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Sample records for mouse phenotypic characterization

  1. Mouse phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue Doppler characterization of cardiac phenotype in mouse.

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, Abdallah

    2009-10-01

    Mice allow biologists to study various genes playing a role in cardiac function and pathophysiological situations. Echocardiography is a non-invasive tool for assessing cardiac phenotype. Because of load dependence of conventional parameters (left ventricular shortening fraction, left ventricular ejection fraction and mitral pulsed Doppler), we have to perform Doppler tissular velocity imaging and strain imaging for the characterization of cardiomyopathies mice models.

  3. An Imaging Workflow for Characterizing Phenotypical Change in Large Histological Mouse Model Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Mosaliganti, Kishore; Pan, Tony; Ridgway, Randall; Sharp, Richard; Cooper, Lee; Gulacy, Alex; Sharma, Ashish; Irfanoglu, Okan; Machiraju, Raghu; Kurc, Tahsin; de Bruin, Alain; Wenzel, Pamela; Leone, Gustavo; Saltz, Joel; Huang, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Motivation This paper presents a workflow designed to quantitatively characterize the 3-D structural attributes of macroscopic tissue specimens acquired at a micron level resolution using light microscopy. The specific application is a study of the morphological change in a mouse placenta induced by knocking out the retinoblastoma gene. Result This workflow includes four major components: (i) Serial-section image acquisition, (ii) image preprocessing, (iii) image analysis involving 2-D pair-wise registration, 2-D segmentation and 3-D reconstruction, and (iv) visualization and quantification of phenotyping parameters. Several new algorithms have been developed within each workflow component. The results confirm the hypotheses that (i) the volume of labyrinth tissue decreases in mutant mice with the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene knockout and (ii) there is more interdigitation at the surface between the labyrinth and spongiotrophoblast tissues in mutant placenta. Additional confidence stem from agreement in the 3-D visualization and the quantitative results generated. Availability The source code is available upon request. PMID:18502696

  4. Characterization of behavioral and neuromuscular junction phenotypes in a novel allelic series of SMA mouse models.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Melissa; Gomez, Daniel; Feng, Zhihua; McEwen, Corissa; Beltran, Jose; Cirillo, Kim; El-Khodor, Bassem; Lin, Ming-Yi; Li, Yun; Knowlton, Wendy M; McKemy, David D; Bogdanik, Laurent; Butts-Dehm, Katherine; Martens, Kimberly; Davis, Crystal; Doty, Rosalinda; Wardwell, Keegan; Ghavami, Afshin; Kobayashi, Dione; Ko, Chien-Ping; Ramboz, Sylvie; Lutz, Cathleen

    2012-10-15

    A number of mouse models for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been genetically engineered to recapitulate the severity of human SMA by using a targeted null mutation at the mouse Smn1 locus coupled with the transgenic addition of varying copy numbers of human SMN2 genes. Although this approach has been useful in modeling severe SMA and very mild SMA, a mouse model of the intermediate form of the disease would provide an additional research tool amenable for drug discovery. In addition, many of the previously engineered SMA strains are multi-allelic by design, containing a combination of transgenes and targeted mutations in the homozygous state, making further genetic manipulation difficult. A new genetic engineering approach was developed whereby variable numbers of SMN2 sequences were incorporated directly into the murine Smn1 locus. Using combinations of these alleles, we generated an allelic series of SMA mouse strains harboring no, one, two, three, four, five, six or eight copies of SMN2. We report here the characterization of SMA mutants in this series that displayed a range in disease severity from embryonic lethal to viable with mild neuromuscular deficits.

  5. High-throughput mouse phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gates, Hilary; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D M

    2011-04-01

    Comprehensive phenotyping will be required to reveal the pleiotropic functions of a gene and to uncover the wider role of genetic loci within diverse biological systems. The challenge will be to devise phenotyping approaches to characterise the thousands of mutants that are being generated as part of international efforts to acquire a mutant for every gene in the mouse genome. In order to acquire robust datasets of broad based phenotypes from mouse mutants it is necessary to design and implement pipelines that incorporate standardised phenotyping platforms that are validated across diverse mouse genetics centres or mouse clinics. We describe here the rationale and methodology behind one phenotyping pipeline, EMPReSSslim, that was designed as part of the work of the EUMORPHIA and EUMODIC consortia, and which exemplifies some of the challenges facing large-scale phenotyping. EMPReSSslim captures a broad range of data on diverse biological systems, from biochemical to physiological amongst others. Data capture and dissemination is pivotal to the operation of large-scale phenotyping pipelines, including the definition of parameters integral to each phenotyping test and the associated ontological descriptions. EMPReSSslim data is displayed within the EuroPhenome database, where a variety of tools are available to allow the user to search for interesting biological or clinical phenotypes.

  6. Phenotypic characterization of the KK/HlJ inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Berndt, A; Sundberg, B A; Silva, K A; Kennedy, V E; Richardson, M A; Li, Q; Bronson, R T; Uitto, J; Sundberg, J P

    2014-07-01

    Detailed histopathological diagnoses of inbred mouse strains are important for interpreting research results and defining novel models of human diseases. The aim of this study was to histologically detect lesions affecting the KK/HlJ inbred strain. Mice were examined at 6, 12, and 20 months of age and near natural death (ie, moribund mice). Histopathological lesions were quantified by percentage of affected mice per age group and sex. Predominant lesions were mineralization, hyperplasia, and fibro-osseous lesions. Mineralization was most frequently found in the connective tissue dermal sheath of vibrissae, the heart, and the lung. Mineralization was also found in many other organs but to a lesser degree. Hyperplasia was found most commonly in the pancreatic islets, and fibro-osseous lesions were observed in several bones. The percentage of lesions increased with age until 20 months. This study shows that KK/HlJ mice demonstrate systemic aberrant mineralization, with greatest frequency in aged mice. The detailed information about histopathological lesions in the inbred strain KK/HlJ can help investigators to choose the right model and correctly interpret the experimental results. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Phenotypic Characterization of the KK/HlJ Inbred Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, A.; Sundberg, B. A.; Silva, K. A.; Kennedy, V. E.; Richardson, M. A.; Li, Q.; Bronson, R. T.; Uitto, J.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed histopathological diagnoses of inbred mouse strains are important for interpreting research results and defining novel models of human diseases. The aim of this study was to histologically detect lesions affecting the KK/HlJ inbred strain. Mice were examined at 6, 12, and 20 months of age and near natural death (ie, moribund mice). Histopathological lesions were quantified by percentage of affected mice per age group and sex. Predominant lesions were mineralization, hyperplasia, and fibro-osseous lesions. Mineralization was most frequently found in the connective tissue dermal sheath of vibrissae, the heart, and the lung. Mineralization was also found in many other organs but to a lesser degree. Hyperplasia was found most commonly in the pancreatic islets, and fibro-osseous lesions were observed in several bones. The percentage of lesions increased with age until 20 months. This study shows that KK/HlJ mice demonstrate systemic aberrant mineralization, with greatest frequency in aged mice. The detailed information about histopathological lesions in the inbred strain KK/HlJ can help investigators to choose the right model and correctly interpret the experimental results. PMID:24009271

  8. Diverse application of MRI for mouse phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yijen L; Lo, Cecilia W

    2017-06-01

    Small animal models, particularly mouse models, of human diseases are becoming an indispensable tool for biomedical research. Studies in animal models have provided important insights into the etiology of diseases and accelerated the development of therapeutic strategies. Detailed phenotypic characterization is essential, both for the development of such animal models and mechanistic studies into disease pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of experimental therapeutics. MRI is a versatile and noninvasive imaging modality with excellent penetration depth, tissue coverage, and soft tissue contrast. MRI, being a multi-modal imaging modality, together with proven imaging protocols and availability of good contrast agents, is ideally suited for phenotyping mutant mouse models. Here we describe the applications of MRI for phenotyping structural birth defects involving the brain, heart, and kidney in mice. The versatility of MRI and its ease of use are well suited to meet the rapidly increasing demands for mouse phenotyping in the coming age of functional genomics. Birth Defects Research 109:758-770, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The spontaneous ataxic mouse mutant tippy is characterized by a novel Purkinje cell morphogenesis and degeneration phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Evelyn K.; Sekerková, Gabriella; Ohtsuki, Gen; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Chizhikov, Victor V.; Hansel, Christian; Mugnaini, Enrico; Millen, Kathleen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents the first detailed analysis of the spontaneous neurological mouse mutant, tippy, uncovering its unique cerebellar phenotype. Homozygous tippy mutant mice are small, ataxic and die around weaning. Although the cerebellum shows grossly normal foliation, tippy mutants display a complex cerebellar Purkinje cell phenotype consisting of abnormal dendritic branching with immature spine features and patchy, non-apoptotic cell death that is associated with widespread dystrophy and degeneration of the Purkinje cell axons throughout the white matter, the cerebellar nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. Moderate anatomical abnormalities of climbing fiber innervation of tippy mutant Purkinje cells were not associated with changes in climbing fiber-EPSC amplitudes. However, decreased ESPC amplitudes were observed in response to parallel fiber stimulation and correlated well with anatomical evidence for patchy dark cell degeneration of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer. The data suggest that the Purkinje neurons are a primary target of the tippy mutation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the Purkinje cell axonal pathology together with disruptions in the balance of climbing fiber and parallel fiber Purkinje cell input in the cerebellar cortex underlie the ataxic phenotype in these mice. The constellation of Purkinje cell dendritic malformation and degeneration phenotypes in tippy mutants is unique and has not been reported in any other neurologic mutant. Fine mapping of the tippy mutation to a 2.1MB region of distal chromosome 9, which does not encompass any gene previously implicated in cerebellar development or neuronal degeneration, confirms that the tippy mutation identifies novel biology and gene function. PMID:25626522

  10. Cleft lip and palate results from Hedgehog signaling antagonism in the mouse: Phenotypic characterization and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lipinski, Robert J; Song, Chihwa; Sulik, Kathleen K; Everson, Joshua L; Gipp, Jerry J; Yan, Dong; Bushman, Wade; Rowland, Ian J

    2010-04-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway provides inductive signals critical for developmental patterning of the brain and face. In humans and in animal models interference with this pathway yields birth defects, among the most well-studied of which fall within the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. Timed-pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were treated with the natural Hh signaling antagonist cyclopamine by subcutaneous infusion from gestational day (GD) 8.25 to 9.5, or with a potent cyclopamine analog, AZ75, administered by oral gavage at GD 8.5. Subsequent embryonic morphogenesis and fetal central nervous system (CNS) phenotype were respectively investigated by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In utero Hh signaling antagonist exposure induced a spectrum of craniofacial and brain malformations. Cyclopamine exposure caused lateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) defects attributable to embryonic deficiency of midline and lower medial nasal prominence tissue. The CLP phenotype was accompanied by olfactory bulb hypoplasia and anterior pituitary aplasia, but otherwise grossly normal brain morphology. AZ75 exposure caused alobar and semilobar HPE with associated median facial deficiencies. An intermediate phenotype of median CLP was produced infrequently by both drug administration regimens. The results of this study suggest that interference with Hh signaling should be considered in the CLP differential and highlight the occurrence of CNS defects that are expected to be present in a cohort of patients having CLP. This work also illustrates the utility of fetal MRI-based analyses and establishes a novel mouse model for teratogen-induced CLP. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology.

  12. The German Mouse Clinic: a platform for systemic phenotype analysis of mouse models.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, H; Gailus-Durner, V; Adler, T; Pimentel, J A Aguilar; Becker, L; Bolle, I; Brielmeier, M; Calzada-Wack, J; Dalke, C; Ehrhardt, N; Fasnacht, N; Ferwagner, B; Frischmann, U; Hans, W; Hölter, S M; Hölzlwimmer, G; Horsch, M; Javaheri, A; Kallnik, M; Kling, E; Lengger, C; Maier, H; Mossbrugger, I; Mörth, C; Naton, B; Nöth, U; Pasche, B; Prehn, C; Przemeck, G; Puk, O; Racz, I; Rathkolb, B; Rozman, J; Schäble, K; Schreiner, R; Schrewe, A; Sina, C; Steinkamp, R; Thiele, F; Willershäuser, M; Zeh, R; Adamski, J; Busch, D H; Beckers, J; Behrendt, H; Daniel, H; Esposito, I; Favor, J; Graw, J; Heldmaier, G; Höfler, H; Ivandic, B; Katus, H; Klingenspor, M; Klopstock, T; Lengeling, A; Mempel, M; Müller, W; Neschen, S; Ollert, M; Quintanilla-Martinez, L; Rosenstiel, P; Schmidt, J; Schreiber, S; Schughart, K; Schulz, H; Wolf, E; Wurst, W; Zimmer, A; Hrabé de Angelis, M

    2009-02-01

    The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) is a large scale phenotyping center where mouse mutant lines are analyzed in a standardized and comprehensive way. The result is an almost complete picture of the phenotype of a mouse mutant line--a systemic view. At the GMC, expert scientists from various fields of mouse research work in close cooperation with clinicians side by side at one location. The phenotype screens comprise the following areas: allergy, behavior, clinical chemistry, cardiovascular analyses, dysmorphology, bone and cartilage, energy metabolism, eye and vision, host-pathogen interactions, immunology, lung function, molecular phenotyping, neurology, nociception, steroid metabolism, and pathology. The German Mouse Clinic is an open access platform that offers a collaboration-based phenotyping to the scientific community (www.mouseclinic.de). More than 80 mutant lines have been analyzed in a primary screen for 320 parameters, and for 95% of the mutant lines we have found new or additional phenotypes that were not associated with the mouse line before. Our data contributed to the association of mutant mouse lines to the corresponding human disease. In addition, the systemic phenotype analysis accounts for pleiotropic gene functions and refines previous phenotypic characterizations. This is an important basis for the analysis of underlying disease mechanisms. We are currently setting up a platform that will include environmental challenge tests to decipher genome-environmental interactions in the areas nutrition, exercise, air, stress and infection with different standardized experiments. This will help us to identify genetic predispositions as susceptibility factors for environmental influences.

  13. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium: past and future perspectives on mouse phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the function of all mammalian genes remains a major challenge for the biomedical science community in the 21st century. The goal of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) over the next 10 years is to undertake broad-based phenotyping of 20,000 mouse genes, providing an unprecedented insight into mammalian gene function. This short article explores the drivers for large-scale mouse phenotyping and provides an overview of the aims and processes involved in IMPC mouse production and phenotyping. PMID:22940749

  14. Identification and Characterization of Lineage(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) VSEL Phenotypic Cells Residing in Adult Mouse Bone Tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Ryusuke; Iwaki, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Sumide, Keisuke; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Fujioka, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Yutaka; Uemura, Yasushi; Asano, Hiroaki; Kwon, A-Hon; Sonoda, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Murine bone marrow (BM)-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (BM VSELs), defined by a lineage-negative (Lin(-)), CD45-negative (CD45(-)), Sca-1-positive (Sca-1(+)) immunophenotype, were previously reported as postnatal pluripotent stem cells (SCs). We developed a highly efficient method for isolating Lin(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) small cells using enzymatic treatment of murine bone. We designated these cells as bone-derived VSELs (BD VSELs). The incidences of BM VSELs in the BM-derived nucleated cells and that of BD VSELs in bone-derived nucleated cells were 0.002% and 0.15%, respectively. These BD VSELs expressed a variety of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), and endothelial cell markers. The gene expression profile of the BD VSELs was clearly distinct from those of HSCs, MSCs, and ES cells. In the steady state, the BD VSELs proliferated slowly, however, the number of BD VSELs significantly increased in the bone after acute liver injury. Moreover, green fluorescent protein-mouse derived BD VSELs transplanted via tail vein injection after acute liver injury were detected in the liver parenchyma of recipient mice. Immunohistological analyses suggested that these BD VSELs might transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. This study demonstrated that the majority of the Lin(-)CD45(-)Sca-1(+) VSEL phenotypic cells reside in the bone rather than the BM. However, the immunophenotype and the gene expression profile of BD VSELs were clearly different from those of other types of SCs, including BM VSELs, MSCs, HSCs, and ES cells. Further studies will therefore be required to elucidate their cellular and/or SC characteristics and the potential relationship between BD VSELs and BM VSELs.

  15. Temporal Characterization of Microglia/Macrophage Phenotypes in a Mouse Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hellström Erkenstam, Nina; Smith, Peter L. P.; Fleiss, Bobbi; Nair, Syam; Svedin, Pernilla; Wang, Wei; Boström, Martina; Gressens, Pierre; Hagberg, Henrik; Brown, Kelly L.; Sävman, Karin; Mallard, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, which may facilitate their participation in both the progression and resolution of injury-induced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal expression of genes associated with classical and alternative polarization phenotypes described for macrophages and to identify related cell populations in the brain following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). HI was induced in 9-day old mice and brain tissue was collected up to 7 days post-insult to investigate expression of genes associated with macrophage activation. Using cell-markers, CD86 (classic activation) and CD206 (alternative activation), we assessed temporal changes of CD11b+ cell populations in the brain and studied the protein expression of the immunomodulatory factor galectin-3 in these cells. HI induced a rapid regulation (6 h) of genes associated with both classical and alternative polarization phenotypes in the injured hemisphere. FACS analysis showed a marked increase in the number of CD11b+CD86+ cells at 24 h after HI (+3667%), which was coupled with a relative suppression of CD11b+CD206+ cells and cells that did not express neither CD86 nor CD206. The CD11b+CD206+ population was mixed with some cells also expressing CD86. Confocal microscopy confirmed that a subset of cells expressed both CD86 and CD206, particularly in injured gray and white matter. Protein concentration of galectin-3 was markedly increased mainly in the cell population lacking CD86 or CD206 in the injured hemisphere. These cells were predominantly resident microglia as very few galectin-3 positive cells co-localized with infiltrating myeloid cells in Lys-EGFP-ki mice after HI. In summary, HI was characterized by an early mixed gene response, but with a large expansion of mainly the CD86 positive population during the first day. However, the injured hemisphere also contained a subset of cells expressing both CD86 and CD206 and a large population that

  16. NIH Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers: the power of centralized phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Kent Lloyd, K. C.; Cline, Gary W.; Wasserman, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs) were founded in 2001 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance biomedical research by providing the scientific community with standardized, high-quality phenotyping services for mouse models of diabetes, obesity, and their complications. The intent is to allow researchers to take optimum advantage of the many new mouse models produced in labs and in high-throughput public efforts. The six MMPCs are located at universities around the country and perform complex metabolic tests in intact mice and hormone and analyte assays in tissues on a fee-for-service basis. Testing is subsidized by the NIH in order to reduce the barriers for mouse researchers. Although data derived from these tests belong to the researcher submitting mice or tissues, these data are archived after publication in a public database run by the MMPC Coordinating and Bioinformatics Unit. It is hoped that data from experiments performed in many mouse models of metabolic diseases, using standard protocols, will be useful in understanding the nature of these complex disorders. The current areas of expertise include energy balance and body composition, insulin action and secretion, whole-body and tissue carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular and renal function, and metabolic pathway kinetics. In addition to providing services, the MMPC staff provides expertise and advice to researchers, and works to develop and refine test protocols to best meet the community’s needs in light of current scientific developments. Test technology is disseminated by publications and through annual courses. PMID:22940748

  17. Phenotypic and functional characterization of a mouse model of targeted Pig-a deletion in hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Visconte, Valeria; Raghavachari, Nalini; Liu, Delong; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Desierto, Marie J.; Chen, Jichun; Young, Neal S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Somatic mutation in the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (PIG-A) causes glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency in human patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Design and Methods We produced an animal model of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria by conditional Pig-a gene inactivation (Pig-a−/−) in hematopoietic cells; mice carrying two lox sites flanking exon 6 of the Pig-a gene were bred with mice carrying the transgene Cre-recombinase under the human c-fes promoter. We characterized the phenotypic and functional properties of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-deficient and glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-normal hematopoietic cells from these Pig-a−/− mice using gene expression microarray, flow cytometry, bone marrow transplantation, spectratyping, and immunoblotting. Results In comparison to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-normal bone marrow cells, glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-deficient bone marrow cells from the same Pig-a−/− animals showed up-regulation of the expression of immune function genes and contained a significantly higher proportion of CD8 T cells. Both characteristics were maintained when glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-deficient cells were transplanted into lethally-irradiated recipients. Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-deficient T cells were inactive, showed pronounced Vβ5.1/5.2 skewing, had fewer γ-interferon-producing cells after lectin stimulation, and contained fewer CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. However, the levels of T-cell receptor signaling proteins from glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-deficient cells were normal relative to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-normal cells from wild type animals, and cells were capable of inducing target cell apoptosis in vitro. Conclusions Deletion of the Pig-a gene in hematopoietic cells does not cause frank marrow failure but leads to the appearance of clonally-restricted, inactive yet functionally competent CD8 T cells. PMID:19679885

  18. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  19. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of a mouse model of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy reveals severe muscular atrophy restricted to fast glycolytic fibres.

    PubMed

    Trollet, Capucine; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Venema, Andrea; Hargreaves, Iain P; Foster, Keith; Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Negroni, Elisa; Hourde, Christophe; Baraibar, Martin A; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Davies, Janet E; Rubinsztein, David C; Heales, Simon J; Mouly, Vincent; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Raz, Vered; Dickson, George

    2010-06-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disorder characterized by ptosis, dysphagia and proximal limb weakness. Autosomal-dominant OPMD is caused by a short (GCG)(8-13) expansions within the first exon of the poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 gene (PABPN1), leading to an expanded polyalanine tract in the mutated protein. Expanded PABPN1 forms insoluble aggregates in the nuclei of skeletal muscle fibres. In order to gain insight into the different physiological processes affected in OPMD muscles, we have used a transgenic mouse model of OPMD (A17.1) and performed transcriptomic studies combined with a detailed phenotypic characterization of this model at three time points. The transcriptomic analysis revealed a massive gene deregulation in the A17.1 mice, among which we identified a significant deregulation of pathways associated with muscle atrophy. Using a mathematical model for progression, we have identified that one-third of the progressive genes were also associated with muscle atrophy. Functional and histological analysis of the skeletal muscle of this mouse model confirmed a severe and progressive muscular atrophy associated with a reduction in muscle strength. Moreover, muscle atrophy in the A17.1 mice was restricted to fast glycolytic fibres, containing a large number of intranuclear inclusions (INIs). The soleus muscle and, in particular, oxidative fibres were spared, even though they contained INIs albeit to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate a fibre-type specificity of muscle atrophy in this OPMD model. This study improves our understanding of the biological pathways modified in OPMD to identify potential biomarkers and new therapeutic targets.

  20. Using ontologies to describe mouse phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Green, Eain CJ; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Hancock, John M; Davidson, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    The mouse is an important model of human genetic disease. Describing phenotypes of mutant mice in a standard, structured manner that will facilitate data mining is a major challenge for bioinformatics. Here we describe a novel, compositional approach to this problem which combines core ontologies from a variety of sources. This produces a framework with greater flexibility, power and economy than previous approaches. We discuss some of the issues this approach raises. PMID:15642100

  1. Phenotype profile of a genetic mouse model for Muenke syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Eiki; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B.; Bartlett, Scott P.; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Muenke syndrome mutation (FGFR3P250R), which was discovered 15 years ago, represents the single most common craniosynostosis mutation. Muenke syndrome is characterized by coronal suture synostosis, mid-face hypoplasia, subtle limb anomalies, and hearing loss. However, the spectrum of clinical presentation continues to expand. To better understand the pathophysiology of the Muenke syndrome, we present collective findings from several recent studies that have characterized a genetically equivalent mouse model for Muenke syndrome (FgfR3P244R) and compare them with human phenotypes. Conclusions FgfR3P244R mutant mice show premature fusion of facial sutures, premaxillary and/or zygomatic sutures, but rarely the coronal suture. The mice also lack the typical limb phenotype. On the other hand, the mutant mice display maxillary retrusion in association with a shortening of the anterior cranial base and a premature closure of intersphenoidal and spheno-occipital synchondroses, resembling human midface hypoplasia. In addition, sensorineural hearing loss is detected in all FgfR3P244R mutant mice as in the majority of Muenke syndrome patients. It is caused by a defect in the mechanism of cell fate determination in the organ of Corti. The mice also express phenotypes that have not been previously described in humans, such as reduced cortical bone thickness, hypoplastic trabecular bone, and defective temporomandibular joint structure. Therefore, the FgfR3P244R mouse provides an excellent opportunity to study disease mechanisms of some classical phenotypes of Muenke syndrome and to test novel therapeutic strategies. The mouse model can also be further explored to discover previously unreported yet potentially significant phenotypes of Muenke syndrome. PMID:22872265

  2. Searching the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resources for Information on Mouse Biology from Genotype to Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David R

    2016-12-08

    The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource provides the research community with access to information on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. Core data in MGI include gene characterization and function, phenotype and disease model descriptions, DNA and protein sequence data, gene expression data, vertebrate homologies, SNPs, mapping data, and links to other bioinformatics databases. Semantic integration is supported through the use of standardized nomenclature, and through the use of controlled vocabularies such as the mouse Anatomical Dictionary, the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and the Gene Ontologies. MGI extracts and organizes data from primary literature. MGI data are shared with and widely displayed from other bioinformatics resources. The database is updated weekly with curated annotations, and regularly adds new datasets and features. This unit provides a guide to using the MGI bioinformatics resource. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Using Mouse Models to Explore Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Ahmad; Faizi, Mehrdad; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Mobley, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) caused by trisomy 21 is characterized by a variety of phenotypes and involves multiple organs. Sequencing of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) and subsequently of its orthologues on mouse chromosome 16 have created an unprecedented opportunity to explore the complex relationship between various DS phenotypes and the extra copy of…

  4. Using Mouse Models to Explore Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Ahmad; Faizi, Mehrdad; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Mobley, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) caused by trisomy 21 is characterized by a variety of phenotypes and involves multiple organs. Sequencing of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) and subsequently of its orthologues on mouse chromosome 16 have created an unprecedented opportunity to explore the complex relationship between various DS phenotypes and the extra copy of…

  5. Mouse Genetic Background Influences the Dental Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Konicki, William S.; Wright, J. Timothy; Suggs, Cynthia; Xue, Hui; Kuehl, Melissa A.; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Gibson, Carolyn W.

    2014-01-01

    Dental enamel covers the crown of the vertebrate tooth and is considered to be the hardest tissue in the body. Enamel develops during secretion of an extracellular matrix by ameloblast cells in the tooth germ, prior to eruption of the tooth into the oral cavity. Secreted enamel proteins direct mineralization patterns during the maturation stage of amelogenesis as the tooth prepares to erupt. The amelogenins are the most abundant enamel proteins, and are required for normal enamel development. Phenotypic differences were observed between incisors from individual Amelx (Amelogenin) null mice that had a mixed 129xC57BL/6J genetic background, and between inbred wld-type (WT) mice with different genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6J, C3H/HEJ, FVB/NJ). We hypothesized this could be due to modifier genes, as human patients with a mutation in an enamel protein gene causing the enamel defect amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) also can have varied appearance of dentitions within a kindred. Enamel density measurements varied for all WT inbred strains midway during incisor development. Enamel thickness varied between some WT strains and, unexpectedly, dentin density varied extensively between incisors and molars of all WT and Amelx null strains studied. WT FVB/NJ incisors were more similar to Amelx null than to the other WT strains in incisor height/weight ratio and pattern of enamel mineralization. Strain-specific differences led to the conclusion that modifier genes may be implicated in determining both normal development and severity of enamel appearance in AI mouse models and may in future studies be related to phenotypic heterogeneity within human AI kindreds reported in the literature. PMID:24732779

  6. Phenotype of the taurine transporter knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Oermann, Evelyn; Zilles, Karl; Haas, Helmut; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    ; Liu et al., 1992; Ramamoorthy et al., 1994; Schloss et al., 1994; Smith et al., 1992; Uchida et al., 1992; Vinnakota et al., 1997; Yancey et al., 1975). Taurine is not incorporated into proteins. It is involved in cell volume regulation, neuromodulation, antioxidant defense, protein stabilization, stress responses, and via formation of taurine-chloramine in immunomodulation (Chapman et al., 1993; Green et al., 1991; Huxtable, 1992; Timbrell et al., 1995). On the basis of its functions, taurine may protect cells against various types of injury (Chapman et al., 1993; Green et al., 1991; Huxtable, 1992; Kurz et al., 1998; Park et al., 1995; Stapleton et al., 1998; Timbrell et al., 1995; Welch and Brown, 1996; Wettstein and Häussinger, 1997). In order to examine the multiple taurine functions, murine models have several intrinsic advantages for in vivo research compared to other animal models, including lower cost, maintenance, and rapid reproduction rate. Further, experimental reagents for cellular and molecular studies are widely available for the mouse. In particular, mice can be easily genetically manipulated by making transgene and knockout mice. This chapter focuses on the phenotype of the TAUT-deficient murine model (taut-/-; Heller-Stilb et al., 2002), which may help researchers elucidate the diverse roles of taurine in development and maintenance of normal organ functions and morphology.

  7. Modeling Phenotypes of Tuberous Sclerosis in the Mouse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    other proteins in this pathological progression, and to evaluate relevant therapeutic interventions such as rapamycin. 15. SUBJECT TERMS MOUSE...whether rapamycin treatment corrects this dysregulation, and whether phenotypes seen in the mice are abrogated by breeding pertinent MMP knockout...induction by doxycycline (Figure 7), this approach did not yield a phenotype, at least after 6 months of doxycycline treatment . Thus, as our

  8. The Mouse Genome Database: Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Models of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is the premier animal model for studying human biology because all life stages can be accessed experimentally, a completely sequenced reference genome is publicly available and there exists a myriad of genomic tools for comparative and experimental research. In the current era of genome scale, data-driven biomedical research, the integration of genetic, genomic and biological data are essential for realizing the full potential of the mouse as an experimental model. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org), the community model organism database for the laboratory mouse, is designed to facilitate the use of the laboratory mouse as a model system for understanding human biology and disease. To achieve this goal, MGD integrates genetic and genomic data related to the functional and phenotypic characterization of mouse genes and alleles and serves as a comprehensive catalog for mouse models of human disease. Recent enhancements to MGD include the addition of human ortholog details to mouse Gene Detail pages, the inclusion of microRNA knockouts to MGD’s catalog of alleles and phenotypes, the addition of video clips to phenotype images, providing access to genotype and phenotype data associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) and improvements to the layout and display of Gene Ontology annotations. PMID:23175610

  9. The mouse genome database: genotypes, phenotypes, and models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is the premier animal model for studying human biology because all life stages can be accessed experimentally, a completely sequenced reference genome is publicly available and there exists a myriad of genomic tools for comparative and experimental research. In the current era of genome scale, data-driven biomedical research, the integration of genetic, genomic and biological data are essential for realizing the full potential of the mouse as an experimental model. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org), the community model organism database for the laboratory mouse, is designed to facilitate the use of the laboratory mouse as a model system for understanding human biology and disease. To achieve this goal, MGD integrates genetic and genomic data related to the functional and phenotypic characterization of mouse genes and alleles and serves as a comprehensive catalog for mouse models of human disease. Recent enhancements to MGD include the addition of human ortholog details to mouse Gene Detail pages, the inclusion of microRNA knockouts to MGD's catalog of alleles and phenotypes, the addition of video clips to phenotype images, providing access to genotype and phenotype data associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) and improvements to the layout and display of Gene Ontology annotations.

  10. Phenotypic and functional profiling of mouse intestinal antigen presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Harusato, Akihito; Flannigan, Kyle L.; Geem, Duke; Denning, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota that populates the mammalian intestine consists of hundreds of trillions of bacteria that are separated from underlying immune cells by a single layer of epithelial cells. The intestinal immune system effectively tolerates components of the microbiota that provide benefit to the host while remaining poised to eliminate those that are harmful. Antigen presenting cells, especially macrophages and dendritic cells, play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis via their ability to orchestrate appropriate responses to the microbiota. Paramount to elucidating intestinal macrophage- and dendritic cell-mediated functions is the ability to effectively isolate and identify these cells from a complex cellular environment. In this review, we summarize methodology for the isolation and phenotypic characterization of macrophages and DCs from the mouse intestine and discuss how this may be useful for gaining insight into the mechanisms by which mucosal immune tolerance is maintained. PMID:25891794

  11. Live four-dimensional optical coherence tomography reveals embryonic cardiac phenotype in mouse mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew L., III; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-09-01

    Efficient phenotyping of developmental defects in model organisms is critical for understanding the genetic specification of normal development and congenital abnormalities in humans. We previously reported that optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with live embryo culture is a valuable tool for mouse embryo imaging and four-dimensional (4-D) cardiodynamic analysis; however, its capability for analysis of mouse mutants with cardiac phenotypes has not been previously explored. Here, we report 4-D (three-dimensional+time) OCT imaging and analysis of the embryonic heart in a Wdr19 mouse mutant, revealing a heart looping defect. Quantitative analysis of cardiac looping revealed a statistically significant difference between mutant and control embryos. Our results indicate that live 4-D OCT imaging provides a powerful phenotyping approach to characterize embryonic cardiac function in mouse models.

  12. Histopathology reveals correlative and unique phenotypes in a high-throughput mouse phenotyping screen.

    PubMed

    Adissu, Hibret A; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; Tuck, Elizabeth; Hooks, Yvette; Carragher, Damian M; Clarke, Kay; Karp, Natasha A; Newbigging, Susan; Jones, Nora; Morikawa, Lily; White, Jacqueline K; McKerlie, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The Mouse Genetics Project (MGP) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute aims to generate and phenotype over 800 genetically modified mouse lines over the next 5 years to gain a better understanding of mammalian gene function and provide an invaluable resource to the scientific community for follow-up studies. Phenotyping includes the generation of a standardized biobank of paraffin-embedded tissues for each mouse line, but histopathology is not routinely performed. In collaboration with the Pathology Core of the Centre for Modeling Human Disease (CMHD) we report the utility of histopathology in a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Histopathology was assessed in an unbiased selection of 50 mouse lines with (n=30) or without (n=20) clinical phenotypes detected by the standard MGP primary phenotyping screen. Our findings revealed that histopathology added correlating morphological data in 19 of 30 lines (63.3%) in which the primary screen detected a phenotype. In addition, seven of the 50 lines (14%) presented significant histopathology findings that were not associated with or predicted by the standard primary screen. Three of these seven lines had no clinical phenotype detected by the standard primary screen. Incidental and strain-associated background lesions were present in all mutant lines with good concordance to wild-type controls. These findings demonstrate the complementary and unique contribution of histopathology to high-throughput primary phenotyping of mutant mice.

  13. Histopathology reveals correlative and unique phenotypes in a high-throughput mouse phenotyping screen

    PubMed Central

    Adissu, Hibret A.; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; Tuck, Elizabeth; Hooks, Yvette; Carragher, Damian M.; Clarke, Kay; Karp, Natasha A.; Project, Sanger Mouse Genetics; Newbigging, Susan; Jones, Nora; Morikawa, Lily; White, Jacqueline K.; McKerlie, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Genetics Project (MGP) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute aims to generate and phenotype over 800 genetically modified mouse lines over the next 5 years to gain a better understanding of mammalian gene function and provide an invaluable resource to the scientific community for follow-up studies. Phenotyping includes the generation of a standardized biobank of paraffin-embedded tissues for each mouse line, but histopathology is not routinely performed. In collaboration with the Pathology Core of the Centre for Modeling Human Disease (CMHD) we report the utility of histopathology in a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Histopathology was assessed in an unbiased selection of 50 mouse lines with (n=30) or without (n=20) clinical phenotypes detected by the standard MGP primary phenotyping screen. Our findings revealed that histopathology added correlating morphological data in 19 of 30 lines (63.3%) in which the primary screen detected a phenotype. In addition, seven of the 50 lines (14%) presented significant histopathology findings that were not associated with or predicted by the standard primary screen. Three of these seven lines had no clinical phenotype detected by the standard primary screen. Incidental and strain-associated background lesions were present in all mutant lines with good concordance to wild-type controls. These findings demonstrate the complementary and unique contribution of histopathology to high-throughput primary phenotyping of mutant mice. PMID:24652767

  14. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism

    PubMed Central

    Kazdoba, T. M.; Leach, P. T.; Crawley, J. N.

    2016-01-01

    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism. PMID:26403076

  15. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism.

    PubMed

    Kazdoba, T M; Leach, P T; Crawley, J N

    2016-01-01

    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Global phenotypic characterization of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bochner, Barry R

    2009-01-01

    The measure of the quality of a systems biology model is how well it can reproduce and predict the behaviors of a biological system such as a microbial cell. In recent years, these models have been built up in layers, and each layer has been growing in sophistication and accuracy in parallel with a global data set to challenge and validate the models in predicting the content or activities of genes (genomics), proteins (proteomics), metabolites (metabolomics), and ultimately cell phenotypes (phenomics). This review focuses on the latter, the phenotypes of microbial cells. The development of Phenotype MicroArrays, which attempt to give a global view of cellular phenotypes, is described. In addition to their use in fleshing out and validating systems biology models, there are many other uses of this global phenotyping technology in basic and applied microbiology research, which are also described. PMID:19054113

  17. Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Autism.

    PubMed

    Ellegood, Jacob; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2015-07-01

    In order to understand the consequences of the mutation on behavioral and biological phenotypes relevant to autism, mutations in many of the risk genes for autism spectrum disorder have been experimentally generated in mice. Here, we summarize behavioral outcomes and neuroanatomical abnormalities, with a focus on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of postmortem mouse brains. Results are described from multiple mouse models of autism spectrum disorder and comorbid syndromes, including the 15q11-13, 16p11.2, 22q11.2, Cntnap2, Engrailed2, Fragile X, Integrinβ3, MET, Neurexin1a, Neuroligin3, Reelin, Rett, Shank3, Slc6a4, tuberous sclerosis, and Williams syndrome models, and inbred strains with strong autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes, including BTBR and BALB. Concomitant behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities can strengthen the interpretation of results from a mouse model, and may elevate the usefulness of the model system for therapeutic discovery.

  18. Mouse model phenotypes provide information about human drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Hiebert, Tanya; Hardy, Nigel W.; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Dumontier, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Methods for computational drug target identification use information from diverse information sources to predict or prioritize drug targets for known drugs. One set of resources that has been relatively neglected for drug repurposing is animal model phenotype. Results: We investigate the use of mouse model phenotypes for drug target identification. To achieve this goal, we first integrate mouse model phenotypes and drug effects, and then systematically compare the phenotypic similarity between mouse models and drug effect profiles. We find a high similarity between phenotypes resulting from loss-of-function mutations and drug effects resulting from the inhibition of a protein through a drug action, and demonstrate how this approach can be used to suggest candidate drug targets. Availability and implementation: Analysis code and supplementary data files are available on the project Web site at https://drugeffects.googlecode.com. Contact: leechuck@leechuck.de or roh25@aber.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24158600

  19. Mouse Genome Database: From sequence to phenotypes and disease models

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joel E.; Kadin, James A.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, www.informatics.jax.org) is the international scientific database for genetic, genomic, and biological data on the laboratory mouse to support the research requirements of the biomedical community. To accomplish this goal, MGD provides broad data coverage, serves as the authoritative standard for mouse nomenclature for genes, mutants, and strains, and curates and integrates many types of data from literature and electronic sources. Among the key data sets MGD supports are: the complete catalog of mouse genes and genome features, comparative homology data for mouse and vertebrate genes, the authoritative set of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for mouse gene functions, a comprehensive catalog of mouse mutations and their phenotypes, and a curated compendium of mouse models of human diseases. Here, we describe the data acquisition process, specifics about MGD's key data areas, methods to access and query MGD data, and outreach and user help facilities. genesis 53:458–473, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26150326

  20. Systematic analysis, comparison, and integration of disease based human genetic association data and mouse genetic phenotypic information

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genetic contributions to human common disorders and mouse genetic models of disease are complex and often overlapping. In common human diseases, unlike classical Mendelian disorders, genetic factors generally have small effect sizes, are multifactorial, and are highly pleiotropic. Likewise, mouse genetic models of disease often have pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes. Moreover, phenotypic descriptions in the literature in both human and mouse are often poorly characterized and difficult to compare directly. Methods In this report, human genetic association results from the literature are summarized with regard to replication, disease phenotype, and gene specific results; and organized in the context of a systematic disease ontology. Similarly summarized mouse genetic disease models are organized within the Mammalian Phenotype ontology. Human and mouse disease and phenotype based gene sets are identified. These disease gene sets are then compared individually and in large groups through dendrogram analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results Human disease and mouse phenotype gene sets are shown to group into disease and phenotypically relevant groups at both a coarse and fine level based on gene sharing. Conclusion This analysis provides a systematic and global perspective on the genetics of common human disease as compared to itself and in the context of mouse genetic models of disease. PMID:20092628

  1. Trans-NIH neuroscience initiatives on mouse phenotyping and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Moldin, S O; Farmer, M E; Chin, H R; Battey, J F

    2001-08-01

    In the post-genomic era, the laboratory mouse will excel as a premier mammalian system to study normal and disordered biological processes, in part because of low cost, but largely because of the rich opportunities that exist for exploiting genetic tools and technologies in the mouse to systematically determine mammalian gene function. Many robust models of human disease may therefore be developed, and these in turn will provide critical clues to understanding gene function. The full potential of the mouse for understanding many of the neural and behavioral phenotypes of relevance to neuroscientists has yet to be realized. With the full anatomy of the mouse genome at hand, researchers for the first time will be able to move beyond traditional gene-by-gene approaches and take a global view of gene expression patterns crucial for neurobiological processes. In response to an action plan for mouse genomics developed on the basis of recommendations from the scientific community, seven institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) initiated in 1999 a mouse genetics research program that specifically focused on neurobiology and complex behavior. The specific goals of these neuroscience initiatives are to develop high-throughput phenotyping assays and to initiate genome-wide mutagenesis projects to identify hundreds of mutant strains with heritable abnormalities of high relevance to neuroscientists. Assays and mutants generated in these efforts will be made widely available to the scientific community, and such resources will provide neuroscientists unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of neural function and complex behavior. Such research tools ultimately will permit the manipulation and analysis of the mouse genome, as a means of gaining insight into the genetic bases of the mammalian nervous system and its complex disorders.

  2. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data.

    PubMed

    Koscielny, Gautier; Yaikhom, Gagarine; Iyer, Vivek; Meehan, Terrence F; Morgan, Hugh; Atienza-Herrero, Julian; Blake, Andrew; Chen, Chao-Kung; Easty, Richard; Di Fenza, Armida; Fiegel, Tanja; Grifiths, Mark; Horne, Alan; Karp, Natasha A; Kurbatova, Natalja; Mason, Jeremy C; Matthews, Peter; Oakley, Darren J; Qazi, Asfand; Regnart, Jack; Retha, Ahmad; Santos, Luis A; Sneddon, Duncan J; Warren, Jonathan; Westerberg, Henrik; Wilson, Robert J; Melvin, David G; Smedley, Damian; Brown, Steve D M; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Parkinson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal (http://www.mousephenotype.org) provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated 'data wranglers' work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases.

  3. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data

    PubMed Central

    Koscielny, Gautier; Yaikhom, Gagarine; Iyer, Vivek; Meehan, Terrence F.; Morgan, Hugh; Atienza-Herrero, Julian; Blake, Andrew; Chen, Chao-Kung; Easty, Richard; Di Fenza, Armida; Fiegel, Tanja; Grifiths, Mark; Horne, Alan; Karp, Natasha A.; Kurbatova, Natalja; Mason, Jeremy C.; Matthews, Peter; Oakley, Darren J.; Qazi, Asfand; Regnart, Jack; Retha, Ahmad; Santos, Luis A.; Sneddon, Duncan J.; Warren, Jonathan; Westerberg, Henrik; Wilson, Robert J.; Melvin, David G.; Smedley, Damian; Brown, Steve D. M.; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C.; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Parkinson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal (http://www.mousephenotype.org) provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated ‘data wranglers’ work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases. PMID:24194600

  4. Phenotypic characterization of a Csf1r haploinsufficient mouse model of adult-onset leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP).

    PubMed

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Solen; Gulinello, Maria; Branch, Craig A; Patil, Madhuvati; Basu, Ranu; Stoddart, Corrina; Mehler, Mark F; Stanley, E Richard

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) that abrogate the expression of the affected allele or lead to the expression of mutant receptor chains devoid of kinase activity have been identified in both familial and sporadic cases of ALSP. To determine the validity of the Csf1r heterozygous mouse as a model of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) we performed behavioral, radiologic, histopathologic, ultrastructural and cytokine expression studies of young and old Csf1r+/- and control Csf1r+/+ mice. Six to 8-month old Csf1r+/- mice exhibit cognitive deficits, and by 9-11 months develop sensorimotor deficits and in male mice, depression and anxiety-like behavior. MRIs of one year-old Csf1r+/- mice reveal lateral ventricle enlargement and thinning of the corpus callosum. Ultrastructural analysis of the corpus callosum uncovers dysmyelinated axons as well as neurodegeneration, evidenced by the presence of axonal spheroids. Histopathological examination of 11-week-old mice reveals increased axonal and myelin staining in the cortex, increase of neuronal cell density in layer V and increase of microglial cell densities throughout the brain, suggesting that early developmental changes contribute to disease. By 10-months of age, the neuronal cell density normalizes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells increase in layers II-III and V and microglial densities remain elevated without an increase in astrocytes. Also, the age-dependent increase in CSF-1R+ neurons in cortical layer V is reduced. Moreover, the expression of Csf2, Csf3, Il27 and Il6 family cytokines is increased, consistent with microglia-mediated inflammation. These results demonstrate that the inactivation of one Csf1r allele is sufficient to cause an ALSP-like disease in mice. The Csf1r+/- mouse is a model of ALSP that will allow the critical events for disease development to be determined and permit rapid evaluation of therapeutic approaches. Furthermore

  5. Phenotypic characterization of a Csf1r haploinsufficient mouse model of adult-onset leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP)

    PubMed Central

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Solen; Gulinello, Maria; Branch, Craig A.; Patil, Madhuvati; Basu, Ranu; Stoddart, Corrina; Mehler, Mark F.; Stanley, E. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) that abrogate the expression of the affected allele or lead to the expression of mutant receptor chains devoid of kinase activity have been identified in both familial and sporadic cases of ALSP. To determine the validity of the Csf1r heterozygous mouse as a model of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) we performed behavioral, radiologic, histopathologic, ultrastructural and cytokine expression studies of young and old Csf1r+/− and control Csf1r+/+ mice. Six to 8-month old Csf1r+/− mice exhibit cognitive deficits, and by 9-11 months develop sensorimotor deficits and in male mice, depression and anxiety-like behavior. MRIs of one year-old Csf1r+/− mice reveal lateral ventricle enlargement and thinning of the corpus callosum. Ultrastructural analysis of the corpus callosum uncovers dysmyelinated axons as well as neurodegeneration, evidenced by the presence of axonal spheroids. Histopathological examination of 11-week-old mice reveals increased axonal and myelin staining in the cortex, increase of neuronal cell density in layer V and increase of microglial cell densities throughout the brain, suggesting that early developmental changes contribute to disease. By 10-months of age, the neuronal cell density normalizes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells increase in layers II-III and V and microglial densities remain elevated without an increase in astrocytes. Also, the age-dependent increase in CSF-1R+ neurons in cortical layer V is reduced. Moreover, the expression of Csf2, Csf3, Il27 and Il6 family cytokines is increased, consistent with microglia-mediated inflammation. These results demonstrate that the inactivation of one Csf1r allele is sufficient to cause an ALSP-like disease in mice. The Csf1r+/− mouse is a model of ALSP that will allow the critical events for disease development to be determined and permit rapid evaluation of therapeutic approaches

  6. Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad-based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics.

    PubMed

    Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Nicholson, George; Selloum, Mohammed; White, Jacqueline K; Morgan, Hugh; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Sorg, Tania; Wells, Sara; Fuchs, Helmut; Fray, Martin; Adams, David J; Adams, Niels C; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Antonio; Ali-Hadji, Dalila; Amann, Gregory; André, Philippe; Atkins, Sarah; Auburtin, Aurelie; Ayadi, Abdel; Becker, Julien; Becker, Lore; Bedu, Elodie; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Birling, Marie-Christine; Blake, Andrew; Bottomley, Joanna; Bowl, Michael R; Brault, Véronique; Busch, Dirk H; Bussell, James N; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cater, Heather; Champy, Marie-France; Charles, Philippe; Chevalier, Claire; Chiani, Francesco; Codner, Gemma F; Combe, Roy; Cox, Roger; Dalloneau, Emilie; Dierich, André; Di Fenza, Armida; Doe, Brendan; Duchon, Arnaud; Eickelberg, Oliver; Esapa, Chris T; Fertak, Lahcen El; Feigel, Tanja; Emelyanova, Irina; Estabel, Jeanne; Favor, Jack; Flenniken, Ann; Gambadoro, Alessia; Garrett, Lilian; Gates, Hilary; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Gkoutos, George; Greenaway, Simon; Glasl, Lisa; Goetz, Patrice; Da Cruz, Isabelle Goncalves; Götz, Alexander; Graw, Jochen; Guimond, Alain; Hans, Wolfgang; Hicks, Geoff; Hölter, Sabine M; Höfler, Heinz; Hancock, John M; Hoehndorf, Robert; Hough, Tertius; Houghton, Richard; Hurt, Anja; Ivandic, Boris; Jacobs, Hughes; Jacquot, Sylvie; Jones, Nora; Karp, Natasha A; Katus, Hugo A; Kitchen, Sharon; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Lalanne, Valerie; Leblanc, Sophie; Lengger, Christoph; le Marchand, Elise; Ludwig, Tonia; Lux, Aline; McKerlie, Colin; Maier, Holger; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Marschall, Susan; Mark, Manuel; Melvin, David G; Meziane, Hamid; Micklich, Kateryna; Mittelhauser, Christophe; Monassier, Laurent; Moulaert, David; Muller, Stéphanie; Naton, Beatrix; Neff, Frauke; Nolan, Patrick M; Nutter, Lauryl M J; Ollert, Markus; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Pellegata, Natalia S; Peter, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Pickard, Amanda; Podrini, Christine; Potter, Paul; Pouilly, Laurent; Puk, Oliver; Richardson, David; Rousseau, Stephane; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Quwailid, Mohamed M; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Riet, Fabrice; Rossant, Janet; Roux, Michel; Rozman, Jan; Ryder, Edward; Salisbury, Jennifer; Santos, Luis; Schäble, Karl-Heinz; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Schulz, Holger; Steinkamp, Ralf; Simon, Michelle; Stewart, Michelle; Stöger, Claudia; Stöger, Tobias; Sun, Minxuan; Sunter, David; Teboul, Lydia; Tilly, Isabelle; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Tost, Monica; Treise, Irina; Vasseur, Laurent; Velot, Emilie; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wagner, Christelle; Walling, Alison; Wattenhofer-Donze, Marie; Weber, Bruno; Wendling, Olivia; Westerberg, Henrik; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolf, Eckhard; Wolter, Anne; Wood, Joe; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zeh, Ramona; Zimmer, Andreas; Zimprich, Annemarie; Holmes, Chris; Steel, Karen P; Herault, Yann; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D M

    2015-09-01

    The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-oriented platforms. We developed new statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no previous functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice, finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. New phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with previously unknown function, providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems.

  7. Characterization of mouse IFT complex B.

    PubMed

    Follit, John A; Xu, Fenghui; Keady, Brian T; Pazour, Gregory J

    2009-08-01

    The primary cilium plays a key role in the development of mammals and in the maintenance of health. Primary cilia are assembled and maintained by the process of intraflagellar transport (IFT). In this work, we characterize mouse IFT complex B by identifying all of the mammalian orthologues of complex B and B-associated proteins previously identified in Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis and also identify a new component (IFT25/Hspb11) of complex B by database analysis. We tagged each of these proteins with the FLAG epitope and show that all except IFT172 and IFT20 localize to cilia and the peri-basal body or centrosomal region at the base of cilia. All of the proteins except IFT172 immunoprecipitate IFT88 indicating that they are co-assembled into a complex. IFT20 is the only complex B protein that localizes to the Golgi apparatus. However, overexpression of IFT54/Traf3ip1, the mouse orthologue of Dyf-11/Elipsa, displaces IFT20 from the Golgi apparatus. IFT54 does not localize to the Golgi complex nor does it interact with GMAP210, which is the protein that anchors IFT20 to the Golgi apparatus. This suggests that IFT54s effect on IFT20 is a dominant negative phenotype caused by its overexpression. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Understanding the behavioural phenotype of the precocial spiny mouse.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Udani; Quinn, Tracey; Daruwalla, Kerman; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W

    2014-12-15

    The use of the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) in experimental research is steadily increasing, due to the precocial nature of this species and the similarities in endocrinology to the human. The characterisation of normal behavioural traits throughout development has not been comprehensively measured in the spiny mouse. Therefore the aim of this study was to behaviourally phenotype the spiny mouse, with the use of behavioural paradigms commonly used to assess behaviour in rat and mouse models of human behavioural disorders such as autism, attention-deficit disorder, and schizophrenia. Male and female spiny mice were assessed at 1-5, 10-15, 20-25, 40-45 and 80-85 days of age using the open field test, novel object recognition test, rotarod, elevated plus maze, a social interaction test, and prepulse inhibition. Exploratory activity, motor coordination, fear, anxiety and social behaviours could be accurately measured from 1 day of age. Open field exploration and motor coordination on a modified rotarod were precociously developed by 10-15 and 20-25 days of age, respectively, when they were equivalent to the performance of conventional adult mice. Learning and memory (assessed by the novel object recognition test), and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition) could be reliably determined only after 20-25 days of age, and performance on these tests differed significantly between male and female spiny mice, particularly in adulthood. This study characterises the behavioural traits of spiny mice and provides important information about critical periods of behavioural development throughout postnatal life.

  9. A phenotype survey of 36 mutant mouse strains with gene-targeted defects in glycosyltransferases or glycan-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Sally L; Le, Dzung; Long, Jeffrey M; Sobieszczuk, Peter; Ma, Bo; Tian, Hua; Fang, Xiaoqun; Paulson, James C; Marth, Jamey D; Varki, Nissi

    2013-01-01

    The consortium for functional glycomics (CFG) was a large research initiative providing networking and resources for investigators studying the role of glycans and glycan-binding proteins in health and disease. Starting in 2001, six scientific cores were established to generate data, materials and new technologies. By the end of funding in 2011, the mouse phenotype core (MPC) submitted data to a website from the phenotype screen of 36 mutant mouse strains deficient in a gene for either a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or glycosyltransferase (GT). Each mutant strain was allotted three months for analysis and screened by standard phenotype assays used in the fields of immunology, histology, hematology, coagulation, serum chemistry, metabolism and behavior. Twenty of the deficient mouse strains had been studied in other laboratories, and additional tests were performed on these strains to confirm previous observations and discover new data. The CFG constructed 16 new homozygous mutant mouse strains and completed the initial phenotype screen of the majority of these new mutant strains. In total, >300 phenotype changes were observed, but considering the over 100 assays performed on each strain, most of the phenotypes were unchanged. Phenotype differences include abnormal testis morphology in GlcNAcT9- and Siglec-H-deficient mice and lethality in Pomgnt1-deficient mice. The numerous altered phenotypes discovered, along with the consideration of the significant findings of normality, will provide a platform for future characterization to understand the important roles of glycans and GBPs in the mechanisms of health and disease. PMID:23118208

  10. Bioenergetic characterization of mouse podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yoshifusa; Sakairi, Toru; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shrivastav, Shashi; Beeson, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to podocyte injury, but normal podocyte bioenergetics have not been characterized. We measured oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR), using a transformed mouse podocyte cell line and the Seahorse Bioscience XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Basal OCR and ECAR were 55.2 ± 9.9 pmol/min and 3.1 ± 1.9 milli-pH units/min, respectively. The complex V inhibitor oligomycin reduced OCR to ∼45% of baseline rates, indicating that ∼55% of cellular oxygen consumption was coupled to ATP synthesis. Rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, reduced OCR to ∼25% of the baseline rates, suggesting that mitochondrial respiration accounted for ∼75% of the total cellular respiration. Thus ∼75% of mitochondrial respiration was coupled to ATP synthesis and ∼25% was accounted for by proton leak. Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), which uncouples electron transport from ATP generation, increased OCR and ECAR to ∼360% and 840% of control levels. FCCP plus rotenone reduced ATP content by 60%, the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose reduced ATP by 35%, and 2-deoxyglucose in combination with FCCP or rotenone reduced ATP by >85%. The lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate and 2-deoxyglucose did not reduce ECAR, and 2-deoxyglucose had no effect on OCR, although 2-deoxyglucose reduced ATP content by 25%. Mitochondrial uncoupling induced by FCCP was associated with increased OCR with certain substrates, including lactate, glucose, pyruvate, and palmitate. Replication of these experiments in primary mouse podocytes yielded similar data. We conclude that mitochondria play the primary role in maintaining podocyte energy homeostasis, while glycolysis makes a lesser contribution. PMID:20445170

  11. Bioenergetic characterization of mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yoshifusa; Sakairi, Toru; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shrivastav, Shashi; Beeson, Craig; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2010-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to podocyte injury, but normal podocyte bioenergetics have not been characterized. We measured oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR), using a transformed mouse podocyte cell line and the Seahorse Bioscience XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Basal OCR and ECAR were 55.2 +/- 9.9 pmol/min and 3.1 +/- 1.9 milli-pH units/min, respectively. The complex V inhibitor oligomycin reduced OCR to approximately 45% of baseline rates, indicating that approximately 55% of cellular oxygen consumption was coupled to ATP synthesis. Rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, reduced OCR to approximately 25% of the baseline rates, suggesting that mitochondrial respiration accounted for approximately 75% of the total cellular respiration. Thus approximately 75% of mitochondrial respiration was coupled to ATP synthesis and approximately 25% was accounted for by proton leak. Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), which uncouples electron transport from ATP generation, increased OCR and ECAR to approximately 360% and 840% of control levels. FCCP plus rotenone reduced ATP content by 60%, the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose reduced ATP by 35%, and 2-deoxyglucose in combination with FCCP or rotenone reduced ATP by >85%. The lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate and 2-deoxyglucose did not reduce ECAR, and 2-deoxyglucose had no effect on OCR, although 2-deoxyglucose reduced ATP content by 25%. Mitochondrial uncoupling induced by FCCP was associated with increased OCR with certain substrates, including lactate, glucose, pyruvate, and palmitate. Replication of these experiments in primary mouse podocytes yielded similar data. We conclude that mitochondria play the primary role in maintaining podocyte energy homeostasis, while glycolysis makes a lesser contribution.

  12. Innovations in phenotyping of mouse models in the German Mouse Clinic.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Neschen, Susanne; Adler, Thure; Afonso, Luciana Caminha; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Bohla, Alexander; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cohrs, Christian; Dewert, Anna; Fridrich, Barbara; Garrett, Lillian; Glasl, Lisa; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Hurt, Anja; Janas, Eva; Janik, Dirk; Kahle, Melanie; Kistler, Martin; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Lengger, Christoph; Ludwig, Tonia; Maier, Holger; Marschall, Susan; Micklich, Kateryna; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Räss, Michael; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Scheerer, Markus; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Steinkamp, Ralph; Stöger, Claudia; Sun, Minxuan; Szymczak, Wilfried; Treise, Irina; Vargas Panesso, Ingrid Liliana; Vernaleken, Alexandra M; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolff-Muscate, Annemarie; Zeh, Ramona; Adamski, Jerzy; Beckers, Johannes; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H; Eickelberg, Oliver; Favor, Jack; Graw, Jochen; Höfler, Heinz; Höschen, Christoph; Katus, Hugo; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Neff, Frauke; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Stöger, Tobias; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Under the label of the German Mouse Clinic (GMC), a concept has been developed and implemented that allows the better understanding of human diseases on the pathophysiological and molecular level. This includes better understanding of the crosstalk between different organs, pleiotropy of genes, and the systemic impact of envirotypes and drugs. In the GMC, experts from various fields of mouse genetics and physiology, in close collaboration with clinicians, work side by side under one roof. The GMC is an open-access platform for the scientific community by providing phenotypic analysis in bilateral collaborations ("bottom-up projects") and as a partner and driver in international large-scale biology projects ("top-down projects"). Furthermore, technology development is a major topic in the GMC. Innovative techniques for primary and secondary screens are developed and implemented into the phenotyping pipelines (e.g., detection of volatile organic compounds, VOCs).

  13. The cardiovascular phenotype of a mouse model of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Izzard, Ashley S; Emerson, Michael; Prehar, Sukhpal; Neyses, Ludwig; Trainer, Peter; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Heagerty, Anthony M

    2009-10-01

    Although, it is accepted that there is an excess of cardiovascular mortality in acromegaly, it is uncertain whether this is due to the direct effects of growth hormone-induced-cardiomyopathy or is a consequence of atherosclerosis secondary to the metabolic syndrome often observed in this condition. Direct comparison of a mouse model of acromegaly to a mouse model of Laron's syndrome allowed us to carry out detailed phenotyping and better understand the role GH plays in the circulatory system. Transgenic mice that overexpress the growth hormone gene (GH) developed gigantism, including insulin resistance and higher blood pressures commensurate with increased body mass. In these giant mice, the hearts were hypertrophied but haemodynamic studies suggested contractile function was normal. Segments of small arteries mounted in a pressure myograph showed vascular wall hypertrophy but a preserved lumen diameter. Vascular contractile function was normal. Mice in which the GH receptor gene was disrupted or 'knocked out' were dwarf and had low blood pressure, small hearts and blood vessels but a normally functioning circulation. Correlations of body mass with cardiovascular parameters suggested that blood pressure and structural characteristics develop in line with body size. In this transgenic mouse model of acromegaly, there is cardiac and vascular hypertrophy commensurate with GH excess but normal function. Our findings support the contention that the excess mortality in this condition may be due to the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy rather than increased rates of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.

  14. Behavioral phenotyping of mouse models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Greene, James G.; Miller, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder afflicting millions of people in the United States. The advent of transgenic technologies has contributed to the development of several new mouse models, many of which recapitulate some aspects of the disease; however, no model has been demonstrated to faithfully reproduce the full constellation of symptoms seen in human PD. This may be due in part to the narrow focus on the dopamine-mediated motor deficits. As current research continues to unmask PD as a multi-system disorder, animal models should similarly evolve to include the non-motor features of the disease. This requires that typically cited behavioral test batteries be expanded. The major non-motor symptoms observed in PD patients include hyposmia, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and cognitive decline. Mouse behavioral tests exist for all of these symptoms and while some models have begun to be reassessed for the prevalence of this broader behavioral phenotype, the majority has not. Moreover, all behavioral paradigms should be tested for their responsiveness to L-DOPA so these data can be compared to patient response and help elucidate which symptoms are likely not dopamine-mediated. Here, we suggest an extensive, yet feasible, battery of behavioral tests for mouse models of PD aimed to better assess both non-motor and motor deficits associated with the disease. PMID:20211655

  15. Age-dependent phenotypic characteristics of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Susanna; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2008-08-01

    The triple-transgenic mouse line (3 x Tg-AD) harboring PS1M146V, APPSwe, and taup301L transgenes represents the only transgenic model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) to date capturing both beta-amyloid and tau neuropathology. The present study provides an extensive behavioral characterization of the 3 x Tg-AD mouse line, evaluating the emergence of noncognitive and cognitive AD-like symptoms at two ages corresponding to the early (6-7 months) and advanced (12-13 months) stages of AD-pathology. Enhanced responsiveness to aversive stimulation was detected in mutant mice at both ages: the 3 x Tg-AD genotype enhanced acoustic startle response and facilitated performance in the cued-version of the water maze. These noncognitive phenotypes were accompanied by hyperactivity and reduced locomotor habituation in the open field at the older age. Signs of cognitive aberrations were also detected at both ages, but they were limited to associative learning. The present study suggests that this popular transgenic mouse model of AD has clear phenotypes beyond the cognitive domain, and their potential relationship to the cognitive phenotypes should be further explored.

  16. Expanding the mammalian phenotype ontology to support automated exchange of high throughput mouse phenotyping data generated by large-scale mouse knockout screens.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cynthia L; Eppig, Janan T

    2015-01-01

    A vast array of data is about to emerge from the large scale high-throughput mouse knockout phenotyping projects worldwide. It is critical that this information is captured in a standardized manner, made accessible, and is fully integrated with other phenotype data sets for comprehensive querying and analysis across all phenotype data types. The volume of data generated by the high-throughput phenotyping screens is expected to grow exponentially, thus, automated methods and standards to exchange phenotype data are required. The IMPC (International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium) is using the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) ontology in the automated annotation of phenodeviant data from high throughput phenotyping screens. 287 new term additions with additional hierarchy revisions were made in multiple branches of the MP ontology to accurately describe the results generated by these high throughput screens. Because these large scale phenotyping data sets will be reported using the MP as the common data standard for annotation and data exchange, automated importation of these data to MGI (Mouse Genome Informatics) and other resources is possible without curatorial effort. Maximum biomedical value of these mutant mice will come from integrating primary high-throughput phenotyping data with secondary, comprehensive phenotypic analyses combined with published phenotype details on these and related mutants at MGI and other resources.

  17. Morphological phenotyping of mouse hearts using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Lin, Eric; Lee, Ling; Sheng, Xiaoye; Wong, Kevin S. K.; Tibbits, Glen F.; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2014-11-01

    Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind many genetically based cardiovascular diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, the characterization of their cardiac morphology has been hampered by the small size of the mouse heart. In this report, we adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging fixed adult mouse hearts, and applied tools from computational anatomy to perform morphometric analyses. The hearts were first optically cleared and imaged from multiple perspectives. The acquired volumes were then corrected for refractive distortions, and registered and stitched together to form a single, high-resolution OCT volume of the whole heart. From this volume, various structures such as the valves and myofibril bundles were visualized. The volumetric nature of our dataset also allowed parameters such as wall thickness, ventricular wall masses, and luminal volumes to be extracted. Finally, we applied the entire acquisition and processing pipeline in a preliminary study comparing the cardiac morphology of wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of MFS.

  18. Discovery and characterization of spontaneous mouse models of craniofacial dysmorphology

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Kristina; Fairfield, Heather; Borgeia, Suhaib; Curtain, Michelle; Hassan, Mohamed G.; Dionne, Louise; Karst, Son Yong; Coombs, Harold; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Bergstrom, David E.; Donahue, Leah Rae; Cox, Timothy C.; Murray, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial abnormalities are among the most common features of human genetic syndromes and disorders. The etiology of these conditions is often complex, influenced by both genetic context and the environment. Frequently, craniofacial abnormalities present as part of a syndrome with clear comorbid phenotypes, providing additional insight into mechanisms of the causative gene or pathway. The mouse has been a key tool in our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of craniofacial development and disease, and can provide excellent models for human craniofacial abnormalities. While powerful genetic engineering tools in the mouse have contributed significantly our understanding of craniofacial development and dysmorphology, forward genetic approaches provide an unbiased means to identify new genes and pathways. Moreover, spontaneous mutations can occur on any number of genetic backgrounds, potentially revealing critical genes that require a specific genetic context. Here we report discovery and phenotyping of 43 craniofacial mouse models, derived primarily from a screen for spontaneous mutations in production colonies at the Jackson Laboratory. We identify the causative gene for 33 lines, including novel genes in pathways not previously connected to craniofacial development, and novel alleles of known genes that present with unique phenotypes. Together with our detailed characterization, this work provides a valuable gene discovery resource for the craniofacial community, and a rich source of mouse models for further investigation. PMID:26234751

  19. Genetic Variations Strongly Influence Phenotypic Outcome in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Jelcick, Austin S.; Yuan, Yang; Leehy, Barrett D.; Cox, Lakeisha C.; Silveira, Alexandra C.; Qiu, Fang; Schenk, Sarah; Sachs, Andrew J.; Morrison, Margaux A.; Nystuen, Arne M.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Haider, Neena B.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in genetic background can significantly influence the phenotypic outcome of both disease and non-disease associated traits. Additionally, differences in temporal and strain specific gene expression can also contribute to phenotypes in the mammalian retina. This is the first report of microarray based cross-strain analysis of gene expression in the retina investigating genetic background effects. Microarray analyses were performed on retinas from the following mouse strains: C57BL6/J, AKR/J, CAST/EiJ, and NOD.NON-H2-nb1 at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) and postnatal day 30.5 (P30.5). Over 3000 differentially expressed genes were identified between strains and developmental stages. Differential gene expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Three major gene networks were identified that function to regulate retinal or photoreceptor development, visual perception, cellular transport, and signal transduction. Many of the genes in these networks are implicated in retinal diseases such as bradyopsia, night-blindness, and cone-rod dystrophy. Our analysis revealed strain specific variations in cone photoreceptor cell patterning and retinal function. This study highlights the substantial impact of genetic background on both development and function of the retina and the level of gene expression differences tolerated for normal retinal function. These strain specific genetic variations may also be present in other tissues. In addition, this study will provide valuable insight for the development of more accurate models for human retinal diseases. PMID:21779340

  20. COMPASS: Continuous Open Mouse Phenotyping of Activity and Sleep Status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background  Disruption of rhythms in activity and rest occur in many diseases, and provide an important indicator of healthy physiology and behaviour. However, outside the field of sleep and circadian rhythm research, these rhythmic processes are rarely measured due to the requirement for specialised resources and expertise. Until recently, the primary approach to measuring activity in laboratory rodents has been based on voluntary running wheel activity. By contrast, measuring sleep requires the use of electroencephalography (EEG), which involves invasive surgical procedures and time-consuming data analysis. Methods Here we describe a simple, non-invasive system to measure home cage activity in mice based upon passive infrared (PIR) motion sensors. Careful calibration of this system will allow users to simultaneously assess sleep status in mice. The use of open-source tools and simple sensors keeps the cost and the size of data-files down, in order to increase ease of use and uptake. Results In addition to providing accurate data on circadian activity parameters, here we show that extended immobility of >40 seconds provides a reliable indicator of sleep, correlating well with EEG-defined sleep (Pearson’s r >0.95, 4 mice).  Conclusions Whilst any detailed analysis of sleep patterns in mice will require EEG, behaviourally-defined sleep provides a valuable non-invasive means of simultaneously phenotyping both circadian rhythms and sleep. Whilst previous approaches have relied upon analysis of video data, here we show that simple motion sensors provide a cheap and effective alternative, enabling real-time analysis and longitudinal studies extending over weeks or even months. The data files produced are small, enabling easy deposition and sharing. We have named this system COMPASS - Continuous Open Mouse Phenotyping of Activity and Sleep Status. This simple approach is of particular value in phenotyping screens as well as providing an ideal tool to assess activity

  1. Phenotypic and pathologic evaluation of the myd mouse. A candidate model for facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.D.; Rapisarda, D.; Bailey, H.L.

    1995-07-01

    Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease of unknown pathogenesis which is characterized by weakness of the face and shoulder girdle. It is associated with a sensorineural hearing loss which may be subclinical. FSHD has been mapped to the distalmost portion of 4q35, although the gene has not yet been identified. Distal 4q has homology with a region of mouse chromosome 8 to which a mouse mutant, myodystrophy (myd), has been mapped. Muscle from homozygotes for the myd mutation appears dystrophic, showing degenerating and regenerating fibers, inflammatory infiltrates, central nuclei, and variation in fiber size. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials reveal a sensorineural hearing loss in myd homozygotes. Based on the homologous genetic map locations, and the phenotypic syndrome of dystrophic muscle with sensorineural hearing loss, we suggest that myd represents an animal model for the human disease FSHD. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  2. The First Scube3 Mutant Mouse Line with Pleiotropic Phenotypic Alterations.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Helmut; Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Przemeck, Gerhard K H; Leuchtenberger, Stefanie; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Becker, Lore; Rathkolb, Birgit; Horsch, Marion; Garrett, Lillian; Östereicher, Manuela A; Hans, Wolfgang; Abe, Koichiro; Sagawa, Nobuho; Rozman, Jan; Vargas-Panesso, Ingrid L; Sandholzer, Michael; Lisse, Thomas S; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Ehrhard, Nicole; Elvert, Ralf; Gau, Christine; Hölter, Sabine M; Micklich, Katja; Moreth, Kristin; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Racz, Ildiko; Stoeger, Claudia; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Michel, Dian; Diener, Susanne; Wieland, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H; Favor, John; Graw, Jochen; Klingenspor, Martin; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Neff, Frauke; Ollert, Markus; Stoeger, Tobias; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Strom, Tim M; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Klopstock, Thomas; Beckers, Johannes; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin

    2016-12-07

    The vertebrate Scube (Signal peptide, CUB, and EGF-like domain-containing protein) family consists of three independent members, Scube1-3, which encode secreted cell surface-associated membrane glycoproteins. Limited information about the general function of this gene family is available, and their roles during adulthood. Here, we present the first Scube3 mutant mouse line (Scube3(N294K/N294K)), which clearly shows phenotypic alterations by carrying a missense mutation in exon 8, and thus contributes to our understanding of SCUBE3 functions. We performed a detailed phenotypic characterization in the German Mouse Clinic (GMC). Scube3(N294K/N294K) mutants showed morphological abnormalities of the skeleton, alterations of parameters relevant for bone metabolism, changes in renal function, and hearing impairments. These findings correlate with characteristics of the rare metabolic bone disorder Paget disease of bone (PDB), associated with the chromosomal region of human SCUBE3 In addition, alterations in energy metabolism, behavior, and neurological functions were detected in Scube3(N294K/N294K) mice. The Scube3(N294K/N294K) mutant mouse line may serve as a new model for further studying the effect of impaired SCUBE3 gene function. Copyright © 2016 Fuchs et al.

  3. The First Scube3 Mutant Mouse Line with Pleiotropic Phenotypic Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Helmut; Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Przemeck, Gerhard K. H.; Leuchtenberger, Stefanie; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Becker, Lore; Rathkolb, Birgit; Horsch, Marion; Garrett, Lillian; Östereicher, Manuela A.; Hans, Wolfgang; Abe, Koichiro; Sagawa, Nobuho; Rozman, Jan; Vargas-Panesso, Ingrid L.; Sandholzer, Michael; Lisse, Thomas S.; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Ehrhard, Nicole; Elvert, Ralf; Gau, Christine; Hölter, Sabine M.; Micklich, Katja; Moreth, Kristin; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Racz, Ildiko; Stoeger, Claudia; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Michel, Dian; Diener, Susanne; Wieland, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H.; Favor, John; Graw, Jochen; Klingenspor, Martin; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Neff, Frauke; Ollert, Markus; Stoeger, Tobias; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Strom, Tim M.; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Klopstock, Thomas; Beckers, Johannes; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate Scube (Signal peptide, CUB, and EGF-like domain-containing protein) family consists of three independent members, Scube1–3, which encode secreted cell surface-associated membrane glycoproteins. Limited information about the general function of this gene family is available, and their roles during adulthood. Here, we present the first Scube3 mutant mouse line (Scube3N294K/N294K), which clearly shows phenotypic alterations by carrying a missense mutation in exon 8, and thus contributes to our understanding of SCUBE3 functions. We performed a detailed phenotypic characterization in the German Mouse Clinic (GMC). Scube3N294K/N294K mutants showed morphological abnormalities of the skeleton, alterations of parameters relevant for bone metabolism, changes in renal function, and hearing impairments. These findings correlate with characteristics of the rare metabolic bone disorder Paget disease of bone (PDB), associated with the chromosomal region of human SCUBE3. In addition, alterations in energy metabolism, behavior, and neurological functions were detected in Scube3N294K/N294K mice. The Scube3N294K/N294K mutant mouse line may serve as a new model for further studying the effect of impaired SCUBE3 gene function. PMID:27815347

  4. A prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model of methylphenidate responsive ADHD-associated cognitive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinmin; Fan, Fangfang; McCarthy, Deirdre M; Zhang, Lin; Cannon, Elisa N; Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2017-02-04

    Prenatal exposure to nicotine via cigarette smoke or other forms of tobacco use is a significant environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and ADHD are not well understood. Animal models, especially rodent models, are beginning to bridge this gap in knowledge. Although ADHD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity and working memory deficits, the majority of the animal models are based on only one or two ADHD associated phenotypes, in particular, hyperactivity or inattention. We report a PNE mouse model that displays the full range of ADHD associated behavioral phenotypes including working memory deficit, attention deficit and impulsive-like behavior. All of the ADHD-associated phenotypes respond to a single administration of a therapeutic equivalent dose of methylphenidate. In an earlier study, we showed that PNE produces hyperactivity, frontal cortical hypodopaminergic state and thinning of the cingulate cortex. Collectively, these data suggest that the PNE mouse model recapitulates key features of ADHD and may be a suitable preclinical model for ADHD research.

  5. Disease model discovery from 3,328 gene knockouts by The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Terrence F; Conte, Nathalie; West, David B; Jacobsen, Julius O; Mason, Jeremy; Warren, Jonathan; Chen, Chao-Kung; Tudose, Ilinca; Relac, Mike; Matthews, Peter; Karp, Natasha; Santos, Luis; Fiegel, Tanja; Ring, Natalie; Westerberg, Henrik; Greenaway, Simon; Sneddon, Duncan; Morgan, Hugh; Codner, Gemma F; Stewart, Michelle E; Brown, James; Horner, Neil; Haendel, Melissa; Washington, Nicole; Mungall, Christopher J; Reynolds, Corey L; Gallegos, Juan; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Sorg, Tania; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Bower, Lynette R; Moore, Mark; Morse, Iva; Gao, Xiang; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Obata, Yuichi; Cho, Soo Young; Seong, Je Kyung; Seavitt, John; Beaudet, Arthur L; Dickinson, Mary E; Herault, Yann; Wurst, Wolfgang; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Lloyd, K C Kent; Flenniken, Ann M; Nutter, Lauryl M J; Newbigging, Susan; McKerlie, Colin; Justice, Monica J; Murray, Stephen A; Svenson, Karen L; Braun, Robert E; White, Jacqueline K; Bradley, Allan; Flicek, Paul; Wells, Sara; Skarnes, William C; Adams, David J; Parkinson, Helen; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D M; Smedley, Damian

    2017-08-01

    Although next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the ability to associate variants with human diseases, diagnostic rates and development of new therapies are still limited by a lack of knowledge of the functions and pathobiological mechanisms of most genes. To address this challenge, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is creating a genome- and phenome-wide catalog of gene function by characterizing new knockout-mouse strains across diverse biological systems through a broad set of standardized phenotyping tests. All mice will be readily available to the biomedical community. Analyzing the first 3,328 genes identified models for 360 diseases, including the first models, to our knowledge, for type C Bernard-Soulier, Bardet-Biedl-5 and Gordon Holmes syndromes. 90% of our phenotype annotations were novel, providing functional evidence for 1,092 genes and candidates in genetically uncharacterized diseases including arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 3. Finally, we describe our role in variant functional validation with The 100,000 Genomes Project and others.

  6. Multiple phenotypes in Huntington disease mouse neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ritch, James J; Valencia, Antonio; Alexander, Jonathan; Sapp, Ellen; Gatune, Leah; Sangrey, Gavin R; Sinha, Saurabh; Scherber, Cally M; Zeitlin, Scott; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Irimia, Daniel; Difiglia, Marian; Kegel, Kimberly B

    2012-05-01

    Neural stem (NS) cells are a limitless resource, and thus superior to primary neurons for drug discovery provided they exhibit appropriate disease phenotypes. Here we established NS cells for cellular studies of Huntington's disease (HD). HD is a heritable neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation resulting in an increased number of glutamines (Q) within a polyglutamine tract in Huntingtin (Htt). NS cells were isolated from embryonic wild-type (Htt(7Q/7Q)) and "knock-in" HD (Htt(140Q/140Q)) mice expressing full-length endogenous normal or mutant Htt. NS cells were also developed from mouse embryonic stem cells that were devoid of Htt (Htt(-/-)), or knock-in cells containing human exon1 with an N-terminal FLAG epitope tag and with 7Q or 140Q inserted into one of the mouse alleles (Htt(F7Q/7Q) and Htt(F140Q/7Q)). Compared to Htt(7Q/7Q) NS cells, HD Htt(140Q/140Q) NS cells showed significantly reduced levels of cholesterol, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impaired motility. The heterozygous Htt(F140Q/7Q) NS cells had increased ROS and decreased motility compared to Htt(F7Q/7Q). These phenotypes of HD NS cells replicate those seen in HD patients or in primary cell or in vivo models of HD. Huntingtin "knock-out" NS cells (Htt(-/-)) also had impaired motility, but in contrast to HD cells had increased cholesterol. In addition, Htt(140Q/140Q) NS cells had higher phospho-AKT/AKT ratios than Htt(7Q/7Q) NS cells in resting conditions and after BDNF stimulation, suggesting mutant htt affects AKT dependent growth factor signaling. Upon differentiation, the Htt(7Q/7Q) and Htt(140Q/140Q) generated numerous Beta(III)-Tubulin- and GABA-positive neurons; however, after 15 days the cellular architecture of the differentiated Htt(140Q/140Q) cultures changed compared to Htt(7Q/7Q) cultures and included a marked increase of GFAP-positive cells. Our findings suggest that NS cells expressing endogenous mutant Htt will be useful for study of mechanisms of HD

  7. Characterization of mutations at the mouse phenylalanine hydroxylase locus

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.D.; Charlton, C.K.

    1997-02-01

    Two genetic mouse models for human phenylketonuria have been characterized by DNA sequence analysis. For each, a distinct mutation was identified within the protein coding sequence of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. This establishes that the mutated locus is the same as that causing human phenylketonuria and allows a comparison between these mouse phenylketonuria models and the human disease. A genotype/phenotype relationship that is strikingly similar to the human disease emerges, underscoring the similarity of phenylketonuria in mouse and man. In PAH{sup ENU1}, the phenotype is mild. The Pah{sup enu1} mutation predicts a conservative valine to alanine amino acid substitution and is located in exon 3, a gene region where serious mutations are rare in humans. In PAH{sup ENU2} the phenotype is severe. The Pah{sup enu2} mutation predicts a radical phenylalanine to serine substitution and is located in exon 7, a gene region where serious mutations are common in humans. In PAH{sup ENU2}, the sequence information was used to devise a direct genotyping system based on the creation of a new Alw26I restriction endonuclease site. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Abnormal motor phenotype in the SMNΔ7 mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Butchbach, Matthew E. R.; Edwards, Jonathan D.; Burghes, Arthur H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is recessive motor neuron disease that affects motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMA results from the reduction of SMN (survival motor neuron) protein. Even though SMN is ubiquitously expressed, motor neurons are more sensitive to the reduction in SMN than other cell types. We have previously generated mouse models of SMA with varying degrees of clinical severity. So as to more clearly understand the pathogenesis of motor neuron degeneration in SMA, we have characterized the phenotype of the SMNΔ7 SMA mouse which normally lives for 13.6 ± 0.7 days. These mice are smaller than their non-SMA littermates and begin to lose body mass at 10.4 ± 0.4 days. SMNΔ7 SMA mice exhibit impaired responses to surface righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion but not to tactile stimulation. Spontaneous motor activity and grip strength are also significantly impaired in SMNΔ7 SMA mice. In summary, we have demonstrated an impairment of neonatal motor responses in SMNΔ7 SMA mice. This phenotype characterization could be used to assess the effectiveness of potential therapies for SMA. PMID:17561409

  9. Mutator phenotype of MUTYH-null mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Seiki; Tominaga, Yohei; Ichinoe, Akimasa; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Honda-Ohnishi, Yoko; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Nakabeppu, Yusaku

    2003-10-03

    To evaluate the antimutagenic role of a mammalian mutY homolog, namely the Mutyh gene, which encodes adenine DNA glycosylase excising adenine misincorporated opposite 8-oxoguanine in the template DNA, we generated MUTYH-null mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In the MUTYH-null cells carrying no adenine DNA glycosylase activity, the spontaneous mutation rate increased 2-fold in comparison with wild type cells. The expression of wild type mMUTYH or mutant mMUTYH protein with amino acid substitutions at the proliferating cell nuclear antigen binding motif restored the increased spontaneous mutation rates of the MUTYH-null ES cells to the wild type level. The expression of a mutant mMUTYH protein with an amino acid substitution (G365D) that corresponds to a germ-line mutation (G382D) found in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas could not suppress the elevated spontaneous mutation rate of the MUTYH-null ES cells. Although the recombinant mMUTYH(G365D) purified from Escherichia coli cells had a substantial level of adenine DNA glycosylase activity as did wild type MUTYH, no adenine DNA glycosylase activity was detected in the MUTYH-null ES cells expressing the mMUTYH(G365D) mutant protein. The germ-line mutation (G382D) of the human MUTYH gene is therefore likely to be responsible for the occurrence of a mutator phenotype in these patients.

  10. Novel BAC Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease with 225 CAG Repeats Exhibits an Early Widespread and Stable Degenerative Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Wegrzynowicz, Michal; Bichell, Terry Jo; Soares, Barbara D; Loth, Meredith K; McGlothan, Jennifer S; Mori, Susumu; Alikhan, Fatima S; Hua, Kegang; Coughlin, Jennifer M; Holt, Hunter K; Jetter, Christopher S; Pomper, Martin G; Osmand, Alexander P; Guilarte, Tomás R; Bowman, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Unusually large CAG repeat expansions (>60) in exon one of Huntingtin (HTT) are invariably associated with a juvenile-onset form of Huntington's disease (HD), characterized by a more extensive and rapidly progressing neuropathology than the more prevalent adult-onset form. However, existing mouse models of HD that express the full-length Htt gene with CAG repeat lengths associated with juvenile HD (ranging between ~75 to ~150 repeats in published models) exhibit selective neurodegenerative phenotypes more consistent with adult-onset HD. Objective: To determine if a very large CAG repeat (>200) in full-length Htt elicits neurodegenerative phenotypes consistent with juvenile HD. Using a …bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, we generated mice expressing full-length mouse Htt with ~225 CAG repeats under control of the mouse Htt promoter. Mice were characterized using behavioral, neuropathological, biochemical and brain imaging methods. BAC-225Q mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with a subset of features seen in juvenile-onset HD: very early motor behavior abnormalities, reduced body weight, widespread and progressive increase in Htt aggregates, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Early striatal pathology was observed, including reactive gliosis and loss of dopamine receptors, prior to detectable volume loss. HD-related blood markers of impaired energy metabolism and systemic inflammation were also increased. Aside from an age-dependent progression of diffuse nuclear aggregates at 6 months of age to abundant neuropil aggregates at 12 months of age, other pathological and motor phenotypes showed little to no progression. The HD phenotypes present in animals 3 to 12 months of age make the BAC-225Q mice a unique and stable model of full-length mutant Htt associated phenotypes, including body weight loss, behavioral impairment and HD-like neurodegenerative phenotypes characteristic of juvenile-onset HD and/or late-stage adult-onset HD.

  11. Live 4D optical coherence tomography for early embryonic mouse cardiac phenotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Studying embryonic mouse development is important for our understanding of normal human embryogenesis and the underlying causes of congenital defects. Our research focuses on imaging early development in the mouse embryo to specifically understand cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have previously developed imaging approaches that combine static embryo culture, OCT imaging and advanced image processing to visualize the whole live mouse embryos and obtain 4D (3D+time) cardiodynamic datasets with cellular resolution. Here, we present the study of using 4D OCT for dynamic imaging of early embryonic heart in live mouse embryos to assess mutant cardiac phenotypes during development, including a cardiac looping defect. Our results indicate that the live 4D OCT imaging approach is an efficient phenotyping tool that can reveal structural and functional cardiac defects at very early stages. Further studies integrating live embryonic cardiodynamic phenotyping with molecular and genetic approaches in mouse mutants will help to elucidate the underlying signaling defects.

  12. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-05-20

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo") on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides "space-based controls" by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments.

  13. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-aki K.; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module (“Kibo”) on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides “space-based controls” by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments. PMID:26822934

  14. Automated pipeline for anatomical phenotyping of mouse embryos using micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael D; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

    2014-06-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) plans to phenotype 20,000 single-gene knockout mice to gain an insight into gene function. Approximately 30% of these knockout mouse lines will be embryonic or perinatal lethal. The IMPC has selected three-dimensional (3D) imaging to phenotype these mouse lines at relevant stages of embryonic development in an attempt to discover the cause of lethality using detailed anatomical information. Rate of throughput is paramount as IMPC production centers have been given the ambitious task of completing this phenotyping project by 2021. Sifting through the wealth of data within high-resolution 3D mouse embryo data sets by trained human experts is infeasible at this scale. Here, we present a phenotyping pipeline that identifies statistically significant anatomical differences in the knockout, in comparison with the wild type, through a computer-automated image registration algorithm. This phenotyping pipeline consists of three analyses (intensity, deformation, and atlas based) that can detect missing anatomical structures and differences in volume of whole organs as well as on the voxel level. This phenotyping pipeline was applied to micro-CT images of two perinatal lethal mouse lines: a hypomorphic mutation of the Tcf21 gene (Tcf21-hypo) and a knockout of the Satb2 gene. With the proposed pipeline we were able to identify the majority of morphological phenotypes previously published for both the Tcf21-hypo and Satb2 mutant mouse embryos in addition to novel phenotypes. This phenotyping pipeline is an unbiased, automated method that highlights only those structural abnormalities that survive statistical scrutiny and illustrates them in a straightforward fashion.

  15. Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David J; Adams, Niels C; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Antonio; Ali-Hadji, Dalila; Amann, Gregory; André, Philippe; Atkins, Sarah; Auburtin, Aurelie; Ayadi, Abdel; Becker, Julien; Becker, Lore; Bedu, Elodie; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Birling, Marie-Christine; Blake, Andrew; Bottomley, Joanna; Bowl, Mike; Brault, Véronique; Busch, Dirk H; Bussell, James N; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cater, Heather; Champy, Marie-France; Charles, Philippe; Chevalier, Claire; Chiani, Francesco; Codner, Gemma F; Combe, Roy; Cox, Roger; Dalloneau, Emilie; Dierich, André; Di Fenza, Armida; Doe, Brendan; Duchon, Arnaud; Eickelberg, Oliver; Esapa, Chris T; El Fertak, Lahcen; Feigel, Tanja; Emelyanova, Irina; Estabel, Jeanne; Favor, Jack; Flenniken, Ann; Gambadoro, Alessia; Garrett, Lilian; Gates, Hilary; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Gkoutos, George; Greenaway, Simon; Glasl, Lisa; Goetz, Patrice; Da Cruz, Isabelle Goncalves; Götz, Alexander; Graw, Jochen; Guimond, Alain; Hans, Wolfgang; Hicks, Geoff; Hölter, Sabine M; Höfler, Heinz; Hancock, John M; Hoehndorf, Robert; Hough, Tertius; Houghton, Richard; Hurt, Anja; Ivandic, Boris; Jacobs, Hughes; Jacquot, Sylvie; Jones, Nora; Karp, Natasha A; Katus, Hugo A; Kitchen, Sharon; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Lalanne, Valerie; Leblanc, Sophie; Lengger, Christoph; le Marchand, Elise; Ludwig, Tonia; Lux, Aline; McKerlie, Colin; Maier, Holger; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Marschall, Susan; Mark, Manuel; Melvin, David G; Meziane, Hamid; Micklich, Kateryna; Mittelhauser, Christophe; Monassier, Laurent; Moulaert, David; Muller, Stéphanie; Naton, Beatrix; Neff, Frauke; Nolan, Patrick M; Nutter, Lauryl MJ; Ollert, Markus; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Pellegata, Natalia S; Peter, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Pickard, Amanda; Podrini, Christine; Potter, Paul; Pouilly, Laurent; Puk, Oliver; Richardson, David; Rousseau, Stephane; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Quwailid, Mohamed M; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Riet, Fabrice; Rossant, Janet; Roux, Michel; Rozman, Jan; Ryder, Ed; Salisbury, Jennifer; Santos, Luis; Schäble, Karl-Heinz; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Schulz, Holger; Steinkamp, Ralf; Simon, Michelle; Stewart, Michelle; Stöger, Claudia; Stöger, Tobias; Sun, Minxuan; Sunter, David; Teboul, Lydia; Tilly, Isabelle; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Tost, Monica; Treise, Irina; Vasseur, Laurent; Velot, Emilie; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wagner, Christelle; Walling, Alison; Weber, Bruno; Wendling, Olivia; Westerberg, Henrik; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolf, Eckhard; Wolter, Anne; Wood, Joe; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zeh, Ramona; Zimmer, Andreas; Zimprich, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse ES cell knockout resource provides a basis for characterisation of relationships between gene and phenotype. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-orientated platforms. We developed novel statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no prior functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. Novel phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with unknown function providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems. PMID:26214591

  16. In-depth metabolic phenotyping of genetically engineered mouse models in obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Young; Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2014-10-01

    The world-wide prevalence of obesity and diabetes has increased sharply during the last two decades. Accordingly, the metabolic phenotyping of genetically engineered mouse models is critical for evaluating the functional roles of target genes in obesity and diabetes, and for developing new therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the practical meaning of metabolic phenotyping, the strategy of choosing appropriate tests, and considerations when designing and performing metabolic phenotyping in mice.

  17. Accessing and mining data from large-scale mouse phenotyping projects.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Hugh; Simon, Michelle; Mallon, Ann-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive phenotyping through the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC)-www.mousephenotype.org-will reveal the pleiotropic functions of every gene in the mouse genome and uncover the wider role of genetic loci within diverse biological systems. The informatics challenge will be to develop an infrastructure to acquire the diverse and complex data sets generated from broad-based phenotyping and disseminate these data in an integrated manner to the scientific community. We describe here the current methodologies implemented to capture and disseminate these data, and plans within the Knockout Mouse Phenotyping Project (KOMP2) (http://commonfund.nih.gov/KOMP2/)-funded informatics consortium to scale these implementations to manage the surge in data from the IMPC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of Marfan syndrome develops into two distinctive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Petrashevskaya, Natalia; Marshall, Shannon; Krawczyk, Melissa; Talan, Mark

    2016-01-15

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. Cardiac dysfunction in MFS has not been characterized halting the development of therapies of cardiac complication in MFS. We aimed to study the age-dependent cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of MFS FbnC1039G+/- mouse [Marfan heterozygous (HT) mouse] and its association with valvular regurgitation. Marfan HT mice of 2-4 mo demonstrated a mild hypertrophic cardiac remodeling with predominant decline of diastolic function and increased transforming growth factor-β canonical (p-SMAD2/3) and noncanonical (p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 MAPK) signaling and upregulation of hypertrophic markers natriuretic peptides atrium natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. Among older HT mice (6-14 mo), cardiac remodeling was associated with two distinct phenotypes, manifesting either dilated or constricted left ventricular chamber. Dilatation of left ventricular chamber was accompanied by biochemical evidence of greater mechanical stress, including elevated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and higher brain natriuretic peptide expression. The aortic valve regurgitation was registered in 20% of the constricted group and 60% of the dilated group, whereas mitral insufficiency was observed in 40% of the constricted group and 100% of the dilated group. Cardiac dysfunction was not associated with the increase of interstitial fibrosis and nonmyocyte proliferation. In the mouse model fibrillin-1, haploinsufficiency results in the early onset of nonfibrotic hypertrophic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, independently from valvular abnormalities. MFS heart is vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dilatation in the face of valvular regurgitation, and stress-activated MAPK signals represent a potential target for cardiac management in MFS.

  19. Cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of Marfan syndrome develops into two distinctive phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Marshall, Shannon; Krawczyk, Melissa; Talan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. Cardiac dysfunction in MFS has not been characterized halting the development of therapies of cardiac complication in MFS. We aimed to study the age-dependent cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of MFS FbnC1039G+/− mouse [Marfan heterozygous (HT) mouse] and its association with valvular regurgitation. Marfan HT mice of 2–4 mo demonstrated a mild hypertrophic cardiac remodeling with predominant decline of diastolic function and increased transforming growth factor-β canonical (p-SMAD2/3) and noncanonical (p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 MAPK) signaling and upregulation of hypertrophic markers natriuretic peptides atrium natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. Among older HT mice (6–14 mo), cardiac remodeling was associated with two distinct phenotypes, manifesting either dilated or constricted left ventricular chamber. Dilatation of left ventricular chamber was accompanied by biochemical evidence of greater mechanical stress, including elevated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and higher brain natriuretic peptide expression. The aortic valve regurgitation was registered in 20% of the constricted group and 60% of the dilated group, whereas mitral insufficiency was observed in 40% of the constricted group and 100% of the dilated group. Cardiac dysfunction was not associated with the increase of interstitial fibrosis and nonmyocyte proliferation. In the mouse model fibrillin-1, haploinsufficiency results in the early onset of nonfibrotic hypertrophic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, independently from valvular abnormalities. MFS heart is vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dilatation in the face of valvular regurgitation, and stress-activated MAPK signals represent a potential target for cardiac management in MFS. PMID:26566724

  20. Quantitative mouse brain phenotyping based on single and multispectral MR protocols.

    PubMed

    Badea, Alexandra; Gewalt, Sally; Avants, Brian B; Cook, James J; Johnson, G Allan

    2012-11-15

    Sophisticated image analysis methods have been developed for the human brain, but such tools still need to be adapted and optimized for quantitative small animal imaging. We propose a framework for quantitative anatomical phenotyping in mouse models of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The framework encompasses an atlas space, image acquisition protocols, and software tools to register images into this space. We show that a suite of segmentation tools (Avants, Epstein et al., 2008) designed for human neuroimaging can be incorporated into a pipeline for segmenting mouse brain images acquired with multispectral magnetic resonance imaging (MR) protocols. We present a flexible approach for segmenting such hyperimages, optimizing registration, and identifying optimal combinations of image channels for particular structures. Brain imaging with T1, T2* and T2 contrasts yielded accuracy in the range of 83% for hippocampus and caudate putamen (Hc and CPu), but only 54% in white matter tracts, and 44% for the ventricles. The addition of diffusion tensor parameter images improved accuracy for large gray matter structures (by >5%), white matter (10%), and ventricles (15%). The use of Markov random field segmentation further improved overall accuracy in the C57BL/6 strain by 6%; so Dice coefficients for Hc and CPu reached 93%, for white matter 79%, for ventricles 68%, and for substantia nigra 80%. We demonstrate the segmentation pipeline for the widely used C57BL/6 strain, and two test strains (BXD29, APP/TTA). This approach appears promising for characterizing temporal changes in mouse models of human neurological and psychiatric conditions, and may provide anatomical constraints for other preclinical imaging, e.g. fMRI and molecular imaging. This is the first demonstration that multiple MR imaging modalities combined with multivariate segmentation methods lead to significant improvements in anatomical segmentation in the mouse brain.

  1. Quantitative mouse brain phenotyping based on single and multispectral MR protocols

    PubMed Central

    Badea, Alexandra; Gewalt, Sally; Avants, Brian B.; Cook, James J.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2013-01-01

    Sophisticated image analysis methods have been developed for the human brain, but such tools still need to be adapted and optimized for quantitative small animal imaging. We propose a framework for quantitative anatomical phenotyping in mouse models of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The framework encompasses an atlas space, image acquisition protocols, and software tools to register images into this space. We show that a suite of segmentation tools (Avants, Epstein et al., 2008) designed for human neuroimaging can be incorporated into a pipeline for segmenting mouse brain images acquired with multispectral magnetic resonance imaging (MR) protocols. We present a flexible approach for segmenting such hyperimages, optimizing registration, and identifying optimal combinations of image channels for particular structures. Brain imaging with T1, T2* and T2 contrasts yielded accuracy in the range of 83% for hippocampus and caudate putamen (Hc and CPu), but only 54% in white matter tracts, and 44% for the ventricles. The addition of diffusion tensor parameter images improved accuracy for large gray matter structures (by >5%), white matter (10%), and ventricles (15%). The use of Markov random field segmentation further improved overall accuracy in the C57BL/6 strain by 6%; so Dice coefficients for Hc and CPu reached 93%, for white matter 79%, for ventricles 68%, and for substantia nigra 80%. We demonstrate the segmentation pipeline for the widely used C57BL/6 strain, and two test strains (BXD29, APP/TTA). This approach appears promising for characterizing temporal changes in mouse models of human neurological and psychiatric conditions, and may provide anatomical constraints for other preclinical imaging, e.g. fMRI and molecular imaging. This is the first demonstration that multiple MR imaging modalities combined with multivariate segmentation methods lead to significant improvements in anatomical segmentation in the mouse brain. PMID:22836174

  2. A mild mutator phenotype arises in a mouse model for malignancies associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Garza, Rene; Hudson, Robert A; McMahan, C Alex; Walter, Christi A; Vogel, Kristine S

    2007-02-03

    Defects in genes that control DNA repair, proliferation, and apoptosis can increase genomic instability, and thus promote malignant progression. Although most tumors that arise in humans with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are benign, these individuals are at increased risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). To characterize additional mutations required for the development of MPNST from benign plexiform neurofibromas, we generated a mouse model for these tumors by combining targeted null mutations in Nf1 and p53, in cis. CisNf1+/-; p53+/- mice spontaneously develop PNST, and these tumors exhibit loss-of-heterozygosity at both the Nf1 and p53 loci. Because p53 has well-characterized roles in the DNA damage response, DNA repair, and apoptosis, and because DNA repair genes have been proposed to act as modifiers in NF1, we used the cisNf1+/-; p53+/- mice to determine whether a mutator phenotype arises in NF1-associated malignancies. To quantitate spontaneous mutant frequencies (MF), we crossed the Big Blue mouse, which harbors a lacI transgene, to the cisNf1+/-; p53+/- mice, and isolated genomic DNA from both tumor and normal tissues in compound heterozygotes and wild-type siblings. Many of the PNST exhibited increased mutant frequencies (MF=4.70) when compared to normal peripheral nerve and brain (MF=2.09); mutations occurred throughout the entire lacI gene, and included base substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Moreover, the brains, spleens, and livers of these cisNf1+/-; p53+/- animals exhibited increased mutant frequencies when compared to tissues from wild-type littermates. We conclude that a mild mutator phenotype arises in the tumors and tissues of cisNf1+/-; p53+/- mice, and propose that genomic instability influences NF1 tumor progression and disease severity.

  3. NIH experiment in centralized mouse phenotyping: the Vanderbilt experience and recommendations for evaluating glucose homeostasis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Julio E.; Laughlin, Maren R.; Wasserman, David H.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses two topics. We provide an overview of the National Institutes of Health Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center (MMPC) Program. We then discuss some observations we have made during the first eight years of the Vanderbilt MMPC regarding common phenotyping practices. We include specific recommendations to improve phenotyping practices for tests of glucose tolerance and insulin action. We recommend that methods for experiments in vivo be described in manuscripts. We make specific recommendations for data presentation, interpretation, and experimental design for each test. To facilitate and maximize the exchange of scientific information, we suggest that guidelines be developed for methods used to assess glucose tolerance and insulin action in vivo. PMID:19638507

  4. Towards high-throughput mouse embryonic phenotyping: a novel approach to classifying ventricular septal defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xi; Xie, Zhongliu; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Kitamoto, Asanobu

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC, www.mousephenotype.org) is to study all the over 23,000 genes in the mouse by knocking them out one-by-one for comparative analysis. Large amounts of knockout mouse lines have been raised, leading to a strong demand for high-throughput phenotyping technologies. Traditional means via time-consuming histological examination is clearly unsuitable in this scenario. Biomedical imaging technologies such as CT and MRI therefore have started being used to develop more efficient phenotyping approaches. Existing work however primarily rests on volumetric analytics over anatomical structures to detect anomaly, yet this type of methods generally fail when features are subtle such as ventricular septal defects (VSD) in the heart, and meanwhile phenotypic assessment normally requires expert manual labor. This study proposes, to the best of our knowledge, the first automatic VSD diagnostic system for mouse embryos. Our algorithm starts with the creation of an atlas using wild-type mouse images, followed by registration of knockouts to the atlas to perform atlas-based segmentation on the heart and then ventricles, after which ventricle segmentation is further refined using a region growing technique. VSD classification is completed by checking the existence of an overlap between left and right ventricles. Our approach has been validated on a database of 14 mouse embryo images, and achieved an overall accuracy of 90.9%, with sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%.

  5. Pex13 Inactivation in the Mouse Disrupts Peroxisome Biogenesis and Leads to a Zellweger Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Megan; Bjorkman, Jonas; Nguyen, Tam; Sharp, Peter; Finnie, John; Paterson, Carol; Tonks, Ian; Paton, Barbara C.; Kay, Graham F.; Crane, Denis I.

    2003-01-01

    Zellweger syndrome is the archetypical peroxisome biogenesis disorder and is characterized by defective import of proteins into the peroxisome, leading to peroxisomal metabolic dysfunction and widespread tissue pathology. In humans, mutations in the PEX13 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein necessary for peroxisomal protein import, can lead to a Zellweger phenotype. To develop mouse models for this disorder, we have generated a targeted mouse with a loxP-modified Pex13 gene to enable conditional Cre recombinase-mediated inactivation of Pex13. In the studies reported here, we crossed these mice with transgenic mice that express Cre recombinase in all cells to generate progeny with ubiquitous disruption of Pex13. The mutant pups exhibited many of the clinical features of Zellweger syndrome patients, including intrauterine growth retardation, severe hypotonia, failure to feed, and neonatal death. These animals lacked morphologically intact peroxisomes and showed deficient import of matrix proteins containing either type 1 or type 2 targeting signals. Biochemical analyses of tissue and cultured skin fibroblasts from these animals indicated severe impairment of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis. The brains of these animals showed disordered lamination in the cerebral cortex, consistent with a neuronal migration defect. Thus, Pex13−/− mice reproduce many of the features of Zellweger syndrome and PEX13 deficiency in humans. PMID:12897163

  6. Immortalized mouse dental papilla mesenchymal cells preserve odontoblastic phenotype and respond to bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Li-An; Li, Wentong; Yang, Yuan; Guo, Feng; Gao, Qingping; Chuang, Hui-Hsiu; Shoff, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shuo

    2013-09-01

    Odontogenesis is the result of the reciprocal interactions between epithelial-mesenchymal cells leading to terminally differentiated odontoblasts. This process from dental papilla mesenchymal cells to odontoblasts is regulated by a complex signaling pathway. When isolated from the developing tooth germs, odontoblasts quickly lose their potential to maintain the odontoblast-specific phenotype. Therefore, generation of an odontoblast-like cell line would be a good surrogate model for studying the dental mesenchymal cell differentiation into odontoblasts and the molecular events of dentin formation. In this study, immortalized dental papilla mesenchymal cell lines were generated from the first mouse mandibular molars at postnatal day 3 using pSV40. These transformed cells were characterized by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and analyzed for alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization nodule formation. One of these immortalized cell lines, iMDP-3, displayed a high proliferation rate, but retained the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to primary cells as determined by expression of tooth-specific markers and demonstrated the ability to differentiate and form mineralized nodules. Furthermore, iMDP-3 cells had high transfection efficiency as well as were inducible and responded to BMP2 stimulation. We conclude that the establishment of the stable murine dental papilla mesenchymal cell line might be used for studying the mechanisms of dental cell differentiation and dentin formation.

  7. Phenotyping the central nervous system of the embryonic mouse by magnetic resonance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, M A; Pacheco-Torres, J; Borrell, V; Canals, S

    2014-08-15

    Genetic mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders are being massively generated, but technologies for their high-throughput phenotyping are missing. The potential of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for structural phenotyping has been demonstrated before. However, application to the embryonic mouse central nervous system has been limited by the insufficient anatomical detail. Here we present a method that combines staining of live embryos with a contrast agent together with MR microscopy after fixation, to provide unprecedented anatomical detail at relevant embryonic stages. By using this method we have phenotyped the embryonic forebrain of Robo1/2(-/-) double mutant mice enabling us to identify most of the well-known anatomical defects in these mutants, as well as novel more subtle alterations. We thus demonstrate the potential of this methodology for a fast and reliable screening of subtle structural abnormalities in the developing mouse brain, as those associated to defects in disease-susceptibility genes of neurologic and psychiatric relevance.

  8. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% false discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.

  9. Characterizing the ADHD Phenotype for Genetic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; Asherson, Phil; Hay, David; Levy, Florence; Swanson, Jim; Thapar, Anita; Willcutt, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The genetic study of ADHD has made considerable progress. Further developments in the field will be reliant in part on identifying the most appropriate phenotypes for genetic analysis. The use of both categorical and dimensional measures of symptoms related to ADHD has been productive. The use of multiple reporters is a valuable feature of the…

  10. Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J.; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A.; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data. PMID:23519032

  11. Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening.

    PubMed

    Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D E; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

    2013-05-01

    Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data.

  12. Accessing data from the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium: state of the art and future plans

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Vivek; Melvin, David; Morgan, Hugh; Parkinson, Helen; Brown, Steve D. M.; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C.

    2013-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) (http://www.mousephenotype.org) will reveal the pleiotropic functions of every gene in the mouse genome and uncover the wider role of genetic loci within diverse biological systems. Comprehensive informatics solutions are vital to ensuring that this vast array of data is captured in a standardised manner and made accessible to the scientific community for interrogation and analysis. Here we review the existing EuroPhenome and WTSI phenotype informatics systems and the IKMC portal, and present plans for extending these systems and lessons learned to the development of a robust IMPC informatics infrastructure. PMID:22991088

  13. Towards precision medicine-based therapies for glioblastoma: interrogating human disease genomics and mouse phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Bingcheng; Xu, Rong

    2016-08-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumors. It has poor prognosis even with optimal radio- and chemo-therapies. Since GBM is highly heterogeneous, drugs that target on specific molecular profiles of individual tumors may achieve maximized efficacy. Currently, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects have identified hundreds of GBM-associated genes. We develop a drug repositioning approach combining disease genomics and mouse phenotype data towards predicting targeted therapies for GBM. We first identified disease specific mouse phenotypes using the most recently discovered GBM genes. Then we systematically searched all FDA-approved drugs for candidates that share similar mouse phenotype profiles with GBM. We evaluated the ranks for approved and novel GBM drugs, and compared with an existing approach, which also use the mouse phenotype data but not the disease genomics data. We achieved significantly higher ranks for the approved and novel GBM drugs than the earlier approach. For all positive examples of GBM drugs, we achieved a median rank of 9.2 45.6 of the top predictions have been demonstrated effective in inhibiting the growth of human GBM cells. We developed a computational drug repositioning approach based on both genomic and phenotypic data. Our approach prioritized existing GBM drugs and outperformed a recent approach. Overall, our approach shows potential in discovering new targeted therapies for GBM.

  14. Ultrasonic vocalizations: a tool for behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ricceri, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In neonatal mice ultrasonic vocalizations have been studied both as an early communicative behavior of the pup-mother dyad and as a sign of an aversive affective state. Adult mice of both sexes produce complex ultrasonic vocalization patterns in different experimental/social contexts. All these vocalizations are becoming an increasingly valuable assay for behavioral phenotyping throughout the mouse life-span and alterations of the ultrasound patterns have been reported in several mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we also show that the modulation of vocalizations by maternal cues (maternal potentiation paradigm) – originally identified and investigated in rats - can be measured in C57Bl/6 mouse pups with appropriate modifications of the rat protocol and can likely be applied to mouse behavioral phenotyping. In addition we suggest that a detailed qualitative evaluation of neonatal calls together with analysis of adult mouse vocalization patterns in both sexes in social settings, may lead to a greater understanding of the communication value of vocalizations in mice. Importantly, both neonatal and adult USV altered patterns can be determined during the behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of human neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, starting from those in which deficits in communication are a primary symptom. PMID:18771687

  15. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Knibbe-Hollinger, Jaclyn S; Fields, Natasha R; Chaudoin, Tammy R; Epstein, Adrian A; Makarov, Edward; Akhter, Sidra P; Gorantla, Santhi; Bonasera, Stephen J; Gendelman, Howard E; Poluektova, Larisa Y

    2015-09-09

    Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization.

  16. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Knibbe-Hollinger, Jaclyn S.; Fields, Natasha R.; Chaudoin, Tammy R; Epstein, Adrian A.; Makarov, Edward; Akhter, Sidra P.; Gorantla, Santhi; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Poluektova, Larisa Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization. PMID:26353862

  17. Behavioral and neuroanatomical characterization of the Fmr1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Yann S; Sluyter, Frans; de Wit, Sanne; Oostra, Ben A; Crusio, Wim E

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies showed the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse to be an excellent animal model for human fragile-X syndrome. The aim of this study was to further characterize the phenotype of these animals. Neuroanatomically, KO male mice were compared to wild-types (littermates) with respect to their sizes of hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF) terminal fields. Behaviorally, they were tested in four different paradigms, each measuring different aspects of cognitive and emotional behavior: elevated plus maze (anxiety), neutral cage (aggression), open field (exploration), and radial maze (spatial memory). The results showed a diminished ability for radial maze learning associated with smaller sizes of IIPMF terminal fields. In addition, Fmr1 knockout animals exhibited increased locomotor activity, while no differences were found for aggression and anxiety. These data suggest the involvement of FMRP protein in the development of spatial learning and the sprouting of IIPMF terminal fields.

  18. High-throughput screening of mouse gene knockouts identifies established and novel skeletal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brommage, Robert; Liu, Jeff; Hansen, Gwenn M; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Potter, David G; Sands, Arthur T; Zambrowicz, Brian; Powell, David R; Vogel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Screening gene function in vivo is a powerful approach to discover novel drug targets. We present high-throughput screening (HTS) data for 3 762 distinct global gene knockout (KO) mouse lines with viable adult homozygous mice generated using either gene-trap or homologous recombination technologies. Bone mass was determined from DEXA scans of male and female mice at 14 weeks of age and by microCT analyses of bones from male mice at 16 weeks of age. Wild-type (WT) cagemates/littermates were examined for each gene KO. Lethality was observed in an additional 850 KO lines. Since primary HTS are susceptible to false positive findings, additional cohorts of mice from KO lines with intriguing HTS bone data were examined. Aging, ovariectomy, histomorphometry and bone strength studies were performed and possible non-skeletal phenotypes were explored. Together, these screens identified multiple genes affecting bone mass: 23 previously reported genes (Calcr, Cebpb, Crtap, Dcstamp, Dkk1, Duoxa2, Enpp1, Fgf23, Kiss1/Kiss1r, Kl (Klotho), Lrp5, Mstn, Neo1, Npr2, Ostm1, Postn, Sfrp4, Slc30a5, Slc39a13, Sost, Sumf1, Src, Wnt10b), five novel genes extensively characterized (Cldn18, Fam20c, Lrrk1, Sgpl1, Wnt16), five novel genes with preliminary characterization (Agpat2, Rassf5, Slc10a7, Slc26a7, Slc30a10) and three novel undisclosed genes coding for potential osteoporosis drug targets. PMID:26273529

  19. If the skull fits: magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography for combined analysis of brain and skull phenotypes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Brian J; Blank, Marissa C; Roman, Brian B; Henkelman, R Mark; Millen, Kathleen J

    2012-10-17

    The mammalian brain and skull develop concurrently in a coordinated manner, consistently producing a brain and skull that fit tightly together. It is common that abnormalities in one are associated with related abnormalities in the other. However, this is not always the case. A complete characterization of the relationship between brain and skull phenotypes is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause them to be coordinated or divergent and to provide perspective on the potential diagnostic or prognostic significance of brain and skull phenotypes. We demonstrate the combined use of magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography for analysis of brain and skull phenotypes in the mouse. Co-registration of brain and skull images allows comparison of the relationship between phenotypes in the brain and those in the skull. We observe a close fit between the brain and skull of two genetic mouse models that both show abnormal brain and skull phenotypes. Application of these three-dimensional image analyses in a broader range of mouse mutants will provide a map of the relationships between brain and skull phenotypes generally and allow characterization of patterns of similarities and differences.

  20. If the skull fits: magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography for combined analysis of brain and skull phenotypes in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Marissa C.; Roman, Brian B.; Henkelman, R. Mark; Millen, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian brain and skull develop concurrently in a coordinated manner, consistently producing a brain and skull that fit tightly together. It is common that abnormalities in one are associated with related abnormalities in the other. However, this is not always the case. A complete characterization of the relationship between brain and skull phenotypes is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause them to be coordinated or divergent and to provide perspective on the potential diagnostic or prognostic significance of brain and skull phenotypes. We demonstrate the combined use of magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography for analysis of brain and skull phenotypes in the mouse. Co-registration of brain and skull images allows comparison of the relationship between phenotypes in the brain and those in the skull. We observe a close fit between the brain and skull of two genetic mouse models that both show abnormal brain and skull phenotypes. Application of these three-dimensional image analyses in a broader range of mouse mutants will provide a map of the relationships between brain and skull phenotypes generally and allow characterization of patterns of similarities and differences. PMID:22947655

  1. Novel skin phenotypes revealed by a genome-wide mouse reverse genetic screen

    PubMed Central

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E.; Heath, Emma; Smedley, Damian P.; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; DiTommaso, Tia; White, Jacqueline K.; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Smyth, Ian; Steel, Karen P.; Watt, Fiona M.

    2014-01-01

    Permanent stop-and-shop large-scale mouse mutant resources provide an excellent platform to decipher tissue phenogenomics. Here we analyse skin from 538 knockout mouse mutants generated by the Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project. We optimize immunolabelling of tail epidermal wholemounts to allow systematic annotation of hair follicle, sebaceous gland and interfollicular epidermal abnormalities using ontology terms from the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. Of the 50 mutants with an epidermal phenotype, 9 map to human genetic conditions with skin abnormalities. Some mutant genes are expressed in the skin, whereas others are not, indicating systemic effects. One phenotype is affected by diet and several are incompletely penetrant. In-depth analysis of three mutants, Krt76, Myo5a (a model of human Griscelli syndrome) and Mysm1, provides validation of the screen. Our study is the first large-scale genome-wide tissue phenotype screen from the International Knockout Mouse Consortium and provides an open access resource for the scientific community. PMID:24721909

  2. Impact of Temporal Variation on Design and Analysis of Mouse Knockout Phenotyping Studies

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Natasha A.; Speak, Anneliese O.; White, Jacqueline K.; Adams, David J.; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Hérault, Yann; Mott, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge facing high-throughput phenotyping of in-vivo knockout mice is ensuring phenotype calls are robust and reliable. Central to this problem is selecting an appropriate statistical analysis that models both the experimental design (the workflow and the way control mice are selected for comparison with knockout animals) and the sources of variation. Recently we proposed a mixed model suitable for small batch-oriented studies, where controls are not phenotyped concurrently with mutants. Here we evaluate this method both for its sensitivity to detect phenotypic effects and to control false positives, across a range of workflows used at mouse phenotyping centers. We found the sensitivity and control of false positives depend on the workflow. We show that the phenotypes in control mice fluctuate unexpectedly between batches and this can cause the false positive rate of phenotype calls to be inflated when only a small number of batches are tested, when the effect of knockout becomes confounded with temporal fluctuations in control mice. This effect was observed in both behavioural and physiological assays. Based on this analysis, we recommend two approaches (workflow and accompanying control strategy) and associated analyses, which would be robust, for use in high-throughput phenotyping pipelines. Our results show the importance in modelling all sources of variability in high-throughput phenotyping studies. PMID:25343444

  3. Impact of temporal variation on design and analysis of mouse knockout phenotyping studies.

    PubMed

    Karp, Natasha A; Speak, Anneliese O; White, Jacqueline K; Adams, David J; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Hérault, Yann; Mott, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge facing high-throughput phenotyping of in-vivo knockout mice is ensuring phenotype calls are robust and reliable. Central to this problem is selecting an appropriate statistical analysis that models both the experimental design (the workflow and the way control mice are selected for comparison with knockout animals) and the sources of variation. Recently we proposed a mixed model suitable for small batch-oriented studies, where controls are not phenotyped concurrently with mutants. Here we evaluate this method both for its sensitivity to detect phenotypic effects and to control false positives, across a range of workflows used at mouse phenotyping centers. We found the sensitivity and control of false positives depend on the workflow. We show that the phenotypes in control mice fluctuate unexpectedly between batches and this can cause the false positive rate of phenotype calls to be inflated when only a small number of batches are tested, when the effect of knockout becomes confounded with temporal fluctuations in control mice. This effect was observed in both behavioural and physiological assays. Based on this analysis, we recommend two approaches (workflow and accompanying control strategy) and associated analyses, which would be robust, for use in high-throughput phenotyping pipelines. Our results show the importance in modelling all sources of variability in high-throughput phenotyping studies.

  4. Molecular characterization of the mouse agouti locus.

    PubMed

    Bultman, S J; Michaud, E J; Woychik, R P

    1992-12-24

    The agouti (a) locus acts within the microenvironment of the hair follicle to regulate coat color pigmentation in the mouse. We have characterized a gene encoding a novel 131 amino acid protein that we propose is the one gene associated with the agouti locus. This gene is normally expressed in a manner consistent with a locus function, and, more importantly, its structure and expression are affected by a number of representative alleles in the agouti dominance hierarchy. In addition, we found that the pleiotropic effects associated with the lethal yellow (Ay) mutation, which include pronounced obesity, diabetes, and the development of neoplasms, are accompanied by deregulated overexpression of the agouti gene in numerous tissues of the adult animal.

  5. [Genotype/phenotype correlation in autism: genetic models and phenotypic characterization].

    PubMed

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2011-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a class of conditions categorized by communication problems, ritualistic behaviors, and deficits in social behaviors. This class of disorders merges a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders regarding some phenotypic and probably physiopathological aspects. Genetic basis is well admitted, however, considering phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, correspondences between genotype and phenotype have yet to be established. To better identify such correspondences, genetic models have to be identified and phenotypic markers have to be characterized. Recent insights show that a variety of genetic mechanisms may be involved in autism spectrum disorders, i.e. single gene disorders, copy number variations and polygenic mechanisms. These current genetic models are described. Regarding clinical aspects, several approaches can be used in genetic studies. Nosographical approach, especially with the concept of autism spectrum disorders, merges a large group of disorders with clinical heterogeneity and may fail to identify clear genotype/phenotype correlations. Dimensional approach referred in genetic studies to the notion of "Broad Autism Phenotype" related to a constellation of language, personality, and social-behavioral features present in relatives that mirror the symptom domains of autism, but are much milder in expression. Studies of this broad autism phenotype may provide a potentially important complementary approach for detecting the genes involved in these domains. However, control population used in those studies need to be well characterized too. Identification of endophenotypes seems to offer more promising results. Endophenotypes, which are supposed to be more proximal markers of gene action in the same biological pathway, linking genes and complex clinical symptoms, are thought to be less genetically complex than the broader disease phenotype, indexing a limited aspect of genetic risk for the disorder as a whole. However

  6. Lack of prolidase causes a bone phenotype both in human and in mouse.

    PubMed

    Besio, Roberta; Maruelli, Silvia; Gioia, Roberta; Villa, Isabella; Grabowski, Peter; Gallagher, Orla; Bishop, Nicholas J; Foster, Sarah; De Lorenzi, Ersilia; Colombo, Raffaella; Diaz, Josè Luis Dapena; Moore-Barton, Haether; Deshpande, Charu; Aydin, Halil Ibrahim; Tokatli, Aysegul; Kwiek, Bartlomiej; Kasapkara, Cigdem Seher; Adisen, Esra Ozsoy; Gurer, Mehmet Ali; Di Rocco, Maja; Phang, James M; Gunn, Teresa M; Tenni, Ruggero; Rossi, Antonio; Forlino, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    The degradation of the main fibrillar collagens, collagens I and II, is a crucial process for skeletal development. The most abundant dipeptides generated from the catabolism of collagens contain proline and hydroxyproline. In humans, prolidase is the only enzyme able to hydrolyze dipeptides containing these amino acids at their C-terminal end, thus being a key player in collagen synthesis and turnover. Mutations in the prolidase gene cause prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare recessive disorder. Here we describe 12 PD patients, 9 of whom were molecularly characterized in this study. Following a retrospective analysis of all of them a skeletal phenotype associated with short stature, hypertelorism, nose abnormalities, microcephaly, osteopenia and genu valgum, independent of both the type of mutation and the presence of the mutant protein was identified. In order to understand the molecular basis of the bone phenotype associated with PD, we analyzed a recently identified mouse model for the disease, the dark-like (dal) mutant. The dal/dal mice showed a short snout, they were smaller than controls, their femurs were significantly shorter and pQCT and μCT analyses of long bones revealed compromised bone properties at the cortical and at the trabecular level in both male and female animals. The differences were more pronounce at 1 month being the most parameters normalized by 2 months of age. A delay in the formation of the second ossification center was evident at postnatal day 10. Our work reveals that reduced bone growth was due to impaired chondrocyte proliferation and increased apoptosis rate in the proliferative zone associated with reduced hyperthrophic zone height. These data suggest that lack of prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme involved in the final stage of protein catabolism, is required for normal skeletogenesis especially at early age when the requirement for collagen synthesis and degradation is the highest.

  7. Optical coherence tomography for live phenotypic analysis of embryonic ocular structures in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Saba H.; Sudheendran, Narendran; Overbeek, Paul A.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Mouse models of ocular diseases provide a powerful resource for exploration of molecular regulation of eye development and pre-clinical studies. Availability of a live high-resolution imaging method for mouse embryonic eyes would significantly enhance longitudinal analyses and high-throughput morphological screening. We demonstrate that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used for live embryonic ocular imaging throughout gestation. At all studied stages, the whole eye is within the imaging distance of the system and there is a good optical contrast between the structures. We also performed OCT eye imaging in the embryonic retinoblastoma mouse model Pax6-SV40 T-antigen, which spontaneously forms lens and retinal lesions, and demonstrate that OCT allows us to clearly differentiate between the mutant and wild type phenotypes. These results demonstrate that OCTin utero imaging is a potentially useful tool to study embryonic ocular diseases in mouse models. PMID:23224171

  8. Optical coherence tomography for live phenotypic analysis of embryonic ocular structures in mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Sudheendran, Narendran; Overbeek, Paul A.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-08-01

    Mouse models of ocular diseases provide a powerful resource for exploration of molecular regulation of eye development and pre-clinical studies. Availability of a live high-resolution imaging method for mouse embryonic eyes would significantly enhance longitudinal analyses and high-throughput morphological screening. We demonstrate that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used for live embryonic ocular imaging throughout gestation. At all studied stages, the whole eye is within the imaging distance of the system and there is a good optical contrast between the structures. We also performed OCT eye imaging in the embryonic retinoblastoma mouse model Pax6-SV40 T-antigen, which spontaneously forms lens and retinal lesions, and demonstrate that OCT allows us to clearly differentiate between the mutant and wild type phenotypes. These results demonstrate that OCTin utero imaging is a potentially useful tool to study embryonic ocular diseases in mouse models.

  9. Phenotyping sensory nerve endings in vitro in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Hein, Alexander; Hager, Ulrich; Kaczmarek, Jan Stefan; Turnquist, Brian P; Clapham, David E; Reeh, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    This protocol details methods to identify and record from cutaneous primary afferent axons in an isolated mammalian skin–saphenous nerve preparation. The method is based on extracellular recordings of propagated action potentials from single-fiber receptive fields. Cutaneous nerve endings show graded sensitivities to various stimulus modalities that are quantified by adequate and controlled stimulation of the superfused skin with heat, cold, touch, constant punctate pressure or chemicals. Responses recorded from single-fibers are comparable with those obtained in previous in vivo experiments on the same species. We describe the components and the setting-up of the basic equipment of a skin–nerve recording station (few days), the preparation of the skin and the adherent saphenous nerve in the mouse (15–45 min) and the isolation and recording of neurons (approximately 1–3 h per recording). In addition, stimulation techniques, protocols to achieve single-fiber recordings, issues of data acquisition and action potential discrimination are discussed in detail. PMID:19180088

  10. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Petrosino, Jennifer M.; Heiss, Valerie J.; Maurya, Santosh K.; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Periasamy, Muthu; LaFountain, Richard A.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT) is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT). Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J) to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover) observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J) and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/-) models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or the effects of

  11. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, Jennifer M; Heiss, Valerie J; Maurya, Santosh K; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Periasamy, Muthu; LaFountain, Richard A; Wilson, Jacob M; Simonetti, Orlando P; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT) is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT). Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J) to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover) observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J) and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/-) models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or the effects of

  12. EuroPhenome: a repository for high-throughput mouse phenotyping data.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Hugh; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Gates, Hilary; Adams, Niels; Debouzy, Guillaume; Leblanc, Sophie; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Melvin, David; Meziane, Hamid; Richardson, Dave; Wells, Sara; White, Jacqui; Wood, Joe; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Brown, Steve D M; Hancock, John M; Mallon, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The broad aim of biomedical science in the postgenomic era is to link genomic and phenotype information to allow deeper understanding of the processes leading from genomic changes to altered phenotype and disease. The EuroPhenome project (http://www.EuroPhenome.org) is a comprehensive resource for raw and annotated high-throughput phenotyping data arising from projects such as EUMODIC. EUMODIC is gathering data from the EMPReSSslim pipeline (http://www.empress.har.mrc.ac.uk/) which is performed on inbred mouse strains and knock-out lines arising from the EUCOMM project. The EuroPhenome interface allows the user to access the data via the phenotype or genotype. It also allows the user to access the data in a variety of ways, including graphical display, statistical analysis and access to the raw data via web services. The raw phenotyping data captured in EuroPhenome is annotated by an annotation pipeline which automatically identifies statistically different mutants from the appropriate baseline and assigns ontology terms for that specific test. Mutant phenotypes can be quickly identified using two EuroPhenome tools: PhenoMap, a graphical representation of statistically relevant phenotypes, and mining for a mutant using ontology terms. To assist with data definition and cross-database comparisons, phenotype data is annotated using combinations of terms from biological ontologies.

  13. Effect of diet on the survival and phenotype of a mouse model for spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Butchbach, Matthew E R; Rose, Ferrill F; Rhoades, Sarah; Marston, John; McCrone, John T; Sinnott, Rachel; Lorson, Christian L

    2010-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a leading genetic cause of infant death. Patients with SMA lose alpha-motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord which leads to skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy. SMA is the result of reduction in Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) expression. Transgenic mouse models of SMA have been generated and are extremely useful in understanding the mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration in SMA and in developing new therapeutic candidates for SMA patients. Several research groups have reported varying average lifespans of SMNDelta7 SMA mice (SMN2(+/+);SMNDelta7(+/+);mSmn(-/-)), the most commonly used mouse model for preclinical therapeutic candidate testing. One environmental factor that varied between research groups was maternal diet. In this study, we compared the effects of two different commercially available rodent chows (PicoLab20 Mouse diet and Harlan-Teklad 22/5 diet) on the survival and motor phenotype of the SMNDelta7 mouse model of SMA. Specifically, the PicoLab20 diet significantly extends the average lifespan of the SMNDelta7 SMA mice by approximately 25% and improved the motor phenotype as compared to the Harlan diet. These findings indicate that maternal diet alone can have considerable impact on the SMA phenotype. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High-throughput mouse phenotyping using non-rigid registration and robust principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongliu; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Tamura, Masaru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gillies, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    Intensive international efforts are underway towards phenotyping the mouse genome, by knocking out each of its ≍25,000 genes one-by-one for comparative study. With vast amounts of data to analyze, the traditional method using time-consuming histological examination is clearly impractical, leading to an overwhelming demand for some high-throughput phenotyping framework, especially with the employment of biomedical image informatics to efficiently identify phenotypes concerning morphological abnormality. Existing work has either excessively relied on volumetric analytics which is insensitive to phenotypes associated with no severe volume variations, or tailored for specific defects and thus fails to serve a general phenotyping purpose. Furthermore, the prevailing requirement of an atlas for image segmentation in contrast to its limited availability further complicates the issue in practice. In this paper we propose a high-throughput general-purpose phenotyping framework that is able to efficiently perform batch-wise anomaly detection without prior knowledge of the phenotype and the need for atlas-based segmentation. Anomaly detection is centered on the combined use of group-wise non-rigid image registration and robust principal component analysis (RPCA) for feature extraction and decomposition.

  15. Hemopexin therapy reverts heme-induced proinflammatory phenotypic switching of macrophages in a mouse model of sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Vinchi, Francesca; Costa da Silva, Milene; Ingoglia, Giada; Petrillo, Sara; Brinkman, Nathan; Zuercher, Adrian; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, are characterized by enhanced release of hemoglobin and heme into the circulation, heme-iron loading of reticulo-endothelial system macrophages, and chronic inflammation. Here we show that in addition to activating the vascular endothelium, hemoglobin and heme excess alters the macrophage phenotype in sickle cell disease. We demonstrate that exposure of cultured macrophages to hemolytic aged red blood cells, heme, or iron causes their functional phenotypic change toward a proinflammatory state. In addition, hemolysis and macrophage heme/iron accumulation in a mouse model of sickle disease trigger similar proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in hepatic macrophages. On the mechanistic level, this critically depends on reactive oxygen species production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that the heme scavenger hemopexin protects reticulo-endothelial macrophages from heme overload in heme-loaded Hx-null mice and reduces production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, in sickle mice, the administration of human exogenous hemopexin attenuates the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that therapeutic administration of hemopexin is beneficial to counteract heme-driven macrophage-mediated inflammation and its pathophysiologic consequences in sickle cell disease. PMID:26675351

  16. Hemopexin therapy reverts heme-induced proinflammatory phenotypic switching of macrophages in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Vinchi, Francesca; Costa da Silva, Milene; Ingoglia, Giada; Petrillo, Sara; Brinkman, Nathan; Zuercher, Adrian; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Tolosano, Emanuela; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2016-01-28

    Hemolytic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, are characterized by enhanced release of hemoglobin and heme into the circulation, heme-iron loading of reticulo-endothelial system macrophages, and chronic inflammation. Here we show that in addition to activating the vascular endothelium, hemoglobin and heme excess alters the macrophage phenotype in sickle cell disease. We demonstrate that exposure of cultured macrophages to hemolytic aged red blood cells, heme, or iron causes their functional phenotypic change toward a proinflammatory state. In addition, hemolysis and macrophage heme/iron accumulation in a mouse model of sickle disease trigger similar proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in hepatic macrophages. On the mechanistic level, this critically depends on reactive oxygen species production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that the heme scavenger hemopexin protects reticulo-endothelial macrophages from heme overload in heme-loaded Hx-null mice and reduces production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, in sickle mice, the administration of human exogenous hemopexin attenuates the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that therapeutic administration of hemopexin is beneficial to counteract heme-driven macrophage-mediated inflammation and its pathophysiologic consequences in sickle cell disease. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Mouse models of frontotemporal dementia: A comparison of phenotypes with clinical symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Irish, Muireann; van Eersel, Janet; Ittner, Arne; Ke, Yazi D; Volkerling, Alexander; van der Hoven, Julia; Tanaka, Kimi; Karl, Tim; Kassiou, Michael; Kril, Jillian J; Piguet, Olivier; Götz, Jürgen; Kiernan, Matthew C; Halliday, Glenda M; Hodges, John R; Ittner, Lars M

    2017-03-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common cause of young onset dementia. It is increasingly recognized that there is a clinical continuum between FTD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). At a clinical, pathological and genetic level there is much heterogeneity in FTD, meaning that our understanding of this condition, pathophysiology and development of treatments has been limited. A number of mouse models focusing predominantly on recapitulating neuropathological and molecular changes of disease have been developed, with most transgenic lines expressing a single specific protein or genetic mutation. Together with the species-typical presentation of functional deficits, this makes the direct translation of results from these models to humans difficult. However, understanding the phenotypical presentations in mice and how they relate to clinical symptomology in humans is essential for advancing translation. Here we review current mouse models in FTD and compare their phenotype to the clinical presentation in patients.

  18. Phenotypic Characterization of a Diversity Panel of Tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At the USDA, ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) we have phenotypically characterized more than 2,000 accessions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for which data are publically available on the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (http://www.ar...

  19. Metabolomic approaches to phenotype characterization and applications to complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Oresic, Matej; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Hänninen, Virve

    2006-07-01

    Metabolites are the key regulators of systems homeostasis. As such, concentration changes of specific groups of metabolites may reflect systemic responses to environmental, therapeutic or genetic interventions. Thus, the study of metabolites is a powerful tool for the characterization of complex phenotypes as well as for the development of biomarkers for specific physiological responses. Therefore, metabolomics is a valuable platform for studies of complex diseases and the development of new therapies, both in nonclinical disease model characterization and clinical settings.

  20. Recapitulation of the hairless mouse phenotype using catalytic oligonucleotides: implications for permanent hair removal.

    PubMed

    Cserhalmi-Friedman, Peter B; Panteleyev, Andrey A; Christiano, Angela M

    2004-03-01

    Ribozyme technology is widely used to target mRNA in a sequence-specific fashion and thus change the expression pattern of cells or tissues. While the goal of mRNA targeting is usually the cleavage of mutant mRNAs with the prospect of gene therapy for inherited diseases, in certain instances, targeting of wild-type genes can be used therapeutically. Lack of expression of the mouse hairless gene due to inherited mutations leads to the complete and irreversible loss of hair known as atrichia. We designed this study to recapitulate the hairless phenotype in a restricted manner by topical application of deoxyribozyme-targeting molecules to specifically cleave the mouse hairless mRNA. Histological samples taken from treated skin at different times demonstrated a decreased number of hair follicles, an involution of the remaining follicles, a separation of the dermal papillae, and the presence of dermal cysts, all characteristics of the hairless phenotype, but not normally present in the skin of C57Bl/6 J mice. In this study, we successfully recapitulated the hairless phenotype using topically applied target-specific catalytic oligonucleotides designed to cleave the mouse hairless mRNA. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using ribozyme technology to alter the gene expression in the skin via topical application and provide proof of principle for the development of this strategy for permanent hair removal.

  1. Phenotyping mouse pulmonary function in vivo with the lung diffusing capacity.

    PubMed

    Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-06

    The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models.

  2. Immunological variation between inbred laboratory mouse strains: points to consider in phenotyping genetically immunomodified mice.

    PubMed

    Sellers, R S; Clifford, C B; Treuting, P M; Brayton, C

    2012-01-01

    Inbred laboratory mouse strains are highly divergent in their immune response patterns as a result of genetic mutations and polymorphisms. The generation of genetically engineered mice (GEM) has, in the past, used embryonic stem (ES) cells for gene targeting from various 129 substrains followed by backcrossing into more fecund mouse strains. Although common inbred mice are considered "immune competent," many have variations in their immune system-some of which have been described-that may affect the phenotype. Recognition of these immune variations among commonly used inbred mouse strains is essential for the accurate interpretation of expected phenotypes or those that may arise unexpectedly. In GEM developed to study specific components of the immune system, accurate evaluation of immune responses must take into consideration not only the gene of interest but also how the background strain and microbial milieu contribute to the manifestation of findings in these mice. This article discusses points to consider regarding immunological differences between the common inbred laboratory mouse strains, particularly in their use as background strains in GEM.

  3. NAD(+)-dependent activation of Sirt1 corrects the phenotype in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Raffaele; Pirinen, Eija; Lamperti, Costanza; Marchet, Silvia; Sauve, Anthony A; Li, Wei; Leoni, Valerio; Schon, Eric A; Dantzer, Françoise; Auwerx, Johan; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-06-03

    Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD(+) boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD(+) play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, or reduction of NAD(+) consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans.

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolated from sputum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paulo da; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Sato, Daisy Nakamura; Silva, Jaqueline Otero; Medeiros, Marta Inês Cazentini; Carneiro, Ana Maria Machado; Leite, Sergio Roberto de Andrade; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2012-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic pathogen, causing rhodococcosis, a condition that can be confused with tuberculosis. Often, without identifying M. tuberculosis, physicians initiate empiric treatment for tuberculosis. R. equi and M. tuberculosis have different susceptibility to drugs. Identification of R. equi is based on a variety of phenotypic, chromatographic, and genotypic characteristics. This study aimed to characterize bacterial isolates from sputum samples suggestive of R. equi. The phenotypic identification included biochemical assays; thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for genotypic identification. Among 78 Gram-positive and partially acid-fast bacilli isolated from the sputum of tuberculosis-suspected patients, 51 were phenotypically and genotypically characterized as R. equi based on literature data. Mycolic acid analysis showed that all suspected R. equi had compounds with a retention factor (R(f)) between 0.4-0.5. Genotypic characterization indicated the presence of the choE gene 959bp fragments in 51 isolates CAMP test positive. Twenty-two CAMP test negative isolates were negative for the choE gene. Five isolates presumptively identified as R. equi, CAMP test positive, were choE gene negative, and probably belonged to other bacterial species. The phenotypic and molecular techniques used constitute a good methodological tool to identify R. equi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel BAC mouse model of Huntington’s disease with 225 CAG repeats exhibits an early widespread and stable degenerative phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzynowicz, Michal; Bichell, Terry Jo; Soares, Barbara D.; Loth, Meredith K.; McGlothan, Jennifer L.; Alikhan, Fatima S.; Hua, Kegang; Coughlin, Jennifer M.; Holt, Hunter K.; Jetter, Christopher S.; Mori, Susumu; Pomper, Martin G.; Osmand, Alexander P.; Guilarte, Tomás R.; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unusually large CAG repeat expansions (>60) in exon one of Huntingtin (HTT) are invariably associated with a juvenile-onset form of Huntington’s disease (HD), characterized by a more extensive and rapidly progressing neuropathology than the more prevalent adult-onset form. However, existing mouse models of HD that express the full-length Htt gene with CAG repeat lengths associated with juvenile HD (ranging between ~75 to ~150 repeats in published models) exhibit selective neurodegenerative phenotypes more consistent with adult-onset HD. OBJECTIVE To determine if a very large CAG repeat (>200) in full-length Htt elicits neurodegenerative phenotypes consistent with juvenile HD. METHODS Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, we generated mice expressing full-length mouse Htt with ~225 CAG repeats under control of the mouse Htt promoter. Mice were characterized using behavioral, neuropathological, biochemical and brain imaging methods. RESULTS BAC-225Q mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with a subset of features seen in juvenile-onset HD: very early motor behavior abnormalities, reduced body weight, widespread and progressive increase in Htt aggregates, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. Early striatal pathology was observed, including reactive gliosis and loss of dopamine receptors, prior to detectable volume loss. HD-related blood markers of impaired energy metabolism and systemic inflammation were also increased. Aside from an age-dependent progression of diffuse nuclear aggregates at 6 months of age to abundant neuropil aggregates at 12 months of age, other pathological and motor phenotypes showed little to no progression. CONCLUSIONS The HD phenotypes present in animals 3 to 12 months of age make the BAC-225Q mice a unique and stable model of full-length mutant Htt associated phenotypes, including body weight loss, behavioral impairment and HD-like neurodegenerative phenotypes characteristic of juvenile-onset HD and/or late-stage adult

  6. GBM heterogeneity characterization by radiomic analysis of phenotype anatomical planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system, characterized among other traits by rapid metastatis. Three tissue phenotypes closely associated with GBMs, namely, necrosis (N), contrast enhancement (CE), and edema/invasion (E), exhibit characteristic patterns of texture heterogeneity in magnetic resonance images (MRI). In this study, we propose a novel model to characterize GBM tissue phenotypes using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) in three anatomical planes. The GLCM encodes local image patches in terms of informative, orientation-invariant texture descriptors, which are used here to sub-classify GBM tissue phenotypes. Experiments demonstrate the model on MRI data of 41 GBM patients, obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Intensity-based automatic image registration is applied to align corresponding pairs of fixed T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) post-contrast and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. GBM tissue regions are then segmented using the 3D Slicer tool. Texture features are computed from 12 quantifier functions operating on GLCM descriptors, that are generated from MRI intensities within segmented GBM tissue regions. Various classifier models are used to evaluate the effectiveness of texture features for discriminating between GBM phenotypes. Results based on T1-WI scans showed a phenotype classification accuracy of over 88.14%, a sensitivity of 85.37% and a specificity of 96.1%, using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. This model has the potential to provide important characteristics of tumors, which can be used for the sub-classification of GBM phenotypes.

  7. Mitochondrial phenotype of marsupial torpor: Fuel metabolic switch in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Pablo Andres; Bacigalupe, Leonardo Daniel; Mondaca, Fredy; Desrosiers, Véronique; Blier, Pierre U

    2016-01-01

    Torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate and body temperature. During arousal from torpor, organs undergo rapid metabolic reactivation and rewarming to near normal levels. As torpor progress, animals show a preference for fatty acids over glucose as primary source of energy. Here, we analyzed for first time the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to fatty acid (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and β-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (Pyruvate kinase, Phosphofructokinase and Lactate dehydrogenase) catabolism, as well as mitochondrial oxidative capacity (Citrate synthase), in six organs of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans). Our results showed that activity of enzymes related to fatty acid and carbohydrate catabolism were different among torpor phases and the pattern of variation differs among tissues. In terms of lipid utilization, maximal enzymatic activities differ in tissues with high oxidative capacity such as heart, kidney, and liver. In terms of carbohydrate use, lower enzymatic activities were observed during torpor in brain and liver. Interestingly, citrate synthase activity did not differ thought torpor-arousal cycle in any tissues analyzed, suggesting no modulation of mitochondrial content in T. elegans. Overall results provide an indication that modulation of enzymes associated with carbohydrate and fatty-acid pathways is mainly oriented to limit energy expensive processes and sustain energy metabolism during transition from torpor to euthermy. Future studies are required to elucidate if physiological events observed for T. elegans are unique from other marsupials, or represents a general response in marsupials. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:41-51, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Temme, Stephanie J; Bell, Ryan Z; Pahumi, Reciton; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2014-01-01

    Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 has been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization) can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders.

  9. Structural and functional characterization of the mouse Hlx homeobox gene.

    PubMed

    Bates, M D; Schatzman, L C; Lints, T; Hamlin, P E; Harvey, R P; Potter, S S

    2000-10-01

    Hlx is a mesenchymally expressed homeobox transcription factor gene that is essential for normal intestinal and hepatic development in the mouse. Here we report further characterization of the mouse Hlx gene, including an additional 3.7 kb of 5' sequence as well as the sequence of the three introns. Comparison of the sequence of the mouse Hlx gene 5' to the coding region with that of the human gene revealed multiple regions of high conservation. Neither the mouse nor the human gene contained a TATA box, and ribonuclease protection studies defined heterogeneous transcription start sites for the mouse gene. A number of consensus transcription factor binding sites were conserved between the mouse and human Hlx genes both within and outside of the highly conserved regions. Reporter constructs containing 4.2 or 1.4 kb of mouse 5' sequence showed active expression in cell lines that express Hlx. Further characterization of the mouse Hlx gene will provide insight into the developmental regulation of the mouse digestive system.

  10. Characterization of a male reproductive transcriptome for Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rodents of the genus Peromyscus have become increasingly utilized models for investigations into adaptive biology. This genus is particularly powerful for research linking genetics with adaptive physiology or behaviors, and recent research has capitalized on the unique opportunities afforded by the ecological diversity of these rodents. Well characterized genomic and transcriptomic data is intrinsic to explorations of the genetic architecture responsible for ecological adaptations. Therefore, this study characterizes the transcriptome of three male reproductive tissues (testes, epididymis and vas deferens) of Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse), a desert specialist. The transcriptome assembly process was optimized in order to produce a high quality and substantially complete annotated transcriptome. This composite transcriptome was generated to characterize the expressed transcripts in the male reproductive tract of P. eremicus, which will serve as a crucial resource for future research investigating our hypothesis that the male Cactus mouse possesses an adaptive reproductive phenotype to mitigate water-loss from ejaculate. This study reports genes under positive selection in the male Cactus mouse reproductive transcriptome relative to transcriptomes from Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) and Mus musculus. Thus, this study expands upon existing genetic research in this species, and we provide a high quality transcriptome to enable further explorations of our proposed hypothesis for male Cactus mouse reproductive adaptations to minimize seminal fluid loss. PMID:27812417

  11. Microbiome Heterogeneity Characterizing Intestinal Tissue and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Andrea D; Kirsch, Richard; Milgrom, Raquel; Stempak, Joanne M; Kabakchiev, Boyko; Silverberg, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with differential abundance of numerous organisms when compared to healthy controls (HCs); however, few studies have investigated variability in the microbiome across intestinal locations and how this variability might be related to disease location and phenotype. In this study, we have analyzed the microbiome of a large cohort of individuals recruited at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Biopsies were taken from subjects with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and HC, and also individuals having undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for treatment of ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis. Microbial 16S rRNA was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We observed a great deal of variability in the microbiome characterizing different sampling locations. Samples from pouch and afferent limb were comparable in microbial composition. When comparing sigmoid and terminal ileum samples, more differences were observed. The greatest number of differentially abundant microbes was observed when comparing either pouch or afferent limb samples to sigmoid or terminal ileum. Despite these differences, we were able to observe modest microbial variability between inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes and HCs, even when controlling for sampling location and additional experimental factors. Most detected associations were observed between HCs and Crohn's disease, with decreases in specific genera in the families Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae characterizing tissue samples from individuals with Crohn's disease. This study highlights important considerations when analyzing the composition of the microbiome and also provides useful insight into differences in the microbiome characterizing these seemingly related phenotypes.

  12. A comparative phenotypic and genomic analysis of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mouse inbred line C57BL/6J is widely used in mouse genetics and its genome has been incorporated into many genetic reference populations. More recently large initiatives such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are using the C57BL/6N mouse strain to generate null alleles for all mouse genes. Hence both strains are now widely used in mouse genetics studies. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the two strains to identify differences that may influence their underlying genetic mechanisms. Results We undertake genome sequence comparisons of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N to identify SNPs, indels and structural variants, with a focus on identifying all coding variants. We annotate 34 SNPs and 2 indels that distinguish C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N coding sequences, as well as 15 structural variants that overlap a gene. In parallel we assess the comparative phenotypes of the two inbred lines utilizing the EMPReSSslim phenotyping pipeline, a broad based assessment encompassing diverse biological systems. We perform additional secondary phenotyping assessments to explore other phenotype domains and to elaborate phenotype differences identified in the primary assessment. We uncover significant phenotypic differences between the two lines, replicated across multiple centers, in a number of physiological, biochemical and behavioral systems. Conclusions Comparison of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N demonstrates a range of phenotypic differences that have the potential to impact upon penetrance and expressivity of mutational effects in these strains. Moreover, the sequence variants we identify provide a set of candidate genes for the phenotypic differences observed between the two strains. PMID:23902802

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of mouse Gipc3.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tetsuroh; Mine, Tetsuya; Katoh, Masaru

    2002-03-01

    GIPC1/GIPC interacts with GTPase-activating protein RGS-GAIP, transmembrane protein M-SemF, receptor tyrosine kinase TrkA, integrin alpha 6A subunit, and TGF beta type III receptor. Kermit, a Xenopus orthologue of human GIPC1, interacts with Frizzled-3 (FZD3) class of WNT receptor. We have recently cloned and characterized human GIPC2 and GIPC3. Here, we identified mouse Gipc3 gene fragments by using bioinformatics, and isolated mouse Gipc3 cDNAs by using cDNA-PCR. Mouse Gipc3 gene encoded a 297-amino-acid protein, showing 86.2% total-amino-acid identity with human GIPC3. In addition to the central PDZ domain, GIPC homologous domain 1 (GH1 domain) and GH2 domain were found to be conserved among mouse Gipc3, Gipc1, Gipc2, and Xenopus Kermit. Mouse Gipc3 gene was found to consist of 6 exons, and exon-intron structure was well conserved between mouse Gipc3 gene and human GIPC3 gene. Mouse Gipc3 mRNA was relatively highly expressed in adult lung, and was also expressed in brain and testis, but was almost undetectable in 7-, 11-, 15, and 17-day whole embryos. This is the first report on molecular cloning and initial characterization of mouse Gipc3.

  14. MTO1-Deficient Mouse Model Mirrors the Human Phenotype Showing Complex I Defect and Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lore; Kling, Eva; Schiller, Evelyn; Zeh, Ramona; Schrewe, Anja; Hölter, Sabine M.; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Strecker, Valentina; Wittig, Ilka; Dumitru, Iulia; Wenz, Tina; Bender, Andreas; Aichler, Michaela; Janik, Dirk; Neff, Frauke; Walch, Axel; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Floss, Thomas; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Wurst, Wolfgang; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Klopstock, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mutations in the mitochondrial translation optimization factor 1 gene (MTO1) were identified as causative in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and respiratory chain defect. Here, we describe an MTO1-deficient mouse model generated by gene trap mutagenesis that mirrors the human phenotype remarkably well. As in patients, the most prominent signs and symptoms were cardiovascular and included bradycardia and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the mutant mice showed a marked worsening of arrhythmias during induction and reversal of anaesthesia. The detailed morphological and biochemical workup of murine hearts indicated that the myocardial damage was due to complex I deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, neurological examination was largely normal in Mto1-deficient mice. A translational consequence of this mouse model may be to caution against anaesthesia-related cardiac arrhythmias which may be fatal in patients. PMID:25506927

  15. Strain Background Modifies Phenotypes in the ATP8B1-Deficient Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Julie C.; Xu, Hongmei; Groen, Annamiek; Paulusma, Coen C.; Grenert, James P.; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Sen, Saunak; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Bull, Laura N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutations in ATP8B1 (FIC1) underlie cases of cholestatic disease, ranging from chronic and progressive (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis) to intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis). The ATP8B1-deficient mouse serves as an animal model of human ATP8B1 deficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of ATP8B1-deficient and wild-type mice, using C57Bl/6 (B6), 129, and (B6-129) F1 strain backgrounds. B6 background resulted in greater abnormalities in ATP8B1-deficient mice than did 129 and/or F1 background. ATP8B1-deficient pups of B6 background gained less weight. In adult ATP8B1-deficient mice at baseline, those of B6 background had lower serum cholesterol levels, higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and larger livers. After challenge with cholate-supplemented diet, these mice exhibited higher serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, greater weight loss and larger livers. ATP8B1-deficient phenotypes in mice of F1 and 129 backgrounds are usually similar, suggesting that susceptibility to manifestations of ATP8B1 deficiency may be recessive. We also detected differences in hepatobiliary phenotypes between wild-type mice of differing strains. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the ATP8B1-deficient mouse in a B6 background may be a better model of human ATP8B1 deficiency and highlight the importance of informed background strain selection for mouse models of liver disease. PMID:20126555

  16. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel phenotype in pigs characterized by juvenile hairlessness and age dependent emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Camilla S; Jørgensen, Claus B; Bay, Lene; Cirera, Susanna; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Páll S; Nielsen, Jens; Christensen, Knud; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Background A pig phenotype characterized by juvenile hairlessness, thin skin and age dependent lung emphysema has been discovered in a Danish pig herd. The trait shows autosomal co-dominant inheritance with all three genotypes distinguishable. Since the phenotype shows resemblance to the integrin β6 -/- knockout phenotype seen in mice, the two genes encoding the two subunits of integrin αvβ6, i.e. ITGB6 and ITGAV, were considered candidate genes for this trait. Results The mutated pig phenotype is characterized by hairlessness until puberty, thin skin with few hair follicles and absence of musculi arrectores pili, and at puberty or later localized areas of emphysema are seen in the lungs. Comparative mapping predicted that the porcine ITGB6 andITGAV orthologs map to SSC15. In an experimental family (n = 113), showing segregation of the trait, the candidate region was confirmed by linkage analysis with four microsatellite markers. Mapping of the porcine ITGB6 and ITGAV in the IMpRH radiation hybrid panel confirmed the comparative mapping information. Sequencing of the ITGB6 and ITGAV coding sequences from affected and normal pigs revealed no evidence of a causative mutation, but alternative splicing of the ITGB6 pre-mRNA was detected. For both ITGB6 and ITGAV quantitative PCR revealed no significant difference in the expression levels in normal and affected animals. In a western blot, ITGB6 was detected in lung protein samples of all three genotypes. This result was supported by flow cytometric analyses which showed comparable reactions of kidney cells from affected and normal pigs with an integrin αvβ6 monoclonal antibody. Also, immunohistochemical staining of lung tissue with an integrin β6 antibody showed immunoreaction in both normal and affected pigs. Conclusion A phenotype resembling the integrin β6 -/- knockout phenotype seen in mice has been characterized in the pig. The candidate region on SSC15 has been confirmed by linkage analysis but molecular

  17. Electroretinographic genotype-phenotype correlations for mouse and man at the dmd/DMD locus

    SciTech Connect

    Millers, D.M.; Weleber, R.G.; Woodward, W.R.

    1994-09-01

    Reduced or absent b-waves in the dark-adapted electroretinogram (ERG) of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) patients led to the identification of dystrophin in human retina and the proposal that it plays a role in retinal electrophysiology. Study of a large group of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy males to determine their ocular characteristics indicated that there were position-specific effects of deletions, with 3{prime} defects associated with severe electroretinographic changes, whereas some 5{prime} patients demonstrated less severe, or even normal, ERGs. We studied the mdx mouse, a model with X-linked muscular dystrophy and defective full-length dystrophin, which failed to show any ERG abnormalities. Given the presence of alternate isoforms of dystrophin in retina, and the 5{prime} deletion DMD/BMD patients with normal ERGs, we studied mouse models with differing dystrophin mutations (mdx{sup Cv3}, mdx{sup Cv5}) to determine the usefulness of alternate strains as models for the visual effects of dystropin. Abnormal ERGs similar to those seen in DMD/BMS patients exist in the mdx{sup Cv3} strain of muscular dystrophy mice. Normal ERGs were found the mdx{sup Cv5} strain. The mutations in the mdx and mdx{sup Cv5} mice have been mapped to the 5{prime} end of the dmd gene, while the mutation in the mdx{sup Cv3} mouse is in the 3{prime} end. Thus, there are position effects of the gene defect on the ERG phenotype that are conserved in the mouse. Such genotype-phenotype correlations may reflect differential expression of shorter isoforms of dystrophin.

  18. Deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders: phenotype analysis of embryos from mutant mouse lines

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert; McGuire, Christina; Mohun, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) consortium is a research programme set up to identify genes in the mouse, which if mutated (or knocked-out) result in embryonic lethality when homozygous, and initiate the study of why disruption of their function has such profound effects on embryo development and survival. The project uses a combination of comprehensive high resolution 3D imaging and tissue histology to identify abnormalities in embryo and placental structures of embryonic lethal lines. The image data we have collected and the phenotypes scored are freely available through the project website (http://dmdd.org.uk). In this article we describe the web interface to the images that allows the embryo data to be viewed at full resolution in different planes, discuss how to search the database for a phenotype, and our approach to organising the data for an embryo and a mutant line so it is easy to comprehend and intuitive to navigate. PMID:26519470

  19. Diverse Phenotypes and Specific Transcription Patterns in Twenty Mouse Lines with Ablated LincRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ka-Man Venus; Gong, Guochun; Atanasio, Amanda; Rojas, José; Quispe, Joseph; Posca, Julita; White, Derek; Huang, Mei; Fedorova, Daria; Grant, Craig; Miloscio, Lawrence; Droguett, Gustavo; Poueymirou, William T.; Auerbach, Wojtek; Yancopoulos, George D.; Frendewey, David; Rinn, John; Valenzuela, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In a survey of 20 knockout mouse lines designed to examine the biological functions of large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs), we have found a variety of phenotypes, ranging from perinatal lethality to defects associated with premature aging and morphological and functional abnormalities in the lungs, skeleton, and muscle. Each mutant allele carried a lacZ reporter whose expression profile highlighted a wide spectrum of spatiotemporal and tissue-specific transcription patterns in embryos and adults that informed our phenotypic analyses and will serve as a guide for future investigations of these genes. Our study shows that lincRNAs are a new class of encoded molecules that, like proteins, serve essential and important functional roles in embryonic development, physiology, and homeostasis of a broad array of tissues and organs in mammals. PMID:25909911

  20. Deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders: phenotype analysis of embryos from mutant mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert; McGuire, Christina; Mohun, Timothy

    2016-01-04

    The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) consortium is a research programme set up to identify genes in the mouse, which if mutated (or knocked-out) result in embryonic lethality when homozygous, and initiate the study of why disruption of their function has such profound effects on embryo development and survival. The project uses a combination of comprehensive high resolution 3D imaging and tissue histology to identify abnormalities in embryo and placental structures of embryonic lethal lines. The image data we have collected and the phenotypes scored are freely available through the project website (http://dmdd.org.uk). In this article we describe the web interface to the images that allows the embryo data to be viewed at full resolution in different planes, discuss how to search the database for a phenotype, and our approach to organising the data for an embryo and a mutant line so it is easy to comprehend and intuitive to navigate.

  1. Chipping away at complex behavior: transcriptome/phenotype correlations in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Carter, T A; Del Rio, J A; Greenhall, J A; Latronica, M L; Lockhart, D J; Barlow, C

    2001-08-01

    Highly parallel gene expression profiling has the potential to provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of complex brain diseases and behavioral traits. We review how gene expression profiling in various brain regions of inbred mouse strains has been used to identify genes that may contribute to strain-specific phenotypes. New data, which demonstrate the use of gene expression profiling in combination with behavioral testing to identify candidate genes involved in mediating variation in running wheel activity, are also presented. These and other studies suggest that a combination of gene expression profiling and more traditional genetic approaches, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, can be used to identify genes responsible for specific neurobehavioral phenotypes.

  2. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  3. A Novel Drug-Mouse Phenotypic Similarity Method Detects Molecular Determinants of Drug Effects.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Jeanette; Vogt, Ingo; Adornetto, Gianluca; Campillos, Mónica

    2016-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms that translate drug treatment into beneficial and unwanted effects are largely unknown. We present here a novel approach to detect gene-drug and gene-side effect associations based on the phenotypic similarity of drugs and single gene perturbations in mice that account for the polypharmacological property of drugs. We scored the phenotypic similarity of human side effect profiles of 1,667 small molecules and biologicals to profiles of phenotypic traits of 5,384 mouse genes. The benchmarking with known relationships revealed a strong enrichment of physical and indirect drug-target connections, causative drug target-side effect links as well as gene-drug links involved in pharmacogenetic associations among phenotypically similar gene-drug pairs. The validation by in vitro assays and the experimental verification of an unknown connection between oxandrolone and prokineticin receptor 2 reinforces the ability of this method to provide new molecular insights underlying drug treatment. Thus, this approach may aid in the proposal of novel and personalized treatments.

  4. A Novel Drug-Mouse Phenotypic Similarity Method Detects Molecular Determinants of Drug Effects

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Jeanette; Vogt, Ingo; Adornetto, Gianluca; Campillos, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that translate drug treatment into beneficial and unwanted effects are largely unknown. We present here a novel approach to detect gene-drug and gene-side effect associations based on the phenotypic similarity of drugs and single gene perturbations in mice that account for the polypharmacological property of drugs. We scored the phenotypic similarity of human side effect profiles of 1,667 small molecules and biologicals to profiles of phenotypic traits of 5,384 mouse genes. The benchmarking with known relationships revealed a strong enrichment of physical and indirect drug-target connections, causative drug target-side effect links as well as gene-drug links involved in pharmacogenetic associations among phenotypically similar gene-drug pairs. The validation by in vitro assays and the experimental verification of an unknown connection between oxandrolone and prokineticin receptor 2 reinforces the ability of this method to provide new molecular insights underlying drug treatment. Thus, this approach may aid in the proposal of novel and personalized treatments. PMID:27673331

  5. Systemic first-line phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Adler, Thure; Aguilar Pimentel, Antonio; Becker, Lore; Bolle, Ines; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Dalke, Claudia; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Ferwagner, Barbara; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Horsch, Marion; Javaheri, Anahita; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Lengger, Christoph; Mörth, Corinna; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Thiele, Frank; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Favor, Jack; Graw, Jochen; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Ivandic, Boris; Katus, Hugo; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Ollert, Markus; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé

    2009-01-01

    With the completion of the mouse genome sequence an essential task for biomedical sciences in the twenty-first century will be the generation and functional analysis of mouse models for every gene in the mammalian genome. More than 30,000 mutations in ES cells will be engineered and thousands of mouse disease models will become available over the coming years by the collaborative effort of the International Mouse Knockout Consortium. In order to realize the full value of the mouse models proper characterization, archiving and dissemination of mouse disease models to the research community have to be performed. Phenotyping centers (mouse clinics) provide the necessary capacity, broad expertise, equipment, and infrastructure to carry out large-scale systemic first-line phenotyping. Using the example of the German Mouse Clinic (GMC) we will introduce the reader to the different aspects of the organization of a mouse clinic and present selected methods used in first-line phenotyping.

  6. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  7. Structural and Functional Concepts in Current Mouse Phenotyping and Archiving Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kollmus, Heike; Post, Rainer; Brielmeier, Markus; Fernández, Julia; Fuchs, Helmut; McKerlie, Colin; Montoliu, Lluis; Otaegui, Pedro J; Rebelo, Manuel; Riedesel, Hermann; Ruberte, Jesús; Sedlacek, Radislav; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Schughart, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Collecting and analyzing available information on the building plans, concepts, and workflow from existing animal facilities is an essential prerequisite for most centers that are planning and designing the construction of a new animal experimental research unit. Here, we have collected and analyzed such information in the context of the European project Infrafrontier, which aims to develop a common European infrastructure for high-throughput systemic phenotyping, archiving, and dissemination of mouse models. A team of experts visited 9 research facilities and 3 commercial breeders in Europe, Canada, the United States, and Singapore. During the visits, detailed data of each facility were collected and subsequently represented in standardized floor plans and descriptive tables. These data showed that because the local needs of scientists and their projects, property issues, and national and regional laws require very specific solutions, a common strategy for the construction of such facilities does not exist. However, several basic concepts were apparent that can be described by standardized floor plans showing the principle functional units and their interconnection. Here, we provide detailed information of how individual facilities addressed their specific needs by using different concepts of connecting the principle units. Our analysis likely will be valuable to research centers that are planning to design new mouse phenotyping and archiving facilities. PMID:23043807

  8. Structural and functional concepts in current mouse phenotyping and archiving facilities.

    PubMed

    Kollmus, Heike; Post, Rainer; Brielmeier, Markus; Fernández, Julia; Fuchs, Helmut; McKerlie, Colin; Montoliu, Lluis; Otaegui, Pedro J; Rebelo, Manuel; Riedesel, Hermann; Ruberte, Jesús; Sedlacek, Radislav; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Schughart, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Collecting and analyzing available information on the building plans, concepts, and workflow from existing animal facilities is an essential prerequisite for most centers that are planning and designing the construction of a new animal experimental research unit. Here, we have collected and analyzed such information in the context of the European project Infrafrontier, which aims to develop a common European infrastructure for high-throughput systemic phenotyping, archiving, and dissemination of mouse models. A team of experts visited 9 research facilities and 3 commercial breeders in Europe, Canada, the United States, and Singapore. During the visits, detailed data of each facility were collected and subsequently represented in standardized floor plans and descriptive tables. These data showed that because the local needs of scientists and their projects, property issues, and national and regional laws require very specific solutions, a common strategy for the construction of such facilities does not exist. However, several basic concepts were apparent that can be described by standardized floor plans showing the principle functional units and their interconnection. Here, we provide detailed information of how individual facilities addressed their specific needs by using different concepts of connecting the principle units. Our analysis likely will be valuable to research centers that are planning to design new mouse phenotyping and archiving facilities.

  9. Assessment of ataxia phenotype in a new mouse model of galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wyman; Caston, Rose; Balakrishnan, Bijina; Siddiqi, Anwer; Parmar, Kamalpreet; Tang, Manshu; Feng, Merry; Lai, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Despite adequate dietary management, patients with classic galactosemia continue to have increased risks of cognitive deficits, speech dyspraxia, primary ovarian insufficiency, and abnormal motor development. A recent evaluation of a new galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT)-deficient mouse model revealed reduced fertility and growth restriction. These phenotypes resemble those seen in human patients. In this study, we further assess the fidelity of this new mouse model by examining the animals for the manifestation of a common neurological sequela in human patients: cerebellar ataxia. The balance, grip strength, and motor coordination of GALT-deficient and wild-type mice were tested using a modified rotarod. The results were compared to composite phenotype scoring tests, typically used to evaluate neurological and motor impairment. The data demonstrated abnormalities with varying severity in the GALT-deficient mice. Mice of different ages were used to reveal the progressive nature of motor impairment. The varying severity and age-dependent impairments seen in the animal model agree with reports on human patients. Finally, measurements of the cerebellar granular and molecular layers suggested that mutant mice experience cerebellar hypoplasia, which could have resulted from the down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  10. Phenotypic characterization of macrophages in human term placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Mues, B; Langer, D; Zwadlo, G; Sorg, C

    1989-01-01

    Immunohistological techniques have been used to study heterogeneity, frequency and distribution of macrophages and T lymphocytes in chorionic villous mesenchyme, stroma of the amniochorion and decidua of 36 human term placentas obtained at spontaneous normal delivery and by caesarean section, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for macrophage phenotypes appearing in acute early (mAb 27E10), late (mAb 25F9) and down-regulatory (mAb RM3/1) stages of inflammation. Significant numbers of macrophages were identified. It could be shown that RM3/1+ macrophage phenotypes which in vitro are strongly dexamethasone-inducible and in vivo appear in down-regulatory stages of inflammatory processes are the major cell population in human term placenta. Macrophages characterized by monoclonal antibodies 27E10 and 25F9, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, were distributed sparsely or were completely absent. The finding of anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotypes to be the predominant mononuclear cell population in human term placenta provides support for a mechanism whereby placenta functions as an active immunosuppressive biological barrier between mother and fetus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2788125

  11. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) change their phenotype when cultured with fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi-Schaffer, F.; Austen, K.F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1986-03-05

    The heparin-containing mast cells (HP-MC) that reside in the connective tissues of the mouse, but not the chondroitin sulfate containing mast cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa, stain with safranin when exposed to alcian blue/safranin. Mouse BMMC (the presumptive in vitro counterpart of the in vivo differentiated mucosal mast cell) were cultured for 2-14 days with confluent skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum and 50% WEHI-3 conditioned medium. Although the BMMC adhered to the fibroblast monolayer, they continued to divide, probably due to the presence of interleukin-3 in the conditioned medium. The mast cells remained viable throughout the period of co-culture, since they failed to release LDG and because they increased their histamine content per cell approx.15-fold. After 8-9 days of co-culture, >50% of the BMMC changed histochemically becoming safranin positive. At this time, 30-50% of the (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans on the proteoglycans synthesized by these co-cultured mass cells were heparin, whereas the initial BMMC synthesized proteoglycans containing only chondroitin sulfate E. That interleukin 3-dependent mouse BMMC can be induced to undergo a phenotypic change so as to express characteristics of a HP-MC suggests that the tissue microenvironment determines the differentiated characteristics of these cells.

  12. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibit a similar but not identical phenotype to bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSC).

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hamid; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Aldahmash, Abdullah M; Abdallah, Basem M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-06-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts have been utilized as a surrogate stem cell model for the postnatal bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (BMSC) to study mesoderm-type cell differentiation e.g. osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. However, no formal characterization of MEF phenotype has been reported. Utilizing standard in vitro and in vivo assays we performed a side-by-side comparison of MEF and BMSC to determine their ability to differentiate into mesoderm-type cells. BMSC were isolated from 8-10 weeks old mouse bone marrow by plastic adherence. MEF were established by trypsin/EDTA digestion from E13.5 embryos after removing heads and viscera, followed by plastic adherence. Compared to BMSC, MEF exhibited telomerase activity and improved cell proliferation as assessed by q-PCR based TRAP assay and cell number quantification, respectively. FACS analysis revealed that MEF exhibited surface markers characteristic of the BMSC: Sca-1(+), CD73(+), CD105(+), CD29(+), CD44(+), CD106(+), CD11b(-), and CD45(-). In contrast to BMSC, ex vivo osteoblast (OB) differentiation of MEF exhibited a less mature osteoblastic phenotype (less alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I and osteocalcin) as assessed by real-time PCR analysis. Compared to BMSC, MEF exhibited a more enhanced differentiation into adipocyte and chondrocyte lineages. Interestingly, both MEF and BMSC formed the same amount of heterotopic bone and bone marrow elements upon in vivo subcutaneous implantation with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate, in immune deficient mice. In conclusion, MEF contain a population of stem cells that behave in ex vivo and in vivo assays, similar but not identical, to BMSC. Due to their enhanced cell growth, they may represent a good alternative for BMSC in studying molecular mechanisms of stem cell commitment and differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes.

  13. Dietary phosphorus overload aggravates the phenotype of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Wada, Eiji; Yoshida, Mizuko; Kojima, Yoriko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Shiozuka, Masataka; Date, Munehiro; Higashi, Tetsuo; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked disease with no effective treatment. Progressive muscle degeneration, increased macrophage infiltration, and ectopic calcification are characteristic features of the mdx mouse, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because dietary phosphorus/phosphate consumption is increasing and adverse effects of phosphate overloading have been reported in several disease conditions, we examined the effects of dietary phosphorus intake in mdx mice phenotypes. On weaning, control and mdx mice were fed diets containing 0.7, 1.0, or 2.0 g phosphorus per 100 g until they were 90 days old. Dystrophic phenotypes were evaluated in cryosections of quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles, and maximal forces and voluntary activity were measured. Ectopic calcification was analyzed by electron microscopy to determine the cells initially responsible for calcium deposition in skeletal muscle. Dietary phosphorus overload dramatically exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes of mdx mice by increasing inflammation associated with infiltration of M1 macrophages. In contrast, minimal muscle necrosis and inflammation were observed in exercised mdx mice fed a low-phosphorus diet, suggesting potential beneficial therapeutic effects of lowering dietary phosphorus intake on disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that dietary phosphorus intake directly affects muscle pathological characteristics of mdx mice. Dietary phosphorus overloading promoted dystrophic disease progression in mdx mice, whereas restricting dietary phosphorus intake improved muscle pathological characteristics and function.

  14. Phenotypes of Myopathy-Related Beta-Tropomyosin Mutants in Human and Mouse Tissue Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hussein, Saba; Rahl, Karin; Moslemi, Ali-Reza; Tajsharghi, Homa

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in TPM2 result in a variety of myopathies characterised by variable clinical and morphological features. We used human and mouse cultured cells to study the effects of β-TM mutants. The mutants induced a range of phenotypes in human myoblasts, which generally changed upon differentiation to myotubes. Human myotubes transfected with the E41K-β-TMEGFP mutant showed perinuclear aggregates. The G53ins-β-TMEGFP mutant tended to accumulate in myoblasts but was incorporated into filamentous structures of myotubes. The K49del-β-TMEGFP and E122K-β-TMEGFP mutants induced the formation of rod-like structures in human cells. The N202K-β-TMEGFP mutant failed to integrate into thin filaments and formed accumulations in myotubes. The accumulation of mutant β-TMEGFP in the perinuclear and peripheral areas of the cells was the striking feature in C2C12. We demonstrated that human tissue culture is a suitable system for studying the early stages of altered myofibrilogenesis and morphological changes linked to myopathy-related β-TM mutants. In addition, the histopathological phenotype associated with expression of the various mutant proteins depends on the cell type and varies with the maturation of the muscle cell. Further, the phenotype is a combinatorial effect of the specific amino acid change and the temporal expression of the mutant protein. PMID:24039757

  15. Phenotypic characterization of culture expanded rabbit limbal corneal keratocytes.

    PubMed

    Abd Ghafar, Norzana; Chua, Kien Hui; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Che Hamzah, Jemaima; Othman, Fauziah; Abd Rahman, Ropilah; Hj Idrus, Ruszymah

    2014-03-01

    The in vivo quiescent corneal stroma keratocytes need to be transformed to activated state in order to obtain sufficient number of cells either for monolayer evaluation or corneal stroma reconstruction. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic characterization of corneal stromal cells during culture expansion from the limbal region of the cornea. Isolated corneal keratocytes from limbal tissue of New Zealand White Strain rabbits' corneas (n = 6) were culture expanded until three passages. Keratocytes morphology was examined daily with viability, growth rate, number of cell doubling and population doubling time were recorded at each passage. The expression of collagen type 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), lumican and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were detected by RT-PCR. Immunocytochemistry was also used to detect ALDH, α-SMA, collagen type I and Cytokeratin-3 (CK3). Growth kinetic study revealed that the growth rate was low at the initial passage but increase to about two folds with concomitant reduction in population doubling time in later passages. Freshly isolated and cultured keratocytes expressed collagen type 1, ALDH and lumican but α-SMA expression was absent. However, α-SMA was expressed along with the other genes during culture expansion. Keratocytes at P1 expressed all the proteins except CK3. These results suggest that cultured keratocytes maintained most of the gene expression profile of native keratocytes while the emergence of α-SMA in serial passages showed a mix population of various phenotypes. The phenotypic characterization of monolayer keratocytes provides useful information before reconstruction of bioengineered tissue or in vitro pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Augmentation of phenotype in a transgenic Parkinson mouse heterozygous for a Gaucher mutation.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Ianai; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Giasson, Benoit I; Nussbaum, Robert L

    2014-12-01

    The involvement of the protein α-synuclein (SNCA) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is strongly supported by the facts that (i) missense and copy number mutations in the SNCA gene can cause inherited Parkinson's disease; and (ii) Lewy bodies in sporadic Parkinson's disease are largely composed of aggregated SNCA. Unaffected heterozygous carriers of Gaucher disease mutations have an increased risk for Parkinson's disease. As mutations in the GBA gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GBA) are known to interfere with lysosomal protein degradation, GBA heterozygotes may demonstrate reduced lysosomal SNCA degradation, leading to increased steady-state SNCA levels and promoting its aggregation. We have created mouse models to investigate the interaction between GBA mutations and synucleinopathies. We investigated the rate of SNCA degradation in cultured primary cortical neurons from mice expressing wild-type mouse SNCA, wild-type human SNCA, or mutant A53T SNCA, in a background of either wild-type Gba or heterozygosity for the L444P GBA mutation associated with Gaucher disease. We also tested the effect of this Gaucher mutation on motor and enteric nervous system function in these transgenic animals. We found that human SNCA is stable, with a half-life of 61 h, and that the A53T mutation did not significantly affect its half-life. Heterozygosity for a naturally occurring Gaucher mutation, L444P, reduced GBA activity by 40%, reduced SNCA degradation and triggered accumulation of the protein in culture. This mutation also resulted in the exacerbation of motor and gastrointestinal deficits found in the A53T mouse model of Parkinson's disease. This study demonstrates that heterozygosity for a Gaucher disease-associated mutation in Gba interferes with SNCA degradation and contributes to its accumulation, and exacerbates the phenotype in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Enzyme kinetics and characterization of mouse pancreatic elastase.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Deepa; Atkinson, Mark A L; Huebner, Paul; Starcher, Barry

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we have purified and characterized murine pancreatic elastase. The enzyme was extracted from acetone powders of mouse pancreas, fractionally precipitated with ammonium sulfate, and further purified by ion exchange chromatography to a single band on SDS-PAGE. The mouse enzyme exists in a proform, which was activated by removing a signal peptide by tryptic cleavage. The active form of mouse pancreatic elastase was shown by ultracentrifugation to have a molecular weight of 25.9 kDa and a frictional ratio of 1.26. The pH optimum for proteolytic activity was 8.0. Kinetic measurements were made with a variety of substrates and inhibitors and compared with elastases from other sources. The enzymatic properties and kinetic profiles for mouse pancreatic elastase were similar to other known serine elastases.

  18. Cloning, characterization, and localization of mouse and human SPO11.

    PubMed

    Romanienko, P J; Camerini-Otero, R D

    1999-10-15

    Spo11 is a meiosis-specific protein in yeast that has been found covalently bound to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during the early stages of meiosis. These DSBs initiate homologous recombination, which is required for proper segregation of chromosomes and the generation of genetic diversity during meiosis. Here we report the cloning, characterization, tissue expression, and chromosomal localization of both mouse and human homologues of Spo11. The putative mouse and human proteins are 82% identical and share approximately 25% identity with other family members. Northern blot analysis revealed testis-specific expression for both genes, but RT-PCR results showed ubiquitous expression of at least a portion of Spo11 in mouse. Human SPO11 was also detected in several somatic tissues. Mouse Spo11 was localized to chromosome 2H4, and human SPO11 was localized to chromosome 20q13.2-q13.3, a region amplified in some breast and ovarian tumors.

  19. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini; Georgiades, Pantelis

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8

  20. The "Goldilocks Effect" in Cystic Fibrosis: identification of a lung phenotype in the cftr knockout and heterozygous mouse

    PubMed Central

    Craig Cohen, J; Lundblad, Lennart KA; Bates, Jason HT; Levitzky, Michael; Larson, Janet E

    2004-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis is a pleiotropic disease in humans with primary morbidity and mortality associated with a lung disease phenotype. However, knockout in the mouse of cftr, the gene whose mutant alleles are responsible for cystic fibrosis, has previously failed to produce a readily, quantifiable lung phenotype. Results Using measurements of pulmonary mechanics, a definitive lung phenotype was demonstrated in the cftr-/- mouse. Lungs showed decreased compliance and increased airway resistance in young animals as compared to cftr+/+ littermates. These changes were noted in animals less than 60 days old, prior to any long term inflammatory effects that might occur, and are consistent with structural differences in the cftr-/- lungs. Surprisingly, the cftr+/- animals exhibited a lung phenotype distinct from either the homozygous normal or knockout genotypes. The heterozygous mice showed increased lung compliance and decreased airway resistance when compared to either homozygous phenotype, suggesting a heterozygous advantage that might explain the high frequency of this mutation in certain populations. Conclusions In the mouse the gene dosage of cftr results in distinct differences in pulmonary mechanics of the adult. Distinct phenotypes were demonstrated in each genotype, cftr-/-, cftr +/-, and cftr+/+. These results are consistent with a developmental role for CFTR in the lung. PMID:15279681

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS VIRULENCE USING AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUSE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  3. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of P23H Line 1 Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Elise; Dalkara, Deniz; Neuillé, Marion; Lechauve, Christophe; Michiels, Christelle; Picaud, Serge; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Naash, Muna I.; Lavail, Matthew M.; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is the most common inherited degenerative photoreceptor disease, for which no therapy is currently available. The P23H rat is one of the most commonly used autosomal dominant RP models. It has been created by incorporation of a mutated mouse rhodopsin (Rho) transgene in the wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley rat. Detailed genetic characterization of this transgenic animal has however never been fully reported. Here we filled this knowledge gap on P23H Line 1 rat (P23H-1) and provide additional phenotypic information applying non-invasive and state-of-the-art in vivo techniques that are relevant for preclinical therapeutic evaluations. Transgene sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Using quantitative PCR, transgene copy number was calculated and its expression measured in retinal tissue. Full field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed at 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-months of age. Sanger sequencing revealed that P23H-1 rat carries the mutated mouse genomic Rho sequence from the promoter to the 3’ UTR. Transgene copy numbers were estimated at 9 and 18 copies in the hemizygous and homozygous rats respectively. In 1-month-old hemizygous P23H-1 rats, transgene expression represented 43% of all Rho expressed alleles. ERG showed a progressive rod-cone dysfunction peaking at 6 months-of-age. SD-OCT confirmed a progressive thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer leading to the disappearance of the outer retina by 6 months with additional morphological changes in the inner retinal cell layers in hemizygous P23H-1 rats. These results provide precise genotypic information of the P23H-1 rat with additional phenotypic characterization that will serve basis for therapeutic interventions, especially for those aiming at gene editing. PMID:26009893

  4. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of P23H line 1 rat model.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Elise; Dalkara, Deniz; Neuillé, Marion; Lechauve, Christophe; Michiels, Christelle; Picaud, Serge; Léveillard, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Naash, Muna I; Lavail, Matthew M; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is the most common inherited degenerative photoreceptor disease, for which no therapy is currently available. The P23H rat is one of the most commonly used autosomal dominant RP models. It has been created by incorporation of a mutated mouse rhodopsin (Rho) transgene in the wild-type (WT) Sprague Dawley rat. Detailed genetic characterization of this transgenic animal has however never been fully reported. Here we filled this knowledge gap on P23H Line 1 rat (P23H-1) and provide additional phenotypic information applying non-invasive and state-of-the-art in vivo techniques that are relevant for preclinical therapeutic evaluations. Transgene sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Using quantitative PCR, transgene copy number was calculated and its expression measured in retinal tissue. Full field electroretinography (ERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed at 1-, 2-, 3- and 6-months of age. Sanger sequencing revealed that P23H-1 rat carries the mutated mouse genomic Rho sequence from the promoter to the 3' UTR. Transgene copy numbers were estimated at 9 and 18 copies in the hemizygous and homozygous rats respectively. In 1-month-old hemizygous P23H-1 rats, transgene expression represented 43% of all Rho expressed alleles. ERG showed a progressive rod-cone dysfunction peaking at 6 months-of-age. SD-OCT confirmed a progressive thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer leading to the disappearance of the outer retina by 6 months with additional morphological changes in the inner retinal cell layers in hemizygous P23H-1 rats. These results provide precise genotypic information of the P23H-1 rat with additional phenotypic characterization that will serve basis for therapeutic interventions, especially for those aiming at gene editing.

  5. Vitamin B12 ameliorates the phenotype of a mouse model of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lania, Gabriella; Bresciani, Alberto; Bisbocci, Monica; Francone, Alessandra; Colonna, Vincenza; Altamura, Sergio; Baldini, Antonio

    2016-08-09

    Pathological conditions caused by reduced dosage of a gene, such as gene haploinsufficiency, can potentially be reverted by enhancing the expression of the functional allele. In practice, low specificity of therapeutic agents, or their toxicity reduces their clinical applicability. Here, we have used a high throughput screening (HTS) approach to identify molecules capable of increasing the expression of the gene Tbx1, which is involved in one of the most common gene haploinsufficiency syndromes, the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Surprisingly, we found that one of the two compounds identified by the HTS is the vitamin B12. Validation in a mouse model demonstrated that vitamin B12 treatment enhances Tbx1 gene expression and partially rescues the haploinsufficiency phenotype. These results lay the basis for preclinical and clinical studies to establish the effectiveness of this drug in the human syndrome.

  6. Transgenic rescue of phenotypic deficits in a mouse model of alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Kirshenbaum, Greer S; Dachtler, James; Roder, John C; Clapcote, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutations in ATP1A3 encoding Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α3 are the primary cause of alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC). Most ATP1A3 mutations in AHC lie within a cluster in or near transmembrane α-helix TM6, including I810N that is also found in the Myshkin mouse model of AHC. These mutations all substantially reduce Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α3 activity. Herein, we show that Myshkin mice carrying a wild-type Atp1a3 transgene that confers a 16 % increase in brain-specific total Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity show significant phenotypic improvements compared with non-transgenic Myshkin mice. Interventions to increase the activity of wild-type Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α3 in AHC patients should be investigated further.

  7. Characterizing the Phenotype of Advanced Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Pamela J.; Visco, Anthony G.; Shah, Svati H.; Fulton, Rebekah G.; Wu, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Genetic studies require a clearly defined phenotype to reach valid conclusions. Our aim was to characterize the phenotype of advanced prolapse by comparing women with stage III to IV prolapse with controls without prolapse. Methods Based on the pelvic organ prolapse quantification examination, women with stage 0 to stage I prolapse (controls) and those with stage III to stage IV prolapse (cases) were prospectively recruited as part of a genetic epidemiologic study. Data regarding sociodemographics; medical, obstetric, and surgical history; family history; and body mass index were obtained by a questionnaire administered by a trained coordinator and abstracted from electronic medical records. Results There were 275 case patients with advanced prolapse and 206 controls with stage 0 to stage I prolapse. Based on our recruitment strategy, the women were younger than the controls (64.7±10.1 vs 68.6±10.4 years; P<0.001); cases were also more likely to have had one or more vaginal deliveries (96.0% vs 82.0%; P<0.001). There were no differences in race, body mass index, and constipation. Regarding family history, cases were more likely to report that either their mother and/or sister(s) had prolapse (44.8% vs 16.9%, P<0.001). In a logistic regression model, vaginal parity (odds ratio, 4.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–9.85) and family history of prolapse (odds ratio, 3.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.16–6.46) remained significantly associated with advanced prolapse. Conclusions Vaginal parity and a family history of prolapse are more common in women with advanced prolapse compared to those without prolapse. These characteristics are important in phenotyping advanced prolapse, suggesting that these data should be collected in future genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:22983275

  8. Mouse Models for the p53 R72P Polymorphism Mimic Human Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Dollé, Martijn E.T.; Berton, Thomas R.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Capps, Carrie; Espejo, Alexsandra; McArthur, Mark J.; Bedford, Mark T.; van Steeg, Harry; de Vries, Annemieke; Johnson, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene contains a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that results in either an arginine or proline at position 72 of the p53 protein. This polymorphism affects the apoptotic activity of p53 but the mechanistic basis and physiological relevance of this phenotypic difference remain unclear. Here we describe the development of mouse models for the p53 R72P SNP using two different approaches. In both sets of models the human or humanized p53 proteins are functional as evidenced by the transcriptional induction of p53 target genes in response to DNA damage and the suppression of early lymphomagenesis. Consistent with in vitro studies, mice expressing the 72R variant protein (p53R) have a greater apoptotic response to several stimuli compared to mice expressing the p53P variant. Molecular studies suggest that both transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms may contribute to the differential abilities of the p53 variants to induce apoptosis. Despite a difference in the acute response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, no difference in the tumorigenic response to chronic UV exposure was observed between the polymorphic mouse models. These findings suggest that under at least some conditions, the modulation of apoptosis by the R72P polymorphism does not impact the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:20587514

  9. Evaluation of Planar-Cell-Polarity Phenotypes in Ciliopathy Mouse Mutant Cochlea.

    PubMed

    May-Simera, Helen

    2016-02-21

    In recent years, primary cilia have emerged as key regulators in development and disease by influencing numerous signaling pathways. One of the earliest signaling pathways shown to be associated with ciliary function was the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, also referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. One of the best places in which to study the effects of planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling during vertebrate development is the mammalian cochlea. PCP signaling disruption in the mouse cochlea disrupts cochlear outgrowth, cellular patterning and hair cell orientation, all of which are affected by cilia dysfunction. The goal of this protocol is to describe the analysis of PCP signaling in the developing mammalian cochlea via phenotypic analysis, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. Defects in convergence and extension are manifested as a shortening of the cochlear duct and/or changes in cellular patterning, which can be quantified following dissection from developing mouse mutants. Changes in stereociliary bundle orientation and kinocilia length or positioning can be observed and quantitated using either immunofluorescence or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A deeper insight into the role of ciliary proteins in cellular signaling pathways and other biological phenomena is crucial for our understanding of cellular and developmental biology, as well as for the development of targeted treatment strategies.

  10. Morphological and functional reversal of phenotypes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lianne; Guy, Jacky; McKay, Leanne; Brockett, Emma; Spike, Rosemary C; Selfridge, Jim; De Sousa, Dina; Merusi, Cara; Riedel, Gernot; Bird, Adrian; Cobb, Stuart R

    2012-09-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by mutation of the X-linked MECP2 gene. Mice lacking functional Mecp2 display a spectrum of Rett syndrome-like signs, including disturbances in motor function and abnormal patterns of breathing, accompanied by structural defects in central motor areas and the brainstem. Although routinely classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder, many aspects of the mouse phenotype can be effectively reversed by activation of a quiescent Mecp2 gene in adults. This suggests that absence of Mecp2 during brain development does not irreversibly compromise brain function. It is conceivable, however, that deep-seated neurological defects persist in mice rescued by late activation of Mecp2. To test this possibility, we have quantitatively analysed structural and functional plasticity of the rescued adult male mouse brain. Activation of Mecp2 in ∼70% of neurons reversed many morphological defects in the motor cortex, including neuronal size and dendritic complexity. Restoration of Mecp2 expression was also accompanied by a significant improvement in respiratory and sensory-motor functions, including breathing pattern, grip strength, balance beam and rotarod performance. Our findings sustain the view that MeCP2 does not play a pivotal role in brain development, but may instead be required to maintain full neurological function once development is complete.

  11. Differences in spinal distribution and neurochemical phenotype of colonic afferents in mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Julie A; Traub, Richard J; Davis, Brian M

    2006-01-10

    Visceral pain is a prevalent clinical problem and one of the most common ailments for which patients seek medical attention. Recent studies have described many of the physiological properties of visceral afferents, but not much is known regarding their anatomical characteristics. To determine the spinal distribution and neurochemical phenotype of colonic afferents in rodents, Alexa Fluor-conjugated cholera toxin-beta (CTB) was injected subserosally into the proximal and distal portions of the descending colon in Sprague Dawley rats and C57Bl/6 mice. Dorsal root ganglia (T10-S2) were processed for fluorescent immunohistochemistry and visualized by confocal microscopy. In the mouse, CTB-positive neurons were most numerous in the lumbosacral region (LS; L6-S1), with a smaller contribution in the thoracolumbar ganglia (TL; T13-L1). In contrast, CTB-positive neurons in the rat were most numerous in the TL ganglia, with a smaller contribution in the LS ganglia. The vast majority of CTB-positive neurons in both mouse and rat were positive for TRPV1 and CGRP and most likely unmyelinated, in that most colonic afferents were not positive for neurofilament heavy chain. In the mouse, the TL ganglia had a significantly higher percentage of TRPV1- and CGRP-positive neurons than did the LS ganglia, whereas no differences were observed in the rat. The high incidence of TRPV1-positive colonic afferents in rodents suggests that hypersensitivity from the viscera may be partially a TRPV1-mediated event, thereby providing a suitable target for the treatment of visceral pain.

  12. FMRP Expression Levels in Mouse Central Nervous System Neurons Determine Behavioral Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Jason; Gholizadeh, Shervin; Niibori, Yosuke; Pacey, Laura K; Halder, Sebok K; Koxhioni, Enea; Konno, Ayumu; Hirai, Hirokazu; Hampson, David R

    2016-12-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is absent or highly reduced in Fragile X Syndrome, a genetic disorder causing cognitive impairment and autistic behaviors. Previous proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated that restoring FMRP in the brain using viral vectors can improve pathological abnormalities in mouse models of fragile X. However, unlike small molecule drugs where the dose can readily be adjusted during treatment, viral vector-based biological therapeutic drugs present challenges in terms of achieving optimal dosing and expression levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the consequences of expressing varying levels of FMRP selectively in neurons of Fmr1 knockout and wild-type (WT) mice. A wide range of neuronal FMRP transgene levels was achieved in individual mice after intra-cerebroventricular administration of adeno-associated viral vectors coding for FMRP. In all treated knockout mice, prominent FMRP transgene expression was observed in forebrain structures, whereas lower levels were present in more caudal regions of the brain. Reduced levels of the synaptic protein PSD-95, elevated levels of the transcriptional modulator MeCP2, and abnormal motor activity, anxiety, and acoustic startle responses in Fmr1 knockout mice were fully or partially rescued after expression of FMRP at about 35-115% of WT expression, depending on the brain region examined. In the WT mouse, moderate FMRP over-expression of up to about twofold had little or no effect on PSD-95 and MeCP2 levels or on behavioral endophenotypes. In contrast, excessive over-expression in the Fmr1 knockout mouse forebrain (approximately 2.5-6-fold over WT) induced pathological motor hyperactivity and suppressed the startle response relative to WT mice. These results delineate a range of FMRP expression levels in the central nervous system that confer phenotypic improvement in fragile X mice. Collectively, these findings are pertinent to the development of long-term curative

  13. Characterization of Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi using MALDI Lipid Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Stübiger, Gerald; Wuczkowski, Michael; Mancera, Luis; Lopandic, Ksenija; Sterflinger, Katja; Belgacem, Omar

    2016-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) becomes the method of choice for the rapid identification of microorganisms (i.e. protein biotyping). Although bacterial identification is already quite advanced, biotyping of other microbes including yeasts and fungi are still under development. In this context, lipids (e.g. membrane phospholipids) represent a very important group of molecules with essential functions for cell survival and adaptation to specific environments and habitats of the microorganisms. Therefore, lipids show the potential to serve as additional molecular parameters to be used for biotyping purposes. In this paper we present a molecular characterisation of yeasts and filamentous fungi based on the analysis of lipid composition by MALDI-MS (i.e. MALDI lipid phenotyping). Using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Clustering we could demonstrate that this approach allowed a classification and differentiation of several groups of yeasts (e.g. Saccharomyces) and filamentous fungi (e.g. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma) at the species/strain level. By analysing the MALDI lipid profiles we were able to differentiate 26 closely related yeast strains, for which discrimination via genotypic methods like AFLP in this case are relatively more elaborate. Moreover, employing statistical analysis we could identify those lipid parameters (e.g. PCs and LPCs), which were responsible for the differentiation of the strains, thus providing insights into the molecular basis of our results. In summary, MALDI lipid phenotyping represents a suitable method for fungal characterization and shows the potential to be used as companion tool to genotyping and/or protein biotyping for the characterization and identification of yeasts and fungi in diverse areas (e.g. environmental, pharmaceutical, clinical applications, etc.). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Deletion of TMPRSS6 attenuates the phenotype in a mouse model of β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Nai, Antonella; Pagani, Alessia; Mandelli, Giacomo; Lidonnici, Maria Rosa; Silvestri, Laura; Ferrari, Giuliana

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriately low expression of the key iron regulator hepcidin (HAMP) causes iron overload in untransfused patients affected by β-thalassemia intermedia and Hamp modulation provides improvement of the thalassemic phenotype of the Hbbth3/+ mouse. HAMP expression is activated by iron through the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)–son of mothers against decapentaplegic signaling pathway and inhibited by ineffective erythropoiesis through an unknown “erythroid regulator.” The BMP pathway is inactivated by the serine protease TMPRSS6 that cleaves the BMP coreceptor hemojuvelin. Here, we show that homozygous loss of Tmprss6 in Hbbth3/+ mice improves anemia and reduces ineffective erythropoiesis, splenomegaly, and iron loading. All these effects are mediated by Hamp up-regulation, which inhibits iron absorption and recycling. Because Hbbth3/+ mice lacking Tmprss6 show residual ineffective erythropoiesis, our results indicate that Tmprss6 is essential for Hamp inhibition by the erythroid regulator. We also obtained partial correction of the phenotype in Tmprss6 haploinsufficient Hbbth3/+ male but not female mice and showed that the observed sex difference reflects an unequal balance between iron and erythropoiesis-mediated Hamp regulation. Our study indicates that preventing iron overload improves β-thalassemia and strengthens the essential role of Tmprss6 for Hamp suppression, providing a proof of concept that Tmprss6 manipulation can offer a novel therapeutic option in this condition. PMID:22490684

  15. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Odin deficient mice display a hyperproliiferative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias; Nielsen, Mogens Møller; Blagoev, Blagoy; Pandey, Akhilesh; Mann, Matthias

    2004-08-31

    Odin is a recently identified cytosolic phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain containing negative regulatory protein, that was discovered on the basis of its ability to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation upon stimulation by epidermal growth factor in HeLa cells. The protein was originally obtained as a KIAA clone (KIAA 0229) from the Kazusa DNA Research Institute which maintains the HUGE protein database--a database devoted to the analysis of long cDNA clones encoding large proteins (>50 kDa). Odin has been demonstrated to cause downregulation of c-Fos promoter activity and to inhibit PDGF-induced mitogenesis in cell lines. To further investigate the role of Odin in growth factor receptor signaling and to elucidate its biological function in vivo, we have generated mice deficient in Odin by gene targeting. Odin-deficient mice do not display any obvious phenotype, and histological examination of the kidney, lung and liver does not show any major abnormalities as compared to wild-type controls. However, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from Odin-deficient mice exhibit a hyperproliferative phenotype compared to wild-type-derived MEFs, consistent with its role as a negative regulator of growth factor receptor signaling. Our results confirm that although Odin expression in mice is not essential for any major developmental pathway, it could play a significant functional role to negatively regulate growth factor receptor signaling pathways.

  16. A mouse kidney cell line with a G:C --> C:G transversion mutator phenotype.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chi Y; Ponomareva, Olga N; Connolly, Lanelle; Turker, Mitchell S

    2002-06-19

    We report the identification of a mouse kidney epithelial cell line (K435) in which G:C-->C:G transversion mutations occur at an elevated rate and are the predominant spontaneous events observed at the selectable Aprt locus. Of three genotoxins tested, ultraviolet radiation (UV), ionizing radiation, and hydrogen peroxide, only UV exposure was able to alter the spectrum of small mutational events. To determine if the G:C-->C:G mutator phenotype was due to a deficiency in the mismatch repair pathway, the K435 cells were tested for resistance to 6-thioguanine, cisplatin, and MNNG. Although the K435 cells were as resistant to 6-thioguanine and cisplatin as Pms2 and Mlh1 null kidney cells, they were hypersensitive to MNNG. Moreover, the K435 cells do not exhibit microsatellite instability, a hallmark of mismatch repair deficiency. These results suggest that a novel mechanism, which does not include a classical deficiency in mismatch repair, accounts for the G:C-->C:G mutator phenotype.

  17. Correction of the disease phenotype in the mouse model of Stargardt disease by lentiviral gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kong, J; Kim, S-R; Binley, K; Pata, I; Doi, K; Mannik, J; Zernant-Rajang, J; Kan, O; Iqball, S; Naylor, S; Sparrow, J R; Gouras, P; Allikmets, R

    2008-10-01

    Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) is a macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the ABCA4 (ABCR) gene. The disease phenotype that is most recognized in STGD1 patients, and also in the Abca4-/- mouse (a disease model), is lipofuscin accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium. Here, we tested whether delivery of the normal (wt) human ABCA4 gene to the subretinal space of the Abca4 -/- mice via lentiviral vectors would correct the disease phenotype; that is, reduce accumulation of the lipofuscin pigment A2E. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-derived lentiviral vectors were constructed expressing either the human ABCA4 gene or the LacZ reporter gene under the control of the constitutive (CMV) or photoreceptor-specific (Rho) promoters. Abca4-/- mice were injected subretinally with 1 microl ( approximately 5.0 x 10(5) TU) of each EIAV vector in one eye at postnatal days 4 and 5. An injection of saline, an EIAV-null vector, or an uninjected contralateral eye served as a control. Mice were killed at various times after injection to determine photoreceptor (PR) transduction efficiency and A2E concentrations. EIAV-LacZ vectors transduced from 5 to 20% of the PRs in the injected area in mice. Most importantly, a single subretinal injection of EIAV-CMV-ABCA4 to Abca4-/- mouse eyes substantially reduced disease-associated A2E accumulation compared to untreated and mock-treated control eyes. Treated eyes of Abca4-/- mice accumulated 8-12 pmol per eye (s.d.=2.7) of A2E 1 year after treatment, amounts comparable to wt controls, whereas mock-treated or untreated eyes had 3-5 times more A2E (27-39 pmol per eye, s.d.=1.5; P=0.001-0.005). Although extrapolation to humans requires caution, the high transduction efficiency of both rod and cone photoreceptors and the statistically significant reduction of A2E accumulation in the mouse model of STGD1 suggest that lentiviral gene therapy is a potentially efficient tool for treating ABCA4-associated diseases.

  18. Correction of the disease phenotype in the mouse model of Stargardt disease by lentiviral gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, J; Kim, S-R; Binley, K; Pata, I; Doi, K; Mannik, J; Zernant-Rajang, J; Kan, O; Iqball, S; Naylor, S; Sparrow, JR; Gouras, P; Allikmets, R

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) is a macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the ABCA4 (ABCR) gene. The disease phenotype that is most recognized in STGD1 patients, and also in the Abca4−/− mouse (a disease model), is lipofuscin accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium. Here, we tested whether delivery of the normal (wt) human ABCA4 gene to the subretinal space of the Abca4−/− mice via lentiviral vectors would correct the disease phenotype; that is, reduce accumulation of the lipofuscin pigment A2E. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-derived lentiviral vectors were constructed expressing either the human ABCA4 gene or the LacZ reporter gene under the control of the constitutive (CMV) or photoreceptor-specific (Rho) promoters. Abca4−/− mice were injected subretinally with 1 µl (~5.0 × 105 TU) of each EIAV vector in one eye at postnatal days 4 and 5. An injection of saline, an EIAV-null vector, or an uninjected contralateral eye served as a control. Mice were killed at various times after injection to determine photoreceptor (PR) transduction efficiency and A2E concentrations. EIAV-LacZ vectors transduced from 5 to 20% of the PRs in the injected area in mice. Most importantly, a single subretinal injection of EIAV-CMV-ABCA4 to Abca4−/− mouse eyes substantially reduced disease-associated A2E accumulation compared to untreated and mock-treated control eyes. Treated eyes of Abca4−/− mice accumulated 8–12 pmol per eye (s.d. = 2.7) of A2E 1 year after treatment, amounts comparable to wt controls, whereas mock-treated or untreated eyes had 3–5 times more A2E (27–39 pmol per eye, s.d. = 1.5; P = 0.001–0.005). Although extrapolation to humans requires caution, the high transduction efficiency of both rod and cone photoreceptors and the statistically significant reduction of A2E accumulation in the mouse model of STGD1 suggest that lentiviral gene therapy is a potentially efficient tool for treating ABCA4-associated diseases

  19. Amyloid and tau pathology of familial Alzheimer's disease APP/PS1 mouse model in a senescence phenotype background (SAMP8).

    PubMed

    Porquet, D; Andrés-Benito, P; Griñán-Ferré, C; Camins, A; Ferrer, I; Canudas, A M; Del Valle, J; Pallàs, Mercè

    2015-02-01

    The amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has provided robust neuropathological hallmarks of familial AD-like pattern at early ages, whereas senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) has a remarkable early senescence phenotype with pathological similarities to AD. The aim of this study was the investigation and characterization of cognitive and neuropathological AD markers in a novel mouse model that combines the characteristics of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model with a senescence-accelerated background of SAMP8 mice. Initially, significant differences were found regarding amyloid plaque formation and cognitive abnormalities. Bearing these facts in mind, we determined a general characterization of the main AD brain molecular markers, such as alterations in amyloid pathway, neuroinflammation, and hyperphosphorylation of tau in these mice along their lifetimes. Results from this analysis revealed that APP/PS1 in SAMP8 background mice showed alterations in the pathways studied in comparison with SAMP8 and APP/PS1, demonstrating that a senescence-accelerated background exacerbated the amyloid pathology and maintained the cognitive dysfunction present in APP/PS1 mice. Changes in tau pathology, including the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β), differs, but not in a parallel manner, with amyloid disturbances.

  20. Metabolic characterization of a Sirt5 deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiujiu; Sadhukhan, Sushabhan; Noriega, Lilia G; Moullan, Norman; He, Bin; Weiss, Robert S; Lin, Hening; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-09-30

    Sirt5, localized in the mitochondria, is a member of sirtuin family of NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases. Sirt5 was shown to deacetylate and activate carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1. Most recently, Sirt5 was reported to be the predominant protein desuccinylase and demalonylase in the mitochondria because the ablation of Sirt5 enhanced the global succinylation and malonylation of mitochondrial proteins, including many metabolic enzymes. In order to determine the physiological role of Sirt5 in metabolic homeostasis, we generated a germline Sirt5 deficient (Sirt5⁻/⁻) mouse model and performed a thorough metabolic characterization of this mouse line. Although a global protein hypersuccinylation and elevated serum ammonia during fasting were observed in our Sirt5⁻/⁻ mouse model, Sirt5 deficiency did not lead to any overt metabolic abnormalities under either chow or high fat diet conditions. These observations suggest that Sirt5 is likely to be dispensable for the metabolic homeostasis under the basal conditions.

  1. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of the species Acinetobacter venetianus.

    PubMed

    Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Orlandini, Valerio; La Torre, Laura; Bosi, Emanuele; Negroni, Andrea; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio; Decorosi, Francesca; Giovannetti, Luciana; Viti, Carlo; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Fani, Renato

    2016-02-23

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds that can produce serious environmental problems and whose removal is highly demanding in terms of human and technological resources. The potential use of microbes as bioremediation agents is one of the most promising fields in this area. Members of the species Acinetobacter venetianus have been previously characterized for their capability to degrade n-alkanes and thus may represent interesting model systems to implement this process. Although a preliminary experimental characterization of the overall hydrocarbon degradation capability has been performed for five of them, to date, the genetic/genomic features underlying such molecular processes have not been identified. Here we have integrated genomic and phenotypic information for six A. venetianus strains, i.e. VE-C3, RAG-1(T), LUH 13518, LUH 7437, LUH 5627 and LUH 8758. Besides providing a thorough description of the A. venetianus species, these data were exploited to infer the genetic features (presence/absence patterns of genes) and the short-term evolutionary events possibly responsible for the variability in n-alkane degradation efficiency of these strains, including the mechanisms of interaction with the fuel droplet and the subsequent catabolism of this pollutant.

  2. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae among children

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Hafsa; Zafar, Aizza; Ejaz, Hasan; Jameel, Noor-ul-Ain

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The emergence of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae in clinical isolates is posing a serious threat for treating nosocomial infections. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae and to compare the phenotypic methods used for the characterization of ESBL producing strains. Methodology: This cross sectional observational study was conducted during April 2011 to March 2012 at Microbiology department of The Children’s Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore. A total number of 20,257 various clinical samples were analyzed during the study period. Enterobacter cloacae were identified using API 20E system and ESBL detection was carried out using double-disk synergy test (DDST) and CLSI confirmatory test. Results: Enterobacter cloacae were isolated from 221 samples, out of which 33 (14.93%) were ESBL producers and 188 (85.07%) were non-ESBL producers. The gender distribution of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae was 21 (63.6%) in males and 12 (36.4%) in females. Highest frequency (63%) of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae was detected in blood samples. Comparison of DDST and CLSI confirmatory test showed that 25 (75.75%) isolates were characterized by DDST and 33 (100%) using CLSI confirmatory test. Conclusion: The present study shows moderately high frequency of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae among children. DDST was found to be less efficient in ESBL detection as compared to CLSI confirmatory test. PMID:24353527

  3. [Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a Colombian family with phenylketonuria].

    PubMed

    Gélvez, Nancy; Acosta, Johana; López, Greizy; Castro, Derly; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Bermúdez, Martha; Tamayo, Marta L

    2016-09-01

    Phenylketonuria is a metabolic disorder characterized by severe neurological involvement and behavioral disorder, whose early diagnosis enables an effective treatment to avoid disease sequelae, thus changing the prognosis. Objective: To characterize a family with phenylketonuria in Colombia at clinical, biochemical and molecular levels. Materials and methods: The population consisted of seven individuals of a consanguineous family with four children with suggestive symptoms of phenylketonuria. After signing an informed consent, blood and urine samples were taken for colorimetric tests and high performance liquid and thin layer chromatographies. DNA extraction and sequencing of the 13 exons of the PAH gene were performed in all subjects. We designed primers for each exon with the Primer 3 software using automatic sequencing equipment Abiprism 3100 Avant. Sequences were analyzed using the SeqScape, v2.0, software. Results: We described the clinical and molecular characteristics of a Colombian family with phenylketonuria and confirmed the presence of the mutation c.398_401delATCA. We established a genotype-phenotype correlation, highlighting the interesting clinical variability found among the affected patients despite having the same mutation in all of them. Conclusions: Early recognition of this disease is very important to prevent its neurological and psychological sequelae, given that patients reach old age without diagnosis or proper management.

  4. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of the species Acinetobacter venetianus

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Orlandini, Valerio; La Torre, Laura; Bosi, Emanuele; Negroni, Andrea; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio; Decorosi, Francesca; Giovannetti, Luciana; Viti, Carlo; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Fani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds that can produce serious environmental problems and whose removal is highly demanding in terms of human and technological resources. The potential use of microbes as bioremediation agents is one of the most promising fields in this area. Members of the species Acinetobacter venetianus have been previously characterized for their capability to degrade n-alkanes and thus may represent interesting model systems to implement this process. Although a preliminary experimental characterization of the overall hydrocarbon degradation capability has been performed for five of them, to date, the genetic/genomic features underlying such molecular processes have not been identified. Here we have integrated genomic and phenotypic information for six A. venetianus strains, i.e. VE-C3, RAG-1T, LUH 13518, LUH 7437, LUH 5627 and LUH 8758. Besides providing a thorough description of the A. venetianus species, these data were exploited to infer the genetic features (presence/absence patterns of genes) and the short-term evolutionary events possibly responsible for the variability in n-alkane degradation efficiency of these strains, including the mechanisms of interaction with the fuel droplet and the subsequent catabolism of this pollutant. PMID:26902269

  5. Behavioral Characterization of Mouse Models of Neuroferritinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi F.; Cremona, Ottavio; Arosio, Paolo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter. Transgenic (Tg) mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests). The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb) known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help developing

  6. A phenotypic and functional characterization of NK cells in adenoids.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Sa'ar; Yefenof, Eitan; Gross, Menahem; Attal, Pierre; Ben Yaakov, Avraham; Goldman-Wohl, Debra; Maly, Bella; Stern, Noam; Katz, Gil; Gazit, Roi; Sionov, Ronit Vogt; Mandelboim, Ofer; Chaushu, Stella

    2007-11-01

    Adenoids are part of the MALT. In the present study, we analyzed cell surface markers and cytolytic activity of adenoidal NK (A-NK) cells and compared them with NK cells derived from blood of the same donors (B-NK). NK cells comprised 0.67% (0.4-1.2%) of the total lymphoid population isolated from adenoids. The majority (median=92%) of the A-NK cells was CD56(bright)CD16(-). A-NK cells were characterized by the increased expression of activation-induced receptors. NKp44 was detected on >60%, CD25 on >40%, and HLA-DR on >50% of freshly isolated A-NK cells. Functional assays indicated that the cytotoxic machinery of A-NK is intact, and sensitive target cells are killed via natural cytotoxicity receptors, such as NKG2D. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66) expression was up-regulated in 23% (median) of the A-NK cells by IL-2 activation but unchanged in B-NK cells. CEACAM1 inhibited the A-NK killing of target cells. CXCR4 was expressed on more than 40% A-NK cells prior to activation. Its ligand, CXCL12, was found in endothelial cells of the capillaries within the adenoid and in cells of the epithelial lining. In addition, A-NK cells migrated in vitro toward a gradient of CXCL12 in a dose-responsive manner, suggesting a role for this chemokine in A-NK cell recruitment and trafficking. We conclude that the A-NK cells are unique in that they display an activated-like phenotype and are different from their CD16(-) B-NK cell counterparts. This phenotype presumably reflects the chronic interaction of A-NK cells with antigens penetrating the body through the nasal route.

  7. MicroRNAs in Muscle: Characterizing the Powerlifter Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Randall F.; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Zeng, Nina; Aasen, Kirsten M. M.; Raastad, Truls; Cameron-Smith, David; Mitchell, Cameron J.

    2017-01-01

    Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis of 15 national level powerlifters (25.1 ± 5.8 years) and 13 untrained controls (24.1 ± 2.0 years). The powerlifters were stronger than the controls (isokinetic knee extension at 60°/s: 307.8 ± 51.6 Nm vs. 211.9 ± 41.9 Nm, respectively P < 0.001), and also had larger muscle fibers (type I CSA 9,122 ± 1,238 vs. 4,511 ± 798 μm2 p < 0.001 and type II CSA 11,100 ± 1,656 vs. 5,468 ± 1,477 μm2 p < 0.001). Of the 17 miRs species analyzed, 12 were differently expressed (p < 0.05) between groups with 7 being more abundant in powerlifters and five having lower expression. Established transcriptionally regulated miR downstream gene targets involved in muscle mass regulation, including myostatin and MyoD, were also differentially expressed between groups. Correlation analysis demonstrates the abundance of eight miRs was correlated to phenotype including peak strength, fiber size, satellite cell abundance, and fiber type regardless of grouping. The unique miR expression profiles between groups allow for categorization of individuals as either powerlifter or healthy controls based on a five miR signature (miR-126, -23b, -16, -23a, -15a) with considerable accuracy (100%). Thus, this unique miR expression may be important to the characterization of the powerlifter phenotype. PMID:28638346

  8. Phenotypic characterization of collagen gel embedded primary human breast epithelial cells in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Guzman, R C; Popnikolov, N; Bandyopadhyay, G K; Christov, K; Collins, G; Nandi, S

    1994-06-30

    We have developed a method to characterize the phenotypes and tumorigenicity of dissociated human breast epithelial cells. The dissociated cells were first embedded in collagen gels and subsequently transplanted subcutaneously in vivo in athymic nude mice. The transplantation of dissociated epithelial cells from reduction mammoplasties, presumed to be normal, always resulted in normal histomorphology. Epithelial cells were arranged as short tubular structures consisting of lumina surrounded by epithelial cells with an occasional more complex branching structure. These outgrowths were surrounded by intact basement membrane and were embedded in collagen gel that, at termination, contained collagenous stroma with fibroblasts and blood vessels. In contrast, transplantation of dissociated breast epithelial cells from breast cancer specimens resulted in outgrowths with an invasive pattern infiltrating the collagen gel as well as frank invasion into vascular space, nerves and muscles. These observations were made long before the subsequent palpable stage which resulted if left in the mouse for a long enough time. The dissociated human breast epithelial cells thus retained their intrinsic property to undergo morphogenesis to reflect their original phenotype when placed in a suitable environment, the collagen gel.

  9. Modulation of RhoGTPases improves the behavioral phenotype and reverses astrocytic deficits in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Fabbri, Alessia; Simone, Daiana; Canese, Rossella; Ricceri, Laura; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Laviola, Giovanni; Fiorentini, Carla

    2012-04-01

    RhoGTPases are crucial molecules in neuronal plasticity and cognition, as confirmed by their role in non-syndromic mental retardation. Activation of brain RhoGTPases by the bacterial cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) reshapes the actin cytoskeleton and enhances neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in mouse brains. We evaluated the effects of a single CNF1 intracerebroventricular inoculation in a mouse model of Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder and a genetic cause of mental retardation, for which no effective therapy is available. Fully symptomatic MeCP2-308 male mice were evaluated in a battery of tests specifically tailored to detect RTT-related impairments. At the end of behavioral testing, brain sections were immunohistochemically characterized. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRS) were also applied to assess morphological and metabolic brain changes. The CNF1 administration markedly improved the behavioral phenotype of MeCP2-308 mice. CNF1 also dramatically reversed the evident signs of atrophy in astrocytes of mutant mice and restored wt-like levels of this cell population. A partial rescue of the overexpression of IL-6 cytokine was also observed in RTT brains. CNF1-induced brain metabolic changes detected by MRS analysis involved markers of glial integrity and bioenergetics, and point to improved mitochondria functionality in CNF1-treated mice. These results clearly indicate that modulation of brain RhoGTPases by CNF1 may constitute a totally innovative therapeutic approach for RTT and, possibly, for other disorders associated with mental retardation.

  10. Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is a common phenotype across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Camp, M; Norcross, M; Whittle, N; Feyder, M; D'Hanis, W; Yilmazer-Hanke, D; Singewald, N; Holmes, A

    2009-11-01

    Fear extinction is impaired in psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, which have a major genetic component. However, the genetic factors underlying individual variability in fear extinction remain to be determined. By comparing a panel of inbred mouse strains, we recently identified a strain, 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), that exhibits a profound and selective deficit in Pavlovian fear extinction, and associated abnormalities in functional activation of a key prefrontal-amygdala circuit, as compared with C57BL/6J. The first aim of the present study was to assess fear extinction across multiple 129 substrains representing the strain's four different genetic lineages (parental, steel, teratoma and contaminated). Results showed that 129P1/ReJ, 129P3/J, 129T2/SvEmsJ and 129X1/SvJ exhibited poor fear extinction, relative to C57BL/6J, while 129S1 showed evidence of fear incubation. On the basis of these results, the second aim was to further characterize the nature and specificity of the extinction phenotype in 129S1, as an exemplar of the 129 substrains. Results showed that the extinction deficit in 129S1 was neither the result of a failure to habituate to a sensitized fear response nor an artifact of a fear response to (unconditioned) tone per se. A stronger conditioning protocol (i.e. five x higher intensity shocks) produced an increase in fear expression in 129S1, relative to C57BL/6J, due to rapid rise in freezing during tone presentation. Taken together, these data show that impaired fear extinction is a phenotypic feature common across 129 substrains, and provide preliminary evidence that impaired fear extinction in 129S1 may reflect a pro-fear incubation-like process.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species. PMID:26843981

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Afef; Amairi, Houda; Chaillou, Stéphane; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Zagorec, Monique; Ouzari, Hadda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1) and ∼70 kDa (B2), except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase) containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species.

  13. Phenotype-genotype correlations in mouse models of amelogenesis imperfecta caused by Amelx and Enam mutations.

    PubMed

    Coxon, Thomas Liam; Brook, Alan Henry; Barron, Martin John; Smith, Richard Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in human and in mouse orthologous genes Amelx and Enam result in a diverse range of enamel defects. In this study we aimed to investigate the phenotype-genotype correlation between the mutants and the wild-type controls in mouse models of amelogenesis imperfecta using novel measurement approaches. Ten hemi-mandibles and incisors were dissected from each group of Amelx(WT), Amelx(X/Y64H), Amelx(Y/Y64H), Amelx(Y64H/Y64H), and Enam(WT), Enam(Rgsc395) heterozygous and Enam(Rgsc395) homozygous mice. Their macro-morphology, colour and micro-topography were assessed using bespoke 2D and 3D image analysis systems and customized colour and whiteness algorithms. The novel methods identified significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the Amelx groups for mandible and incisor size and enamel colour and between the Enam groups for incisor size and enamel colour. The Amelx(WT) mice had the largest mandibles and incisors, followed in descending order of size by the Amelx(X/Y64H), Amelx(Y/Y64H) and Amelx(Y64H/Y64H) mice. Within the Enam groups the Enam(WT) incisors were largest and the Enam(Rgsc395) heterozygous mice were smallest. The effect on tooth morphology was also reflected by the severity of the enamel defects in the colour and whiteness assessment. Amelogenin affected mandible morphology and incisor enamel formation, while enamelin only affected incisors, supporting the multifunctional role of amelogenin. The enamelin mutation was associated with earlier forming enamel defects. The study supported the critical involvement of amelogenin and enamelin in enamel mineralization.

  14. High-speed video gait analysis reveals early and characteristic locomotor phenotypes in mouse models of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias

    2016-09-15

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches.

  15. Regulation of astrocyte pathology by fluoxetine prevents the deterioration of Alzheimer phenotypes in an APP/PS1 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jinping; Wang, Junhui; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Yanbo; Zhu, Shenghua; Adilijiang, Abulimiti; Guo, Huining; Zhang, Ruiguo; Guo, Wei; Luo, Gang; Qiu, Yiqing; Xu, Haiyun; Kong, Jiming; Huang, Qingjun; Li, Xin-Min

    2016-02-01

    Studies have implicated astrocytic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology and treatment of the disease is poorly characterized. Here, we identified astrocytes as independent key factors involved in several Alzheimer-like phenotypes in an APP/PS1 mouse model, including amyloid pathology, altered neuronal and synaptic properties, and impaired cognition. In vitro astrocytes from APP/PS1 mice induced synaptotoxicity as well as reduced dendritic complexity and axonal branching of hippocampal neurons. These astrocytes produced high levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) which could be significantly inhibited by fluoxetine (FLX) via activating serotonin 5-HT2 receptors. FLX could also protect hippocampal neurons against astrocyte-induced neuronal damage in vitro. In the same APP/PS1 mice, FLX inhibited activation of astrocytes, lowered Aβ products, ameliorated neurotoxicity, and improved behavioral performance. These findings may provide a basis for the clinical application of FLX in patients, and may also lay the groundwork for exploration of other novel astrocyte-based therapies of AD.

  16. The renal phenotype of allopurinol-treated HPRT-deficient mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zarattini, Paola; Clai, Milan; Corbelli, Alessandro; Carraro, Michele; Marchetti, Marialaura; Ronda, Luca; Paredi, Gianluca; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Percudani, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Excess of uric acid is mainly treated with xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, also called uricostatics because they block the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine into urate. Normally, accumulation of upstream metabolites is prevented by the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) enzyme. The recycling pathway, however, is impaired in the presence of HPRT deficiency, as observed in Lesch-Nyhan disease. To gain insights into the consequences of purine accumulation with HPRT deficiency, we investigated the effects of the XO inhibitor allopurinol in Hprt-lacking (HPRT-/-) mice. Allopurinol was administered in the drinking water of E12-E14 pregnant mothers at dosages of 150 or 75 μg/ml, and mice sacrificed after weaning. The drug was well tolerated by wild-type animals and heterozygous HPRT+/- mice. Instead, a profound alteration of the renal function was observed in the HPRT-/- model. Increased hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations were found in the blood. The kidneys showed a yellowish appearance, diffuse interstitial nephritis, with dilated tubules, inflammatory and fibrotic changes of the interstitium. There were numerous xanthine tubular crystals, as determined by HPLC analysis. Oil red O staining demonstrated lipid accumulation in the same location of xanthine deposits. mRNA analysis showed increased expression of adipogenesis-related molecules as well as profibrotic and proinflammatory pathways. Immunostaining showed numerous monocyte-macrophages and overexpression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in the tubulointerstitium. In vitro, addition of xanthine to tubular cells caused diffuse oil red O positivity and modification of the cell phenotype, with loss of epithelial features and appearance of mesenchymal characteristics, similarly to what was observed in vivo. Our results indicate that in the absence of HPRT, blockade of XO by allopurinol causes rapidly developing renal failure due to xanthine deposition within the mouse kidney. Xanthine seems

  17. Hybrid vigor and transgenerational epigenetic effects on early mouse embryo phenotype.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiming; Mtango, Namdori R; Patel, Bela G; Sapienza, Carmen; Latham, Keith E

    2008-10-01

    Mouse embryos display a strain-dependent propensity for blastomere cytofragmentation at the two-cell stage. The maternal pronucleus exerts a predominant, transcription-dependent effect on this phenotype, with lesser effects of the ooplasm and the paternal pronucleus. A parental origin effect has been observed as an inequality in the cytofragmentation rate of embryos produced through genetic crosses of reciprocal F(1) hybrid females. To understand the basis for this, we conducted an extensive series of pronuclear transfer studies employing different combinations of inbred and F(1) hybrid maternal and paternal genotypes. We find that the parental origin effect is the result of a transgenerational epigenetic modification, whereby the inherited maternal grandpaternal contribution interacts with the fertilizing paternal genome and the ooplasm. This result indicates that some epigenetic information related to grandparental origins of chromosomes (i.e., imprinting of chromosomes in the mother) is retained through oogenesis and transmitted to progeny, where it affects gene expression from the maternal pronucleus and subsequent embryo phenotype. These results reveal for the first time that mammalian embryonic development can be affected by the epigenotype of at least three individuals. Additionally, we observe a significant suppression of fragmentation by F(1) hybrid ooplasm when it is separated from the F(1) hybrid maternal pronucleus. This latter effect is a striking example of heterosis in the early mammalian embryo, and it provides a new opportunity for examining the molecular mechanisms of heterosis. These results are relevant to our understanding of the mechanisms of epigenetic effects on development and the possible fertility effects of genetic and epigenetic interactions in reproductive medicine.

  18. Cloning, characterization and targeting of the mouse HEXA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, N.; Trasler, J.M.; Gravel, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The HEXA gene, encoding the {alpha} subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A, is essential for the metabolism of ganglioside G{sub M2}, and defects in this gene cause Tay-Sachs disease in humans. To elucidate the role of the gene in the nervous system of the mouse and to establish a mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, we have cloned and characterized the HEXA gene and targeted a disruption of the gene in mouse ES cells. The mouse HEXA gene spans {approximately}26 kb and consists of 14 exons, similar to the human gene. A heterogeneous transcription initiation site was identified 21-42 bp 5{prime} of the initiator ATG, with two of the sites fitting the consensus CTCA (A = start) as seen for some weak initiator systems. Promoter analysis showed that the first 150 bp 5{prime} of the ATG contained 85% of promoter activity observed in constructs containing up to 1050 bp of 5{prime} sequence. The active region contained a sequence matching that of the adenovirus major late promoter upstream element factor. A survey of mouse tissues showed that the highest mRNA levels were in (max to min): testis (5.5 x brain cortex), adrenal, epididymis, heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver (0.3 x brain cortex). A 12 kb BstI/SalI fragment containing nine exons was disrupted with the insertion of the bacterial neo{sup r} gene in exon 11 and was targeted into 129/Sv ES cells by homologous recombination. Nine of 153 G418 resistant clones were correctly targeted as confirmed by Southern blotting. The heterozygous ES cells were microinjected into mouse blastocysts and implanted into pseudo-pregnant mice. Nine male chimeric mice, showing that 40-95% chimerism for the 129/Sv agouti coat color marker, are being bred in an effort to generate germline transmission of the disrupted HEXA gene.

  19. A Human-Like Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Is Conserved in Mouse Cells Dependent on Physiological Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Beauséjour, Christian M.; Parrinello, Simona; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Chin, Koei; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Cellular senescence irreversibly arrests cell proliferation in response to oncogenic stimuli. Human cells develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which increases the secretion of cytokines and other factors that alter the behavior of neighboring cells. We show here that “senescent” mouse fibroblasts, which arrested growth after repeated passage under standard culture conditions (20% oxygen), do not express a human-like SASP, and differ from similarly cultured human cells in other respects. However, when cultured in physiological (3%) oxygen and induced to senesce by radiation, mouse cells more closely resemble human cells, including expression of a robust SASP. We describe two new aspects of the human and mouse SASPs. First, cells from both species upregulated the expression and secretion of several matrix metalloproteinases, which comprise a conserved genomic cluster. Second, for both species, the ability to promote the growth of premalignant epithelial cells was due primarily to the conserved SASP factor CXCL-1/KC/GRO-α. Further, mouse fibroblasts made senescent in 3%, but not 20%, oxygen promoted epithelial tumorigenesis in mouse xenographs. Our findings underscore critical mouse-human differences in oxygen sensitivity, identify conditions to use mouse cells to model human cellular senescence, and reveal novel conserved features of the SASP. PMID:20169192

  20. FMRP Expression Levels in Mouse Central Nervous System Neurons Determine Behavioral Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Jason; Gholizadeh, Shervin; Niibori, Yosuke; Pacey, Laura K.; Halder, Sebok K.; Koxhioni, Enea; Konno, Ayumu; Hirai, Hirokazu; Hampson, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is absent or highly reduced in Fragile X Syndrome, a genetic disorder causing cognitive impairment and autistic behaviors. Previous proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated that restoring FMRP in the brain using viral vectors can improve pathological abnormalities in mouse models of fragile X. However, unlike small molecule drugs where the dose can readily be adjusted during treatment, viral vector–based biological therapeutic drugs present challenges in terms of achieving optimal dosing and expression levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the consequences of expressing varying levels of FMRP selectively in neurons of Fmr1 knockout and wild-type (WT) mice. A wide range of neuronal FMRP transgene levels was achieved in individual mice after intra-cerebroventricular administration of adeno-associated viral vectors coding for FMRP. In all treated knockout mice, prominent FMRP transgene expression was observed in forebrain structures, whereas lower levels were present in more caudal regions of the brain. Reduced levels of the synaptic protein PSD-95, elevated levels of the transcriptional modulator MeCP2, and abnormal motor activity, anxiety, and acoustic startle responses in Fmr1 knockout mice were fully or partially rescued after expression of FMRP at about 35–115% of WT expression, depending on the brain region examined. In the WT mouse, moderate FMRP over-expression of up to about twofold had little or no effect on PSD-95 and MeCP2 levels or on behavioral endophenotypes. In contrast, excessive over-expression in the Fmr1 knockout mouse forebrain (approximately 2.5–6-fold over WT) induced pathological motor hyperactivity and suppressed the startle response relative to WT mice. These results delineate a range of FMRP expression levels in the central nervous system that confer phenotypic improvement in fragile X mice. Collectively, these findings are pertinent to the development of long

  1. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Bacteriocinogenic Enterococci Against Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Tarabees, Reda; Basiouni, Shereen; Gamil, Mahmoud; Kamal, Ahmed S; Krüger, Monika

    2016-12-02

    The present study aimed to characterize Enterococcus faecalis (n = -6) and Enterococcus faecium (n = 1) isolated from healthy chickens to find a novel perspective probiotic candidate that antagonize Clostridium botulinum types A, B, D, and E. The isolated enterococci were characterized based on phenotypic properties, PCR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). The virulence determinants including hemolytic activity on blood agar, gelatinase activity, sensitivity to vancomycin, and presence of gelatinase (gelE) and enterococcal surface protein (esp) virulence genes were investigated. Also, the presence of enterocin structural genes enterocin A, enterocin B, enterocin P, enterocin L50A/B, bacteriocin 31, enterocin AS48, enterocin 1071A/1071B, and enterocin 96 were assessed using PCR. Lastly, the antagonistic effect of the selected Enterococcus spp. on the growth of C. botulinum types A, B, D, and E was studied. The obtained results showed that four out of six E. faecalis and one E. faecium proved to be free from the tested virulence markers. All tested enterococci strains exhibited more than one of the tested enterocin. Interestingly, E. faecalis and E. faecium significantly restrained the growth of C. botulinum types A, B, D, and E. In conclusion, although, the data presented showed that bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus strains lacking of virulence determinants could be potentially used as a probiotic candidate against C. botulinum in vitro; however, further investigations are still urgently required to verify the beneficial effects of the tested Enterococcus spp. in vivo.

  2. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Hyperglycemia and Retinal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Rakoczy, Elizabeth P.; Rahman, Ireni S. Ali; Binz, Nicolette; Li, Cai-Rui; Vagaja, Nermina N.; de Pinho, Marisa; Lai, Chooi-May

    2010-01-01

    One of the limitations of research into diabetic retinopathy is the lack of suitable animal models. To study how the two important factors—hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial growth factor—interact in diabetic retinopathy, the Akimba mouse (Ins2AkitaVEGF+/−) was generated by crossing the Akita mouse (Ins2Akita) with the Kimba mouse (VEGF+/+). C57Bl/6 and the parental and Akimba mouse lines were characterized by biometric measurements, histology, immunohistochemistry, and Spectralis Heidelberg retinal angiography and optical coherence tomography. The Akimba line not only retained the characteristics of the parental strains, such as developing hyperglycemia and retinal neovascularization, but developed higher blood glucose levels at a younger age and had worse kidney-body weight ratios than the Akita line. With aging, the Akimba line demonstrated enhanced photoreceptor cell loss, thinning of the retina, and more severe retinal vascular pathology, including more severe capillary nonperfusion, vessel constriction, beading, neovascularization, fibroses, and edema, compared with the Kimba line. The vascular changes were associated with major histocompatibility complex class II+ cellular staining throughout the retina. Together, these observations suggest that hyperglycemia resulted in higher prevalences of edema and exacerbated the vascular endothelial growth factor-driven neovascular and retinal changes in the Akimba line. Thus, the Akimba line could become a useful model for studying the interplay between hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial growth factor and for testing treatment strategies for potentially blinding complications, such as edema. PMID:20829433

  3. Cloning and characterization of a new type of mouse chemokine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D L; Hardiman, G; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N; Zlotnik, A; Bazan, J F

    1998-01-15

    We report here the identification and characterization of the mouse homologue of a human CX3C chemokine described by F. Bazan et al. (1997, Nature 385, 640-644). Termed fractalkine, this molecule constitutes a fourth or delta chemokine structural type that displays a novel CX3C sequence fingerprint. Distinct from the alpha, beta, or gamma chemokine families, the polypeptide chain of CX3C predicts a 373-amino-acid type I transmembrane glycoprotein with the chemokine domain resting on top of an extended mucin-like stalk. Comparison of the mouse and human protein chains shows a high degree of conservation in all the globular segments with the exception of the stalk portion. The striking identity of an amino acid stretch encompassing a putative juxtamembrane cleavage site suggests the evolutionary conservation of both membrane-bound and processed CX3C forms. Northern analysis reveals the presence of mouse CX3C mRNA in heart, brain, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle, and testis tissues. The mouse CX3C gene was further localized to the central region of chromosome 8 by interspecific backcross mapping; a related locus was detected on chromosome 11. The novel location of this gene from other chemokine gene clusters adds to the notion that CX3C is a fundamentally new class of chemokine.

  4. Phenotypic and Molecular Analysis of a Transgenic Insertional Allele of the Mouse Fused Locus

    PubMed Central

    Perry-III, W. L.; Vasicek, T. J.; Lee, J. J.; Rossi, J. M.; Zeng, L.; Zhang, T.; Tilghman, S. M.; Costantini, F.

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous mutations at the mouse Fused (Fu) locus cause dominant skeletal and neurological defects and recessive lethal embryonic defects including neuroectodermal abnormalities and axial duplications. Here, we describe a new allele at the Fu locus caused by a transgenic insertional mutation, Hε46. Embryos homozygous for the Hε46 insertion die at day 9-10 post coitum and display phenotypic defects similar to those associated with Fu alleles. The Hε46 locus was cloned and shown to contain a 20-kb deletion at the site of transgene insertion with no other detectable rearrangements. Genomic probes from the Hε46 locus were mapped to a genetic locus closely linked to Fu on chromosome 17 and were hybridized to a YAC contig covering the Fu(Ki) critical region. Compound heterozygotes between Hε46 and Fu(Ki) were inviable and displayed abnormalities at the same stage of embryogenesis as do homozygotes for either of the two mutations, demonstrating that these two recessive lethal mutations belong to the same complementation group. A genomic probe from the wild-type Hε46 locus detected a transcript that is disrupted by the transgenic insertion, representing a candidate for the wild-type allele of Fused. PMID:8536979

  5. Behavioural and other phenotypes in a cytoplasmic dynein light intermediate chain 1 mutant mouse

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Gareth T.; Haas, Matilda A.; Line, Samantha; Shepherd, Hazel L.; AlQatari, Mona; Stewart, Sammy; Rishal, Ida; Philpott, Amelia; Kalmar, Bernadett; Kuta, Anna; Groves, Michael; Parkinson, Nicholas; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Brandner, Sebastian; Bannerman, David; Greensmith, Linda; Hafezparast, Majid; Koltzenburg, Martin; Deacon, Robert; Fainzilber, Mike; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein complex is fundamentally important to all eukaryotic cells for transporting a variety of essential cargoes along microtubules within the cell. This complex also plays more specialised roles in neurons. The complex consists of 11 types of protein that interact with each other and with external adaptors, regulators and cargoes. Despite the importance of the cytoplasmic dynein complex, we know comparatively little of the roles of each component protein, and in mammals few mutants exist that allow us to explore the effects of defects in dynein controlled processes in the context of the whole organism. Here we have taken a genotype-driven approach in mouse (Mus musculus) to analyse the role of one subunit, the dynein light intermediate chain 1 (Dync1li1). We find that, surprisingly, an N235Y point mutation in this protein results in altered neuronal development, as shown from in vivo studies in the developing cortex, and analyses of electrophysiological function. Moreover, mutant mice display increased anxiety, thus linking dynein functions to a behavioural phenotype in mammals for the first time. These results demonstrate the important role that dynein controlled processes play in the correct development and function of the mammalian nervous system. PMID:21471385

  6. Behavioral and other phenotypes in a cytoplasmic Dynein light intermediate chain 1 mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Banks, Gareth T; Haas, Matilda A; Line, Samantha; Shepherd, Hazel L; Alqatari, Mona; Stewart, Sammy; Rishal, Ida; Philpott, Amelia; Kalmar, Bernadett; Kuta, Anna; Groves, Michael; Parkinson, Nicholas; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Brandner, Sebastian; Bannerman, David; Greensmith, Linda; Hafezparast, Majid; Koltzenburg, Martin; Deacon, Robert; Fainzilber, Mike; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2011-04-06

    The cytoplasmic dynein complex is fundamentally important to all eukaryotic cells for transporting a variety of essential cargoes along microtubules within the cell. This complex also plays more specialized roles in neurons. The complex consists of 11 types of protein that interact with each other and with external adaptors, regulators and cargoes. Despite the importance of the cytoplasmic dynein complex, we know comparatively little of the roles of each component protein, and in mammals few mutants exist that allow us to explore the effects of defects in dynein-controlled processes in the context of the whole organism. Here we have taken a genotype-driven approach in mouse (Mus musculus) to analyze the role of one subunit, the dynein light intermediate chain 1 (Dync1li1). We find that, surprisingly, an N235Y point mutation in this protein results in altered neuronal development, as shown from in vivo studies in the developing cortex, and analyses of electrophysiological function. Moreover, mutant mice display increased anxiety, thus linking dynein functions to a behavioral phenotype in mammals for the first time. These results demonstrate the important role that dynein-controlled processes play in the correct development and function of the mammalian nervous system.

  7. Intermittent fasting alleviates the neuropathic phenotype in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Madorsky, Irina; Opalach, Katherine; Waber, Amanda; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Solmo, Chelsea; Foster, Thomas; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates. The functional benefits of this dietary intervention are associated with an increased expression of myelin proteins combined with a thicker myelin sheath, less redundant basal lamina, and a reduction in aberrant Schwann cell proliferation. These morphological improvements are accompanied by a decrease in PMP22 protein aggregates, and enhanced expression of cytosolic chaperones and constituents of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. These results indicate that dietary restriction is beneficial for peripheral nerve function in TrJ neuropathic mice, as it promotes the maintenance of locomotor performance. PMID:19320048

  8. Intermittent fasting alleviates the neuropathic phenotype in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Madorsky, Irina; Opalach, Katherine; Waber, Amanda; Verrier, Jonathan D; Solmo, Chelsea; Foster, Thomas; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2009-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates. The functional benefits of this dietary intervention are associated with an increased expression of myelin proteins combined with a thicker myelin sheath, less redundant basal lamina, and a reduction in aberrant Schwann cell proliferation. These morphological improvements are accompanied by a decrease in PMP22 protein aggregates, and enhanced expression of cytosolic chaperones and constituents of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. These results indicate that dietary restriction is beneficial for peripheral nerve function in TrJ neuropathic mice, as it promotes the maintenance of locomotor performance.

  9. Mouse models of Rett syndrome: from behavioural phenotyping to preclinical evaluation of new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ricceri, Laura; De Filippis, Bianca; Laviola, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily affecting girls. RTT causes severe cognitive, social, motor and physiological impairments and no cure currently exists. The discovery of a monogenic origin for RTT and the subsequent generation of RTT mouse models provided a major breakthrough for RTT research. Although the characterization of these mutant mice is far from complete, they recapitulate several RTT symptoms. This review provides an overview of the behavioural domains so far investigated in these models, including the very few mouse data concerning the developmental course of RTT. Both clinical and animal studies support the presence of early defects and highlight the importance of probing the presymptomatic phase for both the precocious identification of biomarkers and the early assessment of potential therapies. Preclinical evaluations of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions so far carried out are also illustrated. In addition, genetic manipulations are reported that demonstrate rescue from the damage caused by the absence of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene even at a mature stage. Given the rare occurrence of RTT cases, transnational collaborative networks are expected to provide a deeper understanding of aetiopathology and the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Anatomical phenotyping in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ellegood, Jacob; Pacey, Laura K; Hampson, David R; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

    2010-11-15

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause of inherited mental impairment, and cognitive deficits can range from simple learning disabilities to mental retardation. Human FXS is caused by a loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). The fragile X knockout (FX KO) mouse also shows a loss of FMRP, as well as many of the physical and behavioural characteristics of human FXS. This work aims to characterize the anatomical changes between the FX KO and a corresponding wild type mouse. Significant volume decreases were found in two regions within the deep cerebellar nuclei, namely the nucleus interpositus and the fastigial nucleus, which may be caused by a loss of neurons as indicated by histological analysis. Well-known links between these nuclei and previously established behavioural and physical characteristics of FXS are discussed. The loss of FMRP has a significant effect on these two nuclei, and future studies of FXS should evaluate the biochemical, physiological, and behavioral consequences of alterations in these key nuclei.

  11. Mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B: relation of phenotypic features to background strain.

    PubMed

    Gografe, Sylvia I; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Willing, Alison E; Haas, Ken; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Sanberg, Paul R

    2003-12-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B or mucopolysaccharidosis type III B (MPS IIIB) is a lysosomal storage disorder that is inherited in autosomal recessive manner. It is characterized by systemic heparan sulfate accumulation in lysosomes due to deficiency of the enzyme alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu). Devastating clinical abnormalities with severe central nervous system involvement and somatic disease lead to premature death. A mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B was created by targeted disruption of the gene encoding Naglu, providing a powerful tool for understanding pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic strategies. However, the JAX GEMM Strain B6.129S6-Naglutm1Efn mouse, although showing biochemical similarities to humans with Sanfilippo syndrome, exhibits aging and behavioral differences. We observed idiosyncrasies, such as skeletal dysmorphism, hydrocephalus, ocular abnormalities, organomegaly, growth retardation, and anomalies of the integument, in our breeding colony of Naglu mutant mice and determined that several of them were at least partially related to the background strain C57BL/6. These background strain abnormalities, therefore, potentially mimic or overlap signs of the induced syndrome in our mice. Our observations may prove useful in studies of Naglu mutant mice. The necessity for distinguishing background anomalies from signs of the modeled disease is apparent.

  12. Phenotypic characterization of glioblastoma identified through shape descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes quantitatively describing the shape of glioblastoma (GBM) tissue phenotypes as a set of shape features derived from segmentations, for the purposes of discriminating between GBM phenotypes and monitoring tumor progression. GBM patients were identified from the Cancer Genome Atlas, and quantitative MR imaging data were obtained from the Cancer Imaging Archive. Three GBM tissue phenotypes are considered including necrosis, active tumor and edema/invasion. Volumetric tissue segmentations are obtained from registered T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) postcontrast and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI modalities. Shape features are computed from respective tissue phenotype segmentations, and a Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to select features capable of classification with a significance level of p < 0.05. Several classifier models are employed to distinguish phenotypes, where a leave-one-out cross-validation was performed. Eight features were found statistically significant for classifying GBM phenotypes with p <0.05, orientation is uninformative. Quantitative evaluations show the SVM results in the highest classification accuracy of 87.50%, sensitivity of 94.59% and specificity of 92.77%. In summary, the shape descriptors proposed in this work show high performance in predicting GBM tissue phenotypes. They are thus closely linked to morphological characteristics of GBM phenotypes and could potentially be used in a computer assisted labeling system.

  13. Cloning, characterization, and genomic structure of the mouse Ikbkap gene.

    PubMed

    Cuajungco, M P; Leyne, M; Mull, J; Gill, S P; Gusella, J F; Slaugenhaupt, S A

    2001-09-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that mutations in the human I-kappaB kinase-associated protein (IKBKAP) gene are responsible for familial dysautonomia (FD). Interestingly, amino acid substitutions in the IKAP correlate with increased risk for childhood bronchial asthma. Here, we report the cloning and genomic characterization of the mouse Ikbkap gene, the homolog of human IKBKAP. Like its human counterpart, Ikbkap encodes a protein of 1332 amino acids with a molecular weight of approximately 150 kDa. The Ikbkap gene product, Ikap, contains 37 exons that span approximately 51 kb. The protein shows 80% amino acid identity with human IKAP. It shows very high conservation across species and is homologous to the yeast Elp1/Iki3p protein, which is a member of the Elongator complex. The Ikbkap gene maps to chromosome 4 in a region that is syntenic to human chromosome 9q31.3. Because no animal model of FD currently exists, cloning of the mouse Ikbkap gene is an important first step toward creating a mouse model for FD. In addition, cloning of Ikbkap is crucial to the characterization of the putative mammalian Elongator complex.

  14. Characterization of the metastatic phenotype of a panel of established osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ling; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Zhu, Jack; Briggs, Joseph W.; Halsey, Charles; Hong, Ellen S.; Burkett, Sandra S.; Morrow, James J.; Lizardo, Michael M.; Osborne, Tanasa; Li, Samuel Q.; Luu, Hue H.; Meltzer, Paul; Khanna, Chand

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone tumor in pediatric patients. Metastasis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The rarity of this disease coupled with the challenges of drug development for metastatic cancers have slowed the delivery of improvements in long-term outcomes for these patients. In this study, we collected 18 OS cell lines, confirmed their expression of bone markers and complex karyotypes, and characterized their in vivo tumorgenicity and metastatic potential. Since prior reports included conflicting descriptions of the metastatic and in vivo phenotypes of these models, there was a need for a comparative assessment of metastatic phenotypes using identical procedures in the hands of a single investigative group. We expect that this single characterization will accelerate the study of this metastatic cancer. Using these models we evaluated the expression of six previously reported metastasis-related OS genes. Ezrin was the only gene consistently differentially expressed in all the pairs of high/low metatstatic OS cells. We then used a subtractive gene expression approach of the high and low human metastatic cells to identify novel genes that may be involved in OS metastasis. PHLDA1 (pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A) was identified as one of the genes more highly expressed in the high metastatic compared to low metastatic cells. Knocking down PHLDA1 with siRNA or shRNA resulted in down regulation of the activities of MAPKs (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Reducing the expression of PHLDA1 also delayed OS metastasis progression in mouse xenograft models. PMID:26320182

  15. Characterization of the metastatic phenotype of a panel of established osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ling; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Zhu, Jack; Briggs, Joseph W; Halsey, Charles; Hong, Ellen S; Burkett, Sandra S; Morrow, James; Lizardo, Michael M; Osborne, Tanasa; Li, Samuel Q; Luu, Hue H; Meltzer, Paul; Khanna, Chand

    2015-10-06

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone tumor in pediatric patients. Metastasis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The rarity of this disease coupled with the challenges of drug development for metastatic cancers have slowed the delivery of improvements in long-term outcomes for these patients. In this study, we collected 18 OS cell lines, confirmed their expression of bone markers and complex karyotypes, and characterized their in vivo tumorgenicity and metastatic potential. Since prior reports included conflicting descriptions of the metastatic and in vivo phenotypes of these models, there was a need for a comparative assessment of metastatic phenotypes using identical procedures in the hands of a single investigative group. We expect that this single characterization will accelerate the study of this metastatic cancer. Using these models we evaluated the expression of six previously reported metastasis-related OS genes. Ezrin was the only gene consistently differentially expressed in all the pairs of high/low metastatic OS cells. We then used a subtractive gene expression approach of the high and low human metastatic cells to identify novel genes that may be involved in OS metastasis. PHLDA1 (pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A) was identified as one of the genes more highly expressed in the high metastatic compared to low metastatic cells. Knocking down PHLDA1 with siRNA or shRNA resulted in down regulation of the activities of MAPKs (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Reducing the expression of PHLDA1 also delayed OS metastasis progression in mouse xenograft models.

  16. Isolation and characterization of germ line DNA from mouse sperm.

    PubMed Central

    Shiurba, R; Nandi, S

    1979-01-01

    Mouse germ line DNA was isolated from sperm by a physicochemical procedure that preferentially destroys contaminating somatic cell DNA. The use of reducing conditions and chelating agents in combination with phenol permitted extraction of molecular weight DNA from mature sperm nuclei with approximately 80% efficiency. Less than 0.1% somatic cell DNA contamination remained in sperm DNA prepared by this method. Germ line DNA was characterized by determination of its ultraviolet absorbance spectrum, buoyant density in cesium chloride, and melting profile on a hydroxyapatite column. Contamination by mitochondrial DNA was assessed by cesium chloride/ethidium bromide gradient centrifugation. The significance of the mouse germ line DNA isolation procedure is discussed with respect to the possible genetic transmission of mammary tumor virus and leukemia virus, the origin of antibody diversity, and the origin of testicular teratomas. PMID:291053

  17. Characterization of the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyal D.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Kennel, Allison; Mutch, P. Jane; Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Hanks, Camille E.; Lewin, Adam B.; Storch, Eric A.; Toufexis, Megan D.; Dadlani, Gul H.; Rodriguez, Carina A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) marked by an abrupt onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We aim to characterize the phenotypic presentation of youth with PANS. Methods: Forty-three youth (ages 4–14 years) meeting criteria for PANS were assessed using self-report and clinician-administered measures, medical record reviews, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and laboratory measures. Results: Youth with PANS presented with an early age of OCD onset (mean=7.84 years) and exhibited moderate to severe obsessive compulsive symptoms upon evaluation. All had comorbid anxiety and emotional lability, and scored well below normative means on all quality of life subscales. Youth with elevated streptococcal antibody titers trended toward having higher OCD severity, and presented more frequently with dilated pupils relative to youth without elevated titers. A cluster analysis of core PANS symptoms revealed three distinct symptom clusters that included core characteristic PANS symptoms, streptococcal-related symptoms, and cytokine-driven/physiological symptoms. Youth with PANS who had comorbid tics were more likely to exhibit a decline in school performance, visuomotor impairment, food restriction symptoms, and handwriting deterioration, and they reported lower quality of life relative to youth without tics. Conclusions: The sudden, acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms, high frequency of comorbidities (i.e., anxiety, behavioral regression, depression, and suicidality), and poor quality of life capture the PANS subgroup as suddenly and severely impaired youth. Identifying clinical characteristics of youth with PANS will allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this subtype of OCD with a more strategized and effective approach. PMID:25314221

  18. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ruminal Tannin-Tolerant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karen E.; Thonney, Michael L.; Woolston, Tina K.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Pell, Alice N.

    1998-01-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including Sardinian sheep (Ovis aries), Honduran and Colombian goats (Capra hircus), white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from upstate New York, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Oregon. Nearly complete sequences of the small-subunit rRNA genes, which were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing, were used for phylogenetic characterization. Comparisons of the 16S rRNA of the six isolates showed that four of the isolates were members of the genus Streptococcus and were most closely related to ruminal strains of Streptococcus bovis and the recently described organism Streptococcus gallolyticus. One of the other isolates, a gram-positive rod, clustered with the clostridia in the low-G+C-content group of gram-positive bacteria. The sixth isolate, a gram-negative rod, was a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. None of the 16S rRNA sequences of the tannin-tolerant bacteria examined was identical to the sequence of any previously described microorganism or to the sequence of any of the other organisms examined in this study. Three phylogenetically distinct groups of ruminal bacteria were isolated from four species of ruminants in Europe, North America, and South America. The presence of tannin-tolerant bacteria is not restricted by climate, geography, or host animal, although attempts to isolate tannin-tolerant bacteria from cows on low-tannin diets failed. PMID:9758806

  19. Phenotypic integration among trabecular and cortical bone traits establishes mechanical functionality of inbred mouse vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Tommasini, Steven M; Hu, Bin; Nadeau, Joseph H; Jepsen, Karl J

    2009-04-01

    Conventional approaches to identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating bone mass and fragility are limited because they examine cortical and trabecular traits independently. Prior work examining long bones from young adult mice and humans indicated that skeletal traits are functionally related and that compensatory interactions among morphological and compositional traits are critical for establishing mechanical function. However, it is not known whether trait covariation (i.e., phenotypic integration) also is important for establishing mechanical function in more complex, corticocancellous structures. Covariation among trabecular, cortical, and compositional bone traits was examined in the context of mechanical functionality for L(4) vertebral bodies across a panel of 16-wk-old female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains. The unique pattern of randomization of the A/J and C57BL/6J (B6) genome among the RI panel provides a powerful tool that can be used to measure the tendency for different traits to covary and to study the biology of complex traits. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting vertebral size and mass are buffered by changes in the relative amounts of cortical and trabecular bone and overall mineralization. Despite inheriting random sets of A/J and B6 genomes, the RI strains inherited nonrandom sets of cortical and trabecular bone traits. Path analysis, which is a multivariate analysis that shows how multiple traits covary simultaneously when confounding variables like body size are taken into consideration, showed that RI strains that tended to have smaller vertebrae relative to body size achieved mechanical functionality by increasing mineralization and the relative amounts of cortical and trabecular bone. The interdependence among corticocancellous traits in the vertebral body indicated that variation in trabecular bone traits among inbred mouse strains, which is often thought to arise from genetic factors, is also

  20. Phenotypic outcomes in Mouse and Human Foxc1 dependent Dandy-Walker cerebellar malformation suggest shared mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Haldipur, Parthiv; Dang, Derek; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Janson, Olivia K; Guimiot, Fabien; Adle-Biasette, Homa; Dobyns, William B; Siebert, Joseph R; Russo, Rosa; Millen, Kathleen J

    2017-01-01

    FOXC1 loss contributes to Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), a common human cerebellar malformation. Previously, we found that complete Foxc1 loss leads to aberrations in proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration in the embryonic mouse cerebellum (Haldipur et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that hypomorphic Foxc1 mutant mice have granule and Purkinje cell abnormalities causing subsequent disruptions in postnatal cerebellar foliation and lamination. Particularly striking is the presence of a partially formed posterior lobule which echoes the posterior vermis DW 'tail sign' observed in human imaging studies. Lineage tracing experiments in Foxc1 mutant mouse cerebella indicate that aberrant migration of granule cell progenitors destined to form the posterior-most lobule causes this unique phenotype. Analyses of rare human del chr 6p25 fetal cerebella demonstrate extensive phenotypic overlap with our Foxc1 mutant mouse models, validating our DWM models and demonstrating that many key mechanisms controlling cerebellar development are likely conserved between mouse and human. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20898.001 PMID:28092268

  1. Long-term bezafibrate treatment improves skin and spleen phenotypes of the mtDNA mutator mouse.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Lloye M; Hida, Aline; Garcia, Sofia; Prolla, Tomas A; Moraes, Carlos T

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological agents, such as bezafibrate, that activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and PPAR γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathways have been shown to improve mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mouse is a mouse model of aging that harbors a proofreading-deficient mtDNA polymerase γ. These mice develop many features of premature aging including hair loss, anemia, osteoporosis, sarcopenia and decreased lifespan. They also have increased mtDNA mutations and marked mitochondrial dysfunction. We found that mutator mice treated with bezafibrate for 8-months had delayed hair loss and improved skin and spleen aging-like phenotypes. Although we observed an increase in markers of fatty acid oxidation in these tissues, we did not detect a generalized increase in mitochondrial markers. On the other hand, there were no improvements in muscle function or lifespan of the mutator mouse, which we attributed to the rodent-specific hepatomegaly associated with fibrate treatment. These results showed that despite its secondary effects in rodent's liver, bezafibrate was able to improve some of the aging phenotypes in the mutator mouse. Because the associated hepatomegaly is not observed in primates, long-term bezafibrate treatment in humans could have beneficial effects on tissues undergoing chronic bioenergetic-related degeneration.

  2. Phenotype consequences of myophosphorylase dysfunction: insights from the McArdle mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Brull, Astrid; de Luna, Noemí; Blanco-Grau, Albert; Lucia, Alejandro; Martin, Miguel Angel; Arenas, Joaquin; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

    2015-01-01

    McArdle disease, caused by inherited deficiency of the enzyme muscle glycogen phosphorylase (GP-MM), is arguably the paradigm of exercise intolerance. The recent knock-in (p.R50X/p.R50X) mouse disease model allows an investigation of the phenotypic consequences of muscle glycogen unavailability and the physiopathology of exercise intolerance. We analysed, in 2-month-old mice [wild-type (wt/wt), heterozygous (p.R50X/wt) and p.R50X/p.R50X)], maximal endurance exercise capacity and the molecular consequences of an absence of GP-MM in the main glycogen metabolism regulatory enzymes: glycogen synthase, glycogen branching enzyme and glycogen debranching enzyme, as well as glycogen content in slow-twitch (soleus), intermediate (gastrocnemius) and glycolytic/fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus; EDL) muscles. Compared with wt/wt, exercise capacity (measured in a treadmill test) was impaired in p.R50X/p.R50X (∼48%) and p.R50X/wt mice (∼18%). p.R50X/p.R50X mice showed an absence of GP-MM in the three muscles. GP-MM was reduced in p.R50X/wt mice, especially in the soleus, suggesting that the function of ‘slow-twitch’ muscles is less dependent on glycogen catabolism. p.R50X/p.R50X mice showed increased glycogen debranching enzyme in the soleus, increased glycogen branching enzyme in the gastrocnemius and EDL, as well as reduced levels of mucle glycogen synthase protein in the three muscles (mean ∼70%), reflecting a protective mechanism for preventing deleterious glycogen accumulation. Additionally, glycogen content was highest in the EDL of p.R50X/p.R50X mice. Amongst other findings, the present study shows that the expression of the main muscle glycogen regulatory enzymes differs depending on the muscle phenotype (slow- vs. fast-twitch) and that even partial GP-MM deficiency affects maximal endurance capacity. Our knock-in model might help to provide insights into the importance of glycogen on muscle function. PMID:25873271

  3. APP Regulates Microglial Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Manocha, Gunjan D.; Floden, Angela M.; Rausch, Keiko; Kulas, Joshua A.; McGregor, Brett A.; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kelley R.; Puig, Kendra L.; Karki, Sanjib; Nichols, Michael R.; Darland, Diane C.; Porter, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Prior work suggests that amyloid precursor protein (APP) can function as a proinflammatory receptor on immune cells, such as monocytes and microglia. Therefore, we hypothesized that APP serves this function in microglia during Alzheimer's disease. Although fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ)-stimulated cytokine secretion from both wild-type and APP knock-out (mAPP−/−) microglial cultures, oligomeric Aβ was unable to stimulate increased secretion from mAPP−/− cells. This was consistent with an ability of oligomeric Aβ to bind APP. Similarly, intracerebroventricular infusions of oligomeric Aβ produced less microgliosis in mAPP−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. The mAPP−/− mice crossed to an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse line demonstrated reduced microgliosis and cytokine levels and improved memory compared with wild-type mice despite robust fibrillar Aβ plaque deposition. These data define a novel function for microglial APP in regulating their ability to acquire a proinflammatory phenotype during disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide within plaques robustly invested with reactive microglia. This supports the notion that Aβ stimulation of microglial activation is one source of brain inflammatory changes during disease. Aβ is a cleavage product of the ubiquitously expressed amyloid precursor protein (APP) and is able to self-associate into a wide variety of differently sized and structurally distinct multimers. In this study, we demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that nonfibrillar, oligomeric forms of Aβ are able to interact with the parent APP protein to stimulate microglial activation. This provides a mechanism by which metabolism of APP results in possible autocrine or paracrine Aβ production to drive the microgliosis associated with AD brains. PMID:27511018

  4. Mannan derivatives induce phenotypic and functional maturation of mouse dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Pouniotis, Dodie S; Wright, Mark D; Kit Tang, Choon; Lazoura, Eliada; Pietersz, Geoffrey A; Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2006-01-01

    Mannan, a polysaccharide isolated from yeast binds to C-type lectins of the mannose receptor family, expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. As these receptors mediate endocytosis, they have been targeted with ligands to deliver antigens into APCs to initiate immune responses. Immunization with tumour antigen MUC1 conjugated to oxidized mannan (OM) or reduced mannan (RM) induced differential immune responses in mice, and only mice immunized with OM-MUC1 elicited strong MUC1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and protected mice from a MUC1 tumour challenge. In this study, the adjuvant effect of mannan and its derivatives including OM and RM, in comparison to lipopolysaccharide, on DCs were investigated. Mannan, OM and RM were capable of stimulating mouse bone marrow-derived DC in vitro, eliciting enhanced allogeneic T-cell proliferation and enhancing OTI/OTII peptide-specific T-cell responses. Injection of mice with mannan, OM and RM induced a mature phenotype of lymph node and splenic DCs. Analysis by reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction indicated that Manna, OM and RM also stimulated up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α, and differential T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokines. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that activation of DCs was Toll-like receptor-4-dependent. The data presented here, together with evidence reported previously on OM and RM in induction of immune responses in vivo, suggest that OM and RM exert a dual capacity to target antigen to APCs as well as mature DCs. PMID:16827898

  5. Mouse models for xeroderma pigmentosum group A and group C show divergent cancer phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Melis, Joost P M; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Beems, Rudolf B; Roodbergen, Marianne; van den Berg, Jolanda; Moon, Hojin; Friedberg, Errol; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Vijg, Jan; van Steeg, Harry

    2008-03-01

    The accumulation of DNA damage is a slow but hazardous phenomenon that may lead to cell death, accelerated aging, and cancer. One of the most versatile defense mechanisms against the accumulation of DNA damage is nucleotide excision repair, in which, among others, the Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) and group A (XPA) proteins are involved. To elucidate differences in the functions of these two proteins, comprehensive survival studies with Xpa(-/-), Xpc(-/-) and wild-type control female mice in a pure C57BL/6J background were done. The median survival of Xpc(-/-) mice showed a significant decrease, whereas the median survival of Xpa(-/-) mice did not. Strikingly, Xpa(-/-) and Xpc(-/-) mice also showed a phenotypical difference in terms of tumor spectrum. Xpc(-/-) mice displayed a significant increase in lung tumors and a trend toward increased liver tumors compared with Xpa-deficient or wild-type mice. Xpa(-/-) mice showed a significant elevation in liver tumors. Additionally, Xpc-deficient mice exhibited a strong increase in mutant frequency in lung compared with Xpa(-/-) mice, whereas in both models mutant frequency is increased in liver. Our in vitro data displayed an elevated sensitivity to oxygen in Xpc(-/-) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) when compared with Xpa(-/-) and wild-type fibroblasts. We believe that XPC plays a role in the removal of oxidative DNA damage and that, therefore, Xpc(-/-) mice display a significant increase in lung tumors and a significant elevation in mutant frequency in lung, and Xpc-deficient MEFs show greater sensitivity to oxygen when compared with Xpa(-/-) and wild-type mice.

  6. Deoxynucleoside stress exacerbates the phenotype of a mouse model of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Beatriz; Garone, Caterina; Barca, Emanuele; Mojahed, Hamed; Gutierrez, Purification; Pizzorno, Giuseppe; Tanji, Kurenai; Arias-Mendoza, Fernando; Quinzii, Caterina M; Hirano, Michio

    2014-05-01

    stress of exogenous pyrimidine nucleosides enhances the mitochondrial phenotype of our knockout mice. Our mouse studies provide insights into the pathogenic role of thymidine and deoxyuridine imbalance in mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy and an excellent model to study new therapeutic approaches.

  7. Digastric Muscle Phenotypes of the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Nadine P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome is frequently associated with complex difficulties in oromotor development, feeding, and swallowing. However, the muscle phenotypes underlying these deficits are unclear. We tested the hypotheses that the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS has significantly altered myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform profiles of the muscles involved in feeding and swallowing, as well as reductions in the speed of these movements during behavioral assays. SDS-PAGE, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR were used to assess MyHC isoform expression in pertinent muscles, and functional feeding and swallowing performance were quantified through videofluoroscopy and mastication assays. We found that both the anterior digastric (ADG) and posterior digastric (PDG) muscles in 11-day old and 5–6 week old Ts65Dn groups showed significantly lower MyHC 2b protein levels than in age-matched euploid control groups. In videofluoroscopic and videotape assays used to quantify swallowing and mastication performance, 5–6 week old Ts65Dn and euploid controls showed similar swallow rates, inter-swallow intervals, and mastication rates. In analysis of adults, 10–11 week old Ts65Dn mice revealed significantly less MyHC 2b mRNA expression in the posterior digastric, but not the anterior digastric muscle as compared with euploid controls. Analysis of MyHC 2b protein levels across an adult age range (10–53 weeks of age) revealed lower levels of MyHC 2b protein in the PDG of Ts65Dn than in euploids, but similar levels of MyHC 2b in the ADG. Cumulatively, these results indicate biochemical differences in some, but not all, muscles involved in swallowing and jaw movement in Ts65Dn mice that manifest early in post-natal development, and persist into adulthood. These findings suggest potential utility of this model for future investigations of the mechanisms of oromotor difficulties associated with Down syndrome. PMID:27336944

  8. Characterization of the Mouse Pancreatic Islet Proteome and Comparative Analysis with Other Mouse Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Hinault, Charlotte; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Singhal, Mudita; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and especially the insulin-producing beta cells, play a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Alterations in the expression of multiple proteins in the islets that contribute to the maintenance of islet function are likely to underlie the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify proteins that constitute the islet proteome, we provide the first comprehensive proteomic characterization of pancreatic islets for mouse, the most commonly used animal model in diabetes research. Using strong cation exchange fractionation coupled with reversed phase LC-MS/MS we report the confident identification of 17,350 different tryptic peptides covering 2,612 proteins having at least two unique peptides per protein. The dataset also identified ~60 post-translationally modified peptides including oxidative modifications and phosphorylation. While many of the identified phosphorylation sites corroborate those previously known, the oxidative modifications observed on cysteinyl residues reveal potentially novel information suggesting a role for oxidative stress in islet function. Comparative analysis with 15 available proteomic datasets from other mouse tissues and cells revealed a set of 133 proteins predominantly expressed in pancreatic islets. This unique set of proteins, in addition to those with known functions such as peptide hormones secreted from the islets, contains several proteins with as yet unknown functions. The mouse islet protein and peptide database accessible at http://ncrr.pnl.gov, provides an important reference resource for the research community to facilitate research in the diabetes and metabolism fields. PMID:18570455

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of mouse aquaporin 6.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Hiroaki; Agren, Johan; Saito, Akiko; Liu, Kun; Agre, Peter; Hazama, Akihiro; Yasui, Masato

    2007-01-05

    In the rat kidney, aquaporin (AQP) 6 is localized in the intracellular vesicle membranes of type-A intercalated cells of the collecting duct; mouse AQP6 (mAQP6) has not been characterized. Although mAQP6 was originally cloned from cDNA in a mouse cerebellum library (GenBank NM 175087), we have independently cloned a cDNA encoding mAQP6 from an adult kidney cDNA library (C57BL/6J strain). We identified two different spliced variants of mAQP6: mAQP6a and mAQP6b. The mAQP6a isoform is almost identical to that of rat AQP6, whereas mAQP6b is identical to that reported in the mouse cerebellum library mentioned above. We found that the mRNA expression of these two spliced variants is regulated in a tissue-specific and age-dependent manner. Functional analyses of water and ion permeation revealed that mAQP6a functions like rat AQP6 and that mAQP6b does not function as either a water channel or an ion channel under our experimental conditions.

  10. Metabolic Characterization of a Sirt5 deficient mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiujiu; Sadhukhan, Sushabhan; Noriega, Lilia G.; Moullan, Norman; He, Bin; Weiss, Robert S.; Lin, Hening; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Sirt5, localized in the mitochondria, is a member of sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases. Sirt5 was shown to deacetylate and activate carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1. Most recently, Sirt5 was reported to be the predominant protein desuccinylase and demalonylase in the mitochondria because the ablation of Sirt5 enhanced the global succinylation and malonylation of mitochondrial proteins, including many metabolic enzymes. In order to determine the physiological role of Sirt5 in metabolic homeostasis, we generated a germline Sirt5 deficient (Sirt5−/−) mouse model and performed a thorough metabolic characterization of this mouse line. Although a global protein hypersuccinylation and elevated serum ammonia during fasting were observed in our Sirt5−/− mouse model, Sirt5 deficiency did not lead to any overt metabolic abnormalities under either chow or high fat diet conditions. These observations suggest that Sirt5 is likely to be dispensable for the metabolic homeostasis under the basal conditions. PMID:24076663

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of mouse aquaporin 6

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, Hiroaki; Agren, Johan; Saito, Akiko; Liu, Kun; Agre, Peter; Hazama, Akihiro; Yasui, Masato

    2007-01-01

    In the rat kidney, aquaporin (AQP) 6 is localized in the intracellular vesicle membranes of type-A intercalated cells of the collecting duct; mouse AQP6 (mAQP6) has not been characterized. Although mAQP6 was originally cloned from cDNA in a mouse cerebellum library (GenBank NM 175087), we have independently cloned a cDNA encoding mAQP6 from an adult kidney cDNA library (C57BL/6J strain). We identified two different spliced variants of mAQP6: mAQP6a and mAQP6b. The mAQP6a isoform is almost identical to rat AQP6, whereas mAQP6b is identical to that reported in the mouse cerebellum library mentioned above. We found that the mRNA expression of these two spliced variants is regulated in a tissue-specific and age-dependent manner. Functional analyses of water and ion permeation revealed that mAQP6a functions like rat AQP6 and that mAQP6b does not function as either a water channel or an ion channel under our experimental conditions. PMID:17112474

  12. Loci on murine chromosomes 7 and 13 that modify the phenotype of the NOA mouse, an animal model of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, O; Tamari, M; Natori, K; Onouchi, Y; Shiomoto, Y; Hiraoka, I; Nakamura, Y

    2001-01-01

    The NOA (Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia) mouse is an animal model of allergic or atopic dermatitis, a condition characterized by ulcerative skin lesions with accumulation of mast cells and increased serum IgE. We reported earlier that a major gene responsible for dermatitis in the NOA mouse lay in the middle of chromosome 14, and that the incidence of disease clearly differed according to parental strain; the mode of inheritance was autosomal recessive with incomplete penetrance. In the study reported here, we searched for genes that might modify the NOA phenotype, and we identified two candidate loci that appeared to contain genes capable of modifying atopic or allergic dermatitis, one in the middle of chromosome 7 (chi2 = 14.66; P = 0.00013 for D7Mit62) and the other in the telomeric region of chromosome 13 (chi2 = 15.352; P = 0.000089 for D13Mit147). These loci correspond to regions of synteny in human chromosomes where linkages to asthma, atopy, or related phenotypes, such as serum IgE levels, have been documented.

  13. Phenotypic characterization of oral mucosa: what is normal?

    PubMed

    Valach, Jaroslav; Foltán, René; Vlk, Marek; Szabo, Pavol; Smetana, Karel

    2017-01-31

    Knowledge of the phenotypic pattern of oral squamous epithelium is important in the histopathologic evaluation of lesions including cancer. The literature on normal epithelium is controversial as the phenotype has not been evaluated in samples from completely healthy tissue donors without a history of tobacco and alcohol exposure. In this study, we evaluated normal upper lip fornix and gingival mucosa from carefully selected young healthy donors without a history of smoking and alcohol exposure, and keratin types 8, 10, 14, and 17, filaggrin, and Ki67 were investigated in these donors. The results were compared with profile of epithelium from leukoplakia. The results demonstrated that the phenotypic patterns of gingiva and upper lip fornix mucosa were different. Surprisingly, a high proportion of gingival samples exhibited keratin 8 and a suprabasal signal for keratin 14. These patterns were compared with that of human oral leukoplakia, and some phenotypic similarities were noted. These results demonstrated oral epithelium phenotypic plasticity based on functional requirements of the microenvironment, which can be used in diagnosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Identification and characterization of PERK activators by phenotypic screening and their effects on NRF2 activation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wensheng; Pariollaud, Marie; Wixted, William E; Chitnis, Nilesh; Fornwald, James; Truong, Maggie; Pao, Christina; Liu, Yan; Ames, Robert S; Callahan, James; Solari, Roberto; Sanchez, Yolanda; Diehl, Alan; Li, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a critical role to restore the homeostasis of protein production in eukaryotic cells. This vital process is hence involved in many types of diseases including COPD. PERK, one branch in the ER stress signaling pathways, has been reported to activate NRF2 signaling pathway, a known protective response to COPD. Based on this scientific rationale, we aimed to identify PERK activators as a mechanism to achieve NRF2 activation. In this report, we describe a phenotypic screening assay to identify PERK activators. This assay measures phosphorylation of GFP-tagged eIF2α upon PERK activation via a cell-based LanthaScreen technology. To obtain a robust assay with sufficient signal to background and low variation, multiple parameters were optimized including GFP-tagged eIF2α BacMam concentration, cell density and serum concentration. The assay was validated by a tool compound, Thapsigargin, which induces phosphorylation of eIF2α. In our assay, this compound showed maximal signal window of approximately 2.5-fold with a pEC50 of 8.0, consistent with literature reports. To identify novel PERK activators through phosphorylation of eIF2α, a focused set of 8,400 compounds was screened in this assay at 10 µM. A number of hits were identified and validated. The molecular mechanisms for several selected hits were further characterized in terms of PERK activation and effects on PERK downstream components. Specificity of these compounds in activating PERK was demonstrated with a PERK specific inhibitor and in PERK knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. In addition, these hits showed NRF2-dependent anti-oxidant gene induction. In summary, our phenotypic screening assay is demonstrated to be able to identify PERK specific activators. The identified PERK activators could potentially be used as chemical probes to further investigate this pathway as well as the link between PERK activation and NRF2 pathway activation.

  15. Normalizing the gene dosage of Dyrk1A in a mouse model of Down syndrome rescues several Alzheimer's disease phenotypes.

    PubMed

    García-Cerro, Susana; Rueda, Noemí; Vidal, Verónica; Lantigua, Sara; Martínez-Cué, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    The intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS) is primarily caused by prenatal changes in central nervous system growth and differentiation. However, in later life stages, the cognitive abilities of DS individuals progressively decline due to accelerated aging and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. The AD neuropathology in DS has been related to the overexpression of several genes encoded by Hsa21 including DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), which encodes a protein kinase that performs crucial functions in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways that contribute to normal brain development and adult brain physiology. Studies performed in vitro and in vivo in animal models overexpressing this gene have demonstrated that the DYRK1A gene also plays a crucial role in several neurodegenerative processes found in DS. The Ts65Dn (TS) mouse bears a partial triplication of several Hsa21 orthologous genes, including Dyrk1A, and replicates many DS-like abnormalities, including age-dependent cognitive decline, cholinergic neuron degeneration, increased levels of APP and Aβ, and tau hyperphosphorylation. To use a more direct approach to evaluate the role of the gene dosage of Dyrk1A on the neurodegenerative profile of this model, TS mice were crossed with Dyrk1A KO mice to obtain mice with a triplication of a segment of Mmu16 that includes this gene, mice that are trisomic for the same genes but only carry two copies of Dyrk1A, euploid mice with a normal Dyrk1A dosage, and CO animals with a single copy of Dyrk1A. Normalizing the gene dosage of Dyrk1A in the TS mouse rescued the density of senescent cells in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus and septum, prevented cholinergic neuron degeneration, and reduced App expression in the hippocampus, Aβ load in the cortex and hippocampus, the expression of phosphorylated tau at the Ser202 residue in the hippocampus and cerebellum and the levels of

  16. Of mothers and myelin: Aberrant myelination phenotypes in mouse model of Angelman syndrome are dependent on maternal and dietary influences.

    PubMed

    Grier, Mark D; Carson, Robert P; Lagrange, Andre H

    2015-09-15

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a number of neurological problems, including developmental delay, movement disorders, and epilepsy. AS results from the loss of UBE3A (an imprinted gene) expressed from the maternal chromosome in neurons. Given the ubiquitous expression of Ube3a and the devastating nature of AS, the role of environmental and maternal effects has been largely ignored. Severe ataxia, anxiety-like behaviors and learning deficits are well-documented in patients and AS mice. More recently, clinical imaging studies of AS patients suggest myelination may be delayed or reduced. Utilizing a mouse model of AS, we found disrupted expression of cortical myelin proteins, the magnitude of which is influenced by maternal status, in that the aberrant myelination in the AS pups of AS affected mothers were more pronounced than those seen in AS pups raised by unaffected (Ube3a (m+/p-)) Carrier mothers. Furthermore, feeding the breeding mothers a higher fat (11% vs 5%) diet normalizes these myelin defects. These effects are not limited to myelin proteins. Since AS mice have abnormal stress responses, including altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, we measured GR expression in pups from Carrier and affected AS mothers. AS pups had higher GR expression than their WT littermates. However, we also found an effect of maternal status, with reduced GR levels in pups from affected mothers compared to genotypically identical pups raised by unaffected Carrier mothers. Taken together, our findings suggest that the phenotypes observed in AS mice may be modulated by factors independent of Ube3a genotype.

  17. Of mothers and myelin: Aberrant myelination phenotypes in mouse model of Angelman Syndrome are dependent on maternal and dietary influences

    PubMed Central

    Grier, Mark D.; Carson, Robert P.; Lagrange, Andre H.

    2015-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a number of neurological problems, including developmental delay, movement disorders and epilepsy. AS results from the loss of UBE3A (an imprinted gene) expressed from the maternal chromosome in neurons. Given the ubiquitous expression of Ube3a and the devastating nature of AS, the role of environmental and maternal effects has been largely ignored. Severe ataxia, anxiety-like behaviors and learning deficits are well-documented in patients and AS mice. More recently, clinical imaging studies of AS patients suggest myelination may be delayed or reduced. Utilizing a mouse model of AS, we found disrupted expression of cortical myelin proteins, the magnitude of which is influenced by maternal status, in that the aberrant myelination in the AS pups of AS affected mothers were more pronounced than those seen in AS pups raised by unaffected (Ube3a (m+/p-)) Carrier mothers. Furthermore, feeding the breeding mothers a higher fat (11% vs 5%) diet normalizes these myelin defects. These effects are not limited to myelin proteins. Since AS mice have abnormal stress responses, including altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, we measured GR expression in pups from Carrier and affected AS mothers. AS pups had higher GR expression than their WT littermates. However, we also found an effect of maternal status, with reduced GR levels in pups from affected mothers compared to genotypically identical pups raised by unaffected Carrier mothers. Taken together, our findings suggest that the phenotypes observed in AS mice may be modulated by factors independent of Ube3a genotype. PMID:26028516

  18. Anxious, hypoactive phenotype combined with motor deficits in Gtf2ird1 null mouse model relevant to Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tomasz; Skitt, Zara; Liu, Yiwen; Deacon, Robert M J; Flint, Jonathan; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Rawlins, J Nick P; Tassabehji, May

    2012-08-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of around 28 genes on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q11.23), characterized by a unique spectrum of behavioral impairments, including mental retardation, deficits in visuospatial constructive cognition, hypersociability, anxiety and simple phobias. Physical characteristics include dysmorphic faces, short stature, oculomotor deficits, gross and fine coordination impairments, diminished control of balance and mild extrapyramidal signs as well as gait abnormalities resembling gait hypokinesia. Genes near the distal deletion breakpoint appear to contribute most to the WBS cognitive and behavioral profile and include the GTF family of transcription factors: GTF2I, GTF2IRD1, GTF2IRD2. We have previously shown that heterozygous deletions of GTF2IRD1 in humans and homozygous deletion in mice contributes to craniofacial abnormalities. Here we show an important role of this gene in motor coordination and anxiety ascertained from extensive behavioral mouse phenotyping. Gtf2ird1 null mice showed lower body weight, decreased spontaneous and circadian locomotor activity, diminished motor coordination and strength, gait abnormalities, increased anxiety and an elevated endocrinological response to stress. Gtf2ird1 heterozygous mice displayed lower body weight and decreased circadian activity, but only minor motor coordination and anxiety-related behavioral dysfunctions. Our study strongly supports a role for GTF2IRD1 in the motoric and anxiety-related abnormalities seen in Williams-Beuren syndrome, and suggests basal ganglia and potentially cerebellar abnormalities in Gtf2ird1 mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the mouse pancreatic islet proteome and comparative analysis with other mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Hinault, Charlotte; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Singhal, Mudita; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-08-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans and insulin-producing beta cells in particular play a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and the islet dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To contribute to the understanding of the biology of the pancreatic islets we applied proteomic techniques based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Here as an initial step we present the first comprehensive proteomic characterization of pancreas islets of the mouse, the commonly used animal model for diabetes research. Two-dimensional SCX LC/RP LC-MS/MS has been applied to characterize of the mouse islet proteome, resulting in the confident identification of 17,350 different tryptic peptides covering 2,612 proteins with at least two unique peptide identifications per protein. The dataset also allowed identification of a number of post-translational modifications including several modifications relevant to oxidative stress and phosphorylation. While many of the identified phosphorylation sites corroborates with previous known sites, the oxidative modifications observed on cysteinyl residues potentially reveal novel information related to the role of oxidation stress in islet functions. Comparative analysis of the islet proteome database with 15 available proteomic datasets from other mouse tissues and cells revealed a set of 68 proteins uniquely detected only in the pancreatic islets. Besides proteins with known functions, like islet secreted peptide hormones, this unique set contains a number of proteins with yet unknown functions. The resulting peptide and protein database will be available at ncrr.pnl.gov web site of the NCRR proteomic center (ncrr.pnl.gov).

  20. An extensive phenotypic characterization of the hTNFα transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Michael D; Jones, Beverly K; Saparov, Arman; Hain, Heather S; Trillat, Anne-Cecile; Bunzel, Michelle M; Corona, Aaron; Li-Wang, Bifang; Strenkowski, Bryan; Giordano, Caroline; Shen, Hai; Arcamone, Emily; Weidlick, Jeffrey; Vilensky, Maria; Tugusheva, Marina; Felkner, Roland H; Campbell, William; Rao, Yu; Grass, David S; Buiakova, Olesia

    2007-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is implicated in a wide variety of pathological and physiological processes, including chronic inflammatory conditions, coronary artery disease, diabetes, obesity, and cachexia. Transgenic mice expressing human TNFα (hTNFα) have previously been described as a model for progressive rheumatoid arthritis. In this report, we describe extensive characterization of an hTNFα transgenic mouse line. Results In addition to arthritis, these hTNFα transgenic mice demonstrated major alterations in body composition, metabolic rate, leptin levels, response to a high-fat diet, bone mineral density and content, impaired fertility and male sexual function. Many phenotypes displayed an earlier onset and a higher degree of severity in males, pointing towards a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in response to deregulated expression of TNFα. Conclusion These results highlight the potential usefulness of this transgenic model as a resource for studying the progressive effects of constitutively expressed low levels of circulating TNFα, a condition mimicking that observed in a number of human pathological conditions. PMID:18070349

  1. Neurochemical characterization of neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 in the mouse hypothalamus1

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Melissa J. S.; Pissios, Pavlos; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that acts via MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) in the mouse. It promotes positive energy balance thus mice lacking MCH or MCHR1 are lean, hyperactive, and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Identifying the cellular targets of MCH is an important step to understanding the mechanisms underlying MCH actions. We generated the Mchr1-cre mouse that expressed cre recombinase driven by the MCHR1 promoter and crossed it with a tdTomato reporter mouse. The resulting Mchr1-cre/tdTomato progeny expressed easily detectable tdTomato fluorescence in MCHR1 neurons, which were found throughout the olfactory system, striatum, and hypothalamus. To chemically identify MCH-targeted cell populations that play a role in energy balance, MCHR1 hypothalamic neurons were characterized by colabeling select hypothalamic neuropeptides with tdTomato fluorescence. TdTomato fluorescence colocalized with dynorphin, oxytocin, vasopressin, enkephalin, thyrothropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus. In the lateral hypothalamus, neurotensin but neither orexin nor MCH neurons expressed tdTomato. In the arcuate nucleus, both Neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin cells expressed tdTomato. We further demonstrated that some of these arcuate neurons were also targets of leptin action. Interestingly, MCHR1 was expressed in the vast majority of leptin-sensitive proopiomelanocortin neurons, highlighting their importance for the orexigenic actions of MCH. Taken together, this study supports the use of the Mchr1-cre mouse for outlining the neuroanatomical distribution and neurochemical phenotype of MCHR1 neurons. PMID:23605441

  2. Wnt/β-catenin signaling accelerates mouse lung tumorigenesis by imposing an embryonic distal progenitor phenotype on lung epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Pinedo, Eugenia C; Durham, Amy C; Stewart, Kathleen M; Goss, Ashley M; Lu, Min Min; Demayo, Francesco J; Morrisey, Edward E

    2011-05-01

    Although mutations in Kras are present in 21% of lung tumors, there is a high level of heterogeneity in phenotype and outcome among patients with lung cancer bearing similar mutations, suggesting that other pathways are important. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a known oncogenic pathway that plays a well-defined role in colon and skin cancer; however, its role in lung cancer is unclear. We have shown here that activation of Wnt/β-catenin in the bronchiolar epithelium of the adult mouse lung does not itself promote tumor development. However, concurrent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and expression of a constitutively active Kras mutant (KrasG12D) led to a dramatic increase in both overall tumor number and size compared with KrasG12D alone. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling altered the KrasG12D tumor phenotype, resulting in a phenotypic switch from bronchiolar epithelium to the highly proliferative distal progenitors found in the embryonic lung. This was associated with decreased E-cadherin expression at the cell surface, which may underlie the increased metastasis of tumors with active Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Together, these data suggest that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling can combine with other oncogenic pathways in lung epithelium to produce a more aggressive tumor phenotype by imposing an embryonic distal progenitor phenotype and by decreasing E-cadherin expression.

  3. BMP antagonists enhance myogenic differentiation and ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in a DMD mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, SongTing; Hoogaars, Willem M H; de Gorter, David J J; van Heiningen, Sandra H; Lin, Herbert Y; Hong, Charles C; Kemaladewi, Dwi U; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; ten Dijke, Peter; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    2011-02-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle wasting disease characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis. The progressive pathology of DMD can be explained by an insufficient regenerative response resulting in fibrosis and adipose tissue formation. BMPs are known to inhibit myogenic differentiation and in a previous study we found an increased expression of a BMP family member BMP4 in DMD myoblasts. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate whether inhibition of BMP signaling could be beneficial for myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration processes in a DMD context. All tested BMP inhibitors, Noggin, dorsomorphin and LDN-193189, were able to accelerate and enhance myogenic differentiation. However, dorsomorphin repressed both BMP and TGFβ signaling and was found to be toxic to primary myoblast cell cultures. In contrast, Noggin was found to be a potent and selective BMP inhibitor and was therefore tested in vivo in a DMD mouse model. Local adenoviral-mediated overexpression of Noggin in muscle resulted in an increased expression of the myogenic regulatory genes Myog and Myod1 and improved muscle histology. In conclusion, our results suggest that repression of BMP signaling may constitute an attractive adjunctive therapy for DMD patients.

  4. Deletion of atrophy enhancing genes fails to ameliorate the phenotype in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Chitra C; McGovern, Vicki L; Wise, Dawnne O; Glass, David J; Burghes, Arthur H M

    2014-05-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease causing degeneration of lower motor neurons and muscle atrophy. One therapeutic avenue for SMA is targeting signaling pathways in muscle to ameliorate atrophy. Muscle Atrophy F-box, MAFbx, and Muscle RING Finger 1, MuRF1, are muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases upregulated in skeletal and cardiac muscle during atrophy. Homozygous knock-out of MAFbx or MuRF1 causes muscle sparing in adult mice subjected to atrophy by denervation. We wished to determine whether blockage of the major muscle atrophy pathways by deletion of MAFbx or MuRF1 in a mouse model of SMA would improve the phenotype. Deletion of MAFbx in the Δ7 SMA mouse model had no effect on the weight and the survival of the mice while deletion of MuRF1 was deleterious. MAFbx(-/-)-SMA mice showed a significant alteration in fiber size distribution tending towards larger fibers. In skeletal and cardiac tissue MAFbx and MuRF1 transcripts were upregulated whereas MuRF2 and MuRF3 levels were unchanged in Δ7 SMA mice. We conclude that deletion of the muscle ubiquitin ligases does not improve the phenotype of a Δ7 SMA mouse. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that the beneficial effect of HDAC inhibitors is mediated through inhibition of MAFbx and MuRF1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of new mouse model of hyperphenylalaninemia.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Tiziana; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Andolina, Diego; Accoto, Alessandra; Fiori, Elena; Ventura, Rossella; Orsini, Cristina; Conversi, David; Carducci, Claudia; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) refers to all clinical conditions characterized by increased amounts of phenylalanine (PHE) in blood and other tissues. According to their blood PHE concentrations under a free diet, hyperphenylalaninemic patients are commonly classified into phenotypic subtypes: classical phenylketonuria (PKU) (PHE > 1200 µM/L), mild PKU (PHE 600-1200 µM/L) and persistent HPA (PHE 120-600 µM/L) (normal blood PHE < 120 µM/L). The current treatment for hyperphenylalaninemic patients is aimed to keep blood PHE levels within the safe range of 120-360 µM/L through a PHE-restricted diet, difficult to achieve. If untreated, classical PKU presents variable neurological and mental impairment. However, even mildly elevated blood PHE levels, due to a bad compliance to dietary treatment, produce cognitive deficits involving the prefrontal cortical areas, extremely sensible to PHE-induced disturbances. The development of animal models of different degrees of HPA is a useful tool for identifying the metabolic mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits induced by PHE. In this paper we analyzed the behavioral and biochemical phenotypes of different forms of HPA (control, mild-HPA, mild-PKU and classic-PKU), developed on the base of plasma PHE concentrations. Our results demonstrated that mice with different forms of HPA present different phenotypes, characterized by increasing severity of behavioral symptoms and brain aminergic deficits moving from mild HPA to classical PKU forms. In addition, our data identify preFrontal cortex and amygdala as the most affected brain areas and confirm the highest susceptibility of brain serotonin metabolism to mildly elevated blood PHE.

  6. Compound deletion of Fgfr3 and Fgfr4 partially rescues the Hyp mouse phenotype.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Martin, Aline; David, Valentin; Quarles, L Darryl

    2011-03-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the physiologically relevant fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR) for FGF23 in the kidney and the precise tubular segments that are targeted by FGF23. Current data suggest that FGF23 targets the FGFR1c-Klotho complex to coordinately regulate phosphate transport and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] production in the proximal tubule. In studies using the Hyp mouse model, which displays FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemia and aberrant vitamin D, deletion of Fgfr3 or Fgfr4 alone failed to correct the Hyp phenotype. To determine whether FGFR1 is sufficient to mediate the renal effects of FGF23, we deleted Fgfr3 and Fgfr4 in Hyp mice, leaving intact the FGFR1 pathway by transferring compound Fgfr3/Fgfr4-null mice on the Hyp background to create wild-type (WT), Hyp, Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-), and Hyp/Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-) mice. We found that deletion of Fgfr3 and Fgfr4 in Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-) and Hyp/Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-) mice induced an increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D. In Hyp/Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-) mice, it partially corrected the hypophosphatemia (P(i) = 9.4 ± 0.9, 6.1 ± 0.2, 9.1 ± 0.4, and 8.0 ± 0.5 mg/dl in WT, Hyp, Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-), and Hyp/Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-) mice, respectively), increased Na-phosphate cotransporter Napi2a and Napi2c and Klotho mRNA expression in the kidney, and markedly increased serum FGF23 levels (107 ± 20, 3,680 ± 284, 167 ± 22, and 18,492 ± 1,547 pg/ml in WT, Hyp, Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-), and Hyp/Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-) mice, respectively), consistent with a compensatory response to the induction of end-organ resistance. Fgfr1 expression was unchanged in Hyp/Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-) mice and was not sufficient to transduce the full effects of FGF23 in Hyp/Fgfr3(-/-)/Fgfr4(-/-) mice. These studies suggest that FGFR1, FGFR3, and FGFR4 act in concert to mediate FGF23 effects on the kidney and that loss of FGFR function leads to feedback stimulation of Fgf23 expression in bone.

  7. Tumor and reproductive traits are linked by RNA metabolism genes in the mouse ovary: a transcriptome-phenotype association analysis.

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Ulises; Owens, Garrison A; Zhang, Gen-Mu; Cherry, James M; Sharp, John J; Munroe, David J

    2010-12-22

    The link between reproductive life history and incidence of ovarian tumors is well known. Periods of reduced ovulations may confer protection against ovarian cancer. Using phenotypic data available for mouse, a possible association between the ovarian transcriptome, reproductive records and spontaneous ovarian tumor rates was investigated in four mouse inbred strains. NIA15k-DNA microarrays were employed to obtain expression profiles of BalbC, C57BL6, FVB and SWR adult ovaries. Linear regression analysis with multiple-test control (adjusted p ≤ 0.05) resulted in ovarian tumor frequency (OTF) and number of litters (NL) as the top-correlated among five tested phenotypes. Moreover, nearly one-hundred genes were coincident between these two traits and were decomposed in 76 OTF(-) NL(+) and 20 OTF(+) NL(-) genes, where the plus/minus signs indicate the direction of correlation. Enriched functional categories were RNA-binding/mRNA-processing and protein folding in the OTF(-) NL(+) and the OTF(+) NL(-) subsets, respectively. In contrast, no associations were detected between OTF and litter size (LS), the latter a measure of ovulation events in a single estrous cycle. Literature text-mining pointed to post-transcriptional control of ovarian processes including oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis and angiogenesis as possible causal relationships of observed tumor and reproductive phenotypes. We speculate that repetitive cycling instead of repetitive ovulations represent the actual link between ovarian tumorigenesis and reproductive records.

  8. Tumor and reproductive traits are linked by RNA metabolism genes in the mouse ovary: a transcriptome-phenotype association analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The link between reproductive life history and incidence of ovarian tumors is well known. Periods of reduced ovulations may confer protection against ovarian cancer. Using phenotypic data available for mouse, a possible association between the ovarian transcriptome, reproductive records and spontaneous ovarian tumor rates was investigated in four mouse inbred strains. NIA15k-DNA microarrays were employed to obtain expression profiles of BalbC, C57BL6, FVB and SWR adult ovaries. Results Linear regression analysis with multiple-test control (adjusted p ≤ 0.05) resulted in ovarian tumor frequency (OTF) and number of litters (NL) as the top-correlated among five tested phenotypes. Moreover, nearly one-hundred genes were coincident between these two traits and were decomposed in 76 OTF(–) NL(+) and 20 OTF(+) NL(–) genes, where the plus/minus signs indicate the direction of correlation. Enriched functional categories were RNA-binding/mRNA-processing and protein folding in the OTF(–) NL(+) and the OTF(+) NL(–) subsets, respectively. In contrast, no associations were detected between OTF and litter size (LS), the latter a measure of ovulation events in a single estrous cycle. Conclusion Literature text-mining pointed to post-transcriptional control of ovarian processes including oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis and angiogenesis as possible causal relationships of observed tumor and reproductive phenotypes. We speculate that repetitive cycling instead of repetitive ovulations represent the actual link between ovarian tumorigenesis and reproductive records. PMID:21210965

  9. Comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome: activation of β1-adrenergic receptor by xamoterol as a potential cognitive enhancer.

    PubMed

    Faizi, Mehrdad; Bader, Patrick L; Tun, Christine; Encarnacion, Angelo; Kleschevnikov, Alexander; Belichenko, Pavel; Saw, Nay; Priestley, Matthew; Tsien, Richard W; Mobley, William C; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2011-08-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent form of mental retardation caused by genetic abnormalities in humans. This has been successfully modeled in mice to generate the Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS. This transgenic mouse model shares a number of physical and functional abnormalities with people with DS, including changes in the structure and function of neuronal circuits. Significant abnormalities in noradrenergic (NE-ergic) afferents from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus, as well as deficits in NE-ergic neurotransmission are detected in these animals. In the current study we characterized in detail the behavioral phenotype of Ts65Dn mice, in addition to using pharmacological tools for identification of target receptors mediating the learning and memory deficits observed in this model of DS. We undertook a comprehensive approach to mouse phenotyping using a battery of standard and novel tests encompassing: (i) locomotion (Activity Chamber, PhenoTyper, and CatWalk), (ii) learning and memory (spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, fear conditioning, and Intellicage), and (iii) social behavior. Ts65Dn mice showed increased locomotor activity in novel and home cage environments. There were significant and reproducible deficits in learning and memory tests including spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, Intellicage place avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. Although Ts65Dn mice showed no deficit in sociability in the 3-chamber test, a marked impairment in social memory was detected. Xamoterol, a β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-ADR) agonist, effectively restored the memory deficit in contextual fear conditioning, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition. These behavioral improvements were reversed by betaxolol, a selective β1-ADR antagonist. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that this mouse model of Down syndrome displays cognitive deficits which are mediated by an imbalance in the

  10. Comprehensive Behavioral Phenotyping of Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome: Activation of β1-Adrenergic Receptor by Xamoterol as a Potential Cognitive Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Faizi, Mehrdad; Bader, Patrick L.; Tun, Christine; Encarnacion, Angelo; Kleschevnikov, Alexander; Belichenko, Pavel; Saw, Nay; Priestley, Matthew; Tsien, Richard W; Mobley, William C; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent form of mental retardation caused by genetic abnormalities in humans. This has been successfully modeled in mice to generate the Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS. This transgenic mouse model shares a number of physical and functional abnormalities with people with DS, including changes in the structure and function of neuronal circuits. Significant abnormalities in noradrenergic (NE-ergic) afferents from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus, as well as deficits in NE-ergic neurotransmission are detected in these animals. In the current study we characterized in detail the behavioral phenotype of Ts65Dn mice, in addition to using pharmacological tools for identification of target receptors mediating the learning and memory deficits observed in this model of DS. We undertook a comprehensive approach to mouse phenotyping using a battery of standard and novel tests encompassing: i) locomotion (Activity Chamber, PhenoTyper, and CatWalk), ii) learning and memory (spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, fear conditioning, and Intellicage), and iii) social behavior. Ts65Dn mice showed increased locomotor activity in novel and home cage environments. There were significant and reproducible deficits in learning and memory tests including spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, Intellicage place avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. Although Ts65Dn mice showed no deficit in sociability in the 3-chamber test, a marked impairment in social memory was detected. Xamoterol, a β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-ADR) agonist, effectively restored the memory deficit in contextual fear conditioning, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition. These behavioral improvements were reversed by betaxolol, a selective β1-ADR antagonist. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that this mouse model of Down Syndrome display cognitive deficits which is mediated by imbalance in noradrenergic

  11. Transcriptome-scale similarities between mouse and human skeletal muscles with normal and myopathic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Alvin T; Kang, Peter B; Kohane, Isaac S; Kunkel, Louis M

    2006-01-01

    Background Mouse and human skeletal muscle transcriptome profiles vary by muscle type, raising the question of which mouse muscle groups have the greatest molecular similarities to human skeletal muscle. Methods Orthologous (whole, sub-) transcriptome profiles were compared among four mouse-human transcriptome datasets: (M) six muscle groups obtained from three mouse strains (wildtype, mdx, mdx5cv); (H1) biopsied human quadriceps from controls and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients; (H2) four different control human muscle types obtained at autopsy; and (H3) 12 different control human tissues (ten non-muscle). Results Of the six mouse muscles examined, mouse soleus bore the greatest molecular similarities to human skeletal muscles, independent of the latters' anatomic location/muscle type, disease state, age and sampling method (autopsy versus biopsy). Significant similarity to any one mouse muscle group was not observed for non-muscle human tissues (dataset H3), indicating this finding to be muscle specific. Conclusion This observation may be partly explained by the higher type I fiber content of soleus relative to the other mouse muscles sampled. PMID:16522209

  12. Phenotypic characterization of rare interstitial deletion of chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Samira; Helmy, Nivine A.; Mahmoud, Wael M.; El-Ruby, Mona O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 is rare. Patients with interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 differ from those with terminal deletions. Phenotypes may be variable, depending upon the specific length and location of the deleted portion. Here, we report on a boy exhibiting most of the congenital malformations encountered in terminal 4q syndrome. The conventional karyotyping and Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed a de novo interstitial del (4)(q31q32). The current report is a further document highlighting that deletion of segment q31 could be contributing to the expression of most of the phenotype of 4q deletion syndrome. Using array comparative genome hybridization methodology is recommended for investigating further cases with similar segmental interstitial deletions to support and delineate findings and to define genes implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder. PMID:27625821

  13. Characterizing visible and invisible cell wall mutant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carpita, Nicholas C; McCann, Maureen C

    2015-07-01

    About 10% of a plant's genome is devoted to generating the protein machinery to synthesize, remodel, and deconstruct the cell wall. High-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled a reasonably complete inventory of wall-related genes that can be assembled into families of common evolutionary origin. Assigning function to each gene family member has been aided immensely by identification of mutants with visible phenotypes or by chemical and spectroscopic analysis of mutants with 'invisible' phenotypes of modified cell wall composition and architecture that do not otherwise affect plant growth or development. This review connects the inference of gene function on the basis of deviation from the wild type in genetic functional analyses to insights provided by modern analytical techniques that have brought us ever closer to elucidating the sequence structures of the major polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall.

  14. Importing, caring, breeding, genotyping, and phenotyping a genetic mouse in a Chinese university.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S T; Wu, Q H; Liu, B; Xie, Z L; Wu, X; Shang, S J; Zhang, X Y; Kang, X J; Liu, L N; Zhu, F P; Wang, Y S; Hu, M Q; Xu, H D; Zhou, L; Liu, B; Chai, Z Y; Zhang, Q F; Liu, W; Teng, S S; Wang, C H; Guo, N; Dou, H Q; Zuo, P L; Zheng, L H; Zhang, C X; Zhu, D S; Wang, L; Wang, S R; Zhou, Z

    2014-07-01

    The genetic manipulation of the laboratory mouse has been well developed and generated more and more mouse lines for biomedical research. To advance our science exploration, it is necessary to share genetically modified mouse lines with collaborators between institutions, even in different countries. The transfer process is complicated. Significant paperwork and coordination are required, concerning animal welfare, intellectual property rights, colony health status, and biohazard. Here, we provide a practical example of importing a transgenic mice line, Dynamin 1 knockout mice, from Yale University in the USA to Perking University in China for studying cell secretion. This example including the length of time that required for paper work, mice quarantine at the receiving institution, and expansion of the mouse line for experiments. The procedure described in this paper for delivery live transgenic mice from USA to China may serve a simple reference for transferring mouse lines between other countries too.

  15. Phenotypic characterization of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in African American children

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Broadaway, K Alaine; Ponder, Lori; Angeles-Han, Sheila T.; Jenkins, Kirsten; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Pelajo, Christina F.; Conneely, Karen; Epstein, Michael P; Lopez-Benitez, Jorge; Vogler, Larry B.; Prahalad, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) affects children of all races. Prior studies suggest that phenotypic features of JIA in African American (AA) children differ from those of Non-Hispanic White (NHW) children. We evaluated the phenotypic differences at presentation between AA and NHW children enrolled in the CARRA Registry, and replicated the findings in a JIA cohort from a large center in South Eastern USA. Methods Children with JIA enrolled in the multi-center CARRA Registry and from Emory University comprised the study and replication cohorts. Phenotypic data on Non-Hispanic AA children were compared with NHW children with JIA using Chi-square, Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Results In all, 4177 NHW and 292 AA JIA cases from the CARRA Registry, and 212 NHW and 71 AA cases from Emory were analyzed. AA subjects more often had RF-positive polyarthritis in both CARRA (13.4% vs. 4.7%, p=5.3×10-7) and Emory (26.8% vs. 6.1%, p =1.1×10-5) cohorts. AA children had positive tests for RF and CCP more frequently, but oligoarticular or early onset ANA-positive JIA less frequently in both cohorts. AA children were older at onset in both cohorts and this difference persisted after excluding RF-positive polyarthritis in the CARRA Registry (median age 8.5 vs. 5.0 years; p =1.4×10-8). Conclusions Compared to NHW children, AA children with JIA are more likely to have RF/CCP positive polyarthritis, and are older at disease onset, and less likely to have oligoarticular or ANA-positive early onset JIA, suggesting that the JIA phenotype is different in African American children. PMID:26879356

  16. Phenotypic Characterization of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in African American Children.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Broadaway, K Alaine; Ponder, Lori; Angeles-Han, Sheila T; Jenkins, Kirsten; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Pelajo, Christina F; Conneely, Karen; Epstein, Michael P; Lopez-Benitez, Jorge; Vogler, Larry B; Prahalad, Sampath

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) affects children of all races. Prior studies suggest that phenotypic features of JIA in African American (AA) children differ from those of non-Hispanic white (NHW) children. We evaluated the phenotypic differences at presentation between AA and NHW children enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry, and replicated the findings in a JIA cohort from a large center in the southeastern United States. Children with JIA enrolled in the multicenter CARRA Registry and from Emory University formed the study and replication cohorts. Phenotypic data on non-Hispanic AA children were compared with NHW children with JIA using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In all, 4177 NHW and 292 AA JIA cases from the CARRA Registry and 212 NHW and 71 AA cases from Emory were analyzed. AA subjects more often had rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive polyarthritis in both the CARRA (13.4% vs 4.7%, p = 5.3 × 10(-7)) and the Emory (26.8% vs 6.1%, p = 1.1 × 10(-5)) cohorts. AA children had positive tests for RF and cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (CCP) more frequently, but oligoarticular or early onset antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive JIA less frequently in both cohorts. AA children were older at onset in both cohorts and this difference persisted after excluding RF-positive polyarthritis in the CARRA Registry (median age 8.5 vs 5.0 yrs, p = 1.4 × 10(-8)). Compared with NHW children, AA children with JIA are more likely to have RF/CCP-positive polyarthritis, are older at disease onset, and less likely to have oligoarticular or ANA-positive, early-onset JIA, suggesting that the JIA phenotype is different in AA children.

  17. Pantethine treatment is effective in recovering the disease phenotype induced by ketogenic diet in a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Dario; Dusi, Sabrina; Giordano, Carla; Lamperti, Costanza; Morbin, Michela; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Marchet, Silvia; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Sibon, Ody; Moggio, Maurizio; d’Amati, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, pigmentary retinal degeneration and brain iron accumulation. PANK2 encodes the mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase type 2, responsible for the phosphorylation of pantothenate or vitamin B5 in the biosynthesis of co-enzyme A. A Pank2 knockout (Pank2−/−) mouse model did not recapitulate the human disease but showed azoospermia and mitochondrial dysfunctions. We challenged this mouse model with a low glucose and high lipid content diet (ketogenic diet) to stimulate lipid use by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. In the presence of a shortage of co-enzyme A, this diet could evoke a general impairment of bioenergetic metabolism. Only Pank2−/− mice fed with a ketogenic diet developed a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration-like syndrome characterized by severe motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration and severely altered mitochondria in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These mice also showed structural alteration of muscle morphology, which was comparable with that observed in a patient with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We here demonstrate that pantethine administration can prevent the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype in mice suggesting the possibility of experimental treatment in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:24316510

  18. Pantethine treatment is effective in recovering the disease phenotype induced by ketogenic diet in a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mouse model.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Dario; Dusi, Sabrina; Giordano, Carla; Lamperti, Costanza; Morbin, Michela; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Marchet, Silvia; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Sibon, Ody; Moggio, Maurizio; d'Amati, Giulia; Tiranti, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, pigmentary retinal degeneration and brain iron accumulation. PANK2 encodes the mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase type 2, responsible for the phosphorylation of pantothenate or vitamin B5 in the biosynthesis of co-enzyme A. A Pank2 knockout (Pank2(-/-)) mouse model did not recapitulate the human disease but showed azoospermia and mitochondrial dysfunctions. We challenged this mouse model with a low glucose and high lipid content diet (ketogenic diet) to stimulate lipid use by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. In the presence of a shortage of co-enzyme A, this diet could evoke a general impairment of bioenergetic metabolism. Only Pank2(-/-) mice fed with a ketogenic diet developed a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration-like syndrome characterized by severe motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration and severely altered mitochondria in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These mice also showed structural alteration of muscle morphology, which was comparable with that observed in a patient with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We here demonstrate that pantethine administration can prevent the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype in mice suggesting the possibility of experimental treatment in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.

  19. Reciprocal mouse and human limb phenotypes caused by gain- and loss-of-function mutations affecting Lmbr1.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R M; Marker, P C; Roessler, E; Dutra, A; Schimenti, J C; Muenke, M; Kingsley, D M

    2001-01-01

    The major locus for dominant preaxial polydactyly in humans has been mapped to 7q36. In mice the dominant Hemimelic extra toes (Hx) and Hammertoe (Hm) mutations map to a homologous chromosomal region and cause similar limb defects. The Lmbr1 gene is entirely within the small critical intervals recently defined for both the mouse and human mutations and is misexpressed at the exact time that the mouse Hx phenotype becomes apparent during limb development. This result suggests that Lmbr1 may underlie preaxial polydactyly in both mice and humans. We have used deletion chromosomes to demonstrate that the dominant mouse and human limb defects arise from gain-of-function mutations and not from haploinsufficiency. Furthermore, we created a loss-of-function mutation in the mouse Lmbr1 gene that causes digit number reduction (oligodactyly) on its own and in trans to a deletion chromosome. The loss of digits that we observed in mice with reduced Lmbr1 activity is in contrast to the gain of digits observed in Hx mice and human polydactyly patients. Our results suggest that the Lmbr1 gene is required for limb formation and that reciprocal changes in levels of Lmbr1 activity can lead to either increases or decreases in the number of digits in the vertebrate limb. PMID:11606546

  20. Targeted expression of RALT in mouse skin inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and generates a Waved-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ballarò, Costanza; Ceccarelli, Sara; Tiveron, Cecilia; Tatangelo, Laura; Salvatore, Anna Maria; Segatto, Oreste; Alemà, Stefano

    2005-08-01

    Although it has been clearly established that negative feedback loops have a fundamental role in the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling in flies, their role in the regulation of mammalian EGFR has been inferred only recently from in vitro studies. Here, we report on the forced expression of RALT/MIG-6, a negative feedback regulator of ErbB receptors, in mouse skin. A RALT transgene driven by the K14 promoter generated a dose-dependent phenotype resembling that caused by hypomorphic and antimorphic Egfr alleles-that is, wavy coat, curly whiskers and open eyes at birth. Ex vivo keratinocytes from K14-RALT mice showed reduced biochemical and biological responses when stimulated by ErbB ligands. Conversely, knockdown of RALT by RNA interference enhanced ErbB mitogenic signalling. Thus, RALT behaves as a suppressor of EGFR signalling in mouse skin.

  1. Targeted expression of RALT in mouse skin inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and generates a Waved-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ballarò, Costanza; Ceccarelli, Sara; Tiveron, Cecilia; Tatangelo, Laura; Salvatore, Anna Maria; Segatto, Oreste; Alemà, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Although it has been clearly established that negative feedback loops have a fundamental role in the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling in flies, their role in the regulation of mammalian EGFR has been inferred only recently from in vitro studies. Here, we report on the forced expression of RALT/MIG-6, a negative feedback regulator of ErbB receptors, in mouse skin. A RALT transgene driven by the K14 promoter generated a dose-dependent phenotype resembling that caused by hypomorphic and antimorphic Egfr alleles—that is, wavy coat, curly whiskers and open eyes at birth. Ex vivo keratinocytes from K14-RALT mice showed reduced biochemical and biological responses when stimulated by ErbB ligands. Conversely, knockdown of RALT by RNA interference enhanced ErbB mitogenic signalling. Thus, RALT behaves as a suppressor of EGFR signalling in mouse skin. PMID:16007071

  2. Outstanding Phenotypic Differences in the Profile of Amyloid-β between Tg2576 and APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Allué, José Antonio; Sarasa, Leticia; Izco, María; Pérez-Grijalba, Virginia; Fandos, Noelia; Pascual-Lucas, María; Ogueta, Samuel; Pesini, Pedro; Sarasa, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    APPswe/PS1dE9 and Tg2576 are very common transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), used in many laboratories as tools to research the mechanistic process leading to the disease. In order to augment our knowledge about the amyloid-β (Aβ) isoforms present in both transgenic mouse models, we have developed two chromatographic methods, one acidic and the other basic, for the characterization of the Aβ species produced in the brains of the two transgenic mouse models. After immunoprecipitation and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, 10 species of Aβ, surprisingly all of human origin, were detected in the brain of Tg2576 mouse, whereas 39 species, of both murine and human origin, were detected in the brain of the APP/PS1 mouse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the identification of such a high number of Aβ species in the brain of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse, whereas, in contrast, a much lower number of Aβ species were identified in the Tg2576 mouse. Therefore, this study brings to light a relevant phenotypic difference between these two popular mice models of AD. PMID:27258422

  3. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of sweet sorghum accessions for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Michele Jorge; Pastina, Maria Marta; de Souza, Vander Fillipe; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Carneiro, Pedro Crescêncio Souza; Noda, Roberto Willians; Carneiro, José Eustáquio de Souza; Damasceno, Cynthia Maria Borges; Parrella, Rafael Augusto da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines. The objectives of this study were: to perform phenotypic and molecular characterization of 100 sweet sorghum accessions from the germplasm bank of the Embrapa Maize and Sorghum breeding program; to examine the relationship between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices; and to infer about the population structure in the sweet sorghum accessions. Morphological and agro-industrial traits related to sugar and biomass production were used for phenotypic characterization, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for molecular diversity analysis. Both phenotypic and molecular characterizations revealed the existence of considerable genetic diversity among the 100 sweet sorghum accessions. The correlation between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices was low (0.35), which is in agreement with the inconsistencies observed between the clusters formed by the phenotypic and the molecular diversity analyses. Furthermore, the clusters obtained by the molecular diversity analysis were more consistent with the genealogy and the historic background of the sweet sorghum accessions than the clusters obtained through the phenotypic diversity analysis. The low correlation observed between the molecular and the phenotypic diversity matrices highlights the

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of sweet sorghum accessions for bioenergy production

    PubMed Central

    Pastina, Maria Marta; de Souza, Vander Fillipe; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Carneiro, Pedro Crescêncio Souza; Noda, Roberto Willians; Carneiro, José Eustáquio de Souza; Damasceno, Cynthia Maria Borges; Parrella, Rafael Augusto da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines. The objectives of this study were: to perform phenotypic and molecular characterization of 100 sweet sorghum accessions from the germplasm bank of the Embrapa Maize and Sorghum breeding program; to examine the relationship between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices; and to infer about the population structure in the sweet sorghum accessions. Morphological and agro-industrial traits related to sugar and biomass production were used for phenotypic characterization, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for molecular diversity analysis. Both phenotypic and molecular characterizations revealed the existence of considerable genetic diversity among the 100 sweet sorghum accessions. The correlation between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices was low (0.35), which is in agreement with the inconsistencies observed between the clusters formed by the phenotypic and the molecular diversity analyses. Furthermore, the clusters obtained by the molecular diversity analysis were more consistent with the genealogy and the historic background of the sweet sorghum accessions than the clusters obtained through the phenotypic diversity analysis. The low correlation observed between the molecular and the phenotypic diversity matrices highlights the

  5. Characterization of skeletal muscle in the synemin knock-out mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pelagio, Karla P.; Muriel, Joaquin; Lovering, Richard M.; Lund, Linda; Bond, Meredith; Bloch, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Diseases linked to intermediate filament (IF) proteins are associated with defects in the organization of the contractile apparatus of skeletal and cardiac muscle and its links to costameres, which connect the sarcomeres to the cell membrane. Synemin is a large IF protein that associates with dystrobrevin, vinculin, and talin at costameres of the cell membrane of striated muscle, as well as with α-actinin and desmin at the Z disks. Synemin can be expressed in either 210 kDa α- or 180 kDa β- alternatively spliced forms. We generated mice null for synemin by homologous recombination to study synemin's function in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle in the knock out (syn KO) mouse does not make synemin mRNA or protein. Preliminary characterization of the syn KO mouse suggests that it has a mild skeletal muscle phenotype. The organization of costameres appears to be normal. Treadmill running uphill test results was not significantly affected when compared to controls at any age. More notably, the biomechanical properties of the cell membrane are different in the syn KO, though they are less affected than by the absence of desmin or dystrophin. These results suggest that the viscoelastic properties of the cell membrane-costamere-myofibril complex are significantly influenced by synemin.

  6. Leveraging Comparative Genomics to Identify and Functionally Characterize Genes Associated with Sperm Phenotypes in Python bivittatus (Burmese Python)

    PubMed Central

    Rutllant, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics approaches provide a means of leveraging functional genomics information from a highly annotated model organism's genome (such as the mouse genome) in order to make physiological inferences about the role of genes and proteins in a less characterized organism's genome (such as the Burmese python). We employed a comparative genomics approach to produce the functional annotation of Python bivittatus genes encoding proteins associated with sperm phenotypes. We identify 129 gene-phenotype relationships in the python which are implicated in 10 specific sperm phenotypes. Results obtained through our systematic analysis identified subsets of python genes exhibiting associations with gene ontology annotation terms. Functional annotation data was represented in a semantic scatter plot. Together, these newly annotated Python bivittatus genome resources provide a high resolution framework from which the biology relating to reptile spermatogenesis, fertility, and reproduction can be further investigated. Applications of our research include (1) production of genetic diagnostics for assessing fertility in domestic and wild reptiles; (2) enhanced assisted reproduction technology for endangered and captive reptiles; and (3) novel molecular targets for biotechnology-based approaches aimed at reducing fertility and reproduction of invasive reptiles. Additional enhancements to reptile genomic resources will further enhance their value. PMID:27200191

  7. Leveraging Comparative Genomics to Identify and Functionally Characterize Genes Associated with Sperm Phenotypes in Python bivittatus (Burmese Python).

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Rutllant, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics approaches provide a means of leveraging functional genomics information from a highly annotated model organism's genome (such as the mouse genome) in order to make physiological inferences about the role of genes and proteins in a less characterized organism's genome (such as the Burmese python). We employed a comparative genomics approach to produce the functional annotation of Python bivittatus genes encoding proteins associated with sperm phenotypes. We identify 129 gene-phenotype relationships in the python which are implicated in 10 specific sperm phenotypes. Results obtained through our systematic analysis identified subsets of python genes exhibiting associations with gene ontology annotation terms. Functional annotation data was represented in a semantic scatter plot. Together, these newly annotated Python bivittatus genome resources provide a high resolution framework from which the biology relating to reptile spermatogenesis, fertility, and reproduction can be further investigated. Applications of our research include (1) production of genetic diagnostics for assessing fertility in domestic and wild reptiles; (2) enhanced assisted reproduction technology for endangered and captive reptiles; and (3) novel molecular targets for biotechnology-based approaches aimed at reducing fertility and reproduction of invasive reptiles. Additional enhancements to reptile genomic resources will further enhance their value.

  8. Phenotypic Characterization of Leukocytes in Prenatal Human Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Christopher; Vaculik, Christine; Prior, Marion; Fiala, Christian; Mildner, Michael; Eppel, Wolfgang; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-01-01

    The adult human skin harbors a variety of leukocytes providing immune surveillance and host defense, but knowledge about their ontogeny is scarce. In this study we investigated the number and phenotype of leukocytes in prenatal human skin (dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), macrophages, T cells (including FoxP3+ regulatory T cells), and mast cells) to unravel their derivation and to get a clue as to their putative function in utero. By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, we found a distinction between CD206+CD1c+CD11c+ DDCs and CD206+CD209+CD1c− skin macrophages by 9 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA). T cells appear at the end of the first trimester, expressing CD3 intracytoplasmatically. During midgestation, CD3+FoxP3− and CD3+FoxP3+ cells can exclusively be found in the dermis. Similarly, other leukocytes such as CD117+ (c-kit) mast cells were not identified before 12–14 weeks EGA and only slowly acquire a mature phenotype during gestation. Our data show at which time point during gestation antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and mast cells populate the human dermis and provide a step forward to a better understanding of the development of the human skin immune system. PMID:22718119

  9. Microfluidic bioassay to characterize parasitic nematode phenotype and anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baozhen; Deutmeyer, Alex; Carr, John; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J; Pandey, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    With increasing resistance to anti-parasitic drugs, it has become more important to detect and recognize phenotypes of resistant isolates. Molecular methods of detecting resistant isolates are limited at present. Here, we introduce a microfluidic bioassay to measure phenotype using parameters of nematode locomotion. We illustrate the technique on larvae of an animal parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum. Parameters of sinusoidal motion such as propagation velocity, wavelength, wave amplitude, and oscillation frequency depended on the levamisole-sensitivity of the isolate of parasitic nematode. The levamisole-sensitive isolate (SENS) had a mean wave amplitude of 135 μm, which was larger than 123 μm of the levamisole-resistant isolate (LEVR). SENS had a mean wavelength of 373 μm, which was less than 393 μm of LEVR. The mean propagation velocity of SENS, 149 μm s-1, was similar to LEVR, 143 μm s-1. The propagation velocity of the isolates was inhibited by levamisole in a concentration-dependent manner above 0.5 μm. The EC50 for SENS was 3 μm and the EC50 for LEVR was 10 μm. This microfluidic technology advances present-day nematode migration assays and provides a better quantification and increased drug sensitivity. It is anticipated that the bioassay will facilitate study of resistance to other anthelmintic drugs that affect locomotion.

  10. Microfluidic bioassay to characterize parasitic nematode phenotype and anthelmintic resistance

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, BAOZHEN; DEUTMEYER, ALEX; CARR, JOHN; ROBERTSON, ALAN P.; MARTIN, RICHARD J.; PANDEY, SANTOSH

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY With increasing resistance to anti-parasitic drugs, it has become more important to detect and recognize phenotypes of resistant isolates. Molecular methods of detecting resistant isolates are limited at present. Here, we introduce a microfluidic bioassay to measure phenotype using parameters of nematode locomotion. We illustrate the technique on larvae of an animal parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum. Parameters of sinusoidal motion such as propagation velocity, wavelength, wave amplitude, and oscillation frequency depended on the levamisole-sensitivity of the isolate of parasitic nematode. The levamisole-sensitive isolate (SENS) had a mean wave amplitude of 135 μm, which was larger than 123 μm of the levamisole-resistant isolate (LEVR). SENS had a mean wavelength of 373 μm, which was less than 393 μm of LEVR. The mean propagation velocity of SENS, 149 μm s−1, was similar to LEVR, 143 μm s−1. The propagation velocity of the isolates was inhibited by levamisole in a concentration-dependent manner above 0.5 μM. The EC50 for SENS was 3 μM and the EC50 for LEVR was 10 μM. This microfluidic technology advances present-day nematode migration assays and provides a better quantification and increased drug sensitivity. It is anticipated that the bioassay will facilitate study of resistance to other anthelmintic drugs that affect locomotion. PMID:20663251

  11. Phenotypic characterization of leukocytes in prenatal human dermis.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher; Vaculik, Christine; Prior, Marion; Fiala, Christian; Mildner, Michael; Eppel, Wolfgang; Stingl, Georg; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-11-01

    The adult human skin harbors a variety of leukocytes providing immune surveillance and host defense, but knowledge about their ontogeny is scarce. In this study we investigated the number and phenotype of leukocytes in prenatal human skin (dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), macrophages, T cells (including FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells), and mast cells) to unravel their derivation and to get a clue as to their putative function in utero. By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, we found a distinction between CD206(+)CD1c(+)CD11c(+) DDCs and CD206(+)CD209(+)CD1c(-) skin macrophages by 9 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA). T cells appear at the end of the first trimester, expressing CD3 intracytoplasmatically. During midgestation, CD3(+)FoxP3(-) and CD3(+)FoxP3(+) cells can exclusively be found in the dermis. Similarly, other leukocytes such as CD117(+) (c-kit) mast cells were not identified before 12-14 weeks EGA and only slowly acquire a mature phenotype during gestation. Our data show at which time point during gestation antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and mast cells populate the human dermis and provide a step forward to a better understanding of the development of the human skin immune system.

  12. Wilson Disease: Epigenetic effects of choline supplementation on phenotype and clinical course in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Shibata, Noreene M; Chima, Harpreet; Kim, Kyoungmi; Canovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F; Islas-Trejo, Alma D; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Olson, Kristin; Su, Ruijun J; Islam, Mohammad S; Syed, Raisa; Keen, Carl L; Miller, Amy Y; Rutledge, John C; Halsted, Charles H; LaSalle, Janine M

    2016-11-01

    Wilson disease (WD), a genetic disorder affecting copper transport, is characterized by hepatic and neurological manifestations with variable and often unpredictable presentation. Global DNA methylation in liver was previously modified by dietary choline in tx-j mice, a spontaneous mutant model of WD. We therefore hypothesized that the WD phenotype and hepatic gene expression of tx-j offspring could be modified by maternal methyl supplementation during pregnancy. In an initial experiment, female tx-j mice or wild type mice were fed control or choline-supplemented diets 2 weeks prior to mating through embryonic day 17. Transcriptomic analysis (RNA-seq) on embryonic livers revealed tx-j-specific differences in genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the neurological disorders Huntington's disease and Alzheimer disease. Maternal choline supplementation restored the transcript levels of a subset of genes to wild type levels. In a separate experiment, a group of tx-j offspring continued to receive choline-supplemented or control diets, with or without the copper chelator penicillamine (PCA) for 12 weeks until 24 weeks of age. Combined choline supplementation and PCA treatment of 24-week-old tx-j mice was associated with increased liver transcript levels of methionine metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation-related genes. Sex differences in gene expression within each treatment group were also observed. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional changes in oxidative phosphorylation and methionine metabolism genes in WD that originate during fetal life are, in part, prevented by prenatal maternal choline supplementation, a finding with potential relevance to preventive treatments of WD.

  13. Wilson Disease: Epigenetic effects of choline supplementation on phenotype and clinical course in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Shibata, Noreene M.; Chima, Harpreet; Kim, Kyoungmi; Canovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F.; Islas-Trejo, Alma D.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Olson, Kristin; Su, Ruijun J.; Islam, Mohammad S.; Syed, Raisa; Keen, Carl L.; Miller, Amy Y.; Rutledge, John C.; Halsted, Charles H.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wilson disease (WD), a genetic disorder affecting copper transport, is characterized by hepatic and neurological manifestations with variable and often unpredictable presentation. Global DNA methylation in liver was previously modified by dietary choline in tx-j mice, a spontaneous mutant model of WD. We therefore hypothesized that the WD phenotype and hepatic gene expression of tx-j offspring could be modified by maternal methyl supplementation during pregnancy. In an initial experiment, female tx-j mice or wild type mice were fed control or choline-supplemented diets 2 weeks prior to mating through embryonic day 17. Transcriptomic analysis (RNA-seq) on embryonic livers revealed tx-j-specific differences in genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the neurological disorders Huntington's disease and Alzheimer disease. Maternal choline supplementation restored the transcript levels of a subset of genes to wild type levels. In a separate experiment, a group of tx-j offspring continued to receive choline-supplemented or control diets, with or without the copper chelator penicillamine (PCA) for 12 weeks until 24 weeks of age. Combined choline supplementation and PCA treatment of 24-week-old tx-j mice was associated with increased liver transcript levels of methionine metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation-related genes. Sex differences in gene expression within each treatment group were also observed. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional changes in oxidative phosphorylation and methionine metabolism genes in WD that originate during fetal life are, in part, prevented by prenatal maternal choline supplementation, a finding with potential relevance to preventive treatments of WD. PMID:27611852

  14. Androgen deprivation induces phenotypic plasticity and promotes resistance to molecular targeted therapy in a PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Velasco, Marco A.; Tanaka, Motoyoshi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Yuji; Koike, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Kazuto; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2014-01-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer is an incurable heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a complex multistep process involving different cellular and biochemical changes brought on by genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes lead to the activation or overexpression of key survival pathways that also serve as potential therapeutic targets. Despite promising preclinical results, molecular targeted therapies aimed at such signaling pathways have so far been dismal. In the present study, we used a PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer to show that plasticity in castration-resistant tumors promotes therapeutic escape. Unlike castration-naïve tumors which depend on androgen receptor and PI3K/AKT signal activation for growth and survival, castration-resistant tumors undergo phenotypic plasticity leading to increased intratumoral heterogeneity. These tumors attain highly heterogeneous phenotypes that are characterized by cancer cells relying on alternate signal transduction pathways for growth and survival, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase and janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, and losing their dependence on PI3K signaling. These features thus enabled castration-resistant tumors to become insensitive to the therapeutic effects of PI3K/AKT targeted therapy. Overall, our findings provide evidence that androgen deprivation drives phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer cells and implicate it as a crucial contributor to therapeutic resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Therefore, incorporating intratumoral heterogeneity in a dynamic tumor model as a part of preclinical efficacy determination could improve prediction for response and provide better rationale for the development of more effective therapies. PMID:24986896

  15. Interleukin-1 receptors in mouse brain: Characterization and neuronal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Takao, T.; Tracey, D.E.; Mitchell, W.M.; De Souza, E.B. )

    1990-12-01

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has a variety of effects in brain, including induction of fever, alteration of slow wave sleep, and alteration of neuroendocrine activity. To examine the potential sites of action of IL-1 in brain, we used iodine-125-labeled recombinant human interleukin-1 (( 125I)IL-1) to identify and characterize IL-1 receptors in crude membrane preparations of mouse (C57BL/6) hippocampus and to study the distribution of IL-1-binding sites in brain using autoradiography. In preliminary homogenate binding and autoradiographic studies, (125I)IL-1 alpha showed significantly higher specific binding than (125I)IL-1 beta. Thus, (125I)IL-1 alpha was used in all subsequent assays. The binding of (125I)IL-1 alpha was linear over a broad range of membrane protein concentrations, saturable, reversible, and of high affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant value of 114 +/- 35 pM and a maximum number of binding sites of 2.5 +/- 0.4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, recombinant human IL-1 alpha, recombinant human IL-1 beta, and a weak IL-1 beta analog. IL-1 beta +, inhibited (125I)IL-1 alpha binding to mouse hippocampus in parallel with their relative bioactivities in the T-cell comitogenesis assay, with inhibitory binding affinity constants of 55 +/- 18, 76 +/- 20, and 2940 +/- 742 pM, respectively; rat/human CRF and human tumor necrosis factor showed no effect on (125I)IL-1 alpha binding. Autoradiographic localization studies revealed very low densities of (125I)IL-1 alpha-binding sites throughout the brain, with highest densities present in the molecular and granular layers of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and in the choroid plexus. Quinolinic acid lesion studies demonstrated that the (125I)IL-1 alpha-binding sites in the hippocampus were localized to intrinsic neurons.

  16. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S.; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. PMID:26872257

  17. Phenotypic Consequences of Copy Number Variation: Insights from Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Chrast, Jacqueline; Gu, Wenli; Gheldof, Nele; Pradervand, Sylvain; Schütz, Frédéric; Young, Juan I.; Lupski, James R.; Reymond, Alexandre; Walz, Katherina

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of genome variation between individuals is comprised of submicroscopic copy number variation of genomic DNA segments. We assessed the relative contribution of structural changes and gene dosage alterations on phenotypic outcomes with mouse models of Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski syndromes. We phenotyped mice with 1n (Deletion/+), 2n (+/+), 3n (Duplication/+), and balanced 2n compound heterozygous (Deletion/Duplication) copies of the same region. Parallel to the observations made in humans, such variation in gene copy number was sufficient to generate phenotypic consequences: in a number of cases diametrically opposing phenotypes were associated with gain versus loss of gene content. Surprisingly, some neurobehavioral traits were not rescued by restoration of the normal gene copy number. Transcriptome profiling showed that a highly significant propensity of transcriptional changes map to the engineered interval in the five assessed tissues. A statistically significant overrepresentation of the genes mapping to the entire length of the engineered chromosome was also found in the top-ranked differentially expressed genes in the mice containing rearranged chromosomes, regardless of the nature of the rearrangement, an observation robust across different cell lineages of the central nervous system. Our data indicate that a structural change at a given position of the human genome may affect not only locus and adjacent gene expression but also “genome regulation.” Furthermore, structural change can cause the same perturbation in particular pathways regardless of gene dosage. Thus, the presence of a genomic structural change, as well as gene dosage imbalance, contributes to the ultimate phenotype. PMID:21124890

  18. Phenotypic consequences of copy number variation: insights from Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski syndrome mouse models.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Guénola; Molina, Jessica; Chrast, Jacqueline; Gu, Wenli; Gheldof, Nele; Pradervand, Sylvain; Schütz, Frédéric; Young, Juan I; Lupski, James R; Reymond, Alexandre; Walz, Katherina

    2010-11-23

    A large fraction of genome variation between individuals is comprised of submicroscopic copy number variation of genomic DNA segments. We assessed the relative contribution of structural changes and gene dosage alterations on phenotypic outcomes with mouse models of Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski syndromes. We phenotyped mice with 1n (Deletion/+), 2n (+/+), 3n (Duplication/+), and balanced 2n compound heterozygous (Deletion/Duplication) copies of the same region. Parallel to the observations made in humans, such variation in gene copy number was sufficient to generate phenotypic consequences: in a number of cases diametrically opposing phenotypes were associated with gain versus loss of gene content. Surprisingly, some neurobehavioral traits were not rescued by restoration of the normal gene copy number. Transcriptome profiling showed that a highly significant propensity of transcriptional changes map to the engineered interval in the five assessed tissues. A statistically significant overrepresentation of the genes mapping to the entire length of the engineered chromosome was also found in the top-ranked differentially expressed genes in the mice containing rearranged chromosomes, regardless of the nature of the rearrangement, an observation robust across different cell lineages of the central nervous system. Our data indicate that a structural change at a given position of the human genome may affect not only locus and adjacent gene expression but also "genome regulation." Furthermore, structural change can cause the same perturbation in particular pathways regardless of gene dosage. Thus, the presence of a genomic structural change, as well as gene dosage imbalance, contributes to the ultimate phenotype.

  19. Characterization of febrile seizures and febrile seizure susceptibility in mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    van Gassen, K L I; Hessel, E V S; Ramakers, G M J; Notenboom, R G E; Wolterink-Donselaar, I G; Brakkee, J H; Godschalk, T C; Qiao, X; Spruijt, B M; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; de Graan, P N E

    2008-07-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most prevalent seizures in children. Although FS are largely benign, complex FS increase the risk to develop temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Studies in rat models for FS have provided information about functional changes in the hippocampus after complex FS. However, our knowledge about the genes and pathways involved in the causes and consequences of FS is still limited. To enable molecular, genetic and knockout studies, we developed and characterized an FS model in mice and used it as a phenotypic screen to analyze FS susceptibility. Hyperthermia was induced by warm air in 10- to 14-day-old mice and induced FS in all animals. Under the conditions used, seizure-induced behavior in mice and rats was similar. In adulthood, treated mice showed increased hippocampal Ih current and seizure susceptibility, characteristics also seen after FS in rats. Of the seven genetically diverse mouse strains screened for FS susceptibility, C57BL/6J mice were among the most susceptible, whereas A/J mice were among the most resistant. Strains genetically similar to C57BL/6J also showed a susceptible phenotype. Our phenotypic data suggest that complex genetics underlie FS susceptibility and show that the C57BL/6J strain is highly susceptible to FS. As this strain has been described as resistant to convulsants, our data indicate that susceptibility genes for FS and convulsants are distinct. Insight into the mechanisms underlying seizure susceptibility and FS may help to identify markers for the early diagnosis of children at risk for complex FS and TLE and may provide new leads for treatment.

  20. Fully-Automated μMRI Morphometric Phenotyping of the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Ma, Da; Holmes, Holly E.; Yu, Yichao; O’Callaghan, James; Cleary, Jon O.; Sinclair, Ben; Wiseman, Frances K.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fully automated pipeline for the morphometric phenotyping of mouse brains from μMRI data, and show its application to the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome, to identify new morphological phenotypes in the brain of this first transchromosomic animal carrying human chromosome 21. We incorporate an accessible approach for simultaneously scanning multiple ex vivo brains, requiring only a 3D-printed brain holder, and novel image processing steps for their separation and orientation. We employ clinically established multi-atlas techniques–superior to single-atlas methods–together with publicly-available atlas databases for automatic skull-stripping and tissue segmentation, providing high-quality, subject-specific tissue maps. We follow these steps with group-wise registration, structural parcellation and both Voxel- and Tensor-Based Morphometry–advantageous for their ability to highlight morphological differences without the laborious delineation of regions of interest. We show the application of freely available open-source software developed for clinical MRI analysis to mouse brain data: NiftySeg for segmentation and NiftyReg for registration, and discuss atlases and parameters suitable for the preclinical paradigm. We used this pipeline to compare 29 Tc1 brains with 26 wild-type littermate controls, imaged ex vivo at 9.4T. We show an unexpected increase in Tc1 total intracranial volume and, controlling for this, local volume and grey matter density reductions in the Tc1 brain compared to the wild-types, most prominently in the cerebellum, in agreement with human DS and previous histological findings. PMID:27658297

  1. The Fetal Brain Transcriptome and Neonatal Behavioral Phenotype in the Ts1Cje Mouse Model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Ferres, Millie A.; Graham, Leah C.; Wick, Heather C.; Miczek, Klaus A.; Slonim, Donna K.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2016-01-01

    Human fetuses with Down syndrome demonstrate abnormal brain growth and reduced neurogenesis. Despite the prenatal onset of the phenotype, most therapeutic trials have been conducted in adults. Here, we present evidence for fetal brain molecular and neonatal behavioral alterations in the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome. Embryonic day 15.5 brain hemisphere RNA from Ts1Cje embryos (n = 5) and wild type littermates (n = 5) was processed and hybridized to mouse gene 1.0 ST arrays. Bioinformatic analyses were implemented to identify differential gene and pathway regulation during Ts1Cje fetal brain development. In separate experiments, the Fox scale, ultrasonic vocalization and homing tests were used to investigate behavioral deficits in Ts1Cje pups (n = 29) versus WT littermates (n = 64) at postnatal days 3–21. Ts1Cje fetal brains displayed more differentially regulated genes (n = 71) than adult (n = 31) when compared to their age-matched euploid brains. Ts1Cje embryonic brains showed up-regulation of cell cycle markers and down-regulation of the solute-carrier amino acid transporters. Several cellular processes were dysregulated at both stages, including apoptosis, inflammation, Jak/Stat signaling, G-protein signaling, and oxidoreductase activity. In addition, early behavioral deficits in surface righting, cliff aversion, negative geotaxis, forelimb grasp, ultrasonic vocalization, and the homing tests were observed. The Ts1Cje mouse model exhibits abnormal gene expression during fetal brain development, and significant neonatal behavioral deficits in the pre-weaning period. In combination with human studies, this suggests that the Down syndrome phenotype manifests prenatally and provides a rationale for prenatal therapy to improve perinatal brain development and post-natal neurocognition. PMID:25975229

  2. Neurodegenerative phenotypes in an A53T α-synuclein transgenic mouse model are independent of LRRK2

    PubMed Central

    Daher, João Paulo L.; Pletnikova, Olga; Biskup, Saskia; Musso, Alessandra; Gellhaar, Sandra; Galter, Dagmar; Troncoso, Juan C.; Lee, Michael K.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding LRRK2 and α-synuclein cause autosomal dominant forms of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Fibrillar forms of α-synuclein are a major component of Lewy bodies, the intracytoplasmic proteinaceous inclusions that are a pathological hallmark of idiopathic and certain familial forms of PD. LRRK2 mutations cause late-onset familial PD with a clinical, neurochemical and, for the most part, neuropathological phenotype that is indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. Importantly, α-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies are the most common pathology identified in the brains of PD subjects harboring LRRK2 mutations. These observations may suggest that LRRK2 functions in a common pathway with α-synuclein to regulate its aggregation. To explore the potential pathophysiological interaction between LRRK2 and α-synuclein in vivo, we modulated LRRK2 expression in a well-established human A53T α-synuclein transgenic mouse model with transgene expression driven by the hindbrain-selective prion protein promoter. Deletion of LRRK2 or overexpression of human G2019S-LRRK2 has minimal impact on the lethal neurodegenerative phenotype that develops in A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice, including premature lethality, pre-symptomatic behavioral deficits and human α-synuclein or glial neuropathology. We also find that endogenous or human LRRK2 and A53T α-synuclein do not interact together to influence the number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Taken together, our data suggest that α-synuclein-related pathology, which occurs predominantly in the hindbrain of this A53T α-synuclein mouse model, occurs largely independently from LRRK2 expression. These observations fail to provide support for a pathophysiological interaction of LRRK2 and α-synuclein in vivo, at least within neurons of the mouse hindbrain. PMID:22357653

  3. Suppression of two major Fragile X Syndrome mouse model phenotypes by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    PubMed

    Yan, Q J; Rammal, M; Tranfaglia, M; Bauchwitz, R P

    2005-12-01

    Fragile X Syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation worldwide. A Fragile X mouse model, fmr1(tm1Cgr), with a disruption in the X-linked Fmr1 gene, has three substantial deficits observed in several strains: (1) sensitivity to audiogenic seizures (AGS), (2) tendency to spend significantly more time in the center of an open field, and (3) enlarged testes. Alterations in metabotropic glutamate receptor group I signaling were previously identified in the fmr1(tm1Cgr) mouse. In this study, we examined the effect of MPEP, an antagonist of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5, on audiogenic seizures and open field activity of fmr1(tm1Cgr) mice. Genetic analysis revealed synergistic reactions between fmr1(tm1Cgr) and inbred AGS alleles. In addition, AGS sensitivity due to the fmr1(tm1Cgr) allele was restricted during development. Examination of phenotypes combining mGluR5 inhibition and Fmr1 mutation indicated that absence of FMRP may affect mGluR5 signaling through indirect as well as direct pathways. All strains of fmr1(tm1Cgr) mice tested (FVB/NJ, C57BL/6J, and an F1 hybrid of the two) had a more excitable AGS pathway than wild-type, and consequently required more MPEP to achieve seizure suppression. At high doses of mGluR5 antagonists, a Fragile X specific tolerance (loss of drug activity) was observed. The tolerance effect could be overcome by a further increase in drug dose. In open field tests, MPEP reduced fmr1(tm1Cgr) center field behavior to one indistinguishable from wild-type. Therefore, mGluR5 antagonists were able to rescue two of the major phenotypes of the FX mouse. Modulation of mGluR5 signaling may allow amelioration of symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome.

  4. Fully-Automated μMRI Morphometric Phenotyping of the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Nick M; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M Jorge; Ma, Da; Holmes, Holly E; Yu, Yichao; O'Callaghan, James; Cleary, Jon O; Sinclair, Ben; Wiseman, Frances K; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Lythgoe, Mark F; Ourselin, Sébastien

    We describe a fully automated pipeline for the morphometric phenotyping of mouse brains from μMRI data, and show its application to the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome, to identify new morphological phenotypes in the brain of this first transchromosomic animal carrying human chromosome 21. We incorporate an accessible approach for simultaneously scanning multiple ex vivo brains, requiring only a 3D-printed brain holder, and novel image processing steps for their separation and orientation. We employ clinically established multi-atlas techniques-superior to single-atlas methods-together with publicly-available atlas databases for automatic skull-stripping and tissue segmentation, providing high-quality, subject-specific tissue maps. We follow these steps with group-wise registration, structural parcellation and both Voxel- and Tensor-Based Morphometry-advantageous for their ability to highlight morphological differences without the laborious delineation of regions of interest. We show the application of freely available open-source software developed for clinical MRI analysis to mouse brain data: NiftySeg for segmentation and NiftyReg for registration, and discuss atlases and parameters suitable for the preclinical paradigm. We used this pipeline to compare 29 Tc1 brains with 26 wild-type littermate controls, imaged ex vivo at 9.4T. We show an unexpected increase in Tc1 total intracranial volume and, controlling for this, local volume and grey matter density reductions in the Tc1 brain compared to the wild-types, most prominently in the cerebellum, in agreement with human DS and previous histological findings.

  5. The fetal brain transcriptome and neonatal behavioral phenotype in the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Ferres, Millie A; Graham, Leah C; Wick, Heather C; Miczek, Klaus A; Slonim, Donna K; Bianchi, Diana W

    2015-09-01

    Human fetuses with Down syndrome demonstrate abnormal brain growth and reduced neurogenesis. Despite the prenatal onset of the phenotype, most therapeutic trials have been conducted in adults. Here, we present evidence for fetal brain molecular and neonatal behavioral alterations in the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome. Embryonic day 15.5 brain hemisphere RNA from Ts1Cje embryos (n = 5) and wild type littermates (n = 5) was processed and hybridized to mouse gene 1.0 ST arrays. Bioinformatic analyses were implemented to identify differential gene and pathway regulation during Ts1Cje fetal brain development. In separate experiments, the Fox scale, ultrasonic vocalization and homing tests were used to investigate behavioral deficits in Ts1Cje pups (n = 29) versus WT littermates (n = 64) at postnatal days 3-21. Ts1Cje fetal brains displayed more differentially regulated genes (n = 71) than adult (n = 31) when compared to their age-matched euploid brains. Ts1Cje embryonic brains showed up-regulation of cell cycle markers and down-regulation of the solute-carrier amino acid transporters. Several cellular processes were dysregulated at both stages, including apoptosis, inflammation, Jak/Stat signaling, G-protein signaling, and oxidoreductase activity. In addition, early behavioral deficits in surface righting, cliff aversion, negative geotaxis, forelimb grasp, ultrasonic vocalization, and the homing tests were observed. The Ts1Cje mouse model exhibits abnormal gene expression during fetal brain development, and significant neonatal behavioral deficits in the pre-weaning period. In combination with human studies, this suggests that the Down syndrome phenotype manifests prenatally and provides a rationale for prenatal therapy to improve perinatal brain development and postnatal neurocognition.

  6. Sildenafil citrate increases fetal weight in a mouse model of fetal growth restriction with a normal vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5(th) centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5(th) centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. (14)C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR.

  7. Sildenafil Citrate Increases Fetal Weight in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction with a Normal Vascular Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR. PMID:24204949

  8. Phenotypic characterization of the marine pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, A; Grisez, L; van Houdt, R; Ollevier, F

    1998-10-01

    The taxonomic position of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the causative agent of fish pasteurellosis, is controversial as this organism has also been described as 'Pasteurella piscicida'. To clarify the taxonomic position of the pathogen, a total of 113 P. damselae subsp. piscicida strains and 20 P. damselae subsp. damselae strains, isolated from different geographical areas and from the main affected fish species, were analysed using 129 morphological and biochemical tests, including the commercial API 20E and API CH50 test systems. For comparison, the type strains of other Photobacterium species (i.e. Photobacterium leiognathi and Photobacterium angustum) were included in the analyses. The results were statistically analysed by unweighted pair group average clustering and the distance between the different clusters was expressed as the percentage disagreement. The analyses showed that, based on morphological and biochemical identification tests, P. damselae subsp. piscicida is related to other Photobacterium species. However, it is clearly distinguishable from P. damselae subsp. damselae and no phenotypic evidence was found to include P. damselae subsp. piscicida as a subspecies in the species P. damselae.

  9. Phenotypic Characterization of Five Dendritic Cell Subsets in Human Tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Kelly L.; Hock, Barry D.; McKenzie, Judith L.; Hart, Derek N. J.

    2001-01-01

    Heterogeneous expression of several antigens on the three currently defined tonsil dendritic cell (DC) subsets encouraged us to re-examine tonsil DCs using a new method that minimized DC differentiation and activation during their preparation. Three-color flow cytometry and dual-color immunohistology was used in conjunction with an extensive panel of antibodies to relevant DC-related antigens to analyze lin− HLA-DR+ tonsil DCs. Here we identify, quantify, and locate five tonsil DC subsets based on their relative expression of the HLA-DR, CD11c, CD13, and CD123 antigens. In situ localization identified four of these DC subsets as distinct interdigitating DC populations. These included three new interdigitating DC subsets defined as HLA-DRhi CD11c+ DCs, HLA-DRmod CD11c+ CD13+ DCs, and HLA-DRmod CD11c− CD123− DCs, as well as the plasmacytoid DCs (HLA-DRmod CD11c− CD123+). These subsets differed in their expression of DC-associated differentiation/activation antigens and co-stimulator molecules including CD83, CMRF-44, CMRF-56, 2-7, CD86, and 4-1BB ligand. The fifth HLA-DRmod CD11c+ DC subset was identified as germinal center DCs, but contrary to previous reports they are redefined as lacking the CD13 antigen. The definition and extensive phenotypic analysis of these five DC subsets in human tonsil extends our understanding of the complexity of DC biology. PMID:11438475

  10. Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bencsik, Anna; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Bessen, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE. PMID:18258040

  11. Phenotypic similarity of transmissible mink encephalopathy in cattle and L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Bessen, Richard A

    2007-12-01

    Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE.

  12. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting intronic repressor Element1 improve phenotype in SMA mouse models.

    PubMed

    Osman, Erkan Y; Miller, Madeline R; Robbins, Kate L; Lombardi, Abby M; Atkinson, Arleigh K; Brehm, Amanda J; Lorson, Christian L

    2014-09-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). In all SMA patients, a nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 is present, which produces low levels of functional protein owing to an alternative splicing event. To prevent exon-skipping, we have targeted an intronic repressor, Element1 (E1), located upstream of SMN2 exon 7 using Morpholino-based antisense oligonucleotides (E1(MO)-ASOs). A single intracerebroventricular injection in the relatively severe mouse model of SMA (SMNΔ7 mouse model) elicited a robust induction of SMN protein, and mean life span was extended from an average survival of 13 to 54 days following a single dose, consistent with large weight gains and a correction of the neuronal pathology. Additionally, E1(MO)-ASO treatment in an intermediate SMA mouse (SMN(RT) mouse model) significantly extended life span by ∼700% and weight gain was comparable with the unaffected animals. While a number of experimental therapeutics have targeted the ISS-N1 element of SMN2 pre-mRNA, the development of E1 ASOs provides a new molecular target for SMA therapeutics that dramatically extends survival in two important pre-clinical models of disease.

  13. Identification of mutations from phenotype-driven ENU mutagenesis in mouse chromosome 7.

    PubMed

    Culiat, Cymbeline T; Klebig, Mitchell L; Liu, Zhaowei; Monroe, Heidi; Stanford, Beverly; Desai, Jayashree; Tandan, Samvit; Hughes, Lori; Kerley, Marilyn K; Carpenter, Donald A; Johnson, Dabney K; Rinchik, Eugene M; Li, Qingbo

    2005-08-01

    We have used the new high-throughput mutation-scanning technique temperature-gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) for the identification of point mutations induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in the mouse genome. TGCE detects the presence of heteroduplex molecules formed between a wild-type gene segment and the corresponding homologous segment containing an induced mutation or a naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Partially denatured heteroduplex molecules are resolved from homoduplexes by virtue of their differential mobilities during capillary electrophoresis conducted in a finely controlled temperature gradient. Simultaneous heteroduplex analysis of 96 amplicons ranging from 150 to 600 bp in size is achieved in approximately 45 min without the need for predetermining the melting profile of each fragment. Initially, we exploited known mouse mutations to develop TGCE protocols for analyzing unpurified PCR samples amplified from crude tail-DNA preparations. TGCE was then applied to the rapid identification of three new ENU-induced mutations recovered from regional mutagenesis screens of a segment of mouse Chromosome 7. Enzyme assays and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) methods validated these new mutations. Our data demonstrate that rapid mutation scanning with TGCE, followed by sequence verification only of detected positives, is an efficient approach to the identification of point mutations in the mouse genome.

  14. Co-expression of FBN1 with mesenchyme-specific genes in mouse cell lines: implications for phenotypic variability in Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Kim M; Raza, Sobia; van Nimwegen, Erik; Freeman, Thomas C; Hume, David A

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the human FBN1 gene cause Marfan syndrome, a complex disease affecting connective tissues but with a highly variable phenotype. To identify genes that might participate in epistatic interactions with FBN1, and could therefore explain the observed phenotypic variability, we have looked for genes that are co-expressed with Fbn1 in the mouse. Microarray expression data derived from a range of primary mouse cells and cell lines were analysed using the network analysis tool BioLayout Express3D. A cluster of 205 genes, including Fbn1, were selectively expressed by mouse cell lines of different mesenchymal lineages and by mouse primary mesenchymal cells (preadipocytes, myoblasts, fibroblasts, osteoblasts). Promoter analysis of this gene set identified several candidate transcriptional regulators. Genes within this co-expressed cluster are candidate genetic modifiers for Marfan syndrome and for other connective tissue diseases. PMID:20551991

  15. [Induction of robust senescence-associated secretory phenotype in mouse NIH-3T3 cells by mitomycin C].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Xing; Guo, Xiao-Xuan; Peng, Zhong-Zhi; Weng, Chun-Liang; Huang, Chun-Yan; Shi, Ben-Yan; Yang, Jie; Liao, Xiao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Yi; Zheng, Hui-Ling; Liu, Xin-Guang; Sun, Xue-Rong

    2017-02-25

    Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is often a concomitant result of cell senescence, embodied by the enhanced function of secretion. The SASP factors secreted by senescent cells include cytokines, proteases and chemokines, etc, which can exert great influence on local as well as systemic environment and participate in the process of cell senescence, immunoregulation, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and tumor invasion, etc. Relative to the abundance of SASP models in human cells, the in vitro SASP model derived from mouse cells is scarce at present. Therefore, the study aimed to establish a mouse SASP model to facilitate the research in the field. With this objective, we treated the INK4a-deficient mouse NIH-3T3 cells and the wildtype mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) respectively with mitomycin C (MMC), an anticarcinoma drug which could induce DNA damage. The occurring of cell senescence was evaluated by cell morphology, β-gal staining, integration ratio of EdU and Western blot. Quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA were used to detect the expression and secretion of SASP factors, respectively. The results showed that, 8 days after the treatment of NIH-3T3 cells with MMC (1 μg/mL) for 12 h or 24 h, the cells became enlarged and the ratios of β-gal-positive (blue-stained) cells significantly increased, up to 77.4% and 90.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, the expression of P21 protein increased and the integration ratios of EdU significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR detection showed that the mRNA levels of several SASP genes, including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β increased evidently. ELISA detection further observed an enhanced secretion of IL-6 (P < 0.01). On the contrary, although wildtype MEF could also be induced into senescence by MMC treatment for 12 h or 24 h, embodied by the enlarged cell volume, increased ratios of β-gal-positive cells (up to 71.7% and 80.2%, respectively) and enhanced expression of P21 protein, the secretion of IL

  16. Characterization of proteoglycans associated with mouse splenic AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stenstad, T; Magnus, J H; Husby, G

    1994-01-01

    We here report for the first time on the chemical characteristics of proteoglycans associated with mouse splenic reactive AA amyloid. Amyloid was induced in CBA/J mice by two different procedures; conventional casein treatment and by employing Freund's complete adjuvant, accelerated by Trypan Blue. Pulse-labelling was employed at distinct stages during amyloid development, followed by [35S]proteoglycan characterization of organ extracts. Repetitive 35S injections were also administered during the phase where amyloid deposition occurred most rapidly. Proteoglycans were extracted with guanidine in the presence of protease inhibitors and purified. The results showed that the production of proteoglycans is dramatically enhanced during amyloidogenesis, the glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan accumulation being not only dependent on alterations in proteoglycan catabolism, but rather on increased synthesis. The increment could be demonstrated even at the stage before microscopic detection of amyloid deposits, clearly suggesting that the upregulation of proteoglycan expression precedes amyloid fibril formation. Two major proteoglycans were found to accumulate in advanced splenic amyloid; one a heparan sulphate proteoglycan of approx. 200 kDa with a core protein of 70 kDa, the other a chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan of smaller size. Moreover, free dermatan sulphate chains seemed to specifically accumulate in the organs during amyloid fibrillogenesis. We suggest that free glycosaminoglycans may be a specific feature of amyloidosis and that different proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans play a role in formation and stabilization of amyloid fibrils in vivo. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:7980430

  17. Fitness and Phenotypic Characterization of Miltefosine-Resistant Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kimbra G; Vacchina, Paola; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Wadsworth, Mariha; McDowell, Mary Ann; Morales, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease with several clinical manifestations. Leishmania major is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which is largely characterized by ulcerative lesions appearing on the skin. Current treatments of leishmaniasis include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B, however, the toxic side effects of these drugs and difficulty with distribution makes these options less than ideal. Miltefosine (MIL) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis. Originally developed for cancer chemotherapy, the mechanism of action of MIL in Leishmania spp. is largely unknown. While treatment with MIL has proven effective, higher tolerance to the drug has been observed, and resistance is easily developed in an in vitro environment. Utilizing stepwise selection we generated MIL-resistant cultures of L. major and characterized the fitness of MIL-resistant L. major. Resistant parasites proliferate at a comparable rate to the wild-type (WT) and exhibit similar apoptotic responses. As expected, MIL-resistant parasites demonstrate decreased susceptibility to MIL, which reduces after the drug is withdrawn from culture. Our data demonstrate metacyclogenesis is elevated in MIL-resistant L. major, albeit these parasites display attenuated in vitro and in vivo virulence and standard survival rates in the natural sandfly vector, indicating that development of experimental resistance to miltefosine does not lead to an increased competitive fitness in L. major.

  18. Endocrine Parameters and Phenotypes of the Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Disrupted (GHR−/−) Mouse

    PubMed Central

    List, Edward O.; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E.; Funk, Kevin; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S.; Okada, Shigeru; Ding, Juan; Cruz-Topete, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR−/−) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been used by our laboratory and others for numerous studies ranging from growth to aging. Some of the most notable discoveries are their extreme insulin sensitivity in the presence of obesity. Also, the animals have an extended lifespan, which has generated a large number of investigations into the roles of GH and IGF-I in the aging process. This review summarizes the many results derived from the GHR−/− mice. We have attempted to present the findings in the context of current knowledge regarding GH action and, where applicable, to discuss how these mice compare to GH insensitivity syndrome in humans. PMID:21123740

  19. Morphologic and phenotypic analysis of an outcross line of blotchy mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Ranga, V.; Grahn, D.; Journey, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Blotchy is an X-linked recessive mutation at the Mottled locus in the mouse. The affected blotchy male (Blo/Y) mouse from an inbred genetic background demonstrates morphologic and physiologic abnormalities consistent with emphysema in adult life. Breeding of Blo/Y mice has been difficult because the inbred Blo/Y males are sterile. We report the successful development of a line of outbred Blo/Y male and Blo/Blo female mice by the controlled outcross mating of the inbred heterozygous Blo/ + female with the Argonne hybrid B6CF/sub 1/ male mouse. The subsequent outcross Blo/Y progeny breed vigorously with outcrossed Blo/ + female. The lungs of the outbred Blo/Blo female and inbred Blo/Y male mice demonstrate mild to moderate panacinar emphysema with a significant decrease in internal surface area (p < 0.005) and an increase in mean linear intercept (p < 0.005). In contrast, the lungs of the outbred Blo/Y is structurally normal. Despite the absence of emphysema-like changes in the outbred Blo/Y males, there were penotypic features that suggest inherited abnormalities in connective tissue proteins including (1) high incidence of aortitis leading to premature death from aneurysmal rupture, and (2) significant decrease in the morphometrically determined parenchymal elastic fiber length in the lung (p < 0.01). The outbred blotchy strain may be a useful experimental animal model in determining the pathogenesis of emphysema. 21 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  20. Hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct: mechanistic insights from clinical phenotypes, genotypes, and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Andrew J; Wangemann, Philine

    2011-11-01

    Enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is one of the most common inner ear malformations associated with sensorineural hearing loss in children. The delayed onset and progressive nature of this phenotype offer a window of opportunity to prevent or retard progression of hearing loss. EVA is not the direct cause of hearing loss in these patients, but rather is a radiologic marker for some underlying pathogenetic defect. Mutations of the SLC26A4 gene are a common cause of EVA. Studies of an Slc26a4 knockout mouse demonstrate that acidification and enlargement of the scala media are early events in the pathogenesis of deafness. The enlargement is driven by fluid secretion in the vestibular labyrinth and a failure of fluid absorption in the embryonic endolymphatic sac. Elucidating the mechanism of hearing loss may offer clues to potential therapeutic strategies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Data on in vivo phenotypes of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia stimulated by interstitial GDNF signals in mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Aya; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2016-09-01

    This article contains the data related to the research article "in vivo dynamics of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia stimulated by GDNF signals using a bead transplantation assay" (Uchida et al., 2016) [1]. A novel transplantation assay of growth factor-soaked beads into the mammalian testicular interstitium was developed, in order to examine the effects of various soluble factors on in vivo dynamics of the spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Here we provide the image data of GFRα1-positive stem/progenitor spermatogonia in mouse seminiferous tubules near the beads soaked in GDNF (glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor), one of the SSC niche factors. The data provide various phenotypes of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia induced by bead-derived GDNF signals, which are useful to understand the active state of GFRα1-positive stem/progenitor spermatogonia in vivo.

  2. Hearing Loss Associated with Enlargement of the Vestibular Aqueduct: Mechanistic Insights from Clinical Phenotypes, Genotypes, and Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Andrew J.; Wangemann, Philine

    2011-01-01

    Enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is one of the most common inner ear malformations associated with sensorineural hearing loss in children. The delayed onset and progressive nature of this phenotype offer a window of opportunity to prevent or retard progression of hearing loss. EVA is not the direct cause of hearing loss in these patients, but rather is a radiologic marker for some underlying pathogenetic defect. Mutations of the SLC26A4 gene are a common cause of EVA. Studies of an Slc26a4 knockout mouse demonstrate that enlargement of the scala media is a key event in the pathogenesis of deafness. The enlargement is driven by fluid secretion in the vestibular labyrinth and a failure of fluid absorption in the embryonic endolymphatic sac. Elucidating the mechanism of hearing loss may offer clues to potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:21669267

  3. Phenotypic characterization of Microsporum canis isolated from cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Maia, M L; Dos Santos, J I; Viani, F C; Larsson, C E; Paula, C R; Gambale, W

    2001-12-01

    To characterize strains of Microsporum canis that infect dogs and cats in São Paulo city, 30 isolates of this dermatophyte were tested for their ability to assimilate carbon and nitrogen sources, for proteinase and phospholipase secretion, for susceptibility to yeast killer toxins, and for susceptibility to the antifungals fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B, in E test. All samples assimilated the nitrogen sources asparagine, ammonium sulphate, urea and sodium nitrate, as well as the carbon sources inulin, mannitol, trehalose, meso-erythritol, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, cellobiose, fructose and dextrin. Not all the samples assimilated adonitol, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, raffinose, melibiose, ribose and sucrose, and none of them was capable of growing with dulcitol, lactose, or xylose as the only carbon source. Proteinase and phospholipase secretion was observed for most isolates. In the test of yeast killer toxin, 10 types could be identified, with four types exclusively observed in isolates from dogs and two types exclusively observed in isolates from cats. In the E test, all isolates were found to be resistant to the fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, while they were variably sensitive to amphotericin B, ketoconazole and itraconazole. When the data were submitted to the qualitative analysis in the matrix distance program FITOPAC, the similarity of the isolates could be assessed.

  4. Behavioral phenotype of the reeler mutant mouse: effects of RELN gene dosage and social isolation.

    PubMed

    Salinger, Walter L; Ladrow, Pamela; Wheeler, Catherine

    2003-12-01

    Reeler (rl/rl) and reeler/wild-type (+/rl) mice synthesize Reln at subnormal rates, as do patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, thereby forming the basis for a Reln hypothesis for vulnerability to these psychopathologies and justifying attention to the behavioral phenotypes of Reln-deficient mice. Tests of gait, emotionality, social aggression, spatial working memory, novel-object detection, fear conditioning, and sensorimotor reflex modulation revealed the behavioral phenotype of rl/rl, but not +/rl, mice to be different from that of wild-type (+/+) mice. These results reveal no effect of Reln gene dosage and provide significant challenges to both the Reln and the neurodevelopmental hypotheses of the etiology of major psychopathologies.

  5. Integration-independent Transgenic Huntington Disease Fragment Mouse Models Reveal Distinct Phenotypes and Life Span in Vivo.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Robert; DeGiacomo, Francesco; Holcomb, Jennifer; Bonner, Akilah; Ring, Karen L; Zhang, Ningzhe; Zafar, Khan; Weiss, Andreas; Lager, Brenda; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W; Chen, Sylvia; Kwak, Seung; Ellerby, Lisa M

    2015-07-31

    The cascade of events that lead to cognitive decline, motor deficits, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington disease (HD) is triggered by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin (HTT) protein. A significant mechanism in HD is the generation of mutant HTT fragments, which are generally more toxic than the full-length HTT. The protein fragments observed in human HD tissue and mouse models of HD are formed by proteolysis or aberrant splicing of HTT. To systematically investigate the relative contribution of the various HTT protein proteolysis events observed in vivo, we generated transgenic mouse models of HD representing five distinct proteolysis fragments ending at amino acids 171, 463, 536, 552, and 586 with a polyglutamine length of 148. All lines contain a single integration at the ROSA26 locus, with expression of the fragments driven by the chicken β-actin promoter at nearly identical levels. The transgenic mice N171-Q148 and N552-Q148 display significantly accelerated phenotypes and a shortened life span when compared with N463-Q148, N536-Q148, and N586-Q148 transgenic mice. We hypothesized that the accelerated phenotype was due to altered HTT protein interactions/complexes that accumulate with age. We found evidence for altered HTT complexes in caspase-2 fragment transgenic mice (N552-Q148) and a stronger interaction with the endogenous HTT protein. These findings correlate with an altered HTT molecular complex and distinct proteins in the HTT interactome set identified by mass spectrometry. In particular, we identified HSP90AA1 (HSP86) as a potential modulator of the distinct neurotoxicity of the caspase-2 fragment mice (N552-Q148) when compared with the caspase-6 transgenic mice (N586-Q148). © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Integration-independent Transgenic Huntington Disease Fragment Mouse Models Reveal Distinct Phenotypes and Life Span in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Robert; DeGiacomo, Francesco; Holcomb, Jennifer; Bonner, Akilah; Ring, Karen L.; Zhang, Ningzhe; Zafar, Khan; Weiss, Andreas; Lager, Brenda; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W.; Chen, Sylvia; Kwak, Seung; Ellerby, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The cascade of events that lead to cognitive decline, motor deficits, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington disease (HD) is triggered by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin (HTT) protein. A significant mechanism in HD is the generation of mutant HTT fragments, which are generally more toxic than the full-length HTT. The protein fragments observed in human HD tissue and mouse models of HD are formed by proteolysis or aberrant splicing of HTT. To systematically investigate the relative contribution of the various HTT protein proteolysis events observed in vivo, we generated transgenic mouse models of HD representing five distinct proteolysis fragments ending at amino acids 171, 463, 536, 552, and 586 with a polyglutamine length of 148. All lines contain a single integration at the ROSA26 locus, with expression of the fragments driven by the chicken β-actin promoter at nearly identical levels. The transgenic mice N171-Q148 and N552-Q148 display significantly accelerated phenotypes and a shortened life span when compared with N463-Q148, N536-Q148, and N586-Q148 transgenic mice. We hypothesized that the accelerated phenotype was due to altered HTT protein interactions/complexes that accumulate with age. We found evidence for altered HTT complexes in caspase-2 fragment transgenic mice (N552-Q148) and a stronger interaction with the endogenous HTT protein. These findings correlate with an altered HTT molecular complex and distinct proteins in the HTT interactome set identified by mass spectrometry. In particular, we identified HSP90AA1 (HSP86) as a potential modulator of the distinct neurotoxicity of the caspase-2 fragment mice (N552-Q148) when compared with the caspase-6 transgenic mice (N586-Q148). PMID:26025364

  7. Establishing Biomechanical Mechanisms in Mouse Models: Practical Guidelines for Systematically Evaluating Phenotypic Changes in the Diaphyses of Long Bones

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Karl J; Silva, Matthew J; Vashishth, Deepak; Guo, X Edward; van der Meulen, Marjolein CH

    2016-01-01

    Mice are widely used in studies of skeletal biology, and assessment of their bones by mechanical testing is a critical step when evaluating the functional effects of an experimental perturbation. For example, a gene knockout may target a pathway important in bone formation and result in a “low bone mass” phenotype. But how well does the skeleton bear functional loads; eg, how much do bones deform during loading and how resistant are bones to fracture? By systematic evaluation of bone morphological, densitometric, and mechanical properties, investigators can establish the “biomechanical mechanisms” whereby an experimental perturbation alters whole-bone mechanical function. The goal of this review is to clarify these biomechanical mechanisms and to make recommendations for systematically evaluating phenotypic changes in mouse bones, with a focus on long-bone diaphyses and cortical bone. Further, minimum reportable standards for testing conditions and outcome variables are suggested that will improve the comparison of data across studies. Basic biomechanical principles are reviewed, followed by a description of the cross-sectional morphological properties that best inform the net cellular effects of a given experimental perturbation and are most relevant to biomechanical function. Although morphology is critical, whole-bone mechanical properties can only be determined accurately by a mechanical test. The functional importance of stiffness, maximum load, postyield displacement, and work-to-fracture are reviewed. Because bone and body size are often strongly related, strategies to adjust whole-bone properties for body mass are detailed. Finally, a comprehensive framework is presented using real data, and several examples from the literature are reviewed to illustrate how to synthesize morphological, tissue-level, and whole-bone mechanical properties of mouse long bones. PMID:25917136

  8. Placental phenotype and resource allocation to fetal growth are modified by the timing and degree of hypoxia during mouse pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, J. S.; Vaughan, O. R.; Fernandez de Liger, E.; Fowden, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Hypoxia is a major cause of fetal growth restriction, particularly at high altitude, although little is known about its effects on placental phenotype and resource allocation to fetal growth.In the present study, maternal hypoxia induced morphological and functional changes in the mouse placenta, which depended on the timing and severity of hypoxia, as well as the degree of maternal hypophagia.Hypoxia at 13% inspired oxygen induced beneficial changes in placental morphology, nutrient transport and metabolic signalling pathways associated with little or no change in fetal growth, irrespective of gestational age.Hypoxia at 10% inspired oxygen adversely affected placental phenotype and resulted in severe fetal growth restriction, which was due partly to maternal hypophagia.There is a threshold between 13% and 10% inspired oxygen, corresponding to altitudes of ∼3700 m and 5800 m, respectively, at which the mouse placenta no longer adapts to support fetal resource allocation. This has implications for high altitude human pregnancies. Abstract The placenta adapts its transport capacity to nutritional cues developmentally, although relatively little is known about placental transport phenotype in response to hypoxia, a major cause of fetal growth restriction. The present study determined the effects of both moderate hypoxia (13% inspired O2) between days (D)11 and D16 or D14 and D19 of pregnancy and severe hypoxia (10% inspired O2) from D14 to D19 on placental morphology, transport capacity and fetal growth on D16 and D19 (term∼D20.5), relative to normoxic mice in 21% O2. Placental morphology adapted beneficially to 13% O2; fetal capillary volume increased at both ages, exchange area increased at D16 and exchange barrier thickness reduced at D19. Exposure to 13% O2 had no effect on placental nutrient transport on D16 but increased placental uptake and clearance of 3H‐methyl‐d‐glucose at D19. By contrast, 10% O2 impaired fetal vascularity

  9. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Milk

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, Martin; Weilmeier, Denise; Dineen, Sean S.; Ralyea, Robert; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2000-01-01

    Putative Pseudomonas spp. isolated predominantly from raw and processed milk were characterized by automated ribotyping and by biochemical reactions. Isolates were biochemically profiled using the Biolog system and API 20 NE and by determining the production of proteases, lipases, and lecithinases for each isolate. Isolates grouped into five coherent clusters, predominated by the species P. putida (cluster A), P. fluorescens (cluster B), P. fragi (as identified by Biolog) or P. fluorescens (as identified by API 20 NE) (cluster C), P. fragi (as identified by Biolog) or P. putida (as identified by API 20 NE) (cluster D), and P. fluorescens (cluster E). Isolates within each cluster also displayed similar enzyme activities. Isolates in clusters A, C, and D were generally negative for all three enzyme activities; isolates in cluster B were predominantly positive for all three enzyme activities; and isolates in cluster E were negative for lecithinase but predominantly positive for protease and lipase activities. Thus, only isolates from clusters B and E produced enzyme activities associated with dairy product flavor defects. Thirty-eight ribogroups were differentiated among the 70 isolates. Ribotyping was highly discriminatory for dairy Pseudomonas isolates, with a Simpson's index of discrimination of 0.955. Isolates of the same ribotype were never classified into different clusters, and ribotypes within a given cluster generally showed similar ribotype patterns; thus, specific ribotype fragments may be useful markers for tracking the sources of pseudomonads in dairy production systems. Our results suggest that ribogroups are generally homogeneous with respect to nomenspecies and biovars, confirming the identification potential of ribotyping for Pseudomonas spp. PMID:10788386

  10. Selection and phenotypic characterization of nonhemagglutinating mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Chandad, F; Mayrand, D; Grenier, D; Hinode, D; Mouton, C

    1996-01-01

    To further investigate the relationship between fimbriae and the hemagglutinating adhesin HA-Ag2 of Porphyromonas gingivalis, three spontaneous mutants of the type strain ATCC 33277 were selected by a hemadsorption procedure. They were characterized for hemagglutination, trypsin-like and lectin-binding activities, and hydrophobicity and for the presence of fimbriae. The presence of the 42-kDa (the fimbrilin subunit) and the 43- and 49-kDa (the HA-Ag2 components) polypeptides was investigated by immunoblotting using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed to fimbriae and to the hemagglutinating adhesin HA-Ag2. Cells from two of the three mutants (M1 and M2) exhibited no or little hemagglutination activity and very low trypsin-like activity and did not show the 43- and 49-kDa polypeptides. Abnormal fimbriation in M1 was deduced from the following observations of cells grown for 18 h: absence of the 42-kDa polypeptide and of a 14-kDa polypeptide and no fimbriae visible on electron micrographs. While the cells of mutant M2, irrespective of the age of the culture, were found to lack the 43- and 49-kDa polypeptides and hemagglutination activity, the supernatants of cultures grown for 72 h had high hemagglutination and trypsin-like activities and revealed the presence of the 42-, 43-, and 49-kDa polypeptides. This suggests that M2 may be missing some molecules which anchor the components to the cell surface. Mutant M3 showed levels of activities similar to those of the parental strain but lacked the 43-kDa polypeptide. Other pleiotropic effects observed for the mutants included loss of dark pigmentation and lower hydrophobicity. The data from this study fuel an emerging consensus whereby fimbriation, hemagglutination, and proteolytic activities, as well as other functions in P. gingivalis, are intricate. PMID:8641806

  11. Quantitative characterization of planarian wild-type behavior as a platform for screening locomotion phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Jared; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-04-01

    Changes in animal behavior resulting from genetic or chemical intervention are frequently used for phenotype characterizations. The majority of these studies are qualitative in nature, especially in systems that go beyond the classical model organisms. Here, we introduce a quantitative method to characterize behavior in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Wild-type locomotion in confinement was quantified using a wide set of parameters, and the influences of intrinsic intra-worm versus inter-worm variability on our measurements was studied. We also examined the effect of substrate, confinement geometry and the interactions with the boundary on planarian behavior. The method is based on a simple experimental setup, using automated center-of-mass tracking and image analysis, making it an easily implemented alternative to current methods for screening planarian locomotion phenotypes. As a proof of principle, two drug-induced behavioral phenotypes were generated to show the capacity of this method.

  12. Improvement of the mdx mouse dystrophic phenotype by systemic in utero AAV8 delivery of a minidystrophin gene.

    PubMed

    Koppanati, B M; Li, J; Reay, D P; Wang, B; Daood, M; Zheng, H; Xiao, X; Watchko, J F; Clemens, P R

    2010-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating primary muscle disease with pathological changes in skeletal muscle that are ongoing at the time of birth. Progressive deterioration in striated muscle function in affected individuals ultimately results in early death due to cardio-pulmonary failure. As affected individuals can be identified before birth by prenatal genetic testing for DMD, gene replacement treatment can be started in utero. This approach offers the possibility of preventing pathological changes in muscle that begin early in life. To test in utero gene transfer in the mdx mouse model of DMD, a minidystrophin gene driven by the human cytomegalovirus promoter was delivered systemically by an intraperitoneal injection to the fetus at embryonic day 16. Treated mdx mice studied at 9 weeks after birth showed widespread expression of recombinant dystrophin in skeletal muscle, restoration of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex in dystrophin-expressing muscle fibers, improved muscle pathology, and functional benefit to the transduced diaphragm compared with untreated littermate controls. These results support the potential of the AAV8 vector to efficiently cross the blood vessel barrier to achieve systemic gene transfer to skeletal muscle in utero in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy, to significantly improve the dystrophic phenotype and to ameliorate the processes that lead to exhaustion of the skeletal muscle regenerative capacity.

  13. Enhanced detection and comprehensive in situ phenotypic characterization of circulating and disseminated heteroploid epithelial and glioma tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daisy Dandan; Li, Linda; Lin, Peter Ping

    2015-01-01

    Conventional strategy of anti-EpCAM capture and immunostaining of cytokeratins (CKs) to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is limited by highly heterogeneous and dynamic expression or absence of EpCAM and/or CKs in CTCs. In this study, a novel integrated cellular and molecular approach of subtraction enrichment (SE) and immunostaining-FISH (iFISH) was successfully developed. Both large or small size CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM) in various biofluid samples including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cancer patients and patient-derived-xenograft (PDX) mouse models were efficiently enriched and comprehensively identified and characterized by SE-iFISH. Non-hematopoietic CTCs with heteroploid chromosome 8 were detected in 87–92% of lung, esophageal and gastric cancer patients. Characterization of CTCs performed by CK18-iFISH showed that CK18, the dual epithelial marker and tumor biomarker, was strong positive in only 14% of lung and 24% of esophageal CTCs, respectively. Unlike conventional methodologies restricted only to the large and/or both EpCAM and CK positive CTCs, SE-iFISH enables efficient enrichment and performing in situ phenotypic and karyotypic identification and characterization of the highly heterogeneous CTC subtypes classified by both chromosome ploidy and the expression of various tumor biomarkers. Each CTC subtype may possess distinct clinical significance relative to tumor metastasis, relapse, therapeutic drug sensitivity or resistance, etc. PMID:26267323

  14. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of isogenic doubled haploid exotic introgression lines in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We characterized the genotypic and phenotypic variation for cell wall digestibility (CWD) and other agronomic traits of 50 backcross 1 generation doubled haploids (BC1DH) lines developed from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project. These lines consisted of 31 exotic, unadapted maize race...

  15. Characterization of esophageal defects in the Crouzon mouse model.

    PubMed

    Dab, Sandeep; Sokhi, Ramanpreet; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J; Aubin, Jane E; Gong, Siew-Ging

    2013-09-01

    Mutations in Fibroblastic Growth Factor Receptors (FGFR) have been associated with human craniosynostotic birth defects like Crouzon syndrome. Several anecdotes and case reports have indicated higher incidence of gastrointestinal tract disorders in FGFR-associated craniosynostotic birth defects. Our objective was to characterize esophageal defects in a mouse model of human Crouzon syndrome, with a mutation in codon 290 of FGFR2. Dissected esophagi of Fgfr2(W290R) postnatal heterozygous (HET) and wild-type mice were analyzed by histological staining, immunohistochemically with cell proliferation marker, and functionally by strain gauge measures of electrically evoked contractile force. The esophagi of HETs were noticeably smaller but with wider lumen than those of wild-type littermates. The HET esophagi showed a decrease in proliferation and an increase in expression of Sonic Hedgehog as compared to wild-type esophagi. Histological investigations revealed reduced amounts and disorganization of collagen in muscle layers. Functional analysis revealed altered contractile properties in HET with reduced peak amplitude and prolonged duration of evoked contractile force response and lower stimulation threshold. The defects observed in the esophagus of the mutant may explain some of the clinical symptoms observed in humans, for example, recurrent vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux, and esophageal strictures. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the importance of Fibroblastic Growth Factor signaling in the growth and patterning of the esophagus, providing a possible scientific basis for the gastrointestinal tract clinical findings in craniosynostotic patients. Furthermore, the findings also provide a sound scientific rationale for any changes in the clinical management of gastrointestinal tract problems in patients with craniosynostotic defects. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Characterization of progenitor domains in the developing mouse thalamus.

    PubMed

    Vue, Tou Yia; Aaker, Joshua; Taniguchi, Aya; Kazemzadeh, Christina; Skidmore, Jennifer M; Martin, Donna M; Martin, James F; Treier, Mathias; Nakagawa, Yasushi

    2007-11-01

    To understand the molecular basis of the specification of thalamic nuclei, we analyzed the expression patterns of various transcription factors and defined progenitor cell populations in the embryonic mouse thalamus. We show that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Olig3 is expressed in the entire thalamic ventricular zone and the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI). Next, we define two distinct progenitor domains within the thalamus, which we name pTH-R and pTH-C, located caudal to the ZLI. pTH-R is immediately caudal to the ZLI and expresses Nkx2.2, Mash1, and Olig3. pTH-C is caudal to pTH-R and expresses Ngn1, Ngn2, and Olig3. Short-term lineage analysis of Olig3-, Mash1-, Ngn1-, and Ngn2-expressing progenitor cells as well as tracing the Pitx2 cell lineage suggests that pTH-C is the only major source of thalamic nuclei containing neurons that project to the cerebral cortex, whereas pTH-R and ZLI are likely to produce distinct postmitotic populations outside of the cortex-projecting part of the thalamus. To determine if pTH-C is composed of subdomains, we characterized expression of the homeodomain protein Dbx1 and the bHLH protein Olig2. We show that Dbx1 is expressed in caudodorsal-high to rostroventral-low gradient within pTH-C. Analysis of heterozygous Dbx1(nlslacZ) knockin mice demonstrated that Dbx1-expressing progenitors preferentially give rise to caudodorsal thalamic nuclei. Olig2 is expressed in an opposite gradient within pTH-C to that of Dbx1. These results establish the molecular heterogeneity within the progenitor cells of the thalamus, and suggest that such heterogeneity contributes to the specification of thalamic nuclei.

  17. Systematic autistic-like behavioral phenotyping of 4 mouse strains using a novel wheel-running assay.

    PubMed

    Karvat, Golan; Kimchi, Tali

    2012-08-01

    Three core symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders are stereotypic movements, resistance to change in routines and deficits in social interaction. In order to understand their neuronal mechanisms, there is a dire need for behavioral paradigms to assess those symptoms in rodents. Here we present a novel method which is based on positive reward in a customized wheel-running apparatus to assess these symptoms. As a proof of concept, 4 mouse strains were tested in the new behavioral paradigm; 2 control lines (C57BL/6 and ICR) and 2 mouse-models of autism (BTBR T+ tf/J and Nlgn3(tm1Sud)). We found that the C57BL/6, ICR and Nlgn3(tm1Sud) mice showed a significant reduction in stereotypical behavior in the presence of the running wheel, ability to forfeit the running habit when the running-wheel was jammed, and preference of interacting with a social stimulus over the jammed running-wheel. No difference was found between genotypes of the Nlgn3(tm1Sud) mice. On the other hand, the BTBR mice exhibited persistent, elevated levels of stereotypical behavior. In addition, they presented a deficit in their ability to adjust to a changing environment, as manifested in persistence to interact with the wheel even when it was jammed. Lastly, the BTBR mice exhibited no significant preference to interact with the stranger mouse over the jammed running-wheel. These results were validated by a set of commonly used behavioral tests. Overall, our novel behavioral paradigm detects multiple components of autistic-like phenotypes, including cognitive rigidity, stereotypic behavior and social deficiency.

  18. In vivo administration of the frog skin peptide frenatin 2.1S induces immunostimulatory phenotypes of mouse mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Jelena M; Radosavljevic, Gordana D; Jovanovic, Ivan P; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa N; Conlon, J Michael; Lukic, Miodrag L

    2015-09-01

    Host-defense peptides secreted by epithelial cells exhibit cytotoxic and immunoregulatory effects in order to protect the organism against invading microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides derived from frog skin display both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive actions as demonstrated by in vitro cytokine production by macrophages. Frenatin 2.1S, first isolated from skin secretions of the frog, Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae), enhances the in vitro production of pro-inflammatory IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-23 by mouse peritoneal cells. In order to test whether the immunostimulatory action of frenatin 2.1S may be reproduced in vivo, effects of intraperitoneal injections of this peptide on mononuclear cells in the peritoneum and spleen were determined 24h after administration. The data indicate that frenatin 2.1S enhances the activation state and homing capacity of Th1 type lymphocytes and NKT cells in the mouse peritoneal cavity, as evaluated by increased expression of early activation marker CD69 among T and NKT cells and chemokine receptor CXCR3 among T cells. Frenatin 2.1S significantly increases the percentage of (F4/80(+)CD11c(+)CD206(+)) pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and enhances the expression of MHC class II molecules on F4/80(+)CD11c(+) macrophages in the mouse peritoneal cavity. Additionally, injection of frenatin 2.1S, in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide, increases the percentage of peritoneal B cells of the (CD19(+)CD11b(+)CD5(+)) B1a phenotype thus contributing to an inflammatory milieu. We suggest that the immunostimulatory effect of frenatin 2.1S may have therapeutic relevance in disease states, such as certain types of cancer, in which an enhanced inflammatory response may be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. M-cadherin, a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and related phenotypes in a KK/Ta mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shiina, K; Gohda, T; Murakoshi, M; Yamada, K; Aoki, T; Yamazaki, T; Tanimoto, M; Tomino, Y

    2007-03-01

    The KK/Ta strain serves as a suitable polygenic mouse model for type 2 diabetes associated with fasting hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinaemia, mild obesity and dyslipidaemia. Recently, we reported the susceptibility loci contributing to type 2 diabetes and related phenotypes in KK/Ta mice. In the present study, to identify susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes and related disorders, GeneChip Expression Analysis was employed to survey the gene expression profile in the liver of KK/Ta and BALB/c mice. M-cadherin, a calciumdependent intercellular adhesion molecule, showed increased expression in the liver of KK/Ta mice, and sequence analysis revealed three missense mutations. The relationship between these polymorphisms and various phenotypes in 208 KK/Ta x (BALB/c x KK/Ta) F1 backcross mice was analysed. Statistical analysis revealed that M-cadherin exhibits linkage to levels of triglyceride and insulin in sera, glucose tolerance and body weight. Although it has been postulated that M-cadherin may be important for the regulation of morphogenesis of skeletal muscle cells, these results suggest that M-cadherin may influence hypertriglyceridaemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinaemia and obesity in KK/Ta mice.

  20. Mutant p53(R270H) gain of function phenotype in a mouse model for oncogene-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Christina; Krepulat, Frauke; Löhler, Jürgen; Speidel, Daniel; Deppert, Wolfgang; Tolstonog, Genrich V

    2008-04-15

    In human breast cancer, mutations in the p53 gene are associated with poor prognosis. However, analysis of patient data so far did not clarify, whether missense point mutations in the p53 gene, in addition to causing loss of wild-type p53 function, also confer a gain of function phenotype to the encoded mutant p53. As heterogeneity of patient material and data might obscure a clear answer, we studied the effects of a coexpressed mutant p53(R270H) in transgenic mice in which SV40 early proteins initiate the development of mammary adenocarcinoma (WAP-T mice). In such tumors the endogenous wild-type p53 is functionally compromised by complex formation with SV40 T-antigen, thereby constituting a loss of wild-type p53 function situation that allowed analysis of the postulated gain of function effects of mutant p53(R270H). We found that mutant p53(R270H) in bi-transgenic mice enhanced the transition from intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive carcinoma, resulting in a higher frequency of invasive carcinoma per gland and per mouse, a more severe tumor phenotype, and more frequent pulmonary metastasis. Surprisingly, mutant p53(R270H) in this system does not increase genomic instability. Therefore, other postulated gain of function activities of mutant p53 must be responsible for the effects described here.

  1. Ultra-high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy and high throughput cardiovascular phenotyping in a large scale mouse mutagenesis screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Francis, Richard; Tobita, Kimimasa; Kim, Andy; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is ideally suited for phenotyping fetal mice for congenital heart disease (CHD), as imaging can be carried out noninvasively to provide both hemodynamic and structural information essential for CHD diagnosis. Using the UBM (Vevo 2100; 40Hz) in conjunction with the clinical ultrasound system (Acuson Sequioa C512; 15Hz), we developed a two-step screening protocol to scan thousands fetuses derived from ENU mutagenized pedigrees. A wide spectrum of CHD was detected by the UBM, which were subsequently confirmed with follow-up necropsy and histopathology examination with episcopic fluorescence image capture. CHD observed included outflow anomalies, left/right heart obstructive lesions, septal/valvular defects and cardiac situs anomalies. Meanwhile, various extracardiac defects were found, such as polydactyly, craniofacial defects, exencephaly, omphalocele-cleft palate, most of which were associated with cardiac defects. Our analyses showed the UBM was better at assessing cardiac structure and blood flow profiles, while conventional ultrasound allowed higher throughput low-resolution screening. Our study showed the integration of conventional clinical ultrasound imaging with the UBM for fetal mouse cardiovascular phenotyping can maximize the detection and recovery of CHD mutants.

  2. Kinin-B1 and B2 receptor activity in proliferation and neural phenotype determination of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Isis C; Glaser, Talita; Nery, Arthur A; Pillat, Micheli M; Pesquero, João B; Ulrich, Henning

    2015-11-01

    The kinins bradykinin and des-arg(9) -bradykinin cleaved from kininogen precursors by kallikreins exert their biological actions by stimulating kinin-B2 and B1 receptors, respectively. In vitro models of neural differentiation such as P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and neural progenitor cells have suggested the involvement of B2 receptors in neural differentiation and phenotype determination; however, the involvement of B1 receptors in these processes has not been established. Here, we show that B1 and B2 receptors are differentially expressed in mouse embryonic E14Tg2A stem cells undergoing neural differentiation. Proliferation and differentiation assays, performed in the presence of receptor subtype-selective agonists and antagonists, revealed that B1 receptor activity is required for the proliferation of embryonic and differentiating cells as well as for neuronal maturation at later stages of differentiation, while the B2 receptor acts on neural phenotype choice, promoting neurogenesis over gliogenesis. Besides the elucidation of bradykinin functions in an in vitro model reflecting early embryogenesis and neurogenesis, this study contributes to the understanding of B1 receptor functions in this process.

  3. Gene therapy rescues disease phenotype in a spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nizzardo, Monica; Simone, Chiara; Rizzo, Federica; Salani, Sabrina; Dametti, Sara; Rinchetti, Paola; Del Bo, Roberto; Foust, Kevin; Kaspar, Brian K.; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P.; Corti, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease affecting children. It is caused by mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene (11q13) and presently has no cure. Recently, adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)–mediated gene therapy has been shown to rescue the phenotype of animal models of another lower motor neuron disorder, spinal muscular atrophy 5q, and a clinical trial with this strategy is ongoing. We report rescue of the disease phenotype in a SMARD1 mouse model after therapeutic delivery via systemic injection of an AAV9 construct encoding the wild-type IGHMBP2 to replace the defective gene. AAV9-IGHMBP2 administration restored protein levels and rescued motor function, neuromuscular physiology, and life span (450% increase), ameliorating pathological features in the central nervous system, muscles, and heart. To test this strategy in a human model, we transferred wild-type IGHMBP2 into human SMARD1-induced pluripotent stem cell–derived motor neurons; these cells exhibited increased survival and axonal length in long-term culture. Our data support the translational potential of AAV-mediated gene therapies for SMARD1, opening the door for AAV9-mediated therapy in human clinical trials. PMID:26601156

  4. Gene therapy rescues disease phenotype in a spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nizzardo, Monica; Simone, Chiara; Rizzo, Federica; Salani, Sabrina; Dametti, Sara; Rinchetti, Paola; Del Bo, Roberto; Foust, Kevin; Kaspar, Brian K; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania

    2015-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease affecting children. It is caused by mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene (11q13) and presently has no cure. Recently, adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-mediated gene therapy has been shown to rescue the phenotype of animal models of another lower motor neuron disorder, spinal muscular atrophy 5q, and a clinical trial with this strategy is ongoing. We report rescue of the disease phenotype in a SMARD1 mouse model after therapeutic delivery via systemic injection of an AAV9 construct encoding the wild-type IGHMBP2 to replace the defective gene. AAV9-IGHMBP2 administration restored protein levels and rescued motor function, neuromuscular physiology, and life span (450% increase), ameliorating pathological features in the central nervous system, muscles, and heart. To test this strategy in a human model, we transferred wild-type IGHMBP2 into human SMARD1-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons; these cells exhibited increased survival and axonal length in long-term culture. Our data support the translational potential of AAV-mediated gene therapies for SMARD1, opening the door for AAV9-mediated therapy in human clinical trials.

  5. Seizure Susceptibility, Phenotype, and Resultant Growth Delay in the nclf and mnd Mouse Models of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

    PubMed Central

    Kriscenski-Perry, Elizabeth; Kovács, Attila D.; Pearce, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined flurothyl gas-induced seizure latencies and phenotype in 2 mouse models of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses: the nclf (Cln6 mutant) variant late-infantile model and the mnd (Cln8 mutant) Northern epilepsy model. Mnd mice on postnatal days 35 to 42 had increased latency to loss of posture compared with wild-type controls. Nclf, mnd, and wild-type mice on postnatal days 21 days to 25 displayed similar latency profiles during repeated seizure induction (kindling) and retesting; seizure phenotypes were different, however. Kindled wild-type mice re-exposed to flurothyl after a 28-day recovery displayed brainstem generalized seizures exclusively. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses mutants demonstrated a lack of brainstem seizures at retesting after 28 days. Repeated induction of generalized seizures delayed weight gain in both nclf and mnd mice compared with wild-type mice. These and our previous results suggest abnormal seizure-related neuronal connectivity and/or plasticity are shared characteristics of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. PMID:23838029

  6. Novel frem1-related mouse phenotypes and evidence of genetic interactions with gata4 and slit3.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tyler F; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Yu, Zhiyin; Kim, Bum Jun; Hernández-García, Andrés; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Bishop, Colin; Overbeek, Paul A; Stockton, David W; Justice, Monica J; Scott, Daryl A

    2013-01-01

    The FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 1 (FREM1) gene encodes an extracellular matrix protein that plays a critical role in the development of multiple organ systems. In humans, recessive mutations in FREM1 cause eye defects, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, renal anomalies and anorectal malformations including anteriorly placed anus. A similar constellation of findings-microphthalmia, cryptophthalmos, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, renal agenesis and rectal prolapse-have been described in FREM1-deficient mice. In this paper, we identify a homozygous Frem1 missense mutation (c.1687A>T, p.Ile563Phe) in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-derived mouse strain, crf11, with microphthalmia, cryptophthalmos, renal agenesis and rectal prolapse. This mutation affects a highly conserved residue in FREM1's third CSPG domain. The p.Ile563Phe change is predicted to be deleterious and to cause decreased FREM1 protein stability. The crf11 allele also fails to complement the previously described eyes2 allele of Frem1 (p.Lys826*) providing further evidence that the crf11 phenotype is due to changes affecting Frem1 function. We then use mice bearing the crf11 and eyes2 alleles to identify lung lobulation defects and decreased anogenital distance in males as novel phenotypes associated with FREM1 deficiency in mice. Due to phenotypic overlaps between FREM1-deficient mice and mice that are deficient for the retinoic acid-responsive transcription factor GATA4 and the extracellular matrix protein SLIT3, we also perform experiments to look for in vivo genetic interactions between the genes that encode these proteins. These experiments reveal that Frem1 interacts genetically with Gata4 in the development of lung lobulation defects and with Slit3 in the development of renal agenesis. These results demonstrate that FREM1-deficient mice faithfully recapitulate many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with FREM1 deficiency and that variations in GATA4 and SLIT3 expression modulate some FREM1

  7. Novel Frem1-Related Mouse Phenotypes and Evidence of Genetic Interactions with Gata4 and Slit3

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Tyler F.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Yu, Zhiyin; Kim, Bum Jun; Hernández-García, Andrés; Zaveri, Hitisha P.; Bishop, Colin; Overbeek, Paul A.; Stockton, David W.; Justice, Monica J.; Scott, Daryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 1 (FREM1) gene encodes an extracellular matrix protein that plays a critical role in the development of multiple organ systems. In humans, recessive mutations in FREM1 cause eye defects, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, renal anomalies and anorectal malformations including anteriorly placed anus. A similar constellation of findings–microphthalmia, cryptophthalmos, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, renal agenesis and rectal prolapse–have been described in FREM1-deficient mice. In this paper, we identify a homozygous Frem1 missense mutation (c.1687A>T, p.Ile563Phe) in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-derived mouse strain, crf11, with microphthalmia, cryptophthalmos, renal agenesis and rectal prolapse. This mutation affects a highly conserved residue in FREM1’s third CSPG domain. The p.Ile563Phe change is predicted to be deleterious and to cause decreased FREM1 protein stability. The crf11 allele also fails to complement the previously described eyes2 allele of Frem1 (p.Lys826*) providing further evidence that the crf11 phenotype is due to changes affecting Frem1 function. We then use mice bearing the crf11 and eyes2 alleles to identify lung lobulation defects and decreased anogenital distance in males as novel phenotypes associated with FREM1 deficiency in mice. Due to phenotypic overlaps between FREM1-deficient mice and mice that are deficient for the retinoic acid-responsive transcription factor GATA4 and the extracellular matrix protein SLIT3, we also perform experiments to look for in vivo genetic interactions between the genes that encode these proteins. These experiments reveal that Frem1 interacts genetically with Gata4 in the development of lung lobulation defects and with Slit3 in the development of renal agenesis. These results demonstrate that FREM1-deficient mice faithfully recapitulate many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with FREM1 deficiency and that variations in GATA4 and SLIT3 expression modulate some

  8. Relationship between obesity phenotypes and genetic determinants in a mouse model for juvenile obesity.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Schäfer, Nadine; Hesse, Claudia; Heise, Sebastian; Neuschl, Christina; Wagener, Asja; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2013-09-16

    Obesity, a state of imbalance between lean mass and fat mass, is important for the etiology of diseases affected by the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Although genome-wide association studies have repeatedly associated genes with obesity and body weight, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the muscle and adipose tissues remain unknown. Using 351 mice (at 10 wk of age) of an intercross population between Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) and C57BL/6NCrl (B6N) mice, we examined the causal relationships between genetic variations and multiple traits: body lean mass and fat mass, adipokines, and bone mineral density. Furthermore, evidence from structural equation modeling suggests causality among these traits. In the BFMI model, juvenile obesity affects lean mass and impairs bone mineral density via adipokines secreted from the white adipose tissues. While previous studies have indicated that lean mass has a causative effect on adiposity, in the Berlin Fat Mouse model that has been selected for juvenile obesity (at 9 wk of age) for >90 generations, however, the causality is switched from fat mass to lean mass. In addition, linkage studies and statistical modeling have indicated that quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 5 and 6 affect both lean mass and fat mass. These lines of evidence indicate that the muscle and adipose tissues interact with one another and the interaction is modulated by genetic variations that are shaped by selections. Experimental examinations are necessary to verify the biological role of the inferred causalities.

  9. Lithium prevents parkinsonian behavioral and striatal phenotypes in an aged parkin mutant transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Christopher A; Dewey, Colleen M; Chinta, Shankar J; Rane, Anand; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Batir, Sean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Andersen, Julie K

    2014-12-03

    Lithium has long been used as a treatment for the psychiatric disease bipolar disorder. However, previous studies suggest that lithium provides neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. The exact mechanism by which lithium exerts these effects still remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose lithium treatment in an aged mouse model expressing a parkin mutation within dopaminergic neurons. We found that low-dose lithium treatment prevented motor impairment as demonstrated by the open field test, pole test, and rearing behavior. Furthermore, lithium prevented dopaminergic striatal degeneration in parkin animals. We also found that parkin-induced striatal astrogliosis and microglial activation were prevented by lithium treatment. Our results further corroborate the use of this parkin mutant transgenic mouse line as a model for PD for testing novel therapeutics. The findings of the present study also provide further validation that lithium could be re-purposed as a therapy for PD and suggest that anti-inflammatory effects may contribute to its neuroprotective mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival benefit and phenotypic improvement by hamartin gene therapy in a tuberous sclerosis mouse brain model.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Shilpa; Zhang, Xuan; Goto, June; Han, Sangyeul; Lai, Charles; Bronson, Roderick; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Ramesh, Vijaya; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Kwiatkowski, David J; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2015-10-01

    We examined the potential benefit of gene therapy in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in which there is embryonic loss of Tsc1 (hamartin) in brain neurons. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (serotype rh8) expressing a tagged form of hamartin was injected into the cerebral ventricles of newborn pups with the genotype Tsc1(cc) (homozygous for a conditional floxed Tsc1 allele) SynI-cre(+), in which Tsc1 is lost selectively in neurons starting at embryonic day 12. Vector-treated Tsc1(cc)SynIcre(+) mice showed a marked improvement in survival from a mean of 22 days in non-injected mice to 52 days in AAV hamartin vector-injected mice, with improved weight gain and motor behavior in the latter. Pathologic studies showed normalization of neuron size and a decrease in markers of mTOR activation in treated as compared to untreated mutant littermates. Hence, we show that gene replacement in the brain is an effective therapeutic approach in this mouse model of TSC1. Our strategy for gene therapy has the advantages that therapy can be achieved from a single application, as compared to repeated treatment with drugs, and that AAV vectors have been found to have minimal to no toxicity in clinical trials for other neurologic conditions. Although there are many additional issues to be addressed, our studies support gene therapy as a useful approach in TSC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotype-dependent alteration of pathways and networks reveals a pure synergistic mechanism for compounds treating mouse cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng-qian; Li, Bing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ying-ying; Yu, Ya-nan; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Yuan, Ye; Guo, Zhi-li; Wu, Hong-li; Li, Hai-xia; Dang, Hai-xia; Guo, Shan-shan; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Our previous studies have showed that ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) and jasminoidin (JA) effectively reduce cerebral infarct volume in mice. In this study we explored the pure synergistic mechanism of these compounds in treatment of mouse cerebral ischemia, which was defined as synergistic actions specific for phenotype variations after excluding interference from ineffective compounds. Methods: Mice with focal cerebral ischemia were treated with UA, JA or a combination JA and UA (JU). Concha margaritifera (CM) was taken as ineffective compound. Cerebral infarct volume of the mice was determined, and the hippocampi were taken for microarray analysis. Particular signaling pathways and biological functions were enriched based on differentially expressed genes, and corresponding networks were constructed through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: In phenotype analysis, UA, JA, and JU significantly reduced the ischemic infarct volume with JU being superior to UA or JA alone, while CM was ineffective. As a result, 4 pathways enriched in CM were excluded. Core pathways in the phenotype-positive groups (UA or JA) were involved in neuronal homeostasis and neuropathology. JU-contributing pathways included all UA-contributing and the majority (71.7%) of JA-contributing pathways, and 10 new core pathways whose effects included inflammatory immunity, apoptosis and nervous system development. The functions of JU group included all functions of JA group, the majority (93.1%) of UA-contributing functions, and 3 new core functions, which focused on physiological system development and function. Conclusion: The pure synergism between UA and JA underlies 10 new core pathways and 3 new core functions, which are involved in inflammation, immune responses, apoptosis and nervous system development. PMID:25960134

  12. High-throughput phenotypic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa membrane transport genes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel A; Tetu, Sasha G; Phillippy, Katherine; Chen, Joan; Ren, Qinghu; Paulsen, Ian T

    2008-10-03

    The deluge of data generated by genome sequencing has led to an increasing reliance on bioinformatic predictions, since the traditional experimental approach of characterizing gene function one at a time cannot possibly keep pace with the sequence-based discovery of novel genes. We have utilized Biolog phenotype MicroArrays to identify phenotypes of gene knockout mutants in the opportunistic pathogen and versatile soil bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a relatively high-throughput fashion. Seventy-eight P. aeruginosa mutants defective in predicted sugar and amino acid membrane transporter genes were screened and clear phenotypes were identified for 27 of these. In all cases, these phenotypes were confirmed by independent growth assays on minimal media. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrate that the expression levels of 11 of these transporter genes were induced from 4- to 90-fold by their substrates identified via phenotype analysis. Overall, the experimental data showed the bioinformatic predictions to be largely correct in 22 out of 27 cases, and led to the identification of novel transporter genes and a potentially new histamine catabolic pathway. Thus, rapid phenotype identification assays are an invaluable tool for confirming and extending bioinformatic predictions.

  13. High-Throughput Phenotypic Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Membrane Transport Genes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Daniel A.; Tetu, Sasha G.; Phillippy, Katherine; Chen, Joan; Ren, Qinghu; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2008-01-01

    The deluge of data generated by genome sequencing has led to an increasing reliance on bioinformatic predictions, since the traditional experimental approach of characterizing gene function one at a time cannot possibly keep pace with the sequence-based discovery of novel genes. We have utilized Biolog phenotype MicroArrays to identify phenotypes of gene knockout mutants in the opportunistic pathogen and versatile soil bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a relatively high-throughput fashion. Seventy-eight P. aeruginosa mutants defective in predicted sugar and amino acid membrane transporter genes were screened and clear phenotypes were identified for 27 of these. In all cases, these phenotypes were confirmed by independent growth assays on minimal media. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrate that the expression levels of 11 of these transporter genes were induced from 4- to 90-fold by their substrates identified via phenotype analysis. Overall, the experimental data showed the bioinformatic predictions to be largely correct in 22 out of 27 cases, and led to the identification of novel transporter genes and a potentially new histamine catabolic pathway. Thus, rapid phenotype identification assays are an invaluable tool for confirming and extending bioinformatic predictions. PMID:18833300

  14. Chromosomal rearrangements, phenotypic variation and modularity: a case study from a contact zone between house mouse Robertsonian races in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Paolo; Colangelo, Paolo; Meyer, Axel; Fruciano, Carmelo

    2016-03-01

    The Western European house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, is well-known for the high frequency of Robertsonian fusions that have rapidly produced more than 50 karyotipic races, making it an ideal model for studying the mechanisms of chromosomal speciation. The mouse mandible is one of the traits studied most intensively to investigate the effect of Robertsonian fusions on phenotypic variation within and between populations. This complex bone structure has also been widely used to study the level of integration between different morphogenetic units. Here, with the aim of testing the effect of different karyotypic assets on the morphology of the mouse mandible and on its level of modularity, we performed morphometric analyses of mice from a contact area between two highly metacentric races in Central Italy. We found no difference in size, while the mandible shape was found to be different between the two Robertsonian races, even after accounting for the genetic relationships among individuals and geographic proximity. Our results support the existence of two modules that indicate a certain degree of evolutionary independence, but no difference in the strength of modularity between chromosomal races. Moreover, the ascending ramus showed more pronounced interpopulation/race phenotypic differences than the alveolar region, an effect that could be associated to their different polygenic architecture. This study suggests that chromosomal rearrangements play a role in the house mouse phenotypic divergence, and that the two modules of the mouse mandible are differentially affected by environmental factors and genetic makeup.

  15. Presence of rd8 mutation does not alter the ocular phenotype of late-onset retinal degeneration mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Bhubanananda; Alapati, Akhila; Suk, John; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Jablonski, Monica M.; Ayyagari, Radha

    2015-01-01

    -type and Ctrp5+/− mice with the rd8 mutation (Wtrd8/rd8 and Ctrp5+/−;rd8/rd8, respectively) revealed an integrated retinal architecture with well-defined outer segments/inner segments (OS/IS), outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and inner nuclear layer (INL). The presence of pseudorosette structures reported in the rd8 mice between the ONL and the INL in the ventral quadrant of the retina was not observed in all genotypes studied. Further, the external limiting membrane was continuous in the Ctrp5+/−;rd8/rd8 and Wtrd8/rd8 mice. Evaluation of the retinal phenotype revealed that the Ctrp5+/−;wt/wt mice developed characteristic L-ORD pathology including age-dependent accumulation of AF spots, development of sub-retinal, sub-RPE, and basal laminar deposits, and Bruch’s membrane abnormalities at older age, while these changes were not observed in the age-matched littermate WTwt/wt mice. Conclusions The Wtrd8/rd8 and Ctrp5+/−;rd8/rd8 mice raised on C57BL/6J did not develop early onset retinal changes that are characteristic of the rd8 phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that manifestation of rd8-associated pathology depends on the genetic background. The retinal pathology observed in mice with the Ctrp5+/−;wt/wt genotype is consistent with the L-ORD phenotype observed in patients and with the phenotype we described previously. The lack of rd8-associated retinal pathology in the Ctrp5+/−;wt/wt mouse model raised on the C57BL/6J background and the development of the L-ORD phenotype in these mice in the presence and absence of the rd8 mutation suggests that the pathology observed in the Ctrp5+/−;wt/wt mice is primarily associated with the S163R mutation in the Ctrp5 gene. PMID:25814825

  16. Memantine normalizes several phenotypic features in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Noemí; Llorens-Martín, María; Flórez, Jesús; Valdizán, Elsa; Banerjee, Pradeep; Trejo, Jose Luis; Martínez-Cué, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Ts65Dn (TS) mice exhibit several phenotypic characteristics of human Down syndrome, including an increased brain expression of amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) and cognitive disturbances. Aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling has been suspected in TS mice, due to an impaired generation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Memantine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, is known to normalize LTP and improve cognition in transgenic mice with high brain levels of AbetaPP and amyloid-beta protein. It has recently been demonstrated that acute injections of memantine rescue performance deficits of TS mice on a fear conditioning test. Here we show that oral treatment of aged TS mice with a clinically relevant dose of memantine (30 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks) improved spatial learning in the water maze task and slightly reduced brain AbetaPP levels. We also found that TS mice exhibited a significantly reduced granule cell count and vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1) labeling compared to disomic control mice. After memantine treatment, the levels of hippocampal VGLUT1 were significantly increased, reaching the levels observed in vehicle treated-control animals. Memantine did not significantly affect granule cell density. These data indicate that memantine may normalize several phenotypic abnormalities in TS mice, many of which--such as impaired cognition--are also associated with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Clioquinol rescues Parkinsonism and dementia phenotypes of the tau knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Lei, Peng; Ayton, Scott; Appukuttan, Ambili Thoppuvalappil; Volitakis, Irene; Adlard, Paul A; Finkelstein, David I; Bush, Ashley I

    2015-09-01

    Iron accumulation and tau protein deposition are pathological features of Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD). Soluble tau protein is lower in affected regions of these diseases, and we previously reported that tau knockout mice display motor and cognitive behavioral abnormities, brain atrophy, neuronal death in substantia nigra, and iron accumulation in the brain that all emerged between 6 and 12 months of age. This argues for a loss of tau function in AD and PD. We also showed that treatment with the moderate iron chelator, clioquinol (CQ) restored iron levels and prevented neuronal atrophy and attendant behavioral decline in 12-month old tau KO mice when commenced prior to the onset of deterioration (6 months). However, therapies for AD and PD will need to treat the disease once it is already manifest. So, in the current study, we tested whether CQ could also rescue the phenotype of mice with a developed phenotype. We found that 5-month treatment of symptomatic (13 months old) tau KO mice with CQ increased nigral tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation (which induces activity) and reversed the motor deficits. Treatment also reversed cognitive deficits and raised BDNF levels in the hippocampus, which was accompanied by attenuated brain atrophy, and reduced iron content in the brain. These data raise the possibility that lowering brain iron levels in symptomatic patients could reverse neuronal atrophy and improve brain function, possibly by elevating neurotrophins.

  18. Transgenic mouse model of hemifacial microsomia: Cloning and characterization of insertional mutation region on chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Naora, Hiroyuki; Otani, Hiroki; Tanaka, Osamu

    1994-10-01

    The 643 transgenic mouse line carries an autosomal dominant insertional mutation that results in hemifacial microsomia (HFM), including microtia and/or abnormal biting. In this paper, we characterize the transgene integration site in transgenic mice and preintegration site of wildtype mice. The locus, designated Hfm (hemifacial microsomia-associated locus), was mapped to chromosome 10, B1-3, by chromosome in situ hybridization. We cloned the transgene insertion site from the transgenic DNA library. By using the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences, the preintegration region was isolated. The analysis of these regions showed that a deletion of at least 23 kb DNA occurred in association with the transgene integration. Evolutionarily conserved regions were detected within and beside the deleted region. The result of mating between hemizygotes suggests that the phenotype of the homozygote is lethality in the prenatal period. These results suggests that the Hfm locus is necessary for prenatal development and that this strain is a useful animal model for investigating the genetic predisposition to HFM in humans.

  19. Characterization of Kidney and Skeleton Phenotypes of Mice Double Heterozygous for Foxc1 and Foxc2.

    PubMed

    Motojima, Masaru; Tanimoto, Sho; Ohtsuka, Masato; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kume, Tsutomu; Abe, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Foxc1 and Foxc2 play key roles in mouse development. Foxc1 mutant mice develop duplex kidneys with double ureters, and lack calvarial and sternal bones. Foxc2 null mice have been reported to have glomerular abnormalities in the kidney and axial skeletal anomalies. Expression patterns of Foxc1 and Foxc2 overlap extensively and are believed to have interactive roles. However, cooperative roles of these factors in glomerular and skeletal development are unknown. Therefore, we examined the kidneys and skeleton of mice that were double heterozygous for Foxc1 and Foxc2. Double heterozygotes were generated by mating single heterozygotes for Foxc1 and Foxc2. Newborn double heterozygous mice showed many anomalies in the kidney and urinary tract resembling Foxc1 phenotypes, including duplex kidneys, double ureters, hydronephrosis and mega-ureter. Some mice had hydronephrosis alone. In addition to these macroscopic anomalies, some mice had abnormal glomeruli and disorganized glomerular capillaries observed in Foxc2 phenotypes. Interestingly, these mice also showed glomerular cysts not observed in the single-gene knockout of either Foxc1 or Foxc2 but observed in conditional knockout of Foxc2 in the kidney. Serial section analysis revealed that all cystic glomeruli were connected to proximal tubules, precluding the possibility of atubular glomeruli resulting in cyst formation. Dorsally opened vertebral arches and malformations of sternal bones in the double heterozygotes were phenotypes similar to Foxc1 null mice. Absent or split vertebral bodies in the double heterozygotes were phenotypes similar to Foxc2 null mice, whilst hydrocephalus noted in the Foxc1 phenotype was not observed. Thus, Foxc1 and Foxc2 have a role in kidney and axial skeleton development. These transcription factors might interact in the regulation of the embryogenesis of these organs.

  20. A molecular model for the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the mouse lethal yellow (Ay) mutation.

    PubMed

    Michaud, E J; Bultman, S J; Klebig, M L; van Vugt, M J; Stubbs, L J; Russell, L B; Woychik, R P

    1994-03-29

    Lethal yellow (Ay) is a mutation at the mouse agouti locus in chromosome 2 that causes a number of dominant pleiotropic effects, including a completely yellow coat color, obesity, an insulin-resistant type II diabetic condition, and an increased propensity to develop a variety of spontaneous and induced tumors. Additionally, homozygosity for Ay results in preimplantation lethality, which terminates development by the blastocyst stage. The Ay mutation is the result of a 170-kb deletion that removes all but the promoter and noncoding first exon of another gene called Raly, which lies in the same transcriptional orientation as agouti and maps 280 kb proximal to the 3' end of the agouti gene. We present a model for the structure of the Ay allele that can explain the dominant pleiotropic effects associated with this mutation, as well as the recessive lethality, which is unrelated to the agouti gene.

  1. Conditional inactivation of the mouse Wwox tumor suppressor gene recapitulates the null phenotype.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Suhaib K; Del Mare, Sara; Hussain, Sadeeq; Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Salah, Zaidoun; Hagan, John; Rawahneh, Maysoon; Pu, Xin-An; Russell, Stacey; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2013-07-01

    WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is highly conserved in both human and murine. WWOX spans the second most common human chromosomal fragile site, FRA16D, and is commonly inactivated in multiple human cancers. Modeling WWOX inactivation in mice revealed a complex phenotype including postnatal lethality, defects in bone metabolism and steroidogenesis and tumor suppressor function resulting in osteosarcomas. For better understanding of WWOX roles in different tissues at distinct stages of development and in pathological conditions, Wwox conditional knockout mice were generated in which loxp sites flank exon 1 in the Wwox allele. We demonstrated that Cre-mediated recombination using EIIA-Cre, a Cre line expressed in germline, results in postnatal lethality by age of 3 weeks and decreased bone mineralization resembling total ablation of WWOX as in conventional null mice. This animal model will be useful to study distinct roles of WWOX in multiple tissues at different ages.

  2. Generation and characterization of a humanized PPARδ mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Gross, B; Hennuyer, N; Bouchaert, E; Rommens, C; Grillot, D; Mezdour, H; Staels, B

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Humanized mice for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), termed PPARδ knock-in (PPARδ KI) mice, were generated for the investigation of functional differences between mouse and human PPARδ and as tools for early drug efficacy assessment. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Human PPARδ function in lipid metabolism was assessed at baseline, after fasting or when challenged with the GW0742 compound in mice fed a chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). KEY RESULTS Analysis of PPARδ mRNA levels revealed a hypomorph expression of human PPARδ in liver, macrophages, small intestine and heart, but not in soleus and quadriceps muscles, white adipose tissue and skin. PPARδ KI mice displayed a small decrease of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol whereas other lipid parameters were unaltered. Plasma metabolic parameters were similar in wild-type and PPARδ KI mice when fed chow or HFD, and following physiological (fasting) and pharmacological (GW0742 compound) activation of PPARδ. Gene expression profiling in liver, soleus muscle and macrophages showed similar gene patterns regulated by mouse and human PPARδ. The anti-inflammatory potential of human PPARδ was also similar to mouse PPARδ in liver and isolated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data indicate that human PPARδ can compensate for mouse PPARδ in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Overall, this novel PPARδ KI mouse model shows full responsiveness to pharmacological challenge and represents a useful tool for the preclinical assessment of PPARδ activators with species-specific activity. PMID:21426320

  3. Thermoregulatory Phenotype of the Trpv1 Knockout Mouse: Thermoeffector Dysbalance with Hyperkinesis

    PubMed Central

    Garami, Andras; Pakai, Eszter; Oliveira, Daniela L.; Steiner, Alexandre A.; Wanner, Samuel P.; Almeida, M. Camila; Lesnikov, Vladimir A.; Gavva, Narender R.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the thermoregulatory phenotype of mice lacking transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. We used Trpv1 knockout (KO) mice and their genetically unaltered littermates to study diurnal variations in deep body temperature (Tb) and thermoeffector activities under basal conditions, as well as thermoregulatory responses to severe heat and cold. Only subtle alterations were found in the basal Tb of Trpv1 KO mice or in their Tb responses to thermal challenges. The main thermoregulatory abnormality of Trpv1 KO mice was a different pattern of thermoeffectors used to regulate Tb. On the autonomic side, Trpv1 KO mice were hypometabolic (had a lower oxygen consumption) and hypervasoconstricted (had a lower tail skin temperature). In agreement with the enhanced skin vasoconstriction, Trpv1 KO mice had a higher thermoneutral zone. On the behavioral side, Trpv1 KO mice preferred a lower ambient temperature and expressed a higher locomotor activity. Experiments with pharmacological TRPV1 agonists (resiniferatoxin and anandamide) and a TRPV1 antagonist (AMG0347) confirmed that TRPV1 channels located outside the brain tonically inhibit locomotor activity. With age (observed for up to 14 months), the body mass of Trpv1 KO mice exceeded that of controls, sometimes approaching 60 g. In summary, Trpv1 KO mice possess a distinct thermoregulatory phenotype, which is coupled with a predisposition to age-associated overweight and includes hypometabolism, enhanced skin vasoconstriction, decreased thermopreferendum, and hyperkinesis. The latter may be one of the primary deficiencies in Trpv1 KO mice. We propose that TRPV1-mediated signals from the periphery tonically suppress the general locomotor activity. PMID:21289181

  4. Kinetic characterization of a cocaine hydrolase engineered from mouse butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiabin; Huang, Xiaoqin; Geng, Liyi; Xue, Liu; Hou, Shurong; Zheng, Xirong; Brimijoin, Stephen; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2015-03-01

    Mouse butyrylcholinesterase (mBChE) and an mBChE-based cocaine hydrolase (mCocH, i.e. the A¹⁹⁹S/S²²⁷A/S²⁸⁷G/A³²⁸W/Y³³²G mutant) have been characterized for their catalytic activities against cocaine, i.e. naturally occurring (-)-cocaine, in comparison with the corresponding human BChE (hBChE) and an hBChE-based cocaine hydrolase (hCocH, i.e. the A¹⁹⁹S/F²²⁷A/S²⁸⁷G/A³²⁸W/Y³³²G mutant). It has been demonstrated that mCocH and hCocH have improved the catalytic efficiency of mBChE and hBChE against (-)-cocaine by ~8- and ~2000-fold respectively, although the catalytic efficiencies of mCocH and hCocH against other substrates, including acetylcholine (ACh) and butyrylthiocholine (BTC), are close to those of the corresponding wild-type enzymes mBChE and hBChE. According to the kinetic data, the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(M)) of mBChE against (-)-cocaine is comparable with that of hBChE, but the catalytic efficiency of mCocH against (-)-cocaine is remarkably lower than that of hCocH by ~250-fold. The remarkable difference in the catalytic activity between mCocH and hCocH is consistent with the difference between the enzyme-(-)-cocaine binding modes obtained from molecular modelling. Further, both mBChE and hBChE demonstrated substrate activation for all of the examined substrates [(-)-cocaine, ACh and BTC] at high concentrations, whereas both mCocH and hCocH showed substrate inhibition for all three substrates at high concentrations. The amino-acid mutations have remarkably converted substrate activation of the enzymes into substrate inhibition, implying that the rate-determining step of the reaction in mCocH and hCocH might be different from that in mBChE and hBChE.

  5. Characterization of a genetically engineered mouse model of hemophilia A with complete deletion of the F8 gene

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Brittany N.; Baldwin, Wallace H.; Healey, John F.; Parker, Ernest T.; Shafer-Weaver, Kimberly; Cox, Courtney; Jiang, Ping; Kanellopoulou, Chrysi; Lollar, Pete; Meeks, Shannon L.; Lenardo, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The most important complication in hemophilia A treatment is the development of inhibitory anti-Factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies in patients after FVIII therapy. Patients with severe hemophilia who express no endogenous FVIII, i.e. cross-reacting material (CRM), have the greatest incidence of inhibitor formation. However, current mouse models of severe hemophilia A produce low levels of truncated FVIII. The lack of a corresponding mouse model hampers the study of inhibitor formation in the complete absence of FVIII protein. Objectives We aimed to generate and characterize a novel mouse model of severe hemophilia A (designated the F8TKO strain) lacking the complete coding sequence of F8 and any FVIII CRM. Methods Mice were created on a C57BL/6 background using Cre-Lox recombination and characterized using in vivo bleeding assays, measurement of FVIII activity by coagulation and chromogenic assays, and anti-FVIII antibody production using ELISA. Results All F8 exonic coding regions were deleted from the genome and no F8 mRNA was detected in F8TKO mice. The bleeding phenotype of F8TKO mice was comparable to E16 mice by measurements of factor activity and tail snip assay. Similar levels of anti-FVIII antibody titers after recombinant FVIII injections were observed between F8TKO and E16 mice. Conclusions We describe a new C57BL/6 mouse model for severe hemophilia A patients lacking CRM. These mice can be directly bred to the many C57BL/6 strains of genetically engineered mice making it valuable for studying the impact of a wide variety of genes on FVIII inhibitor formation on a defined genetic background. PMID:26588198

  6. Mouse and human BAC transgenes recapitulate tissue-specific expression of the vitamin D receptor in mice and rescue the VDR-null phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Min; Bishop, Kathleen A; Goellner, Joseph J; O'Brien, Charles A; Pike, J Wesley

    2014-06-01

    The biological actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed in numerous target tissues in a cell type-selective manner. Recent studies using genomic analyses and recombineered bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) have defined the specific features of mouse and human VDR gene loci in vitro. In the current study, we introduced recombineered mouse and human VDR BACs as transgenes into mice and explored their expression capabilities in vivo. Individual transgenic mouse strains selectively expressed BAC-derived mouse or human VDR proteins in appropriate vitamin D target tissues, thereby recapitulating the tissue-specific expression of endogenous mouse VDR. The mouse VDR transgene was also regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 and dibutyryl-cAMP. When crossed into a VDR-null mouse background, both transgenes restored wild-type basal as well as 1,25(OH)2D3-inducible gene expression patterns in the appropriate tissues. This maneuver resulted in the complete rescue of the aberrant phenotype noted in the VDR-null mouse, including systemic features associated with altered calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and disrupted production of parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23, and abnormalities associated with the skeleton, kidney, parathyroid gland, and the skin. This study suggests that both mouse and human VDR transgenes are capable of recapitulating basal and regulated expression of the VDR in the appropriate mouse tissues and restore 1,25(OH)2D3 function. These results provide a baseline for further dissection of mechanisms integral to mouse and human VDR gene expression and offer the potential to explore the consequence of selective mutations in VDR proteins in vivo.

  7. The craniofacial phenotype of the Crouzon mouse: analysis of a model for syndromic craniosynostosis using three-dimensional MicroCT.

    PubMed

    Perlyn, Chad A; DeLeon, Valerie B; Babbs, Christian; Govier, Daniel; Burell, Lance; Darvann, Tron; Kreiborg, Sven; Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2006-11-01

    To characterize the craniofacial phenotype of a mouse model for Crouzon syndrome by a quantitative analysis of skull morphology in mutant and wild-type mice and to compare the findings with skull features observed in humans with Crouzon syndrome. MicroCT scans and skeletal preparations were obtained on previously described Fgfr2(C342Y/+) Crouzon mutant mice and wild-type mice at 6 weeks of age. Three-dimensional coordinate data from biologically relevant landmarks on the skulls were collected. Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis was used to quantify and compare skull shapes using these landmark data. Obliteration of bilateral coronal sutures was observed in 80% of skulls, and complete synostosis of the sagittal suture was observed in 70%. In contrast, fewer than 40% of lambdoid sutures were found to be fully fused. In each of the 10 Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mutant mice analyzed, the presphenoid-basisphenoid synchondrosis was fused. Skull height and width were increased in mutant mice, whereas skull length was decreased. Interorbital distance was also increased in Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mice as compared with wild-type littermates. Upper-jaw length was shorter in the Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mutant skulls, as was mandibular length. Skulls of Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mice differ from normal littermates in a comparable manner with differences between the skulls of humans with Crouzon syndrome and those of unaffected individuals. These findings were consistent across several regions of anatomic interest. Further investigation into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anomalies seen in the Crouzon mouse model is currently under way.

  8. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Mini-Agrin Delivery Is Unable to Rescue Disease Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I.

    PubMed

    Vannoy, Charles H; Zhou, Haowen; Qiao, Chunping; Xiao, Xiao; Bang, Anne G; Lu, Qi L

    2017-02-01

    Agrin is a basement membrane-specific proteoglycan that can regulate orientation of cytoskeleton proteins and improve function of dystrophic skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, agrin binds with high affinity to laminin(s) and α-dystroglycan (α-DG), an integral part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Miniaturized forms of agrin (mAgrin) have been shown to ameliorate disease pathology in a laminin-α2 knockout mouse model of muscular dystrophy, acting as a link between α-DG and laminin(s). Here, we test whether mAgrin might also improve pathologies associated with FKRP-related dystroglycanopathies, another form of muscular dystrophy characterized by weak interactions between muscle and basement membranes. We demonstrate in vitro that mAgrin enhances laminin binding to primary myoblasts and fibroblasts from an FKRP mutant mouse model and that this enhancement is abrogated when mAgrin is in molar excess relative to laminin. However, in vivo delivery of mAgrin via adeno-associated virus (AAV) into FKRP mutant mice was unable to improve dystrophic phenotypes, both histologically and functionally. These results likely reflect insufficient binding of mAgrin to hypoglycosylated α-DG on muscle fibers and possibly abrogation of binding from molar excess of overexpressed AAV-delivered mAgrin. Further exploration of mAgrin modification is necessary to strengthen its binding to other membrane components, including hypoglycosylated α-DG, for potential therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterizing associations and dissociations between anxiety, social, and cognitive phenotypes of Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Rowena; Järvinen, Anna; Bellugi, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic disorder known for its “hypersocial” phenotype and a complex profile of anxieties. The anxieties are poorly understood specifically in relation to the social-emotional and cognitive profiles. To address this gap, we employed a Wechsler intelligence test, the Brief Symptom Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Salk Institute Sociability Questionnaire, to (1) examine how anxiety symptoms distinguish individuals with WS from typically developing (TD) individuals; and (2) assess the associations between three key phenotypic features of WS: intellectual impairment, social-emotional functioning, and anxiety. The results highlighted intensified neurophysiological symptoms and subjective experiences of anxiety in WS. Moreover, whereas higher cognitive ability was positively associated with anxiety in WS, the opposite pattern characterized the TD individuals. This study provides novel insight into how the three core phenotypic features associate/dissociate in WS, specifically in terms of the contribution of cognitive and emotional functioning to anxiety symptoms. PMID:24973548

  10. Rapid Three-Dimensional Phenotyping of Cardiovascular Development in Mouse Embryos by Micro-CT with Iodine Staining

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Karl; Wright, Alexander C.; Horng, Debra; Padmanabhan, Arun; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has been used extensively in research to generate high-resolution three-dimensional images of calcified tissues in small animals nondestructively. It has been especially useful for the characterization of skeletal mutations, but limited in its utility for the analysis of soft tissue such as the cardiovascular system. Visualization of the cardiovascular system has been largely restricted to structures that can be filled with radiopaque intravascular contrast agents in adult animals. Recent ex vivo studies using osmium tetroxide, iodinated contrast agents, inorganic iodine and phosphotungstic acid have demonstrated the ability to stain soft tissues differentially, allowing for high inter-tissue contrast in micro-CT images. Here, we demonstrate the application of this technology for visualization of cardiovascular structures in developing mouse embryos using Lugol’s solution (aqueous potassium iodide plus iodine). Methods and Results We show the optimization of this method to obtain ex vivo micro-CT images of embryonic and neonatal mice with excellent soft-tissue contrast. We demonstrate the utility of this method to visualize key structures during cardiovascular development at various stages of embryogenesis. Our method benefits from the ease of sample preparation, low toxicity, and low cost. Furthermore, we show how multiple cardiac defects can be demonstrated by micro-CT in a single specimen with a known genetic lesion. Indeed, a previously undescribed cardiac venous abnormality is revealed in a PlexinD1 mutant mouse. Conclusions Micro-CT of iodine stained tissue is a valuable technique for the characterization of cardiovascular development and defects in mouse models of congenital heart disease. PMID:20190279

  11. Identification of 18 mouse ABC genes and characterization of the ABC superfamily in Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Schriml, L M; Dean, M

    2000-02-15

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode a family of transport proteins known to be involved in a number of human genetic diseases. In this study, we characterized the ABC superfamily in Mus musculus through in silico gene identification and mapping and phylogenetic analysis of mouse and human ABC genes. By querying dbEST with amino acid sequences from the conserved ATP-binding domains, we identified and partially sequenced 18 new mouse ABC genes, bringing the total number of mouse ABC genes to 34. Twelve of the new ABC genes were mapped in the mouse genome to the X chromosome and to 10 of the 19 autosomes. Phylogenetic relationships of mouse and human ABC genes were examined with maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses that demonstrated that mouse and human ABC orthologs are more closely related than are mouse paralogs. The mouse ABC genes could be grouped into the seven previously described human ABC subfamilies. Three mouse ABC genes mapped to regions implicated in cholesterol gallstone susceptibility. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Prolonged high fat diet ingestion, obesity, and type 2 diabetes symptoms correlate with phenotypic plasticity in myenteric neurons and nerve damage in the mouse duodenum.

    PubMed

    Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe M; Nyavor, Yvonne E A; Kappmeyer, Adam J; Horton, Sarah; Gericke, Martin; Balemba, Onesmo B

    2015-08-01

    Symptoms of diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility indicate neuropathy of the enteric nervous system. Long-standing diabetic enteric neuropathy has not been fully characterized, however. We used prolonged high fat diet ingestion (20 weeks) in a mouse model to mimic human obese and type 2 diabetic conditions, and analyzed changes seen in neurons of the duodenal myenteric plexus. Ganglionic and neuronal size, number of neurons per ganglionic area, density indices of neuronal phenotypes (immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and varicosities per ganglion or tissue area) and nerve injury were measured. Findings were compared with results previously seen in mice fed the same diet for 8 weeks. Compared to mice fed standard chow, those on a prolonged high fat diet had smaller ganglionic and cell soma areas. Myenteric VIP- and ChAT-immunoreactive density indices were also reduced. Myenteric nerve fibers were markedly swollen and cytoskeletal protein networks were disrupted. The number of nNOS nerve cell bodies per ganglia was increased, contrary to the reduction previously seen after 8 weeks, but the density index of nNOS varicosities was reduced. Mice fed high fat and standard chow diets experienced an age-related reduction in total neurons, with bias towards neurons of sensory phenotype. Meanwhile, ageing was associated with an increase in excitatory neuronal markers. Collectively, these results support a notion that nerve damage underlies diabetic symptoms of dysmotility, and reveals adaptive ENS responses to the prolonged ingestion of a high fat diet. This highlights a need to mechanistically study long-term diet-induced nerve damage and age-related impacts on the ENS.

  13. Prolonged high fat diet ingestion, obesity, and type 2 diabetes symptoms correlate with phenotypic plasticity in myenteric neurons and nerve damage in the mouse duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe M.; Nyavor, Yvonne E. A.; Kappmeyer, Adam J.; Horton, Sarah; Gericke, Martin; Balemba, Onesmo B.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility indicate neuropathy of the enteric nervous system. Long-standing diabetic enteric neuropathy has not been fully characterized, however. We used prolonged high fat diet ingestion (20 weeks) in a mouse model to mimic human obese and type 2 diabetic conditions, and analyzed changes seen in neurons of the duodenal myenteric plexus. Ganglionic and neuronal size, number of neurons per ganglionic area, density indices of neuronal phenotypes (immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and varicosities per ganglion or tissue area) and nerve injury were measured. Findings were compared with results previously seen in mice fed the same diet for 8 weeks. Compared to mice fed standard chow, those on a prolonged high fat diet had smaller ganglionic and cell soma areas. Myenteric VIP- and ChAT-immunoreactive density indices were also reduced. Myenteric nerve fibers were markedly swollen and cytoskeletal protein networks were disrupted. The number of nNOS nerve cell bodies per ganglia was increased, contrary to the reduction previously seen after 8 weeks, but the density index of nNOS varicosities was reduced. Mice fed high fat and standard chow diets experienced an age-related reduction in total neurons, biasing towards neurons of sensory phenotype. Meanwhile ageing was associated with an increase in excitatory neuronal markers. Collectively, these results support a notion that nerve damage underlies diabetic symptoms of dysmotility, and reveals adaptive ENS responses to the prolonged ingestion of a high fat diet. This highlights a need to mechanistically study long-term diet-induced nerve damage and age-related impacts on the ENS. PMID:25722087

  14. Computational approaches for the genetic and phenotypic characterization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast collection.

    PubMed

    Franco-Duarte, R; Umek, L; Zupan, B; Schuller, D

    2009-12-01

    Within this study, we have used a set of computational techniques to relate the genotypes and phenotypes of natural populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using allelic information from 11 microsatellite loci and results from 24 phenotypic tests. A group of 103 strains was obtained from a larger S. cerevisiae winemaking strain collection by clustering with self-organizing maps. These strains were further characterized regarding their allelic combinations for 11 microsatellites and analysed in phenotypic screens that included taxonomic criteria (carbon and nitrogen assimilation tests, growth at different temperatures) and tests with biotechnological relevance (ethanol resistance, H(2)S or aromatic precursors formation). Phenotypic variability was rather high and each strain showed a unique phenotypic profile. The results, expressed as optical density (A(640)) after 22 h of growth, were in agreement with taxonomic data, although with some exceptions, since few strains were capable of consuming arabinose and ribose to a small extent. Based on microsatellite allelic information, naïve Bayesian classifier correctly assigned (AUC = 0.81, p < 10(-8)) most of the strains to the vineyard from where they were isolated, despite their close location (50-100 km). We also identified subgroups of strains with similar values of a phenotypic feature and microsatellite allelic pattern (AUC > 0.75). Subgroups were found for strains with low ethanol resistance, growth at 30 degrees C and growth in media containing galactose, raffinose or urea. The results demonstrate that computational approaches can be used to establish genotype-phenotype relations and to make predictions about a strain's biotechnological potential.

  15. Dry-contact microelectrode membranes for wireless detection of electrical phenotypes in neonatal mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Cao, Hung; Beebe, Tyler; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Chang, Honglong; Scremin, Oscar; Lien, Ching-Ling; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2015-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of aberrant electrical rhythms during heart injury and repair requires prolonged data acquisition. We hereby developed a wearable microelectrode membrane that could be adherent to the chest of neonatal mice for in situ wireless recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The novel dry-contact membrane with a meshed parylene-C pad adjacent to the microelectrodes and the expandable meandrous strips allowed for varying size of the neonates. The performance was evaluated at the system level; specifically, the ECG signals (μV) acquired from the microelectrodes underwent two-stage amplification, band-pass filtering, and optical data transmission by an infrared Light Emitting Diode (LED) to the data-receiving unit. The circuitry was prototyped on a printed circuit board (PCB), consuming less than 300 μW, and was completely powered by an inductive coupling link. Distinct P waves, QRS complexes, and T waves of ECG signals were demonstrated from the non-pharmacologically sedated neonates at ~600 beats per minutes. Thus, we demonstrate the feasibility of both real-time and wireless monitoring cardiac rhythms in a neonatal mouse (17-20 mm and <1 g) via dry-contact microelectrode membrane; thus, providing a basis for diagnosing aberrant electrical conduction in animal models of cardiac injury and repair.

  16. Mouse-human experimental epigenetic analysis unmasks dietary targets and genetic liability for diabetic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Multhaup, Michael L.; Seldin, Marcus; Jaffe, Andrew E.; Lei, Xia; Kirchner, Henriette; Mondal, Prosenjit; Li, Yuanyuan; Rodriguez, Varenka; Drong, Alexander; Hussain, Mehboob; Lindgren, Cecilia; McCarthy, Mark; Näslund, Erik; Zierath, Juleen R.; Wong, G. William; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Using a functional approach to investigate the epigenetics of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), we combine three lines of evidence – diet-induced epigenetic dysregulation in mouse, epigenetic conservation in humans, and T2D clinical risk evidence – to identify genes implicated in T2D pathogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms related to obesity. Beginning with dietary manipulation of genetically homogeneous mice, we identify differentially DNA-methylated genomic regions. We then replicate these results in adipose samples from lean and obese patients pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, identifying regions where both the location and direction of methylation change is conserved. These regions overlap with 27 genetic T2D risk loci, only one of which was deemed significant by GWAS alone. Functional analysis of genes associated with these regions revealed four genes with roles in insulin resistance, demonstrating the potential general utility of this approach for complementing conventional human genetic studies by integrating cross-species epigenomics and clinical genetic risk. PMID:25565211

  17. Phenotypic Characterization of Retinoic Acid Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Korecka, Joanna A.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Blaas, Eva; Spitzer, Sonia O.; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Smit, August B.; Swaab, Dick F.; Verhaagen, Joost; Bossers, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The main neuropathological hallmark of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To study genetic and molecular contributors to the disease process, there is a great need for readily accessible cells with prominent DAergic features that can be used for reproducible in vitro cellular screening. Here, we investigated the molecular phenotype of retinoic acid (RA) differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using genome wide transcriptional profiling combined with gene ontology, transcription factor and molecular pathway analysis. We demonstrated that RA induces a general neuronal differentiation program in SH-SY5Y cells and that these cells develop a predominantly mature DAergic-like neurotransmitter phenotype. This phenotype is characterized by increased dopamine levels together with a substantial suppression of other neurotransmitter phenotypes, such as those for noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin and histamine. In addition, we show that RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells express the dopamine and noradrenalin neurotransmitter transporters that are responsible for uptake of MPP(+), a well known DAergic cell toxicant. MPP(+) treatment alters mitochondrial activity according to its proposed cytotoxic effect in DAergic neurons. Taken together, RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have a DAergic-like phenotype, and provide a good cellular screening tool to find novel genes or compounds that affect cytotoxic processes that are associated with PD. PMID:23724009

  18. Long-term treatment with naproxcinod significantly improves skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in the mdx mouse model of dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Quinn, James L; Tatem, Kathleen S; Van Der Meulen, Jack H; Yu, Qing; Phadke, Aditi; Miller, Brittany K; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Ongini, Ennio; Miglietta, Daniela; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-06-15

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and the mouse model of DMD, mdx, dystrophin deficiency causes a decrease and mislocalization of muscle-specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ), leading to functional impairments. Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) donation associated with anti-inflammatory action has beneficial effects in dystrophic mouse models. In this study, we have systematically investigated the effects of naproxcinod, an NO-donating naproxen derivative, on the skeletal and cardiac disease phenotype in mdx mice. Four-week-old mdx and C57BL/10 mice were treated with four different concentrations (0, 10, 21 and 41 mg/kg) of naproxcinod and 0.9 mg/kg of prednisolone in their food for 9 months. All mice were subjected to twice-weekly treadmill sessions, and functional and behavioral parameters were measured at 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment. In addition, we evaluated in vitro force contraction, optical imaging of inflammation, echocardiography and blood pressure (BP) at the 9-month endpoint prior to sacrifice. We found that naproxcinod treatment at 21 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement in hindlimb grip strength and a 30% decrease in inflammation in the fore- and hindlimbs of mdx mice. Furthermore, we found significant improvement in heart function, as evidenced by improved fraction shortening, ejection fraction and systolic BP. In addition, the long-term detrimental effects of prednisolone typically seen in mdx skeletal and heart function were not observed at the effective dose of naproxcinod. In conclusion, our results indicate that naproxcinod has significant potential as a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of muscular dystrophies.

  19. Chronic treatment with lithium does not improve neuromuscular phenotype in a mouse model of severe spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Dachs, E; Piedrafita, L; Hereu, M; Esquerda, J E; Calderó, J

    2013-10-10

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by defective levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMA causes spinal motoneuron (MN) loss, and progressive muscle weakness and paralysis. Currently, there is no effective therapy to cure this disease. Although different strategies focused on increasing the expression of functional SMN protein have been assayed, numerous SMN-independent therapeutic approaches have been demonstrated to have potential effectiveness in improving the SMA phenotype in mouse models and clinical trials. Recent works have shown that compounds which inhibit GSK-3β activity are effective in promoting MN survival and ameliorating lifespan in models of MN diseases including SMA. Taking into account the reported neuroprotective actions of lithium (Li) through the inhibition of GSK-3β in different studies, we tested here its potential efficiency as a therapeutic agent in a mouse model of severe SMA (SMNΔ7 mice). We show that the chronic treatment with Li initiated before the appearance of disease symptoms, although inhibited GSK-3β, did not improve the median survival, motor behavior, and spinal MN loss linked to SMA. Li administration did not either ameliorate the microglial and astroglial reaction in the spinal cord or the depletion of glutamatergic synapses on MNs observed in SMNΔ7 animals. Moreover, Li treatment did not mitigate muscle atrophy or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) downregulation in the neuromuscular junctions linked to the disease. However, a significant reduction in apoptotic cell death found in the skeletal muscle of SMA mice was observed after Li treatment. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and characterization of near-fatal asthma phenotypes by cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pariente, J; Rodrigo, G; Fiz, J A; Crespo, A; Plaza, V

    2015-09-01

    Near-fatal asthma (NFA) is a heterogeneous clinical entity and several profiles of patients have been described according to different clinical, pathophysiological and histological features. However, there are no previous studies that identify in a unbiased way--using statistical methods such as clusters analysis--different phenotypes of NFA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify and to characterize phenotypes of near fatal asthma using a cluster analysis. Over a period of 2 years, 33 Spanish hospitals enrolled 179 asthmatics admitted for an episode of NFA. A cluster analysis using two-steps algorithm was performed from data of 84 of these cases. The analysis defined three clusters of patients with NFA: cluster 1, the largest, including older patients with clinical and therapeutic criteria of severe asthma; cluster 2, with an high proportion of respiratory arrest (68%), impaired consciousness level (82%) and mechanical ventilation (93%); and cluster 3, which included younger patients, characterized by an insufficient anti-inflammatory treatment and frequent sensitization to Alternaria alternata and soybean. These results identify specific asthma phenotypes involved in NFA, confirming in part previous findings observed in studies with a clinical approach. The identification of patients with a specific NFA phenotype could suggest interventions to prevent future severe asthma exacerbations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Glut1 deficiency (G1D): Epilepsy and metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of the most common human phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Duarte, Joao; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Sinton, Christopher M.; Heilig, Charles W.; Pascual, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain glucose supplies most of the carbon required for acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) generation (an important step for myelin synthesis) and for neurotransmitter production via further metabolism of acetyl-CoA in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, it is not known whether reduced brain glucose transporter type I (GLUT-1) activity, the hallmark of the GLUT-1 deficiency (G1D) syndrome, leads to acetyl-CoA, TCA or neurotransmitter depletion. This question is relevant because, in its most common form in man, G1D is associated with cerebral hypomyelination (manifested as microcephaly) and epilepsy, suggestive of acetyl-CoA depletion and neurotransmitter dysfunction, respectively. Yet, brain metabolism in G1D remains underexplored both theoretically and experimentally, partly because computational models of limited brain glucose transport are subordinate to metabolic assumptions and partly because current hemizygous G1D mouse models manifest a mild phenotype not easily amenable to investigation. In contrast, adult antisense G1D mice replicate the human phenotype of spontaneous epilepsy associated with robust thalamocortical electrical oscillations. Additionally, and in consonance with human metabolic imaging observations, thalamus and cerebral cortex display the lowest GLUT-1 expression and glucose uptake in the mutant mouse. This depletion of brain glucose is associated with diminished plasma fatty acids and elevated ketone body levels, and with decreased brain acetyl-CoA and fatty acid contents, consistent with brain ketone body consumption and with stimulation of brain beta-oxidation and/or diminished cerebral lipid synthesis. In contrast with other epilepsies, astrocyte glutamine synthetase expression, cerebral TCA cycle intermediates, amino acid and amine neurotransmitter contents are also intact in G1D. The data suggest that the TCA cycle is preserved in G1D because reduced glycolysis and acetyl-CoA formation can be balanced by enhanced ketone body

  2. Overexpression of TEAD-1 in transgenic mouse striated muscles produces a slower skeletal muscle contractile phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tsika, Richard W; Schramm, Christine; Simmer, Gretchen; Fitzsimons, Daniel P; Moss, Richard L; Ji, Juan

    2008-12-26

    TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors serve important functional roles during embryonic development and in striated muscle gene expression. Our previous work has implicated a role for TEAD-1 in the fast-to-slow fiber-type transition in response to mechanical overload. To investigate whether TEAD-1 is a modulator of slow muscle gene expression in vivo, we developed transgenic mice expressing hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged TEAD-1 under the control of the muscle creatine kinase promoter. We show that striated muscle-restricted HA-TEAD-1 expression induced a transition toward a slow muscle contractile protein phenotype, slower shortening velocity (Vmax), and longer contraction and relaxation times in adult fast twitch extensor digitalis longus muscle. Notably, HA-TEAD-1 overexpression resulted in an unexpected activation of GSK-3alpha/beta and decreased nuclear beta-catenin and NFATc1/c3 protein. These effects could be reversed in vivo by mechanical overload, which decreased muscle creatine kinase-driven TEAD-1 transgene expression, and in cultured satellite cells by TEAD-1-specific small interfering RNA. These novel in vivo data support a role for TEAD-1 in modulating slow muscle gene expression.

  3. Phenotypic diversity and selection maintain Leishmania amazonensis infectivity in BALB/c mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Espiau, Benoît; Vilhena, Virginia; Cuvillier, Armelle; Barral, Aldina; Merlin, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania are protozoan parasites that show remarkable diversity, as revealed by the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis, which can range from mild skin lesions to severe metastatic cutaneous/mucosal lesions. The exact nature and extent of Leishmania phenotypic diversity in establishing infection is not fully understood. In order to try to understand some aspects of this diversity, we subcutaneously infected BALB/c mice with first and second generation subclones of a L. amazonensis strain isolated from a patient (BA125) and examined in vivo lesion growth rate and antimony susceptibility. In vivo fast-, medium- and slow-growing subclones were obtained; moreover, fast-growing subclones could generate slow-growing subclones and inversely, revealing the continuous generation of diversity after passage into mice. No antimony-resistant subclone appeared, probably a rare occurrence. By tagging subclone cells with a L. amazonensis genomic cosmid library, we found that only a very small number of founding cells could produce lesions. Leishmania clones transfected with in vivo selected individual cosmids were also diverse in terms of lesion growth rate, revealing the cosmid-independent intrinsic characteristics of each clone. Our results suggest that only a few of the infecting parasites are able to grow and produce lesions; later, within the cell mixture of each lesion, there coexist several parasite populations with different potentialities to grow lesions during the next infection round. This may reflect a sort of programmed heterogeneity of individual parasites, favoring the survival of some individuals in various environmental conditions. PMID:28076468

  4. Role of MSK1 in the Malignant Phenotype of Ras-transformed Mouse Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cadahía, Beatriz; Drobic, Bojan; Espino, Paula S.; He, Shihua; Mandal, Soma; Healy, Shannon; Davie, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Activated by the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway, MSK1 is recruited to immediate-early gene (IEG) regulatory regions, where it phosphorylates histone H3 at Ser-10 or Ser-28. Chromatin remodelers and modifiers are then recruited by 14-3-3 proteins, readers of phosphoserine marks, leading to the occupancy of IEG promoters by the initiation-engaged form of RNA polymerase II and the onset of transcription. In this study, we show that this mechanism of IEG induction, initially elucidated in parental 10T1/2 murine fibroblast cells, applies to metastatic Hras1-transformed Ciras-3 cells. As the RAS-MAPK pathway is constitutively activated in Ciras-3 cells, MSK1 activity and phosphorylated H3 steady-state levels are elevated. We found that steady-state levels of the IEG products AP-1 and COX-2 were also elevated in Ciras-3 cells. When MSK1 activity was inhibited or MSK1 expression was knocked down in Ciras-3 cells, the induction of IEG expression and the steady-state levels of COX-2, FRA-1, and JUN were greatly reduced. Furthermore, MSK1 knockdown Ciras-3 cells lost their malignant phenotype, as reflected by the absence of anchorage-independent growth. PMID:21071437

  5. Characterization and significance of adhesion and junction-related proteins in mouse ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Mora, Jocelyn M; Fenwick, Mark A; Castle, Laura; Baithun, Marianne; Ryder, Timothy A; Mobberley, Margaret; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Franks, Stephen; Hardy, Kate

    2012-05-01

    In the ovary, initiation of follicle growth is marked by cuboidalization of flattened granulosa cells (GCs). The regulation and cell biology of this shape change remains poorly understood. We propose that characterization of intercellular junctions and associated proteins is key to identifying as yet unknown regulators of this important transition. As GCs are conventionally described as epithelial cells, this study used mouse ovaries and isolated follicles to investigate epithelial junctional complexes (tight junctions [TJ], adherens junctions [AJ], and desmosomes) and associated molecules, as well as classic epithelial markers, by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. These junctions were further characterized using ultrastructural, calcium depletion and biotin tracer studies. Junctions observed by transmission electron microscopy between GCs and between GCs and oocyte were identified as AJs by expression of N-cadherin and nectin 2 and by the lack of TJ and desmosome-associated proteins. Follicles were also permeable to biotin, confirming a lack of functional TJs. Surprisingly, GCs lacked all epithelial markers analyzed, including E-cadherin, cytokeratin 8, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1alpha+. Furthermore, vimentin was expressed by GCs, suggesting a more mesenchymal phenotype. Under calcium-free conditions, small follicles maintained oocyte-GC contact, confirming the importance of calcium-independent nectin at this stage. However, in primary and multilayered follicles, lack of calcium resulted in loss of contact between GCs and oocyte, showing that nectin alone cannot maintain attachment between these two cell types. Lack of classic markers suggests that GCs are not epithelial. Identification of AJs during GC cuboidalization highlights the importance of AJs in regulating initiation of follicle growth.

  6. Isolation and Proteomic Characterization of the Mouse Sperm Acrosomal Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Guyonnet, Benoit; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; SanFrancisco, Susan; Cornwall, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    A critical step during fertilization is the sperm acrosome reaction in which the acrosome releases its contents allowing the spermatozoa to penetrate the egg investments. The sperm acrosomal contents are composed of both soluble material and an insoluble material called the acrosomal matrix (AM). The AM is thought to provide a stable structure from which associated proteins are differentially released during fertilization. Because of its important role during fertilization, efforts have been put toward isolating the AM for biochemical study and to date AM have been isolated from hamster, guinea pig, and bull spermatozoa. However, attempts to isolate AM from mouse spermatozoa, the species in which fertilization is well-studied, have been unsuccessful possibly because of the small size of the mouse sperm acrosome and/or its fusiform shape. Herein we describe a procedure for the isolation of the AM from caput and cauda mouse epididymal spermatozoa. We further carried out a proteomic analysis of the isolated AM from both sperm populations and identified 501 new proteins previously not detected by proteomics in mouse spermatozoa. A comparison of the AM proteome from caput and cauda spermatozoa showed that the AM undergoes maturational changes during epididymal transit similar to other sperm domains. Together, our studies suggest the AM to be a dynamic and functional structure carrying out a variety of biological processes as implied by the presence of a diverse group of proteins including proteases, chaperones, hydrolases, transporters, enzyme modulators, transferases, cytoskeletal proteins, and others. PMID:22707618

  7. Characterization of the mouse lymphotoxin-beta gene.

    PubMed

    Lawton, P; Nelson, J; Tizard, R; Browning, J L

    1995-01-01

    Lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta) is a member of the TNF family of ligands which when expressed with lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha, i.e., the original LT or TNF-beta) forms a heteromeric complex with LT-alpha on the cell surface. The mouse gene structure was determined by both cDNA cloning and analysis of a genomic DNA fragment encompassing the TNF/LT locus in the H-2 region of chromosome 17. The mouse and human genomic structures were found to be similar in terms of location in the class III region of the MHC; however, the mouse gene lacks one intron found in most members of the family. Both the cDNA and the genomic sequences revealed an altered splice donor in the conventional intron 2 position, rendering it nonfunctional. The altered gene retains an open reading frame such that an additional 66 amino acids are inserted into the stalk region connecting the transmembrane domain with the receptor binding domain encoded by exon 4 in this type II membrane protein. Northern analysis showed that this gene is expressed predominantly in lymphoid organs. The outlining of the complete mouse TNF locus will further studies of the relationship between these genes and immune function.

  8. Improvement of the Rett syndrome phenotype in a MeCP2 mouse model upon treatment with levodopa and a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Szczesna, Karolina; de la Caridad, Olga; Petazzi, Paolo; Soler, Marta; Roa, Laura; Saez, Mauricio A; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora; Artuch-Iriberri, Rafael; Molero-Luis, Marta; Vidal, August; Huertas, Dori; Esteller, Manel

    2014-11-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental autism spectrum disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for methyl CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). The disease is characterized by abnormal motor, respiratory, cognitive impairment, and autistic-like behaviors. No effective treatment of the disorder is available. Mecp2 knockout mice have a range of physiological and neurological abnormalities that resemble the human syndrome and can be used as a model to interrogate new therapies. Herein, we show that the combined administration of Levodopa and a Dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor in RTT mouse models is well tolerated, diminishes RTT-associated symptoms, and increases life span. The amelioration of RTT symptomatology is particularly significant in those features controlled by the dopaminergic pathway in the nigrostratium, such as mobility, tremor, and breathing. Most important, the improvement of the RTT phenotype upon use of the combined treatment is reflected at the cellular level by the development of neuronal dendritic growth. However, much work is required to extend the duration of the benefit of the described preclinical treatment.

  9. Improvement of the Rett Syndrome Phenotype in a Mecp2 Mouse Model Upon Treatment with Levodopa and a Dopa-Decarboxylase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Szczesna, Karolina; de la Caridad, Olga; Petazzi, Paolo; Soler, Marta; Roa, Laura; Saez, Mauricio A; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora; Artuch-Iriberri, Rafael; Molero-Luis, Marta; Vidal, August; Huertas, Dori; Esteller, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental autism spectrum disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for methyl CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). The disease is characterized by abnormal motor, respiratory, cognitive impairment, and autistic-like behaviors. No effective treatment of the disorder is available. Mecp2 knockout mice have a range of physiological and neurological abnormalities that resemble the human syndrome and can be used as a model to interrogate new therapies. Herein, we show that the combined administration of Levodopa and a Dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor in RTT mouse models is well tolerated, diminishes RTT-associated symptoms, and increases life span. The amelioration of RTT symptomatology is particularly significant in those features controlled by the dopaminergic pathway in the nigrostratium, such as mobility, tremor, and breathing. Most important, the improvement of the RTT phenotype upon use of the combined treatment is reflected at the cellular level by the development of neuronal dendritic growth. However, much work is required to extend the duration of the benefit of the described preclinical treatment. PMID:24917201

  10. PPARβ/δ and PPARγ maintain undifferentiated phenotypes of mouse adult neural precursor cells from the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Carolina; Araya, Claudia; Palma, Verónica; Bronfman, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the main niches of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Stem and precursor cells in this region are the source for neurogenesis and oligodendrogesis, mainly in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum, respectively. The identification of the molecular components regulating the decision of these cells to differentiate or maintain an undifferentiated state is important in order to understand the modulation of neurogenic processes in physiological and pathological conditions. PPARs are a group of transcription factors, activated by lipid ligands, with important functions in cellular differentiation and proliferation in several tissues. In this work, we demonstrate that mouse adult neural precursor cells (NPCs), in situ and in vitro, express PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Pharmacological activation of both PPARs isoforms induces proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype. Congruently, inhibition of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ results in a decrease of proliferation and loss of the undifferentiated phenotype. Interestingly, PPARγ regulates the level of EGFR in adult NPCs, concurrent with it is function described in embryonic NPCs. Furthermore, we describe for the first time that PPARβ/δ regulates SOX2 level in adult NPCs, probably through a direct transcriptional regulation, as we identified two putative PPAR response elements in the promoter region of Sox2. EGFR and SOX2 are key players in neural stem/precursor cells self-renewal. Finally, rosiglitazone, a PPARγ ligand, increases PPARβ/δ level, suggesting a possible cooperation between these two PPARs in the control of cell fate behavior. Our work contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated to neural cell fate decision and places PPARβ/δ and PPARγ as interesting new targets of modulation of mammalian brain homeostasis.

  11. PPARβ/δ and PPARγ maintain undifferentiated phenotypes of mouse adult neural precursor cells from the subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Carolina; Araya, Claudia; Palma, Verónica; Bronfman, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the main niches of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Stem and precursor cells in this region are the source for neurogenesis and oligodendrogesis, mainly in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum, respectively. The identification of the molecular components regulating the decision of these cells to differentiate or maintain an undifferentiated state is important in order to understand the modulation of neurogenic processes in physiological and pathological conditions. PPARs are a group of transcription factors, activated by lipid ligands, with important functions in cellular differentiation and proliferation in several tissues. In this work, we demonstrate that mouse adult neural precursor cells (NPCs), in situ and in vitro, express PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Pharmacological activation of both PPARs isoforms induces proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype. Congruently, inhibition of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ results in a decrease of proliferation and loss of the undifferentiated phenotype. Interestingly, PPARγ regulates the level of EGFR in adult NPCs, concurrent with it is function described in embryonic NPCs. Furthermore, we describe for the first time that PPARβ/δ regulates SOX2 level in adult NPCs, probably through a direct transcriptional regulation, as we identified two putative PPAR response elements in the promoter region of Sox2. EGFR and SOX2 are key players in neural stem/precursor cells self-renewal. Finally, rosiglitazone, a PPARγ ligand, increases PPARβ/δ level, suggesting a possible cooperation between these two PPARs in the control of cell fate behavior. Our work contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated to neural cell fate decision and places PPARβ/δ and PPARγ as interesting new targets of modulation of mammalian brain homeostasis. PMID:25852474

  12. Excessive nest building is a unique behavioural phenotype in the deer mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous condition characterised by time-consuming intrusive thoughts and/or compulsions. Irrespective of the symptom type diagnosed, the severity of OCD is characterised by heterogeneity in symptom presentation that complicates diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneity of symptoms would be invaluable in an animal model. Nest building behaviour forms part of the normal behavioural repertoire of rodents and demonstrates profound between-species differences. However, it has been proposed that within-species differences in nest building behaviour (i.e. aberrant vs. normal nest building) may resemble obsessive-compulsive-like symptoms. In an attempt to investigate whether other obsessive-compulsive-like behaviours are present in an animal model of OCD, or if aberrant nest building behaviour may represent a unique obsessive-compulsive phenotype in such a model, the current study assessed nest building behaviour in high (H, viz obsessive-compulsive) and non (N, viz normal) stereotypical deer mice. Subsequently, 12 N and H animals, respectively, were provided with an excess of cotton wool daily for one week prior to and following four weeks of high-dose oral escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day). Data from the current investigation demonstrate daily nesting activity to be highly variable in deer mice, with stereotypy and nest building being independent behaviours. However, we identified unique aberrant large nest building behaviour in 30% of animals from both cohorts that was attenuated by escitalopram to pre-treatment nesting scores of the larger group. In summary, behavioural and drug-treatment evidence confirms that deer mouse behaviour does indeed resemble symptom heterogeneity related to OCD, and as such expands its face and predictive validity for the disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Phenotypical and ultrastructural features of Oct4-positive cells in the adult mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Galiger, Celimene; Kostin, Sawa; Golec, Anita; Ahlbrecht, Katrin; Becker, Sven; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Morty, Rory E; Seeger, Werner; Voswinckel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Octamer binding trascription factor 4 (Oct4) is a transcription factor of POU family specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A role for maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal of ESCs is assigned to Oct4 as a pluripotency marker. Oct4 can also be detected in adult stem cells such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Several studies suggest a role for Oct4 in sustaining self-renewal capacity of adult stem cells. However, Oct4 gene ablation in adult stem cells revealed no abnormalities in tissue turnover or regenerative capacity. In the present study we have conspicuously found pulmonary Oct4-positive cells closely resembling the morphology of telocytes (TCs). These cells were found in the perivascular and peribronchial areas and their presence and location were confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, we have used Oct4-GFP transgenic mice which revealed a similar localization of the Oct4-GFP signal. We also found that Oct4 co-localized with several described TC markers such as vimentin, Sca-1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta C-kit and VEGF. By flow cytometry analyses carried out with Oct4-GFP reporter mice, we described a population of EpCAMneg/CD45neg/Oct4-GFPpos that in culture displayed TC features. These results were supported by qRT-PCR with mRNA isolated from lungs by using laser capture microdissection. In addition, Oct4-positive cells were found to express Nanog and Klf4 mRNA. It is concluded for the first time that TCs in adult lung mouse tissue comprise Oct4-positive cells, which express pluripotency-related genes and represent therefore a population of adult stem cells which might contribute to lung regeneration. PMID:24889158

  14. Novel Mouse Models of Methylmalonic Aciduria Recapitulate Phenotypic Traits with a Genetic Dosage Effect.

    PubMed

    Forny, Patrick; Schumann, Anke; Mustedanagic, Merima; Mathis, Déborah; Wulf, Marie-Angela; Nägele, Nadine; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Zhakupova, Assem; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger; Fingerhut, Ralph; Peters, Heidi L; Hornemann, Thorsten; Thony, Beat; Kölker, Stefan; Burda, Patricie; Froese, D Sean; Devuyst, Olivier; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2016-09-23

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMAuria), caused by deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT), usually presents in the newborn period with failure to thrive and metabolic crisis leading to coma or even death. Survivors remain at risk of metabolic decompensations and severe long term complications, notably renal failure and neurological impairment. We generated clinically relevant mouse models of MMAuria using a constitutive Mut knock-in (KI) allele based on the p.Met700Lys patient mutation, used homozygously (KI/KI) or combined with a knockout allele (KO/KI), to study biochemical and clinical MMAuria disease aspects. Transgenic Mut(ki/ki) and Mut(ko/ki) mice survive post-weaning, show failure to thrive, and show increased methylmalonic acid, propionylcarnitine, odd chain fatty acids, and sphingoid bases, a new potential biomarker of MMAuria. Consistent with genetic dosage, Mut(ko/ki) mice have lower Mut activity, are smaller, and show higher metabolite levels than Mut(ki/ki) mice. Further, Mut(ko/ki) mice exhibit manifestations of kidney and brain damage, including increased plasma urea, impaired diuresis, elevated biomarkers, and changes in brain weight. On a high protein diet, mutant mice display disease exacerbation, including elevated blood ammonia, and catastrophic weight loss, which, in Mut(ki/ki) mice, is rescued by hydroxocobalamin treatment. This study expands knowledge of MMAuria, introduces the discovery of new biomarkers, and constitutes the first in vivo proof of principle of cobalamin treatment in mut-type MMAuria. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. N-acetylcysteine treatment ameliorates the skeletal phenotype of a mouse model of diastrophic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Monti, Luca; Paganini, Chiara; Lecci, Silvia; De Leonardis, Fabio; Hay, Eric; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Villani, Simona; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Tenni, Ruggero; Forlino, Antonella; Rossi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a recessive chondrodysplasia caused by mutations in SLC26A2, a cell membrane sulfate-chloride antiporter. Sulfate uptake impairment results in low cytosolic sulfate, leading to cartilage proteoglycan (PG) undersulfation. In this work, we used the dtd mouse model to study the role of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a well-known drug with antioxidant properties, as an intracellular sulfate source for macromolecular sulfation. Because of the important pre-natal phase of skeletal development and growth, we administered 30 g/l NAC in the drinking water to pregnant mice to explore a possible transplacental effect on the fetuses. When cartilage PG sulfation was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography disaccharide analysis in dtd newborn mice, a marked increase in PG sulfation was observed in newborns from NAC-treated pregnancies when compared with the placebo group. Morphometric studies of the femur, tibia and ilium after skeletal staining with alcian blue and alizarin red indicated a partial rescue of abnormal bone morphology in dtd newborns from treated females, compared with pups from untreated females. The beneficial effect of increased macromolecular sulfation was confirmed by chondrocyte proliferation studies in cryosections of the tibial epiphysis by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry: the percentage of proliferating cells, significantly reduced in the placebo group, reached normal values in dtd newborns from NAC-treated females. In conclusion, NAC is a useful source of sulfate for macromolecular sulfation in vivo when extracellular sulfate supply is reduced, confirming the potential of therapeutic approaches with thiol compounds to improve skeletal deformity and short stature in human DTD and related disorders.

  16. Regional Fluctuation in the Functional Consequence of LINE-1 Insertion in the Mitf Gene: The Black Spotting Phenotype Arisen from the Mitfmi-bw Mouse Lacking Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuhisa; Hozumi, Hiroki; Ohba, Koji; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes. The black spotting mouse shows multiple black patches on the white coat, with age-related graying. Importantly, each black patch also contains hair follicles lacking melanocytes, whereas the white-coat area completely lacks melanocytes. RT-PCR analyses of the pigmented patches confirmed that the LINE-1 insertion is retained in the Mitf gene of the black spotting mouse, thereby excluding the possibility of the somatic reversion of the Mitfmi-bw allele. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining intensity for beta-catenin was noticeably lower in hair follicles lacking melanocytes of the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse and the black spotting mouse, compared to the control mouse. In contrast, the staining intensity for beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was higher in keratinocytes of the black spotting mouse, compared to keratinocytes of the control mouse and the Mitfmi-bw mouse. Moreover, the keratinocyte layer appears thicker in the Mitfmi-bw mouse, with the overexpression of Ki-67, a marker for cell proliferation. We also show that the presumptive black spots are formed by embryonic day 15.5. Thus, the black spotting mouse provides the unique model to explore the molecular basis for the survival and death of developing melanoblasts and melanocyte stem cells in the epidermis. These results indicate that follicular melanocytes are responsible for maintaining the epidermal homeostasis; namely, the present study has provided

  17. p53 suppression partially rescues the mutant phenotype in mouse models of DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Cinzia; Baldini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    T-box 1 (Tbx1), a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor, is required for embryonic development in humans and mice. Half dosage of this gene in humans causes most of the features of the DiGeorge or Velocardiofacial syndrome phenotypes, including aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract abnormalities. Here we found a strong genetic interaction between Tbx1 and transformation related protein 53 (Trp53). Indeed, genetic ablation of Trp53, or pharmacological inhibition of its protein product p53, rescues significantly the cardiovascular defects of Tbx1 heterozygous and hypomorphic mutants. We found that the Tbx1 and p53 proteins do not interact directly but both occupy a genetic element of Gbx2, which is required for aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract development, and is a known genetic interactor of Tbx1. We found that Gbx2 expression is down-regulated in Tbx1+/− embryos and is restored to normal levels in Tbx1+/−;Trp53+/− embryos. In addition, we found that the genetic element that binds both Tbx1 and p53 is highly enriched in H3K27 trimethylation, and upon p53 suppression H3K27me3 levels are reduced, along with Ezh2 enrichment. This finding suggests that the rescue of Gbx2 expression in Tbx1+/−;Trp53+/− embryos is due to reduction of repressive chromatin marks. Overall our data identify unexpected genetic interactions between Tbx1 and Trp53 and provide a proof of principle that developmental defects associated with reduced dosage of Tbx1 can be rescued pharmacologically. PMID:25197075

  18. p53 Suppression partially rescues the mutant phenotype in mouse models of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caprio, Cinzia; Baldini, Antonio

    2014-09-16

    T-box 1 (Tbx1), a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor, is required for embryonic development in humans and mice. Half dosage of this gene in humans causes most of the features of the DiGeorge or Velocardiofacial syndrome phenotypes, including aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract abnormalities. Here we found a strong genetic interaction between Tbx1 and transformation related protein 53 (Trp53). Indeed, genetic ablation of Trp53, or pharmacological inhibition of its protein product p53, rescues significantly the cardiovascular defects of Tbx1 heterozygous and hypomorphic mutants. We found that the Tbx1 and p53 proteins do not interact directly but both occupy a genetic element of Gbx2, which is required for aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract development, and is a known genetic interactor of Tbx1. We found that Gbx2 expression is down-regulated in Tbx1(+/-) embryos and is restored to normal levels in Tbx1(+/-);Trp53(+/-) embryos. In addition, we found that the genetic element that binds both Tbx1 and p53 is highly enriched in H3K27 trimethylation, and upon p53 suppression H3K27me3 levels are reduced, along with Ezh2 enrichment. This finding suggests that the rescue of Gbx2 expression in Tbx1(+/-);Trp53(+/-) embryos is due to reduction of repressive chromatin marks. Overall our data identify unexpected genetic interactions between Tbx1 and Trp53 and provide a proof of principle that developmental defects associated with reduced dosage of Tbx1 can be rescued pharmacologically.

  19. The isolation and characterization of putative mesenchymal stem cells from the spiny mouse.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hayley; Milton, Phillipa; Jenkin, Graham

    2012-10-01

    The bone marrow represents the most common source from which to isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are capable of differentiating into tissues of the three primary lineages and have the potential to enhance repair in damaged organs through the principals of regenerative medicine. Given the ease with which MSCs may be isolated from different species the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize putative bone marrow derived MSCs from the spiny mouse, Acomys cahirinus. MSCs were isolated from the spiny mouse in a traditional manner, and based on plastic adherence, morphology, colony forming unit-fibroblast assays and functional assessment (adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential) a population of putative mesenchymal stem cells from the compact bone of the spiny mouse have been isolated and characterized. Such methodological approaches overcome the lack of species-specific antibodies for the spiny mouse and could be employed for other species where the cost of generating species-specific antibodies is not warranted.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype impacts the prenatal cocaine-induced mouse phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zeeba D; Lourenco, Frederico; Byrne, Maureen E; Katzman, Aaron; Lee, Francis; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2012-01-01

    activation, which are interactive with BDNF genotype and differentially impact those behaviors. Such findings in our prenatal cocaine mouse model suggest a gene X environment interaction of potential clinical relevance. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Phenotypic characterization in situ of inflammatory cells in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in man.

    PubMed Central

    Scheynius, A; Fischer, T; Forsum, U; Klareskog, L

    1984-01-01

    The cellular response in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was analysed in situ with an immunohistochemical double staining technique. Allergic patch test reactions were elicited in 10 patients and irritant reactions in eight cases, using the Finn chamber technique. Skin biopsies were obtained 6-72 h after test applications. Frozen sections of 43 biopsies were investigated by simultaneous staining with rabbit anti-HLA-DR antibodies and various mouse monoclonal antibodies. The cell infiltrates were usually larger in the allergic than in the irritant reactions. However, the kinetics of the cell responses, the phenotypes of the inflammatory cells, their distribution and spatial relationships were similar. It thus appears that the applications of allergens or irritants to the skin generates a cell pattern that to a large extent reflects an immunological readiness for further immune reactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6362938

  2. Loss of androgen receptor binding to selective androgen response elements causes a reproductive phenotype in a knockin mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Schauwaers, Kris; De Gendt, Karel; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Atanassova, Nina; Haelens, Annemie; Callewaert, Leen; Moehren, Udo; Swinnen, Johannes V.; Verhoeven, Guido; Verrijdt, Guy; Claessens, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Androgens influence transcription of their target genes through the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) that subsequently interacts with specific DNA motifs in these genes. These DNA motifs, called androgen response elements (AREs), can be classified in two classes: the classical AREs, which are also recognized by the other steroid hormone receptors; and the AR-selective AREs, which display selectivity for the AR. For in vitro interaction with the selective AREs, the androgen receptor DNA-binding domain is dependent on specific residues in its second zinc-finger. To evaluate the physiological relevance of these selective elements, we generated a germ-line knockin mouse model, termed SPARKI (SPecificity-affecting AR KnockIn), in which the second zinc-finger of the AR was replaced with that of the glucocorticoid receptor, resulting in a chimeric protein that retains its ability to bind classical AREs but is unable to bind selective AREs. The reproductive organs of SPARKI males are smaller compared with wild-type animals, and they are also subfertile. Intriguingly, however, they do not display any anabolic phenotype. The expression of two testis-specific, androgen-responsive genes is differentially affected by the SPARKI mutation, which is correlated with the involvement of different types of response elements in their androgen responsiveness. In this report, we present the first in vivo evidence of the existence of two functionally different types of AREs and demonstrate that AR-regulated gene expression can be targeted based on this distinction. PMID:17360365

  3. Expression of chicken vinculin complements the adhesion-defective phenotype of a mutant mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cell.

    PubMed

    Samuels, M; Ezzell, R M; Cardozo, T J; Critchley, D R; Coll, J L; Adamson, E D

    1993-05-01

    A mutant cell line, derived from the mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line F9, is defective in cell-cell adhesion (compaction) and in cell-substrate adhesion. We have previously shown that neither uvomorulin (E-cadherin) nor integrins are responsible for the mutant phenotype (Calogero, A., M. Samuels, T. Darland, S. A. Edwards, R. Kemler, and E. D. Adamson. 1991. Dev. Biol. 146:499-508). Several cytoskeleton proteins were assayed and only vinculin was found to be absent in mutant (5.51) cells. A chicken vinculin expression vector was transfected into the 5.51 cells together with a neomycin-resistance vector. Clones that were adherent to the substrate were selected in medium containing G418. Two clones, 5.51Vin3 and Vin4, were analyzed by Nomarski differential interference contrast and laser confocal microscopy as well as by biochemical and molecular biological techniques. Both clones adhered well to substrates and both exhibited F-actin stress fibers with vinculin localized at stress fiber tips in focal contacts. This was in marked contrast to 5.51 parental cells, which had no stress fibers and no vinculin. The mutant and complemented F9 cell lines will be useful models for examining the complex interactions between cytoskeletal and cell adhesion proteins.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterizations of Yersinia pestis isolates from Kazakhstan and adjacent regions.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Zhansarina, Aigul; Yockey, Brook; Meka-Mechenko, Tatyana; Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Atshabar, Bakyt; Nekrassova, Larissa; Tashmetov, Rinat; Kenghebaeva, Kuralai; Chu, May C; Kosoy, Michael; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2007-01-01

    Recent interest in characterizing infectious agents associated with bioterrorism has resulted in the development of effective pathogen genotyping systems, but this information is rarely combined with phenotypic data. Yersinia pestis, the aetiological agent of plague, has been well defined genotypically on local and worldwide scales using multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), with emphasis on evolutionary patterns using old isolate collections from countries where Y. pestis has existed the longest. Worldwide MLVA studies are largely based on isolates that have been in long-term laboratory culture and storage, or on field material from parts of the world where Y. pestis has potentially circulated in nature for thousands of years. Diversity in these isolates suggests that they may no longer represent the wild-type organism phenotypically, including the possibility of altered pathogenicity. This study focused on the phenotypic and genotypic properties of 48 Y. pestis isolates collected from 10 plague foci in and bordering Kazakhstan. Phenotypic characterization was based on diagnostic tests typically performed in reference laboratories working with Y. pestis. MLVA was used to define the genotypic relationships between the central-Asian isolates and a group of North American isolates, and to examine Kazakh Y. pestis diversity according to predefined plague foci and on an intermediate geographical scale. Phenotypic properties revealed that a large portion of this collection lacks one or more plasmids necessary to complete the blocked flea/mammal transmission cycle, has lost Congo red binding capabilities (Pgm-), or both. MLVA analysis classified isolates into previously identified biovars, and in some cases groups of isolates collected within the same plague focus formed a clade. Overall, MLVA did not distinguish unique phylogeographical groups of Y. pestis isolates as defined by plague foci and indicated higher genetic diversity among older biovars.

  5. An enhanced Q175 knock-in mouse model of Huntington disease with higher mutant huntingtin levels and accelerated disease phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Amber L.; Smith-Dijak, Amy; Kay, Chris; Sepers, Marja; Villanueva, Erika B.; Parsons, Matthew P.; Xie, Yuanyun; Anderson, Lisa; Felczak, Boguslaw; Waltl, Sabine; Ko, Seunghyun; Cheung, Daphne; Dal Cengio, Louisa; Slama, Ramy; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Raymond, Lynn A.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) model mice with heterozygous knock-in (KI) of an expanded CAG tract in exon 1 of the mouse huntingtin (Htt) gene homolog genetically recapitulate the mutation that causes HD, and might be favoured for preclinical studies. However, historically these mice have failed to phenotypically recapitulate the human disease. Thus, homozygous KI mice, which lack wildtype Htt, and are much less relevant to human HD, have been used. The zQ175 model was the first KI mouse to exhibit significant HD-like phenotypes when heterozygous. In an effort to exacerbate HD-like phenotypes and enhance preclinical utility, we have backcrossed zQ175 mice to FVB/N, a strain highly susceptible to neurodegeneration. These Q175F mice display significant HD-like phenotypes along with sudden early death from fatal seizures. The zQ175 KI allele retains a floxed neomycin resistance cassette upstream of the Htt gene locus and produces dramatically reduced mutant Htt as compared to the endogenous wildtype Htt allele. By intercrossing with mice expressing cre in germ line cells, we have excised the neo cassette from Q175F mice generating a new line, Q175FΔneo (Q175FDN). Removal of the neo cassette resulted in a ∼2 fold increase in mutant Htt and rescue of fatal seizures, indicating that the early death phenotype of Q175F mice is caused by Htt deficiency rather than by mutant Htt. Additionally, Q175FDN mice exhibit earlier onset and a greater variety and severity of HD-like phenotypes than Q175F mice or any previously reported KI HD mouse model, making them valuable for preclinical studies. PMID:27378694

  6. Genomic characterization of Alzheimer's disease and genotype-related phenotypic analysis of biological markers in dementia.

    PubMed

    Cacabelos, Ramón

    2004-12-01

    More than 180 genes distributed across the human genome are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD population shows a higher genetic variation rate than the control population. Significant differences in allelic distribution and frequency exist when AD-related polygenic clusters are compared with other forms of dementia, indicating that the genetic component in neurodegenerative dementia differs from that of other CNS disorders. The characterization of AD genotype-related phenotypic profiles reveals substantial differences in biological markers among AD clusters associated with different genes and/or allelic combinations. AD and dementia with vascular component (DVC) are the most prevalent forms of dementia. Both clinical entities share many similarities, but they differ in their major phenotypic and genotypic profiles, as revealed by structural and functional genomics studies. Comparative phenotypic studies have identified significant differences in 25% of more than 100 parametric variables, including anthropometric values, cardiovascular function, blood pressure, lipid metabolism, uric acid metabolism, peripheral calcium homeostasis, liver function, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, red and white blood cells, regional brain atrophy, and brain blood flow velocity. Functional genomic studies incorporating apolipoprotein E (APOE)-related changes in biological markers extended the difference between AD and DVC by up to 57%. Structural genomic studies with AD-related genes, including APP, MAPT, APOE, PS1, PS2, A2M, ACE, AGT, cFOS, and PRNP, demonstrate different genetic profiles in AD and DVC, with an absolute genetic variation rate in the range of 30-80%, depending upon genes and genetic clusters. The relative polymorphic variation in genetic clusters integrated by two, three or four genes associated with AD ranges from 1 to 3%. The main phenotypic differences in AD are genotype dependent, indicating a powerful

  7. High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Mary E.; Flenniken, Ann M.; Ji, Xiao; Teboul, Lydia; Wong, Michael D.; White, Jacqueline K.; Meehan, Terrence F.; Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Westerberg, Henrik; Adissu, Hibret; Baker, Candice N.; Bower, Lynette; Brown, James M.; Caddle, L. Brianna; Chiani, Francesco; Clary, Dave; Cleak, James; Daly, Mark J.; Denegre, James M.; Doe, Brendan; Dolan, Mary E.; Edie, Sarah M.; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Galli, Antonella; Gambadoro, Alessia; Gallegos, Juan; Guo, Shiying; Horner, Neil R.; Hsu, Chih-wei; Johnson, Sara J.; Kalaga, Sowmya; Keith, Lance C.; Lanoue, Louise; Lawson, Thomas N.; Lek, Monkol; Mark, Manuel; Marschall, Susan; Mason, Jeremy; McElwee, Melissa L.; Newbigging, Susan; Nutter, Lauryl M.J.; Peterson, Kevin A.; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Rowland, Douglas J.; Ryder, Edward; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Seavitt, John R.; Selloum, Mohammed; Szoke-Kovacs, Zsombor; Tamura, Masaru; Trainor, Amanda G; Tudose, Ilinca; Wakana, Shigeharu; Warren, Jonathan; Wendling, Olivia; West, David B.; Wong, Leeyean; Yoshiki, Atsushi; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P.; Gao, Xiang; Flicek, Paul; Bradley, Allan; Skarnes, William C.; Justice, Monica J.; Parkinson, Helen E.; Moore, Mark; Wells, Sara; Braun, Robert E.; Svenson, Karen L.; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Herault, Yann; Mohun, Tim; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Henkelman, R. Mark; Brown, Steve D.M.; Adams, David J.; Lloyd, K.C. Kent; McKerlie, Colin; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Bucan, Maja; Murray, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one third of all mammalian genes are essential for life. Phenotypes resulting from mouse knockouts of these genes have provided tremendous insight into gene function and congenital disorders. As part of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium effort to generate and phenotypically characterize 5000 knockout mouse lines, we have identified 410 lethal genes during the production of the first 1751 unique gene knockouts. Using a standardised phenotyping platform that incorporates high-resolution 3D imaging, we identified novel phenotypes at multiple time points for previously uncharacterized genes and additional phenotypes for genes with previously reported mutant phenotypes. Unexpectedly, our analysis reveals that incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity are common even on a defined genetic background. In addition, we show that human disease genes are enriched for essential genes identified in our screen, thus providing a novel dataset that facilitates prioritization and validation of mutations identified in clinical sequencing efforts. PMID:27626380

  8. A Mutation in the Mouse Chd2 Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Results in a Complex Renal Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Marfella, Concetta G.A.; Henninger, Nils; LeBlanc, Scott E.; Krishnan, Namrata; Garlick, David S.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Glomerular diseases are the third leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, behind only diabetes and hypertension. The molecular mechanisms underlying the cause of glomerular diseases are still largely unknown. The identification and characterization of new molecules associated with glomerular function should provide new insights into understanding the diverse group of glomerular diseases. The Chd2 protein belongs to a family of enzymes involved in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, suggesting that it likely functions as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression via the modification of chromatin structure. Methods In this study, we present a detailed histomorphologic characterization of mice containing a mutation in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2 (Chd2). Results We show that Chd2-mutant mice present with glomerulopathy, proteinuria, and significantly impaired kidney function. Additionally, serum analysis revealed decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in Chd2-mutant mice, suggesting that the glomerulopathy observed in these mice is associated with anemia. Conclusion Collectively, the data suggest a role for the Chd2 protein in the maintenance of kidney function. PMID:19142019

  9. Characterization of a genetically engineered mouse model of hemophilia A with complete deletion of the F8 gene.

    PubMed

    Chao, B N; Baldwin, W H; Healey, J F; Parker, E T; Shafer-Weaver, K; Cox, C; Jiang, P; Kanellopoulou, C; Lollar, P; Meeks, S L; Lenardo, M J

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: Anti-factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitory antibody formation is a severe complication in hemophilia A therapy. We genetically engineered and characterized a mouse model with complete deletion of the F8 coding region. F8(TKO) mice exhibit severe hemophilia, express no detectable F8 mRNA, and produce FVIII inhibitors. The defined background and lack of FVIII in F8(TKO) mice will aid in studying FVIII inhibitor formation. The most important complication in hemophilia A treatment is the development of inhibitory anti-Factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies in patients after FVIII therapy. Patients with severe hemophilia who express no endogenous FVIII (i.e. cross-reacting material, CRM) have the greatest incidence of inhibitor formation. However, current mouse models of severe hemophilia A produce low levels of truncated FVIII. The lack of a corresponding mouse model hampers the study of inhibitor formation in the complete absence of FVIII protein. We aimed to generate and characterize a novel mouse model of severe hemophilia A (designated the F8(TKO) strain) lacking the complete coding sequence of F8 and any FVIII CRM. Mice were created on a C57BL/6 background using Cre-Lox recombination and characterized using in vivo bleeding assays, measurement of FVIII activity by coagulation and chromogenic assays, and anti-FVIII antibody production using ELISA. All F8 exonic coding regions were deleted from the genome and no F8 mRNA was detected in F8(TKO) mice. The bleeding phenotype of F8(TKO) mice was comparable to E16 mice by measurements of factor activity and tail snip assay. Similar levels of anti-FVIII antibody titers after recombinant FVIII injections were observed between F8(TKO) and E16 mice. We describe a new C57BL/6 mouse model for severe hemophilia A patients lacking CRM. These mice can be directly bred to the many C57BL/6 strains of genetically engineered mice, which is valuable for studying the impact of a wide variety of genes on FVIII inhibitor formation on a

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C S; Franco, P S; Silva, N M; Silva, D A O; Ferro, E A V; Pena, H F J; Soares, R M; Gennari, S M; Mineo, J R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and characterize the genotypic and phenotypic features of two isolates of this parasite, considering the importance of these hosts in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 108 free-range chickens were obtained from ten different districts, and submitted to the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies, and brain and heart tissue samples from infected chickens were processed for mouse bioassay. An overall seroprevalence of 71·3% was found and antibody titres ranged from 16 to 4096. After confirmation of seropositivity by mouse bioassay, the determination of the T. gondii genotypes of two isolates was performed by PCR-RFLP, using primers for the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, new SAG2, Apico and CS3. These T. gondii isolates, designated TgChBrUD1and TgChBrUD2, were obtained from heart samples of free-range chickens. The TgChBrUD1 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 11 and the TgChBrUD2 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 6. Both isolates demonstrated high virulence in a rodent model, with the TgChBrUD1 isolate able to induce brain cysts, in accord with its pattern of multiplication rates in human fibroblast culture. Taken together, these results reveal high prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens throughout Uberlândia, indicating an important degree of oocyst environmental contamination and the existence of considerable risk for T. gondii transmission to humans by consumption of free-range chicken as a food source.

  11. The mouse plasma PAF acetylhydrolase: I. Characterization and properties.

    PubMed

    Tsaoussis, V; Vakirtzi-Lemonias, C

    1994-05-01

    Mouse plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) has an apparent Km of 7.4 microM and a Vmax of 21.6 nmol/min per mg protein. Comparison with values reported for the human and the rat enzymes shows at least a 5-fold higher Vmax and similar enzyme-substrate affinity. Although lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and one component of the PAF-AH share similar masses and lipoprotein association, they are distinct enzymes. Similarly, PAF-AH is distinct from the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the lysophospholipase of mouse plasma. A series of PAF structural analogs showed either competitive inhibition or a mixed type of inhibition of PAF-AH. Mouse plasma PAF-AH is highly sensitive to 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and is activated by deoxycholate. SDS-PAGE showed that two distinct proteins with molecular masses of 46 and 63 kDa contribute to the PAF-AH activity. The HDL-VHDL lipoprotein associated PAF-AH is precipitated to an extent of about 60% by phosphotungstate-MgCl2 and Tween 20 only partially solubilises the precipitated enzyme under conditions which can precipitate and solubilise the human enzyme.

  12. The atherogenic Scarb1 null mouse model shows a high bone mass phenotype.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Corine; Martin-Falstrault, Louise; Brissette, Louise; Moreau, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), the Scarb1 gene product, is a receptor associated with cholesteryl ester uptake from high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which drives cholesterol movement from peripheral tissues toward the liver for excretion, and, consequently, Scarb1 null mice are prone to atherosclerosis. Because studies have linked atherosclerosis incidence with osteoporosis, we characterized the bone metabolism in these mice. Bone morphometry was assessed through microcomputed tomography and histology. Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) were used to characterize influence of endogenous SR-BI in cell functions. Total and HDL-associated cholesterol in null mice were increased by 32-60%, correlating with its role in lipoprotein metabolism. Distal metaphyses from 2- and 4-mo-old null mice showed correspondingly 46 and 37% higher bone volume fraction associated with a higher number of trabeculae. Histomorphometric analyses in 2-mo-old null male mice revealed 1.42-fold greater osteoblast surface, 1.37-fold higher percent mineralizing surface, and 1.69-fold enhanced bone formation rate. In vitro assays for MSCs from null mice revealed 37% higher proliferation rate, 48% more alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% greater mineralization potential and a 2-fold osterix (Sp7) expression, yet a 0.5-fold decrease in caveolin-1 (Cav1) expression. Selective uptake levels of HDL-associated cholesteryl oleate and estradiol were similar between MSC from wild-type and Scarb1 null mice, suggesting that its contribution to this process is not its main role in these cells. However, Scarb1 knockout stunted the HDL-dependent regulation of Cav1 genic expression. Scarb1 null mice are not prone to osteoporosis but show higher bone mass associated with enhanced bone formation.

  13. Comparison of Molecular and Phenotypic Methods for the Detection and Characterization of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Somily, Ali M; Garaween, Ghada A; Abukhalid, Norah; Absar, Muhammad M; Senok, Abiola C

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid dissemination of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). This study aimed to compare phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and characterization of CRE isolates at a large tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. This study was carried out between January 2011 and November 2013 at the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Saudi Arabia. Determination of presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance was in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Phenotypic classification was done by the MASTDISCS(TM) ID inhibitor combination disk method. Genotypic characterization of ESBL and carbapenemase genes was performed by the Check-MDR CT102. Diversilab rep-PCR was used for the determination of clonal relationship. Of the 883 ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae detected during the study period, 14 (1.6%) isolates were carbapenem resistant. Both the molecular genotypic characterization and phenotypic testing were in agreement in the detection of all 8 metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL) producing isolates. Of these 8 MBL-producers, 5 were positive for blaNDM gene and 3 were positive for blaVIM gene. Molecular method identified additional blaOXA gene isolates while MASTDISCS(TM) ID detected one AmpC producer isolate. Both methods agreed in identifying 2 carbapenem resistant isolates which were negative for carbapenemase genes. Diversilab rep-PCR analysis of the 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates revealed polyclonal distribution into eight clusters. MASTDISCS(TM) ID is a reliable simple cheap phenotypic method for detection of majority of carbapenemase genes with the exception of the blaOXA gene. We recommend to use such method in the clinical laboratory.

  14. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility phenotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus using automated microscopy of small numbers of cells.

    PubMed

    Price, Connie S; Kon, Shelley E; Metzger, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading, virulent pathogen capable of expressing complex drug resistance that requires up to 2-4 days for laboratory analysis. In this study, we evaluate the ability of automated microscopy of immobilized live bacterial cells to differentiate susceptible from non-susceptible responses of S. aureus isolates (MRSA/MSSA, clindamycin resistance/susceptibility and VSSA/hVISA/VISA) to an antibiotic based on the characterization of as few as 10 growing clones after 4 h of growth, compared to overnight growth required for traditional culture based methods. Isolates included 131 characterized CDC isolates, 3 clinical isolates and reference strains. MRSA phenotype testing used 1 h of 1 μg/mL cefoxitin induction followed by 3 h of 6 μg/mL cefoxitin. Clindamycin susceptibility testing used 1h of induction by 0.1 μg/mL erythromycin followed by 3h of 0.5 μg/mL clindamycin. An automated microscopy system acquired time-lapse dark-field images, and then computed growth data for individual immobilized progenitor cells and their progeny clones while exposed to different test conditions. Results were compared to concurrent cefoxitin disk diffusion and D-test references. For CDC organisms, microscopy detected 77/77 MRSA phenotypes and 54/54 MSSA phenotypes, plus 53/56 clindamycin-resistant and 75/75 clindamycin susceptible strains. Automated microscopy was used to characterize heterogeneous and inducible resistance, and perform population analysis profiles. Microscopy-based hVISA population analysis profiles (PAPs) were included as an extended proof of concept, and successfully differentiated VSSA from hVISA and VISA phenotypes compared to plate-based PAP. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mouse models of mantle cell lymphoma, complex changes in gene expression and phenotype of engrafted MCL cells: implications for preclinical research.

    PubMed

    Klanova, Magdalena; Soukup, Tomas; Jaksa, Radek; Molinsky, Jan; Lateckova, Lucie; Maswabi, Bokang C L; Prukova, Dana; Brezinova, Jana; Michalova, Kyra; Vockova, Petra; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Kulvait, Vojtech; Zivny, Jan; Vokurka, Martin; Necas, Emanuel; Trneny, Marek; Klener, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with poor prognosis. Animal models of MCL are scarce. We established and characterized various in vivo models of metastatic human MCL by tail vein injection of either primary cells isolated from patients with MCL or established MCL cell lines (Jeko-1, Mino, Rec-1, Hbl-2, and Granta-519) into immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice. MCL infiltration was assessed with immunohistochemistry (tissues) and flow cytometry (peripheral blood). Engraftment of primary MCL cells was observed in 7 out of 12 patient samples. The pattern of engraftment of primary MCL cells varied from isolated involvement of the spleen to multiorgan infiltration. On the other hand, tumor engraftment was achieved in all five MCL cell lines used and lymphoma involvement of murine bone marrow, spleen, liver, and brain was observed. Overall survival of xenografted mice ranged from 22 ± 1 to 54 ± 3 days depending on the cell line used. Subsequently, we compared the gene expression profile (GEP) and phenotype of the engrafted MCL cells compared with the original in vitro growing cell lines (controls). We demonstrated that engrafted MCL cells displayed complex changes of GEP, protein expression, and sensitivity to cytotoxic agents when compared with controls. We further demonstrated that our MCL mouse models could be used to test the therapeutic activity of systemic chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, or angiogenesis inhibitors. The characterization of MCL murine models is likely to aid in improving our knowledge in the disease biology and to assist scientists in the preclinical and clinical development of novel agents in relapsed/refractory MCL patients.

  16. Distinct kainate receptor phenotypes in immature and mature mouse cerebellar granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T Caitlin; Wang, Lu-Yang; Howe, James R

    1999-01-01

    Although glutamate receptors have been shown to be involved in neuronal maturation, a developmental role for kainate-type receptors has not been described. In addition, the single-channel properties of native kainate receptors have not been studied in situ. We have characterized the electrophysiological properties of native kainate receptors of granule cell neurons at two distinct stages in postnatal development, using whole-cell and outside-out patch-clamp recordings in acute cerebellar slices. Kainate-type currents were detected in both immature and mature granule cells. However, noise analysis showed that the apparent unitary conductance of kainate-type channels is significantly higher in proliferating than post-migratory granule cells. The conductance and rectification behaviour of the channels in immature granule cells indicate that they contain unedited GluR5 and GluR6 subunits and are likely to be calcium permeable. Single-channel kainate-type currents were observed in outside-out patches from proliferating granule cells in the external germinal layer. The kinetic behaviour of kainate receptors in immature cells was complex. Openings to multiple conductance levels were observed, although our analysis indicates that the channels spend most of their open time in a 4 pS state. PMID:10226148

  17. Phenotypic characterization of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2, a lipopolysaccharide-based homogeneous O serogroup within Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, E G; Oliver, J D; Amaro, C

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we have reevaluated the taxonomic position of biotype 2 of Vibrio vulnificus. For this purpose, we have biochemically and serologically characterized 83 biotype 2 strains from diseased eels, comparing them with 17 biotype 1 strains from different sources. Selected strains were also molecularly analyzed and tested for eel and mouse pathogenicity. Results have shown that biotype 2 (i) is biochemically homogeneous, indole production being the main trait that distinguishes it from biotype 1, (ii) presents small variations in DNA restriction profiles and outer membrane protein patterns, some proteins being immunologically related to outer membrane proteins from biotype 1, (iii) expresses a common lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profile, which is immunologically identical among strains and distinct from that of LPS of tested biotype 1 strains, and (iv) contains at least two high-Mr plasmids. Regarding host range, we have confirmed that both biotypes are pathogenic for mice but only biotype 2 is pathogenic for eels. On the basis of these data, we propose that biotype 2 of V. vulnificus constitutes an LPS-based O serogroup which is phenotypically homogeneous and pathogenic for eels. In this article, the serogroup is designated serogroup E (for eels). PMID:8975619

  18. Human and murine dermis contain dendritic cells. Isolation by means of a novel method and phenotypical and functional characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, A; Heine, M; Schuler, G; Romani, N

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) comprise a system of cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs that are specialized to present antigens and to initiate primary T cell responses. The Langerhans cell of the epidermis is used as a prototype for studies of DC in the skin. We have characterized a population of DC in human dermis, one of the first examples of these cells in nonlymphoid organs other than epidermis. To identify their distinct functions and phenotype, we relied upon the preparation of enriched populations that emigrate from organ explants of dermis. The dermal cells have the following key features of mature DC: (a) sheet-like processes, or veils, that are constantly moving; (b) very high levels of surface MHC products; (c) absence of markers for macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelium; (d) substantial expression of adhesion/costimulatory molecules such as CD11/CD18, CD54 (ICAM-1), B7/BB1, CD40; and (e) powerful stimulatory function for resting T cells. Dermal DC are fully comparable to epidermis-derived DC, except for the lack of Birbeck granules, lower levels of CD1a, and higher levels of CD36. DC were also detected in explants of mouse dermis. We conclude that cutaneous DC include both epidermal and dermal components, and suggest that other human nonlymphoid tissues may also serve as sources of typical immunostimulatory DC. Images PMID:8254016

  19. Microparticles in the blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): phenotypic characterization and clinical associations

    PubMed Central

    Mobarrez, Fariborz; Vikerfors, Anna; Gustafsson, Johanna T.; Gunnarsson, Iva; Zickert, Agneta; Larsson, Anders; Pisetsky, David S.; Wallén, Håkan; Svenungsson, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by circulating autoantibodies and the formation of immune complexes. In these responses, the selecting self-antigens likely derive from the remains of dead and dying cells, as well as from disturbances in clearance. During cell death/activation, microparticles (MPs) can be released to the circulation. Previous MP studies in SLE have been limited in size and differ regarding numbers and phenotypes. Therefore, to characterize MPs more completely, we investigated 280 SLE patients and 280 individually matched controls. MPs were measured with flow cytometry and phenotyped according to phosphatidylserine expression (PS+/PS−), cellular origin and inflammatory markers. MPs, regardless of phenotype, are 2–10 times more abundant in SLE blood compared to controls. PS− MPs predominated in SLE, but not in controls (66% vs. 42%). Selectively in SLE, PS− MPs were more numerous in females and smokers. MP numbers decreased with declining renal function, but no clear association with disease activity was observed. The striking abundance of MPs, especially PS− MPs, suggests a generalized disturbance in SLE. MPs may be regarded as “liquid biopsies” to assess the production and clearance of dead, dying and activated cells, i.e. pivotal events for SLE pathogenesis. PMID:27777414

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; LaMon, Virginia; Griffin, Matt; Keirstead, Natalie; Beierschmitt, Amy; Palmour, Roberta

    2012-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a zoonotic, Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is the causative agent of nosocomial septicemic, pneumonic, and urinary tract infections. Recently, pathogenic strains of K. pneumoniae sharing a hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype have been attributed to multisystemic abscessation in both human and nonhuman primates. Although K. pneumoniae is a well-recognized zoonotic agent, there is a lack of general information including adequate diagnostic methods or treatments for nonhuman primates. In an effort to increase the body of knowledge of this enigmatic pathogen, K. pneumoniae isolates from African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) on the island of St. Kitts, West Indies were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Genetic fingerprints generated by PCR-mediated genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility all identified a high degree of similarity between the HMV and non-HMV K. pneumoniae isolates. The results obtained from this work will help establish a baseline for the development of efficacious diagnostic methods and treatment strategies for both human and nonhuman primates.

  1. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of ring chromosome 22 in two unrelated patients.

    PubMed

    Hannachi, H; Mougou, S; Benabdallah, I; Soayh, N; Kahloul, N; Gaddour, N; Le Lorc'h, M; Sanlaville, D; El Ghezal, H; Saad, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a constitutional de novo ring chromosome 22 (r(22)) in 2 unrelated patients with emphasis on different hypotheses proposed to explain the phenotypic variability characterizing this genomic disorder. In both patients, molecular investigations using FISH and array-CGH techniques revealed a 22q terminal deletion involving the 22q13.33 critical region. The size of the deletion was estimated to at least 1.35 Mb in the first proband and to only 300 kb in the second. They both exhibited the major features of r(22) syndrome, but the first patient was more profoundly affected. He had a more severe phenotype, further complicated by behavioral anomalies, autistic-like features with abnormal EEG pattern and brain MRI profile. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene, lying in the minimal critical region, is nowadays considered as responsible for most neurobehavioral anomalies. Nevertheless, phenotypic severity and occurrence of additional features in the first patient suggest a potential involvement of one or more specific gene(s) located proximally to SHANK3 (as PLXNB2, PANX2, ALG12 or MLC1), acting either independently of it or by regulating or promoting its expression and thus disrupting its function when deleted.

  2. Further characterization of protein kinase C in mouse mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.; Ishizaka, T.

    1986-03-01

    Bridging of cell-bound IgE antibody molecules on colony stimulating factor dependent mouse mast cell line (PT-18) cells by multivalent antigen induces the mobilization and uptake of Ca/sup 2 +/ monitored by Quin-2 and the production of diacylglycerol. Exposure of the sensitized cells to antigen also induces a substantial increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the plasma membrane (340 units to 1375 units: 1 unit = 1 pmol of /sup 32/P incorporated into Histone H-1/min/10/sup 7/ cells), within 30 seconds. There is also an increase in /sup 3/H phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (/sup 3/H-PDB) binding which parallels the increase in PKC activity both in kinetics and antigen dose dependency. Determination of K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ for PKC revealed no difference between the cytosolic and membranous forms of PKC. Partial purification of PKC from the membrane of sensitized mast cells which had been labeled with /sup 32/P and stimulated with DNP-HSA revealed a protein of 80-84,000 molecular weight, which migrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis just above an authentic standard of PKC purified from rat brain. Treatment of the PKC from mouse mast cell membrane with alkaline phosphatase resulted in a reduction of phosphorylating activity and bindability of /sup 3/H-PDB. In conclusion, the authors speculate that activation of mouse mast cells by cross-linking IgE results in the phosphorylation of a silent-pool of PKC converting it from an inactive state to an activated form.

  3. Characterization of a novel and spontaneous mouse model of inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Adipue, Iris A; Wilcox, Joel T; King, Cody; Rice, Carolyn A Y; Shaum, Katherine M; Suard, Cory M; Brink, Elri ten; Miller, Stephen D; McMahon, Eileen J

    2011-07-12

    Mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have proven critical for identifying genetic and cellular mechanisms of the disease. Upon discovering mice in our breeding colony that had spontaneously developed inflamed joints reminiscent of RA, we established the novel IIJ (inherited inflamed joints) strain. The purpose of this study was to characterize the histopathological, clinical, genetic and immunological properties of the disease. To begin the IIJ strain, an arthritic male mouse was crossed with SJL/J females. Inheritance of the phenotype was then tracked by intercrossing, backcrossing and outcrossing to other inbred strains. The histopathology of the joints and extraarticular organ systems was examined. Serum cytokines and immunoglobulins (Igs) were measured by ELISA and cytometric bead array. Transfer experiments tested whether disease could be mediated by serum alone. Finally, the cellular joint infiltrate and the composition of secondary lymphoid organs were examined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. After nine generations of intercrossing, the total incidence of arthritis was 33% (304 of 932 mice), with females being affected more than males (38% vs. 28%; P < 0.001). Swelling, most notably in the large distal joints, typically became evident at an early age (mean age of 52 days). In addition to the joint pathology, which included bone and cartilage erosion, synovial hyperproliferation and a robust cellular infiltration of mostly Gr-1(+) neutrophils, there was also evidence of systemic inflammation. IL-6 was elevated in the sera of recently arthritic mice, and extraarticular inflammation was observed histologically in multiple organs. Total serum Ig and IgG1 levels were significantly elevated in arthritic mice, and autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and Ig reactive to joint components (collagen type II and joint homogenate) were also detected. Nevertheless, serum failed to transfer disease. A high percentage of double-negative (CD4(-)CD8

  4. Characterization of a novel and spontaneous mouse model of inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have proven critical for identifying genetic and cellular mechanisms of the disease. Upon discovering mice in our breeding colony that had spontaneously developed inflamed joints reminiscent of RA, we established the novel IIJ (inherited inflamed joints) strain. The purpose of this study was to characterize the histopathological, clinical, genetic and immunological properties of the disease. Methods To begin the IIJ strain, an arthritic male mouse was crossed with SJL/J females. Inheritance of the phenotype was then tracked by intercrossing, backcrossing and outcrossing to other inbred strains. The histopathology of the joints and extraarticular organ systems was examined. Serum cytokines and immunoglobulins (Igs) were measured by ELISA and cytometric bead array. Transfer experiments tested whether disease could be mediated by serum alone. Finally, the cellular joint infiltrate and the composition of secondary lymphoid organs were examined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results After nine generations of intercrossing, the total incidence of arthritis was 33% (304 of 932 mice), with females being affected more than males (38% vs. 28%; P < 0.001). Swelling, most notably in the large distal joints, typically became evident at an early age (mean age of 52 days). In addition to the joint pathology, which included bone and cartilage erosion, synovial hyperproliferation and a robust cellular infiltration of mostly Gr-1+ neutrophils, there was also evidence of systemic inflammation. IL-6 was elevated in the sera of recently arthritic mice, and extraarticular inflammation was observed histologically in multiple organs. Total serum Ig and IgG1 levels were significantly elevated in arthritic mice, and autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and Ig reactive to joint components (collagen type II and joint homogenate) were also detected. Nevertheless, serum failed to transfer disease. A high percentage of

  5. Characterization of the TO strains of Theiler's mouse encephalomyelitis viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, H L

    1978-01-01

    Theiler's mouse encephalomyelitis virus isolates from the central nervous systems of spontaneously paralyzed mice and stools of asymptomatic mice resemble Theiler's original virus isolates. In this study four such strains were adapted by blind subpassage to replicate and to produce cytopathic effect in cell culture. These viruses were then found to be closely related to each other and to GDVII virus by cross-neutralization and to form small plaques. Bovine serum was found to contain cross-reacting antibodies to these viruses. PMID:208981

  6. Functional characterization of T cell populations in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Eppert, Bryan L.; Wortham, Brian W.; Flury, Jennifer L.; Borchers, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is characterized by chronic peribronchial, perivascular and alveolar inflammation. The inflammatory cells consist primarily of macrophage, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although myeloid cells are well studied, the role of lymphocyte populations in pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear. Using a mouse model of CS-induced emphysema our laboratory has previously demonstrated that CS exposure causes changes in the T cell receptor repertoire suggestive of an antigen specific response and triggers a pathogenic T cell response sufficient to cause alveolar destruction and inflammation. We extend these findings to demonstrate that T cells from CS-exposed mice of Balb/cJ or C57B6 strain are sufficient to transfer pulmonary pathology to CS-naïve, immunosufficient mice. CS exposure causes a proinflammatory phenotype among pulmonary T cells consistent with from COPD patients. We provide evidence that donor T cells from CS-exposed mice depend on antigen recognition to transfer alveolar destruction using MHC class I deficient recipient mice. Neither CD4+ nor CD8+ T cells from donor mice exposed to CS are alone sufficient to cause inflammation or pathology in recipient mice. We found no evidence of impaired suppression of T cell proliferation among regulatory T cells from CS-exposed mice. These results suggest that CS exposure initiates an antigen specific response that leads to pulmonary destruction and inflammation that involves both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. These results are direct evidence for an autoimmune response initiated by CS exposure. PMID:23264660

  7. Characterization of the MeCP2R168X knockin mouse model for Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Eike; Brendel, Cornelia; Fischer, Andre; Hülsmann, Swen; Gärtner, Jutta; Huppke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome, one of the most common causes of mental retardation in females, is caused by mutations in the X chromosomal gene MECP2. Mice deficient for MeCP2 recapitulate some of the symptoms seen in patients with Rett syndrome. It has been shown that reactivation of silent MECP2 alleles can reverse some of the symptoms in these mice. We have generated a knockin mouse model for translational research that carries the most common nonsense mutation in Rett syndrome, R168X. In this article we describe the phenotype of this mouse model. In male MeCP2(R168X) mice life span was reduced to 12-14 weeks and bodyweight was significantly lower than in wild type littermates. First symptoms including tremor, hind limb clasping and inactivity occurred at age 27 days. At age 6 weeks nest building, rotarod, open-field and elevated plus maze experiments showed impaired motor performance, reduced activity and decreased anxiety-like behavior. Plethysmography at the same time showed apneas and irregular breathing with reduced frequency. Female MeCP2R168X mice showed no significant abnormalities except decreased performance on the rotarod at age 9 months. In conclusion we show that the male MeCP2(R168X) mice have a phenotype similar to that seen in MECP2 knockout mouse models and are therefore well suited for translational research. The female mice, however, have a much milder and less constant phenotype making such research with this mouse model more challenging.

  8. Urinary metabolic phenotyping the slc26a6 (chloride-oxalate exchanger) null mouse model.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Villaseñor, Alma; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Posma, Joram M; Jiang, Zhirong; Stamler, Jeremiah; Aronson, Peter; Unwin, Robert; Barbas, Coral; Elliott, Paul; Nicholson, Jeremy; Holmes, Elaine

    2012-09-07

    The prevalence of renal stone disease is increasing, although it remains higher in men than in women when matched for age. While still somewhat controversial, several studies have reported an association between renal stone disease and hypertension, but this may be confounded by a shared link with obesity. However, independent of obesity, hyperoxaluria has been shown to be associated with hypertension in stone-formers, and the most common type of renal stone is composed of calcium oxalate. The chloride-oxalate exchanger slc26a6 (also known as CFEX or PAT-1), located in the renal proximal tubule, was originally thought to have an important role in sodium homeostasis and thereby blood pressure control, but it has recently been shown to have a key function in oxalate balance by mediating oxalate secretion in the gut. We have applied two orthogonal analytical platforms (NMR spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis with UV detection) in parallel to characterize the urinary metabolic signatures related to the loss of the renal chloride-oxalate exchanger in slc26a6 null mice. Clear metabolic differentiation between the urinary profiles of the slc26a6 null and the wild type mice were observed using both methods, with the combination of NMR and CE-UV providing extensive coverage of the urinary metabolome. Key discriminating metabolites included oxalate, m-hydroxyphenylpropionylsulfate (m-HPPS), trimethylamine-N-oxide, glycolate and scyllo-inositol (higher in slc26a6 null mice) and hippurate, taurine, trimethylamine, and citrate (lower in slc26a6 null mice). In addition to the reduced efficiency of anion transport, several of these metabolites (hippurate, m-HPPS, methylamines) reflect alteration in gut microbial cometabolic activities. Gender-related metabotypes were also observed in both wild type and slc26a6 null groups. Urinary metabolites that showed a sex-specific pattern included trimethylamine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrate, spermidine, guanidinoacetate, and 2

  9. A platform for high-throughput bioenergy production phenotype characterization in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Glenn, Honor; Anderson, Clifford; Messner, Jacob; Lee, Kristen B.; Song, Ganquan; Houkal, Jeff; Su, Fengyu; Zhang, Liqiang; Tian, Yanqing; Wang, Hong; Bussey, Kimberly; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by an increasing number of studies demonstrating its relevance to a broad variety of disease states, the bioenergy production phenotype has been widely characterized at the bulk sample level. Its cell-to-cell variability, a key player associated with cancer cell survival and recurrence, however, remains poorly understood due to ensemble averaging of the current approaches. We present a technology platform for performing oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification measurements of several hundreds to 1,000 individual cells per assay, while offering simultaneous analysis of cellular communication effects on the energy production phenotype. The platform comprises two major components: a tandem optical sensor for combined oxygen and pH detection, and a microwell device for isolation and analysis of single and few cells in hermetically sealed sub-nanoliter chambers. Our approach revealed subpopulations of cells with aberrant energy production profiles and enables determination of cellular response variability to electron transfer chain inhibitors and ion uncouplers. PMID:28349963

  10. A critical window of CAG repeat-length correlates with phenotype severity in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Damian M.; Alaghband, Yasaman; Hickey, Miriam A.; Joshi, Prasad R.; Hong, S. Candice; Zhu, Chunni; Ando, Timothy K.; André, Véronique M.; Cepeda, Carlos; Watson, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    The R6/2 mouse is the most frequently used model for experimental and preclinical drug trials in Huntington's disease (HD). When the R6/2 mouse was first developed, it carried exon 1 of the huntingtin gene with ∼150 cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats. The model presented with a rapid and aggressive phenotype that shared many features with the human condition and was particularly similar to juvenile HD. However, instability in the CAG repeat length due to different breeding practices has led to both decreases and increases in average CAG repeat lengths among colonies. Given the inverse relationship in human HD between CAG repeat length and age at onset and to a degree, the direct relationship with severity of disease, we have investigated the effect of altered CAG repeat length. Four lines, carrying ∼110, ∼160, ∼210, and ∼310 CAG repeats, were examined using a battery of tests designed to assess the basic R6/2 phenotype. These included electrophysiological properties of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons, motor activity, inclusion formation, and protein expression. The results showed an unpredicted, inverted “U-shaped” relationship between CAG repeat length and phenotype; increasing the CAG repeat length from 110 to 160 exacerbated the R6/2 phenotype, whereas further increases to 210 and 310 CAG repeats greatly ameliorated the phenotype. These findings demonstrate that the expected relationship between CAG repeat length and disease severity observed in humans is lost in the R6/2 mouse model and highlight the importance of CAG repeat-length determination in preclinical drug trials that use this model. PMID:22072510

  11. Characterization of the mouse von Willebrand factor promoter.

    PubMed

    Guan, J; Guillot, P V; Aird, W C

    1999-11-15

    Expression of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) gene is restricted to the endothelial and megakaryocyte lineages. Within the endothelium, expression of vWF varies between different vascular beds. We have previously shown that the human vWF promoter spanning a region between -2182 (relative to the start site of transcription) and the end of the first intron contains information for environmentally responsive, vascular bed-specific expression in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. In the present study, we cloned the mouse vWF (mvWF) promoter and studied its function in cultured endothelial cells and transgenic mice. In transient transfection assays, the mvWF gene was found to be regulated by distinct mechanisms in different endothelial cell subtypes. In independent lines of transgenic mice, an mvWF promoter fragment containing DNA sequences between -2645 and the end of the first intron directed endothelial cell-specific expression in the microvascular beds of the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle as well as the endothelial lining of the aorta. In 1 line of mice, reporter gene activity was also detected in bone marrow megakaryocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that both the mouse and human vWF promoters are regulated by vascular bed-specific mechanisms.

  12. Microarray-based mutation detection and phenotypic characterization in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cinoo; Kim, Kwang Joong; Bok, Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Dong-Joon; Oh, Ji Hee; Park, Sung Pyo; Shin, Joo Young; Lee, Jong-Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate microarray-based genotyping technology for the detection of mutations responsible for retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to perform phenotypic characterization of patients with pathogenic mutations. Methods DNA from 336 patients with RP and 360 controls was analyzed using the GoldenGate assay with microbeads containing 95 previously reported disease-associated mutations from 28 RP genes. Mutations identified by microarray-based genotyping were confirmed by direct sequencing. Segregation analysis and phenotypic characterization were performed in patients with mutations. The disease severity was assessed by visual acuity, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, and kinetic perimetry. Results Ten RP-related mutations of five RP genes (PRP3 pre-mRNA processing factor 3 homolog [PRPF3], rhodopsin [RHO], phosphodiesterase 6B [PDE6B], peripherin 2 [PRPH2], and retinitis pigmentosa 1 [RP1]) were identified in 26 of the 336 patients (7.7%) and in six of the 360 controls (1.7%). The p.H557Y mutation in PDE6B, which was homozygous in four patients and heterozygous in nine patients, was the most frequent mutation (2.5%). Mutation segregation was assessed in four families. Among the patients with missense mutations, the most severe phenotype occurred in patients with p.D984G in RP1; less severe phenotypes occurred in patients with p.R135W in RHO; a relatively moderate phenotype occurred in patients with p.T494M in PRPF3, p.H557Y in PDE6B, or p.W316G in PRPH2; and a mild phenotype was seen in a patient with p.D190N in RHO. Conclusions The results reveal that the GoldenGate assay may not be an efficient method for molecular diagnosis in RP patients with rare mutations, although it has proven to be reliable and efficient for high-throughput genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The clinical features varied according to the mutations. Continuous effort to identify novel RP genes and mutations in a population is needed to improve the efficiency and

  13. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of mouse epidermal growth factor-like domain 8.

    PubMed

    Song, Ik-Jin; Ikram, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazli; Choi, Da-Jeong; Lee, Ja-Rang; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lim, Young-Tak; Yoon, Sik

    2015-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like (EGFL) domain, a common structural module in numerous secreted or transmembrane proteins, is generally involved in protein-protein interactions. To date, several EGFL proteins have been identified and characterized, but little is known about EGFL domain 8 (EGFL8). The present study reported the molecular characterization and expression analysis of EGFL8 in mice. Mouse EGFL8 amplified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approach was sequenced and characterized. Mouse EGFL8 encodes a protein of 293 amino acids with two EGFL domains, an Emilin-like domain and a Ca(2+)-binding EGFL domain, which has a molecular mass of 32 kDa. The coding sequence has a high degree of amino acid sequence identity across species, and the EGFL domain has been highly conserved in various species during evolutionary radiation. A phylogenetic tree calculated using the neighbor-joining method revealed that EGFL8 and EGFL7 are more closely associated with each other than either is to EGFL3, and they cluster with EGFL6. It was found that mouse EGFL8 protein was highly expressed in diverse mouse tissue types, including the thymus, lymph nodes, testis, ovaries, epididymis, ductus deferens, ileum, colon, stomach, esophagus, lung, uterus, urinary bladder, skin, spleen, adrenal glands and penis. These results are of great use in understanding the biological roles of mouse EGFL8 for further study.

  14. Common phenotype of resting mouse extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles: equal ATPase and glycolytic flux during transient anoxia.

    PubMed

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Rusk, Joshua; Palmer, Lauren; Shankland, Eric; Kushmerick, Martin J

    2010-06-01

    Rates of ATPase and glycolysis are several times faster in actively contracting mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) than soleus (SOL), but we find these rates are not distinguishable at rest. We used a transient anoxic perturbation of steady state energy balance to decrease phosphocreatine (PCr) reversibly and to measure the rates of ATPase and of lactate production without muscle activation or contraction. The rate of glycolytic ATP synthesis is less than the ATPase rate, accounting for the continual PCr decrease during anoxia in both muscles. We fitted a mathematical model validated with properties of enzymes and solutes measured in vitro and appropriate for the transient perturbation of these muscles to experimental data to test whether the model accounts for the results. Simulations showed equal rates of ATPase and lactate production in both muscles. ATPase controls glycolytic flux by feedback from its products. Adenylate kinase function is critical because a rise in [AMP] is necessary to activate glycogen phosphorylase. ATPase is the primary source of H+ production. The sum of contributions of the 13 reactions of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic network to total proton load is negligible. The stoichiometry of lactate and H+ production is near unity. These results identify a default state of energy metabolism for resting muscle in which there is no difference in the metabolic phenotype of EDL and SOL. Therefore, additional control mechanisms, involving higher ATPase flux and [Ca2+], must exist to explain the well-known difference in glycolytic rates in fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscles in actively contracting muscle.

  15. Activation of vasopressin neurons leads to phenotype progression in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Maiko; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Shiota, Akira; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare disease that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In a previous study, we made a mouse model for FNDI, which showed progressive polyuria accompanied by inclusion bodies in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons formed by aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. The present study was conducted to determine whether the activities of AVP neurons are related to the phenotype progression in the FNDI model. In the first experiment, female heterozygous mice were administered either desmopressin (dDAVP) or a vehicle (control) subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps for 30 days. The dDAVP treatment significantly decreased the urine volume, AVP mRNA expression, and inclusion bodies in the AVP neurons. Urine volume in the dDAVP group remained significantly less than the control for 14 days even after the minipumps were removed. In the second experiment, the males were fed either a 0.2% Na or 2.0% Na diet for 6 mo. Urine AVP excretion was significantly increased in the 2.0% Na group compared with the 0.2% Na group for the first 2 mo but gradually decreased thereafter. Throughout the experiments, urine volume increased progressively in the 2.0% Na group but not in the 0.2% Na group. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that inclusion bodies in the AVP cells had significantly increased in the 2.0% Na compared with the 0.2% Na group. These data demonstrated that activation of AVP neurons could accelerate the aggregate formation as well as the progression of the polyuria in the FNDI model mice.

  16. Common phenotype of resting mouse extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles: equal ATPase and glycolytic flux during transient anoxia

    PubMed Central

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Rusk, Joshua; Palmer, Lauren; Shankland, Eric; Kushmerick, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    Rates of ATPase and glycolysis are several times faster in actively contracting mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) than soleus (SOL), but we find these rates are not distinguishable at rest. We used a transient anoxic perturbation of steady state energy balance to decrease phosphocreatine (PCr) reversibly and to measure the rates of ATPase and of lactate production without muscle activation or contraction. The rate of glycolytic ATP synthesis is less than the ATPase rate, accounting for the continual PCr decrease during anoxia in both muscles. We fitted a mathematical model validated with properties of enzymes and solutes measured in vitro and appropriate for the transient perturbation of these muscles to experimental data to test whether the model accounts for the results. Simulations showed equal rates of ATPase and lactate production in both muscles. ATPase controls glycolytic flux by feedback from its products. Adenylate kinase function is critical because a rise in [AMP] is necessary to activate glycogen phosphorylase. ATPase is the primary source of H+ production. The sum of contributions of the 13 reactions of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic network to total proton load is negligible. The stoichiometry of lactate and H+ production is near unity. These results identify a default state of energy metabolism for resting muscle in which there is no difference in the metabolic phenotype of EDL and SOL. Therefore, additional control mechanisms, involving higher ATPase flux and [Ca2+], must exist to explain the well-known difference in glycolytic rates in fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscles in actively contracting muscle. PMID:20308252

  17. A simple method for early age phenotype confirmation using toe tissue from a mouse model of MPS IIIA.

    PubMed

    Trim, Paul J; Lau, Adeline A; Hopwood, John J; Snel, Marten F

    2014-04-30

    Determination of genotype can be difficult, especially during the early stages of developing an animal model, e.g. when PCR primers are not yet available. An increase or decrease in specific metabolites can be used as a surrogate marker for genotype; for instance, in homozygous MPS IIIA mice heparan sulphate (HS) is increased. A simple method was developed for extracting and depolymerising HS from mouse toe tissue using methanolysis under acidic conditions. The sample was lyophilised and resuspended in methanolic HCl. The reaction products are desulphated disaccharides and readily analysable by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. Measurements were normalised to a spiked deuterated HS internal standard and to endogenous chondroitin sulphate (CS). HS was measured in toe tissue taken from 30 mice in three groups of 10 (normal controls, MPS IIIA homozygotes and heterozygotes). A significant difference was observed between the MPS IIIA homozygotes and the other two groups, making it possible to identify mice with the MPS IIIA genotype based on the measurement of HS. Normalisation to CS was shown to correct for sample variability and reaction efficiency. Analysis of toe tissue provides a simple and rapid way of determining a storage phenotype at 5 to 7 days of age. Significantly, this method does not require any additional samples to be taken from animals, as it utilises tissue that is a by-product of toe clipping, a method that is routinely used to permanently identify mice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Functional characterization of three mouse formyl peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    He, Hui-Qiong; Liao, Dan; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Zhong-Li; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Wang, Ming-Wei; Ye, Richard D

    2013-02-01

    The evolutionary relationship and functional correlation between human formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) and their mouse counterparts remain incompletely understood. We examined three members of the mouse formyl peptide receptor subfamily (mFprs) and found that they differ in agonist preference and cellular distributions. When stably expressed in transfected rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells, mFpr1 was readily activated by N-formylated peptides derived from Listeria monocytogenes (fMIVTLF), Staphylococcus aureus (fMIFL), and mitochondria (fMMYALF). In contrast, the Escherichia coli-derived fMLF was 1000-fold less potent. The aforementioned peptides were much less efficacious at mFpr2, which responded better to the synthetic hexapeptide WKYMVm, the synthetic agonists Quin-C1 (a substituted quinazolinone), and compound 43 (a nitrosylated pyrazolone derivative). Saturation binding assays showed that mFpr1 and mFpr2 were expressed at similar levels on the cell surface, although their affinity for N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-Ile-Ile-Lys-fluorescein isothiocyanate varied by more than 1000-fold [dissociation constant (K(d)) values of 2.8 nM for mFpr1 and 4.8 μM for mFpr2]). Contrary to these receptors, mFpr-rs1 responded poorly to all the previously mentioned peptides that were tested. Fluorescent microscopy revealed an intracellular distribution pattern of mFpr-rs1. On the basis of these results, we conclude that mFpr1 is an ortholog of human FPR1 with certain pharmacologic properties of human FPR2/ALX, whereas mFpr2 has much lower affinity for formyl peptides. The intracellular distribution of mFpr-rs1 suggests an evolutionary correlation with human FPR3.

  19. Functional Characterization of Three Mouse Formyl Peptide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui-Qiong; Liao, Dan; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Zhong-Li; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary relationship and functional correlation between human formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) and their mouse counterparts remain incompletely understood. We examined three members of the mouse formyl peptide receptor subfamily (mFprs) and found that they differ in agonist preference and cellular distributions. When stably expressed in transfected rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells, mFpr1 was readily activated by N-formylated peptides derived from Listeria monocytogenes (fMIVTLF), Staphylococcus aureus (fMIFL), and mitochondria (fMMYALF). In contrast, the Escherichia coli–derived fMLF was 1000-fold less potent. The aforementioned peptides were much less efficacious at mFpr2, which responded better to the synthetic hexapeptide WKYMVm, the synthetic agonists Quin-C1 (a substituted quinazolinone), and compound 43 (a nitrosylated pyrazolone derivative). Saturation binding assays showed that mFpr1 and mFpr2 were expressed at similar levels on the cell surface, although their affinity for N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-Ile-Ile-Lys-fluorescein isothiocyanate varied by more than 1000-fold [dissociation constant (Kd) values of 2.8 nM for mFpr1 and 4.8 μM for mFpr2]). Contrary to these receptors, mFpr-rs1 responded poorly to all the previously mentioned peptides that were tested. Fluorescent microscopy revealed an intracellular distribution pattern of mFpr-rs1. On the basis of these results, we conclude that mFpr1 is an ortholog of human FPR1 with certain pharmacologic properties of human FPR2/ALX, whereas mFpr2 has much lower affinity for formyl peptides. The intracellular distribution of mFpr-rs1 suggests an evolutionary correlation with human FPR3. PMID:23160941

  20. Significant gene content variation characterizes the genomes of inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Gene; Marshall, Lisa A.; Chin, Ni; Baribault, Helene; Kassner, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution to genetic diversity of genomic segmental copy number variations (CNVs) is less well understood than that of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). While less frequent than SNPs, CNVs have greater potential to affect phenotype. In this study, we have performed the most comprehensive survey to date of CNVs in mice, analyzing the genomes of 42 Mouse Phenome Consortium priority strains. This microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based analysis has identified 2094 putative CNVs, with an average of 10 Mb of DNA in 51 CNVs when individual mouse strains were compared to the reference strain C57BL/6J. This amount of variation results in gene content that can differ by hundreds of genes between strains. These genes include members of large families such as the major histocompatibility and pheromone receptor genes, but there are also many singleton genes including genes with expected phenotypic consequences from their deletion or amplification. Using a whole-genome association analysis, we demonstrate that complex multigenic phenotypes, such as food intake, can be associated with specific copy number changes. PMID:17989247