, increased until postnatal day 14 at which PLCs were predominant, and then decreased until adulthood. In foetal Leydig cells, ESR1 immunoreactivity increased from birth to postnatal day 14. These suggest that ESR1 is a potential biomarker of Leydig cell development. In PLCs, 17β-estradiol and the ESR1-selective agonist propylpyrazoletriol suppressed human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced progesterone production and steroidogenic gene expression. The ESR2-selective agonist diarylpropionitrile did not affect steroidogenesis. In PLCs from Esr1 knockout mice, hCG-stimulated steroidogenesis was not suppressed by 17β-estradiol, suggesting that oestrogen inhibits PLC steroidogenesis via ESR1. 17β-estradiol, propylpyrazoletriol, and diarylpropionitrile decreased bromodeoxyuridine uptake in PLCs in the neonatal mice. In cultured PLCs, 17β-estradiol, propylpyrazoletriol, and diarylpropionitrile reduced hCG-stimulated Ki67 and Pcna mRNA expression and the number of KI67-positive PLCs, suggesting that oestrogen inhibits PLC proliferation via both ESR1 and ESR2. In PLCs, ESR1 mediates the oestrogen-induced negative regulation of steroidogenesis and proliferation.

  20. ESR1 inhibits hCG-induced steroidogenesis and proliferation of progenitor Leydig cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yeong Seok; Koh, Il Kyoo; Choi, Bomi; Gye, Myung Chan

    2017-01-01

    Oestrogen is an important regulator in reproduction. To understand the role of oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) in Leydig cells, we investigated the expression of ESR1 in mouse Leydig cells during postnatal development and the effects of oestrogen on steroidogenesis and proliferation of progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs). In Leydig cells, the ESR1 expression was low at birth, increased until postnatal day 14 at which PLCs were predominant, and then decreased until adulthood. In foetal Leydig cells, ESR1 immunoreactivity increased from birth to postnatal day 14. These suggest that ESR1 is a potential biomarker of Leydig cell development. In PLCs, 17β-estradiol and the ESR1-selective agonist propylpyrazoletriol suppressed human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced progesterone production and steroidogenic gene expression. The ESR2-selective agonist diarylpropionitrile did not affect steroidogenesis. In PLCs from Esr1 knockout mice, hCG-stimulated steroidogenesis was not suppressed by 17β-estradiol, suggesting that oestrogen inhibits PLC steroidogenesis via ESR1. 17β-estradiol, propylpyrazoletriol, and diarylpropionitrile decreased bromodeoxyuridine uptake in PLCs in the neonatal mice. In cultured PLCs, 17β-estradiol, propylpyrazoletriol, and diarylpropionitrile reduced hCG-stimulated Ki67 and Pcna mRNA expression and the number of KI67-positive PLCs, suggesting that oestrogen inhibits PLC proliferation via both ESR1 and ESR2. In PLCs, ESR1 mediates the oestrogen-induced negative regulation of steroidogenesis and proliferation. PMID:28266530

  1. Disease Heterogeneity and Immune Biomarkers in Preclinical Mouse Models of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    us to identify for the first time that direct activation of the Kras/Pten pathways in the endometrial epithelium triggers glandular hyperplasia, a...adenocarcinomas) were believed to arise in the coelomic epithelium that covers the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) which then undergoes metaplasia and changes to...müllerian -like epithelium before malignant transformation. More recently, however, it has been suggested that they could instead arise directly

  2. Role of mitochondria in steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L

    2011-01-01

    All steroids are made from cholesterol by a complex array of enzymes that includes cytochrome P450 enzymes in both the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The structures and mechanisms of catalysis by the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum P450s are very similar, but their electron transport mechanisms differ. Nevertheless, mitochondrial P450scc is inactive when targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum with its electron-transfer partners. Adrenals and gonads receive cholesterol from low-density lipoproteins, store it as cholesterol esters, and transport cholesterol to mitochondria by ill-defined mechanisms. The acute quantitative regulation of steroidogenesis is determined by cholesterol import into mitochondria by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein(StAR). The chronic regulation, determining net steroidogenic capacity, is determined by the amount of P450scc protein present, which is determined by gene transcription. Mutations in StAR cause congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), characterized by absent steroidogenesis, potentially lethal salt loss, 46, XY sex reversal and massively enlarged adrenals engorged with cholesterol esters.Non-classic lipoid CAH is a newly described variant caused by StAR mutations that retain 10-25% of function, and characterized by onset of glucocorticoid deficiency after 2 years of age, and mild defects in mineralocorticoid and sex steroid synthesis. Rare mutations in P450scc result in both classic and non-classic hormonal syndromes that are indistinguishable from lipoid CAH, but have small adrenals.

  3. Follicle development in cryopreserved bitch ovarian tissue grafted to immunodeficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Commin, L; Buff, S; Rosset, E; Galet, C; Allard, A; Bruyere, P; Joly, T; Guérin, P; Neto, V

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated: (1) in vivo follicular development in canine ovarian tissue after slow freezing and xenotransplantation; and (2) the use of erythropoietin (EPO) as an angiogenic factor to optimise the transplantation procedure. Frozen-thawed ovarian tissue from five bitches was grafted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice (n=47) treated with or without EPO (500 IU kg(-1), once daily for 3 days) (Groups A and B, respectively) and analysed after 0, 1, 8 or 16 weeks. Follicle grade, follicle density, follicle morphology and stromal cells density were assessed by histological analysis, whereas vascularisation of the graft was quantified by immunohistochemistry with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. Despite a massive loss of follicles after grafting, secondary follicle density was higher at 8 and 16 weeks than at 1 week regardless of EPO treatment. EPO significantly improved early follicle morphology and stromal cell density after 8 weeks and blood vessel density at 16 weeks after transplantation (P<0.05). Intact secondary follicles with more than three granulosa cells layers were observed 16 weeks after transplantation. The results suggest that canine ovarian tissue can be successfully preserved by our slow-freezing protocol because the tissue showed follicular growth after xenotransplantation. EPO treatment did not lessen the massive loss of follicles after transplantation.

  4. Optimal vitrification protocol for mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation: effect of cryoprotective agents and in vitro culture on vitrified-warmed ovarian tissue survival.

    PubMed

    Youm, Hye Won; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Lee, Jaewang; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2014-04-01

    What is the optimal vitrification protocol according to the cryoprotective agent (CPA) for ovarian tissue (OT) cryopreservation? The two-step protocol with 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 10 min then 20% EG, 20% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose for 5 min showed the best results in mouse OT vitrification. Establishing the optimal cryopreservation protocol is one of the most important steps to improve OT survival. However, only a few studies have compared vitrification protocols with different CPAs and investigated the effect of in vitro culture (IVC) on vitrified-warmed OT survival. Some recent papers proposed that a combination of CPAs has less toxicity than one type of CPA. However, the efficacy of different types and concentrations of CPA are not yet well documented. A total of 644 ovaries were collected from 4-week-old BDF1 mice, of which 571 ovaries were randomly assigned to 8 groups and vitrified using different protocols according to CPA composition and the remaining 73 ovaries were used as controls. After warming, each of the eight groups of ovaries was further randomly divided into four subgroups and in vitro cultured for 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 h, respectively. Ovaries of the best two groups among the eight groups were autotransplanted after IVC. The CPA solutions for the eight groups were composed of EDS, ES, ED, EPS, EF, EFS, E and EP, respectively (E, EG; D, DMSO; P, propanediol; S, sucrose; F, Ficoll). The IVC medium was composed of α-minimal essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum and 10 mIU/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Autotransplantation of vitrified-warmed OTs after IVC (0 to 4 h) using the EDS or ES protocol was performed, and the grafts were recovered after 3 weeks. Ovarian follicles were assessed for morphology, apoptosis, proliferation and FSH level. The percentages of the morphologically intact (G1) and apoptotic follicles in each group at 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 h of IVC were compared. For G1 follicles at 0 and 4 h of IVC

  5. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Gaul, David A.; Wang, May D.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  6. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V; Parry, R Mitchell; Gaul, David A; Wang, May D; Matzuk, Martin M; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy.

  7. Molecular and Functional Characteristics of Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells Transformed by KrasG12D and loss of Pten in a Mouse Model in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Lisa K.; Fan, Heng-Yu; Liu, Zhilin; White, Lisa D.; Marshall, Alexandra; Gunaratne, Preethi; Anderson, Matthew L.; Creighton, Chad J.; Xin, Li; Deavers, Michael; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a complex and deadly disease that remains difficult to detect at an early curable stage. Furthermore, although some oncogenic (Kras, Pten/PI3K and Trp53) pathways that are frequently mutated, deleted or amplified in ovarian cancer are known, how these pathways initiate and drive specific morphological phenotypes and tumor outcomes remain unclear. We recently generated Pten fl/fl; KrasG12D;Amhr2-Cre mice to disrupt the Pten gene and express a stable mutant form of KrasG12D in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Based on histopathologic criteria, the mutant mice developed low-grade ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinomas at an early age and with 100% penetrance. This highly reproducible phenotype provides the first mouse model in which to study this ovarian cancer subtype. OSE cells isolated from ovaries of mutant mice at 5 and 10 weeks of age exhibit temporal changes in the expression of specific Mullerian epithelial marker genes, grow in soft agar and develop ectopic invasive tumors in recipient mice, indicating that the cells are transformed. Gene profiling identified specific mRNAs and microRNAs differentially expressed in purified OSE cells derived from tumors of the mutant mice compared to WT OSE cells. Mapping of transcripts or genes between the mouse OSE mutant datasets, the Kras signature from human cancer cell lines and the human ovarian tumor array datasets, documented significant overlap, indicating that KRAS is a key driver of OSE transformation in this context. Two key hallmarks of the mutant OSE cells in these mice are the elevated expression of the tumor suppressorsTrp53 (p53) and its microRNA target, miR-34a-c. We propose that elevated TRP53 and miR-34a-c may exert negatively regulatory effects that reduce the proliferative potential of OSE cells leading to the low-grade serous adenocarcinoma phenotype. PMID:21423204

  8. Mumps virus induces innate immune responses in mouse ovarian granulosa cells through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wu, Han; Cheng, Lijing; Yan, Keqin; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Fei; Chen, Yongmei; Li, Qihan; Han, Daishu

    2016-11-15

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection may lead to oophoritis and perturb ovarian function. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of innate immune responses to MuV infection in the ovary have not been investigated. This study showed that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) cooperatively initiate innate immune responses to MuV infection in mouse ovarian granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells infected with MuV significantly produced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and type 1 interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β). Knockdown of RIG-I significantly decreased MuV-induced cytokine expression. TLR2 deficiency reduced the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 but did not affect the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β in granulosa cells after infection with MuV. Intraperitoneal injection of MuV induced the ovarian innate immune responses in vivo, which suppressed estradiol synthesis and induced granulosa cell apoptosis. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying MuV-induced innate immune responses in the mouse ovary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Epithelial-Stromal Interactions in Induction of Ovarian Cancer in a Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    superovulated 4-week old FVB/N female mice and isolated their ovaries at different time points during ovulatory wound repair (12 h, 16 h and 24 h after...ovaries. Upon superovulation , we observed inclusion cyst formation in young mouse ovaries. Such inclusion cysts were lined with epithelial cells that...rapidly (Figure 2B). A B Figure 2. Inclusion cyst formation in the #- . superovulated ovary of a , ,, 4-week old FVB/N mouse. p .° A) The cyst is lined with

  10. Mouse ovarian granulosa cells produce urokinase-type plasminogen activator, whereas the corresponding rat cells produce tissue-type plasminogen activator

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    It is well established that rat ovarian granulosa cells produce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The synthesis and secretion of the enzyme are induced by gonadotropins, and correlate well with the time of follicular rupture in vivo. We have found that in contrast, mouse granulosa cells produce a different form of plasminogen activator, the urokinase-type (uPA). As with tPA synthesis in the rat, uPA production by mouse granulosa cells is induced by gonadotropins, dibutyryl cAMP, and prostaglandin E2. However, dexamethasone, a drug which has no effect on tPA synthesis in rat cells inhibits uPA synthesis in the mouse. Results of these determinations made in cell culture were corroborated by examining follicular fluid, which is secreted in vivo predominantly by granulosa cells, from stimulated rat and mouse ovarian follicles. Rat follicular fluid contained only tPA, and mouse follicular fluid only uPA, indicating that in vivo, granulosa cells from the two species are secreting different enzymes. The difference in the type of plasminogen activator produced by the rat and mouse granulosa cells was confirmed at the messenger RNA level. After hormone stimulation, only tPA mRNA was present in rat cells, whereas only uPA mRNA was found in mouse cells. Furthermore, the regulation of uPA levels in mouse cells occurs via transient modulation of steady-state levels of mRNA, a pattern similar to that seen with tPA in rat cells. PMID:3040774

  11. A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    ReviewBoard Committee (IRB), and safety and ethical guidelines were followed in using the human tumor tissues according to institutional requirements. To...88:1810–1820 5. Mintz B: Embryological development of primordial germ-cells in the mouse: influence of a new mutation, Wj. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1957

  12. An in vivo mouse reporter gene (human secreted alkaline phosphatase) model to monitor ovarian tumor growth and response to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Eric E; Westfall, Suzanne D; McDonald, Claudia; Lison, Tiffany; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Skinner, Michael K

    2002-02-01

    . Carboplatin treatment decreased both cell proliferation and SEAP levels in culture medium. The constitutive rate of SEAP secretion per cell (nanograms SEAP per microgram DNA) was found not to be altered by carboplatin treatment. Therefore changes in SEAP level reflect changes in OCC1 tumor cell number, and not changes in regulation of SEAP secretion due to platinum containing chemotherapeutic drug treatment. OCC1 cells were injected intraperitoneally into nude mice and the mice were treated with the platinum-containing drugs cisplatin or carboplatin. Measurements of plasma SEAP over the treatment period showed OCC1-SEAP ovarian carcinoma growth to be inhibited by cisplatin and carboplatin treatment. The SEAP marker protein is constitutively expressed by tumor cells and blood levels are correlated with tumor cell number and burden. The results of these studies indicate that SEAP may be used as an in vivo reporter gene in a mouse model to monitor tumor growth and response to therapeutics. Future studies will utilize this model to investigate novel chemotherapeutic approaches to treating ovarian cancer.

  13. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Catherine E; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Penfold, Naomi C; Dearden, Laura; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy influences the later life reproductive potential of female offspring. We investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the depletion of ovarian follicular reserve in young adult females following exposure to obesogenic diet in early life. Furthermore, we explore the interaction between adverse maternal diet and postweaning diet in generating reduced ovarian reserve. Female mice were exposed to either maternal obesogenic (high fat/high sugar) or maternal control dietin uteroand during lactation, then weaned onto either obesogenic or control diet. At 12 wk of age, the offspring ovarian reserve was depleted following exposure to maternal obesogenic diet (P< 0.05), but not postweaning obesogenic diet. Maternal obesogenic diet was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA biogenesis (copy numberP< 0.05; transcription factor A, mitochondrial expressionP< 0.05), increased mitochondrial antioxidant defenses [manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)P< 0.05; copper/zinc superoxide dismutaseP< 0.05; glutathione peroxidase 4P< 0.01] and increased lipoxygenase expression (arachidonate 12-lipoxygenaseP< 0.05; arachidonate 15-lipoxygenaseP< 0.05) in the ovary. There was also significantly increased expression of the transcriptional regulator NF-κB (P< 0.05). There was no effect of postweaning diet on any measured ovarian parameters. Maternal diet thus plays a central role in determining follicular reserve in adult female offspring. Our observations suggest that lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis are the key intracellular pathways involved in programming of ovarian reserve.-Aiken, C. E., Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Penfold, N. C., Dearden, L., Ozanne, S. E. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet.

  14. Expression and regulation of SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin VII in developing mouse ovarian follicles via the FSH receptor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Sik; Jung, Joo Young; Lee, Dong Ho; Kang, Ji Yoon; Lee, Sang Ho

    2013-02-01

    Soluble-NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins play a role in vesicle fusion, exocytosis, and intracellular trafficking in neuronal cells as well as in fertilization and embryogenesis. We investigated the expression patterns of two SNARE proteins, SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin VII (SytVII), and their regulation by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) during mouse ovarian follicular development. Ovaries were obtained at 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h post-PMSG injection of immature mice. SNAP-25 and SytVII mRNA expression levels increased gradually in a time-dependant manner. However, protein levels revealed different patterns of expression, suggesting different translational regulation following PMSG stimulation. SNAP-25 and SytVII expression was closely associated with thickening of the granulosa cell (GC) layer and follicle morphological changes from a flattened to a cuboidal shape. To explore follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)-mediated regulation of their expression, GCs from preantral follicles were cultured to examine the effects of FSHR siRNA knockdown. FSHR siRNA abolished upregulation of the SNAREs in both PMSG and FSH-stimulated GCs. This abolished gene expression was rescued by adding dibutyryl cyclic AMP to the cultures. These results suggest that SNAP-25 and SytVII expression is regulated via the FSHR-cAMP pathway during follicular development.

  15. The Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sunitinib Affects Ovulation but Not Ovarian Reserve in Mouse: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Valérie; Bouilly, Justine; Kramer, Piet; Carré, Nadège; Schlumberger, Martin; Visser, Jenny A.; Young, Jacques; Binart, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate ovarian toxicity of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sunitinib, since only scarce data are available on gonadal function after this treatment. Six-week-old female mice received orally, once daily, vehicle or sunitinib (50 mg/kg/d) during 5 weeks. Fertility parameters were analyzed from ovulation to litter assessment. Sunitinib exposure significantly reduced (i) corpora lutea number per ovary (1.1 ± 0.38 in sunitinib group versus 4 ± 0.79 in control group, p<0.01) and (ii) serum Anti Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in sunitinib treated mice (12.01 ± 1.16) compared to control mice (14.33 ± 0.87 ng/ml, p< 0.05). However, primordial and growing follicles numbers per ovary were not different in both groups. After treatment withdrawal, female mice in both groups were able to obtain litters. These data could be helpful to counsel clinicians and patients, when fertility preservation methods are discussed, before TKI treatment in girls and young women. PMID:27035144

  16. Modeling Steroidogenesis Disruption Using High-Throughput ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental chemicals can elicit endocrine disruption by altering steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis) causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Historically, a lack of assays resulted in few chemicals having been evaluated for effects on steroidogenesis. The steroidogenic pathway is a series of hydroxylation and dehydrogenation steps carried out by CYP450 and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, yet the only enzyme in the pathway for which a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay has been developed is aromatase (CYP19A1), responsible for the aromatization of androgens to estrogens. Recently, the ToxCast HTS program adapted the OECD validated H295R steroidogenesis assay using human adrenocortical carcinoma cells into a high-throughput model to quantitatively assess the concentration-dependent (0.003-100 µM) effects of chemicals on 10 steroid hormones including progestagens, androgens, estrogens and glucocorticoids. These results, in combination with two CYP19A1 inhibition assays, comprise a large dataset amenable to clustering approaches supporting the identification and characterization of putative mechanisms of action (pMOA) for steroidogenesis disruption. In total, 514 chemicals were tested in all CYP19A1 and steroidogenesis assays. 216 chemicals were identified as CYP19A1 inhibitors in at least one CYP19A1 assay. 208 of these chemicals also altered hormone levels in the H295R assay, suggesting 96% sensitivity in the

  17. Steroidogenesis in fetal bovine gonads.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, M M; Liptrap, R M; Basrur, P K

    1988-01-01

    Gonadal steroidogenesis in bovine fetuses of 40 to 125 days gestation was examined using histochemical procedures and radioimmunoassay on gonadal cultures to determine the physiological correlates of gonadal morphogenesis in cattle. Gonadal morphology and the in vitro secretion patterns were distinct between the sexes by 45 days when testes secreted significantly higher levels of testosterone and androstenedione and lower levels of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol that the ovaries (p less than 0.0001). It would appear that the main steroid route in the ovaries of 45 to 70 day old fetuses is the androstenedione to estrone to 17 beta-estradiol pathway. The high estrone secretion and the decreasing levels of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone in the ovaries of 70 to 125 day fetuses suggest an inhibition of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. It is postulated that this shift in steroid biosynthetic pathways may be related to the change in cellular events from mitosis to meiosis in fetal ovaries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:3196968

  18. Dysregulation of mitotic machinery genes precedes genome instability during spontaneous pre-malignant transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Ulises; Ampuero, Sandra; Roby, Katherine F; Owens, Garrison A; Munroe, David J

    2016-10-25

    Based in epidemiological evidence, repetitive ovulation has been proposed to play a role in the origin of ovarian cancer by inducing an aberrant wound rupture-repair process of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Accordingly, long term cultures of isolated OSE cells undergo in vitro spontaneous transformation thus developing tumorigenic capacity upon extensive subcultivation. In this work, C57BL/6 mouse OSE (MOSE) cells were cultured up to passage 28 and their RNA and DNA copy number profiles obtained at passages 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18, 23, 25 and 28 by means of DNA microarrays. Gene ontology, pathway and network analyses were focused in passages earlier than 20, which is a hallmark of malignancy in this model. At passage 14, 101 genes were up-regulated in absence of significant DNA copy number changes. Among these, the top-3 enriched functions (>30 fold, adj p < 0.05) comprised 7 genes coding for centralspindlin, chromosome passenger and minichromosome maintenance protein complexes. The genes Ccnb1 (Cyclin B1), Birc5 (Survivin), Nusap1 and Kif23 were the most recurrent in over a dozen GO terms related to the mitotic process. On the other hand, Pten plus the large non-coding RNAs Malat1 and Neat1 were among the 80 down-regulated genes with mRNA processing, nuclear bodies, ER-stress response and tumor suppression as relevant terms. Interestingly, the earliest discrete segmental aneuploidies arose by passage 18 in chromosomes 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19. By passage 23, when MOSE cells express the malignant phenotype, the dysregulated gene expression repertoire expanded, DNA imbalances enlarged in size and covered additional loci. Prior to early aneuploidies, overexpression of genes coding for the mitotic apparatus in passage-14 pre-malignant MOSE cells indicate an increased proliferation rate suggestive of replicative stress. Concomitant down-regulation of nuclear bodies and RNA processing related genes suggests altered control of nuclear RNA maturation

  19. Estradiol negative and positive feedback in a prenatal androgen-induced mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aleisha M; Prescott, Melanie; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2013-02-01

    Gonadal steroid hormone feedback is impaired in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and an associated increase in LH pulse frequency. Using a prenatal androgen (PNA)-treated mouse model of PCOS, we aimed to investigate negative and positive feedback effects of estrogens on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulation of LH. PNA-treated mice exhibited severely disrupted estrous cycles, hyperandrogenism, significantly reduced fertility, and altered ovarian morphology. To assess the negative feedback effects of estrogens, LH was measured before and after ovariectomy and after estradiol (E2) administration. Compared with controls, PNA-treated mice exhibited a blunted postcastration rise in LH (P < .001) and an absence of LH suppression after E2 administration. To assess E2-positive feedback, control and PNA-treated GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice were subjected to a standard ovariectomy with E2-replacement regimen, and both plasma and perfusion-fixed brains were collected at the time of the expected GnRH/LH surge. Immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging of cFos and green fluorescent protein were used to assess GnRH neuron activation and spine density. In the surged group, both control and PNA-treated mice had significantly increased LH and cFos activation in GnRH neurons (P < .05) compared with nonsurged animals. Spine density was quantified in cFos-positive and -negative GnRH neurons to examine whether there was an increase in spine density in cFos-expressing GnRH neurons of surged mice as expected. A significant increase in spine density in cFos-expressing GnRH neurons was evident in control animals; however, no significant increase was observed in the PNA-treated mice because spine density was elevated across all GnRH neurons. These data support that PNA treatment results in a PCOS-like phenotype that includes impaired E2-negative feedback. Additionally, although E2-positive feedback

  20. Insulin Directly Regulates Steroidogenesis via Induction of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor DAX-1 in Testicular Leydig Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seung Won; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong Deuk; Ahn, Ryun-Sup; Harris, Robert A.; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone level is low in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Whether this is due to negative effects of high level of insulin on the testes caused by insulin resistance has not been studied in detail. In this study, we found that insulin directly binds to insulin receptors in Leydig cell membranes and activates phospho-insulin receptor-β (phospho-IR-β), phospho-IRS1, and phospho-AKT, leading to up-regulation of DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) gene expression in the MA-10 mouse Leydig cell line. Insulin also inhibits cAMP-induced and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1)-induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis. In contrast, knockdown of DAX-1 reversed insulin-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis. Whether insulin directly represses steroidogenesis through regulation of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression was assessed in insulin-injected mouse models and high fat diet-induced obesity. In insulin-injected mouse models, insulin receptor signal pathway was activated and subsequently inhibited steroidogenesis via induction of DAX-1 without significant change of luteinizing hormone or FSH levels. Likewise, the levels of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis were low, but interestingly, the level of DAX-1 was high in the testes of high fat diet-fed mice. These results represent a novel regulatory mechanism of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. Insulin-mediated induction of DAX-1 in Leydig cells of testis may be a key regulatory step of serum sex hormone level in insulin-resistant states. PMID:23589295

  1. Insulin directly regulates steroidogenesis via induction of the orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 in testicular Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seung Won; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong Deuk; Ahn, Ryun-Sup; Harris, Robert A; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-05-31

    Testosterone level is low in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Whether this is due to negative effects of high level of insulin on the testes caused by insulin resistance has not been studied in detail. In this study, we found that insulin directly binds to insulin receptors in Leydig cell membranes and activates phospho-insulin receptor-β (phospho-IR-β), phospho-IRS1, and phospho-AKT, leading to up-regulation of DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) gene expression in the MA-10 mouse Leydig cell line. Insulin also inhibits cAMP-induced and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1)-induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis. In contrast, knockdown of DAX-1 reversed insulin-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis. Whether insulin directly represses steroidogenesis through regulation of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression was assessed in insulin-injected mouse models and high fat diet-induced obesity. In insulin-injected mouse models, insulin receptor signal pathway was activated and subsequently inhibited steroidogenesis via induction of DAX-1 without significant change of luteinizing hormone or FSH levels. Likewise, the levels of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis were low, but interestingly, the level of DAX-1 was high in the testes of high fat diet-fed mice. These results represent a novel regulatory mechanism of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. Insulin-mediated induction of DAX-1 in Leydig cells of testis may be a key regulatory step of serum sex hormone level in insulin-resistant states.

  2. Intercellular signaling via cyclic GMP diffusion through gap junctions restarts meiosis in mouse ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Shuhaibar, Leia C; Egbert, Jeremy R; Norris, Rachael P; Lampe, Paul D; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Thunemann, Martin; Wen, Lai; Feil, Robert; Jaffe, Laurinda A

    2015-04-28

    Meiosis in mammalian oocytes is paused until luteinizing hormone (LH) activates receptors in the mural granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Prior work has established the central role of cyclic GMP (cGMP) from the granulosa cells in maintaining meiotic arrest, but it is not clear how binding of LH to receptors that are located up to 10 cell layers away from the oocyte lowers oocyte cGMP and restarts meiosis. Here, by visualizing intercellular trafficking of cGMP in real-time in live follicles from mice expressing a FRET sensor, we show that diffusion of cGMP through gap junctions is responsible not only for maintaining meiotic arrest, but also for rapid transmission of the signal that reinitiates meiosis from the follicle surface to the oocyte. Before LH exposure, the cGMP concentration throughout the follicle is at a uniformly high level of ∼2-4 μM. Then, within 1 min of LH application, cGMP begins to decrease in the peripheral granulosa cells. As a consequence, cGMP from the oocyte diffuses into the sink provided by the large granulosa cell volume, such that by 20 min the cGMP concentration in the follicle is uniformly low, ∼100 nM. The decrease in cGMP in the oocyte relieves the inhibition of the meiotic cell cycle. This direct demonstration that a physiological signal initiated by a stimulus in one region of an intact tissue can travel across many layers of cells via cyclic nucleotide diffusion through gap junctions could provide a general mechanism for diverse cellular processes.

  3. Intercellular signaling via cyclic GMP diffusion through gap junctions restarts meiosis in mouse ovarian follicles

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaibar, Leia C.; Egbert, Jeremy R.; Norris, Rachael P.; Lampe, Paul D.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Thunemann, Martin; Wen, Lai; Feil, Robert; Jaffe, Laurinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis in mammalian oocytes is paused until luteinizing hormone (LH) activates receptors in the mural granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Prior work has established the central role of cyclic GMP (cGMP) from the granulosa cells in maintaining meiotic arrest, but it is not clear how binding of LH to receptors that are located up to 10 cell layers away from the oocyte lowers oocyte cGMP and restarts meiosis. Here, by visualizing intercellular trafficking of cGMP in real-time in live follicles from mice expressing a FRET sensor, we show that diffusion of cGMP through gap junctions is responsible not only for maintaining meiotic arrest, but also for rapid transmission of the signal that reinitiates meiosis from the follicle surface to the oocyte. Before LH exposure, the cGMP concentration throughout the follicle is at a uniformly high level of ∼2–4 μM. Then, within 1 min of LH application, cGMP begins to decrease in the peripheral granulosa cells. As a consequence, cGMP from the oocyte diffuses into the sink provided by the large granulosa cell volume, such that by 20 min the cGMP concentration in the follicle is uniformly low, ∼100 nM. The decrease in cGMP in the oocyte relieves the inhibition of the meiotic cell cycle. This direct demonstration that a physiological signal initiated by a stimulus in one region of an intact tissue can travel across many layers of cells via cyclic nucleotide diffusion through gap junctions could provide a general mechanism for diverse cellular processes. PMID:25775542

  4. Influences of prenatal and postnatal fraternity size on ovarian development in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, B W; Rutledge, J J

    1988-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to test effects of prenatal and postnatal fraternity size (size of litter in which an individual develops prenatally or is reared postnatally) on ovarian development in mice. Fraternity size treatments were created by standardizing sizes of prenatal and postnatal fraternities in which mice were gestated and reared. Prenatal fraternity size was standardized by surgery on Day 9 of gestation to 6, 10, and 14 fetuses. Postnatal fraternity size was standardized by randomly assigning pups to litters of 5, 10, or 15 pups within 24 h of birth. Female pups were killed at either 3 or 20 wk of age and right ovaries were prepared for histology. Follicles were classified by size and morphology, and numbers of follicles in each class were tabulated. Interaction of postnatal fraternity size and age was observed for number of antral follicles (p less than 0.05). Mice reared in small postnatal fraternities had more antral follicles at weaning (3 wk) and fewer antral follicles at maturity (20 wk of age) than mice reared in large postnatal fraternities. No effect of either prenatal or postnatal fraternity size on other follicle populations was observed (p greater than 0.20). Numbers of Type 2 (primordial), Type 3a, and Type 3b follicles changed with age (p less than 0.01); numbers of primordial follicles declined with age, but numbers of Type 3a and 3b follicles increased. A hypothesis of a negative association between postnatal fraternity size and number of antral follicles at 3 wk of age was supported, but a hypothesis of a positive association between fraternity size and number of primordial follicles was not supported.

  5. Consequences of elevated luteinizing hormone on diverse physiological systems: use of the LHbetaCTP transgenic mouse as a model of ovarian hyperstimulation-induced pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rachel J; Keri, Ruth A; Nilson, John H

    2003-01-01

    Chronically elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) induces significant pathology in the LHbetaCTP transgenic mouse model, which uses the bovine gonadotropin alpha (alpha)-subunit promoter to direct transgene expression specifically to gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary. Previously, it was shown that female LHbetaCTP mice are infertile due to anovulation, develop granulosa cell tumors, and undergo precocious puberty from elevated LH and steroid hormones that fail to completely repress the alpha-subunit promoter. This chapter will discuss recent studies that further elucidate the impact of chronically elevated LH on diverse physiological systems. Granulosa cell tumors induced by elevated LH are strain dependent and prevented when transgenics are treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) surges. A granulosa cell tumor-associated transcriptome is generated, revealing several possible gene candidates for ovarian granulosa cell tumorigenesis. Primordial follicles in LHbetaCTP transgenics become depleted and oocytes exhibit increased rates of meiotic segregation defects, although meiotic competency is acquired normally. Anovulation can be rescued in transgenics by superovulation, though pregnancy fails at midgestation due to maternal factors. Uterine receptivity defects prevent implantation of normal embryos following induction of pseuodpregnancy. Transgenics develop Cushing-like adrenocortical hyperfunction with increased corticosterone production following induction of adrenal LH receptor expression. Elevated LH acts as a tumor promoter in the gonads and the adrenal gland, when expressed in conjunction with the inhibin-alpha SV40 transgene. Finally, chronic elevated LH promotes mammary tumorigenesis. The understanding of multiple clinical pathologies--including ovarian cancer, perimenopausal reproductive aging, premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovarian syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, and breast cancer--may be enhanced through further study of this useful

  6. Differential effect of chronic stress on mouse hippocampal memory and affective behavior: Role of major ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Karisetty, Bhanu Chandra; Maitra, Swati; Wahul, Abhipradnya Bipin; Musalamadugu, Anusha; Khandelwal, Nitin; Guntupalli, Sumasri; Garikapati, Ramya; Jhansyrani, Thatiparthi; Kumar, Arvind; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2017-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of depression-like pathophysiology in female rodent models are less reported compared to males, despite its higher prevalence in human females. Moreover, the stress-response in brain circuitries including reward and cognition circuitries varies with age or hormonal status of the females. So, to understand the stress-induced mood and cognitive disorders in intact females (with ovaries) and ovariectomized (OVX) females, we studied changes in mouse hippocampus, a functionally heterogeneous neural structure involved in both affective and cognitive behaviors. Here, we used a 6-day Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) paradigm in mice to induce depression and related mood disorders. Interestingly, intact females and OVX females showed difference in mood disorder sub-phenotypes to CUS. Similar to an earlier report of CUS affecting the critical reward circuitry structure the nucleus accumbens differently in females with and without ovaries, cognitive behavior in intact females and OVX females also responded differentially to CUS, as evident from Morris Water Maze (MWM) test results. We report that the presence or absence of ovarian hormones, particularly the estrogen, has a significant impact in altering the hippocampus related spatial memory and affective behavior, in females. Our results also illustrate that estrogen administration improves both reward and cognitive behavior, and plays a significant role in alleviating stress-induced despair behavior and enhancing spatial reference memory following a brief 6-day stressful paradigm. Further, it also indicates that the NMDA receptor subunits, GRIN2A and GRIN2B, might mediate the effects of estrogen in the hippocampal functions, thus suggestive of a translational significance of the finding.

  7. Mouse oocytes suppress miR-322-5p expression in ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    SUMITOMO, Jun-ichi; EMORI, Chihiro; MATSUNO, Yuta; UENO, Mizuki; KAWASAKI, Kurenai; ENDO, Takaho A.; SHIROGUCHI, Katsuyuki; FUJII, Wataru; NAITO, Kunihiko; SUGIURA, Koji

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs) regulate miRNA expression in mouse granulosa cells. Expression of mmu-miR-322-5p (miR-322) was higher in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) than in cumulus cells of the Graafian follicles. The expression levels of miR-322 decreased when cumulus cells or MGCs were co-cultured with oocytes denuded of their cumulus cells. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling by SB431542 increased miR-322 expression by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Moreover, the cumulus cells but not the MGCs in Bmp15–/–/Gdf9+/– (double-mutant) mice exhibited higher miR-322 expression than those of wild-type mice. Taken together, these results show that ODPFs suppress the expression of miR-322 in cumulus cells. Gene ontology analysis of putative miR-322 targets whose expression was detected in MGCs with RNA-sequencing suggested that multiple biological processes are affected by miR-322 in MGCs. These results demonstrate that ODPFs regulate miRNA expression in granulosa cells and that this regulation may participate in the differential control of cumulus cell versus MGC functions. Therefore, the ODPF-mediated regulation of cumulus cells takes place at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27180925

  8. Early steps in steroidogenesis: intracellular cholesterol trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2011-01-01

    Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol, primarily derived from lipoproteins that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. In endo-lysosomes, cholesterol is released from cholesterol esters by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL; disordered in Wolman disease) and exported via Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) proteins (disordered in NPC disease). These diseases are characterized by accumulated cholesterol and cholesterol esters in most cell types. Mechanisms for trans-cytoplasmic cholesterol transport, membrane insertion, and retrieval from membranes are less clear. Cholesterol esters and “free” cholesterol are enzymatically interconverted in lipid droplets. Cholesterol transport to the cholesterol-poor outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) appears to involve cholesterol transport proteins. Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) then initiates steroidogenesis by converting cholesterol to pregnenolone on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Acute steroidogenic responses are regulated by cholesterol delivery from OMM to IMM, triggered by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Chronic steroidogenic capacity is determined by CYP11A1 gene transcription. StAR mutations cause congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, with absent steroidogenesis, potentially lethal salt loss, and 46,XY sex reversal. StAR mutations initially destroy most, but not all steroidogenesis; low levels of StAR-independent steroidogenesis are lost later due to cellular damage, explaining the clinical findings. Rare P450scc mutations cause a similar syndrome. This review addresses these early steps in steroid biosynthesis. PMID:21976778

  9. Characterization and significance of adhesion and junction-related proteins in mouse ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Mora, Jocelyn M; Fenwick, Mark A; Castle, Laura; Baithun, Marianne; Ryder, Timothy A; Mobberley, Margaret; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Franks, Stephen; Hardy, Kate

    2012-05-01

    In the ovary, initiation of follicle growth is marked by cuboidalization of flattened granulosa cells (GCs). The regulation and cell biology of this shape change remains poorly understood. We propose that characterization of intercellular junctions and associated proteins is key to identifying as yet unknown regulators of this important transition. As GCs are conventionally described as epithelial cells, this study used mouse ovaries and isolated follicles to investigate epithelial junctional complexes (tight junctions [TJ], adherens junctions [AJ], and desmosomes) and associated molecules, as well as classic epithelial markers, by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. These junctions were further characterized using ultrastructural, calcium depletion and biotin tracer studies. Junctions observed by transmission electron microscopy between GCs and between GCs and oocyte were identified as AJs by expression of N-cadherin and nectin 2 and by the lack of TJ and desmosome-associated proteins. Follicles were also permeable to biotin, confirming a lack of functional TJs. Surprisingly, GCs lacked all epithelial markers analyzed, including E-cadherin, cytokeratin 8, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1alpha+. Furthermore, vimentin was expressed by GCs, suggesting a more mesenchymal phenotype. Under calcium-free conditions, small follicles maintained oocyte-GC contact, confirming the importance of calcium-independent nectin at this stage. However, in primary and multilayered follicles, lack of calcium resulted in loss of contact between GCs and oocyte, showing that nectin alone cannot maintain attachment between these two cell types. Lack of classic markers suggests that GCs are not epithelial. Identification of AJs during GC cuboidalization highlights the importance of AJs in regulating initiation of follicle growth.

  10. [Effects of Kuntai Capsules on endometrial thickness and expressions of leukemia inhibitory factor and epidermal growth factor in mouse after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation].

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiying; Song, Yuxia; Wan, Lijing; Tan, Li

    2014-08-05

    To explore the effects of Kuntai Capsules on endometrial thickness and the expressions of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in mouse after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Healthy Sprague-Dawley mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups of control (group A), controlled ovarian hyperstimulation [COH (group B)], COH plus low-dose Kuntai Capsules (group C) and COH plus large-dose Kuntai Capsules [2x low-dose (group D)]. The controlled ovarian hyperstimulation model was established. The endometrial thickness was measured by computerized multi-functional image analyzer. And the expressions of LIF and EGF in proliferating endometrium were examined by immunohistochemistry. The endometrial thickness of groups C and D were higher than that of groups A and B. And there were significant differences (P < 0.05). The expression levels of LIF protein in proliferating endometrium was weaker than implantation window phase, the expression levels of EGF and LIF in group B was weaker than group A, groups C and D stronger than groups B and D was stronger than group C. And there were significant differences (P < 0.05). Kuntai Capsules can promote the growth of endometrium and enhance the expression levels of EGF and LIF in mice. And it may improve the ability of endometrial receptivity through optimized microenvironment. And a larger dose of Kuntai Capsules yields better outcomes.

  11. Effect of activin A and insulin-like growth factor-I on in vitro development of preantral follicles isolated from cryopreserved ovarian tissues in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongyeob; Lee, BoEun; Lee, EunYoung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2008-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been reported to delay the development of preantral follicles by temporary suppression of granulosa cell proliferation during in vitro culture. This delay might be overcome by treatment with activin A and/or IGF-I, known to stimulate granulosa cell proliferation. However, the effects of these growth factors, on delayed follicle development induced by ovarian tissue cryopreservation, have not been evaluated. Therefore, we studied the effects of activin A and/or IGF-I on granulosa cell proliferation and follicle development in preantral follicles isolated from mouse cryopreserved ovarian tissues. The preantral follicles isolated from fresh ovarian tissues were cultured with control medium (CM) for 10 days. The preantral follicles isolated from cryopreserved ovarian tissues were cultured with CM and with CM+activin A (100 ng/ml), IGF-I (50 ng/ml) or activin A+IGF-I added for 10, 12 and 14 days. The follicles were stimulated with hCG at the end of culture. The granulosa cell proliferation was evaluated by measuring the PCNA expression and the follicle development assessed by comparing the follicle diameter and oocyte maturation. The expressed level of PCNA was significantly decreased in the cryopreserved preantral follicles cultured with CM, compared to the fresh group (p<0.05), but increased to the level of the fresh group by the addition of activin A, IGF-I or activin A and IGF-I. The maximum follicle diameter and oocyte maturation rate were obtained in the fresh group after 10 days of culture, while the diameter and oocyte maturation rate of cryopreserved preantral follicles reached similar levels after 14 days. Under conditions of CM with added activin A or activin A+IGF-I, both the diameter and oocyte maturation rate of the cryopreserved preantral follicles improved to the levels of the fresh group after 12 days. However, the stimulatory effect was not different in comparisons between activin A and activin A+IGF-I. In

  12. Exposure of Female Rats to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants Targets the Ovary, Affecting Folliculogenesis and Steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Berger, Robert G; Ernest, Sheila R; Gaertner, Dean W; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Wade, Michael G; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are incorporated into various consumer products to prevent flame propagation. These compounds leach into the domestic environment, resulting in chronic exposure and contamination. Pregnancy failure is associated with high levels of BFRs in human follicular fluid, raising serious questions regarding their impact on female reproductive health. The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of an environmentally relevant BFR mixture on female rat ovarian functions (i.e., folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis). A BFR dietary mixture formulated to mimic the relative BFR congener levels in North American house dust was administered to adult female Sprague-Dawley rats from 2 to 3 wk before mating until Gestational Day 20; these diets were designed to deliver nominal doses of 0, 0.06, 20, or 60 mg/kg/day of the BFR mixture. Exposure to BFRs triggered an approximately 50% increase in the numbers of preantral and antral follicles and an enlargement of the antral follicles in the ovaries of the dams. A significant reduction in the expression of catalase, an antioxidant enzyme, and downregulation of the expression of insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3) and 17alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp17a1) were observed in the ovary. In addition, BFR exposure affected steroidogenesis; we observed a significant decrease in circulating 17-hydroxypregnenolone and an increase in testosterone concentrations in BFR-exposed dams. Thus, BFRs target ovarian function in the rat, adversely affecting both folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis.

  13. Diet-induced hypercholesterolemia impaired testicular steroidogenesis in mice through the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martos, José M; Arrazola, Marce; Mayas, María D; Carrera-González, María P; García, María J; Ramírez-Expósito, María J

    2011-08-01

    Hypercholesterolemia and low testosterone concentrations in men are associated with a high risk factor for atherosclerosis. It is known that cholesterol serves as the major precursor for the synthesis of the sex hormones. The bioactive peptides of the renin-angiotensin-system localized in the gonads play a key role in the relation between cholesterol and testosterone by modulating steroidogenesis and inhibiting testosterone production. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia on circulating testosterone levels and its relationship with the testicular RAS-regulating specific aminopeptidase activities in male mouse. A significant decrease in serum circulating levels of testosterone was observed after induced hypercholesterolemia. The changes found in aminopeptidase activities suggest a role of Ang III and Ang IV in the regulation of steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Regulation of Adrenal Steroidogenesis by the High-affinity Phosphodiesterase 8 Family

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, L-C. L.; Beavo, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The main function of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is to degrade cAMP, a ubiquitous second messenger. Therefore, PDEs can function as prime regulators of cAMP/PKA-dependent processes such as steroidogenesis. Until recently, the roles of the PDE8 family have been largely unexplored, presumably due to the lack of a selective inhibitor. This review focuses on recent reports about the regulatory roles of the PDE8 family in adrenal steroidogenesis, as well as the inhibitory properties and specificity of a new PDE8-selective inhibitor, PF-04957325. We also describe a method of measuring urinary corticosterone levels in vivo as a minimally invasive way of monitoring the stress level in a mouse. PMID:22903278

  15. A Long Noncoding RNA, lncRNA-Amhr2, Plays a Role in Amhr2 Gene Activation in Mouse Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Atsushi P; Yoneda, Ryoma; Kurihara, Misuzu; Mayama, Shota; Matsubara, Shin

    2017-09-14

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is critical to the regression of Müllerian ducts during mammalian male differentiation and targets ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells of adults. Specific effects of AMH are exerted via its receptor, AMH type II receptor (Amhr2), but the mechanism by which the Amhr2 gene is specifically activated is not fully understood. To see whether a proximal promoter was sufficient to Amhr2 gene activation, we generated transgenic mice that bore the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene driven by a 500-bp mouse Amhr2 gene promoter. None of the established 10 lines, however, showed appropriate EGFP expression, indicating that the 500-bp promoter was insufficient to Amhr2 gene activation. As a novel regulatory element, we found a long noncoding RNA, lncRNA-Amhr2, transcribed from upstream of the Amhr2 gene in ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli cells. In primary granulosa cells, knock down of lncRNA-Amhr2 resulted in a decrease of Amhr2 mRNA level, and transient reporter gene assay showed that lncRNA-Amhr2 activation increased Amhr2 promoter activity. The activity was correlated with lncRNA-Amhr2 transcription in stably transfected OV3121 cells that were derived from mouse granulosa cells. Moreover, by the Tet-on system, the induction of lncRNA-Amhr2 transcription dramatically increased Amhr2 promoter activity in OV3121 cells. These results indicate that lncRNA-Amhr2 plays a role in Amhr2 gene activation in ovarian granulosa cells by enhancing promoter activity, providing a novel insight into the Amhr2 gene regulation underlying the AMH signaling in the female reproductive system. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  16. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides inhibit expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines and a mouse ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Grijalva, Victor; Su, Feng; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Farias-Eisner, Robin

    2012-08-01

    Our previous results demonstrated that the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides L-4F and L-5F inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor production and tumor angiogenesis. The present study was designed to test whether apoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which plays a critical role in the production of angiogenic factors and angiogenesis. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine the expression of HIF-1α in tumor tissues. Immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and luciferase activity assays were used to determine the expression and activity of HIF-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated that L-4F treatment dramatically decreased HIF-1α expression in mouse ovarian tumor tissues. L-4F inhibited the expression and activity of HIF-1α induced by low oxygen concentration, cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a hypoxia-mimic compound), lysophosphatidic acid, and insulin in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OV2008 and CAOV-3. L-4F had no effect on the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p70s6 kinase, leading to the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis. Pretreatment with L-4F dramatically accelerated the proteasome-dependent protein degradation of HIF-1α in both insulin- and CoCl(2)-treated cells. The inhibitory effect of L-4F on HIF-1α expression is in part mediated by the reactive oxygen species-scavenging effect of L-4F. ApoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of HIF-1α in both in vivo and in vitro models, suggesting the inhibition of HIF-1α may be a critical mechanism responsible for the suppression of tumor progression by apoA-I mimetic peptides.

  17. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer, CT scan Ovarian cancer dangers Ovarian growth worries Uterus Ovarian cancer Ovarian cancer metastasis References Coleman ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  18. α-SNAP is expressed in mouse ovarian granulosa cells and plays a key role in folliculogenesis and female fertility.

    PubMed

    Arcos, Alexis; Paola, Matilde de; Gianetti, Diego; Acuña, Diego; Velásquez, Zahady D; Miró, María Paz; Toro, Gabriela; Hinrichsen, Bryan; Muñoz, Rosa Iris; Lin, Yimo; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Rivera, Francisco J; Michaut, Marcela A; Batiz, Luis Federico

    2017-09-18

    The balance between ovarian folliculogenesis and follicular atresia is critical for female fertility and is strictly regulated by a complex network of neuroendocrine and intra-ovarian signals. Despite the numerous functions executed by granulosa cells (GCs) in ovarian physiology, the role of multifunctional proteins able to simultaneously coordinate/modulate several cellular pathways is unclear. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (α-SNAP) is a multifunctional protein that participates in SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events. In addition, it regulates cell-to-cell adhesion, AMPK signaling, autophagy and apoptosis in different cell types. In this study we examined the expression pattern of α-SNAP in ovarian tissue and the consequences of α-SNAP (M105I) mutation (hyh mutation) in folliculogenesis and female fertility. Our results showed that α-SNAP protein is highly expressed in GCs and its expression is modulated by gonadotropin stimuli. On the other hand, α-SNAP-mutant mice show a reduction in α-SNAP protein levels. Moreover, increased apoptosis of GCs and follicular atresia, reduced ovulation rate, and a dramatic decline in fertility is observed in α-SNAP-mutant females. In conclusion, α-SNAP plays a critical role in the balance between follicular development and atresia. Consequently, a reduction in its expression/function (M105I mutation) causes early depletion of ovarian follicles and female subfertility.

  19. Tissue-Specific Effects of Reduced β-catenin Expression on Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation-Instigated Tumorigenesis in Mouse Colon and Ovarian Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ying; Sakamoto, Naoya; Wu, Rong; Liu, Jie-yu; Wiese, Alexandra; Green, Maranne E.; Green, Megan; Akyol, Aytekin; Roy, Badal C.; Zhai, Yali; Cho, Kathleen R.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) inactivating mutations are present in most human colorectal cancers and some other cancers. The APC protein regulates the β-catenin protein pool that functions as a co-activator of T cell factor (TCF)-regulated transcription in Wnt pathway signaling. We studied effects of reduced dosage of the Ctnnb1 gene encoding β-catenin in Apc-mutation-induced colon and ovarian mouse tumorigenesis and cell culture models. Concurrent somatic inactivation of one Ctnnb1 allele, dramatically inhibited Apc mutation-induced colon polyposis and greatly extended Apc-mutant mouse survival. Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose markedly inhibited increases in β-catenin levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus following Apc inactivation in colon epithelium, with attenuated expression of key β-catenin/TCF-regulated target genes, including those encoding the EphB2/B3 receptors, the stem cell marker Lgr5, and Myc, leading to maintenance of crypt compartmentalization and restriction of stem and proliferating cells to the crypt base. A critical threshold for β-catenin levels in TCF-regulated transcription was uncovered for Apc mutation-induced effects in colon epithelium, along with evidence of a feed-forward role for β-catenin in Ctnnb1 gene expression and CTNNB1 transcription. The active β-catenin protein pool was highly sensitive to CTNNB1 transcript levels in colon cancer cells. In mouse ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas (OEAs) arising from Apc- and Pten-inactivation, while Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose affected β-catenin levels and some β-catenin/TCF target genes, Myc induction was retained and OEAs arose in a fashion akin to that seen with intact Ctnnb1 gene dose. Our findings indicate Ctnnb1 gene dose exerts tissue-specific differences in Apc mutation-instigated tumorigenesis. Differential expression of selected β-catenin/TCF-regulated genes, such as Myc, likely underlies context-dependent effects of Ctnnb1 gene dosage in tumorigenesis. PMID:26528816

  20. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of a novel human and mouse ovarian tumor-associated gene OTAG-12: downregulation, alternative splicing and drug sensitization.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, H; Aravindakshan, J P; Gotlieb, W H; Sairam, M R

    2011-06-23

    In studying the age dependence and chronology of ovarian tumors in follicle stimulating hormone receptor knockout mice, we identified a novel ovarian tumor associated gene-12 (OTAG-12), which is progressively downregulated and maps to Chr. 8B3.3. OTAG-12 protein overexpression in mouse ovarian and mammary tumor cells suggested powerful anti-proliferative effects. In human epithelial ovarian cancers (OCs) and OC cell lines, OTAG-12 mRNA expression is downregulated in comparison with normal ovaries. Cloning and identification revealed that human OTAG-12 mapping to gene-rich Chr. 19p13.12 is expressed in three spliced forms: hOTAG-12a, hOTAG-12b and hOTAG-12c, of which b is predominant in the normal ovary. Functionally active hOTAG-12b is a simple protein with no disulfide bonds and a nuclear localization signal is present in all variants. Transfection of OTAG-12 variants in OC and tumorigenic HEK293 cells confirmed nuclear localization. hOTAG-12b overexpression in OC and HEK293 cells effectively suppressed cell growth, anchorage-dependent and independent colony formation followed by apoptosis, whereas hOTAG-12a and hOTAG-12c had no such effects. Deletion mutants identified the critical importance of carboxyl terminus for hOTAG-12b function. Doxycycline-inducible growth inhibition of HEK293 cells by hOTAG-12a was associated with effects on G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. hOTAG-12b expression rendered tumorigenic cells more sensitive to four apoptotic stimuli including etoposide-a topoisomerase-II inhibitor. Doxycycline-induced hOTAG-12b expression blocked xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, whereas hOTAG-12a was ineffective. Although p53-pathway-dependent apoptotic agents could upregulate endogenous hOTAG-12b and p53 in UCI-101/107 OC cells, hOTAG-12b could also induce apoptosis in p53-null and platinum-resistant SKOV3 OC cells and Doxycycline-induced hOTAG-12b did not alter p53. Further study showed that hOTAG-12b increases mRNAs of pro-apoptotic genes

  1. Steroidogenesis in amlodipine treated purified Leydig cells

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, Rabia; Lodhi, Ghulam Mustafa; Hameed, Waqas; Aslam, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Drugs have been shown to adversely affect male fertility and recently anti-hypertensive drugs were added to the list. The anti-fertility effects of amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, are well-illustrated in in vivo experiments but lack an in vitro proof. The present study was designed to experimentally elucidate the effects of amlodipine on Leydig cell steroidogenesis and intracellular calcium in vitro. Leydig cells of Sprague–Dawley rats were isolated and purified by Percoll. Cells were incubated for 3 h with/without amlodipine in the presence/absence of LH, dbcAMP, Pregnenolone and 25-Hydroxycholesterol. Cytosolic calcium was measured in purified Leydig cells by fluorometric technique. The results showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) steroidogenesis and intracellular calcium in amlodipine exposed rats. The site of amlodipine induced steroidogenic inhibition seems to be prior to the formation of Pregnenolone at the level of StAR protein. -- Highlights: ► Inhibition of steroidogenesis in isolated and purified Leydig cells by amlodipine. ► Site of inhibition was before Pregnenolone formation, at the level of StAR protein. ► Inhibition of LH stimulated rise in cytosolic calcium by amlodipine.

  2. Development of Mouse Models of Ovarian Cancer for Studying Tumor Biology and Testing Novel Molecularly Targeted Therapeutic Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    canonical Wnt (i.e., Wnt/b-catenin/Tcf) and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways often occur together in human ovarian endome - trioid adenocarcinoma (OEA...results as a single agent for patients with recurrent endome - trioid adenocarcinomas of the endometrium (38), which like OEAs, have frequent mutations that

  3. Development of Mouse Models of Ovarian Cancer for Studying Tumor Biology and Testing Novel Molecularly Targeted Therapeutic Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    pathways often occur together in human ovarian endome - 74 trioid adenocarcinoma (OEA; refs. 7, 8). Given substantial 75 overlap in the molecular...756 mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, has shown encouraging 757 results as a single agent for patients with recurrent endome - 758 trioid adenocarcinomas of

  4. The ligand binding domain of GCNF is not required for repression of pluripotency genes in mouse fetal ovarian germ cells.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Leah M; Lesch, Bluma J; Page, David C

    2013-01-01

    In mice, successful development and reproduction require that all cells, including germ cells, transition from a pluripotent to a differentiated state. This transition is associated with silencing of the pluripotency genes Oct4 and Nanog. Interestingly, these genes are repressed at different developmental timepoints in germ and somatic cells. Ovarian germ cells maintain their expression until about embryonic day (E) 14.5, whereas somatic cells silence them much earlier, at about E8.0. In both somatic cells and embryonic stem cells, silencing of Oct4 and Nanog requires the nuclear receptor GCNF. However, expression of the Gcnf gene has not been investigated in fetal ovarian germ cells, and whether it is required for silencing Oct4 and Nanog in that context is not known. Here we demonstrate that Gcnf is expressed in fetal ovarian germ cells, peaking at E14.5, when Oct4 and Nanog are silenced. However, conditional ablation of the ligand-binding domain of Gcnf using a ubiquitous, tamoxifen-inducible Cre indicates that Gcnf is not required for the down-regulation of pluripotency genes in fetal ovarian germ cells, nor is it required for initiation of meiosis and oogenesis. These results suggest that the silencing of Oct4 and Nanog in germ cells occurs via a different mechanism from that operating in somatic cells during gastrulation.

  5. Metabolomic serum profiling detects early-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina M; Monge, María Eugenia; Kim, Jaeyeon; Matzuk, Martin M; Fernández, Facundo M

    2015-02-06

    Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease killing more than any other gynecologic cancer. Nonspecific symptoms, combined with a lack of early detection methods, contribute to late diagnosis and low five-year survival rates. High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest subtype that results in 90% of ovarian cancer deaths. To investigate metabolic patterns for early detection of this deadly ovarian cancer, Dicer-Pten double knockout (DKO) mice that phenocopy many of the features of metastatic HGSC observed in women were studied. Using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), serum samples from 14 early-stage tumor (ET) DKO mice and 11 controls were analyzed in depth to screen for metabolic signatures capable of differentiating early-stage HGSC from controls. Iterative multivariate classification selected 18 metabolites that, when considered as a panel, yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for classification. Altered metabolic pathways reflected in that panel included those of fatty acids, bile acids, glycerophospholipids, peptides, and some dietary phytochemicals. These alterations revealed impacts to cellular energy storage and membrane stability, as well as changes in defenses against oxidative stress, shedding new light on the metabolic alterations associated with early ovarian cancer stages.

  6. Wnt signaling inhibits adrenal steroidogenesis by cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Elisabeth M; Kuick, Rork; Finco, Isabella; Bohin, Natacha; Hrycaj, Steven M; Wellik, Deneen M; Hammer, Gary D

    2014-09-01

    Wnt/β-catenin (βcat) signaling is critical for adrenal homeostasis. To elucidate how Wnt/βcat signaling elicits homeostatic maintenance of the adrenal cortex, we characterized the identity of the adrenocortical Wnt-responsive population. We find that Wnt-responsive cells consist of sonic hedgehog (Shh)-producing adrenocortical progenitors and differentiated, steroidogenic cells of the zona glomerulosa, but not the zona fasciculata and rarely cells that are actively proliferating. To determine potential direct inhibitory effects of βcat signaling on zona fasciculata-associated steroidogenesis, we used the mouse ATCL7 adrenocortical cell line that serves as a model system of glucocorticoid-producing fasciculata cells. Stimulation of βcat signaling caused decreased corticosterone release consistent with the observed reduced transcription of steroidogenic genes Cyp11a1, Cyp11b1, Star, and Mc2r. Decreased steroidogenic gene expression was correlated with diminished steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1; Nr5a1) expression and occupancy on steroidogenic promoters. Additionally, βcat signaling suppressed the ability of Sf1 to transactivate steroidogenic promoters independent of changes in Sf1 expression level. To investigate Sf1-independent effects of βcat on steroidogenesis, we used Affymetrix gene expression profiling of Wnt-responsive cells in vivo and in vitro. One candidate gene identified, Ccdc80, encodes a secreted protein with unknown signaling mechanisms. We report that Ccdc80 is a novel βcat-regulated gene in adrenocortical cells. Treatment of adrenocortical cells with media containing secreted Ccdc80 partially phenocopies βcat-induced suppression of steroidogenesis, albeit through an Sf1-independent mechanism. This study reveals multiple mechanisms of βcat-mediated suppression of steroidogenesis and suggests that Wnt/βcat signaling may regulate adrenal homeostasis by inhibiting fasciculata differentiation and promoting the undifferentiated state of progenitor

  7. Wnt Signaling Inhibits Adrenal Steroidogenesis by Cell-Autonomous and Non–Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, Elisabeth M.; Kuick, Rork; Finco, Isabella; Bohin, Natacha; Hrycaj, Steven M.; Wellik, Deneen M.

    2014-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin (βcat) signaling is critical for adrenal homeostasis. To elucidate how Wnt/βcat signaling elicits homeostatic maintenance of the adrenal cortex, we characterized the identity of the adrenocortical Wnt-responsive population. We find that Wnt-responsive cells consist of sonic hedgehog (Shh)-producing adrenocortical progenitors and differentiated, steroidogenic cells of the zona glomerulosa, but not the zona fasciculata and rarely cells that are actively proliferating. To determine potential direct inhibitory effects of βcat signaling on zona fasciculata-associated steroidogenesis, we used the mouse ATCL7 adrenocortical cell line that serves as a model system of glucocorticoid-producing fasciculata cells. Stimulation of βcat signaling caused decreased corticosterone release consistent with the observed reduced transcription of steroidogenic genes Cyp11a1, Cyp11b1, Star, and Mc2r. Decreased steroidogenic gene expression was correlated with diminished steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1; Nr5a1) expression and occupancy on steroidogenic promoters. Additionally, βcat signaling suppressed the ability of Sf1 to transactivate steroidogenic promoters independent of changes in Sf1 expression level. To investigate Sf1-independent effects of βcat on steroidogenesis, we used Affymetrix gene expression profiling of Wnt-responsive cells in vivo and in vitro. One candidate gene identified, Ccdc80, encodes a secreted protein with unknown signaling mechanisms. We report that Ccdc80 is a novel βcat-regulated gene in adrenocortical cells. Treatment of adrenocortical cells with media containing secreted Ccdc80 partially phenocopies βcat-induced suppression of steroidogenesis, albeit through an Sf1-independent mechanism. This study reveals multiple mechanisms of βcat-mediated suppression of steroidogenesis and suggests that Wnt/βcat signaling may regulate adrenal homeostasis by inhibiting fasciculata differentiation and promoting the undifferentiated state of progenitor

  8. Roundup inhibits steroidogenesis by disrupting steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, L P; McCormick, C; Martin, C; Stocco, D M

    2000-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate that many currently used pesticides have the capacity to disrupt reproductive function in animals. Although this reproductive dysfunction is typically characterized by alterations in serum steroid hormone levels, disruptions in spermatogenesis, and loss of fertility, the mechanisms involved in pesticide-induced infertility remain unclear. Because testicular Leydig cells play a crucial role in male reproductive function by producing testosterone, we used the mouse MA-10 Leydig tumor cell line to study the molecular events involved in pesticide-induced alterations in steroid hormone biosynthesis. We previously showed that the organochlorine insecticide lindane and the organophosphate insecticide Dimethoate directly inhibit steroidogenesis in Leydig cells by disrupting expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. StAR protein mediates the rate-limiting and acutely regulated step in steroidogenesis, the transfer of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane where the cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme initiates the synthesis of all steroid hormones. In the present study, we screened eight currently used pesticide formulations for their ability to inhibit steroidogenesis, concentrating on their effects on StAR expression in MA-10 cells. In addition, we determined the effects of these compounds on the levels and activities of the P450scc enzyme (which converts cholesterol to pregnenolone) and the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) enzyme (which converts pregnenolone to progesterone). Of the pesticides screened, only the pesticide Roundup inhibited dibutyryl [(Bu)(2)]cAMP-stimulated progesterone production in MA-10 cells without causing cellular toxicity. Roundup inhibited steroidogenesis by disrupting StAR protein expression, further demonstrating the susceptibility of StAR to environmental pollutants. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

  9. Expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in murine male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Culty, Martine; Liu, Ying; Manku, Gurpreet; Chan, Wai-Yee; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-11-01

    For decades, only few tissues and cell types were defined as steroidogenic, capable of de novo steroid synthesis from cholesterol. However, with the refinement of detection methods, several tissues have now been added to the list of steroidogenic tissues. Besides their critical role as long-range acting hormones, steroids are also playing more discreet roles as local mediators and signaling molecules within the tissues they are produced. In testis, steroidogenesis is carried out by the Leydig cells through a broad network of proteins, mediating cholesterol delivery to CYP11A1, the first cytochrome of the steroidogenic cascade, and the sequential action of enzymes insuring the production of active steroids, the main one being testosterone. The knowledge that male germ cells can be directly regulated by steroids and that they express several steroidogenesis-related proteins led us to hypothesize that germ cells could produce steroids, acting as autocrine, intracrine and juxtacrine modulators, as a way to insure synchronized progression within spermatogenic cycles, and preventing inappropriate cell behaviors between neighboring cells. Gene expression and protein analyses of mouse and rat germ cells from neonatal gonocytes to spermatozoa showed that most steroidogenesis-associated genes are expressed in germ cells, showing cell type-, spermatogenic cycle-, and age-specific expression profiles. Highly expressed genes included genes involved in steroidogenesis and other cell functions, such as Acbd1 and 3, Tspo and Vdac1-3, and genes involved in fatty acids metabolism or synthesis, including Hsb17b4 10 and 12, implying broader roles than steroid synthesis in germ cells. These results support the possibility of an additional level of regulation of spermatogenesis exerted between adjacent germ cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone marrow transplantation generates immature oocytes and rescues long-term fertility in a preclinical mouse model of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Joon; Selesniemi, Kaisa; Niikura, Yuichi; Niikura, Teruko; Klein, Rachael; Dombkowski, David M; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2007-08-01

    Although early menopause frequently occurs in female cancer patients after chemotherapy (CTx), bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) has been linked to an unexplained return of ovarian function and fertility in some survivors. Studies modeling this in mice have shown that BMT generates donor-derived oocytes in CTx-treated recipients. However, a subsequent report claimed that ovulated eggs are not derived from BM and that BM-derived oocytes reported previously are misidentified immune cells. This study was conducted to further clarify the impact of BMT on female reproductive function after CTx using a preclinical mouse model. Female mice were administered CTx followed by BMT using coat color-mismatched female donors. After housing with males, the number of pregnancies and offspring genotype were recorded. For cell tracking, BM from germline-specific green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice was transplanted into CTx-treated wild-type recipients. Immune cells were sorted from blood and analyzed for germline markers. BMT rescued long-term fertility in CTx-treated females, but all offspring were derived from the recipient germline. Cell tracking showed that donor-derived oocytes were generated in ovaries of recipients after BMT, and two lines of evidence dispelled the claim that these oocytes are misidentified immune cells. These data from a preclinical mouse model validate a testable clinical strategy for preserving or resurrecting ovarian function and fertility in female cancer patients after CTx, thus aligning with recommendations of the 2005 National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Progress Review Group and President's Cancer Panel to prioritize research efforts aimed at improving the quality of life in cancer survivors.

  11. SNAREs and cholesterol movement for steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Fredric B; Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman

    2017-02-05

    Steroidogenesis is a complex process through which cholesterol traffics to mitochondria and is converted via a series of enzymatic steps to steroid hormones. Although the rate-limiting step in this process is the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane via the actions of StAR, a continuous supply of cholesterol must be delivered to the outer mitochondrial membrane during active steroidogenesis and this is derived from multiple sources, including lipoprotein uptake, endogenous cholesterol synthesis and release from stores within cytoplasmic lipid droplets. A number of mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to cholesterol trafficking to mitochondria; however, there is no definitive consensus and this is particularly so in regards to trafficking from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. In this paper we review experiments in which we have surveyed the expression of SNARE proteins in steroidogenic tissue and cells and examined the role of SNAREs in mediating cholesterol movement from lipid droplets to the mitochondria based on multiple studies that identified SNAREs as components of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. We established and characterized an in vitro mitochondria reconstitution assay system that enabled us to examine the impact of adding recombinant SNARE proteins specifically on the movement of cholesterol from model lipid droplets to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Using this reconstitution assay system in combination with siRNA knockdown experiments in rat primary granulosa cells or in steroidogenic cell lines, we showed that several SNARE proteins are important components in the trafficking of cholesterol from lipid droplets to the mitochondria for steroidogenesis.

  12. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Glucose-6-phosphatase Are Required for Steroidogenesis in Testicular Leydig Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seung Won; Gang, Gil-Tae; Tadi, Surendar; Nedumaran, Balachandar; Kim, Yong Deuk; Park, Ji Hoon; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Lee, Keesook; Ahn, Ryun-Sup; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) induces steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and stimulates testosterone production in Leydig cells. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is expressed in Leydig cells, but its role has not been defined. In this study, we found that PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase) are increased significantly following cAMP treatment of mouse Leydig cells. Moreover, cAMP treatment increased recruitment of the cAMP-response element-binding transcription factor and decreased recruitment of the corepressor DAX-1 on the pepck promoter. Furthermore, cAMP induced an increase in ATP that correlated with a decrease in phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, knockdown or inhibition of PEPCK decreased ATP and increased phospho-AMPK. Treatment with an AMPK activator or overexpression of the constitutively active form of AMPK inhibited cAMP-induced steroidogenic enzyme promoter activities and gene expression. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) was involved in cAMP-induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression but was inhibited by AMPK activation in Leydig cells. Additionally, inhibition or knockdown of PEPCK and Glc-6-Pase decreased cAMP-mediated induction of steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and steroidogenesis. Finally, pubertal mouse (8-week-old) testes and human chorionic gonadotropin-induced prepubertal mouse testes showed increased PEPCK and Glc-6-Pase gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest that induction of PEPCK and Glc-6-Pase by cAMP plays an important role in Leydig cell steroidogenesis. PMID:23074219

  13. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  14. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  15. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis in fish.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Lal, Bechan

    2017-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the physiological significance of the existence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/nitric oxide (NO) system in fish ovary. For this, two doses of NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 25 µg and 50 µg) and NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 50 µg and 100 µg)/100 g body weight were administered during the two reproductive phases of reproductive cycle of the Clarias batrachus During the late-quiescence phase, high dose of l-NAME decreased the NO, testosterone, 17β-estradiol, vitellogenin contents in serum and ovary and activities of 5-ene-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) in ovary, whereas higher dose of SNP increased these parameters. l-NAME also reduced oocytes-I but increased perinucleolar oocytes in the ovary, whereas SNP treatment increased the number of advanced oocytes (oocytes-I and II) than the perinucleolar oocytes when compared with control ovary. During the mid-recrudescence phase, both doses of SNP increased NO, testosterone, 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin in serum and ovary; however, l-NAME treatment lowered their levels. The activities of ovarian 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD were also stimulated by SNP, but l-NAME suppressed their activities compared to the control. The SNP-treated ovaries were dominated by oocyte-II and III stages, whereas l-NAME-treated ovary revealed more perinucleolar oocytes and oocytes-I and practically no advanced oocytes. Expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) was augmented by the SNP and declined by l-NAME treatments as compared to the control. This study, thus, provides distinct evidence of NO-stimulated steroidogenesis, vitellogenesis and folliculogenesis in fish.

  16. Quality of Oocytes Derived from Vitrified Ovarian Follicles Cultured in Two- and Three-Dimensional Culture System in the Presence and Absence of Kit Ligand.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Shabnam; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kit Ligand (KL) on the growth of vitrified follicle, oocyte quality, and embryo development in two- and three-dimensional culture systems. Vitrified and nonvitrified mouse whole ovaries were cultured for 1 week, then their isolated preantral follicles were cultured for 12 days in two- or three-dimensional culture systems in the presence and absence of KL. The growth and diameter of follicles, maturation of oocytes, and hormonal level were assessed. Finally, embryo developmental rate and oocytes reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and distribution of mitochondria were examined. The results showed the maturation and survival rates and steroidogenesis of follicles were significantly higher not only in the three-dimensional culture system but also in the presence of KL (p < 0.001). The embryo development, ATP content, and ROS level of collected oocytes were not significantly different in all groups. Mitochondrial distribution within the oocyte was similar in all groups of the study. Our results demonstrated that KL supplementation during follicular culture in two- and three-dimensional culture systems appeared to significantly increase follicular function and development. The ovarian vitrification had no harmful effect on the steroidogenesis, growth, and maturation of follicles.

  17. Inovium Ovarian Rejuvenation Trials

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-03

    Perimenopausal Disorder; Menopause; Menopause, Premature; Menopause Related Conditions; Menopause Premature Symptomatic; Menopause Premature Asymptomatic; Premature Ovarian Failure; Premature Ovarian Failure, Familial; Premature Ovarian Failure 2A; Premature Ovarian Failure 3; Premature Ovarian Failure 4; Premature Ovarian Failure 1; Premature Ovarian Failure 5; Premature Ovarian Failure 6; Premature Ovarian Failure 7; Premature Ovarian Failure 9; Premature Ovarian Failure 8; Infertility; Infertility, Female; Infertility Unexplained

  18. Runx3 transcription factor regulates ovarian functions and ovulation in female mice.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Fumiya; Saito, Yuka; Tsuchiya, Yukiko; Kayo, Daichi; Taniuchi, Syusuke; Ogoshi, Maho; Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Sakae; Takahashi, Sumio

    2016-10-18

    We previously demonstrated that the Runx3 transcription factor is expressed in the hypothalami, pituitaries, and ovaries of mice, and that Runx3 knockout (Runx3(-/-)) mice are anovulatory and their uteri are atrophic. Runx3 mRNA expression was detected in the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles, and in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). In the present study, we examined the effects of Runx3 knockout on the gene expression of enzymes associated with steroidogenesis. We found decreased Cyp11a1 mRNA expression in Runx3(-/-) mouse ovaries compared with that in wild-type (wt) mouse ovaries at the age of 8 weeks. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the percentages of Cyp11a1 mRNA-expressing theca cells in follicles of Runx3(-/-) mice were decreased compared with those of wt mice. In accord with the alterations in Runx3(-/-) mouse ovaries, Kiss1 mRNA levels in ARC were increased, whereas mRNA levels of kisspeptin in AVPV were decreased, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the preoptic area and follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit gene were increased in Runx3(-/-) mice. Following an ovarian transplantation experiment between Runx3(-/-) mice and wt mice, corpora lutea were observed when ovaries from Runx3(-/-) mice were transplanted into wt mice, but not when those from wt mice were transplanted into Runx3(-/-) mice, suggesting that Runx3 in the hypothalamo-pituitary system may drive gonadotropin release to induce ovulation in the ovary. These findings indicate that Runx3 plays a crucial role in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  19. Runx3 transcription factor regulates ovarian functions and ovulation in female mice

    PubMed Central

    OJIMA, Fumiya; SAITO, Yuka; TSUCHIYA, Yukiko; KAYO, Daichi; TANIUCHI, Syusuke; OGOSHI, Maho; FUKAMACHI, Hiroshi; TAKEUCHI, Sakae; TAKAHASHI, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the Runx3 transcription factor is expressed in the hypothalami, pituitaries, and ovaries of mice, and that Runx3 knockout (Runx3−/−) mice are anovulatory and their uteri are atrophic. Runx3 mRNA expression was detected in the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles, and in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). In the present study, we examined the effects of Runx3 knockout on the gene expression of enzymes associated with steroidogenesis. We found decreased Cyp11a1 mRNA expression in Runx3−/− mouse ovaries compared with that in wild-type (wt) mouse ovaries at the age of 8 weeks. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the percentages of Cyp11a1 mRNA-expressing theca cells in follicles of Runx3−/− mice were decreased compared with those of wt mice. In accord with the alterations in Runx3−/− mouse ovaries, Kiss1 mRNA levels in ARC were increased, whereas mRNA levels of kisspeptin in AVPV were decreased, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the preoptic area and follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit gene were increased in Runx3−/− mice. Following an ovarian transplantation experiment between Runx3−/− mice and wt mice, corpora lutea were observed when ovaries from Runx3−/− mice were transplanted into wt mice, but not when those from wt mice were transplanted into Runx3−/− mice, suggesting that Runx3 in the hypothalamo-pituitary system may drive gonadotropin release to induce ovulation in the ovary. These findings indicate that Runx3 plays a crucial role in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:27301496

  20. Role of PCSK5 expression in mouse ovarian follicle development: identification of the inhibin α- and β-subunits as candidate substrates.

    PubMed

    Antenos, Monica; Lei, Lei; Xu, Min; Malipatil, Anjali; Kiesewetter, Sarah; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2011-03-08

    Inhibin and activin are essential dimeric glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily. Inhibin is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits, whereas activin is a homodimer of β-subunits. Production of inhibin is regulated during the reproductive cycle and requires the processing of pro-ligands to produce mature hormone. Furin is a subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (proconvertase) that activates precursor proteins by cleavage at basic sites during their transit through the secretory pathway and/or at the cell surface. We hypothesized that furin-like proconvertases are central regulators of inhibin α- and β-subunit processing within the ovary. We analyzed the expression of the proconvertases furin, PCSK5, PCSK6, and PCSK7 in the developing mouse ovary by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The data showed that proconvertase enzymes are temporally expressed in ovarian cells. With the transition from two-layer secondary to pre-antral follicle, only PCSK5 mRNA was significantly elevated. Activin A selectively enhanced expression of PCSK5 mRNA and decreased expression of furin and PCSK6 in cultured two-layer secondary follicles. Inhibition of proconvertase enzyme activity by dec-RVKR-chloromethylketone (CMK), a highly specific and potent competitive inhibitor of subtilisin-like proconvertases, significantly impeded both inhibin α- and β-subunit maturation in murine granulosa cells. Overexpression of PC5/6 in furin-deficient cells led to increased inhibin α- and β(B)-subunit maturation. Our data support the role of proconvertase PCSK5 in the processing of ovarian inhibin subunits during folliculogenesis and suggest that this enzyme may be an important regulator of inhibin and activin bioavailability.

  1. Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor) in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL) on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC) measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum) and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced GC proliferation (P < 0.01) but not basal or insulin 10(-8) M-induced proliferation. Additionally, adiponectin decreased insulin 10(-8) M-induced, but not basal or IGF-1 10(-8) M-induced secretions of progesterone (P < 0.01) and estradiol (P < 0.05) by GC. This decrease in insulin-induced steroidogenesis was associated with a decrease in ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in GC pre-treated with adiponectin. Finally, addition of adiponectin during in vitro maturation affected neither the percentage of oocyte in metaphase-II nor 48-h cleavage and blastocyst day 8 rates. Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. PMID:20219117

  2. Conditional inactivation of Brca1 in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium results in an increase in preneoplastic changes

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Knowles, Katherine V. . E-mail: kclar075@uottawa.ca; Garson, Kenneth; Jonkers, Jos; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is thought to arise from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE); however, the molecular events underlying this transformation are poorly understood. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene result in a significantly increased risk of developing EOC and a large proportion of sporadic EOCs display some sort of BRCA1 dysfunction. Using mice with conditional expression of Brca1, we inactivated Brca1 in the murine OSE and demonstrate that this inactivation results in the development of preneoplastic changes, such as hyperplasia, epithelial invaginations, and inclusion cysts, which arise earlier and are more numerous than in control ovaries. These changes resemble the premalignant lesions that have been reported in human prophylactic oophorectomy specimens from women with BRCA1 germline mutation. We also report that inactivation of Brca1 in primary cultures of murine OSE cells leads to a suppression of proliferation due to increased apoptosis that can be rescued by concomitant inactivation of p53. These observations, along with our finding that these cells display an increased sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent cisplatin, indicate that loss of function of Brca1 in OSE cells impacts both cellular growth control and DNA-damage repair which results in altered cell behavior manifested as morphological changes in vivo that arise earlier and are more numerous than what can be attributed to ageing.

  3. Exposure of Female Rats to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants Targets the Ovary, Affecting Folliculogenesis and Steroidogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Pavine L.C.; Berger, Robert G.; Ernest, Sheila R.; Gaertner, Dean W.; Rawn, Dorothea F.K.; Wade, Michael G.; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are incorporated into various consumer products to prevent flame propagation. These compounds leach into the domestic environment, resulting in chronic exposure and contamination. Pregnancy failure is associated with high levels of BFRs in human follicular fluid, raising serious questions regarding their impact on female reproductive health. The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of an environmentally relevant BFR mixture on female rat ovarian functions (i.e., folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis). A BFR dietary mixture formulated to mimic the relative BFR congener levels in North American house dust was administered to adult female Sprague-Dawley rats from 2 to 3 wk before mating until Gestational Day 20; these diets were designed to deliver nominal doses of 0, 0.06, 20, or 60 mg/kg/day of the BFR mixture. Exposure to BFRs triggered an approximately 50% increase in the numbers of preantral and antral follicles and an enlargement of the antral follicles in the ovaries of the dams. A significant reduction in the expression of catalase, an antioxidant enzyme, and downregulation of the expression of insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3) and 17alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp17a1) were observed in the ovary. In addition, BFR exposure affected steroidogenesis; we observed a significant decrease in circulating 17-hydroxypregnenolone and an increase in testosterone concentrations in BFR-exposed dams. Thus, BFRs target ovarian function in the rat, adversely affecting both folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. PMID:26607716

  4. Effects of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Steroidogenesis and Folliculogenesis in the Female Ossabaw Mini-Pig.

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Taibl, Jessica N; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Bahr, Janice M; Nowak, Romana A; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    The discrete effects of obesity on infertility in females remain undefined to date. To investigate obesity-induced ovarian dysfunction, we characterized metabolic parameters, steroidogenesis, and folliculogenesis in obese and lean female Ossabaw mini-pigs. Nineteen nulliparous, sexually mature female Ossabaw pigs were fed a high fat/cholesterol/fructose diet (n=10) or a control diet (n=9) for eight months. After a three-month diet-induction period, pigs remained on their respective diets and had ovarian ultrasound and blood collection conducted during a five-month study period after which ovaries were collected for histology, cell culture, and gene transcript level analysis. Blood was assayed for steroid and protein hormones. Obese pigs developed abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Obese pigs had elongated estrous cycles and hyperandrogenemia with decreased LH, increased FSH and luteal phase progesterone, and increased numbers of medium, ovulatory, and cystic follicles. Theca cells of obese, compared to control, pigs displayed androstenedione hypersecretion in response to in vitro treatment with LH, and up-regulated 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 transcript levels in response to in vitro treatment with LH or LH + insulin. Granulosa cells of obese pigs had increased 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 transcript levels. In summary, obese Ossabaw pigs have increased transcript levels and function of ovarian enzymes in the delta 4 steroidogenic pathway. Alterations in LH, FSH, and progesterone, coupled with theca cell dysfunction, contribute to the hyperandrogenemia and disrupted folliculogenesis patterns observed in obese pigs. The obese Ossabaw mini-pig is a useful animal model in which to study the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on ovarian function and steroidogenesis. Ultimately, this animal model may be useful toward the

  5. The effects of cetrorelix and triptorelin on the viability and steroidogenesis of cultured human granulosa luteinized cells.

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Köster, Frank; Diedrich, Klaus; Nikolettos, Nikos; Asimakopoulos, Byron

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triptorelin as well the GnRH antagonist cetrorelix those of on the viability and steroidogenesis in human granulosa luteinized (hGL) cell cultures. The hGL cells were obtained from 34 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment. The cells were cultured for 48 h with or without 1 nM or 3 nM of cetrorelix or triptorelin in serum-free media. The cell viability was evaluated by the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Treatment with triptorelin slightly increased cell viability, whereas treatment with 3 nM cetrorelix led to a significant decrease. Estradiol concentrations were reduced with 3 nM triptorelin. Cultures treated with high-dose of either cetrorelix or triptorelin tended to secrete less progesterone than controls. Cetrorelix significantly reduces the viability of hGL cells. Triptorelin and cetrorelix may have minor effects on steroidogenesis. These results suggest that GnRH analogues may influence ovarian functions.

  6. The insulator protein CTCF regulates Drosophila steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fresán, Ujué; Cuartero, Sergi; O'Connor, Michael B; Espinàs, M Lluisa

    2015-05-15

    The steroid hormone ecdysone is a central regulator of insect development. In this report we show that CTCF expression in the prothoracic gland is required for full transcriptional activation of the Halloween genes spookier, shadow and noppera-bo, which encode ecdysone biosynthetic enzymes, and for proper timing of ecdysone-responsive gene expression. Loss of CTCF results in delayed and less synchronized larval development that can only be rescued by feeding larvae with both, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and cholesterol. Moreover, CTCF-knockdown in prothoracic gland cells leads to increased lipid accumulation. In conclusion, the insulator protein CTCF is required for Halloween gene expression and cholesterol homeostasis in ecdysone-producing cells controlling steroidogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The insulator protein CTCF regulates Drosophila steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fresán, Ujué; Cuartero, Sergi; O'Connor, Michael B.; Espinàs, M. Lluisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The steroid hormone ecdysone is a central regulator of insect development. In this report we show that CTCF expression in the prothoracic gland is required for full transcriptional activation of the Halloween genes spookier, shadow and noppera-bo, which encode ecdysone biosynthetic enzymes, and for proper timing of ecdysone-responsive gene expression. Loss of CTCF results in delayed and less synchronized larval development that can only be rescued by feeding larvae with both, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and cholesterol. Moreover, CTCF-knockdown in prothoracic gland cells leads to increased lipid accumulation. In conclusion, the insulator protein CTCF is required for Halloween gene expression and cholesterol homeostasis in ecdysone-producing cells controlling steroidogenesis. PMID:25979705

  8. Effects of Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9) on Steroidogenesis and Gene Expression and Control of FGF9 mRNA in Bovine Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Nicole B.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression of fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9) is decreased in granulosa cells (GC) of cystic follicles compared with normal dominant follicles in cattle. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of FGF9 on GC steroidogenesis, gene expression, and cell proliferation and to determine the hormonal control of GC FGF9 production. GC were collected from small (1–5 mm) and large (8–22 mm) bovine follicles and treated in vitro with various hormones in serum-free medium for 24 or 48 h. In small- and large-follicle GC, FGF9 inhibited (P < 0.05) IGF-I-, dibutyryl cAMP-, and forskolin-induced progesterone and estradiol production. In contrast, FGF9 increased (P < 0.05) GC numbers induced by IGF-I and 10% fetal calf serum. FGF9 inhibited (P < 0.05) FSHR and CYP11A1 mRNA abundance in small- and large-follicle GC but had no effect (P > 0.10) on CYP19A1 or StAR mRNA. In the presence of a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, trilostane, FGF9 also decreased (P < 0.05) pregnenolone production. IGF-I inhibited (P < 0.05) whereas estradiol and FSH had no effect (P > 0.10) on FGF9 mRNA abundance. TNFα and wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family member-3A decreased (P < 0.05) whereas T4 and sonic hedgehog increased (P < 0.05) FGF9 mRNA abundance in control and IGF-I-treated GC. Thus, GC FGF9 gene expression is hormonally regulated, and FGF9 may act as an autocrine regulator of ovarian function by slowing follicular differentiation via inhibiting IGF-I action, gonadotropin receptors, the cAMP signaling cascade, and steroid synthesis while stimulating GC proliferation in cattle. PMID:22798350

  9. Expression of α4, αv, β1 and β3 integrins during the implantation window on blastocyst of a mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Peyghambari, Fatemeh; Amanpour, Saeid; Fayazi, Mehri; Haddadi, Mahnaz; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Muhammadnejad, Ahad; Salimi, Mehdi; Mazaheri, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that blastocyst integrin expression changes can affect the spontaneous miscarriage in polycystic ovarian syndromes (PCOS). Objective: In this study, the profile of integrin genes and proteins was investigated on blastocyst of the PCOS experimental mouse model. Materials and Methods: 30 NMRI female mice were equally divided into 3 groups: control, experimental [PCOS that was injected estradiol valerate (40 mg/kg)]. After 8 weeks, each group was hyper stimulated by PMSG and HCG. Vaginal plaque was checked, and mice were investigated 5 days after the test. Progesterone and estradiol levels were determined; α4, αv, β1 and β3 integrin genes and protein of blastocysts were examined by real time PCR method and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Estradiol level was significantly increased (p≤0.035) in PCOS group. Based on our finding, the ratio of genes' expressions αv, β3, β1 and α4 in PCOS to control group was 0.479±0.01, 0.5±0.001, 2.7±0.4 and 1.023±0.2 respectively. Genes expression showed a great difference (p≤0.001) between β3, β1 and αv in PCOS compared to other groups. αv and β3 integrin proteins expressed in all groups but intensity of these proteins in PCOS groups, was lower than other groups. Conclusion: Pattern of αv and β3 integrins expression on the mouse blastocyst surface has an important effect during the implantation window. This pattern has changed in PCOS model and might have a great influence on implantation failure. Therefore, this experimental study suggests that a great attention to this problem may be essential in patients who are involved. PMID:25469135

  10. Age-related accumulation of non-heme ferric and ferrous iron in mouse ovarian stroma visualized by sensitive non-heme iron histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshiya

    2012-03-01

    Sensitive non-heme iron histochemistry--namely, the perfusion-Perls method and perfusion-Turnbull method--was applied to study the distribution and age-related accumulation of non-heme ferric iron and ferrous iron in mouse ovary. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed that non-heme ferric iron is distributed predominantly in stromal tissue, especially in macrophages. By contrast, the distribution of non-heme ferrous iron was restricted to a few ovoid macrophages. Aged ovaries exhibited remarkable non-heme iron accumulation in all stromal cells. In particular, non-heme ferrous iron level was increased in stromal tissue, suggestive of increased levels of redox-active iron, which can promote oxidative stress. Moreover, intense localization of both non-heme ferric and ferrous iron was observed in aggregated large stromal cells that were then characterized as ceroid-laden enlarged macrophages with frothy cytoplasm. Intraperitoneal iron overload in adult mice resulted in non-heme iron deposition in the entire stroma and generation of enlarged macrophages, suggesting that excessive iron accumulation induced macrophage morphological changes. The data indicated that non-heme iron accumulation in ovarian stromal tissue may be related to aging of the ovary due to increasing oxidative stress.

  11. Parabens Accelerate Ovarian Dysfunction in a 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-Induced Ovarian Failure Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Myeongho; Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Hee Young; Tran, Dinh Nam; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives in basic necessities such as cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In previous studies, xenoestrogenic actions of parabens were reported in an immature rat model and a rat pituitary cell line (GH3 cells). The relationship between parabens and ovarian failure has not been described. In the present study, the influence of parabens on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis was investigated. A disruptor of ovarian small pre-antral follicles, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 40 mg/kg), was used to induce premature ovarian failure (POF). Methylparaben (MP, 100 mg/kg), propylparaben (PP, 100 mg/kg), and butylparaben (BP, 100 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil were treated in female 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat for 5 weeks. Estrus cycle status was checked daily by vaginal smear test. Ovarian follicle development and steroid synthesis were investigated through real-time PCR and histological analyses. Diestrus phases in the VCD, PP, and BP groups were longer than that in the vehicle group. VCD significantly decreased mRNA level of folliculogenesis-related genes (Foxl2, Kitl and Amh). All parabens significantly increased the Amh mRNA level but unchanged Foxl2 and Kitlg acting in primordial follicles. VCD and MP slightly increased Star and Cyp11a1 levels, which are related to an initial step in steroidogenesis. VCD and parabens induced an increase in FSH levels in serum and significantly decreased the total number of follicles. Increased FSH implies impairment in ovarian function due to VCD or parabens. These results suggest that VCD may suppress both formation and development of follicles. In particular, combined administration of VCD and parabens accelerated inhibition of the follicle-developmental process through elevated AMH level in small antral follicles. PMID:28208728

  12. Parabens Accelerate Ovarian Dysfunction in a 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-Induced Ovarian Failure Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Myeongho; Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Hee Young; Tran, Dinh Nam; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-02-08

    Parabens are widely used preservatives in basic necessities such as cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In previous studies, xenoestrogenic actions of parabens were reported in an immature rat model and a rat pituitary cell line (GH3 cells). The relationship between parabens and ovarian failure has not been described. In the present study, the influence of parabens on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis was investigated. A disruptor of ovarian small pre-antral follicles, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 40 mg/kg), was used to induce premature ovarian failure (POF). Methylparaben (MP, 100 mg/kg), propylparaben (PP, 100 mg/kg), and butylparaben (BP, 100 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil were treated in female 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat for 5 weeks. Estrus cycle status was checked daily by vaginal smear test. Ovarian follicle development and steroid synthesis were investigated through real-time PCR and histological analyses. Diestrus phases in the VCD, PP, and BP groups were longer than that in the vehicle group. VCD significantly decreased mRNA level of folliculogenesis-related genes (Foxl2, Kitl and Amh). All parabens significantly increased the Amh mRNA level but unchanged Foxl2 and Kitlg acting in primordial follicles. VCD and MP slightly increased Star and Cyp11a1 levels, which are related to an initial step in steroidogenesis. VCD and parabens induced an increase in FSH levels in serum and significantly decreased the total number of follicles. Increased FSH implies impairment in ovarian function due to VCD or parabens. These results suggest that VCD may suppress both formation and development of follicles. In particular, combined administration of VCD and parabens accelerated inhibition of the follicle-developmental process through elevated AMH level in small antral follicles.

  13. Screening Chemical Effects on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper endocrine function requires steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis). Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This study is the first to estab...

  14. Screening Chemical Effects on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper endocrine function requires steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis). Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This study is the first to estab...

  15. A neuroimmune regulation at peripheral level on the steroidogenesis of polycystic ovary in rats.

    PubMed

    Forneris, M L; Aguado, L I; Oliveros, L B

    2003-09-01

    It is known that noradrenergic sympathetic nerve fibers connect the ovary and the spleen from the celiac ganglion. The modulation of the ovarian steroidogenesis in rats with polycystic ovary (PCO) by secretions of culture splenocytes from control (non PCO), PCO and PCO rats with superior ovarian nerve transection (PCO+SON-t) is investigated. Splenocytes from PCO rats increased progesterone (P) and decreasing estradiol (E) and androstenedione (A) release, a steroidogenic response different from that obtained with splenocytes of control rats. PCO also decreased the number of splenocyte beta-adrenergic receptors (betaR). SON transection reverted the effect of PCO on splenocytes betaR numbers and secretions of these splenocytes also reverted the stimulatory effect of PCO on P release, while norepinephrine (NE) treatment to PCO+SON-t splenocytes decreased their betaR number and their secretions restored the stimulation on progesterone release. Inversely, PCO+SON-t splenocyte secretions intensified the inhibition in estradiol with no effect on A. Treatment of PCO+SON-t splenocytes with NE or neuropeptide Y partially reverted the effects of PCO and SON-t The P and E-A response of PCO ovary might be differentially regulated by the splenocyte secretions through the neural connection involving ovary, SON, celiac ganglion and spleen and the neurotransmitter NE.

  16. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    OVARIAN CANCER Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a ... rare fallopian tube cancer.) This fact sheet about ovarian cancer is part of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  17. Nigericin inhibits accumulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein but not steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    King, S R; Walsh, L P; Stocco, D M

    2000-08-30

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein mediates the delivery of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the cholesterol side chain cleavage complex converts it to pregnenolone. While the mechanism by which this mitochondrial protein acts is poorly understood, one component of the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient, the electrochemical potential (DeltaPsi), appears to be essential. In this study, the importance of the other component, the proton gradient (DeltapH), was examined. Disruption of DeltapH with the electroneutral K(+)/H(+) exchanger, nigericin, had no effect on steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells at concentrations which significantly reduced StAR protein levels. These data indicate for the first time in true steroidogenic cells, that StAR can act prior to being fully imported into the mitochondria and are consistent with observations made in COS-1 cells using mutant forms of StAR. These results support the hypothesis that a DeltaPsi-dependent factor is required for StAR activity and demonstrate that nigericin is the first compound described, capable of inhibiting StAR accumulation without affecting steroidogenesis.

  18. Potential role of retinoids in ovarian physiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanwen; Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Wang, Fengge; Zhou, Xu

    2017-03-27

    Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for maintaining vision, immunity, barrier function, reproduction, embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, retinoid signaling plays a key role in initiating meiosis of germ cells of the mammalian fetal ovary. Recently, studies indicated that precise retinoid level regulation in the ovary provides a molecular control of ovarian development, steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. Besides, abnormal retinoid signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common ovarian endocrinopathies in reproductive-aged women worldwide. This review primarily summarizes recent advancements made in investigating the action of retinoid signaling in ovarian physiology as well as the abnormal retinoid signaling in PCOS.

  19. Three dimensional in vitro culture of preantral follicles following slow-freezing and vitrification of mouse ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Fatemeh; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fatehi, Roya

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects slow-freezing and vitrification on three dimensional in vitro culture of preantral follicles, ovaries of 12-14 days old female NMRI mice were isolated and randomly assigned to fresh control, slow-freezing and vitrification groups. Slow-freezing was performed using programmable freezer. Vitrification was carried out in a medium consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) by needle immersion method. middle sized preantral follicles were mechanically isolated and cultured for 12 days in 0.7% sodium alginate gel. The follicles development and quantitative expression of oocyte specific genes (Bmp15, Gdf9, Fgf8) and the growth related genes (Igf1, Kit, Kit-l) were assessed after 1, 8 and 12 days of culture. Both cryopreserved groups showed reduction of follicular survival rates compared to the control group on days 8 and 12 of culture (P < 0.05). Antrum formation rates reduced in slow-freezing after 12 days of culture (P < 0.05). Evaluation of gene expression showed reduction of Bmp15, Gdf9, Fgf8, Kit and Kit-l during 12 days of culture (P < 0.05). Kit and Kit-l expression in slow-freezing group significantly reduced on day 8 of culture (p < 0.05). Igf1 expression was lower in slow-freezing group on 1st day of culture than vitrification and control groups (P < 0.05). Finally, intergroup comparison showed same expression pattern of genes after 12 days of culture. Thus, cryopreservation of mouse ovaries by both methods can preserve most developmental parameters and expression of maturation genes. However, vitrification is a better method for cryopreservation of mouse ovaries due to greater antrum formation and expression of growth related markers.

  20. MicroRNA-144 is regulated by CP2 and decreases COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in mouse ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiawei; Lei, Bin; Li, Huanan; Zhu, Lihua; Wang, Lei; Tao, Hu; Mei, Shuqi; Li, Fenge

    2017-02-09

    Mammalian folliculogenesis is a complex process in which primordial follicles develop into pre-ovulatory follicles, followed by ovulation to release mature oocytes. In this study, we explored the role of miR-144 in ovulation. miR-144 was one of the differentially expressed microRNAs, which showed 5.59-fold changes, in pre-ovulatory ovarian follicles between Large White and Chinese Taihu sows detected by Solexa deep sequencing. We demonstrated that overexpression of miR-144 significantly decreased the luciferase reporter activity under the control of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or mothers against decapentaplegic homologue 4 (Smad4) 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) and suppressed COX-2 and Smad4 expression. In contrast, a miR-144 inhibitor increased COX-2 and Smad4 expression in mouse granulosa cells (mGCs). Meanwhile, Smad4 upregulated COX-2 expression, but this effect was abolished when the mGCs were treated with the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway inhibitor SB431542. Moreover, luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay results showed that the transcription factor CP2 upregulated miR-144 expression, which partially contributed to the suppression of COX-2 in mGCs. Both CP2 and miR-144 alter prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by regulating COX-2 expression. In addition, miR-144 regulated mGC apoptosis and affected follicular atresia, but these activities did not appear to be through COX-2 and Smad4. Taken together, we revealed an important CP2/miR-144/COX-2/PGE2/ovulation pathway in mGCs.

  1. Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Function in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, Viviana; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Burguillo, Ana; Frigato, Elena; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Piferrer, Francesc; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fish present daily and seasonal rhythms in spawning and plasmatic levels of steroids that control reproduction. However, the existence of the rhythms of expression of the genes that underlie the endocrine mechanisms responsible for processes such as steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish have still been poorly explored to date. Here we investigated the daily pattern of the expression of key genes involved in sex steroid production that ultimately set the sex ratio in fish. Adult zebrafish were maintained under a 12:12 h light-dark cycle at a constant temperature of 27°C and were sampled every 4 h during a 24-hour cycle. The expression of key genes in the gonads and brains of female and male individuals were analyzed. In gonads, the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a, ovarian aromatase) and the antimüllerian hormone (amh, testis) was rhythmic, with almost opposite acrophases: ZT 5:13 h (in the light phase) and ZT 15:39 h (at night), respectively. The expression of foxl2 (forkhead box L2) was also rhythmic in the ovary (acrophase located at ZT 5:02 h) and the expression of dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) was rhythmic in testes (acrophase at ZT 18:36 h). In the brain, cyp19a1b (brain aromatase) and cyp11b (11beta-hydroxylase) presented daily differences, especially in males, where the expression peaked at night. These results provide the first evidence for marked time-of-the-day-dependent differences in the expression of the genes involved in sex ratio control, which should be considered when investigating processes such as reproduction, sex differentiation and steroidogenesis in fish. PMID:27322588

  2. Targeting Ovarian Cancer with Porphysome Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    platform that could enhance OC diagnosis by integrating PET / CT and fluorescence imaging, and improve OC therapeutic efficacy and specificity by tailoring...Oza) for Phase I clinical trials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ovarian cancer, Folate receptor, Porphysome, Targeting therapy, Fluorescence imaging, PET / CT ...G: Liver. Figure 13. Ovarian cancer metastasis detected by 64 Cu-PLP. a. Representative whole-body PET / CT image of mouse with ovarian cancer

  3. The Ovarian Renin-Angiotensin System (OVRAS): A Major Factor in Ovarian Function and Disease.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Angela; Ávila, Julio; Naftolin, Frederick

    2016-12-01

    This contribution summarizes the pivotal role of the ovarian renin-angiotensin system (OVRAS) in ovarian physiology and disease, with particular emphasis on human clinical implications and established translational applications. The presence of a complete OVRAS in all studied species has been known for decades. The OVRAS has major effects on follicle development/atresia and ovulation and steroid hormone secretion, that is, it is necessary for normal reproduction. It is well established that OVRAS activity is regulated by gonadotropins and depends on activation of proteases in the area of growing follicles. Angiotensin and angiotensin receptors are widely distributed in the ovarian follicle, preovulatory theca and granulosa cells, and postovulatory mural granulosa-lutein cells and regulate steroidogenesis. Molecular blockade of the OVRAS inhibits oocyte maturation and ovulation. Pathologically abnormal OVRAS function has been associated with infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), and ovarian cancer. Both hyperandrogenism in PCOS and third space fluid accumulation in OHSS have been convincingly linked to overexpression of renin and angiotensin. Blockade of angiotensin receptors is under study for the treatment of gynecologic cancer, OHSS, and PCOS. However, a full understanding of the OVRAS and translational applications is lacking. In part, this is due to the discovery in recent years of previously unknown renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components and novel functions of "classical" RAS components that remain to be integrated into translational studies; newer, more specific agents to block RAS components are available only now for such research and treatment. The need for further studies is evident.

  4. Lunar synchronization of in vitro steroidogenesis in ovaries of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Takemura, Akihiro; Takano, Kazunori

    2002-01-01

    To assess the relationship between lunar cycle and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, the intact follicles of oocytes were incubated in vitro with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and seven steroid hormones, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), 17alpha,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), progesterone (P), cortisol, estradiol-17beta (E2) and testosterone, during the two lunar phases, the new moon (1 week before spawning) and the first lunar quarter (just before spawning). Around the new moon, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) could not be induced by addition of hCG or any steroid hormones. Around the first lunar quarter, GVBD was induced by addition of hCG, DHP, 20beta-S, 17alpha-OHP, P, and cortisol. DHP was the most potent steroid hormone. When the intact follicles of oocytes were incubated with hCG in both lunar phases, the production of E2 and DHP measured by enzyme immunoassay decreased and increased significantly from the new moon to the first lunar quarter, respectively. These results suggest that the ovarian follicles produce E2 around the new moon and DHP around the first lunar quarter and that the production/conversion of the steroid hormones is under the influence of gonadotropin(s). The synchronous increase in ovarian activity supports the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is a major factor for the ovarian development of S. guttatus.

  5. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of a telodendrimer micellar paclitaxel nanoformulation in a mouse xenograft model of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wenwu; Luo, Juntao; Jain, Teesta; Riggs, John W; Tseng, Harry P; Henderson, Paul T; Cherry, Simon R; Rowland, Douglas; Lam, Kit S

    2012-01-01

    Background A multifunctional telodendrimer-based micelle system was characterized for delivery of imaging and chemotherapy agents to mouse tumor xenografts. Previous optical imaging studies demonstrated qualitatively that these classes of nanoparticles, called nanomicelles, preferentially accumulate at tumor sites in mice. The research reported herein describes the detailed quantitative imaging and biodistribution profiling of nanomicelles loaded with a cargo of paclitaxel. Methods The telodendrimer was covalently labeled with 125I and the nanomicelles were loaded with 14C-paclitaxel, which allowed measurement of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in the mice using microSPECT/CT imaging and liquid scintillation counting, respectively. Results The radio imaging data showed preferential accumulation of nanomicelles at the tumor site along with a slower clearance rate than paclitaxel formulated in Cremophor EL (Taxol®). Liquid scintillation counting confirmed that 14C-labeled paclitaxel sequestered in nanomicelles had increased uptake by tumor tissue and slower pharmacokinetics than Taxol. Conclusion Overall, the results indicate that nanomicelle-formulated paclitaxel is a potentially superior formulation compared with Taxol in terms of water solubility, pharmacokinetics, and tumor accumulation, and may be clinically useful for both tumor imaging and improved chemotherapy applications. PMID:22605931

  6. Effect of hyperandrogenism on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Velez, Leandro M; Heber, Maria F; Ferreira, Silvana R; Abruzzese, Giselle A; Reynoso, Roxana M; Motta, Alicia B

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the ovarian function when follicular development is induced during a hyperandrogenic condition. Female rats were injected with either equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG group) to induce folliculogenesis or eCG together with DHEA to induce folliculogenesis in a hyperandrogenic condition (eCG+HA group). The control group was injected with vehicle. Ovarian mRNA levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) co-activator PGC1α, the PPARγ co-repressor NCoR, the main enzymes involved in the ovarian steroidogenesis (CYP17, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, and CYP19A), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) were evaluated only by real-time PCR. COX2 was evaluated by both real-time PCR and western blot. Serum steroid hormones and both the oxidative and inflammatory statuses were also quantified. We found that eCG-induced folliculogenesis induced increased mRNA levels of PGC1α and decreased those of NCoR when compared with controls. In addition, we found an increase in serum estradiol (E2) levels and enhanced mRNA expression of CYP19A. A pro-inflammatory status and a pro-oxidant status were also established. When folliculogenesis was induced in a hyperandrogenic condition, the mRNA levels of the PPARγ co-repressor NCoR remained higher than in controls and the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant statuses were enhanced. In addition, the enzymes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis were altered leading to the accumulation of testosterone and an unfavorable E2/testosterone ratio. These alterations led to abnormal follicular development. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. Interference of Steroidogenesis by Gold Nanorod Core/Silver Shell Nanostructures: Implications for Reproductive Toxicity of Silver Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiumei; Wang, Liming; Ji, Yinglu; Tang, Jinglong; Tian, Xin; Cao, Mingjing; Li, Jingxuan; Bi, Shuying; Wu, Xiaochun; Chen, Chunying; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2017-03-01

    As a widely used nanomaterial in daily life, silver nanomaterials may cause great concern to female reproductive system as they are found to penetrate the blood-placental barrier and gain access to the ovary. However, it is largely unknown about how silver nanomaterials influence ovarian physiology and functions such as hormone production. This study performs in vitro toxicology study of silver nanomaterials, focusing especially on cytotoxicity and steroidogenesis and explores their underlying mechanisms. This study exposes primary rat granulosa cells to gold nanorod core/silver shell nanostructures (Au@Ag NRs), and compares outcomes with cells exposed to gold nanorods. The Au@Ag NRs generate more reactive oxygen species and reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and less production of adenosine triphosphate. Au@Ag NRs promote steroidogenesis, including progesterone and estradiol, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Chemical reactivity and transformation of Au@Ag NRs are then studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure, which analyze the generation of free radical and intracellular silver species. Results suggest that both particle-specific activity and intracellular silver ion release of Au@Ag NR contribute to the toxic response of granulosa cells.

  8. Endometriosis as a detrimental condition for granulosa cell steroidogenesis and development: From molecular alterations to clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vercellini, Paolo; Pagliardini, Luca; Candiani, Massimo; Vigano, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory condition that affects women in their reproductive period. Alterations in ovarian follicle morphology and function have been documented in affected women. The local intrafollicular environment has been as well examined by various groups. In the present review, we aimed to summarize the molecular evidence supporting the idea that endometriosis can negatively influence growth, steroidogenesis and the function of the granulosa cells (GCs). Reduced P450 aromatase expression, increased intracellular ROS generation and altered WNT signaling characterize the GCs of women with endometriosis. Clear evidence for an increased level of GC apoptosis has been provided in association with the downregulation of pro-survival factors. Other potentially negative effects include decreased progesterone production, locally decreased AMH production and lower inflammatory cytokine expression, although these have been only partially clarified. The possibility that endometriosis per se may influence IVF clinical results as a consequence of the detrimental impact on the local intrafollicular environment is also discussed.

  9. Modulation of GR activity does not affect the in vitro metabolism of cortisol by rainbow trout ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Christie, Heather; Leatherland, John

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether the metabolic clearance of cortisol from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles is affected by the level of ovarian steroidogenesis, and whether it involves the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Ovarian follicles were incubated in vitro; the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, was used to stimulate ovarian steroidogenesis, and the modulation of GR activity was brought about using GR agonists (cortisol and dexamethasone) or the GR antagonist, mifepristone (RU486). The follicles were co-incubated with [2, 4, 6, 7 (3)H] cortisol, and the tritium-labelled steroid products were separated by HPLC. In addition, the rates of expression of genes encoding for the two forms of GR (gr1 and gr2) were measured. Cortisone, cortisol sulphate, and cortisone sulphate were the major glucocorticoid products of cortisol metabolism, indicative of the action of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and glucocorticoid sulphotransferase in the follicular cells. There were no effects of RU486 or forskolin on the rates of [(3)H]cortisol metabolism suggesting that cortisol metabolism by ovarian follicles was independent of GR activation, and not influenced by increased activation of gonadal reproductive steroidogenesis.

  10. Embryonic stem cell-derived granulosa cells participate in ovarian follicle formation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; White, Yvonne A R; Niikura, Yuichi; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Lee, Ho-Joon; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-05-01

    Differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can form ovarian follicle-like structures in vitro, consisting of an oocyte-like cell surrounded by somatic cells capable of steroidogenesis. Using a dual-fluorescence reporter system in which mouse ESCs express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a germ cell-specific Pou5f1 gene promoter and red fluorescent protein (Discosoma sp red [DsRed]) driven by the granulosa cell-specific Forkhead box L2 (Foxl2) gene promoter, we first confirmed in vitro formation of follicle-like structures containing GFP-positive cells surrounded by DsRed-positive cells. Isolated DsRed-positive cells specified from ECSs exhibited a gene expression profile consistent with granulosa cells, as revealed by the detection of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Foxl2, follistatin (Fst), anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) as well as by production of both progesterone and estradiol. In addition, treatment of isolated DsRed-expressing cells with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) significantly increased estradiol production over basal levels, confirming the presence of functional FSH receptors in these cells. Last, ESC-derived DsRed-positive cells injected into neonatal mouse ovaries became incorporated within the granulosa cell layer of immature follicles. These studies demonstrate that Foxl2-expressing ovarian somatic cells derived in vitro from differentiating ESCs express granulosa cell markers, actively associate with germ cells in vitro, synthesize steroids, respond to FSH, and participate in folliculogenesis in vivo.

  11. Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Granulosa Cells Participate in Ovarian Follicle Formation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Niikura, Yuichi; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Lee, Ho-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can form ovarian follicle-like structures in vitro, consisting of an oocyte-like cell surrounded by somatic cells capable of steroidogenesis. Using a dual-fluorescence reporter system in which mouse ESCs express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a germ cell–specific Pou5f1 gene promoter and red fluorescent protein (Discosoma sp red [DsRed]) driven by the granulosa cell–specific Forkhead box L2 (Foxl2) gene promoter, we first confirmed in vitro formation of follicle-like structures containing GFP-positive cells surrounded by DsRed-positive cells. Isolated DsRed-positive cells specified from ECSs exhibited a gene expression profile consistent with granulosa cells, as revealed by the detection of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Foxl2, follistatin (Fst), anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) as well as by production of both progesterone and estradiol. In addition, treatment of isolated DsRed-expressing cells with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) significantly increased estradiol production over basal levels, confirming the presence of functional FSH receptors in these cells. Last, ESC-derived DsRed-positive cells injected into neonatal mouse ovaries became incorporated within the granulosa cell layer of immature follicles. These studies demonstrate that Foxl2-expressing ovarian somatic cells derived in vitro from differentiating ESCs express granulosa cell markers, actively associate with germ cells in vitro, synthesize steroids, respond to FSH, and participate in folliculogenesis in vivo. PMID:23536570

  12. Anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody enhances antitumor immunity by modulating tumor-infiltrating Tregs in an ovarian cancer xenograft humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, De-Kuan; Peterson, Eric; Sun, Jiusong; Goudie, Calum; Drapkin, Ronny I.; Liu, Joyce F.; Matulonis, Ursula; Zhu, Quan; Marasco, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are recruited to tumor sites where they can suppress antitumor immunity. The chemokine receptor CCR4 is expressed at high levels on functional CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs and production of the CCR4 ligand CCL22 by tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages is associated with Treg recruitment to the tumor site. Here, we tested IgG1 and IgG4 isotypes of human anti-CCR4 mAb2-3 for their in vitro activity and in vivo capacity in a NSG mouse model bearing CCL22-secreting ovarian cancer (OvCA) xenograft to modulate Tregs and restore antitumor activity. Both mAb2-3 isotypes blocked in vitro chemoattraction of Tregs to CCL22-secreting OvCA cells. However, they differed in their in vivo mode of action with IgG1 causing Treg depletion and IgG4 blocking migration to the tumors. Primary T cells that were primed with OvCA-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) demonstrated INFγ secretion that could be enhanced through Treg depletion by mAb2-3. Humanized mice reconstructed with allogeneic tumor-primed T cells (TP-T) were used to evaluate the restoration of OvCA immunity by depletion or blockade of Tregs with mAb2-3. We observed that IgG1 was more potent than IgG4 in inhibiting tumor growth. Mechanism studies demonstrated that mAb2-3 treatment lead to inhibition of IL-2 binding to its receptor. Further studies showed that mAb2-3 induced CD25 shedding (sCD25) from Tregs which lead to a decrease in IL-2-dependent survival. Together, the results demonstrate that mAb2-3 is an agonist antibody that can restore anti-OvCA immunity through modulation of Treg activity. PMID:27141347

  13. Cigarette smoke decreases mitochondrial porin expression and steroidogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M.; Gairola, C. Gary; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2008-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane for steroidogenesis. Here, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on steroidogenesis using adrenal mitochondria isolated from mice chronically exposed to CS. Steroidogenesis was decreased approximately 78% in CS-exposed mitochondria, as measured by synthesis of the steroid hormone precursor pregnenolone. This effect was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial import of {sup 35}S-StAR. Further characterization of the imported {sup 35}S-StAR by native gradient PAGE revealed the presence of a high molecular weight complex in both control and CS-exposed groups. Following density gradient fractionation of {sup 35}S-StAR that had been extracted from control mitochondria, precursor StAR could be found in fractions 2-6 and smaller-sized StAR complexes in fractions 6-13. In the CS-exposed group, the appearance of precursor shifted from fraction 1-6 and the smaller complexes in fractions 6-9 disappeared. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the {sup 35}S-StAR-associated protein complex was composed of several resident matrix proteins as well as the OMM resident, VDAC. VDAC expression was greatly reduced by CS, and blockage of VDAC with Koenig's polyanion decreased pregnenolone synthesis in isolated mitochondria. Taken together, these results suggest that VDAC may participate in steroidogenesis by promoting StAR interaction with the OMM and that CS may inhibit steroidogenesis by reducing VDAC-StAR interactions.

  14. Effect of prenatal and neonatal exposure to lead on gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenesis in rat ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, J.P.; Barr, K.J.; Buckingham, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lead chloride (20 or 200 ppm) or sodium chloride (controls) in their drinking water, either prior to pregnancy or during pregnancy and lactation, and female offspring were examined at weaning (21 d) or at 150 d. Other female rats were treated from d 21 to 35. Tissue (blood, kidney, bone) lead levels, body, ovary, and uterus weights, ovarian steroidogenesis, and gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) levels, and gonadotropin-receptor binding were determined. Prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to lead at these levels (20 and 200 ppm) did not affect tissue weights but did cause a significant decrease in gonadotropin-receptor binding in the prepubertal, pubertal and adult females. Conversion of progesterone to androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone was significantly decreased in 21-d-old rats; in 150-d-old females, the prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased conversion to the 5-alpha-reduced steroid, normally high during puberty. The results demonstrate that lead exposure prior to mating may affect gonadotropin-receptor binding in the offspring and that lead exposure (in utero, via mother's milk, or post weaning) may significantly alter steroid production and gonadotropin binding in ovaries of the prepubertal, pubertal, and adult female.

  15. TRANSLOCATOR PROTEIN-MEDIATED PHARMACOLOGY OF CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT AND STEROIDOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Fan, Jinjiang; Campioli, Enrico; Zirkin, Barry; Midzak, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Steroidogenesis begins with cholesterol transfer into mitochondria through the transduceosome, a complex composed of cytosolic proteins that include steroidogenesis acute regulatory protein (STAR), 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, and the outer mitochondrial membrane proteins Translocator Protein (TSPO) and Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC). TSPO is a drug- and cholesterol- binding protein found at particularly high levels in steroid synthesizing cells. Its aberrant expression has been linked to cancer, neurodegeneration, neuropsychiatric disorders and primary hypogonadism. Brain steroids serve as local regulators of neural development and excitability. Reduced levels of these steroids have been linked to depression, anxiety and neurodegeneration. Reduced serum testosterone is common among subfertile young men and aging men, and is associated with depression, metabolic syndrome and reduced sexual function. Although testosterone-replacement therapy is available, there are undesired side-effects. TSPO drug ligands have been proposed as therapeutic agents to regulate steroid levels in the brain and testis. PMID:25818881

  16. Translocator protein-mediated pharmacology of cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Fan, Jinjiang; Campioli, Enrico; Zirkin, Barry; Midzak, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    Steroidogenesis begins with cholesterol transfer into mitochondria through the transduceosome, a complex composed of cytosolic proteins that include steroidogenesis acute regulatory protein (STAR), 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, and the outer mitochondrial membrane proteins Translocator Protein (TSPO) and Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC). TSPO is a drug- and cholesterol-binding protein found at particularly high levels in steroid synthesizing cells. Its aberrant expression has been linked to cancer, neurodegeneration, neuropsychiatric disorders and primary hypogonadism. Brain steroids serve as local regulators of neural development and excitability. Reduced levels of these steroids have been linked to depression, anxiety and neurodegeneration. Reduced serum testosterone is common among subfertile young men and aging men, and is associated with depression, metabolic syndrome and reduced sexual function. Although testosterone-replacement therapy is available, there are undesired side-effects. TSPO drug ligands have been proposed as therapeutic agents to regulate steroid levels in the brain and testis.

  17. Glucocorticoid suppresses steroidogenesis in rat progenitor Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ye-Chen; Huang, Ya-Dong; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-Kun; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) inhibits testosterone production in adult Leydig cells by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). However, whether GC affects the development of Leydig cells is unclear. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effects of GC on steroidogenesis of rat progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs) in vitro. Dexamethasone (DEX) inhibited androsterone (AO) production in PLCs. The GR antagonist RU38486 reversed the DEX-induced inhibition of AO, whereas the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist RU28318 did not. RU38486 also reversed DEX-induced reductions in steady-state mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1). Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) protein expression and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) enzyme activity were affected similarly. These results show that GCs inhibit steroidogenesis of PLCs by suppression of StAR and 3βHSD via a GR-mediated mechanism.

  18. The regulation of the human corpus luteum steroidogenesis: a hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Oon, V J; Johnson, M R

    2000-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an important endocrine organ in the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. The regulation of its hormonal production has been extensively studied. The steroidogenic abilities of the CL can be rescued by human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) but its role in the maintenance of CL function is not clear. We will discuss the hypothesis that there are fetoplacental factors, other than HCG, that modulate CL steroidogenesis.

  19. Ovarian hypofunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by genetic factors such as chromosome abnormalities. It may also occur with certain autoimmune disorders that disrupt the normal function of the ovaries. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also cause ovarian hypofunction.

  20. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Endometriosis fact sheet Ovarian cancer fact sheet Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet The javascript used in this widget ... ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and getting enough rest can help combat the stress and fatigue of cancer. There's no sure way to prevent ovarian cancer. But certain factors are associated with lower risk: Use of oral contraceptives, especially for more than 10 years Previous ...

  2. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovarian cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ... cysts: Follicular cyst. Around the midpoint of your menstrual cycle, an egg bursts out of its follicle and ...

  3. The immunomodulatory effects of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin are amplified in BRCA1--deficient ovarian tumors and can be exploited to improve treatment response in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Mantia-Smaldone, Gina; Ronner, Lukas; Blair, Anne; Gamerman, Victoria; Morse, Christopher; Orsulic, Sandra; Rubin, Stephen; Gimotty, Phyllis; Adams, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Women with BRCA-associated ovarian cancer demonstrate excellent responses to Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (PLD). PLD has also been shown to enhance T cell recognition of tumor cells. Here we characterize immunophenotypic changes associated with BRCA1 dysfunction in ovarian cancer cells, and evaluate the T cell contribution to the therapeutic efficacy of PLD in a BRCA1- ovarian cancer model to determine whether enhanced anti-tumor immunity contributes to the improved response to PLD in BRCA1- ovarian cancers. The immunophenotype of BRCA1- and wild-type (WT) ovarian cancer cells and their response to PLD were compared in vitro using flow cytometry. T cell recruitment to BRCA1- tumors was evaluated with flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. The contribution of T cell populations to the therapeutic effect of PLD in a BRCA1- model was evaluated using immunodepleting antibodies with PLD in vivo. The cytotoxic response to PLD was similar in BRCA1- and WT cells in vitro. BRCA1- inactivation resulted in higher expression of Fas and MHC-I at baseline and after PLD exposure. PLD prolonged the survival of BRCA1- tumor bearing mice and increased intratumoral T cell recruitment. CD4+ depletion combined with PLD significantly prolonged overall survival (p=0.0204) in BRCA1- tumor-bearing mice. Differences in the immunophenotype of BRCA1- and WT cells are amplified by PLD exposure. The enhanced immunomodulatory effects of PLD in BRCA1- tumors may be exploited therapeutically by eliminating suppressive CD4+ T cells. Our results support further study of combination therapy using PLD and immune agents, particularly in women with BRCA gene mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ovarian Steroids: The Good, the Bad, and the Signals that Raise Them

    PubMed Central

    Jamnongjit, Michelle; Hammes, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian steroid production and subsequent local steroid-mediated signaling are critical for normal ovarian processes, including follicle growth, oocyte maturation, and ovulation. In contrast, elevated steroidogenesis and/or increased steroid signaling in the ovary can lead to profound ovarian pathology, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, the leading cause of infertility in reproductive age women. Through the use of several in vitro and animal models, great strides have been made toward characterizing the mechanisms regulating local steroid production and action in the ovary. Examples of this progress include insights into luteinizing hormone (LH)- and growth factor-mediated signaling, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) activation, and both genomic and nongenomic steroid-mediated signaling in somatic and germ cells, respectively. The following review will address these advances, focusing on how this rapidly expanding knowledge base can be used to better understand female reproduction, and to further improve treatments for common diseases of infertility. PMID:16760656

  5. The role of hypoxia and HIF1α in the regulation of STAR-mediated steroidogenesis in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois

    2015-02-05

    The adaptive responses to hypoxia are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α). Its role, however, in regulating steroidogenesis remains poorly understood. We examined the role of hypoxia and HIF1α in regulating steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) expression and steroidogenesis in immortalized (KK1) mouse granulosa cells under progressively lowering O2 concentrations (20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%). Basal and dbcAMP-stimulated progesterone synthesis was decreased under severe hypoxia (1% and 5% O2). The partial hypoxia revealed opposing effects, with a significant increase in steroidogenic response at 10% O2 in dbcAMP-treated cells: Star-promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression were increased. The hypoxia-stimulated STAR expression was PKA-dependent. Binding of HIF1α to the Star-promoter was potentiated under partial hypoxia. Inhibition of the transcriptional activity or expression of HIF1α suppressed STAR-expression. HIF1α appears to be a positive regulator of basal and stimulated STAR-expression, which under partial hypoxia is capable of increasing the steroidogenic capacity of granulosa cells. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Apelin (APLN) and Apelin Receptor (APLNR) in Human Ovary: Expression, Signaling, and Regulation of Steroidogenesis in Primary Human Luteinized Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Roche, Jennifer; Ramé, Christelle; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Cornuau, Marion; Guerif, Fabrice; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-11-01

    Apelin (APLN) is a recently discovered adipokine involved in the regulation of various metabolic functions. Its receptor, APLNR, is expressed in reproductive tissues, however, its role in human ovarian cells is unknown. In this study, we identified APLN and APLNR in human ovarian follicles and analyzed their expression in granulosa cells and follicular fluid obtained from obese and nonobese patients, with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We also investigated the effect of APLN on steroidogenesis in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hGCs) from nonobese patients without PCOS. Using RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we found that APLN and APLNR were expressed in hGCs and cumulus and theca cells. We confirmed these data immunohistochemically and observed that APLNR and APLN are present in human oocytes at different stages of follicular development. In patients with PCOS, we observed that follicular fluid APLN concentration and granulosa cell APLN and APLNR mRNA expression was higher than that observed in control patients. In cultured hGCs from nonobese patients without PCOS, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) increased APLNR expression, and recombinant human APLN (APLN-13 and APLN-17) increased both basal and IGF1-induced steroid secretion. These effects on steroid production were reversed when cultured in the presence of ML221, an APLNR antagonist, which was associated with an increased 3beta-hydrosteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) protein concentration. We showed that these effects were dependent on the activation of the AKT and MAPK3/1 pathways using pharmacological inhibitors. Our results show that APLN and APLNR are present in human ovarian cells and APLN increases IGF1-induced steroidogenesis in granulosa cells through an increase in HSD3B protein expression and activation of the MAPK3/1 and Akt pathways. Therefore, APLN and APLNR may play a role in human follicular development and the pathogenesis of PCOS. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of

  7. Combination Efficacy of Astragalus membranaceus and Curcuma wenyujin at Different Stages of Tumor Progression in an Imageable Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model of Metastatic Human Ovarian Cancer Expressing Red Fluorescent Protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Gang; Tang, Decai; Dai, Jianguo; Liu, Min; Wu, Mianhua; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Guo, Xiuxia

    2015-06-01

    The present study determined the efficacy of extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW), a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture, at different tumor stages of an orthotopic nude mouse model of human ovarian cancer expressing red fluorescent protein. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with cisplatinum (CDDP), AM, CW, or a combination of AM and CW in each of three tumor stages, using the same regimen. Group 1 received saline as negative control. Group 2 received CDDP i.p. as positive control with a dose of 2 mg/kg, every three days. Group 3 received AM daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 9120 mg/kg. Group 4 received CW daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 4560 mg/kg. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received combinations of AM and CW daily via oral gavage at low (AM, 2280 mg/kg; CW, 1140 mg/kg), medium (AM, 4560 mg/kg; CW 2280 mg/kg), and high (AM, 9120 mg/kg; CW, 4560 mg/kg) doses. The expression of angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2), and by polymerase chain reaction for MMP-2, FGF-2 and Bcl-2. CDDP, AM, and its combination with CW-induced significant growth inhibition of Stage I tumors. Strong efficacy of the combination of AM and CW at high dose was observed. Monotherapy with CDDP, AM, CW, and the combination treatments did not significantly inhibit Stage II and III tumors. The expression of MMP-2, VEGF, FGF-2, and Cox-2 was significantly reduced in Stage I tumors treated with AM, CW, and their combination, suggesting a possible role of these angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the observed efficacy of the agents tested. This study is the first report on the efficacy of anticancer agents at different stages of ovarian cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. As the tumor progressed, it became treatment

  8. In vitro treatment with 17,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one regulates mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta superfamily members in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily members are important paracrine/autocrine regulators of ovarian development and steroidogenesis in mammals, but their reproductive role in fishes is not well understood. Our objectives were 3-fold: to determine if key TGFB superfamily transcripts a...

  9. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Induces Centrosome Amplification and Aneuploid Mammary Tumors Independently of Alterations in p53 in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Milliken, Erin L.; Lozada, Kristen L.; Johnson, Emhonta; Landis, Melissa D.; Seachrist, Darcie D.; Whitten, Ira; Sutton, Amelia L.M.; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    Aneuploidy and genomic instability are common features of human cancers, including breast cancer; however, mechanisms by which such abnormalities develop are not understood. The exquisite dependence of the mammary gland on hormones for growth and development as well as hormonal contributions to breast cancer risk and progression suggest that tumorigenic mechanisms in the breast should be considered in the context of hormonal stimulation. We used transgenic mice that overexpress luteinizing hormone with subsequent ovarian hyperstimulation as a model to identify mechanisms involved in hormone-induced mammary cancer. Tumor pathology in these mice is highly variable, suggesting individual tumors undergo distinct initiating or promoting events. Supporting this notion, hormone-induced tumors display considerable chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, despite the presence of functional p53. The presence of extensive centrosome amplification in tumors and hyperplastic glands prior to tumor formation suggests that alterations in the ovarian hormonal milieu dysregulate the centrosome cycle in mammary epithelial cells, leading to aneuploidy and cancer. PMID:17891171

  10. Growth differentiation factor-9 has divergent effects on proliferation and steroidogenesis of bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J; Aad, P Y; Allen, D; Mazerbourg, S; Hsueh, A J

    2006-05-01

    In addition to gonadotropins, steroidogenesis and proliferation of granulosa cells during follicular development are controlled by a number of intraovarian factors including growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), and IGF-I. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of GDF-9 and BMP-4 and their interaction with IGF-I and FSH on ovarian granulosa cell function in cattle. Granulosa cells from small (1-5 mm) and large (8-22 mm) follicles were collected from bovine ovaries and cultured for 48 h in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum and then treated with various hormones in serum-free medium for an additional 48 h. We evaluated the effects of GDF-9 (150-600 ng/ml) and BMP-4 (30 ng/ml) during a 2-day exposure on hormone-induced steroidogenesis and cell proliferation. In FSH plus IGF-I-treated granulosa cells obtained from small follicles, 300 ng/ml GDF-9 reduced (P < 0.05) progesterone production by 15% and 600 ng/ml GDF-9 completely blocked (P < 0.01) the IGF-I-induced increase in progesterone production. In comparison, 300 and 600 ng/ml GDF-9 decreased (P < 0.05) estradiol production by 27% and 71% respectively, whereas 150 ng/ml GDF-9 was without effect (P > 0.10). Treatment with 600 ng/ml GDF-9 increased (P < 0.05) numbers (by 28%) of granulosa cells from small follicles. In the same cells treated with FSH but not IGF-I, co-treatment with 600 ng/ml GDF-9 decreased (P < 0.05) progesterone production (by 28%), increased (P < 0.05) cell numbers (by 60%), and had no effect (P > 0.10) on estradiol production. In FSH plus IGF-I-treated granulosa cells obtained from large follicles, GDF-9 caused a dose-dependent decrease (P<0.05) in IGF-I-induced progesterone (by 13-48%) and estradiol (by 20-51%) production. In contrast, GDF-9 increased basal and IGF-I-induced granulosa cell numbers by over 2-fold. Furthermore, treatment with BMP-4 also inhibited (P < 0.05) steroidogenesis by 27-42% but had no effect on cell numbers

  11. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only...ovarian cancer by defined multiple genetic changes in a mouse model system . Cancer Cell 1, 53-62. Quartuccio, S.M., Lantvit, D.D., Bosland, M.C., and

  12. Loss of ovarian function in the VCD mouse-model of menopause leads to insulin resistance and a rapid progression into the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Hoyer, Patricia B; Brooks, Heddwen L

    2009-09-01

    Factors comprising the metabolic syndrome occur with increased incidence in postmenopausal women. To investigate the effects of ovarian failure on the progression of the metabolic syndrome, female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice were treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) and fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 16 wk. VCD destroys preantral follicles, causing early ovarian failure and is a well-characterized model for the gradual onset of menopause. After 12 wk on a HF diet, VCD-treated mice had developed an impaired glucose tolerance, whereas cycling controls were unaffected [12 wk AUC HF mice 13,455 +/- 643 vs. HF/VCD 17,378 +/- 1140 mg/dl/min, P < 0.05]. After 16 wk on a HF diet, VCD-treated mice had significantly higher fasting insulin levels (HF 5.4 +/- 1.3 vs. HF/VCD 10.1 +/- 1.4 ng/ml, P < 0.05) and were significantly more insulin resistant (HOMA-IR) than cycling controls on a HF diet (HF 56.2 +/- 16.7 vs. HF/VCD 113.1 +/- 19.6 mg/dl x microU/ml, P < 0.05). All mice on a HF diet gained more weight than mice on a standard diet, and weight gain in HF/VCD mice was significantly increased compared with HF cycling controls. Interestingly, even without a HF diet, progression into VCD-induced menopause caused a significant increase in cholesterol and free fatty acids. Furthermore, in mice fed a standard diet (6% fat), insulin resistance developed 4 mo after VCD-induced ovarian failure. Insulin resistance following ovarian failure (menopause) was prevented by estrogen replacement. Studies here demonstrate that ovarian failure (menopause) accelerates progression into the metabolic syndrome and that estrogen replacement prevents the onset of insulin resistance in VCD-treated mice. Thus, the VCD model of menopause provides a physiologically relevant means of studying how sex hormones influence the progression of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Expression and regulation of INTELECTIN1 in human granulosa-lutein cells: role in IGF-1-induced steroidogenesis through NAMPT.

    PubMed

    Cloix, Lucie; Reverchon, Maxime; Cornuau, Marion; Froment, Pascal; Ramé, Christelle; Costa, Caroline; Froment, Gisèle; Lecomte, Pierre; Chen, Wenyong; Royère, Dominique; Guerif, Fabrice; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-08-01

    INTELECTIN (ITLN) is an adipokine involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and inflammatory and immunity responses. Serum ITLN levels are lower in obese, diabetic, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women than in control subjects. ITLN has never been studied in ovarian cells. Here, we identified ITLN1 in human ovarian follicles and investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of its expression in response to the insulin sensitizers metformin and rosiglitazone, in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGLCs) and in a human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell line (KGN). We also studied the effects of human recombinant ITLN1 (hRom1) on steroid production and on the activation of various signaling pathways. Using RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found that INTL1 is present in human follicular cells. Using ELISA, we showed that INTL levels are similar in plasma and follicular fluid (FF) in control patients, whereas they are higher in FF than in plasma in PCOS patients. In KGN cells and hGLCs, insulin (10(-8) M), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; 10(-8) M), and metformin (10(-2) M or 10(-3) M) increased INTL1 expression (mRNA and protein) after 12 and 24 h of stimulation. For metformin, this effect was mediated by adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (PRKA). Furthermore, hRom1 increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) expression in KGN and hGLCs. We also showed that hRom1 increased IGF-1-induced progesterone and estradiol secretion and this was associated with an increase in the STAR and CYP19A1 protein levels and an increase in IGF-1R signaling. Furthermore, all these data were abolished when NAMPT was knocked down in KGN cells, suggesting that INTL1 improves IGF-1-induced steroidogenesis through induction of NAMPT in hGLCs. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Kisspeptin regulates steroidogenesis and spermiation in anuran amphibian.

    PubMed

    Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2017-10-01

    Kisspeptin (Kp) system has a recognized role in the control of gonadotropic axis, at multiple levels. Recently, a major focus of research has been to assess any direct activity of this system on testis physiology. Using the amphibian anuran, Pelophylax esculentus, as animal model, we demonstrate - for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrate - that testis expresses both Kiss-1 and Gpr54 proteins during the annual sexual cycle and that ex vivo 17B-estradiol (E2, 10(-6) M) increases both proteins over control group. Since the interstitium is the main site of localization of both ligand and receptor, its possible involvement in the regulation of steroidogenesis has been evaluated by ex vivo treatment of testis pieces with increasing doses of Kp-10 (10(-9)-10(-6) M). Treatments have been carried out in February - when a new wave of spermatogenesis occurs - and affect the expression of key enzymes of steroidogenesis inducing opposite effects on testosterone and estradiol intratesticular levels. Morphological analysis of Kp-treated testes reveals higher number of tubules with spermatozoa detached from Sertoli cells than control group and the expression of connexin 43, the main junctional protein in testis, is deeply affected by the treatment. In spite of the effects on spermatozoa observed ex vivo, in vivo administration of Kp-10 has been unable to induce sperm release in cloacal fluid. In conclusion, we demonstrate Kp-10 effects on steroidogenesis with possible involvement in the balance between testosterone and estradiol levels, and report new Kp-10 activities on spermatozoa-Sertoli cell interaction. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. [Polycystic ovary syndrome of extra-ovarian origin. Review].

    PubMed

    Terán Dávila, J; Teppa-Garrán, A D

    2001-03-01

    An established fact in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS) is an abnormal ovarian steroidogenesis. Though this suggest an intrinsic ovarian defect, the syndrome could also be influenced by factors outside the ovaries. Although of unknown etiology, the POS is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in the gynecologic practice. The disorder is characterized by ultrasound findings of enlarged polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders, obesity and including the appearance of infertility. There are a series of mechanisms involved in the extraovarian androgen increase in patients with POS. Among these mechanisms are implicated those of central and peripheral origin, genetic factors and adrenocortical dysfunction. In the same way, the alterations produced could imply genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, physiological and endocrinological factors. Sometimes all these factors could interact at the same time. The high serum androgen level could stop the pituitary gonadotropin production, either as a direct mechanism or as a result of its peripheral conversion. The increased androgens also explain the manifestations of clinical acne, hirsutism, and the detention in follicular ovarian maturation. All these manifestations are related with the menstrual disorders, anovulation, and infertility that these patients develop. The characteristics of the extraovarian POS include the 17-hydroxyprogesterone elevation in response to the ACTH test and the dexamethasone suppression of adrenal androgens. It is possible to improve the ovarian function in some patients with POS. This could be achieved with clomiphene citrate associated with glucocorticoids to induce ovulation.

  16. Hedgehog Signaling and Steroidogenesis Annual Review of Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Finco, Isabella; LaPensee, Christopher R.; Krill, Kenneth T.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery nearly 30 years ago, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been shown to be pivotal in many developmental and pathophysiological processes in several steroidogenic tissues, including the testis, ovary, adrenal cortex, and placenta. New evidence links the evolutionarily conserved Hh pathway to the steroidogenic organs, demonstrating how Hh signaling can influence their development and homeostasis and can act in concert with steroids to mediate physiological functions. In this review, we highlight the role of the components of the Hh signaling pathway in steroidogenesis of endocrine tissues. PMID:25668018

  17. Ovarian renin--angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidases are involved in progesterone overproduction in rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar Carrera, María; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García, María Jesús; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2009-11-01

    A local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been found in ovary. This ovarian RAS may regulate ovarian steroidogenesis. Ample studies show that the ovarian hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) are strongly implicated in the development of breast cancer. The aim of the present work was to elucidate if alterations in ovarian RAS, analyzed through their proteolytic regulatory enzymes aminopeptidase A (APA), B (APB) and N (APN), could be responsible for an altered steroidogenesis in rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl nitrosourea (NMU). We describe here a highly significant increase of serum P levels in NMU-treated rats, concomitantly with an increase in ovarian aspartyl and glutamyl aminopeptidase activities (named together as APA activity). Moreover, we did not find changes in APB or APN activities, suggesting an increased metabolism from Ang II to Ang III and a decreased catabolism of Ang III. The relationship between ovarian RAS and P overproduction in a rat model of mammary carcinogenesis indicates ovarian RAS as a new potential target in breast cancer therapy.

  18. Chronic exposure to dietary selenomethionine increases gonadal steroidogenesis in female rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Steve; Thomas, Jith K; Higley, Eric; Hursky, Olesya; Pietrock, Michael; Raine, Jason C; Giesy, John P; Janz, David M; Hecker, Markus

    2011-10-01

    Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). Detrimental effects have been associated with exposure to elevated dietary selenium. Previous studies have demonstrated effects of Se on the endocrine system, in particular effects on cortisol and thyroid hormones. However, no information is available regarding effects of Se on sex steroid hormones. In the present study, effects of dietary exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (4.54 mg/kg wet weight (ww)) of Se-Met for 126 days on concentrations of sex steroid hormones in blood plasma of female rainbow trout were determined. Furthermore, the molecular basis for effects of Se-Met on plasma sex steroid hormone concentrations was investigated. Concentrations of androstenedione (A), estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) were 39.5-, 3.8-, and 12.7-fold greater in plasma of treated females than the untreated controls, respectively. Testosterone (T) was detected only in plasma of treated females. The greater E2 concentration stimulated greater transcript abundance of vitellogenin (vtg) and zona-radiata protein (zrp). Female rainbow trout exposed to Se-Met had greater transcript abundance of key steroidogenic proteins and enzymes, including peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-hsd). Exposure to Se-Met did not affect transcript abundance of luteinizing hormone (lh) or follicle stimulating hormone (fsh). Similarly, there was no change in transcript abundance of luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) or follicle stimulating hormone receptor (fshr). Long-term exposure to dietary Se-Met has the potential to stimulate vitellogenesis in female rainbow trout by directly stimulating ovarian tissue steroidogenesis. This is the first study to report effects of Se on sex steroid hormone production in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  20. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Parraguez, Victor H.; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  1. Characterization of Maleimide-Based Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) Inhibitors as Stimulators of Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Midzak, Andrew; Gaisina, Irina N.; Sabath, Emily V.; Fedolak, Allison; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of GSK-3β has been well documented to account for the behavioral actions of the mood stabilizer lithium in various animal models of mood disorders. Recent studies have showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β resulted in anxiolytic-like and pro-social behavior. In our ongoing efforts to develop GSK-3β inhibitors for the treatment of mood disorders, SAR studies on maleimide-based compounds were undertaken. We present herein for the first time that some of these GSK-3β inhibitors, in particular analogs 1 and 9, were able to stimulate progesterone production in the MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cell model of steroidogenesis without any significant toxicity. These two compounds were tested in the SmartCube® behavioral assay and showed anxiolytic-like signatures following daily dose administration (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 13 days. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that GSK-3β inhibition could influence neuroactive steroid production thereby mediating the modulation of anxiety-like behavior in vivo. PMID:23725591

  2. Characterization of maleimide-based glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors as stimulators of steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Midzak, Andrew; Gaisina, Irina N; Sabath, Emily V; Fedolak, Allison; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2013-06-27

    Inhibition of GSK-3β has been well documented to account for the behavioral actions of the mood stabilizer lithium in various animal models of mood disorders. Recent studies have showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β resulted in anxiolytic-like and pro-social behavior. In our ongoing efforts to develop GSK-3β inhibitors for the treatment of mood disorders, SAR studies on maleimide-based compounds were undertaken. We present herein for the first time that some of these GSK-3β inhibitors, in particular analogues 1 and 9, were able to stimulate progesterone production in the MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cell model of steroidogenesis without any significant toxicity. These two compounds were tested in the SmartCube behavioral assay and showed anxiolytic-like signatures following daily dose administration (50 mg/kg, ip) for 13 days. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that GSK-3β inhibition could influence neuroactive steroid production thereby mediating the modulation of anxiety-like behavior in vivo.

  3. Glucocorticoid control of steroidogenesis in isolated rat adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Malamed, S

    1983-08-17

    The role of end-product glucocorticoids in the regulation of corticosteroidogenesis in isolated adrenocortical cells was investigated. Trypsin-isolated cells from male rat adrenal glands were incubated with or without corticotropin (ACTH) and with or without corticosterone. Endogenous corticosterone production was determined by radioimmunoassay at the end of incubation. Cessation of ACTH-induced corticosterone production was apparent after 2-4 h of incubation. The suppression occurred later with lower cell concentrations. Corticosterone production was partially restored after washing the suppressed cells. Supernatant fluid from suppressed cell suspensions also suppressed steroidogenesis of a fresh population of cells. However, the suppressing property of the supernatant fluid was abolished after the removal of corticosterone by charcoal-dextran treatment, suggesting that corticosterone or other steroids caused the suppression. Exogenous corticosterone induced suppression over a wide range of ACTH concentrations, but did not change the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration of ACTH, indicating that the suppression does not change the sensitivity of the cells to ACTH. Suppression occurred within 30-60 min after corticosterone had been added to the incubation medium either at the start of incubation or while steroidogenesis was in progress. Suppression varied directly with the concentration of exogenous corticosterone. These data indicate that glucocorticoids can directly and acutely suppress corticosteroidogenesis and thus control adrenocortical function in concert with other regulators such as ACTH and Ca2+.

  4. Molecular Mechanism of Isocupressic Acid Supresses MA-10 Cell Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Wang, Jyun-Yuan; Wu, Leang-Shin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles causes late-term abortions in cattle and is a serious poisonous plant problem in foothill and mountain rangelands. Isocupressic acid (IA) is the component of pine needles responsible for the abortifacient effect, its abortifacient effect may be due to inhibition of steroidogenesis. To investigate the more detail molecular mechanism, we used MA-10 cell, which is wild used to investigate molecular mechanism of steroidogenesis, to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of IA in more detail. In this report, we focus on the function of IA on important steroidogenic genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). We found that IA does not affect enzyme activities of these genes but inhibits transcription of P450scc and translation of StAR and P450scc through attenuating cAMP-PKA signaling. Thus, steroid productions of cells were suppressed. PMID:22666287

  5. Molecular Mechanism of Isocupressic Acid Supresses MA-10 Cell Steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Wang, Jyun-Yuan; Wu, Leang-Shin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles causes late-term abortions in cattle and is a serious poisonous plant problem in foothill and mountain rangelands. Isocupressic acid (IA) is the component of pine needles responsible for the abortifacient effect, its abortifacient effect may be due to inhibition of steroidogenesis. To investigate the more detail molecular mechanism, we used MA-10 cell, which is wild used to investigate molecular mechanism of steroidogenesis, to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of IA in more detail. In this report, we focus on the function of IA on important steroidogenic genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). We found that IA does not affect enzyme activities of these genes but inhibits transcription of P450scc and translation of StAR and P450scc through attenuating cAMP-PKA signaling. Thus, steroid productions of cells were suppressed.

  6. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Karman, Bethany N. Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S. Craig, Zelieann R. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  7. Morphometrical analysis of preantral follicular survival of VEGF-treated bovine ovarian cortex tissue following xenotransplantation in an immune deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Langbeen, A; Van Ginneken, C; Fransen, E; Bosmans, E; Leroy, J L M R; Bols, P E J

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of cancer survivors the past decades, has sparked the need for fertility preservation strategies. Due to predominantly ethical constraints, human research material is scarce. A bovine in vitro model is a valuable alternative. Therefore, the following objectives were defined: 1) to xeno-graft bovine ovarian cortex tissue in immune deficient mice as a study-model for female fertility preservation strategies; 2) to stereologically quantify vascularization in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-treated and non-treated tissue; 3) to study preantral follicular survival in situ, after xenotransplantation. Bovine ovarian tissue strips were incubated with or without VEGF prior to grafting into female, neutered BALB/c-nu mice (n=16). Non-transplanted cortical tissue was used as a control. At time zero (control), two (2 weeks) and four (4 weeks) weeks after transplantation, grafts were retrieved and assessed by von Willebrand Factor and caspase-3 immunostaining. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model. In the VEGF+ grafts, 31% of the follicles were considered 'alive' 2 weeks after transplantation, compared to only 17% in the VEGF- grafts (P<0.05). However, no difference could be detected 4 weeks after transplantation (P=0.76) with less follicles being considered 'alive' after transplantation (22%), compared to the control (47.5%) (P<0.05). Finally, the vascular surface density was significantly less in the grafts, irrespective of the transplantation period or the use of VEGF. Although the transplantation process overall negatively influenced the number of viable follicles and vascular density, VEGF exposure prior to transplantation can favor follicle survival during a 2 weeks transplantation period.

  8. S100A8, An Oocyte-Specific Chemokine, Directs the Migration of Ovarian Somatic Cells During Mouse Primordial Follicle Assembly.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yijing; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Xi; Niu, Wanbao; Feng, Lizhao; Zhao, Lihua; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Guoliang

    2015-12-01

    In the mammalian ovaries, the primordial follicle pool determines the reproductive capability over the lifetime of a female. The primordial follicle is composed of two cell members, namely the oocyte and the pre-granulosa cells that encircle the oocyte. However, it is unclear what factors are involved in the reorganization of the two distinct cells into one functional unit. This study was performed to address this issue. Firstly, in an in vitro reconstruction system, dispersed ovarian cells from murine fetal ovaries at 19.0 days post coitum (dpc) reassembled into follicle-like structures, independent of the physical distance between the cells, implying that either oocytes or ovarian somatic cells (OSCs) were motile. We then carried out a series of transwell assay experiments, and determined that it was in fact 19.0 dpc OSCs (as opposed to oocytes), which exhibited a significant chemotactic response to both fetal bovine serum and oocytes themselves. We observed that S100A8, a multi-functional chemokine, may participate in the process as it is mainly expressed in oocytes within the cysts/plasmodia. S100A8 significantly promoted the number of migrating OSCs by 2.5 times in vitro, of which 66.9% were FOXL2 protein-positive cells, implying that the majority of motile OSCs were pre-granulosa cells. In addition, an S100A8-specific antibody inhibited the formation of follicle-like reconstruction cell mass in vitro. And, the primordial follicle formation was reduced when S100a8-specific siRNA was applied onto in vitro cultured 17.5 dpc ovary. Therefore, S100A8 could be a chemokine of oocyte origin, which attracts OSCs to form the primordial follicles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Elevated luteinizing hormone induces expression of its receptor and promotes steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kero, Jukka; Poutanen, Matti; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Rahman, Nafis; McNicol, Anne Marie; Nilson, John H.; Keri, Ruth A.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic (TG) female mice expressing bLHβ-CTP (a chimeric protein derived from the β-subunit of bovine luteinizing hormone [LH] and a fragment of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG]) exhibit elevated serum LH, infertility, polycystic ovaries, and ovarian tumors. In humans, increased LH secretion also occurs in infertility and polycystic ovarian syndrome, often concomitant with adrenocortical dysfunction. We therefore investigated adrenal function in LH overexpressing bLHβ-CTP female mice. The size of their adrenals was increased by 80% with histological signs of cortical stimulation. Furthermore, adrenal steroid production was increased, with up to 14-fold elevated serum corticosterone. Primary adrenal cells from TG and control females responded similarly to ACTH stimulation, but, surprisingly, the TG adrenals responded to hCG with significantly increased cAMP, progesterone, and corticosterone production. LH receptor (LHR) expression and activity were also elevated in adrenals from female TG mice, but gonadectomized TG females showed no increase in corticosterone, suggesting that the dysfunctional ovaries of the intact TG females promote adrenocortical hyperfunction. We suggest that, in intact TG females, enhanced ovarian estrogen synthesis causes increased secretion of prolactin (PRL), which elevates LHR expression. Chronically elevated serum LH, augmented by enhanced PRL production, induces functional LHR expression in mouse adrenal cortex, leading to elevated, LH-dependent, corticosterone production. Thus, besides polycystic ovaries, the bLHβ-CTP mice provide a useful model for studying human disorders related to elevated LH secretion and adrenocortical hyperfunction. PMID:10712435

  10. Elevated luteinizing hormone induces expression of its receptor and promotes steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kero, J; Poutanen, M; Zhang, F P; Rahman, N; McNicol, A M; Nilson, J H; Keri, R A; Huhtaniemi, I T

    2000-03-01

    Transgenic (TG) female mice expressing bLHbeta-CTP (a chimeric protein derived from the beta-subunit of bovine luteinizing hormone [LH] and a fragment of the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG]) exhibit elevated serum LH, infertility, polycystic ovaries, and ovarian tumors. In humans, increased LH secretion also occurs in infertility and polycystic ovarian syndrome, often concomitant with adrenocortical dysfunction. We therefore investigated adrenal function in LH overexpressing bLHbeta-CTP female mice. The size of their adrenals was increased by 80% with histological signs of cortical stimulation. Furthermore, adrenal steroid production was increased, with up to 14-fold elevated serum corticosterone. Primary adrenal cells from TG and control females responded similarly to ACTH stimulation, but, surprisingly, the TG adrenals responded to hCG with significantly increased cAMP, progesterone, and corticosterone production. LH receptor (LHR) expression and activity were also elevated in adrenals from female TG mice, but gonadectomized TG females showed no increase in corticosterone, suggesting that the dysfunctional ovaries of the intact TG females promote adrenocortical hyperfunction. We suggest that, in intact TG females, enhanced ovarian estrogen synthesis causes increased secretion of prolactin (PRL), which elevates LHR expression. Chronically elevated serum LH, augmented by enhanced PRL production, induces functional LHR expression in mouse adrenal cortex, leading to elevated, LH-dependent, corticosterone production. Thus, besides polycystic ovaries, the bLHbeta-CTP mice provide a useful model for studying human disorders related to elevated LH secretion and adrenocortical hyperfunction.

  11. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation of Wnt5a (but not Wnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genes in vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signaling via the WNT/Ca2+ or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decrease via a glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.—Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling. PMID:26667040

  12. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation ofWnt5a(but notWnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genesin vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signalingviathe WNT/Ca(2+)or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decreaseviaa glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.-Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

  13. Protein kinase Cμ mediates adenosine-stimulated steroidogenesis in primary rat adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chia; Chen, Ying; Huang, Shih-Horng; Wang, Seu-Mei

    2010-11-05

    Adenosine (Ado), an endogenous nucleoside, can stimulate corticosterone synthesis in adrenal cells via the A(2A)/A(2B) adenosine receptors (ARs). This study evaluated the contribution of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in Ado-induced steroidogenesis. The PKC inhibitor calphostin c blocked Ado-induced steroidogenesis, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-related regulated kinase (ERK)-cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein cascade, and the mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11B1. Further analyses revealed that PKCμ was indeed activated by Ado. Moreover, downregulation of PKCμ by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited Ado-stimulated steroidogenesis and ERK phosphorylation. Finally, inhibition of either A(2A)AR or A(2B)AR led to the suppression of PKCμ phosphorylation. Together, these findings suggest that A(2)AR-PKCμ-MEK signaling mediates Ado-stimulated adrenal steroidogenesis.

  14. H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells as a Screening Platform for Steroidogenesis (NC SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones is essential for development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carc...

  15. Propiconazole inhibits steroidogenesis and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed effects of the conazole-fungicide propiconazole on endocrine function and reproductive success of the fathead minnow, using an experimental approach based on previously defined adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that inhibit steroidogenesis in fish...

  16. Targeted ablation of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase tumor suppressor leads to impaired steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aqeilan, Rami I; Hagan, John P; de Bruin, Alain; Rawahneh, Maysoon; Salah, Zaidoun; Gaudio, Eugenio; Siddiqui, Hasan; Volinia, Stefano; Alder, Hansjuerg; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S; Croce, Carlo M

    2009-03-01

    The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene encodes a 46-kDa tumor suppressor. The Wwox protein contains two N-terminal WW domains that interact with several transcriptional activators containing proline-tyrosine motifs and a central short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain that has been suggested to play a role in steroid metabolism. Recently, we have shown that targeted deletion of the Wwox gene in mice leads to postnatal lethality and defects in bone growth. Here, we report that Wwox-deficient mice display impaired steroidogenesis. Mutant homozygous mice are born with gonadal abnormalities, including failure of Leydig cell development in testis and reduced theca cell proliferation in ovary. Furthermore, Wwox(-/-) mice displayed impaired gene expression of key steroidogenesis enzymes. Affymetrix microarray gene analysis revealed differentially expressed related genes in steroidogenesis in knockout mice testis and ovary as compared with control mice. These results demonstrate the essential requirement for the Wwox tumor suppressor in proper steroidogenesis.

  17. Modeling Steroidogenesis Disruption Using High-Throughput In Vitro Screening Data (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemicals can elicit endocrine disruption by altering steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis) causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Historically, a lack of assays resulted in few chemicals having been evaluated for effects on ...

  18. Propiconazole inhibits steroidogenesis and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed effects of the conazole-fungicide propiconazole on endocrine function and reproductive success of the fathead minnow, using an experimental approach based on previously defined adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that inhibit steroidogenesis in fish...

  19. H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells as a Screening Platform for Steroidogenesis (NC SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones is essential for development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carc...

  20. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    ovarian adenocarcinomas from laying hens. Gynecol Oncol, 2007; 104: 192-198. 506 25. Hales DB, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Ansenberger K, Mahon C, Barua A...Ultrasound Med 2010, 29:173-182. 479 (19) Hales DB, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Ansenberger K, Mahon C, Barua A et al: 480 Cyclooxygenases expression and...adenocarcinomas from laying hens. Gynecol Oncol 2007, 507 104:192-198. 508 (30) Ansenberger K, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Richards C, Barua A, Bahr JM

  1. Minireview: Translocator Protein (TSPO) and Steroidogenesis: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Douglas M.; Tu, Lan N.

    2015-01-01

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is a transmembrane protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane. TSPO has long been described as being indispensable for mitochondrial cholesterol import that is essential for steroid hormone production. In contrast to this initial proposition, recent experiments reexamining TSPO function have demonstrated that it is not involved in steroidogenesis. This fundamental change has forced a reexamination of the functional interpretations made for TSPO that broadly impacts both basic and clinical research across multiple fields. In this minireview, we recapitulate the key studies from 25 years of TSPO research and concurrently examine their limitations that perhaps led towards the incorrect association of TSPO and steroid hormone production. Although this shift in understanding raises new questions regarding the molecular function of TSPO, these recent developments are poised to have a significant positive impact for research progress in steroid endocrinology. PMID:25730708

  2. Angiotensin II-regulated transcription regulatory genes in adrenal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Damian G; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E

    2010-11-29

    Transcription regulatory genes are crucial modulators of cell physiology and metabolism whose intracellular levels are tightly controlled in response to extracellular stimuli. We previously reported a set of 29 transcription regulatory genes modulated by angiotensin II in H295R human adrenocortical cells and their roles in regulating the expression of the last and unique enzymes of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid biosynthetic pathways, 11β-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase, respectively, using gene expression reporter assays. To study the effect of this set of transcription regulatory genes on adrenal steroidogenesis, H295R cells were transfected by high-efficiency nucleofection and aldosterone and cortisol were measured in cell culture supernatants under basal and angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. BCL11B, BHLHB2, CITED2, ELL2, HMGA1, MAFF, NFIL3, PER1, SERTAD1, and VDR significantly stimulated aldosterone secretion, while EGR1, FOSB, and ZFP295 decreased aldosterone secretion. BTG2, HMGA1, MITF, NR4A1, and ZFP295 significantly increased cortisol secretion, while BCL11B, NFIL3, PER1, and SIX2 decreased cortisol secretion. We also report the effect of some of these regulators on the expression of endogenous aldosterone synthase and 11β-hydroxylase under basal and angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. In summary, this study reports for the first time the effects of a set of angiotensin II-modulated transcription regulatory genes on aldosterone and cortisol secretion and the expression levels of the last and unique enzymes of the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid biosynthetic pathways. Abnormal regulation of mineralocorticoid or glucocorticoid secretion is involved in several pathophysiological conditions. These transcription regulatory genes may be involved in adrenal steroidogenesis pathologies; thus they merit additional study as potential candidates for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Mechanisms and Chemoprevention of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    2004 Apr;14(2):175-82. 10. Kabbarah O, Pinto K, Mutch DG, Goodfellow PJ. Expression profiling of mouse endometrial cancers microdissected from...Ovarian Carcinogenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dusica Cvetkovic, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Fox Chase Cancer Center...ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Fox Chase Cancer Center Philadelphia, PA 19111 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING

  4. Expression profiles of Fsh-regulated ovarian genes during oogenesis in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José M; Luckenbach, J Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors.

  5. Two different P2Y receptors linked to steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, H

    1999-10-01

    Both extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) induced corticoid production (steroidogenesis) concentration-dependently in bovine adrenocortical cells (BA cells). Pertussis toxin (PTX, approx. 2 microg/ml) partially inhibited (approx. 55% inhibition) extracellular ATP (100 microM)-induced steroidogenesis in BA cells. However, PTX did not inhibit extracellular UTP (100 microM)-induced steroidogenesis. Both ATP- and UTP-induced steroidogeneses were significantly inhibited by suramin (50-200 microM). These effects were inhibited significantly by reactive blue-2 (more than 100 microM) and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (more than 100 microM). Both nucleotides (1-100 microM) induced inositol phosphates accumulation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, but PTX did not inhibit them. The RT-PCR procedure identified only P2Y2-receptor mRNA in BA cells. These results suggest that extracellular ATP induces steroidogenesis via a unique P2 receptor linked to PTX-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein), while extracellular UTP induces steroidogenesis via P2 receptor linked to PTX-insensitive G-protein. Thus, it was concluded that at least two different P2Y-like receptors linking to steroidogenesis exist in BA cells.

  6. A Cell-Autonomous Molecular Cascade Initiated by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Represses Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Houssein S.; Bergeron, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormones regulate essential physiological processes, and inadequate levels are associated with various pathological conditions. In testosterone-producing Leydig cells, steroidogenesis is strongly stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) via its receptor leading to increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein, which is essential for the initiation of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis then passively decreases with the degradation of cAMP into AMP by phosphodiesterases. In this study, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated following cAMP-to-AMP breakdown in MA-10 and MLTC-1 Leydig cells. Activated AMPK then actively inhibits cAMP-induced steroidogenesis by repressing the expression of key regulators of steroidogenesis, including Star and Nr4a1. Similar results were obtained in Y-1 adrenal cells and in the constitutively steroidogenic R2C cells. We have also determined that maximum AMPK activation following stimulation of steroidogenesis in MA-10 Leydig cells occurs when steroid hormone production has reached a plateau. Our data identify AMPK as a molecular rheostat that actively represses steroid hormone biosynthesis to preserve cellular energy homeostasis and prevent excess steroid production. PMID:25225331

  7. Luteinizing Hormone Reduces the Activity of the NPR2 Guanylyl Cyclase in Mouse Ovarian Follicles, Contributing to the Cyclic GMP Decrease that Promotes Resumption of Meiosis in Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jerid W.; Zhang, Meijia; Shuhaibar, Leia C.; Norris, Rachael P.; Geerts, Andreas; Wunder, Frank; Eppig, John J.; Potter, Lincoln R.; Jaffe, Laurinda A.

    2012-01-01

    In preovulatory ovarian follicles of mice, meiotic prophase arrest in the oocyte is maintained by cyclic GMP from the surrounding granulosa cells that diffuses into the oocyte through gap junctions. The cGMP is synthesized in the granulosa cells by the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) in response to the agonist C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). In response to luteinizing hormone (LH), cGMP in the granulosa cells decreases, and as a consequence, oocyte cGMP decreases and meiosis resumes. Here we report that within 20 minutes, LH treatment results in decreased guanylyl cyclase activity of NPR2, as determined in the presence of a maximally activating concentration of CNP. This occurs by a process that does not reduce the amount of NPR2 protein. We also show that by a slower process, first detected at 2 hours, LH decreases the amount of CNP available to bind to the receptor. Both of these LH actions contribute to decreasing cGMP in the follicle, thus signaling meiotic resumption in the oocyte. PMID:22546688

  8. Benzophenone-1 stimulated the growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells by cell cycle regulation via an estrogen receptor alpha-mediated signaling pathway in cellular and xenograft mouse models.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Ah; Hwang, Kyung-A; Lee, Hye-Rim; Yi, Bo-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-03-08

    2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (benzophenone-1; BP-1) is an UV stabilizer primarily used to prevent polymer degradation and deterioration in quality due to UV irradiation. Recently, BP-1 has been reported to bioaccumulate in human bodies by absorption through the skin and has the potential to induce health problems including endocrine disruption. In the present study, we examined the xenoestrogenic effect of BP-1 on BG-1 human ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs) and relevant xenografted animal models in comparison with 17-β estradiol (E2). In in vitro cell viability assay, BP-1 (10(-8)-10(-5)M) significantly increased BG-1 cell growth the way E2 did. The mechanism underlying the BG-1 cell proliferation was proved to be related with the up-regulation of cyclin D1, a cell cycle progressor, by E2 or BP-1. Both BP-1 and E2 induced cell growth and up-regulation of cyclin D1 were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, suggesting that BP-1 may mediate the cancer cell proliferation via an ER-dependent pathway like E2. On the other hand, the expression of p21, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 phase, was not altered by BP-1 though it was down-regulated by E2. In xenograft mouse models transplanted with BG-1 cells, BP-1 or E2 treatment significantly increased the tumor mass formation compared to a vehicle (corn oil) within 8 weeks. In histopathological analysis, the tumor sections of E2 or BP-1 group displayed extensive cell formations with high density and disordered arrangement, which were supported by the increased number of BrdUrd positive nuclei and the over-expression of cyclin D1 protein. Taken together, these results suggest that BP-1 is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that exerts xenoestrogenic effects by stimulating the proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer via ER signaling pathway associated with cell cycle as did E2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ovarian Sex Hormones Modulate Compulsive, Affective and Cognitive Functions in A Non-Induced Mouse Model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Swarup; Bastos, Cristiane P.; Bates, Katherine; Pereira, Grace S.; Bult-Ito, Abel

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of understanding of how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX), which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After 7 days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4) could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background. PMID:27881956

  10. Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Disrupts the Expression of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle and Apoptotic Pathways in Mouse Ovarian Antral Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Hannon, Patrick R.; Wang, Wei; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is present in many consumer products, such as infant, beauty, and medical products. Several studies have shown that DBP causes reproductive toxicity in rodents, but no studies have evaluated its effects on ovarian follicles. Therefore, we used a follicle culture system to evaluate the effects of DBP on antral follicle growth, cell cycle and apoptosis gene expression, cell cycle staging, atresia, and 17β-estradiol (E2) production. Antral follicles were isolated from adult CD-1 mice and exposed to DBP at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/ml for 24 or 168 h. Follicles treated with vehicle or DBP at 1–100 μg/ml grew over time, but DBP at 1000 μg/ml significantly suppressed follicle growth. Regardless of effect on follicle growth, DBP-treated follicles had decreased mRNA for cyclins D2, E1, A2, and B1 and increased p21. Levels of the proapoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and Bok were not altered by DBP treatment, but DBP 1000 μg/ml increased levels of Bid and decreased levels of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2. DBP-treated follicles contained significantly more cells in G1 phase, significantly less cells in S, and exhibited a trend for fewer cells in G2. Although DBP did not affect E2 production and atresia at 24 h, follicles treated with DBP had reduced levels of E2 at 96 h and underwent atresia at 168 h. These data suggest that DBP targets antral follicles and alters the expression of cell cycle and apoptosis factors, causes cell cycle arrest, decreases E2, and triggers atresia, depending on dose. PMID:23242528

  11. Short term exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) disrupts ovarian function in young CD-1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Nivedita; Liu, Xiaosong; Craig, Zelieann R.

    2015-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is present in many beauty and medical products. Human exposure estimates range from 0.007–0.01 mg/kg/day in the general population and up to 0.233 mg/kg/day in patients taking DBP-coated medications. Levels of phthalates tend to be higher in women, thus, evaluating ovarian effects of DBP exposure is of great importance. Mice were given corn oil (vehicle) or DBP at 0.01, 0.1, and 1000 mg/kg/day (high dose) for 10 days to test whether DBP causes ovarian toxicity. Estrous cyclicity, steroidogenesis, ovarian morphology, and apoptosis and steroidogenesis gene expression were evaluated. DBP exposure decreased serum E2 at all doses, while 0.1DBP increased FSH, decreased antral follicle numbers, and increased mRNA encoding pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Bad, Bid). Interestingly, mRNAs encoding the steroidogenic enzymes Hsd17b1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 were increased in all DBP-treated groups. These novel findings show that DBP can disrupt ovarian function in mice at doses relevant to humans. PMID:25765776

  12. Maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy impairs testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Yang, Lu-Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Wang, Bi-Wei; Huang, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13-17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX-XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring.

  13. Pachytene spermatocytes regulate the secretion of Sertoli cell protein(s) which stimulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onoda, M; Djakiew, D; Papadopoulos, V

    1991-05-01

    The influence of germ cells (pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids) on the secretion by Sertoli cells of the proteinaceous factor(s) which stimulates Leydig cell steroid biosynthesis was investigated. Sertoli cells from immature rats were cultured on plastic dishes or on Millipore filters impregnated with reconstituted basement membrane in bicameral chambers. Immature rat Sertoli cell secreted proteins (rSCSP; MW greater than 10,000), from conventional cultures, stimulated 4- to 5-fold steroid biosynthesis in normal rat and MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells, respectively. MA-10 cells were then used as a bioassay system for most studies, although purified rat Leydig cells were used in some cases to further confirm results obtained with MA-10 cells. rSCSP collected from both the apical and basal compartment of the chambers were examined for their ability to stimulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The Leydig cell stimulatory activity from Sertoli cells was found to be secreted in a polarized manner, with 80% of the total bioactivity found in the basal rSCSP. Addition of pachytene spermatocyte proteins (PSP) in the apical compartment of the chambers inhibited, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, the basally directed Sertoli cell secretion of the Leydig cell stimulatory protein(s) by 85%. Similar results were obtained when freshly isolated pachytene spermatocytes were directly added on top of Sertoli cell epithelial sheets in the apical compartment of the chambers. In contrast, round spermatid proteins (RSP) did not exhibit a comparable effect to that of PSP in regulating the Sertoli cell secretion of the Leydig cell stimulatory activity. These results demonstrate that the Sertoli cell secreted protein(s) which stimulates Leydig cell steroid biosynthesis is secreted in a basally polarized direction, and its secretion is specifically modulated by pachytene spermatocytes.

  14. Maternal LPS Exposure during Pregnancy Impairs Testicular Development, Steroidogenesis and Spermatogenesis in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yong-Fang; Wang, Bi-Wei; Huang, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with adverse developmental outcomes including embryonic resorption, fetal death, congenital teratogenesis and fetal growth retardation. Here, we explored the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on testicular development, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male offspring. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 13 to GD 17. At fetal period, a significant decrease in body weight and abnormal Leydig cell aggregations were observed in males whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. At postnatal day (PND) 26, anogenital distance (AGD), a sensitive index of altered androgen action, was markedly reduced in male pups whose mothers were exposed to LPS daily from GD13 to GD 17. At PND35, the weight of testes, prostates and seminal vesicles, and serum testosterone (T) level were significantly decreased in LPS-treated male pups. At adulthood, the number of sperm was significantly decreased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to LPS on GD 13–17. Maternal LPS exposure during gestation obviously diminished the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages I–VI, increased the percent of seminiferous tubules in stages IX–XII, and caused massive sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules in mouse testes. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure significantly reduced serum T level in male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS challenge during pregnancy. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy disrupts T production. The decreased T synthesis might be associated with LPS-induced impairments for spermatogenesis in male offspring. PMID:25255222

  15. CHEMERIN (RARRES2) decreases in vitro granulosa cell steroidogenesis and blocks oocyte meiotic progression in bovine species.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Maxime; Bertoldo, Michael J; Ramé, Christelle; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-05-01

    CHEMERIN, or RARRES2, is a new adipokine that is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. Recent data suggest that it also plays a role in reproductive function in rats and humans. Here we studied the expression of CHEMERIN and its three receptors (CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2) in the bovine ovary and investigated the in vitro effects of this hormone on granulosa cell steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. By RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found CHEMERIN, CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2 in various ovarian cells, including granulosa and theca cells, corpus luteum, and oocytes. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, INSULIN, IGF1, and two insulin sensitizers-metformin and rosiglitazone-increased rarres2 mRNA expression whereas they decreased cmklr1, gpr1, and cclr2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, TNF alpha and ADIPONECTIN significantly increased rarres2 and cmklr1 expression, respectively. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, human recombinant CHEMERIN (hRec, 200 ng/ml) reduced production of both progesterone and estradiol, cholesterol content, STAR abundance, CYP19A1 and HMGCR proteins, and the phosphorylation levels of MAPK3/MAPK1 in the presence or absence of FSH (10(-8) M) and IGF1 (10(-8) M). All of these effects were abolished by using an anti-CMKLR1 antibody. In bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, the addition of hRec (200 ng/ml) in the maturation medium arrested most oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage, and this was associated with a decrease in MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in both oocytes and cumulus cells. Thus, in cultured bovine granulosa cells, hRec decreases steroidogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation, probably through CMKLR1. Moreover, in cumulus-oocyte complexes, it blocked meiotic progression at the germinal vesicle stage and inhibited MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in both the oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  16. Interrelationships between ovarian follicles grown in culture and possible mediators.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Florkovičová Koničková, Iveta; Schaeffer, Hans-Jorg; Laurincik, Jozef; Harrath, Abdel Halim

    2017-03-01

    Dominance or cooperation between ovarian follicles can determine the number of ovulations and fecundity, but interrelationships between follicles in mono- and poly-ovulatory species and their mechanisms are poorly understood. The goals of this work were to determine the existence and compare the character of mutual influence of cultured ovarian follicles from a mono-ovulatory species (cow) with established follicular dominance with those from a poly-ovulatory species (pig), in which interrelationship between follicles remain unknown, and to examine the role of ovarian cell proliferation, the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)- oxytocin (OT) system, and steroid hormones in mediating interrelationships among ovarian follicles. Bovine and porcine ovarian follicles were isolated and cultured alone and in pairs, and the percentage of growing follicles was calculated. Porcine follicles were cultured alone and in pairs after addition of exogenous OT and IGF-I (100ngmL(-1)) or inactivation of endogenous OT and IGF-I by antisera against these hormones (1%). Proliferation of porcine follicular cells was assessed by SDS PAGE-Western immunoblotting, the release of IGF-I, progesterone, androstenedione and estradiol by cultured porcine ovarian follicles was analyzed by RIA/EIA. Overall, our observations suggest (1) competition/dominance (mutual suppression of growth) in bovine ovarian follicles, (2) cooperation (mutual support of growth) in porcine ovarian follicles, (3) that this mutual growth of porcine ovarian follicles was caused by the promotion of cell proliferation, (4) that this mechanism was probably not involved in bovine follicular dominance, (5) that communication between both porcine and bovine follicles affects their secretory activity, and (6) that both follicular dominance in cows and cooperation of follicles in pigs can be mediated by either down- or up-regulation of the IGF-I-OT system, which in turn affects follicular steroidogenesis and promotes follicular

  17. Steroid control of steroidogenesis in isolated adrenocortical cells: molecular and species specificity.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Macdonald, G J; Malamed, S

    1983-06-01

    The molecular and species specificity of glucocorticoid suppression of corticosteroidogenesis was investigated in isolated adrenocortical cells. Trypsin-isolated cells from male rat, domestic fowl and bovine adrenal glands were incubated with or without steroidogenic agents and with or without steroids. Glucocorticoids were measured by radioimmunoassay or fluorometric assay after 1-2 h incubation. Glucocorticoids suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis of isolated rat cells with the following relative potencies: corticosterone greater than cortisol = cortisone greater than dexamethasone. The mineralocorticoid, aldosterone did not affect steroidogenesis. Suppression by glucocorticoids was acute (within 1-2 h), and varied directly with the glucocorticoid concentration. Testosterone also suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis. Glucocorticoid-type steroids have equivalent suppressive potencies, thus suggesting that these steroids may induce suppression at least partly by a common mechanism. Although corticosterone caused the greatest suppression, testosterone was more potent. The steroid specificity of suppression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced and ACTH-induced steroidogenesis were similar, suggesting that suppression is not solely the result of interference with ACTH receptor function or the induction of adenylate cyclase activity. Exogenous glucocorticoids also suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis of cells isolated from domestic fowl and beef adrenal glands, thus suggesting that this observed suppression may be a general mechanism of adrenocortical cell autoregulation.

  18. Ovarian aging and premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Kıvançlı, İçten Balık; Özmen, Batuhan

    2014-01-01

    Physiological reproductive aging occurs as a result of a decrease in the number and quality of oocytes in ovarian cortex follicles. Although the reason for the decrease in the quality of the pool and follicular oocytes is not fully understood, endocrine, paracrine, genetic, and metabolic factors are thought to be effective. Nowadays, in order to understand the mechanisms of ovarian aging, genomic research has gained importance. The effect of co-factors, such as telomerase and ceramide, in the ovarian aging process is only getting ascertained with new research studies. The most important tests in the assessment of ovarian aging are antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone. PMID:25317048

  19. Angiotensin effects on calcium and steroidogenesis in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.E.; Siegel, F.L.; Hadjokas, N.E.; Goodfriend, T.L.

    1985-03-01

    We investigated the role of cellular calcium pools in angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. Angiotensin II decreased the size of the exchangeable cell calcium pool by 34%, consistent with previous observations that angiotensin II causes decreased uptake of /sup 45/Ca+2 into cells and increased efflux of /sup 45/Ca+2 from preloaded cells. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed that angiotension II caused a decrease of 21% in total cellular calcium. Angiotensin II caused efflux of /sup 45/Ca+2 in the presence of EGTA and retarded uptake of /sup 45/Ca+2 when choline was substituted for sodium, suggesting that hormone effects on calcium pools do not involve influx of trigger calcium or sodium. Cells incubated in calcium-free buffer and 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM EGTA synthesized reduced (but still significant) amounts of the steroid in response to hormone. Cells incubated in increasing concentrations of extracellular calcium contained increasing amounts of intracellular calcium and synthesized increasing amounts of aldosterone in response to angiotensin II. These results point to the participation of intracellular calcium pools in angiotensin II-stimulated steroidogenesis and the importance of extracellular calcium in maintaining these pools.

  20. Perimenopausal regulation of steroidogenesis in the nonhuman primate

    PubMed Central

    Sorwell, Krystina G.; Kohama, Steven G.; Urbanski, Henryk F.

    2011-01-01

    Human aging is characterized by a marked decrease in circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), hormonal changes associated with cognitive decline. Despite beneficial effects of DHEA supplementation in rodents, studies in elderly humans have generally failed to show cognitive improvement after treatment. In the present study we evaluate the effects of age and estradiol supplementation on expression of genes involved in the de novo synthesis of DHEA and its conversion to estradiol in the rhesus macaque hippocampus. Using RT-PCR we demonstrate the expression of genes associated with this synthesis in several areas of the rhesus brain. Furthermore, real-time PCR reveals an age-related attenuation of hippocampal expression level of the genes CYP17A1, STS, and 3BHSD1/2. Additionally, short-term administration of estradiol is associated with decreased expression of CYP17A1, STS, SULT2B1, and AROMATASE, consistent with a downregulation not only of estrogen synthesis from circulating DHEA, but also of de novo DHEA synthesis within the hippocampus. These findings suggest a decline in neurosteroidogenesis may account for the inefficacy of DHEA supplementation in elderly humans, and that central steroidogenesis may be a function of circulating hormones and menopausal status. PMID:21683476

  1. Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations show decreased activity on BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), an important regulator of energy balance: testing impact of novel SF-1 mutations beyond steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E

    2014-01-01

    Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations.

  2. Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

  3. Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. )

    1992-06-01

    Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

  4. Human low density lipoprotein as a substrate for in vitro steroidogenesis assays with fathead minnow ovary explants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gonad explant in vitro steroidogenesis assays are used as part of a multifaceted strategy to detect endocrine active chemicals capable of altering steroid hormone synthesis. An in vitro steroidogenesis assay used in our laboratory involves exposing fathead minnow (FHM) gonad exp...

  5. Human low density lipoprotein as a substrate for in vitro steroidogenesis assays with fathead minnow ovary explants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gonad explant in vitro steroidogenesis assays are used as part of a multifaceted strategy to detect endocrine active chemicals capable of altering steroid hormone synthesis. An in vitro steroidogenesis assay used in our laboratory involves exposing fathead minnow (FHM) gonad exp...

  6. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be similar to widespread ovarian cancer. Fallopian tube cancer This is another rare cancer that is ... to epithelial ovarian cancer. It begins in the tube that carries an egg from the ovary to ...

  7. Deregulation of RUNX2 by miR-320a deficiency impairs steroidogenesis in cumulus granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen-Ling; Wang, Hui; Yan, Chang-You; Gao, Xue-Feng; Ling, Xiao-Juan

    2017-01-22

    Deregulation of epigenetic modification by microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to the development of estrogen deficiency, a hallmark of the multigenic endocrine disorder polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but its etiology remains unclear. Previous study has pointed to a tight association between miR-320a expression and oocyte development in human follicular fluid. Given that the bi-directional communication existing between cumulus cells (CCs) and follicular fluid is essential for ovarian steroidogenesis and CCs are the main site where estrogen is finally synthesized, it is intriguing to know whether miR-320a have any regulatory roles in this unique cell. Here we report that miR-320a expression is significantly down-regulated in primary CCs from PCOS patients and this down-regulation promotes estrogen deficiency in CCs. From a mechanistic standpoint, IGF1 regulates miR-320a expression in CCs, and miR-320a could potentiate the steroidogenesis in CCs through modulation of CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 expression, by directly targeting 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2. Overall, our results strongly suggest that deregulation of miR-320a/RUNX2/CYP11A1 (CYP19A1) cascade plays an important role in the development of estrogen deficiency in human CCs. Testing patients for miR-320a/RUNX2 expression ratios may provide more accurate diagnostic information and could influence the recommended course of treatment for PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. VISFATIN (NAMPT) Improves In Vitro IGF1-Induced Steroidogenesis and IGF1 Receptor Signaling Through SIRT1 in Bovine Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Maxime; Rame, Christelle; Bunel, Audrey; Chen, Wenyong; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-03-01

    VISFATIN is a novel adipokine, also known as a nicotinamide phosphorybosyltransferase (NAMPT), that is able to modulate different processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Recent data suggest that it also plays a role in reproductive function in rats, humans, and chickens. Here we identified VISFATIN in the bovine ovary and investigated the in vitro effects of this hormone on granulosa cell steroidogenesis and proliferation and oocyte maturation. By RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found VISFATIN in various ovarian cells, including granulosa and theca cells, corpus luteum, and oocytes. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, we showed that IGF1 (10(-8) M) and VISFATIN (10 and 100 ng/ml) but not FSH (10(-8) M) increased mRNA expression levels of NAMPT after 48 h of stimulation. Moreover, we observed that human recombinant VISFATIN (hVisf, 10 ng/ml, 48 h) increased the release of progesterone and estradiol secretion, and this was associated with an increase in the protein level of STAR, the HSD3B activity, and the phosphorylation levels of IGF1R and MAPK ERK1/2 in the presence or absence of IGF1 (10(-8) M). All these effects were abolished when NAMPT was knocked down and when the sirtuin pharmacological inhibitors CHIC-35 (60 nM) and EX-527 (0.5 μM) were preincubated in bovine granulosa cells. Thus, in cultured bovine granulosa cells, VISFATIN improves basal and IGF1-induced steroidogenesis and IGF1 receptor signaling through SIRT1. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. The modulatory role of transforming growth factor beta1 and androstenedione on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced gelatinase secretion and steroidogenesis in rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ferng-Chun; Chuang, Li-Chung; Lee, Ming-Ting; Chen, Yun Ju; Lin, Sui-Wen; Wang, Paulus S; Stocco, Douglas M; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the potential roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in ovarian granulosa cell differentiation, we studied the interactive effects of FSH and local ovarian factors, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and androstenedione, on gelatinase secretion and progesterone production in rat ovarian granulosa cells. Granulosa cells of eCG-primed immature rats were treated once with various doses of FSH and TGFbeta1 and androstenedione alone or in combinations for 2 days. Conditioned media were analyzed for gelatinase activity using gelatin-zymography/densitometry and progesterone levels using enzyme immunoassay. Cell lysates were analyzed for steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain-cleavage (P450scc) enzyme protein levels. This study demonstrates for the first time that FSH dose-dependently increased the secretion of a major 63-kDa gelatinase and minor 92- and 67-kDa gelatinases. TGFbeta1 also dose-dependently increased the secretion of 63-kDa gelatinase, while androstenedione alone had no effect. The 92-kDa gelatinase was identified as the pro-MMP9 that could be cleaved by aminophenylmercuric acetate into the 83-kDa active form. Importantly, we show that TGFbeta1 and androgen act in an additive manner to enhance FSH stimulatory effects both on the secretion of gelatinases and the production of progesterone. We further show by immunoblotting that the enhancing effect of TGFbeta1 and androstenedione on FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis is partly mediated through the increased level of StAR protein and/or P450scc enzyme. In conclusion, this study indicates that, during antral follicle development, TGFbeta1 and androgen act to enhance FSH promotion of granulosa cell differentiation and that the process may involve the interplay of modulating cell- to-matrix/cell-to-cell interaction and steroidogenic activity.

  10. Kinematic modeling and its implication in longitudinal chemotherapy study of tumor physiology: ovarian xenograft mouse model and contrast-enhanced dynamic CT (Honorable Mention Poster Award)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Hutchins, Gary D.

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that dynamic CT provides the necessary sensitivity to quantify tumor physiology and differences in chemotherapeutic response. A compartmental mouse model utilizing measured contrast-enhanced dynamic CT scans is used to simulate systematic and statistical errors associated with tumor physiology: perfusion, permeability (PS), fractional plasma volume (fp), and fractional interstitial volume. The solute utilized is a small molecular weight radio-opaque contrast agent (isovue). For such an intravascular-interstitial medium, the kinematics simplifies to a two compartmental diffusive dominated set of coupled differential equations. Each combination of physiological parameters is repeatedly simulated fifteen times from which statistical errors calculated. The fractional change relative to the true value (systematic error) and standard deviation (statistical error) are plotted as a function of PS, fp, scanner temporal resolution and noise, and contrast media injection rates. By extrapolating from experimental data found in literature, a relative change in PS and fp of approximately 40% is required. Thus, the longitudinal response of two chemotherapeutic drugs under investigation - proteasome and IMPDH inhibitors - are hypothesized to induce different physiological responses. The first set of simulations varies PS from 0.05 to 0.40 mL/min/mL and fp from 0.01 to 0.07 mL/mL while holding all other physiological parameters constant. Errors in PS remain below 3% while statistical errors for fp increase significantly as the volume decreases toward 1-2%: errors remain less than 6% for fp>0.03 while increasing to above 15% for fp<0.02. The second set of simulations are performed quantifying the relationship between scanner temporal resolution and contrast media injection rate for various tumor permeabilities. For the majority of cases, the errors remain below 5%. As PS approaches perfusion, a total error less than 6% can be maintained

  11. Steroidogenesis of the testis -- new genes and pathways.

    PubMed

    Flück, Christa E; Pandey, Amit V

    2014-05-01

    Defects of androgen biosynthesis cause 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). All steroids are produced from cholesterol and the early steps of steroidogenesis are common to mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and sex steroid production. Genetic mutations in enzymes and proteins supporting the early biosynthesis pathways cause adrenal insufficiency (AI), DSD and gonadal insufficiency. The classic androgen biosynthesis defects with AI are lipoid CAH, CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 deficiencies. Deficiency of CYP17A1 rarely causes AI, and HSD17B3 or SRD5A2 deficiencies only cause 46,XY DSD and gonadal insufficiency. All androgen biosynthesis depends on 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1 which is supported by P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5). Therefore 46,XY DSD with apparent 17,20 lyase deficiency may be due to mutations in CYP17A1, POR or CYB5. Illustrated by patients harboring mutations in SRD5A2, normal development of the male external genitalia depends largely on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is converted from circulating testicular testosterone (T) through SRD5A2 in the genital skin. In the classic androgen biosynthetic pathway, T is produced from DHEA and androstenedione/-diol in the testis. However, recently found mutations in AKR1C2/4 genes in undervirilized 46,XY individuals have established a role for a novel, alternative, backdoor pathway for fetal testicular DHT synthesis. In this pathway, which has been first elucidated for the tammar wallaby pouch young, 17-hydroxyprogesterone is converted directly to DHT by 5α-3α reductive steps without going through the androgens of the classic pathway. Enzymes AKR1C2/4 catalyse the critical 3αHSD reductive reaction which feeds 17OH-DHP into the backdoor pathway. In conclusion, androgen production in the fetal testis seems to utilize two pathways but their exact interplay remains to be elucidated.

  12. Anti-Mullerian Hormone: Above and Beyond Conventional Ovarian Reserve Markers

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Zehra; Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Ahmed, Khalid; Malik, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Management of ovarian dysfunctions requires accurate estimation of ovarian reserve (OR). Therefore, reproductive hormones and antral follicle count (AFC) are assessed to indicate OR. Serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is a unique biomarker that has a critical role in folliculogenesis as well as steroidogenesis within ovaries. Secretion from preantral and early antral follicles renders AMH as the earliest marker to show OR decline. In this review we discuss the dynamics of circulating AMH that remarkably vary with sex and age. As it emerges as a marker of gonadal development and reproductive disorders, here we summarize the role of AMH in female reproductive physiology and provide evidence of higher accuracy in predicting ovarian response to stimulation. Further, we attempt to compile potential clinical applications in children and adults. We propose that AMH evaluation has a potential role in effectively monitoring chemotherapy and pelvic radiation induced ovarian toxicity. Furthermore, AMH guided ovarian stimulation can lead to individualization of therapeutic strategies for infertility treatment. However future research on AMH levels within follicular fluid may pave the way to establish it as a marker of “quality” besides “quantity” of the growing follicles. PMID:26977116

  13. Seminal plasma regulates ovarian progesterone production, leukocyte recruitment and follicular cell responses in the pig.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S; Jasper, M J; Robertson, S A; Armstrong, D T

    2006-07-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) acts to influence the uterine endometrium after mating, activating synthesis of embryotrophic cytokines and inflammatory changes that condition the tract for embryo implantation and establishing pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate in pigs whether the ovary might also be responsive to SP exposure. Prepubertal gilts were synchronised with exogenous gonadotrophins and received transcervical treatment with pooled boar SP or PBS; then the ovarian tissue was recovered at 34 h (preovulation) and on days 5 and 9 after treatment. The ovarian response was assessed by measuring ovulation rate, number and size of corpora lutea, ovarian leukocyte populations, progesterone production in vivo, as well as responses of retrieved granulosa cells cultured in vitro. In SP-treated gilts, leukocyte recruitment into the ovarian tissues was increased fourfold at 34 h, with macrophages comprising the most abundant cell lineage. There was no effect of SP on the number of oocytes ovulated; however, the weight of corpora lutea was increased in SP-treated gilts. SP also induced an increase in plasma progesterone content seen from day 5 to at least day 9 after treatment. In addition, granulosa cells and thecal tissue retrieved from preovulatory follicles of SP-treated gilts were more responsive in vitro to growth factor- and gonadotrophin-stimulated cell proliferation and progesterone synthesis. These results suggest that uterine exposure to SP influences immune cell trafficking in the ovary and enhances steroidogenesis in early pregnancy. The effects of SP on ovarian function potentially contribute to reproductive success in the pig.

  14. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  15. Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine; Wortziger, Rasmus; Axelstad, Marta; Brokken, Leon; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Dalgaard, Majken; Nellemann, Christine

    2008-09-04

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can induce malformations and impairment of reproductive function in experimental animals and may have similar effects in humans. Recently, the environmental obesogen hypothesis was proposed, suggesting that environmental chemicals contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects could be related to chemical interaction with nuclear receptors such as the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). As several testosterone-reducing drugs are PPAR activators, we aimed to examine whether four PPAR agonists were able to affect fetal testosterone production and masculinization of rats. Additionally, we wished to examine whether these chemicals affected fetal plasma levels of insulin and leptin, which play important roles in the developmental programming of the metabolic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed from gestation day (GD) 7-21 to diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), butylparaben, perfluorooctanoate, or rosiglitazone (600, 100, 20, or 1 mg/kg bw/day, respectively). Endocrine endpoints were studied in offspring at GD 19 or 21. DiBP, butylparaben and rosiglitazone reduced plasma leptin levels in male and female offspring. DiBP and rosiglitazone additionally reduced fetal plasma insulin levels. In males, DiBP reduced anogenital distance, testosterone production and testicular expression of Insl-3 and genes related to steroidogenesis. PPARalpha mRNA levels were reduced by DiBP at GD 19 in testis and liver. In females, DiBP increased anogenital distance and increased ovarian aromatase mRNA levels. This study reveals new targets for phthalates and parabens in fetal male and female rats and contributes to the increasing concern about adverse effects of human exposure to these compounds.

  16. Evidence for ovarian tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    Ovarian folliculogenesis and luteal formation occur concomitantly with the development of new blood vessels that function in nutritional support of the developing follicles. As follicles undergo atresia and the corpus luteum regresses, blood vessels supplying these tissues degenerate. The first study determined if the ovary contained factors that might regulate ovarian angiogenesis. The bovine ovary was subjected to ammonium sulfate (AS) precipitation and the precipitates (ppt.) were assayed in vitro for effects on endothelial cell (CPAE) and fibroblast (3T3 and L929) incorporation of {sup 3}H-thymidine. Heparin sepharose (HS) chromatography of the 80% AS ppt. revealed the inhibitory activity on CPAE and L929 cells did not bind to HS but was found in the HS column breakthrough (80% BT). Sizing chromatography of the 80% BT indicated thymidine incorporation inhibitory activity exhibited a molecular weight of 30,000-50,000 Daltons. TNF was immunohistochemically localized in the human, bovine and rat ovary. Frozen sections were incubated with polyclonal antibody to human recombinant TNF. Antigen-antibody binding was visualized using a Biotin-StreptAvidin peroxidase technique. Immunoreactive TNF (I-TNF) was localized in corpora lutea and the more antral layers of granulosa cells in antral follicles. Incubation of sections with anti-TNF in the presence of excess TNF resulted in lose of immunostaining. Cell blotting and ELISA further indicated I-TNF was present in granulosa cells. In order to determine whether TNF had an effect on follicular steroidogenesis, preovulatory follicles from cyclic proestrus rats were incubated in vitro for up to 24 hours with various doses of human recombinant TNF. Stepwise increases in progesterone (P) accumulation in the incubation media were observed with 30-300 pM TNF.

  17. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug☆

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Results Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Conclusions Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. PMID:25172764

  18. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2014-11-01

    Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on steroid hormone production by porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, Adriana; Medvedova, Marina; Halenar, Marek; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Bulla, Jozef

    2017-09-25

    Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) are frequently occurring in feed of pigs together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible in vitro effects of DON and ZEA, alone or their combination on steroid secretion of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). A species-specific model with porcine ovarian GCs was used to study the potential endocrine disrupting effects of DON and ZEA alone and in co-exposure. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results of this study demonstrate that DON alone at the higher concentrations may act to stimulate P4 (at 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 ng mL(-1) but not 10 and 100 ng mL(-1)) and E2 (at 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 ng mL(-1) but not 10, 100 and 1000 ng mL(-1)) secretion. The effects of ZEA on P4 and E2 secretion were not confirmed. DON in combination with the other fusariotoxin ZEA may impair steroidogenesis. Results aslo demonstrate different toxicological effects of fusariotoxins on follicle stimulating hormone-induced secretion of P4 and E2. All these results taken together suggest that fusariotoxin and their interactions can impact ovarian steroidogenesis, thereby demonstrating their potential reproductive effects in pigs.

  20. Ovarian cortex cryopreservation in pediatric and adolescent medicine

    PubMed

    Revel; Davis; Casper

    2000-05-01

    Background: Increased pediatric/adolescent cancer survivor rates have enhanced awareness of long-term effects of therapy, specifically gonadal failure. Ovarian cortex cryopreservation may hold the promise of fertility for those at risk for ovarian failure due to medical therapy. The object of this study was to determine if an ovarian cryopreservation program is feasible and to define suitable candidates.Method: A MEDLINE search supplemented by bibliographies. The review was limited to English articles on ovarian failure rates following radiation and/or chemotherapy and on ovarian cryopreservation. Investigators in the field were consulted to identify other sources.Results: Approximately one third of postpubertal females exposed to chemotherapy or radiotherapy develop ovarian failure. The risk is mostly significant for patients exposed to pelvic radiotherapy (up to 32% decrease in fertility) and alkylating agent based chemotherapy (infertility in 22%). A ninefold increase in premature ovarian failure results from exposure to combined pelvic radiotherapy and alkylator based chemotherapy. Practically all patients exposed to multiple agent chemotherapy combined with pelvic radiotherapy at doses used in preparation for bone marrow transplant will undergo irreversible loss of ovarian function. Currently human ovarian cortex can be cryopreserved, thawed and stimulated with gonadotrophins to produce follicles when transplanted into immunosuppressed mice, however there has yet to be any human pregnancies. The immunosupressed mouse model could also serve as a test to determine whether the tissue carries metastatic risk prior to reimplantation into the donor.Conclusion: Based on the literature we propose ovarian cortex cryopreservation and banking for postpubertal females prior to chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy that holds a high risk of ovarian failure. In the future this may provide oocytes for reproductive purposes. A protocol is currently under approval by the

  1. Amitriptyline plays important roles in modifying the ovarian morphology and improving its functions in rats with estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovary.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinqiang; Wang, Shufen; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jiali; Luo, Haoshu; Gou, Kemian; Cui, Sheng

    2017-09-08

    Previous studies demonstrated that depression is more prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, we aimed to determine whether amitriptyline (AMT), an antidepressant drug, plays a role in preventing PCOS. The results showed that AMT modified ovarian morphology improved the ovarian functions and estrus cycle in estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovary (PCO). AMT restored the levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and progesterone (P4) to normal, and elevated the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in EV-induced PCO. No significant changes in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were observed in rats with EV or AMT treatment. The restoration of norepinephrine (NE) level was detected in rats with EV-induced PCO. AMT also altered the expression levels of steroidogenesis genes and beta2-adrenoceptor (beta2-AR) in EV-induced PCO. Our data revealed that AMT improves the ovarian morphology and modifies ovarian expression of beta2-AR and steroidogenesis genes in rats with EV-induced rat PCO. Our data provide support for the hypothesis that AMT is considered as a candidate drug for preventing and treating PCOS along with depression.

  2. Familial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Elit, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assist family physicians in evaluating patients' risk for hereditary ovarian cancer and to review strategies for preventing ovarian cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and CINAHL databases were searched from 1970 to 1999 using key words related to hereditary ovarian cancer, screening, oral contraceptives, prophylactic oophorectomy, cancer worriers, satisfaction, and perceived risk. Recommendations in this paper are based on evidence from case-control and cohort studies and, where appropriate, consensus conferences. MAIN MESSAGE: Of all women who present with ovarian cancer, 20% have a family history of ovarian cancer and 8% carry a BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 mutation. Women who carry a BRCA 1 mutation have a 63% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer, and women who carry a BRCA 2 mutation have a 27% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. Preventive strategies include screening (level 3 evidence for postmenopausal women and level 5 evidence for women with a family history of ovarian cancer), use of oral contraceptives (level 3 evidence for the general population and for mutation carriers), and prophylactic oophorectomy (level 3 evidence in first-degree relatives of patients with breast or ovarian cancer). CONCLUSION: Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer should be offered genetic counseling and discussion of various preventive strategies for minimizing their risk. PMID:11340759

  3. SENSITIVITY OF FETAL RAT TESTICULAR STEROIDOGENESIS TO MATERNAL PROCHLORAZ EXPOSURE AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISM OF INHIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), we hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 31.3, ...

  4. SENSITIVITY OF FETAL RAT TESTICULAR STEROIDOGENESIS TO MATERNAL PROCHLORAZ EXPOSURE AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISM OF INHIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), we hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 31.3, ...

  5. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. Nitric oxide in prepubertal rat ovary contribution of the ganglionic nitric oxide synthase system via superior ovarian nerve.

    PubMed

    Casais, Marilina; Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Vallcaneras, Sandra; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2007-02-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. Considering the existence of the nitric oxide/ nitric oxide synthase system in the peripheral neural system and in the ovary, the aim of this work was to analyze if the liberation of NO in the ovarian compartment of prepubertal rats is of ovarian and/or ganglionic origin. The analysis is carried out from a physiological point of view using the experimental coeliac ganglion--Superior Ovarian Nerve--ovary model with and without ganglionic cholinergic stimulus Acetylcholine (Ach) 10(-6) M. Non selective and selective inhibitors of the synthase nitric oxide enzyme were added to the ovarian and ganglionic compartment, and the liberation of nitrites (soluble metabolite of the nitric oxide) in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. We found that the non-selective inhibitor L-nitro-arginina methyl ester (L-NAME) in the ovarian compartment decreased the liberation of nitrites, and that Aminoguanidine (AG) in two concentrations in a non-dose dependent form provoked the same effect. The addition of Ach in ganglion magnified the effect of the inhibitors of the NOS enzyme. The most relevant results after the addition of inhibitors in ganglion were obtained with AG 400 and 800 microM. The inhibition was made evident with and without the joint action of Ach in ganglion. These data suggest that the greatest production of NO in the ovarian compartment comes from the ovary, mainly the iNOS isoform, though the coeliac ganglion also contributes through the superior ovarian nerve but with less quantity.

  7. Erlotinib Plus Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Ovarian Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  8. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON STEROIDOGENESIS IN THE HUMAN H295R AND RAT GRANULOSA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of environmental chemicals on the catalytic activity of steroidogenic enzymes, including aromatase, have been well documented. However, specific effects of environmental chemicals on steroidogenesis and the physiological impact on local and systemic concentrations of ...

  9. Effects of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are essential for proper development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells were used to evalu...

  10. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON STEROIDOGENESIS IN THE HUMAN H295R AND RAT GRANULOSA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of environmental chemicals on the catalytic activity of steroidogenic enzymes, including aromatase, have been well documented. However, specific effects of environmental chemicals on steroidogenesis and the physiological impact on local and systemic concentrations of ...

  11. Effects of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are essential for proper development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells were used to evalu...

  12. The use of genetic manipulation of MA-10 Leydig tumor cells to demonstrate the role of mitochondrial proteins in the acute regulation of steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stocco, D M; Ascoli, M

    1993-03-01

    The true rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis is the delivery of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it is converted to pregnenolone by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage complex. This process is known to require de novo protein synthesis. We have previously described the synthesis of a family of 37, 32, and 30 kilodalton mitochondrial proteins in response to hormone stimulation in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells and have proposed that these proteins are involved in the acute regulation of steroidogenesis. In this study we have used two subclones of MA-10 cells to further demonstrate the correlation between the quantity of these proteins and the production of steroids in response to hormone treatment. One of these, designated MA-10(K3), has been transfected with a mutant gene of the type 1 regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase under the control of a metallothionein promoter, whereas the other, designated MA-10(P+29), is a constitutive overproducer of a cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE). MA-10 parent cells designated (P), produce large amounts of progesterone in response to LH, human CG, and (Bu)2cAMP. The MA-10(K3) cells, on the other hand, whereas significantly higher than controls, produce much less steroid than the parent cells in response to hormone stimulation. Activation of the mutant gene with Zn+2 results in yet a further decrease in the amount of steroid produced. The MA-10(P+29) cells display greatly reduced progesterone production when stimulated with LH, because of the presence of high amounts of PDE, but return to maximally stimulated levels when a PDE inhibitor is present. Quantitation of the synthesis of the mitochondrial proteins described above in MA-10(K3) cells in the presence and absence of Zn+2 and in MA-10(P+29) cells in the presence and absence of PDE inhibitor clearly demonstrate that the amount of the 30 kilodalton mitochondrial proteins present in these cells closely parallels that of progesterone production

  13. Mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor signaling in the ovarian follicle.

    PubMed

    Price, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been shown to alter growth and differentiation of reproductive tissues in a variety of species. Within the female reproductive tract, the effects of FGFs have been focused on the ovary, and the most studied one is FGF2, which stimulates granulosa cell proliferation and decreases differentiation (decreased steroidogenesis). Other FGFs have also been implicated in ovarian function, and this review summarizes the effects of members of two subfamilies on ovarian function; the FGF7 subfamily that also contains FGF10, and the FGF8 subfamily that also contains FGF18. There are data to suggest that FGF8 and FGF18 have distinct actions on granulosa cells, despite their apparent similar receptor binding properties. Studies of non-reproductive developmental biology also indicate that FGF8 is distinct from FGF18, and that FGF7 is also distinct from FGF10 despite similar receptor binding properties. In this review, the potential mechanisms of differential action of FGF7/FGF10 and FGF8/FGF18 during organogenesis will be reviewed and placed in the context of follicle development. A model is proposed in which FGF8 and FGF18 differentially activate receptors depending on the properties of the extracellular matrix in the follicle. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Ovarian innervation develops before initiation of folliculogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Gibney, J A; Ojeda, S R

    1992-10-01

    Sympathetic neurotransmitters have been shown to be present in the ovary of the rat during early postnatal development and to affect steroidogenesis before the ovary becomes responsive to gonadotropins, and before the first primordial follicles are formed. This study was undertaken to determine if development of the ovarian innervation is an event that antedates the initiation of folliculogenesis in the rat, Rattus norvegicus. Serial sections of postnatal ovaries revealed a negligible frequency of follicles 24 h after birth (about 1 primordial follicle per ovary). Twelve hours later there were about 500 follicles per ovary, a number that more than doubled to about 1300 during the subsequent 12 h, indicating that an explosive period of follicular differentiation occurs between the end of postnatal days 1 and 2. Electron microscopy demonstrated that before birth the ovaries are already innervated by fibers containing clear and dense-core vesicles. Immunohistochemistry performed on either fetal (day 19) or newborn (less than 15h after birth) ovaries showed the presence of catecholaminergic nerves, identified by their content of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis. While some of these fibers innervate blood vessels, others are associated with primordial ovarian cells, thereby suggesting their participation in non-vascular functions. Since prefollicular ovaries are insensitive to gonadotropins, the results suggest that the developing ovary becomes subjected to direct neurogenic influences before it acquires responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  15. Expression of scavenger receptor-BI and low-density lipoprotein receptor and differential use of lipoproteins to support early steroidogenesis in luteinizing macaque granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Cherian-Shaw, Mary; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Greason, Erin; Rodriguez, Annabelle; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Chaffin, Charles L

    2009-02-01

    An ovulatory hCG stimulus to rhesus macaques undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols results in a rapid and sustained increase in progesterone synthesis. The use of lipoproteins as a substrate for progesterone synthesis remains unclear, and the expression of lipoprotein receptors [very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI)] soon after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (<12 h) has not been characterized. This study investigated lipoprotein receptor expression and lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and HDL) support of steroidogenesis during luteinization of macaque granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were aspirated from rhesus monkeys undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation before or up to 24 h after an ovulatory hCG stimulus. The expression of VLDLR decreased within 3 h of hCG, whereas LDLR and SR-BI increased at 3 and 12 h, respectively. Granulosa cells isolated before hCG were cultured for 24 h in the presence of FSH or FSH plus hCG with or without VLDL, LDL, or HDL. Progesterone levels increased in the presence of hCG regardless of lipoprotein addition, although LDL, but not HDL, further augmented hCG-induced progesterone. Other cells were cultured with FSH or FSH plus hCG without an exogenous source of lipoprotein for 24 h, followed by an additional 24 h culture with or without lipoproteins. Cells treated with hCG in the absence of any lipoprotein were unable to maintain progesterone levels through 48 h, whereas LDL (but not HDL) sustained progesterone synthesis. These data suggest that an ovulatory stimulus rapidly mobilizes stored cholesterol esters for use as a progesterone substrate and that as these are depleted, new cholesterol esters are obtained through an LDLR- and/or SR-BI-mediated mechanism.

  16. Intake of high saturated-fat diets disturbs steroidogenesis, lipid metabolism and development of obese-swine conceptuses from early-pregnancy stages.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rovira, Laura; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Añover, Pedro; Pallares, Pilar; Perez-Garnelo, Sonia; Perez-Solana, Mariluz; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The current study indicates that life-long intake, from early-life, of an obesogenic diet with high saturated-fat (HSF) content induces dyslipidemia (high plasma concentrations of triglycerides in concurrence with low concentrations of HDL-cholesterol) in obese swine with leptin resistance (Iberian sows). In case of pregnancy, ovarian features (ovulatory efficiency and luteal steroidogenesis) of sows fed with HSF are not affected but embryo features are affected at so early stages like 28 days of pregnancy (first quarter), although embryo viability was still not affected. In this way, offspring from HSF sows showed a higher incidence of alterations in their developmental trajectory, mainly due to a higher incidence of growth retardation, in their steroidogenic activity and in their availability of triglycerides and cholesterol. In conclusion, the results obtained in the present study illustrate the deleterious effects of maternal dyslipidemia, induced by the intake of HSF diets, on the oestradiol secretion of the conceptuses at early-pregnancy stages and, thus, on their developmental and metabolic features. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and steroids'.

  17. CMKLR1 deficiency maintains ovarian steroid production in mice treated chronically with dihydrotestosterone

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mi; Huang, Chen; Wang, Yu-Fei; Ren, Pei-Gen; Chen, Li; Xiao, Tian-Xia; Wang, Bao-Bei; Pan, Yan-Fei; Tsang, Benjamin K.; Zabel, Brian A; Ma, Bao-Hua; Zhao, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Jian V.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated serum chemerin levels correlate with increased severity of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the role of CMKLR1 signaling in ovarian biology under conditions of excess DHT remains unclear. In this study we compared the effects of continuous 90-day high dose DHT exposure (83.3 □g/day) on wild type and CMKLR1-deficient mice. DHT induced PCOS-like clinical signs in wild type mice as well as significant changes in the expression of hormone receptors, steroid synthesis enzymes, and BMPs and their receptors. In contrast, CMKLR1-deficient mice significantly attenuated DHT-induced clinical signs of PCOS and alterations in ovarian gene expression. To determine whether the BMP4 signaling pathway was involved in the pathogenic effects of CMKLR1 signaling in DHT-induced ovarian steroidogenesis, antral follicles were isolated from wild type and CMKLR1 knockout (KO) mice and treated in vitro with combinations of hCG, DHT, and BMP4 inhibitors. BMP4 inhibition attenuated the induction effects of hCG and DHT on estrogen and progesterone secretion in CMKLR1 KO mice, but not in WT mice, implicating the BMP4 signaling pathway in the CMKLR1-dependent response to DHT. In conclusion, CMKLR1 gene deletion attenuates the effects of chronic DHT treatment on ovarian function in experimental PCOS, likely via BMP4 signaling. PMID:26893072

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  20. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  2. Premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Kalantaridou, S N; Davis, S R; Nelson, L M

    1998-12-01

    In 1% of women, premature ovarian failure develops by 40 years of age, a condition causing amenorrhea, infertility, sex steroid deficiency, and elevated gonadotropins. Early loss of ovarian function has significant psychosocial sequelae and major health implications. These young women have a nearly two-fold age-specific increase in mortality rate. Among women with spontaneous premature ovarian failure who have a normal karyotype, half have ovarian follicles remaining in the ovary that function intermittently. Indeed, pregnancies have occurred after the diagnosis of premature ovarian failure. Thus, premature ovarian failure should not be considered as a premature menopause. Young women with this disorder have a 5% to 10% chance for spontaneous pregnancy. Attempts at ovulation induction using various regimens fail to induce ovulation rates greater than those seen in untreated patients; however, oocyte donation for women desiring fertility is an option. Young women with premature ovarian failure need a thorough assessment, sex steroid replacement, and long-term surveillance to monitor therapy. Estrogen-progestin replacement therapy should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made. Androgen replacement should also be considered for women with low libido, persistent fatigue, and poor well-being despite taking adequate estrogen replacement. Women with premature ovarian failure should be followed up for the presence of associated autoimmune endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and diabetes mellitus.

  3. Dioxin exposure reduces the steroidogenic capacity of mouse antral follicles mainly at the level of HSD17B1 without altering atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Karman, Bethany N. Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S. Hannon, Patrick Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent ovarian toxicant. Previously, we demonstrated that in vitro TCDD (1 nM) exposure decreases production/secretion of the sex steroid hormones progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), and 17β-estradiol (E2) in mouse antral follicles. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which TCDD inhibits steroidogenesis. Specifically, we examined the effects of TCDD on the steroidogenic enzymes, atresia, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) protein. TCDD exposure for 48 h increased levels of A4, without changing HSD3B1 protein, HSD17B1 protein, estrone (E1), T or E2 levels. Further, TCDD did not alter atresia ratings compared to vehicle at 48 h. TCDD, however, did down regulate the AHR protein at 48 h. TCDD exposure for 96 h decreased transcript levels for Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b1, and Cyp19a1, but increased Hsd3b1 transcript. TCDD exposure particularly lowered both Hsd17b1 transcript and HSD17B1 protein. However, TCDD exposure did not affect levels of E1 in the media nor atresia ratings at 96 h. TCDD, however, decreased levels of the proapoptotic factor Bax. Collectively, these data suggest that TCDD exposure causes a major block in the steroidogenic enzyme conversion of A4 to T and E1 to E2 and that it regulates apoptotic pathways, favoring survival over death in antral follicles. Finally, the down‐regulation of the AHR protein in TCDD exposed follicles persisted at 96 h, indicating that the activation and proteasomal degradation of this receptor likely plays a central role in the impaired steroidogenic capacity and altered apoptotic pathway of exposed antral follicles. -- Highlights: ► TCDD disrupts steroidogenic enzymes in mouse antral follicles. ► TCDD particularly affects the HSD17B1 enzyme in mouse antral follicles. ► TCDD does not affect atresia ratings in mouse antral follicles. ► TCDD decreases levels of the proapoptitic factor Bax in mouse antral follicles.

  4. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF), also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS) in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system. PMID:28250725

  5. Swainsonine differentially affects steroidogenesis and viability in caprine luteal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xiaomin; Ding, Li; Yu, Gaoshui; Dong, Feng; Du, Qian; Xu, Xingang; Tong, Dewen

    2013-07-01

    Plants containing swainsonine (SW) have been reported to impair reproductive function and fertility after long-term ingestion by livestock. However, direct effects of SW on luteal cell steroidogenesis remain unclear. In this study, primary and transfected luteal cells were used to investigate the effects of SW on progesterone secretion and cell viability and the mechanisms involved in these processes. After treatment with various concentrations of SW for 24 or 48 hours, progesterone production and the number of living cells were assessed using radioimmunoassay and trypan blue dye exclusion assay, respectively. Lower concentrations of SW enhanced basal, 22R-hydroxycholesterol- or pregnenolone-stimulated progesterone secretion (P < 0.05), whereas higher concentrations of SW inhibited progesterone secretion (P < 0.05). Lower concentrations of SW promoted expression of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, two key enzymes involved in luteal cell steroidogenesis, at mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05), but did not affect expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cell proliferation. In contrast, higher concentrations of SW inhibited luteal cell proliferation by inducing growth phase 1/quiescent state cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results demonstrated that lower concentrations of SW induced progesterone production through upregulation of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase without affecting cell viability, whereas higher concentrations of SW induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and impaired steroidogenesis. These findings provided new insights into understanding the effect of SW on luteal cell steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Energized, polarized, and actively respiring mitochondria are required for acute Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Allen, John A; Shankara, Tristan; Janus, Paul; Buck, Steve; Diemer, Thorsten; Hales, Karen Held; Hales, Dale B

    2006-08-01

    The first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones is the transfer of cholesterol into mitochondria, which is facilitated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. Recent study of Leydig cell function has focused on the mechanisms regulating steroidogenesis; however, few investigations have examined the importance of mitochondria in this process. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which aspects of mitochondrial function are necessary for acute cAMP-stimulated Leydig cell steroidogenesis. MA-10 cells were treated with 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and different site-specific agents that disrupt mitochondrial function, and the effects on acute cAMP-stimulated progesterone synthesis, StAR mRNA and protein, mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim), and ATP synthesis were determined. cAMP treatment of MA-10 cells resulted in significant increases in both cellular respiration and Deltapsim. Dissipating Deltapsim with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone resulted in a profound reduction in progesterone synthesis, even in the presence of newly synthesized StAR protein. Preventing electron transport in mitochondria with antimycin A significantly reduced cellular ATP, potently inhibited steroidogenesis, and reduced StAR protein levels. Inhibiting mitochondrial ATP synthesis with oligomycin reduced cellular ATP, inhibited progesterone synthesis and StAR protein, but had no effect on Deltapsim. Disruption of intramitochondrial pH with nigericin significantly reduced progesterone production and StAR protein but had minimal effects on Deltapsim. 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-stimulated progesterone synthesis was not inhibited by any of the mitochondrial reagents, indicating that neither P450 side-chain cleavage nor 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was inhibited. These results indicate that Deltapsim, mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and mitochondrial pH are all required for acute steroid

  7. Regulation of ACTH-induced steroidogenesis in human fetal adrenals by rTNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Jäättelä, M; Carpén, O; Stenman, U H; Saksela, E

    1990-01-22

    The presence of tumor necrosis factor type alpha (TNF-alpha) in different fetal tissue and adult adrenal extracts was investigated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Measurable levels of TNF-alpha were found in 12/22 fetal adrenals, but in none of the seven adult adrenals studied. Since it is known that (i) steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals differs greatly from that in adult glands by having higher androgen/corticosteroid ratio, (ii) and that macrophage-derived factors may cause adrenocortical suppression, the effect of TNF-alpha on corticotropin-induced steroidogenesis in primary cultures of human fetal adrenals was studied. Results show that TNF-alpha effectively suppresses the production of cortisol and shifts the steroid synthesis towards androgen production. The effect was not accompanied by any change in cell viability and could be neutralized by addition of polyclonal rabbit anti-TNF-alpha antiserum to cell cultures. These results suggest that TNF-alpha may take part in the regulation of human fetal steroidogenesis within the network of the fetoplacental unit via inhibition of the cortisol synthesis.

  8. SNARE-Mediated Cholesterol Movement to Mitochondria Supports Steroidogenesis in Rodent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ye; Hou, Xiaoming; Shen, Wen-Jun; Hanssen, Ruth; Khor, Victor K.; Cortez, Yuan; Roseman, Ann N.; Azhar, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Vesicular transport involving soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins is known to be responsible for many major cellular activities. In steroidogenic tissues, chronic hormone stimulation results in increased expression of proteins involved in the steroidogenic pathway, whereas acute hormone stimulation prompts the rapid transfer of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane to be utilized as substrate for steroid hormone production. Several different pathways are involved in supplying cholesterol to mitochondria, but mobilization of stored cholesteryl esters appears to initially constitute the preferred source; however, the mechanisms mediating this cholesterol transfer are not fully understood. To study the potential contribution of SNARE proteins in steroidogenesis, we examined the expression levels of various SNARE proteins in response to hormone stimulation in steroidogenic tissues and cells and established an in vitro mitochondria reconstitution assay system to assess the contribution of various SNARE proteins on cholesterol delivery for steroidogenesis. Our results from reconstitution experiments along with knockdown studies in rat primary granulosa cells and in a Leydig cell line show that soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein-α, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, syntaxin-5, and syntaxin-17 facilitate the transport of cholesterol to mitochondria. Thus, although StAR is required for efficient cholesterol movement into mitochondria for steroidogenesis, specific SNAREs participate and are necessary to mediate cholesterol movement to mitochondria. PMID:26771535

  9. A phytooxysterol, 28-homobrassinolide modulates rat testicular steroidogenesis in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, R; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Rani, S Judith Amala; Srikumar, K; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2013-05-01

    Steroidogenesis in testicular cells depends upon the availability of cholesterol within testicular mitochondria besides the activities of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [17b-HSD]), and the tissue levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), androgen-binding protein (ABP), and testosterone (T). Cellular cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by endogenous oxycholesterols acting through nuclear hormone receptors. Plant oxysterols, such as 28-homobrassinolide (28-HB), available to human through diet, was shown to exhibit antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic male rat. Its role in rat testicular steroidogenesis and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was therefore assessed using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Administration of 28-HB (333 µg/kg body weight) by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days to experimental rats diminished LPO, increased antioxidant enzyme, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities, and elevated StAR and ABP expression and T level in rat testis. We report that 28-HB induced steroidogenesis in normal and diabetic rat testis.

  10. Gibberellic acid acts as an agonist of steroidogenesis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, R; Jubendradass, R; Srikumar, K; Mathur, P P

    2014-10-01

    Testicular steroidogenesis has significant implication in male reproductive function. Although the effects of various signalling molecules on testicular functions have been studied earlier, the influence of the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA3 ) on steroidogenesis has not been investigated. Acute (4 h) and subacute (15 days) studies using this compound through oral administration (150 μg day(-1) ) to groups of normal and diabetic Wistar male rats were therefore carried out. Results indicate that (i) enhanced activity of steroidogenic markers 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), elevated tissue testosterone (T) content, increased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and androgen binding protein (ABP) levels with reduced lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant defence in this treatment group of normal and diabetic rat testis, and (ii) elevated lipid peroxidation and diminished antioxidant defence, with insignificant change in 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activity and testosterone level in acute treatment group of normal and diabetic rats testis, were noted. The observed increase in the activity of testicular 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD along with elevated testosterone content established GA3 as an inducer of steroidogenesis in rat. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Acute effects of polychlorinated biphenyl-containing and -free transformer fluids on rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Andric, S A; Kostic, T S; Dragisic, S M; Andric, N L; Stojilkovic, S S; Kovacevic, R Z

    2000-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-based transformer fluids belong to a class of environmentally persistent mixtures with known toxic effects. Here, we studied the acute effects of Askarel (which contains Aroclor 1260) and two substitute transformer fluids (the silicone oil-based DC561 and the mineral oil-based ENOL C) on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Single intraperitoneal (ip; 10 mg/kg body weight) or bilateral intratesticular (itt; 25 microg/testis) injections of Askarel markedly decreased serum androgen levels 24 hr after administration. In acute testicular cultures from these animals, chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone and androgen productions were severely attenuated. When itt was injected or added in vitro, Askarel inhibited 3ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ssHSD), stimulated 17[alpha]-hydroxylase/lyase (P450c17), and did not affect 17ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in testicular postmitochondrial fractions. The ip-injected Askarel did not affect 3ssHSD, but inhibited P450c17, suggesting that a more intensive metabolism of peripherally injected Askarel reduces the circulating levels of active ingredients below the threshold needed for inhibition of 3ssHSD and generates a derivative that inhibits P450c17. In contrast to Askarel, itt-injection (25 microg/testis) of DC561 and ENOL C did not affect in vivo and in vitro steroidogenesis. These findings show the acute effects of Askarel, but not silicone and mineral oils, on testicular steroidogenesis.

  12. Disruption of steroidogenesis: Cell models for mechanistic investigations and as screening tools.

    PubMed

    Odermatt, Alex; Strajhar, Petra; Engeli, Roger T

    2016-04-01

    In the modern world, humans are exposed during their whole life to a large number of synthetic chemicals. Some of these chemicals have the potential to disrupt endocrine functions and contribute to the development and/or progression of major diseases. Every year approximately 1000 novel chemicals, used in industrial production, agriculture, consumer products or as pharmaceuticals, are reaching the market, often with limited safety assessment regarding potential endocrine activities. Steroids are essential endocrine hormones, and the importance of the steroidogenesis pathway as a target for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been recognized by leading scientists and authorities. Cell lines have a prominent role in the initial stages of toxicity assessment, i.e. for mechanistic investigations and for the medium to high throughput analysis of chemicals for potential steroidogenesis disrupting activities. Nevertheless, the users have to be aware of the limitations of the existing cell models in order to apply them properly, and there is a great demand for improved cell-based testing systems and protocols. This review intends to provide an overview of the available cell lines for studying effects of chemicals on gonadal and adrenal steroidogenesis, their use and limitations, as well as the need for future improvements of cell-based testing systems and protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nintedanib in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Khalique, Saira; Banerjee, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Advanced ovarian cancer remains an unmet clinical need. Angiogenesis is considered a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer, with bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, being the first drug to show a progression-free survival benefit. Nintedanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting VEGF receptor 1-3, FGFR 1-3 and PDGFR α and β, which has entered phase III trial development in ovarian cancer. Areas covered: This article reviews the preclinical and clinical efficacy of nintedanib in ovarian cancer, its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profile, safety issues, together with an overview of clinical trials carried out so far. A literature search was made in PubMed for nintedanib, ovarian cancer, angiogenesis, and on ClinicalTrials.gov site for clinical trials with nintedanib. Expert opinion: An ongoing phase III trial investigating nintedanib combined with first-line chemotherapy in ovarian cancer has shown a statistically significant progression free survival benefit, although there were toxicity issues. The true clinical benefit of nintedanib in ovarian cancer including its optimal treatment setting and dosage still need to be addressed.

  14. MV-NIS Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-14

    Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. Resistin is a survival factor for porcine ovarian follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Rak, Agnieszka; Drwal, Eliza; Wróbel, Anna; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2015-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated the expression of resistin in the porcine ovary, the regulation of its expression and its direct effect on ovarian steroidogenesis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of resistin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in a co-culture model of porcine granulosa and theca cells. First, we analysed the effect of resistin at 1 and 10  ng/ml alone or in combination with FSH- and IGF1 on ovarian cell proliferation with an alamarBlue assay and protein expression of cyclins A and B using western blot. Next, the mRNA and protein expression of selected pro-apoptotic and pro-survival regulators of cell apoptosis, caspase-9, -8 and -3 activity and DNA fragmentation using real time PCR, western blot, fluorescent assay and an ELISA kit, respectively, were analysed after resistin treatment. Furthermore, we determined the effect of resistin on the protein expression of ERK1/2, Stat and Akt kinase. Using specific inhibitors of these kinases, we also checked caspase-3 activity and protein expression. We found that resistin, at both doses, has no effect on cell proliferation. The results showed that resistin decreased pro-apoptotic genes, which was confirmed on protein expression of selected factors. We demonstrate an inhibitory effect of resistin on caspase activity and DNA fragmentation. Finally, resistin stimulated phosphorylation of the ERK1/2, Stat and Akt and kinases inhibitors reversed resistin action on caspase-3 activity and protein expression to control. All of these results showed that resistin has an inhibitory effect on porcine ovarian cell apoptosis by activation of the MAPK/ERK, JAK/Stat and Akt/PI3 kinase signalling pathways. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  17. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ringelstetter, Ashley; Khatib, Hasan; Abbott, David H.; Salih, Sana M.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra) pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2–24 hours post-injection), Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the “infertility index” (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy) through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health in a mouse

  18. Biomagnetic activity in ovarian lesions.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, P; Anninos, P; Kotini, A; Limberis, B; Galazios, G

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND-MATERIALS: This study aimed to investigate biomagnetic activity in benign and malignant ovarian diseases using the biomagnetometer SQUID. Magnetic recordings were obtained from 40 patients with palpable ovarian lesions. 19 of these were invasive carcinomas, and 21 were benign ovarian lesions. We used a one channel biomagnetometer SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), in order to measure the magnetic field from benign and malignant ovarian diseases. Interestingly, the ovarian lesion waveforms and the corresponding spectral densities were of high amplitude in most (96%) malignant ovarian lesions, and of low amplitude in most (95%) benign ovarian diseases. These findings were of statistical significance (students t-test p < 0.005). It is suggested that biomagnetic measurement of benign and malignant ovarian diseases, which is an entirely new application of SQUID technology, is a promising procedure for assessing ovarian tumors.

  19. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... and phytochemicals. High fiber intakes may have a positive benefit by altering hormonal actions of ovarian and other hormonal-dependent cancers. Daily fiber intake should be 25-35 grams of insoluble and soluble fiber. Important Plant Sources ...

  20. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are affected/at risk? ... Ovarian Insufficiency (POI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is POI? ...

  1. Photoperiodic regulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and steroidogenesis in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Photoperiodic modulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression in testis has never been reported for any seasonal breeder. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression dynamics of MT1R in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis in a long-day breeder, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic conditions i.e. critical- (CP; 12.5L:11.5D); short-day- (SD; 8L:16D) and long-day- (LD; 16L:8D) for 10 weeks wherein testicular steroidogenesis, local melatonin synthesis and the expression of MT1R were analyzed. SD induced melatonin suppressed testicular steroidogenesis as evident from regressed testicular histoarchitecture, decreased expression of AR, StAR, LH-R, P₄₅₀SCC and enzyme activities of 3β- and 17β-HSD. Differential photoperiodic regulation of MT1R expression in testis suggests its involvement in photoperiodic signal transduction for seasonal adjustment of reproduction. Increased S-NAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase) activity and local testicular melatonin under SD condition suggest an inhibitory effect of the local melatonergic system on testicular steroidogenesis. Completely opposite responses were recorded for all the parameters analyzed when hamsters were exposed to CP or LD conditions. In conclusion, we may suggest that photoperiod via regulating circulatory and local melatonin level as well as MT1R expression in testes fine tunes the steroidogenesis and thereby, the reproductive status of male golden hamster.

  2. Hereditary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Russo, Antonio; Calò, Valentina; Bruno, Loredana; Rizzo, Sergio; Bazan, Viviana; Di Fede, Gaetana

    2009-01-01

    At least 10% of ovarian tumors are hereditary and associated with highly penetrant, autosomal, dominant genetic predisposition. Three clinical manifestations of hereditary ovarian cancer have been identified: site-specific ovarian cancer, hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndromes. BRCA germline mutations account for more than 90% of all hereditary epithelial ovarian tumors whereas most of the remaining 10% are caused by MLH1 and MSH2 mutations, which are susceptibility genes of HNPCC. Genetic testing is available for each of the three hereditary syndromes above mentioned. The recommendations for OC surveillance in high-risk women having a strong family history or BRCA mutation carriers include transvaginal pelvic ultrasound with color Doppler and serum CA125 every 6 months. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy appears to be effective to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers. Hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy should be considered in HNPCC women who undergo surgery for colorectal carcinoma.

  3. Effect of the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) on ovarian folliculogenesis and fertility of female rats.

    PubMed

    Telefo, Phelix Bruno; Tagne, Simon Richard; Koona, Olga Elodie Sandrine; Yemele, Didiane M; Tchouanguep, Félicité M

    2012-01-01

    Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant whose leaves and those of three other plants are mixed for the preparation of a concoction used to improve fertility and to reduce labour pains in women of the Western Region of Cameroon. Previous studies have demonstrated the inducing potential on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis of the aqueous extract of the leaf mixture (ADHJ) of four medicinal plants (Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis) among which the later represented the highest proportion. This study was aimed at evaluating the ovarian inducing potential of J. insularis in immature female rats. Various doses of the aqueous extract of J. insularis were daily and orally given, for 20 days, to immature female rats distributed into four experimental groups of twenty animals each. At the end of the experimental period some biochemical and physiological parameters of ovarian function were assayed. The administration of the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis significantly induced an early vaginal opening in all treated groups (P < 0.001) as well as an increase (at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg) in the number of hemorrhagic points, Corpus luteum, implantation sites, ovarian weight, uterine and ovarian proteins. Ovarian cholesterol level (P < 0.05) significantly decreased in animals treated with the lowest dose (12.5 mg/kg). The evaluation of the toxicological effects of the extract on pregnancy showed that it significantly increased pre- and post-implantation losses, resorption index and decreased the rate of nidation as well as litter's weight. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis induces ovarian folliculogenesis thus justifying its high proportion in the leaf mixture of ADHJ.

  4. Role of activin, inhibin, and follistatin in the pathogenesis of bovine cystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, Matías L; Matiller, Valentina; Díaz, Pablo U; Ortega, Hugo H; Rey, Florencia; Rodríguez, Fernanda M; Silva, Manuel A; Salvetti, Natalia R

    2014-08-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. Although many researchers have focused their work on the endocrine changes related to this disease, evidence indicates that intraovarian components play an important role in follicular persistence. Activin, inhibin, and follistatin participate as intraovarian regulatory molecules involved in follicular cell proliferation, differentiation, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and corpus luteum function. Given the importance of these factors in folliculogenesis, we examined the expression and immunolocalization of activin/inhibin βA-subunit, inhibin α-subunit, and follistatin in the ovaries of healthy estrus-synchronized cows and in those of cows with spontaneous or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced COD. We also studied inhibin B (α βB) levels in serum and follicular fluid. We found an increased expression of the βA-subunit of activin A/inhibin A, the α-subunit of inhibin, and follistatin in granulosa cells of spontaneous follicular cysts by immunohistochemistry, and decreased concentrations of inhibin B (α βB) in the follicular fluid of spontaneous follicular cysts. These results, together with those previously obtained, indicate that the expression of the components of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system is altered. This could lead to multiple alterations in important functions in the ovary like the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, follicular proliferation/apoptosis, and steroidogenesis, which may contribute to the follicular persistence and endocrine changes found in cattle with COD.

  5. A prospective study of phobic anxiety, risk of ovarian cancer, and survival among patients.

    PubMed

    Poole, Elizabeth M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Sood, Anil K; Okereke, Olivia I; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-05-01

    In ovarian cancer patients and mouse models, psychosocial stress is associated with higher circulating markers of angiogenesis and cell migration, impaired immune response, and increasing tumor burden and aggressiveness. In the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII), we assessed whether phobic anxiety, a marker of chronic distress, was associated with risk of incident ovarian cancer as well as survival among ovarian cancer patients. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of ovarian cancer incidence and survival by categories of the Crown-Crisp phobic anxiety index (CCI). We identified 779 cases of ovarian cancer during 2,497,892 person-years of follow-up. For baseline CCI (NHS: 1988; NHSII: 1993), we observed a statistically nonsignificant increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (RR for CCI ≥ 4 vs. 0 or 1: 1.14; 95 % CI 0.96-1.36). However, when we updated CCI (NHS: 2004; NHSII: 2005), the associations were attenuated. Pre-diagnosis CCI was not associated with ovarian cancer survival (RR for ≥4 vs. 0 or 1: 1.00; 95 % CI 0.77-1.31); results were similar for post-diagnosis CCI. Distress, as measured by phobic anxiety symptoms, was not associated with ovarian cancer risk, although we cannot rule out a modest association. Future research should explore the role of phobic anxiety and other forms of psychological distress and ovarian cancer risk and survival.

  6. Cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) in the hen ovary. I. Regulation of P450scc messenger RNA levels and steroidogenesis in theca cells of developing follicles.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, K I; Tilly, J L; Johnson, A L

    1991-12-01

    We have recently shown that granulosa cells from hen ovarian follicles, collected at a stage of development 2-3 wk prior to ovulation (e.g. 6-8 mm in diameter) are steroidogenically inactive. Therefore, the hypothesis tested in the present studies was that theca cells from follicles at this stage of development must contain sufficient levels of functional cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme to produce the progestin precursor required for the synthesis of androgens and estrogens. Northern blot analysis of total theca RNA collected from 6-8-mm follicles indicated the presence of a single P450scc mRNA transcript of approximately 2 kb whose expression was increased following an 8-h preincubation with 200 ng/ml ovine LH (oLH) or 10 microM forskolin. Western blot analysis of crude mitochondrial protein revealed a band of immunoreactive P450scc protein of approximately 53 kDa that was determined to be capable of converting 25-hydroxycholesterol to pregnenolone in a cell-free system. In the second set of studies, conducted to examine the cellular regulation of steroidogenesis in isolated theca cells of 6-8-mm follicles, theca cells were found to produce measurable basal levels of cAMP, progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol following a 3-h incubation of 5 x 10(5) cells. Furthermore, significant dose-dependent increases in steroidogenesis were observed in response to oLH (0.2-200 ng/ml), chicken FSH (cFSH; 20-200 ng/ml), cholera toxin (0.002-20 ng/ml), and 8-bromo-cAMP (0.1-3.33 mM). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 10-167 nM) also stimulated dose-dependent increases in basal progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol production. In addition, while PMA had no effect on oLH (200 ng/ml)-promoted cAMP accumulation, or on oLH (20 ng/ml)- or 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM)-stimulated progesterone production, it attenuated oLH-induced and 8-bromo-cAMP-induced androstenedione and estradiol accumulation. We conclude that theca cells from 6-8-mm follicles possess m

  7. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  8. In vitro interaction between resistin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in porcine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Drwal, Eliza

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting methods, we quantified the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPARα and PPARβ in different sized ovarian follicles (small (SF), medium (MF) and large (LF) follicles) in prepubertal and adult pigs. In prepubertal pigs, PPARγ and PPARα expression was highest in LF; however, PPARβ expression did not differ among SF, MF and LF. In mature pigs, only protein expression of PPARγ and PPARα increased during ovarian follicle development. Following identification of very high levels of PPARγ expression in LF in prepubertal and adult pigs, using in vitro culture of ovarian follicles, we determined the effect of resistin at 0.1, 1 and 10ngmL(-1) on PPARγ mRNA and protein expression and the effect of rosiglitazone at 25 and 50µM (a PPARγ agonist) on resistin mRNA and protein expression. Resistin increased PPARγ expression in ovarian follicles in both prepubertal and adult pigs, whereas rosiglitazone had an inhibitory effect on resistin expression. The role of PPARγ in regulating the effects of resistin on ovarian steroidogenesis was investigated using GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist at dose of 1μM). In these studies, GW9662 reversed the effect of resistin on steroid hormone secretion. The data suggest that there is local cooperation between resistin and PPARγ expression in the porcine ovary. Resistin significantly increased the expression of PPARγ, whereas PPARγ decreased resistin expression; thus, PPARγ is a new key regulator of resistin expression and function.

  9. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  10. p38 MAPK regulates steroidogenesis through transcriptional repression of STAR gene.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Shen, Wen-Jun; Bittner, Stefanie; Bittner, Alex; McLean, Mark P; Han, Jiahuai; Davis, Roger J; Kraemer, Fredric B; Azhar, Salman

    2014-08-01

    STAR/StarD1, part of a protein complex, mediates the transport of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane, which is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis, and where steroid hormone synthesis begins. Herein, we examined the role of oxidant-sensitive p38 MAPKs in the regulation of STAR gene transcription, using model steroidogenic cell lines. Our data indicate that oxidant activation of p38 MAPK exhibits a negative regulatory role in the induction of functional expression of STAR, as evidenced by enhanced induction of STAR (mRNA/protein) expression and increased steroidogenesis during pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or in cells with increased transient overexpression of a dominant-negative (dn) form of p38 MAPKα or p38 MAPKβ. Studies with rat Star-promoter demonstrated that overexpression of p38 MAPKα-wt, -β, or -γ significantly reduced both basal and cAMP-sensitive promoter activity. In contrast, overexpression of p38 MAPKα-dn, -β, or -γ enhanced the Star promoter activity under basal conditions and in response to cAMP stimulation. Use of various constitutively active and dn constructs and designer knock-out cell lines demonstrated that MKK3 and MKK6, the upstream activators of p38 MAPKs, play a role in p38 MAPKα-mediated inhibition of Star promoter activity. In addition, our studies raised the possibility of CREB being a potential target of the p38 MAPK inhibitory effect on Star promoter activity. Collectively, these data provide novel mechanistic information about how oxidant-sensitive p38 MAPKs, particularly p38 MAPKα, contribute to the negative regulation of Star gene expression and inhibit steroidogenesis. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Effects of acidic water, aluminum, and manganese on testicular steroidogenesis in Astyanax altiparanae.

    PubMed

    Kida, Bianca Mayumi Silva; Abdalla, Raisa Pereira; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2016-10-01

    Metals can influence the gonadal steroidogenesis and endocrine systems of fish, thereby affecting their reproduction. The effects of aluminum and manganese in acidic water were investigated on steroidogenesis in sexually mature male Astyanax altiparanae. Whether mature male fish recover from the effects of metals in metal-free water was also assessed. The fish were exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of isolated or combined aluminum and manganese in acidic pH (5.5) to keep the metals bioavailable. The fish underwent 96 h of acute exposure, and samples were taken 24 and 96 h after the beginning of the experiment. The fish were then maintained in metal-free water for 96 h. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, 17β-estradiol, and cortisol were measured. Acidic water increased the plasma concentration of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Aluminum increased the testosterone levels after 96 h of exposure. Manganese increased the 17β-estradiol levels after 24 h of exposure and maintained at high levels until the end of the experiment. With the exception of acidic pH, which increased cortisol levels after 24 h of exposure, no changes were observed in this corticosteroid during the acute experiment. Aluminum and manganese together also altered steroid levels but without a standard variation. The fish recovered from the effects of most exposure conditions after 96 h in metal-free water. A. altiparanae could use reproductive tactics to trigger changes in testicular steroidogenesis by accelerating spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, which may interfere with their reproductive dynamics.

  12. Sensitivity of fetal rat testicular steroidogenesis to maternal prochloraz exposure and the underlying mechanism of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Blystone, Chad R; Lambright, Christy S; Howdeshell, Kembra L; Furr, Johnathan; Sternberg, Robin M; Butterworth, Brian C; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Ankley, Gerald T; Wilson, Vickie S; Leblanc, Gerald A; Gray, L Earl

    2007-06-01

    The fungicide prochloraz (PCZ) induces malformations in androgen-dependent tissues in male rats when administered during sex differentiation. The sensitivity of fetal testicular steroidogenesis to PCZ was investigated to test the hypothesis that the reported morphological effects from maternal exposure were associated with reduced testosterone synthesis. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 7.8, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5, and 125 mg PCZ/kg/day (n = 8) from gestational day (GD) 14 to 18. On GD 18, the effects of PCZ on fetal steroidogenesis were assessed by measuring hormone production from ex vivo fetal testes after a 3-h incubation. Lastly, PCZ levels in amniotic fluid and maternal serum were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and correlated to the inhibition of steroidogenesis. Fetal progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone production levels were increased significantly at every PCZ dose, whereas testosterone levels were significantly decreased only at the two high doses. These results suggest that PCZ inhibits the conversion of progesterone to testosterone through the inhibition of CYP17. To test this hypothesis, PCZ effects on CYP17 gene expression and in vitro CYP17 hydroxylase activity were evaluated. PCZ had no effect on testicular CYP17 mRNA levels as measured by quantitative real-time polymersase chain reaction. However, microsomal CYP17 hydroxylase activity was significantly inhibited by the fungicide (K(i) = 865nM). Amniotic fluid PCZ concentrations ranged from 78 to 1512 ppb (207-4014nM) and testosterone production was reduced when PCZ reached approximately 500 ppb, which compares favorably with the determined CYP17 hydroxylase K(i) (326 ppb). These results demonstrate that PCZ lowers testicular testosterone synthesis by inhibiting CYP17 activity which likely contributes to the induced malformations in androgen-dependent tissues of male offspring.

  13. Osteoblasts promote castration-resistant prostate cancer by altering intratumoral steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hagberg Thulin, Malin; Nilsson, Maria E; Thulin, Pontus; Céraline, Jocelyn; Ohlsson, Claes; Damber, Jan-Erik; Welén, Karin

    2016-02-15

    The skeleton is the preferred site for prostate cancer (PC) metastasis leading to incurable castration-resistant disease. The increased expression of genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes found in bone metastatic tissue from patients suggests that up-regulated steroidogenesis might contribute to tumor growth at the metastatic site. Because of the overall sclerotic phenotype, we hypothesize that osteoblasts regulate the intratumoral steroidogenesis of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in bone. We here show that osteoblasts alter the steroidogenic transcription program in CRPC cells, closely mimicking the gene expression pattern described in CRPC. Osteoblast-stimulated LNCaP-19 cells displayed an increased expression of genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1, HSD3B1, and AKR1C3), estrogen signaling-related genes (CYP19A1, and ESR2), and genes for DHT-inactivating enzymes (UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17). The observed osteoblast-induced effect was exclusive to osteogenic CRPC cells (LNCaP-19) in contrast to osteolytic PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. The altered steroid enzymatic pattern was specific for the intratibial tumors and verified by immunohistochemistry in tissue specimens from LNCaP-19 xenograft tumors. Additionally, the overall steroidogenic effect was reflected by corresponding levels of progesterone and testosterone in serum from castrated mice with intratibial xenografts. A bi-directional interplay was demonstrated since both proliferation and Esr2 expression of osteoblasts were induced by CRPC cells in steroid-depleted conditions. Together, our results demonstrate that osteoblasts are important mediators of the intratumoral steroidogenesis of CRPC and for castration-resistant growth in bone. Targeting osteoblasts may therefore be important in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  14. Polymorphisms in steroidogenesis genes, sex steroid levels, and high myopia in the Taiwanese population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zoe Tzu-Yi; Liao, Ya-Tang; Shih, Yung-Feng; Lin, Luke Long-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in steroidogenesis enzyme genes, serum levels of sex steroids, and high myopia in Taiwanese male and female populations. Methods A campus-based sample of 283 cases (145 males and 138 females) with high myopia and 280 controls (144 males and 136 females) with low myopia or emmetropia was studied. Estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. We genotyped six SNPs within five steroidogenesis enzyme genes (17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase [CYP17A1], 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [HSD3B1], 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 [HSD17B1], steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2 [SRD5A2], and aromatase [CYP19A1]) using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Student’s t-tests, χ2 tests, logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) methods, and ANOVA were used to determine significance. Results An MDR analysis corroborated the synergistic genotype association and demonstrated that synergistic interaction between rs6203 (HSD3B1), rs10046 (CYP19A1), and sex might confer susceptibility to high myopia (p=0.019). In both male and female subjects, levels of testosterone were significantly higher in cases than in controls; in male subjects, the levels of estradiol were significantly higher and those of progesterone were significantly lower in cases (all p-values <0.001). The rs605059 (HSD17B1), with sex-gene interaction, showed association with estradiol levels in males (p=0.035) and testosterone levels in females (p=0.027). Conclusions Testosterone levels correlate with high myopia, and interaction of steroidogenesis enzyme genes and sex may be a modulating factor in sex hormone metabolism and high-myopia risk. PMID:21921981

  15. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of a family of steroids acutely controlling steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Midzak, Andrew; Rammouz, Georges; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2012-11-01

    Steroids metabolically derive from lipid cholesterol, and vertebrate steroids additionally derive from the steroid pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is derived from cholesterol by hydrolytic cleavage of the aliphatic tail by mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP11A1, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Delivery of cholesterol to CYP11A1 comprises the principal control step of steroidogenesis, and requires a series of proteins spanning the mitochondrial double membranes. A critical member of this cholesterol translocation machinery is the integral outer mitochondrial membrane translocator protein (18kDa, TSPO), a high-affinity drug- and cholesterol-binding protein. The cholesterol-binding site of TSPO consists of a phylogenetically conserved cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC). Previous studies from our group identified 5-androsten-3β,17,19-triol (19-Atriol) as drug ligand for the TSPO CRAC motif inhibiting cholesterol binding to CRAC domain and steroidogenesis. To further understand 19-Atriol's mechanism of action as well as the molecular recognition by the TSPO CRAC motif, we undertook structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of the 19-Atriol molecule with a variety of substituted steroids oxygenated at positions around the steroid backbone. We found that in addition to steroids hydroxylated at carbon C19, hydroxylations at C4, C7, and C11 contributed to inhibition of cAMP-mediated steroidogenesis in a minimal steroidogenic cell model. However, only substituted steroids with C19 hydroxylations exhibited specificity to TSPO, its CRAC motif, and mitochondrial cholesterol transport, as the C4, C7, and C11 hydroxylated steroids inhibited the metabolic transformation of cholesterol by CYP11A1. We thus provide new insights into structure-activity relationships of steroids inhibiting mitochondrial cholesterol transport and steroidogenic cholesterol metabolic enzymes.

  16. Mechanism of action of endosulfan as disruptor of gonadal steroidogenesis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Dorelle, Luciana; Rodríguez, Enrique M; Guimarães Moreira, Renata; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L

    2016-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (ES) is used in several countries as a wide spectrum insecticide on crops with high commercial value. Due to its high toxicity to non-target animals, its persistence in the environment and its ability to act as an endocrine disrupting compound in fish, ES use is currently banned or restricted in many other countries. Previous studies on the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus have shown that waterborne exposure to ES can lead to both decreased pituitary FSH content and histological alterations of testes. As gonadotropin-stimulated sex steroids release from gonads was inhibited by ES in vitro, the aim of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of disruption of ES on gonadal steroidogenesis in C. dimerus, as well as compare the action of the active ingredient (AI) with that of currently used commercial formulations (CF). Testis and ovary fragments were incubated with ES (AI or CF) and/or steroidogenesis activators or precursors. Testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in the incubation media. By itself, ES did not affect hormone levels. Co-incubation with LH and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin caused a decrease of the stimulated sex steroids release. When co-incubated with precursors dehydroandrostenedione and 17αhydroxyprogesterone, ES did not affect the increase caused by their addition alone. No differences were observed between the AI and CFs, suggesting that the effect on steroidogenesis disruption is mainly caused by the AI. Results indicate that action of ES takes place downstream of LH-receptor activation and upstream of the studied steroidogenic enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ovarian ectopic pregnancy in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Ana Gonçalves; Rocha, Sara; Marques, Catarina O; Simões, Mafalda; Martins, Isabel; Biscaia, Isabel; F Barros, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Ovarian pregnancy is one of the rarest types of extrauterine pregnancy. Its preoperative diagnosis remains a challenge since it presents quite similarly to tubal pregnancy and complicated ovarian cysts. Although in most cases, histology is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, we present an ovarian pregnancy in a teenager, correctly diagnosed during ultrasound examination. PMID:26576271

  18. Public exposure and number of conspecifics have no influence on ovarian and adrenal activity in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Meeks, Karen; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-03-01

    Cheetahs in managed zoological collections do not reproduce efficiently, a problem that may be related to environmental/management stressors. In this study, we examined 17 adult female cheetahs to determine the influence of two environmental factors, (1) being housed on- or off-exhibit and (2) number of adult conspecifics (males and/or females) in nearby enclosures, on profiles and concentrations of ovarian and adrenal hormones. Secondarily, we assessed a subset of group-housed siblings (n=5 females in groups of 2 or 3) for effects of long-term cohabitation. All of the females demonstrated waves of estrogen excretion (indicative of ovarian activity) as well as occasional periods of no estrogen production (anestrus). Glucocorticoid and estrogen concentrations were correlated within an individual (rs=0.53; P<0.05), and overall there was a higher frequency of days with elevated glucocorticoid concentrations in association with elevated estrogen excretion. However, none of the management factors had an impact (P>0.05) on estrogen or glucocorticoid metabolite excretory patterns. Although we recently reported that public exposure can negatively affect sperm production, ovarian steroidogenesis in females was unaffected. There also was no evidence of hyper-adrenal activity. Thus, different methods of ex situ management appear to have minimal influence on ovarian function or stress susceptibility of female cheetahs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of Nanotechnology in the Targeted Release of Anticancer Drugs in Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    performed on the mice. Iron oxide particle in the size range of MagNaGels are known as Ultrasmall Super - Paramagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO) particles and...localize the MagNaGel nanoparticles in an orthotopic ovarian cancer mouse model by MRI, mice were Injected intraperitoneally with ovarian cancer cells...Organs were harvested and drug levels determined. Relative nanoparticle distribution by MRI images were correlated with drug levels. 15

  20. Ovarian and Uterine Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Cheval, Max

    1934-01-01

    Recent experience has convinced the author of the value of ovarian grafting. He gives the histories of a number of women upon whom he made implants of their own ovarian tissue in the course of operations for double oöphorectomy. The subsequent state of these patients is contrasted with that of women after castration without grafting. When the uterus was left in position menstruation was re-established in over 80% of the grafted cases. The author and his co-workers maintain that the vitality of autogenous grafts of ovarian substance is enhanced by hormones produced by the uterine mucosa. He therefore advocates that grafts of uterus be made in conjunction with ovarian implants whenever possible. Experiments carried out on animals have proved the correctness of this opinion. The results of a series of cases of combined ovarian and uterine graftings are recorded, and the technique of uterine mucosa implants is described. ImagesFig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:19989930

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-II stimulates steroidogenesis in cultured bovine thecal cells.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J; Voge, J L; Allen, D T

    2004-11-30

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) on luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced progesterone and androstenedione production by bovine thecal cells and compare it to that of insulin and IGF-I. Cells from large (>7.9 mm) bovine follicles were collected and cultured for 2 days in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. Then cells were cultured for an additional 1 or 2 days in serum-free medium with various doses of recombinant human IGF-II, bovine LH (30 ng/ml), IGF-I, and(or) insulin. Cell numbers were determined at the end of treatments via Coulter counting and used to correct steroid production data. In the presence of LH, 1-day treatment with 3-300 ng/ml of IGF-II had no significant effect on progesterone or androstenedione production, whereas 2-day treatment with 30, 100 and 300 ng/ml of IGF-II increased (P < 0.05) both progesterone and androstenedione production by 2-3-fold. The estimated effective dose of IGF-II stimulating 50% of the maximal steroidogenic response was calculated to be 25 ng/ml. In the absence of LH, 2-day treatment of IGF-I or -II had no effect on thecal androstenedione production but increased (P < 0.05) thecal progesterone production. In the presence of LH, 100 ng/ml of IGF-I increased progesterone and androstenedione production to a greater degree than did 100 ng/ml of IGF-II. Maximal effects of IGF-I and insulin on thecal steroidogenesis were similar and were not additive. Anti-IGF type I receptor antibodies attenuated (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effect of both IGF-I and IGF-II on thecal cell steroidogenesis. Use of radioligand assays demonstrated that specific receptors for (125)I-IGF-II existed in thecal cells with a 25 ng/well of IGF-II causing 50% inhibition of binding. IGF-I cross-reactivity with (125)I-IGF-II receptors averaged 3% whereas cross-reactivity of IGF-II with (125)I-IGF-I receptors averaged 114%. These results indicate that the stimulatory effects of IGF-II on

  2. Differences in neonatal exposure to estradiol or testosterone on ovarian function and hormonal levels.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Rodrigo R; Carvalho, Kátia C; Duarte, Daniele C; Garcia, Natália; Amaral, Vinícius C; Simões, Manuel J; Lo Turco, Edson G; Soares, José M; Baracat, Edmund C; Maciel, Gustavo A R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to an excess of androgen or estrogen can induce changes in reproductive function in adult animals that resemble polycystic ovary syndrome in humans. However, considerable differences exist among several types of animal models. Little is known about the molecular features of steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis in the ovaries of rats exposed to different sex steroids as neonates. Here, we evaluated the impact of androgen and estrogen exposure on the ovaries of adult female rats during their neonatal period in the gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1, two key players of steroidogenesis. We also assessed hormone levels, folliculogenesis and the theca-interstitial cell population. The study was performed on the second postnatal day in thirty female Wistar rats that were sorted into the following three intervention groups: testosterone, estradiol and vehicle (control group). The animals were euthanized 90 days after birth. The main outcomes were hormone serum levels, ovary histomorphometry and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1 as analyzed via quantitative real-time PCR. We found that exposure to excess testosterone in early life increased the LH and testosterone serum levels, the LH/FSH ratio, ovarian theca-interstitial area and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1 in adult rats. Estrogen induced an increase in the ovarian theca-interstitial area, the secondary follicle population and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1. All animals exposed to the sex steroids presented with closed vaginas. Our data suggest that testosterone resulted in more pronounced reproductive changes than did estrogen exposure. Our results might provide some insight into the role of different hormones on reproductive development and on the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations of conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumor-associated macrophages drive spheroid formation during early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Tan, Shu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Bellone, Stefania; Xu, Xiaocao; Zhang, Haifeng; Santin, Alessandro D.; Lou, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can influence ovarian cancer growth, migration, and metastasis, but the detailed mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer metastasis remain unclear. Here, we have shown a strong correlation between TAM-associated spheroids and the clinical pathology of ovarian cancer. Further, we have determined that TAMs promote spheroid formation and tumor growth at early stages of transcoelomic metastasis in an established mouse model for epithelial ovarian cancer. M2 macrophage–like TAMs were localized in the center of spheroids and secreted EGF, which upregulated αMβ2 integrin on TAMs and ICAM-1 on tumor cells to promote association between tumor cells and TAM. Moreover, EGF secreted by TAMs activated EGFR on tumor cells, which in turn upregulated VEGF/VEGFR signaling in surrounding tumor cells to support tumor cell proliferation and migration. Pharmacological blockade of EGFR or antibody neutralization of ICAM-1 in TAMs blunted spheroid formation and ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. These findings suggest that EGF secreted from TAMs plays a critical role in promoting early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer. As transcoelomic metastasis is also associated with many other cancers, such as pancreatic and colon cancers, our findings uncover a mechanism for TAM-mediated spheroid formation and provide a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer and other transcoelomic metastatic cancers. PMID:27721235

  4. The roles of THY1 and integrin beta3 in cell adhesion during theca cell layer formation and the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone on THY1 and integrin beta3 localization in mouse ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Itami, Saori; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Atsushi; Yasuda, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    The mechanism of theca cell layer formation in mammalian ovaries has not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the roles of THY1 and integrin beta3 in theca cell layer formation during mouse folliculogenesis. The localization pattern of THY1 and integrin beta3 in adult mouse ovary was investigated immunohistochemically. The strongest THY1 signal was observed in theca cell layers from secondary to preantral follicles, at which time theca cells have begun to participate in follicle formation. Integrin beta3 also localized to the theca cell layer of secondary to preantral follicles and showed a localization pattern similar to that of THY1. Moreover, the role of THY1 in theca cell layer formation was examined using a follicle culture system. When anti-THY1 antibody was added to this culture, no theca cell layers were formed, and the granulosa cells were distanced from each other. Because a THY1 signal was not observed in ovaries at stages earlier than prepuberty, THY1 localization also appeared to be affected by mouse development. This possibility was examined by determining the effect of administering follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and 17beta-estradiol to 7-day-old mice on THY1 localization in the ovary 3 days later. Only follicle-stimulating hormone induced a THY1 signal in 10-day-old mouse ovaries. No THY1 signal was observed in untreated 10-day-old ovaries. In conclusion, THY1 might play a role in cell adhesion via binding to integrin beta3 in mouse ovaries. The present results suggest that THY1 localization may be affected by follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse ovaries.

  5. Screening for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian

    2002-08-01

    There has been considerable interest in the prospect of early detection of ovarian cancer through screening asymptomatic women, in both the general and 'high-risk' populations. Over the last decade screening strategies using the serum marker CA126 and transvaginal ultrasound have been refined and encouraging data have emerged on the impact of screening on ovarian cancer survival rates. Two randomized controlled trials are now underway in the general population to establish the impact of screening on ovarian cancer mortality while comprehensively tackling the issues of compliance, health economics and physical and psychological morbidity. In addition, trials in the high-risk population aimed at optimizing the current strategy have commenced in both the USA and the UK.

  6. Changes in ovarian gene expression profiles and plasma hormone levels in maturing European eel (Anguilla anguilla); Biomarkers for broodstock selection.

    PubMed

    Burgerhout, Erik; Minegishi, Yuki; Brittijn, Sebastiaan A; de Wijze, Danielle L; Henkel, Christiaan V; Jansen, Hans J; Spaink, Herman P; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2016-01-01

    Complete sexual maturation of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in captivity can only be achieved via injections with gonadotropins. For female eels this procedure takes 4-6months and the response ranges from "unresponsive" to final maturation and ovulation. Reproductive success could be significantly increased via early selection of responders based on predictive markers and minimally invasive sampling methods. To get a better understanding of the genetic background of ovarian maturation of the European eel we performed a pilot deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of ovarian tissue derived from a yellow eel, a prepubertal silver eel and a post-spawning matured eel. Two key players in steroidogenesis were strongly correlated with advanced sexual maturation, namely P450c17 and liver receptor homolog-1, suggesting that blood plasma steroids might qualify as minimally invasive markers for early detection of responders. Since the predictive value of plasma sex steroid levels for final maturation of the European eel had not yet been carefully examined, we performed an extensive artificial maturation trial. Farmed silver eels were treated with pituitary extracts and sampled at multiple time intervals. Expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in ovarian tissue of responding and non-responding eels after four weekly injections with pituitary extract was compared using a custom-built microarray and RNAseq. Increased expression of 17β-hsd1 was strongly linked to sexual maturation. Blood plasma levels of sex steroids were measured using ELISAs. We show that a 2.5-fold increase in blood-plasma estradiol level after 4 weekly pituitary extract injections is a strong predictor of final sexual maturation of female European eel.

  7. A Mixture Reflecting Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Profiles Detected in Human Follicular Fluid Significantly Affects Steroidogenesis and Induces Oxidative Stress in a Female Human Granulosa Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Pavine L C; Wade, Mike; Goodyer, Cindy; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Brominated flame retardants are incorporated into consumer products to prevent flame propagation. These compounds leach into the domestic environment, resulting in chronic exposure. Pregnancy failure is associated with high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, in human follicular fluid, raising serious questions regarding their impact on female fertility. Our goal was to elucidate the effects of a mixture of PBDEs, similar to the profile found in human follicular fluid, on an immortalized human granulosa cell line, the KGN cell line. We showed that cell viability was altered and oxidative stress was induced as reflected by increased reactive oxygen species formation at 100 μM of the PBDE mixture. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that PBDE treatments of 1, 5, and 20 μM altered the expression of several genes involved in the reactive oxygen species signaling pathway. Significant dose-dependent reductions in progesterone and estradiol levels in the culture medium were measured after PBDE treatment; in parallel, the expression of genes involved in estradiol metabolism, namely CYP1A1, was up-regulated by 5 and 20 μM of the PBDE mixture. Treatment with 20 μM PBDE also increased the expression and secretion of the proinflammatory factor, IL-6, into the KGN cell culture medium. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs can alter human granulosa cell functions by inducing oxidative stress and disrupting steroidogenesis. These results indicate that PBDEs may be detrimental to ovarian functions and thus may adversely affect female reproductive health after chronic exposure.

  8. Targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling suppresses tumor progression and metastasis in a peritoneal model of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wei; Liang, Wei; Wu, Jun; Kowolik, Claudia M.; Buettner, Ralf; Scuto, Anna; Hsieh, Meng-Yin; Hong, Hao; Brown, Christine E.; Forman, Stephen J.; Horne, David; Morgan, Robert; Wakabayashi, Mark; Dellinger, Thanh H.; Han, Ernest S.; Yim, John H.; Jove, Richard

    2015-01-01

    JAK/STAT3 is one of the major signaling pathways that is aberrantly activated in ovarian cancer and associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting JAK/STAT3 signaling in ovarian cancer using a peritoneal dissemination mouse model. We developed this mouse model by injecting a metastatic human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3-M-Luc, into the peritoneal cavity of immunodeficient mice. This model displayed a phenotype similar to late stage ovarian cancer, including extensive peritoneal metastasis and ascites production. The constitutive activation of STAT3 in human ovarian cancer cells appeared to be mediated by an autocrine-cytokine loop involving the IL-6 family of cytokines and JAK1 kinase. shRNA-mediated knockdown of JAK1 or STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells led to reduced tumor growth, decreased peritoneal dissemination and diminished ascites production, suggesting a critical role of STAT3 in ovarian cancer progression. Similar results were obtained when a small-molecule inhibitor (JAKi) of the JAK1 kinase was used to treat ovarian cancer in this model. In addition, we found that the expression level of IL-6 was correlated with activation of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential application of IL-6 as a biomarker. Altogether, our results demonstrate that targeting JAK1/STAT3, using shRNA knockdown or a small molecule inhibitor, effectively suppressed ovarian tumor progression and, therefore, could be a potential novel therapeutic approach for treating advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:25319391

  9. Targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling suppresses tumor progression and metastasis in a peritoneal model of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Liang, Wei; Wu, Jun; Kowolik, Claudia M; Buettner, Ralf; Scuto, Anna; Hsieh, Meng-Yin; Hong, Hao; Brown, Christine E; Forman, Stephen J; Horne, David; Morgan, Robert; Wakabayashi, Mark; Dellinger, Thanh H; Han, Ernest S; Yim, John H; Jove, Richard

    2014-12-01

    JAK/STAT3 is one of the major signaling pathways that is aberrantly activated in ovarian cancer and associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting JAK/STAT3 signaling in ovarian cancer using a peritoneal dissemination mouse model. We developed this mouse model by injecting a metastatic human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3-M-Luc, into the peritoneal cavity of immunodeficient mice. This model displayed a phenotype similar to late-stage ovarian cancer, including extensive peritoneal metastasis and ascites production. The constitutive activation of STAT3 in human ovarian cancer cells appeared to be mediated by an autocrine cytokine loop involving the IL6 family of cytokines and JAK1 kinase. shRNA-mediated knockdown of JAK1 or STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells led to reduced tumor growth, decreased peritoneal dissemination, and diminished ascites production, suggesting a critical role of STAT3 in ovarian cancer progression. Similar results were obtained when a small-molecule inhibitor (JAKi) of the JAK1 kinase was used to treat ovarian cancer in this model. In addition, we found that the expression level of IL6 was correlated with activation of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential application of IL6 as a biomarker. Altogether, our results demonstrate that targeting JAK1/STAT3, using shRNA knockdown or a small-molecule inhibitor, effectively suppressed ovarian tumor progression and, therefore, could be a potential novel therapeutic approach for treating advanced ovarian cancer.

  10. Dioxin exposure reduces the steroidogenic capacity of mouse antral follicles mainly at the level of HSD17B1 without altering atresia.

    PubMed

    Karman, Bethany N; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Hannon, Patrick; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent ovarian toxicant. Previously, we demonstrated that in vitro TCDD (1nM) exposure decreases production/secretion of the sex steroid hormones progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), and 17β-estradiol (E2) in mouse antral follicles. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which TCDD inhibits steroidogenesis. Specifically, we examined the effects of TCDD on the steroidogenic enzymes, atresia, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) protein. TCDD exposure for 48h increased levels of A4, without changing HSD3B1 protein, HSD17B1 protein, estrone (E1), T or E2 levels. Further, TCDD did not alter atresia ratings compared to vehicle at 48h. TCDD, however, did down regulate the AHR protein at 48h. TCDD exposure for 96h decreased transcript levels for Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b1, and Cyp19a1, but increased Hsd3b1 transcript. TCDD exposure particularly lowered both Hsd17b1 transcript and HSD17B1 protein. However, TCDD exposure did not affect levels of E1 in the media nor atresia ratings at 96h. TCDD, however, decreased levels of the proapoptotic factor Bax. Collectively, these data suggest that TCDD exposure causes a major block in the steroidogenic enzyme conversion of A4 to T and E1 to E2 and that it regulates apoptotic pathways, favoring survival over death in antral follicles. Finally, the down-regulation of the AHR protein in TCDD exposed follicles persisted at 96h, indicating that the activation and proteasomal degradation of this receptor likely plays a central role in the impaired steroidogenic capacity and altered apoptotic pathway of exposed antral follicles.

  11. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, Patrick R. Brannick, Katherine E. Wang, Wei Gupta, Rupesh K. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  12. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1-100μg/ml) for 24-96 hr to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24-96 hr of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydorxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. PMID:25701202

  13. Testicular gene expression of steroidogenesis-related factors in prepubertal, postpubertal, and aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, E; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2017-03-01

    Developmental and aging changes in testicular factors related to steroidogenesis are unknown in dogs. Using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR, this study examined testicular mRNA levels of CYP11A1 (P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc), CYP17A1 (P450 17α-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase, P450c17), HSD3B2 (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-HSD), CYP19A (P450 aromatase, P450arom), STAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR), cyclooxygenase (COX) -1 and COX-2 in prepubertal (4-6 months of age), postpubertal (1 year of age), and aging (2-18 years of age) dogs. Testicular mRNA levels for P450scc, 3β-HSD, StAR, COX-1, and COX-2 did not change from prepubertal to postpubertal stages, whereas that for P450arom markedly and abruptly increased and that for P450c17 gradually decreased. In postpubertal and aging dogs, a negative correlation was found between aging and testicular P450arom mRNA levels. Based on the rapid testicular growth observed during puberty, these results suggested that total testis gene expression for steroidogenesis-related factors, in particular for P450arom, increases during puberty in dogs. In addition, the decline in P450arom gene expression during aging may affect the ability to synthesize steroids in canine testes.

  14. The Role of Specific Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Cascades in the Regulation of Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Pulak R.; Stocco, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) comprise a family of serine/threonine kinases that are activated by a large variety of extracellular stimuli and play integral roles in controlling many cellular processes, from the cell surface to the nucleus. The MAPK family includes four distinct MAPK cascades, that is, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase or stress-activated protein kinase, and ERK5. These MAPKs are essentially operated through three-tiered consecutive phosphorylation events catalyzed by a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. MAPKs lie in protein kinase cascades. The MAPK signaling pathways have been demonstrated to be associated with events regulating the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and steroidogenesis in steroidogenic tissues. However, it has become clear that the regulation of MAPK-dependent StAR expression and steroid synthesis is a complex process and is context dependent. This paper summarizes the current level of understanding concerning the roles of the MAPK signaling cascades in the regulation of StAR expression and steroidogenesis in different steroidogenic cell models. PMID:21637381

  15. Adrenal Mitochondria and Steroidogenesis: From Individual Proteins to Functional Protein Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Midzak, Andrew; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is critical for physiological function as the central site of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid synthesis. It possesses a great degree of specialized compartmentalization at multiple hierarchical levels, ranging from the tissue down to the molecular levels. In this paper, we discuss this functionalization, beginning with the tissue zonation of the adrenal cortex and how this impacts steroidogenic output. We then discuss the cellular biology of steroidogenesis, placing special emphasis on the mitochondria. Mitochondria are classically known as the “powerhouses of the cell” for their central role in respiratory adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and attention is given to mitochondrial electron transport, in both the context of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial steroid metabolism. Building on work demonstrating functional assembly of large protein complexes in respiration, we further review research demonstrating a role for multimeric protein complexes in mitochondrial cholesterol transport, steroidogenesis, and mitochondria–endoplasmic reticulum contact. We aim to highlight with this review the shift in steroidogenic cell biology from a focus on the actions of individual proteins in isolation to the actions of protein assemblies working together to execute cellular functions. PMID:27524977

  16. Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Andric, Nebojsa L; Kostic, Tatjana S; Zoric, Sonja N; Stanic, Bojana D; Andric, Silvana A; Kovacevic, Radmila Z

    2006-07-01

    Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected, Pyralene induced a rapid and sustained increase in mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 in hepatocytes that was associated with a dramatic increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) activities. Testicular androgenesis and the conversion of progesterone to testosterone in testicular microsomes were bidirectionally affected. An increase in these parameters was observed 24h after the initial administration of Pyralene, followed by inhibition that lasted until the fourth post-treatment day. Expression PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD) transcript abundance at 48 h after Pyralene administration. In contrast, transcripts for several other steroidogenic enzymes and for testicular CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2B1 were unaffected under the same conditions. These results in the rat indicate that a sub-chronic exposure to Pyralene disrupted testicular steroidogenesis and suggest the mechanism may involve direct action on the regulation of specific steroidogenic enzymes such as 17betaHSD.

  17. Local expression and distribution of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in the chicken ovary: effects of GH on steroidogenesis in cultured follicular granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ahumada-Solórzano, S Marisela; Carranza, Martha E; Pedernera, Enrique; Rodríguez-Méndez, Adriana J; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2012-01-15

    Preovulatory follicular development (PFD) is mainly regulated by gonadotropins (FSH, LH) and steroids, although other intraovarian factors are also involved. We analyzed the local expression of growth hormone (GH) in the hen ovary and the role that this hormone may play on the regulation of steroidogenesis in granulosa cells (GCs). Ovarian follicles from sexually mature hens were studied at different developmental stages. Both GH mRNA (by in situ hybridization) and protein (by immunohistochemistry) were expressed mainly in the GCs, and to a lesser extent in the theca cells of the follicular wall. Sequence of a GH cDNA 690-bp fragment obtained from the follicular wall was identical to that obtained from the pituitary. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA was also expressed in the follicles. Nine GH variants were observed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, but the main isoform showed a MW of 17 kDa, at all developmental stages. Addition of GH (0.1, 1, 10 nM) stimulated the synthesis of progesterone (P4) in primary GCs cultures in a dose-dependent manner (1.5, 2.9, 5.4 times, respectively). GH also stimulated the expression of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (cytochrome P450scc) mRNA, a rate-limiting enzyme during P4 synthesis (2.9, 4.6, 4.9 times, respectively), whereas the synthesis of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) mRNA (a constitutive enzyme) was not changed. Both GH and GHR were co-expressed in GCs cultures. The locally expressed GH present in concentrated (4×, 6×, 8×) conditioned media obtained from ovarian GC cultures stimulated P4 production (1.2, 2.2, 4.4 times, respectively) in additional fresh cultured GCs, and this effect disappeared when the conditioned media were treated with antiserum against GH. These data suggest that locally produced GH may modulate follicular development through autocrine/paracrine effects in the chicken ovary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Senescent peritoneal mesothelium creates a niche for ovarian cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Uruski, Paweł; Sosińska, Patrycja; Maksin, Konstantin; Piotrowska-Kempisty, Hanna; Kucińska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Szubert, Sebastian; Woźniak, Aldona; Szpurek, Dariusz; Sajdak, Stefan; Piwocka, Katarzyna; Tykarski, Andrzej; Książek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Although both incidence and aggressiveness of ovarian malignancy rise with age, the exact reason for this tendency, in particular the contribution of senescent cells, remains elusive. In this project we found that the patient's age determines the frequency of intraperitoneal metastases of ovarian cancer. Moreover, we documented that senescent human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) stimulate proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro, and that this effect is related to both the activity of soluble agents released to the environment by these cells and direct cell-cell contact. The panel of mediators of the pro-cancerous activity of senescent HPMCs appeared to be cancer cell line-specific. The growth of tumors in a mouse peritoneal cavity was intensified when the cancer cells were co-injected together with senescent HPMCs. This effect was reversible when the senescence of HPMCs was slowed down by the neutralization of p38 MAPK. The analysis of lesions excised from the peritoneum of patients with ovarian cancer showed the abundance of senescent HPMCs in close proximity to the cancerous tissue. Collectively, our findings indicate that senescent HPMCs which accumulate in the peritoneum in vivo may create a metastatic niche facilitating intraperitoneal expansion of ovarian malignancy. PMID:28032864

  19. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  20. Effects of Fadrozole, Ketoconazole, and 17β-trenbolone on Ex Vivo Steroidogenesis in the Fathead Minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have the ability to disrupt steroidogenesis through interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We examined the effects of the competitive aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (0, 3, and 30 g/L), the cytochrome P450 enzyme...

  1. Understanding the Effects of Atrazine on Steroidogenesis in rat granulosa and H295R adrenal cortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) was introduced in the 1950s as a broad spectrum herbicide, and remains one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. Several studies have suggested that atrazine modifies steroidogenesis and may disrupt r...

  2. Effects of Fadrozole, Ketoconazole, and 17β-trenbolone on Ex Vivo Steroidogenesis in the Fathead Minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have the ability to disrupt steroidogenesis through interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We examined the effects of the competitive aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (0, 3, and 30 g/L), the cytochrome P450 enzyme...

  3. High-throughput screening of chemical effects on steroidogenesis using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2,060 chemical samples...

  4. Effect of cholesterol transport inhibitors on steroidogenesis and plasma membrane cholesterol transport in cultured MA-10 Leydig tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Nagy, L; Freeman, D A

    1990-05-01

    These studies were directed toward understanding the cellular actions of inhibitor drugs that affect steroidogenesis and cholesterol transport. We investigated the microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin-D, the microtubule inhibitor colchicine, the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine, and the inhibitor of acidic vesicle function nigericin. We found that all of these compounds caused dose-dependent inhibition of progesterone synthesis in the MA-10 cells. Each compound also inhibited (Bu)2cAMP-stimulated pregnenolone synthesis, indicating that each inhibited a fundamental process required for steroidogenesis. Each compound was next evaluated for inhibitory actions on cholesterol transport to and from the plasma membrane. On the basis of inhibitor sensitivity, two different categories of cholesterol transport were defined. Transport of newly synthesized or low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from the cell interior to the plasma membrane was inhibitor insensitive. Plasma membrane cholesterol internalization, however, was sensitive to all of the inhibitors and did not result because of any drug effect on the acyl-coenzyme-A-cholesterol acyl transferase. Cycling of cholesteryl ester-derived cholesterol through the plasma membrane appeared to occur before its use for steroidogenesis. Thus, inhibition of plasma membrane internalization would prevent utilization of both plasma membrane cholesterol and cholesteryl ester-derived cholesterol, the two major substrate sources for steroid hormone synthesis. Consistent with this interpretation was the finding that inhibition of plasma membrane cholesterol internalization by each inhibitor paralleled the inhibitor's effect on steroidogenesis.

  5. High-throughput screening of chemical effects on steroidogenesis using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2,060 chemical samples...

  6. Understanding the Effects of Atrazine on Steroidogenesis in rat granulosa and H295R adrenal cortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) was introduced in the 1950s as a broad spectrum herbicide, and remains one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. Several studies have suggested that atrazine modifies steroidogenesis and may disrupt r...

  7. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Related Links Ovarian Cancer Basic Information What Are the Risk Factors? What Can ... Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Related Links Uterine Cancer Basic Information What Are the Risk Factors? What Can ...

  8. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 to 6% of women who go through in vitro fertilization . Other risk factors for OHSS include: Being younger ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Ovarian Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  9. Premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea) or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea). It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women <40 years, 1:10,000 women by age 20 and 1:1,000 women by age 30. The most severe forms present with absent pubertal development and primary amenorrhea (50% of these cases due to ovarian dysgenesis), whereas forms with post-pubertal onset are characterized by disappearance of menstrual cycles (secondary amenorrhea) associated with premature follicular depletion. As in the case of physiological menopause, POF presents by typical manifestations of climacterium: infertility associated with palpitations, heat intolerance, flushes, anxiety, depression, fatigue. POF is biochemically characterized by low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and high levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) (hypergonadotropic amenorrhea). Beyond infertility, hormone defects may cause severe neurological, metabolic or cardiovascular consequences and lead to the early onset of osteoporosis. Heterogeneity of POF is also reflected by the variety of possible causes, including autoimmunity, toxics, drugs, as well as genetic defects. POF has a strong genetic component. X chromosome abnormalities (e.g. Turner syndrome) represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation. PMID:16722528

  10. High-Throughput Screening of Chemical Effects on Steroidogenesis Using H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Colleen M.; Filer, Dayne L.; Lewis, Kenneth C.; Martin, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2060 chemical samples on steroidogenesis via high-performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry quantification of 10 steroid hormones, including progestagens, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. The study employed a 3 stage screening strategy. The first stage established the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC; ≥ 70% viability) per sample. The second stage quantified changes in hormone levels at the MTC whereas the third stage performed concentration-response (CR) on a subset of samples. At all stages, cells were prestimulated with 10 µM forskolin for 48 h to induce steroidogenesis followed by chemical treatment for 48 h. Of the 2060 chemical samples evaluated, 524 samples were selected for 6-point CR screening, based in part on significantly altering at least 4 hormones at the MTC. CR screening identified 232 chemical samples with concentration-dependent effects on 17β-estradiol and/or testosterone, with 411 chemical samples showing an effect on at least one hormone across the steroidogenesis pathway. Clustering of the concentration-dependent chemical-mediated steroid hormone effects grouped chemical samples into 5 distinct profiles generally representing putative mechanisms of action, including CYP17A1 and HSD3B inhibition. A distinct pattern was observed between imidazole and triazole fungicides suggesting potentially distinct mechanisms of action. From a chemical testing and prioritization perspective, this assay platform provides a robust model for high-throughput screening of chemicals for effects on steroidogenesis. PMID:26781511

  11. Association between individual ovarian dimensions with ovarian reserve indices

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Elham Hashemian; Neyestanak, Mohammad Zare; Berjis, Katayon; Shokoohi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In some young female candidates of assisted reproductive technology (ART), ovarian response to simulative treatments is less than what is expected. More precise assessment of oocyte quality and quantity through studying ovarian dimensions can be useful for determining the dose of ovarian stimulant drugs and for preventing ART cycles cancellation. The aim of the present study is to determine the association between ovarian dimensions and ovarian reserve (OR) indices and whether ovarian dimensions can predict ovarian reserve. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 85 infertile women were studied. In early follicular phase, ovarian diameters (including length and width of the ovaries) were measured using transvaginal ultrasonography. Mean ovarian diameters (MOD) were calculated according to average length and width of the ovaries. A serum sample was taken from all patients to measure the level of Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and oestradiol as OR indices. Results: The results of univariate analysis showed that FSH and oestradiol had a negative significant association with width, length and MOD (P < 0.01). The results of multivariate regression analysis showed that FSH and oestradiol had a negative significant association with width (βFSH = -0.59, P = 0.001 and βOestradiol = -0.019, P = 0.029) and MOD (βFSH = -0.52, P = 0.003 and βOestradiol = -0.021, P = 0.017) and had a borderline negative significant correlation with ovarian length (βFSH = -0.49, P=0.077 and βOestradiol = 0.022, P = 0.08) Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that despite a moderate correlation, ovarian diameters could be an applicable index for predicting OR. Using this method along with other methods may be useful in treatment with ovarian stimulants. PMID:26966426

  12. Screening of ovarian steroidogenic pathway in Ciona intestinalis and its modulation after tributyltin exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Puccia, Egidio; Mazzola, Antonio; Mansueto, Valentina; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we have identified several ovarian steroids in Ciona with high similarity to vertebrate steroids and showed that cholesterol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrone, estradiol-17beta, testosterone, pregnenolone, progesterone, have identical molecular spectra with vertebrate steroids. In addition, we have studied the effects of an endocrine disruptor (tributyltin: TBT) on these sex hormones and their precursors, ovarian morphology, and gene expression of some key enzymes in steroidogenic pathway in the ovary of Ciona. Ovarian specimens were cultured in vitro using different concentrations of TBT (10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} M). Ethanol was used as solvent control. Gene expression analysis was performed for adrenodoxin (ADREN) and adrenodoxin reductase (ADOX) (mediators of acute steroidogenesis) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD). These transcripts were detected and measured by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Sex steroids and their precursors were identified and quantified by a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method. Exposure of Ciona ovaries to TBT produced modulations (either increased or decreased) of sterols and sex steroid levels, whereas no significant differences in ADREN, ADOX or 17beta-HSD mRNA expression patterns were observed. Histological analysis shows that TBT produced several modifications on Ciona ovarian morphology that includes irregular outline of nuclear membrane, less compacted cytoplasm, in addition to test and granulosa cells that were detached from the oocyte membrane. Given that the ascidians represent very simple experimental models for the study of endocrine disruption by environmental contaminants, our findings provide excellent models for multiple identification and quantification of sex steroid and their precursors in biological samples exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and for direct extrapolation of such effects across taxonomic groups

  13. Screening of ovarian steroidogenic pathway in Ciona intestinalis and its modulation after tributyltin exposure.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Puccia, Egidio; Mazzola, Antonio; Mansueto, Valentina; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we have identified several ovarian steroids in Ciona with high similarity to vertebrate steroids and showed that cholesterol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrone, estradiol-17beta, testosterone, pregnenolone, progesterone, have identical molecular spectra with vertebrate steroids. In addition, we have studied the effects of an endocrine disruptor (tributyltin: TBT) on these sex hormones and their precursors, ovarian morphology, and gene expression of some key enzymes in steroidogenic pathway in the ovary of Ciona. Ovarian specimens were cultured in vitro using different concentrations of TBT (10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3)M). Ethanol was used as solvent control. Gene expression analysis was performed for adrenodoxin (ADREN) and adrenodoxin reductase (ADOX) (mediators of acute steroidogenesis) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD). These transcripts were detected and measured by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Sex steroids and their precursors were identified and quantified by a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method. Exposure of Ciona ovaries to TBT produced modulations (either increased or decreased) of sterols and sex steroid levels, whereas no significant differences in ADREN, ADOX or 17beta-HSD mRNA expression patterns were observed. Histological analysis shows that TBT produced several modifications on Ciona ovarian morphology that includes irregular outline of nuclear membrane, less compacted cytoplasm, in addition to test and granulosa cells that were detached from the oocyte membrane. Given that the ascidians represent very simple experimental models for the study of endocrine disruption by environmental contaminants, our findings provide excellent models for multiple identification and quantification of sex steroid and their precursors in biological samples exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and for direct extrapolation of such effects across taxonomic groups and phyla. In

  14. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Hoek, A; Schoemaker, J; Drexhage, H A

    1997-02-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heterogeneous disorder with a multicausal pathogenesis involving chromosomal, genetic, enzymatic, infectious, and iatrogenic causes. There remains, however, a group of POF patients without a known etiology, the so-called "idiopathic" form. An autoimmune etiology is hypothesized for the POF cases with a concomitant Addison's disease and/or oöphoritis. It is concluded in this review that POF in association with adrenal autoimmunity and/or Addison's disease (2-10% of the idiopathic POF patients) is indeed an autoimmune disease. The following evidence warrants this view: 1) The presence of autoantibodies to steroid-producing cells in these patients; 2) The characterization of shared autoantigens between adrenal and ovarian steroid-producing cells; 3) The histological picture of the ovaries of such cases (lymphoplasmacellular infiltrate around steroid-producing cells); 4) The existence of various autoimmune animal models for this syndrome, which underlines the autoimmune nature of the disease. There is some circumstantial evidence for an autoimmune pathogenesis in idiopathic POF patients in the absence of adrenal autoimmunity or Addison's disease. Arguments in support of this are: 1) The presence of cellular immune abnormalities in this POF patient group reminiscent of endocrine autoimmune diseases such as IDDM, Graves' disease, and Addison's disease; 2) The more than normal association with IDDM and myasthenia gravis. Data on the presence of various ovarian autoantibodies and anti-receptor antibodies in these patients are, however, inconclusive and need further evaluation. A strong argument against an autoimmune pathogenesis of POF in these patients is the nearly absent histological confirmation (the presence of an o

  15. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, You-e; Liu, Lian; Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  16. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Experimental characterization of recurrent ovarian immature teratoma cells after optimal surgery.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tetsuji; Toujima, Saori; Utsunomiya, Tomoko; Yukawa, Kazunori; Umesaki, Naohiko

    2008-07-01

    Minimal optimal surgery without chemotherapy is often performed for patients with ovarian immature teratoma, which frequently occurs in young women who hope for future pregnancies. If tumors recur after the operation, anticancer drug chemotherapy is often administered, although few studies have highlighted differences between the recurrent and the primary tumor cells. Therefore, we have established experimental animal models of recurrent ovarian immature teratoma cells after optimal surgery and characterized the anticancer drug sensitivity and antigenicity of the recurrent tumors. Surgically-excised tumor cells of a grade II ovarian immature teratoma were cultured in vitro and transplanted into nude mice to establish stable cell lines. Differential drug sensitivity and antigenicity of the tumor cells were compared between the primary and the nude mouse tumors. Nude mouse tumor cells showed a normal 46XX karyotype. Cultured primary cells showed a remarkably high sensitivity to paclitaxel, docetaxel, adriamycin and pirarubicin, compared to peritoneal cancer cells obtained from a patient with ovarian adenocarcinomatous peritonitis. The drug sensitivity of teratoma cells to 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin or peplomycin was also significantly higher. However, there was no significant difference in sensitivity to platinum drugs between the primary teratoma and the peritoneal adenocarcinoma cells. As for nude mouse tumor cells, sensitivity to 12 anticancer drugs was significantly lower than that of the primary tumor cells, while there was little difference in sensitivity to carboplatin or peplomycin between the primary and nude mouse tumor cells. Flow cytometry showed that the expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA) significantly decreased in nude mouse tumor cells when compared to cultured primary cells. In conclusion, ovarian immature teratomas with normal karyotypes have a malignant potential to recur after minimal surgery. During nude mouse transplantation, SMA

  18. A Time-course Analysis of Effects of the Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Ketoconazole on Components of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  19. A Time-course Analysis of Effects of the Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Ketoconazole on Components of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconaz...

  20. A Time-course Analysis of Effects of the Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Ketoconazole on Components of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  1. A time-course analysis of effects of the steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of fathead minnows (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  2. Metformin limits the adipocyte tumor-promoting effect on ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A.; Sarigiannis, Kalli; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-01-01

    Omental adipocytes promote ovarian cancer by secretion of adipokines, cytokines and growth factors, and acting as fuel depots. We investigated if metformin modulates the ovarian cancer promoting effects of adipocytes. Effect of conditioned media obtained from differentiated mouse 3T3L1 preadipoctes on the proliferation and migration of a mouse ovarian surface epithelium cancer cell line (ID8) was estimated. Conditioned media from differentiated adipocytes increased the proliferation and migration of ID8 cells, which was attenuated by metformin. Metformin inhibited adipogenesis by inhibition of key adipogenesis regulating transcription factors (CEBPα, CEBPß, and SREBP1), and induced AMPK. A targeted Cancer Pathway Finder RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) based gene array revealed 20 up-regulated and 2 down-regulated genes in ID8 cells exposed to adipocyte conditioned media, which were altered by metformin. Adipocyte conditioned media also induced bio-energetic changes in the ID8 cells by pushing them into a highly metabolically active state; these effects were reversed by metformin. Collectively, metformin treatment inhibited the adipocyte mediated ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, expression of cancer associated genes and bio-energetic changes. Suggesting, that metformin could be a therapeutic option for ovarian cancer at an early stage, as it not only targets ovarian cancer, but also modulates the environmental milieu. PMID:24970804

  3. Metformin limits the adipocyte tumor-promoting effect on ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A; Sarigiannis, Kalli; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-07-15

    Omental adipocytes promote ovarian cancer by secretion of adipokines, cytokines and growth factors, and acting as fuel depots. We investigated if metformin modulates the ovarian cancer promoting effects of adipocytes. Effect of conditioned media obtained from differentiated mouse 3T3L1 preadipoctes on the proliferation and migration of a mouse ovarian surface epithelium cancer cell line (ID8) was estimated. Conditioned media from differentiated adipocytes increased the proliferation and migration of ID8 cells, which was attenuated by metformin. Metformin inhibited adipogenesis by inhibition of key adipogenesis regulating transcription factors (CEBPα, CEBPß, and SREBP1), and induced AMPK. A targeted Cancer Pathway Finder RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) based gene array revealed 20 up-regulated and 2 down-regulated genes in ID8 cells exposed to adipocyte conditioned media, which were altered by metformin. Adipocyte conditioned media also induced bio-energetic changes in the ID8 cells by pushing them into a highly metabolically active state; these effects were reversed by metformin. Collectively, metformin treatment inhibited the adipocyte mediated ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, expression of cancer associated genes and bio-energetic changes. Suggesting, that metformin could be a therapeutic option for ovarian cancer at an early stage, as it not only targets ovarian cancer, but also modulates the environmental milieu.

  4. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  5. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  6. Cyclin E1 as a Therapeutic Target in Women with High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer and Primary Treatment Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model of CCNE1-amplified HGSC will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we have...approaches to targeting CCNE1 amplification through the development and characterisation of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of Ccne1...Vertebrate Animals, Biohazards, and/or Select Agents In regard to animal ethics protocol titled “ Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Ovarian Cancer

  7. The regulation of steroidogenesis by opioid peptides in porcine theca cells.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Siawrys, G; Bogacka, I; Okrasa, S; Przala, J

    2003-09-15

    The present study was designed to investigate basal and LH-induced steroidogenesis in porcine theca cells from large follicles in response to various concentrations (1-1000 nM) of mu opioid receptor agonists (beta-endorphin, DAMGO, FK 33-824), delta receptor agonists (met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, DPLPE) and kappa receptor agonists (dynorphin A, dynorphin B, U 50488). Agonists of mu opioid receptors suppressed basal androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol-17beta (E2) secretion and enhanced LH-induced A4 and T release by theca cells. The inhibitory effect of the agonists on E2 secretion was abolished in the presence of LH. All delta receptor agonists depressed basal progesterone (P4) output. However, the influence of these agents on LH-treated cells was negligible. Among delta receptor agonist used only leu-enkephalin and DPLPE at the lowest concentrations inhibited basal A4 release. The presence of LH in culture media changed the influence of these opioids from inhibitory to stimulatory. Similarly, DPLPE reduced T secretion by non-stimulated theca cells and enhanced T secretion of stimulated cells. All of delta agonists inhibited basal E2 secretion and unaffected its release from LH-treated theca cells. Agonists of kappa receptors inhibited basal, non-stimulated, P4 secretion and two of them (dynorphin B, U 50488) potentiated LH-induced P4 output. Basal A4 and T release remained unaffected by kappa agonist treatment, but the cells cultured in the presence of LH generally increased both androgen production in response to these opioids. Basal secretion of E2 was also suppressed by kappa agonists. This inhibitory effect was not observed when the cells were additionally treated with LH. In view of these findings we suggest that opioid peptides derived from three major opioid precursors may directly participate in the regulation of porcine theca cell steroidogenesis.

  8. The influence of opioid peptides on steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, T; Siawrys, C; Bogacka, I; Okrasa, S; Przala, J

    2004-02-01

    The present studies were undertaken to examine the influence of mu (beta-endorphin, DAMGO, FK 33-824), delta (met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, DPLPE) and kappa opioid receptor agonists (dynorphin A, dynorphin B, U 50488) used at different doses (1-1000 nM) alone and in combination with LH (100 ng/ml) on steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells derived from large follicles. The effects of mu, delta and kappa receptor agonists on both basal and LH-induced progesterone (P4) secretion were negligible. Agonists of mu opioid receptors reduced basal androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) release. Co-treatment with LH entirely abolished the inhibitory effect of these agonists on A4 and E2 secretion and resulted in an increase in T release. The addition of delta receptor agonists was followed by a decrease in basal A4, T and E2 secretion. The cells incubated in the presence of LH increased the androgen production and abrogated the inhibitory effect of delta agonists on E2 output. Basal A4, T and E2 release was also suppressed by kappa receptor agonists. The presence of LH in culture media extended the inhibitory effect of these opioids on E2 output and caused either abolition of the inhibitory influence of kappa agonists or even augmentation of both androgen release in response to the opioids. In conclusion, these data support the involvement of three major types of opioid receptors in the regulation of porcine granulosa cell steroidogenesis.

  9. Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase.

    PubMed

    Zarn, Jürg A; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Schlatter, Josef R

    2003-03-01

    Azole compounds play a key role as antifungals in agriculture and in human mycoses and as non-steroidal antiestrogens in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors in postmenopausal women. This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition of certain pathways of steroidogenesis by high-affinity binding to the enzymes sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase. Sterol 14-alpha-demethylase is crucial for the production of meiosis-activating sterols, which recently were shown to modulate germ cell development in both sexes of mammals. Aromatase is responsible for the physiologic balance of androgens and estrogens. At high doses, azole fungicides and other azole compounds affect reproductive organs, fertility, and development in several species. These effects may be explained by inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and/or aromatase. In fact, several azole compounds were shown to inhibit these enzymes in vitro, and there is also strong evidence for inhibiting activity in vivo. Furthermore, the specificity of the enzyme inhibition of several of these compounds is poor, both with respect to fungal versus nonfungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylases and versus other P450 enzymes including aromatase. To our knowledge, this is the first review on sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase as common targets of azole compounds and the consequence for steroidogenesis. We conclude that many azole compounds developed as inhibitors of fungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylase are inhibitors also of mammalian sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and mammalian aromatase with unknown potencies. For human health risk assessment, data on comparative potencies of azole fungicides to fungal and human enzymes are needed.

  10. Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase.

    PubMed Central

    Zarn, Jürg A; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Schlatter, Josef R

    2003-01-01

    Azole compounds play a key role as antifungals in agriculture and in human mycoses and as non-steroidal antiestrogens in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors in postmenopausal women. This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition of certain pathways of steroidogenesis by high-affinity binding to the enzymes sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase. Sterol 14-alpha-demethylase is crucial for the production of meiosis-activating sterols, which recently were shown to modulate germ cell development in both sexes of mammals. Aromatase is responsible for the physiologic balance of androgens and estrogens. At high doses, azole fungicides and other azole compounds affect reproductive organs, fertility, and development in several species. These effects may be explained by inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and/or aromatase. In fact, several azole compounds were shown to inhibit these enzymes in vitro, and there is also strong evidence for inhibiting activity in vivo. Furthermore, the specificity of the enzyme inhibition of several of these compounds is poor, both with respect to fungal versus nonfungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylases and versus other P450 enzymes including aromatase. To our knowledge, this is the first review on sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase as common targets of azole compounds and the consequence for steroidogenesis. We conclude that many azole compounds developed as inhibitors of fungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylase are inhibitors also of mammalian sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and mammalian aromatase with unknown potencies. For human health risk assessment, data on comparative potencies of azole fungicides to fungal and human enzymes are needed. PMID:12611652

  11. Ovarian hormones and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1991-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the ovarian hormones--estrogen and progestins--during pregnancy, puberty, the menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive (OC) use are associated with an increased incidence of gingival inflammation and exudate. Gingivitis is induced by the micro- organisms that compose subgingival plaque, particularly anaerobic organisms. The ovarian hormones both stimulate bacterial growth and promote the inflammatory process. In the presence of sex hormones, the metabolic breakdown of folate is increased, leading to a folate deficiency that enhances the inflammatory destruction of oral tissue. Gingivitis occurs in an estimated 60-75% of pregnancy women, but the numbers of gingivitis-producing bacteria decrease toward the end of pregnancy and the gingival tissues return to their previous state. In OC users, on the other hand, inflammation of the gingiva is chronic and may increase over time. If gingivitis is already present at the onset of pregnancy or OC use, the inflammation will become progressively more severe. Although these effects cannot be avoided, ovarian hormone- induced gingivitis can be substantially minimized of low plaque levels exist at the beginning of pregnancy or pill initiation.

  12. [Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue].

    PubMed

    Aubard, Y; Poirot, C; Piver, P

    2002-05-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTCP) is a new procedure of medically assisted procreation, still at the experimental stage, whose primary aim is to store female gametes as sperm cryopreservation permits to do for male gametes. Ovarian tissue is removed very simply by laparoscopy. It survives well to freezing if the medium contains a cryoprotective agent and the rate of freezing is slow. In contrast, thawing must be rapid. There are three processes for the utilization of ovarian tissue after thawing. In vitro maturation and xenografting remain impossible for technical and ethical reasons. Autologous transplantation (orthotopic or heterotopic) of the tissue is therefore the only foreseeable method over the short term. Indications for OTCP must remain rare as long as no pregnancy has been obtained in human. At the present time, only female patients who would inevitably suffer the loss of their fertility should be able to take advantage of OTCP. Basically, this would mean women subjected to castrating anticancer therapy. It would seem reasonable to set the age limit at 35-years for carrying out OTCP. Lastly, female patients should be clearly informed that the method is still at the research stage, and in France samples must be taken in accordance with the laws governing clinical research.

  13. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Cancer Stem Cells in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Charles N.; Goodman, Blake; Katre, Ashwini A.; Steg, Adam D.; Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Miller, Lance D.; Mejia, Pablo Vivas; Jennings, Nicolas B.; Gershenson, David M.; Bast, Robert C.; Coleman, Robert L.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) expression characterizes a subpopulation of cells with tumor initiating or cancer stem cell properties in several malignancies. Our goal was to characterize the phenotype of ALDH1A1-positive ovarian cancer cells and examine the biological effects of ALDH1A1 gene silencing. In our analysis of multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that ALDH1A1 expression and activity was significantly higher in taxane and platinum-resistant cell lines. In patient samples, 72.9% of ovarian cancers had ALDH1A1 expression, in whom the percent of ALDH1A1-positive cells correlated negatively with progression-free survival (6.05 v 13.81 months, p<0.035). Subpopulations of A2780cp20 cells with ALDH1A1 activity were isolated for orthotopic tumor initiating studies, where tumorigenicity was approximately 50-fold higher with ALDH1A1-positive cells. Interestingly, tumors derived from ALDH1A1-positive cells gave rise to both ALDH1A1-positive and ALDH1A1-negative populations, but ALDH1A1-negative cells could not generate ALDH1A1-positive cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, ALDH1A1 silencing using nanoliposomal siRNA sensitized both taxane- and platinum-resistant cell lines to chemotherapy, significantly reducing tumor growth in mice compared to chemotherapy alone (a 74–90% reduction, p<0.015). These data demonstrate that the ALDH1A1 subpopulation is associated with chemoresistance and outcome in ovarian cancer patients, and targeting ALDH1A1 sensitizes resistant cells to chemotherapy. ALDH1A1-positive cells have enhanced, but not absolute, tumorigenicity, but do have differentiation capacity lacking in ALDH1A1-negative cells. This enzyme may be important for identification and targeting of chemoresistant cell populations in ovarian cancer. PMID:20889728

  14. Modulation of the noradrenergic activity index by neural stimulus, and its participation in ovarian androstenedione release during the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Bronzi, Daniela; Orozco, Adriana Vega; Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Rastrilla, Ana M; Sosa, Zulema Y

    2011-03-15

    To investigate the participation of catecholamines in the association between peripheral innervation and luteal steroidogenesis. Animal study. University animal laboratory. Six to eight virgin adult Holtzman-strain female rats in control and experimental groups on diestrus days 1 and 2. Removal of the coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary system, with catecholaminergic agonist or antagonist added in the ganglion compartment (experimental group only). The control group received no treatment. Ovarian neurotransmitters and their catabolites measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, and A(2) measured by radioimmunoassay. On day 1, dopamine and catabolite increased whereas norepinephrine decreased, and the noradrenergic neuronal activity index was higher. On day 2, dopamine levels decreased, norepinephrine increased, and dopaminergic neuronal activity was higher. The release of A(2) was decreased by addition of norepinephrine to the ganglions on day 1, but was increased by the norepinephrine antagonist on day 2. Hence, norepinephrine increased A(2) release, and propranolol diminished it. Ganglionic activity is modified by noradrenergic stimulus, leading to different ovarian A(2) release profiles. The peripheral nervous system is a modulator in these homeostatic mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Steroid metabolism by ovarian follicles and extrafollicular tissue of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) during oocyte growth and gestation.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, B; Tan, C H; Kime, D E; Loy, G L; Lam, T J

    1992-06-01

    In the viviparous guppy, fertilization and gestation are intrafollicular. Fully developed embryos are ovulated at the end of gestation just prior to parturition. The metabolism in vitro of various radiolabeled steroid precursors by isolated ovarian follicles at various stages of the reproductive cycle and extrafollicular (EF) tissue of the guppy was investigated. While estradiol-17 beta was one of the end products of metabolism in vitellogenic follicles, 17 alpha, 20 beta-P and several 5-reduced metabolites were synthesized by postvitellogenic follicles. The yield of 17 alpha, 20 beta-P, however, was much lower than some 5 beta-reduced metabolites synthesized by postvitellogenic follicles. Gestation stage follicles rapidly converted the precursors into 5-reduced and polar 7-hydroxylated steroids, and their glucuronides. Although postpartum follicles showed very poor potential for steroid metabolism, they synthesized estradiol-17 beta from testosterone. These results demonstrate distinct changes occurring in the steroidogenic potential of the follicles during the reproductive cycle. Unlike in other viviparous vertebrates, no particular steroid seems to be involved in maintaining gestation in the guppy; all the steroid precursors are converted into highly polar metabolites and their conjugates during gestation, thereby facilitating their excretion. The EF ovarian tissue also synthesized 7-hydroxylated steroids and their glucuronides, providing evidence for the first time that the teleost ovarian EF tissue plays a role in steroidogenesis. The possible physiological significance of the synthesis of the novel polar steroids by the follicles and the EF tissue is discussed.

  16. Silencing the expression of mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase I and acyl-CoA synthetase 4 inhibits hormone-induced steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Paula; Castilla, Rocío; Castillo, Fernanda; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Mendez, Carlos F; Paz, Cristina; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2005-04-01

    Arachidonic acid and its lypoxygenated metabolites play a fundamental role in the hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis. Reduction in the expression of the mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase (MTE-I) by antisense or small interfering RNA (siRNA) and of the arachidonic acid-preferring acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS4) by siRNA produced a marked reduction in steroid output of cAMP-stimulated Leydig cells. This effect was blunted by a permeable analog of cholesterol that bypasses the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. The inhibition of steroidogenesis was overcome by addition of exogenous arachidonic acid, indicating that the enzymes are part of the mechanism responsible for arachidonic acid release involved in steroidogenesis. Knocking down the expression of MTE-I leads to a significant reduction in the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. This protein is induced by arachidonic acid and controls the rate-limiting step. Overexpression of MTE-I resulted in an increase in cAMP-induced steroidogenesis. In summary, our results demonstrate a critical role for ACS4 and MTE-I in the hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis as a new pathway of arachidonic acid release different from the classical phospholipase A2 cascade.

  17. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Postmigratory body condition and ovarian steroid production predict breeding decisions by female gray-headed albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Williams, Tony D

    2013-01-01

    Carryover effects have been documented in many migratory bird species, but we know little about the physiological mechanisms that mediate those effects. Here we show that the energetic, endocrine, and aerobic characteristics of postmigratory female gray-headed albatrosses (Thalassarche chrysostoma) can affect their decision to breed. All females in this study, whether breeding or not, were secreting ovarian steroids when they arrived at the breeding colony at Bird Island, South Georgia, which suggests that all were responding to seasonal cues. However, deferring, nonbreeding birds were characterized by a steroid profile of high progesterone (P4) and low testosterone (T), whereas breeding birds showed the opposite pattern. Deferring birds also had low body mass, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. These results suggest that postmigratory condition can influence patterns of ovarian steroidogenesis and that the maintenance of high P4 without subsequent conversion to T favors breeding deferral. Whereas breeding females normally convert P4 to T, which is a key deterministic step toward 17β-estradiol synthesis, vitellogenesis, and follicle development, deferring females did not make this conversion and instead maintained high levels of P4, perhaps due to inhibition of the hydroxylase-lyase enzyme complex, thus rendering them infertile for the current season. Results are discussed within the context of the biennial breeding system of this species, and comparisons with other biennially and annually breeding albatrosses are made.

  19. Ovarian Fibrosis: A Phenomenon of Concern

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Shi, Li-Bing; Zhang, Song-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Ovarian fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of ovarian fibroblasts and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and it is one of the principal reasons for ovarian dysfunction. This review aimed to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of ovarian fibrosis and to clarify the relationship between ovarian diseases and fibrosis. Data Sources: We searched PubMed for English language articles published up to November 2016. The search terms included ovarian fibrosis OR fibrosis, ovarian chocolate cyst OR ovarian endometrioma, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, ECM, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and combinations of these terms. Study Selection: Articles were obtained and reviewed to analyze the pathogenic mechanism of ovarian fibrosis and related ovarian diseases. Results: Many cytokines, such as MMPs, TIMPs, TGF-β1, CTGF, PPAR-γ, VEGF, and ET-1, are involved in ovarian fibrogenesis. Ovarian fibrogenesis is associated with various ovarian diseases, including ovarian chocolate cyst, PCOS, and premature ovarian failure. One finding of particular interest is that fibrogenesis in peripheral tissues around an ovarian chocolate cyst commonly causes ovarian function diminution, and therefore, this medical problem should arouse widespread concern in clinicians worldwide. Conclusions: Patients with ovarian fibrosis are susceptible to infertility and tend to have decreased responses to assisted fertility treatment. Thus, protection of ovarian function should be a priority for women who wish to reproduce when making therapeutic decisions about ovarian fibrosis-related diseases. PMID:28139522

  20. Kindlin-2 inhibits serous epithelial ovarian cancer peritoneal dissemination and predicts patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Caixia; Du, Juan; Xi, Chenguang; Yu, Yu; Hu, Ajin; Zhan, Jun; Guo, Hongyan; Fang, Weigang; Liu, Congrong; Zhang, Hongquan

    2014-03-28

    Kindlin-2 has been known to promote most cancer progression through regulation of multiple signaling pathways. However, a novel tumor suppressive role of Kindlin-2 was identified in serous epithelial ovarian cancer progression, which sharply contrasts to the tumor promoting roles for Kindlin-2 in most other cancers. While we demonstrated that Kindlin-2 was highly expressed in control tissues, a drastic low expression of Kindlin-2 was found in the tumor tissues of serous epithelial ovarian cancer, especially in the high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. Importantly, Kindlin-2 inhibited serous epithelial ovarian cancer cell peritoneal dissemination in a mouse model. For clinical relevance, low Kindlin-2 expression correlated with higher tumor grade and older patients. Intriguingly, decreased Kindlin-2 expression predicts poor overall and progression-free survivals in serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Mechanistically, Kindlin-2 induced a mesenchymal to epithelial transition in serous epithelial ovarian cancer cells, at least in part, by up-regulation of estrogen receptor α which was recruited to the promoter of E-cadherin and thereby enhanced the transcription of E-cadherin. Collectively, we concluded that inadequate Kindlin-2 is an independent risk factor for serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

  1. Clinical, Biological and Genetic Analysis of Prepubertal Isolated Ovarian Cyst in 11 Girls

    PubMed Central

    Brauner, Raja; Bashamboo, Anu; Rouget, Sébastien; Goulet, Marie; Philibert, Pascal; Sarda-Thibault, Hélène; Trivin, Christine; Misrahi, Micheline; Sultan, Charles; McElreavey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Background The cause of isolated gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty (PP) with an ovarian cyst is unknown in the majority of cases. Here, we describe 11 new cases of peripheral PP and, based on phenotypes observed in mouse models, we tested the hypothesis that mutations in the GNAS1, NR5A1, LHCGR, FSHR, NR5A1, StAR, DMRT4 and NOBOX may be associated with this phenotype. Methodology/Principal Findings 11 girls with gonadotropin-independent PP were included in this study. Three girls were seen for a history of prenatal ovarian cyst, 6 girls for breast development, and 2 girls for vaginal bleeding. With one exception, all girls were seen before 8 years of age. In 8 cases, an ovarian cyst was detected, and in one case, suspected. One other case has polycystic ovaries, and the remaining case was referred for vaginal bleeding. Four patients had a familial history of ovarian anomalies and/or infertility. Mutations in the coding sequences of the candidate genes GNAS1, NR5A1, LHCGR, FSHR, NR5A1, StAR, DMRT4 and NOBOX were not observed. Conclusions/Significance Ovarian PP shows markedly different clinical features from central PP. Our data suggest that mutations in the GNAS1, NR5A1, LHCGR, FSHR StAR, DMRT4 and NOBOX genes are not responsible for ovarian PP. Further research, including the identification of familial cases, is needed to understand the etiology of ovarian PP. PMID:20593028

  2. ASK1-dependent endothelial cell activation is critical in ovarian cancer growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mingzhu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Zhang, Jiqin; Lin, Caixia; Li, Hongmei; Li, Xia; Li, Yonghao; Zhang, Haifeng; Breckenridge, David G.; Ji, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    We have recently reported that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer by facilitating TAM–ovarian cancer cell spheroid formation. ASK1 is known to be important for macrophage activation and inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis. In the present study, we show that ASK1 deficiency attenuates TAM-spheroid formation and ovarian cancer progression in an orthotopic ovarian cancer model. Interestingly, ASK1 in stroma, but not in TAMs, is critical for peritoneal tumor growth of ovarian cancer. Moreover, overexpression of an ASK1 inhibitory protein (suppressor of cytokine signaling-1; SOCS1) in vascular endothelium attenuates vascular permeability, TAM infiltration, and ovarian cancer growth. Mechanistically, we show that ASK1 mediates degradation of endothelial junction protein VE-cadherin via a lysosomal pathway to promote macrophage transmigration. Importantly, a pharmacological ASK1 inhibitor prevents tumor-induced vascular leakage, macrophage infiltration, and tumor growth in two mouse models. Since transcoelomic metastasis is also associated with many other cancers, such as pancreatic and colon cancers, our study provides ASK1 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ovarian cancer and other transcoelomic metastasis cancers. PMID:28931753

  3. Secreted ovarian stromal substance inhibits ovarian epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Karlan, B Y; Baldwin, R L; Cirisano, F D; Mamula, P W; Jones, J; Lagasse, L D

    1995-10-01

    Determine the effects of factors secreted by normal human ovarian stroma on the proliferation of benign and malignant ovarian epithelia, in vitro. Primary cultures of normal human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE), human ovarian stromal tissue (HOST), and epithelial ovarian carcinomas (CSOC) were established from surgical specimens and characterized immunohistochemically using anti-cytokeratin, vimentin, and Factor VIII antibodies. Stroma-conditioned media (SCM) were collected over 3 days from confluent HOST cultures. The SCM were dialyzed, lyophilized, resuspended, and added to HOSE, CSOC, SKOV-3, and Caov-3 ovarian cancer cell cultures and growth inhibitory effects were assayed by MTS and [3H]thymidine uptake. SCM inhibited the growth and DNA synthesis of normal HOSE cells and cancer cells by 79-99% in > 10-cell lines studied to date. The inhibitory effect was rapid in onset with 31-82% reduction in DNA synthesis at 1 hr and approximately 50% return of activity by 23 hr following a 1-hr SCM pulse treatment. The SCM inhibitory activity was not abolished by boiling or by absorption with heparin-agarose. Size exclusion filtration places the molecular weight of the inhibitory substance between 1 and 3 kDa. Neither trypsin nor proteinase K treatments altered the inhibitory activity of SCM, while a Bligh-Dyer organic extraction placed the activity in the aqueous phase. A heat-stable, non-heparin-binding, low-molecular-weight, water-soluble substance secreted by normal ovarian stroma significantly inhibits HOSE and ovarian cancer cell proliferation. Derangements in normal ovarian stroma-epithelial interactions may contribute to growth dysregulation of the surface epithelia and result in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  4. A sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS analysis coupled with an online sample enrichment technique for H295R steroidogenesis assay and its application in the investigation of the effect of sildenafil on steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Park, Sol; Kim, Mi Jie; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2013-11-01

    An in vitro steroidogenesis assay using H295R human adenocarcinoma cells is a useful tool for the fast identification of compounds that affect the production of testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Selective and sensitive hormone measurement by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can make this assay more reliable. Therefore, in the present study, a sensitive and selective method for the quantification of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in the H295R steroidogenesis assay was developed and fully validated using LC-MS/MS coupled with an online sample enrichment technique. To prove its usefulness, the method developed was applied to investigate the effect of sildenafil on steroidogenesis. Cell medium samples were diluted and prepared using solid-phase extraction. The samples were prepared on ice and were not kept for more than 30 min to prevent degradation of hormones. The extracts were dried, reconstituted, filtered, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization. The validation results for selectivity, matrix effect, recovery, linearity, precision, and accuracy were satisfactory. The limits of detection for testosterone and 17β-estradiol were 5 and 10 pg/mL, respectively, and the limit of quantification for both testosterone and 17β-estradiol was 10 pg/mL, which was in accordance with the OECD guideline. No degradation was observed under the storage conditions for 7 and 14 days at -80 °C as well as after three freeze-thaw cycles, whereas 17β-estradiol was degraded after 1 h on ice during sample processing. The method developed was successfully used for the investigation of the effect of sildenafil on steroidogenesis. This method can be very useful for the initial selection of drugs with androgenic and/or estrogenic effects for specific purposes, e.g., in the selection of drugs that are used to reverse the effects of chemical castration.

  5. Claudin Proteins in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Patrice J.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the claudin family of tight junction proteins have been found altered in several malignancies, including ovarian cancer. Because claudin-3 and -4 are elevated in the vast majority of ovarian tumors, they may represent useful biomarkers for detection and prognosis, as well as ideal targets for therapy using the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. PMID:18057528

  6. Targeting Ovarian Carcinoma Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    expertise with expertise in gynecologic oncology /ovarian carcinoma and in animal models of cancer this proposal will: 1) Identify, isolate, and...more numerous differentiated progeny characterizing the malignancy . Although the clinical significance of these cancer stem cells (CSC) has been...the dramatic initial response rates in ovarian carcinoma represent therapeutic effectiveness against the differentiated cancer cells making up the

  7. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  8. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. NFATc1 regulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Duan, Zhaoning; Yu, Jihui; Dang, Hong-Xing

    2016-08-01

    NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T‑cells c1) is associated with malignancy in several cancer models. However, the expression and function of NFATc1 in ovarian cancer remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role of NFATc1 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) using human ovarian adenocarcinoma SKOV3 cells and patient characteristics. NFATc1 expression was silenced by siRNA in the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line and in human ovarian cancer nude mouse xenografts. Real‑time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemical staining, MTT, flow cytometry, transwell, erasion trace and mouse assays were used to detect NFATc1 expression, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell invasion and migration, tumor growth and angiogenesis. Survival analysis was performed to assess the correlation between NFATc1 expression and survival. NFATc1 was overexpressed in the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line and in human serous/mucinous ovarian cancer tissues. The silencing of NFATc1 expression by siRNA reduced cell proliferation and migration and promoted apoptosis in vitro and decreased the ovarian cancer cell tumorigenesis in vivo in nude mice. NFATc1 overexpression in high‑grade serous ovarian carcinomas was an independent prognostic factor of poor overall survival and of early relapse (P<0.01) in a univariate analysis. Our present data provide evidence that NFATc1 is overexpressed in human serous/mucinous ovarian cancer and is associated with a poor prognosis. NFATc1 silencing regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and migration. NFATc1 thus has the potential to be a therapeutic target and to be used in EOC diagnosis and prognosis.

  10. Drug conjugation to hyaluronan widens therapeutic indications for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montagner, Isabella Monia; Merlo, Anna; Carpanese, Debora; Zuccolotto, Gaia; Renier, Davide; Campisi, Monica; Pasut, Gianfranco; Zanovello, Paola; Rosato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Management of ovarian cancer still requires improvements in therapeutic options. A drug delivery strategy was tested that allows specific targeting of tumor cells in combination with a controlled release of a cytotoxic molecule. To this aim, the efficacy of a loco-regional intraperitoneal treatment with a bioconjugate (ONCOFID-S) derived by chemical linking of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), to hyaluronan was assessed in a mouse model of ovarian carcinomatosis. In vitro, the bioconjugate selectively interacted with ovarian cancer cells through the CD44 receptor, disclosed a dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition efficacy comparable to that of free SN-38 drug, and inhibited Topoisomerase I function leading to apoptosis by a mechanism involving caspase-3 and -7 activation and PARP cleavage. In vivo, the intraperitoneal administration of ONCOFID-S in tumor-bearing mice did not induce inflammation, and evidenced an improved therapeutic efficacy compared with CPT-11. In conclusion, SN-38 conjugation to hyaluronan significantly improved the profile of in vivo tolerability and widened the field of application of irinotecan. Therefore, this approach can be envisaged as a promising therapeutic strategy for loco-regional treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26097871

  11. Chocolate cysts from ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Dalton, M E

    1999-11-01

    To study the development of chocolate cysts by serial transvaginal ultrasonographic tracking of ovarian follicles. Retrospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland, United Kingdom. We reviewed case notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopy for diathermy to endometriosis/ovarian diathermy/aspiration of ovarian cysts from 1989 to 1998. Twelve women with histories of infertility and proven chocolate cysts with documented ultrasonographic findings were included in the study. Serial ultrasonographic tracking of ovarian follicles in the cycle leading to the development of the chocolate cysts, followed by ultrasonographic tracking of cysts for 3 months and laparoscopy. Development and formation of chocolate cysts. The diagnosis of chocolate cysts was confirmed laparoscopically in all patients and histopathologically in four. Ultrasound confirmed that they had all developed from follicles. Chocolate cysts can develop from ovarian follicles.

  12. Robotically assisted endoscopic ovarian transposition.

    PubMed

    Molpus, Kelly L; Wedergren, June S; Carlson, Mark A

    2003-01-01

    Ovarian transposition is the anatomical relocation of the ovaries from the pelvis to the abdomen. Transposition is beneficial in women who are to undergo pelvic radiation, because it allows maintenance of ovarian function and preservation of assisted reproductive capacity. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountainview, CA, USA) was used to perform an endoscopic ovarian transposition. The ovaries were mobilized on their respective infundibulopelvic ligaments and sutured to the ipsilateral pericolic gutters. A series, of laboratory sessions using the da Vinci system was completed at our institution's training facility. Surgical experience included cadaveric pelvic dissection and abdominopelvic procedures on anesthetized porcine models. Additional didactic and laboratory training, including a certification examination, was obtained from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. The first clinical case of robotically assisted endoscopic ovarian transposition was performed. Robotically assisted endoscopy was successfully used for ovarian transposition.

  13. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-08-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology.

  14. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology. PMID:25977900

  15. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing ovarian cancer mortality . To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian...Progestins have a potent apoptotic effect on ovarian epithelial cells and we have shown that levonorgestrel dramatically decreases ovarian cancer incidence...effective chemoprevention strategies that might decrease mortality from this disease.

  16. Ixabepilone and Liposomal Doxorubicin in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  17. Transcription of key genes regulating gonadal steroidogenesis in control and ketoconazole- or vinclozolin-exposed fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Brodin, Jeffrey; Greene, Katie J.; Knoebl, Iris; Miracle, Ann L.; Martinovic, Dalma; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in male fathead minnows exposed to ketoconazole (KTC) or vinclozolin (VZ) for 21 days. The aim was to evaluate links between molecular changes and higher level outcomes after exposure to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action. To aid our analysis and interpretation of EAC-related effects, we first examined variation in the relative abundance of steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts in the gonads of male and female fathead minnows as a function of age, gonad development, and spawning status, independent of EAC exposure. Gonadal expression of several genes varied with age and/or gonadal somatic index in either males or females. However, with the exception of aromatase, steroidogenesis-related gene expression did not vary with spawning status. Following the baseline experiments, expression of the selected genes in male fathead minnows exposed to KTC or VZ was evaluated in the context of effects observed at higher levels of organization. Exposure to KTC elicited changes in gene transcription that were consistent with an apparen