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Sample records for mouse urinary bladder

  1. Effects of morphine in the isolated mouse urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, C G; Tamayo, L; Contreras, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute morphine increased the responses to acetylcholine of the isolated mouse urinary bladder. A chronic morphine treatment did not change the responses of the urinary bladder to acetylcholine or ATP. The acute administration of morphine did not modify the contractile response to ATP in the urinary bladders from untreated or chronically morphine treated mice. Methadone and ketocyclazocine decreased the responses to the electrical stimulation of the urinary bladder. These depressant effects were not modified by naloxone. The results suggest the nonexistence of opiate receptors in the mouse urinary bladder and the lack of direct effects of morphine on the neuroeffector junction.

  2. The postganglionic excitatory innervation of the mouse urinary bladder and its modulation by prejunctional GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Santicioli, P; Maggi, C A; Meli, A

    1986-03-01

    Field stimulation produced reproducible contractions of the mouse isolated urinary bladder whose amplitude was frequency-related. These contractions were partially sensitive to atropine (3 microM), unaffected by hexamethonium (10 microM) and almost abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM). Atropine (3 microM) suppressed contractions produced by exogenous acetylcholine thereby indicating atropine-resistance of the nerve-mediated contractions. Nerve-mediated contractions of the mouse urinary bladder were enhanced by physostigmine (0.1-0.5 microM) and inhibited by hemicholinium-3 (0.5 mM) thus confirming the presence of a cholinergic component in the excitatory postganglionic innervation. Atropine (3 microM) inhibition of the nerve-mediated contractions increased with increasing duration and strength of the train of stimulation. The nerve-mediated contractions of the mouse bladder were unaffected by phentolamine (0.2 microM), propranolol (0.3 microM) or indomethacin (5 microM). ATP (1mM) the major candidate for the role of nonadrenergic-noncholinegic (NANC) excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian urinary bladder produced a contraction of the mouse isolated bladder. Exposure to the stable ATP analogue alpha, beta-methylene ATP (APCPP) or beta, gamma-methylene ATP (APPCP) produced a partial desensitization of the nerve-mediated response which, for APCPP, was greater in the presence than in the absence of atropine (3 microM). In the presence of atropine (3 microM) and after APCPP desensitization the amplitude of the response to field stimulation amounted to about 20% of the original response and was sensitive to tetrodotoxin, indicating that it is nerve-mediated. GABA (0.001-0.3 mM) inhibited the amplitude of field stimulation induced contractions of mouse urinary bladder. This effect was mimicked by the selective GABAB receptor agonist, (+/-)-baclofen, but not by the selective GABAA receptor agonist, homotaurine. GABA and (+/-)-baclofen exhibited cross

  3. Evaluation of urinary bladder fibrogenesis in a mouse model of long-term ketamine injection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wang, Shou-Tsung; Lin, Shu-Mei; Wu, Jiann-Der; Lin, Chang-Te; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ketamine abuse has been shown to affect the lower urinary tract and result in interstitial cystitis-like syndrome. However, the causative mechanism of ketamine-induced dysfunction remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological, histological and molecular changes on ketamine-associated cystitis (KC) in a mouse model. Both male and female Balb/c mice were separately distributed into the control group (normal saline) and ketamine group, which received ketamine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg/day) daily by intraperitoneal injection for a total period of 20 weeks. In each group, the urine was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure the concentration of ketamine and its metabolites. Urinary frequency and urine volume were examined to investigate the urinary voiding functions. Mice bladders were excised for cDNA microarray and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The ketamine and metabolites were detected only in ketamine-treated mice urine. The voiding interval was reduced in the male mice group after 20 week ketamine administration. Additionally, the result of cDNA array analysis revealed a number of gene expression levels involved in chronic wound healing response and collagen accumulation, which were closely associated with fibrosis progression in the connective tissue. In HE staining of the bladder tissue, the ketamine-injected mice exhibited prominently denser blood vessel distribution in the submucosal layer. Based on the evidence in the present study, a mechanism that delineates fibrosis formation of urinary bladder induced by the pathogenesis of ketamine abuse can be constructed. PMID:27431428

  4. Effect of Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor (rHuKGF, Palifermin) on Radiation-Induced Mouse Urinary Bladder Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Jaal, Jana Doerr, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of Palifermin (rHuKGF) on acute and late radiation effects in mouse urinary bladder. Methods and Materials: Graded radiation doses were applied on day 0. Single subcutaneous injections of Palifermin (15 mg/kg) were given on day -2 or day +2. Changes in bladder function (i.e., a reduction in bladder volume by {>=}50% of the individual preirradiation value) were assessed by cystometry. Results: Early changes in mouse bladder after irradiation occur in two phases. In the first early phase, a single injection of Palifermin on day -2 increased the ED{sub 50} (dose associated with a positive bladder response in 50% of the mice) from 20.0 {+-} 3.3 Gy to 27.1 {+-} 6.9 Gy (p < .0051). Palifermin given on day +2 was not beneficial. No significant effects of Palifermin were seen in the second early phase. However, Palifermin administration before, but not after, irradiation, also modified late radiation effects, with an ED{sub 50} of 22.2 {+-} 4.8 Gy compared with 16.2 {+-} 4.9 Gy in control animals (p < .0187). Conclusions: Initial early functional changes in the mouse urinary bladder after irradiation as well as late effects can be significantly reduced by a single administration of Palifermin before irradiation.

  5. Urinary bladder xanthomatous cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shrenik J.; Ajitsaria, Vineet; Singh, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Xanthoma cystitis of urinary bladder is a rare entity and may present as an intravesical mass. A 38-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and imaging was done which was suggestive of a malignant mass with surrounding tissue infiltration. Partial cystectomy was performed, and histological examination of the mass showed xanthomatous cystitis. PMID:28197037

  6. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Dadhania, Vipulkumar; Czerniak, Bogdan; Guo, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in the urinary bladder which may arise primarily in the bladder as well as secondarily from a number of other organs. Our aim is to provide updated information on primary and secondary bladder adenocarcinomas, with focus on pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical relevance. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma exhibits several different growth patterns, including enteric, mucinous, signet-ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed patterns. Urachal adenocarcinoma demonstrates similar histologic features but it can be distinguished from bladder adenocarcinoma on careful pathologic examination. Secondary bladder adenocarcinomas may arise from the colorectum, prostate, endometrium, cervix and other sites. Immunohistochemical study is valuable in identifying the origin of secondary adenocarcinomas. Noninvasive neoplastic glandular lesions, adenocarcinoma in situ and villous adenoma, are frequently associated with bladder adenocarcinoma. It is also important to differentiate bladder adenocarcinoma from a number of nonneoplastic lesions in the bladder. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis largely because it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Urachal adenocarcinoma shares similar histologic features with bladder adenocarcinoma, but it has a more favorable prognosis than bladder adenocarcinoma, partly due to the relative young age of patients with urachal adenocarcinoma.

  8. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dadhania, Vipulkumar; Czerniak, Bogdan; Guo, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in the urinary bladder which may arise primarily in the bladder as well as secondarily from a number of other organs. Our aim is to provide updated information on primary and secondary bladder adenocarcinomas, with focus on pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical relevance. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma exhibits several different growth patterns, including enteric, mucinous, signet-ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed patterns. Urachal adenocarcinoma demonstrates similar histologic features but it can be distinguished from bladder adenocarcinoma on careful pathologic examination. Secondary bladder adenocarcinomas may arise from the colorectum, prostate, endometrium, cervix and other sites. Immunohistochemical study is valuable in identifying the origin of secondary adenocarcinomas. Noninvasive neoplastic glandular lesions, adenocarcinoma in situ and villous adenoma, are frequently associated with bladder adenocarcinoma. It is also important to differentiate bladder adenocarcinoma from a number of nonneoplastic lesions in the bladder. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis largely because it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Urachal adenocarcinoma shares similar histologic features with bladder adenocarcinoma, but it has a more favorable prognosis than bladder adenocarcinoma, partly due to the relative young age of patients with urachal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26309895

  9. [Evolution of urinary bladder substitution].

    PubMed

    Kock, N G

    1992-11-01

    The historical background to the currently used methods for continent bladder substitution is shortly outlined. The significance for the patient's quality of life of various methods for bladder reconstruction or urinary diversion is briefly discussed. The importance of reservoir configuration for achieving a high compliant urinary receptacle is pointed out. Factors affecting reabsorption of urinary constituents are stressed and the significance of an antireflux mechanism is discussed. Currently the majority of patients undergoing cystectomy for cancer or for other reasons can be offered bladder substitutes providing continence and easy emptying; that is, complete control over voiding. This can be achieved by orthotopic bladder reconstruction or by diverting the urine to the augmented and valved rectum or to the skin via a continent intestinal reservoir.

  10. Transcriptional and translational plasticity in rodent urinary bladder TRP channels with urinary bladder inflammation, bladder dysfunction, or postnatal maturation.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Liana; Girard, Beatrice M; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2012-11-01

    These studies examined the transcriptional and translational plasticity of three transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (TRPA1, TRPV1, TRPV4) with established neuronal and non-neuronal expression and functional roles in the lower urinary tract. Mechanosensor and nociceptor roles in either physiological or pathological lower urinary tract states have been suggested for TRPA1, TRPV1, and TRPV4. We have previously demonstrated the neurochemical, organizational, and functional plasticity in micturition reflex pathways following induction of urinary bladder inflammation using the antineoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide. More recently, we have characterized similar plasticity in micturition reflex pathways in a transgenic mouse model with chronic urothelial overexpression (OE) of nerve growth factor (NGF) and in a transgenic mouse model with deletion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). In addition, the micturition reflex undergoes postnatal maturation that may also reflect plasticity in urinary bladder TRP channel expression. Thus, we examined plasticity in urinary bladder TRP channel expression in diverse contexts using a combination of quantitative, real-time PCR and western blotting approaches. We demonstrate transcriptional and translational plasticity of urinary bladder TRPA1, TRPV1, and TRVP4 expression. Although the functional significance of urinary bladder TRP channel plasticity awaits further investigation, these studies demonstrate context- (inflammation, postnatal development, NGF-OE, VIP deletion) and tissue-dependent (urothelium + suburothelium, detrusor) plasticity.

  11. Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Adraktas, Dionesia; Caserta, Melanie; Tchelepi, Hisham

    2014-09-01

    Extra-adrenal paragangliomas of the urinary bladder are rare. Typically, patients present with symptoms related to catecholamine hypersecretion or mass effect, but these tumors can also be encountered incidentally on imaging studies obtained for a different purpose. It is important to recognize the key imaging features of this entity so that it may be suggested as a possible differential diagnosis in the setting of a newly identified bladder mass.

  12. Urinary markers for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed. PMID:23864929

  13. Studies on localization and function of annexin A4a within urinary bladder epithelium using a mouse knockout model.

    PubMed

    Hill, Warren G; Meyers, Susan; von Bodungen, Maximilian; Apodaca, Gerard; Dedman, John R; Kaetzel, Marcia A; Zeidel, Mark L

    2008-04-01

    Annexin A4 (anxA4) is a member of the Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-binding family of proteins implicated in the regulation of ion conductances, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and membrane trafficking. We demonstrate, in mice, that annexins 1-6 are present in whole bladder and exhibit differential expression in the urothelium. An anxA4a-knockout (anxA4a(-/-)) mouse model shows no protein in the urothelium by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. In wild-type bladders, anxA4a in umbrella cells showed uniform cytoplasmic staining and some association with the nuclear membrane. Application of a hydrostatic pressure to bladders mounted in Ussing chambers resulted in redistribution of anxA4a from cytoplasm to cellular boundaries in the basal and intermediate cells but not in superficial umbrella cells. We hypothesized that anxA4a might be important for barrier function or for stretch-activated membrane trafficking. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a series of functional and morphological analyses on bladders from control and anxA4a(-/-) animals. The transepithelial resistances, water permeabilities, and urea permeabilities of anxA4a(-/-) bladders were not different from controls, indicating that barrier function was intact. Membrane trafficking in response to hydrostatic pressure as measured by capacitance increases was also normal for anxA4a(-/-) bladders. Cystometrograms performed on live animals showed that voiding frequency and intrabladder pressures were also not different. There were no differences in bladder surface morphology or cellular architecture examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. We conclude that loss of anxA4 from the urothelium does not affect barrier function, membrane trafficking, or normal bladder-voiding behavior.

  14. Social stress induces changes in urinary bladder function, bladder NGF content, and generalized bladder inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Mingin, Gerald C; Peterson, Abbey; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Nelson, Mark T; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2014-10-01

    Social stress may play a role in urinary bladder dysfunction in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we explored changes in bladder function caused by social stress using mouse models of stress and increasing stress. In the stress paradigm, individual submissive FVB mice were exposed to C57BL/6 aggressor mice directly/indirectly for 1 h/day for 2 or 4 wk. Increased stress was induced by continuous, direct/indirect exposure of FVB mice to aggressor mice for 2 wk. Stressed FVB mice exhibited nonvoiding bladder contractions and a decrease in both micturition interval (increased voiding frequency) and bladder capacity compared with control animals. ELISAs demonstrated a significant increase in histamine protein expression with no change in nerve growth factor protein expression in the urinary bladder compared with controls. Unlike stressed mice, mice exposed to an increased stress paradigm exhibited increased bladder capacities and intermicturition intervals (decreased voiding frequency). Both histamine and nerve growth factor protein expression were significantly increased with increased stress compared with control bladders. The change in bladder function from increased voiding frequency to decreased voiding frequency with increased stress intensity suggests that changes in social stress-induced urinary bladder dysfunction are context and duration dependent. In addition, changes in the bladder inflammatory milieu with social stress may be important contributors to changes in urinary bladder function.

  15. Concentration- and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Clewell, H J; Thomas, R S; Kenyon, E M; Hughes, M F; Adair, B M; Gentry, P R; Yager, J W

    2011-10-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As(i)) is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to As(i) in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concentrations of 0.5, 2, 10, and 50 mg As/l. Urinary bladders were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. A consistent reversal was observed in the direction of gene expression change: from predominantly decreased expression at 1 week to predominantly increased expression at 12 weeks. These results are consistent with evidence from in vitro studies of an acute adaptive response that is suppressed on longer exposure due to downregulation of Fos. Pathways with the highest enrichment in gene expression changes were associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and proliferation. Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis determined that the lowest median BMD values for pathways were above 5 mg As/l, despite the fact that pathway enrichment was observed at the 0.5 mg As/l exposure concentration. This disparity may result from the nonmonotonic nature of the concentration-responses for the expression changes of a number of genes, as evidenced by the much fewer gene expression changes at 2 mg As/l compared with lower or higher concentrations. Pathway categories with concentration-related gene expression changes included cellular morphogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis/survival, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. The results of this study provide evidence of a concentration-dependent transition in the mode of action for the subchronic effects of As(i) in mouse bladder cells in the vicinity of 2 mg As(i)/l.

  16. β1-Subunit of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel regulates contractile activity of mouse urinary bladder smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Georgi V; Bonev, Adrian D; Heppner, Thomas J; Brenner, Robert; Aldrich, Richard W; Nelson, Mark T

    2001-01-01

    The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel plays an important role in controlling membrane potential and contractility of urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM). These channels are composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and an accessory, smooth muscle-specific, β1-subunit. Our aim was to determine the functional role of the β1-subunit of the BK channel in controlling the contractions of UBSM by using BK channel β1-subunit ‘knock-out’ (KO) mice. The β-galactosidase reporter (lacZ gene) was targeted to the β1 locus, which provided the opportunity to examine the expression of the β1-subunit in UBSM. Based on this approach, the β1-subunit is highly expressed in UBSM. BK channels lacking β1-subunits have reduced activity, consistent with a shift in BK channel voltage/Ca2+ sensitivity. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of BK channels, increased the amplitude and decreased the frequency of phasic contractions of UBSM strips from control mice. The effects of the β1-subunit deletion on contractions were similar to the effect of iberiotoxin on control mice. The UBSM strips from β1-subunit KO mice had elevated phasic contraction amplitude and decreased frequency when compared to control UBSM strips. Iberiotoxin increased the amplitude and frequency of phasic contractions, and UBSM tone of UBSM strips from β1-subunit KO mice, suggesting that BK channels still regulate contractions in the absence of the β1-subunit. The results indicate that the β1-subunit, by modulating BK channel activity, plays a significant role in the regulation of phasic contractions of the urinary bladder. PMID:11731577

  17. Concentration-and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to twelve weeks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic (AsD is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to ASi in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concen...

  18. Cyclophosphamide-induced Down-Regulation of Uroplakin II in the Mouse Urinary Bladder Epithelium is Prevented by S-Allyl Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Sayed Aliul Hasan; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2016-12-01

    The alkylating anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide (CP), induces a number of toxic effects including haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in the urinary bladder. Uroplakins are unique urinary transmembrane proteins of urothelium, which may become potential targets of CP metabolites and reactive free radicals. Natural compounds, especially those rich in thiols, have shown protective effects against CP-induced HC. In this study, we studied the modulatory effect of the thiol-rich compound S-allyl cysteine (SAC) on the mRNA level of uroplakin II by real-time polymerase chain reaction and expression of uroplakin II protein by immunoblotting. SAC (150 mg/kg) showed significant (p < 0.001) protective effects against CP (200 mg/kg)-induced alteration in mRNA level and protein expression of uroplakin II. SAC also protected animals from CP-induced HC as assessed by gross morphological examination of urinary bladder. When compared with mercaptoethane sulphonic acid (mesna) (40 mg/kg), a known thiol-rich drug used in clinical application, SAC was found to be more efficacious in affording protection in urinary bladder tissues. Role of uroplakins in CP-induced urinary bladder toxicity has not been well investigated. This study demonstrated that uroplakins may be the potential target of toxic metabolites of CP and natural compounds such as SAC have the capacity to modulate their expression leading to reduced toxicity burden on the urinary bladder epithelium.

  19. FOREIGN BODY IN URINARY BLADDER: AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Saadat-Hassan; Khan, Ikramullah

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder functions for the storage and expulsion of urine. Foreign bodies in male urinary bladder are rare due to lengthy urethra, especially when they are rounded in shape and difficult to be introduced into urinary bladder. This is a case report of a middle age male with thin body habitus and slightly disturbed psychiatric status. He presented with both irritative and obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). He was investigated and found to have an intact bangle in the urinary bladder. The patient was planned for surgery, and the foreign body was removed endoscopically with the help of cystoscope. Later on the patient was referred to a psychiatrist for psychological management.

  20. Genetics of human congenital urinary bladder disease.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Adrian S; Stuart, Helen M; Newman, William G

    2014-03-01

    Lower urinary tract and/or kidney malformations are collectively the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in children, and they are also likely to account for a major subset of young adults requiring renal replacement therapy. Advances have been made regarding the discovery of the genetic causes of human kidney malformations. Indeed, testing for mutations of key nephrogenesis genes is now feasible for patients seen in nephrology clinics. Unfortunately, less is known about defined genetic bases of human lower urinary tract anomalies. The focus of this review is the genetic bases of congenital structural and functional disorders of the urinary bladder. Three are highlighted. First, prune belly syndrome, where mutations of CHRM3, encoding an acetylcholine receptor, HNF1B, encoding a transcription factor, and ACTA2, encoding a cytoskeletal protein, have been reported. Second, the urofacial syndrome, where mutations of LRIG2 and HPSE2, encoding proteins localised in nerves invading the fetal bladder, have been defined. Finally, we review emerging evidence that bladder exstrophy may have genetic bases, including variants in the TP63 promoter. These genetic discoveries provide a new perspective on a group of otherwise poorly understood diseases.

  1. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  2. An unusual cause of death: spontaneous urinary bladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Limon, Onder; Unluer, Erden Erol; Unay, Fulya Cakalagaoglu; Oyar, Orhan; Sener, Aslı

    2012-11-01

    Spontaneous urinary bladder perforation is a rare and life-threatening condition similar to traumatic and iatrogenic perforation. The connection with the underlying bladder damage due to previous radiotherapy, inflammation, malignancy, obstruction, or other causes can be found in almost all cases. The symptoms are often nonspecific, and misdiagnosis is common. Here, we present a case of spontaneous urinary bladder perforation due to bladder necrosis in a diabetic woman. She presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Exploratory laparotomy was performed by surgeons and revealed necrosis of the anterior and lateral walls of the urinary bladder. Microscopic examination revealed necrotic changes throughout the bladder wall. Ghost-like cellular outlines were compatible with coagulative necrosis. Clusters of bacteria were also present in some necrobiotic tissues. Malignant cells were not present. It appears probable that the infection was due to local interference with the blood supply (arterial, capillary, or venous) combined with the systemic metabolic upset that led to the bladder condition. In our case, we observed partial necrosis of the bladder rather than distortion of the entire blood supply to the bladder as consequences of the microvascular effects of diabetes. Urinary bladder perforation must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with free fluid in the abdomen/peritonitis, decreased urine output, and hematuria, and in whom increased levels of urea/creatinine are detected in serum and/ or peritoneal fluid aspirate.

  3. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required.

  4. Laparoscopic Rectopexy with Urinary Bladder Xenograft Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Aradhana; Afshar, Rami; Gardner, Amy; Ackerman, Ellen; Brandt, Jared; Sasse, Kent C.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Rectal prolapse is often repaired laparoscopically, frequently with the use of reinforcement material. Both synthetic and biologically derived materials reduce recurrence rate compared to primary suture repair. Synthetic mesh introduces potential complications such as mesh erosion, fibrosis, and infection. Urinary bladder matrix (UBM) represents a biologically derived material for reinforcement of rectal prolapse repair with the potential to improve durability without risks of synthetic materials. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness, durability, and functional result of laparoscopic rectopexy using urinary bladder matrix xenograft reinforcement at three years follow up. Methods: The 20 cases presented describe rectal prolapse repair by means of laparoscopic rectopexy with presacral UBM reinforcement. Patients were followed up for an average of 3 years and assessed with interviews, physical examination, manometry, and the fecal incontinence severity index (FISI). Results: Each repair was completed laparoscopically. UBM exhibited favorable handling characteristics when sutured to the sacrum and the lateral rectal walls. One patient underwent laparoscopic drainage of a postoperative abscess; no other complications occurred. In 3 years of follow-up, there have been no full-thickness recurrences, erosions, reoperations, or long-term complications. Two patients exhibited a small degree of mucosal prolapse on follow-up physical examination that did not require surgery. Three-year FISI scores averaged 8 (range, 0–33 of a possible 61), indicating low fecal incontinence symptomatology. Follow-up anorectal manometry was performed in 9 patients, showing mixed results. Conclusion: Surgeons may safely use laparoscopic rectopexy with UBM reinforcement for repair of rectal prolapses. In this series, repairs with UBM grafts have been durable at 3-year follow-up and may be an alternative to synthetic mesh reinforcement of rectal

  5. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Humberto R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥103 CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5–14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  6. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection./sup 3/H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  7. [Capsaicin and lidocaine usage in functional disorders of urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Kajetan; Thor, Piotr J

    2011-01-01

    Most of the drugs in the treatment of functional disorders of the urinary bladder has a peripheral effect. Their work consists mainly in reducing detrusor contractility of the bladder, or effects on the afferent innervation. Anticholinergics are the first drugs of choice. An alternative pharmacological treatment is to eliminate the overactivity by acting on the bladder afferent innervation, while not inhibiting its contractility. One option is to modulate the pharmacological activity of sensory mechanisms governing the functioning of the bladder via the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) and ancyrin (TRPA1). Intravesical treatment with capsaicin or lidocaine only partially reduces bladder sensation. Furthermore, clinical use of lidocaine in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) is reduced to intravesical supply before capsaicin instillation to reduce the symptoms associated with initial phase of C-fibres sensitization. This paper presents the current state of knowledge regarding the use of capsaicin and lidocaine in functional disorders of the urinary bladder, as well as discusses the impact of these substances on afferent C-fibres and the activity of the urinary bladder. Based on previous studies intravesical capsaicin and lidocaine therapy is one of the alternative treatment options in selected patients with functional disorders of the urinary bladder (in particular OAB) in addition to standard anticholinergics therapy or the newer generation of therapies using botulinum toxin.

  8. Expression of constitutive heat shock protein-70 in normal (non-stressed) rabbit urinary bladder tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Levin, R M; Monson, F C; Chacko, S

    1993-04-07

    The expression of constitutive HSP-70 in the urinary bladder was determined by SDS-PAGE and western blotting using a mouse monoclonal antibody against HSP-70. The western blot analysis showed that the mouse anti-HSP-70 cross-reacted with a 70 kDa protein present in the extracts of the urinary bladder muscle and mucosa. Densitometric scanning of the western blots allowed us to specifically quantitate the relative amounts of the HSP-70. The quantitation of the HSP-70 by combining immunoblotting and densitometry using a laser scanner is reproducible and this technique requires only a small amount of tissue. The amounts of HSP-70 can be estimated from a standard curve of nanogram(ng) of HSP-70 vs absorption from the immunoblots. The amounts of HSP-70 in the muscular and mucosal layers in the body of the urinary bladder are more than those in the base of the bladder. The presence of HSP-70 in the muscle and mucosal epithelium of the bladder was demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis of freshly removed tissue from the base and the body of bladder from normal animals.

  9. Spontaneous, idiopathic urinary bladder perforation--case report.

    PubMed

    Wieloch, Maria; Bazylińska, Kamila; Ziemniak, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous, idiopathic urinary bladder rupture is a very rare disease entity, which may face the problem of proper preoperative diagnosis. In many cases the medical history, physical examination, and additional tests raise false suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation. The study presented a case of a female patient with spontaneous urinary bladder perforation, paying particular attention to the diagnostic difficulties associated with the above-mentioned pathology. The aim of the study was to analyse the presence of symptoms and imaging and laboratory results observed in case of spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, as well as differentiate the above-mentioned pathology with gastrointestinal perforation. Whenever diagnosing a patient with acute peritonitis symptoms, in whom the predominating symptoms include sudden abdominal pain, peritoneal cavity fluid presence, hematuria, oliguria, and coexisting increased urea, creatinine, and potassium levels, one should consider the possibility of urinary bladder rupture.

  10. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Tazi, Elmehdi; Benlemlih, Amal; Chbani, Leila; Amarti, Afaf; EL Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Urinary bladder pheochromocytoma is rare. From a case report of unsuspected pheochromocytoma and literature review, the authors develop a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the management of this ectopic pheochromocytoma localization. PMID:19830088

  11. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Ahallal, Youness; Tazi, Elmehdi; Benlemlih, Amal; Chbani, Leila; Amarti, Afaf; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2009-07-22

    Urinary bladder pheochromocytoma is rare. From a case report of unsuspected pheochromocytoma and literature review, the authors develop a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the management of this ectopic pheochromocytoma localization.

  12. [Tissue engineering in urology, new approaches for urinary bladder reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Murav'ev, A N; Orlova, N V; Blinova, M I; Iudintseva, N M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering as applied to urologic pathology is covered extremely poor in the literature despite recently gaining popularity of regenerative medicine. The review reflects the current problems associated with reconstructive surgery of the urinary bladder, experience of the researchers from the United States in implementing cellular technologies for bladder replacement, the problems and prospects of this direction in case of such a severe pathology, as fibrous transformated bladder.

  13. Radiation Dose–Volume Effects Of The Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Yorke, Ellen D.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Shipley, William U.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth overview of the normal-tissue radiation tolerance of the urinary bladder is presented. The most informative studies consider whole-organ irradiation. The data on partial-organ/nonuniform irradiation are suspect because the bladder motion is not accounted for, and many studies lack long enough follow-up data. Future studies are needed. PMID:20171505

  14. Unusual location of a urinary bladder cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Forte, Serafino; Kos, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy among men in the Western world. Bone metastasis occurs in 27 % of the cases. Usually, the location is the spine. The present report describes the first case of a proven distant bone metastasis to the acromion from a urinary bladder carcinoma in a patient with shoulder pain.

  15. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects of the Urinary Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Shipley, William U.

    2010-03-01

    An in-depth overview of the normal-tissue radiation tolerance of the urinary bladder is presented. The most informative studies consider whole-organ irradiation. The data on partial-organ/nonuniform irradiation are suspect because the bladder motion is not accounted for, and many studies lack long enough follow-up data. Future studies are needed.

  16. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--URINARY BLADDER DUPLICATION IN A CAT.

    PubMed

    Cook, Alysa B; Langston, Cathy E; Fischetti, Anthony J; Donovan, Taryn A

    2015-01-01

    A female kitten presented for chronic, intermittent, antibiotic-responsive urinary incontinence and chronic kidney disease. Abdominal ultrasound identified bilateral pelvic/ureteral dilation and three closely apposed thin-walled fluid-filled structures in the caudal abdomen, extending toward the pelvic inlet. Excretory urography and negative contrast cystography identified contrast medium accumulation from the dilated ureters into two tubular soft tissue masses of the caudal abdomen, with subsequent gradual filling of a more cranially located urinary bladder. A retrograde vaginocystourethrogram identified a normal uterus, normal vagina, and a single urethra continuous with the cranially located urinary bladder. Antemortem diagnosis was suspicious for bilateral ectopic ureteroceles. Postmortem diagnosis, 35 months following initial presentation, determined the fluid-filled masses to have abundant smooth muscle in the wall, including a muscularis mucosa connected by a common ostium, consistent with urinary bladder duplication. Urinary bladder duplication should be included as a differential diagnosis in cats with these clinical and imaging characteristics. In this case, differentiation of ectopic ureterocele from urinary bladder duplication required histological confirmation.

  17. [Urodynamics of upper urinary tracts after intestinal plastic surgery on urinary bladder (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Mudraia, I S; David'iants, A A; Zaĭtsev, A V

    1999-01-01

    In dog experiments, the urinary bladder was replaced for an isolated intestinal segment to test upper urinary tract function as regards configuration of the established urine reservoir early and late after the surgery. Intestinal plastic surgery of the bladder changes parameters of ureteral function in unchanged potential reserve of ureteral contraction. Postileocystoplasty urodynamics of the upper urinary tracts is characterized by lowering of intraureteral pressure, decreased amplitude of ureteral contractions, enhanced tonicity and motility. Plastic replacement of the bladder with isolated intestinal segment is not contraindicated in the solitary kidney.

  18. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P<0.02) and tumor invasion (23%). High-dose DFMO had a 47% tumor inhibition (P<0.0001) and 40% inhibition tumor invasion. There was no significant difference between 1000 and 2000 ppm doses of DFMO (P>0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (P<0.0001); however, no effect on tumor invasion was observed. Interestingly, the combination of DFMO (1000 ppm) and CP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, P<0.0001) and tumor invasion (62.5%; P<0.005). Molecular analysis of the urothelial tumors suggested a modulation of polyamine biosynthesis, proliferation, cell cycle regulators resulting from the use of these agents. These results suggest that targeting two or more pathways could be an effective approach for chemoprevention. A combination of CP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention. PMID:26693057

  19. TP53 modulating agent, CP-31398 enhances antitumor effects of ODC inhibitor in mouse model of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Kumar, Gaurav; Lightfoot, Stan; Wu, Xueru; Steele, Vernon; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor p53 and elevated levels of polyamines are known to play key roles in urothelial tumorigenesis. We investigated the inhibition of polyamines biosynthesis and the restoration of p53 signaling as a possible means of preventing muscle invasive urothelial tumors using DFMO, an ODC-inhibiting agent, and CP-31398 (CP), a p53 stabilizing agent. Transgenic UPII-SV40T male mice at 6weeks age (n=15/group) were fed control diet (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing DFMO (1000 and 2000 ppm) or 150 ppm CP or both. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were euthanized and urinary bladders were evaluated to determine tumor weight and histopathology. Low-dose DFMO had a moderate significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth (38%, P<0.02) and tumor invasion (23%). High-dose DFMO had a 47% tumor inhibition (P<0.0001) and 40% inhibition tumor invasion. There was no significant difference between 1000 and 2000 ppm doses of DFMO (P>0.05). CP at 150 ppm alone had a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth by 80% (P<0.0001); however, no effect on tumor invasion was observed. Interestingly, the combination of DFMO (1000 ppm) and CP (150 ppm) led to significant decrease in tumor weight (70%, P<0.0001) and tumor invasion (62.5%; P<0.005). Molecular analysis of the urothelial tumors suggested a modulation of polyamine biosynthesis, proliferation, cell cycle regulators resulting from the use of these agents. These results suggest that targeting two or more pathways could be an effective approach for chemoprevention. A combination of CP and DFMO appears to be a promising strategy for urothelial TCC prevention.

  20. Application of bladder acellular matrix in urinary bladder regeneration: the state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Gubanska, Iga; Drewa, Gerard; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the "holy grail" of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM). In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM.

  1. Ruptured urinary bladder in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Roussel, A J; Ward, D S

    1985-06-15

    A yearling Holstein heifer was admitted with abdominal pain and bilateral, ventral abdominal distention. Bladder rupture was diagnosed by abdominocentesis and endoscopy. Correction of metabolic derangements was accomplished by volume diuresis, with maintenance of a urethral catheter before surgical repair of the bladder. The cause of the bladder rupture was believed to be related to adhesions resulting from previous surgery for urachal abscessation. Bladder rupture, which usually occurs in bulls or steers secondary to urolithiasis or in cows after dystocia, also should be considered in prepartum heifers with dehydration, abdominal pain, and abdominal distention.

  2. Dynamic multi-planar EPI of the urinary bladder during voiding with simultaneous detrusor pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Simmons, A; Williams, S C; Craggs, M; Andrew, C; Gregory, L; Allin, M; Mundy, A; Leaker, B

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging gives high quality images of the urinary bladder with excellent contrast. We report here the first application of dynamic, multi-slice, echo planar imaging to a study of urinary bladder emptying. Changes in urinary bladder volumes and rates of urine expulsion from the bladder have been measured simultaneously with bladder pressure. The method shows promise for clinical applications involving compromised bladder function, for reappraising bladder contraction strength-volume relationships, and for investigating the rate of change of length, three-dimensional shape, and wall tension in different parts of the bladder during micturition.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in the puerperium.

    PubMed

    Kekre, A N; Kekre, N; Nath, V; Seshadri, L

    1997-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in the puerperium is extremely rare. The patient usually presents with acute abdominal pain. Awareness on the part of the treating surgeon that bladder rupture is a possibility will lead to an early diagnosis. Immediate exploration, removing urine from the peritoneal cavity or retropubic space, closing the rupture and securing good vesical drainage, results in resumption of vesical function, and thereby decreases the mortality and morbidity.

  4. Mesh erosion into urinary bladder following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Arjun Singh; Kumar, Ameet; Kumar, Bharath N.

    2017-01-01

    Along with advantages, evolving surgical techniques bring unique complications. A young male developed urinary symptoms a few months after undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. On evaluation, mesh erosion into the urinary bladder was found. Removal of mesh with repair of bladder was done. A vesico-cutaneous fistula resulted which was managed with repeat surgery. We review all such cases reported in literature; discuss the etiopathogenesis, presentation, management and possible preventive measures. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the 12th case being reported. PMID:28281479

  5. An abattoir survey of urinary bladder lesions in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Herenda, Drago; Dukes, Thomas W.; Feltmate, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Postmortem examination of 21,340 cattle at an Ontario abattoir over a one-year period revealed macroscopic lesions in urinary bladders of 2,296 animals (10.8%). Chronic cystitis, the most frequent finding, was observed in 2,209 cases (10.4%); uroliths were found in 994 (4.7%) of the cattle with chronic cystitis. Other types of urinary bladder lesions included acute cystitis, developmental abnormalities, hyperplasia, neoplasia, emphysema, and a parasitic cystitis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17423629

  6. Social stress in mice induces urinary bladder overactivity and increases TRPV1 channel-dependent afferent nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Mingin, Gerald C; Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Vizzard, Margaret A; Nelson, Mark T

    2015-09-15

    Social stress has been implicated as a cause of urinary bladder hypertrophy and dysfunction in humans. Using a murine model of social stress, we and others have shown that social stress leads to bladder overactivity. Here, we show that social stress leads to bladder overactivity, increased bladder compliance, and increased afferent nerve activity. In the social stress paradigm, 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for a total of 2 wk, via barrier cage, to a C57BL/6 retired breeder aggressor mouse. We performed conscious cystometry with and without intravesical infusion of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine, and measured pressure-volume relationships and afferent nerve activity during bladder filling using an ex vivo bladder model. Stress leads to a decrease in intermicturition interval and void volume in vivo, which was restored by capsazepine. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that at low pressures, bladder compliance and afferent activity were elevated in stressed bladders compared with unstressed bladders. Capsazepine did not significantly change afferent activity in unstressed mice, but significantly decreased afferent activity at all pressures in stressed bladders. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TRPV1 colocalizes with CGRP to stain nerve fibers in unstressed bladders. Colocalization significantly increased along the same nerve fibers in the stressed bladders. Our results support the concept that social stress induces TRPV1-dependent afferent nerve activity, ultimately leading to the development of overactive bladder symptoms.

  7. Social stress in mice induces urinary bladder overactivity and increases TRPV1 channel-dependent afferent nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, Thomas J.; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Vizzard, Margaret A.; Nelson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Social stress has been implicated as a cause of urinary bladder hypertrophy and dysfunction in humans. Using a murine model of social stress, we and others have shown that social stress leads to bladder overactivity. Here, we show that social stress leads to bladder overactivity, increased bladder compliance, and increased afferent nerve activity. In the social stress paradigm, 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for a total of 2 wk, via barrier cage, to a C57BL/6 retired breeder aggressor mouse. We performed conscious cystometry with and without intravesical infusion of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine, and measured pressure-volume relationships and afferent nerve activity during bladder filling using an ex vivo bladder model. Stress leads to a decrease in intermicturition interval and void volume in vivo, which was restored by capsazepine. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that at low pressures, bladder compliance and afferent activity were elevated in stressed bladders compared with unstressed bladders. Capsazepine did not significantly change afferent activity in unstressed mice, but significantly decreased afferent activity at all pressures in stressed bladders. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TRPV1 colocalizes with CGRP to stain nerve fibers in unstressed bladders. Colocalization significantly increased along the same nerve fibers in the stressed bladders. Our results support the concept that social stress induces TRPV1-dependent afferent nerve activity, ultimately leading to the development of overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:26224686

  8. [A pheochromocytoma of urinary bladder treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Naokazu; Komura, Kazumasa; Koyama, Kouhei; Inamoto, Teruo; Segawa, Naoki; Tanimoto, Keiji; Tuji, Motomu; Azuma, Haruhito; Katsuoka, Yoji

    2009-12-01

    A 69-year-old female presented with hypertension and a solid mass in the bladder on ultrasonography. Cystoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor in the right lateral wall of the bladder. A transurethral resection was performed. Histologically, pathologic examination revealed a malignant pheochromocytoma. She refused surgical therapy and radiation therapy. She had no treatment for two years. She suddenly complained of gross hematuria. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a bladder tumor of high intensity and extra-bladder invasion. She was treated with chemotherapy (CVD) for 26 cycles. Since the tumor size was reduced, she was referred to our hospital for operative indication. Partial cystectomy was performed. Histologically, the tumor was a pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder. Ten months after the operation, she has no clinical evidence of recurrence.

  9. Ultrasound-guided urinary bladder biopsy through a urinary catheter in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Julio; Norman, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    A 34.4 kg 5 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a urinary bladder mass. The dog had a recent onset of hematuria and stranguria but otherwise appeared to be healthy. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the urinary bladder. The dog was sedated and a 10-French rubber catheter that had the blunt end removed was passed from the urethra to the urinary bladder. Using ultrasound guidance, ellipsoid cup biopsy forceps were advanced through the rubber catheter to the urinary bladder mass and biopsies were successfully obtained. The dog was discharged from the hospital a few hours after the procedure. Histopathology of the mass was consistent with polypoid cystitis. Follow-up surgical removal of the polyp was uneventful, and histopathology confirmed the presurgical biopsy diagnosis. Procurement of urinary bladder biopsies through a urinary catheter with ultrasound guidance was used as a minimally invasive alternative to either cystoscopy or surgery in a bitch. Use of this technique achieved a diagnosis without the need for specialized endoscopic equipment, anesthesia, or surgery.

  10. Spontaneous rupture of urinary bladder: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Albino, Giuseppe; Bilardi, Francesco; Gattulli, Domenico; Maggi, Pietro; Corvasce, Antonio; Marucco, Ettore Cirillo

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the bladder is a rare event. The clinical presentation shows the signs and symptoms of peritonitis, but the diagnosis is made at the operating table. This event is burdened with a high mortality rate. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who came to our observation. He was a chronic carrier of urinary catheter, at least 7 times removed traumatically by himself. At the time of admission he showed drastic reduction in urine output, absence of hydronephrosis, normal functioning of the catheter, a tense and widely meteoric abdomen, the presence of air-fluid levels, normal kidneys, absence of free fluid in the abdomen. The CT showed a fluid collection of about 7 cm diameter between the bladder and rectum. The explorative laparotomy found a small fissuration of the posterior wall of the bladder. For his severe conditions, the patient died a few hours after surgery, in intensive care unit. Although it is a rare event, since 1980, 177 cases of spontaneous rupture of the bladder are reported in the literature. Their causes may be essentially divided into two groups: for increase of intravesical pressure; or for weakening of the bladder wall. In most cases, the spontaneous rupture of the bladder takes place in presence of a urothelial neoplasm or after radiation therapy of the pelvic organs. The etiology of spontaneous rupture of the bladder in our case does not relate to a bladder tumor or radiotherapy. It may have been caused by repeated episodes of acute retention of urine with extreme bladder distension up to 3 liters. It is not easy to think of a bladder perforation in patients presenting signs of peritonitis without a history of bladder cancer or pelvic radiotherapy. A CT with intravesical contrast medium could help the diagnostic orientation.

  11. A rare case of malignant paraganglioma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vinaya B; Bhandare, Amit T

    2015-01-01

    Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is a rare pathologic entity with no definitive histological, immunohistochemical or molecular features to determine its malignant potential. Malignancy is essentially determined by the presence of deep local invasion, invasion of adjacent structures and lymph node or distant metastases. So far, up to 180 cases of paraganglioma have been reported, with <30 being malignant. A 50-year-old male presented with painless hematuria for 6 months. Cystoscopic biopsy of the bladder mass was given as invasive urothelial carcinoma. Patient underwent radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The gross morphological brown discoloration of mass on formalin fixation was suspicious of paraganglioma and was confirmed on immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of malignant paraganglioma was made based on regional lymph node metastases. We describe a rare case of a patient with malignant urinary bladder paraganglioma with main differential diagnostic considerations on the histomorphology.

  12. Malakoplakia in the urinary bladder of a kitten.

    PubMed

    Bayley, C; Slocombe, R; Tatarczuch, L

    2008-07-01

    Malakoplakia is a form of chronic granulomatous inflammation that in humans most commonly affects the urinary bladder of middle-aged women. Naturally occurring malakoplakia is rare in animals, having been described twice in the pig only. An 8-week-old kitten was diagnosed with malakoplakia of the urinary bladder after a 3-week history of dysuria. Post-mortem examination revealed a markedly enlarged bladder with a diffusely nodular mucosal surface. Microscopically, there was diffuse submucosal infiltration by histiocytes stained positively by periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and described in the human condition as "von Hansemann cells". Intracellular and extracellular "Michaelis-Gutman" inclusion bodies were seen on light and electron microscopical examination. These structures are considered pathognomonic for malakoplakia. The pathogenesis of malakoplakia is enigmatic. Defective function of phagolysosomes is currently suspected to underlie the abnormal accumulation of submucosal histiocytes; however the primary functional defect remains unknown.

  13. Anoctamin-1 in the Juvenile Rat Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Bijos, Dominika A.; Drake, Marcus J.; Vahabi, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate presence, location and functional role of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) Anoctamin-1 (Ano1) in rat urinary bladder. Materials and Methods Bladders from 3 week old Wistar rats were studied. End-point PCR on total mRNA was used to assess the expression of Ano1. Immunofluorescent labelling of whole mount bladder tissue imaged with confocal microscope allowed localization of Ano1 and vimentin immunopositive cells. The effects of CaCC blockers: niflumic acid (NFA) (3,10,30 µM) and 5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) (10, 30 µM) on spontaneous phasic contractile activity of intact (with mucosa) and denuded (without mucosa) detrusor strips were measured under isometric tension in organ baths (n = 141, N = 60). Results Ano1 expression was found at mRNA level in mucosa and detrusor layers. Confocal microscopy revealed presence of Ano1 immunopositive cells in mucosa and in detrusor layers; a subpopulation of vimentin positive cells expressed Ano1. Both chloride channel blockers reduced the amplitude and frequency of phasic contractions in denuded and intact strips. Conclusions Ano1 is expressed in rat urinary bladder and is present in cells sharing markers with interstitial cells. CaCC blockers reduced phasic activity of the bladder tissue. Ano1 is expressed in the bladder and plays a role in its spontaneous phasic contractile activity. PMID:25181534

  14. Lymphoma affecting the urinary bladder in three dogs and a cat.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Livia; Lamb, Christopher R; Corzo-Menendez, Nuria; Holloway, Andrew; Eastwood, Jane M

    2006-01-01

    Three dogs and one cat with lymphoma affecting the urinary bladder are reported and the findings on abdominal radiographs and ultrasound are described. Mural lesions representing lymphoma affecting the urinary bladder were identified ultrasonographically in all animals. The most common complications associated with urinary bladder lymphoma were hydronephrosis and hydroureter. In two patients contrast radiography was necessary to detect leakage of urine in the peritoneal and retroperitoneal space. The radiographic and ultrasonographic signs were similar to those reported with other urinary bladder neoplasms; hence urinary bladder lymphoma could not be distinguished from the more common urinary bladder neoplasms, such as transitional cell carcinoma. It is important to include lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder wall thickening and mural mass in dogs and cats.

  15. Developing a functional urinary bladder: a neuronal context

    PubMed Central

    Keast, Janet R.; Smith-Anttila, Casey J. A.; Osborne, Peregrine B.

    2015-01-01

    The development of organs occurs in parallel with the formation of their nerve supply. The innervation of pelvic organs (lower urinary tract, hindgut, and sexual organs) is complex and we know remarkably little about the mechanisms that form these neural pathways. The goal of this short review is to use the urinary bladder as an example to stimulate interest in this question. The bladder requires a healthy mature nervous system to store urine and release it at behaviorally appropriate times. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the construction of these neural circuits is not only relevant to defining the basis of developmental problems but may also suggest strategies to restore connectivity and function following injury or disease in adults. The bladder nerve supply comprises multiple classes of sensory, and parasympathetic or sympathetic autonomic effector (motor) neurons. First, we define the developmental endpoint by describing this circuitry in adult rodents. Next we discuss the innervation of the developing bladder, identifying challenges posed by this area of research. Last we provide examples of genetically modified mice with bladder dysfunction and suggest potential neural contributors to this state. PMID:26389118

  16. A case of signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder with spontaneous urinary extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Sanish S.; Thachil, Joseph V.; Raja, T. `; Mani, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (PSRCC) of the bladder is a relatively rare variant of adenocarcinoma of the bladder with poor prognosis. Also PSRCC of the bladder presenting with spontaneous urinary extravasation is very rare. We present the case of a 48-year male who presented with spontaneous urinary extravasation and was diagnosed to have PSRCC of the urinary bladder on evaluation. He was treated with radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. This report emphasizes the need to rule out other primary sites of adenocarcinoma in the body, which may metastasize to the urinary bladder. PMID:22022068

  17. Contiguous but dissimilar epithelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, E.; Morrison, D.

    1968-01-01

    An unusual tumour of the urinary bladder is described. It consists of two distinct nodules each with a quite different histological appearance, one being mucus-secreting adenocarcinoma, the other transitional cell carcinoma. Where the nodules are in contact there is little intermingling of the two histological patterns and it is suggested that the findings are probably due to the collision of two separate neoplasms. Metaplastic changes are present in the bladder mucosa adjacent to the tumour. The significance of these changes in the pathogenesis of adanocarcinoma is discussed. Images PMID:4301687

  18. Spontaneous Urinary Bladder Perforation: An Unusual Presentation of Diabetes Mellitus☆

    PubMed Central

    Kabarriti, Abdo E.; Ramchandani, Parvati; Guzzo, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous urinary bladder perforation is a rare event, which requires immediate medical attention due to its extremely high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with acute-onset abdominal pain without any inciting events. His glucose level at the time of presentation was 1107 mg/dL. On initial abdominal imaging, it was believed that he had a large pelvic mass likely originating from the bladder. On further workup at our hospital, it was discovered that he had an intraperitoneal perforation after which he underwent an exploratory laparotomy and a cystorrhaphy. PMID:26955559

  19. Macroscopic electrical propagation in the guinea pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Hammad, F T; Stephen, B; Lubbad, L; Morrison, J F B; Lammers, W J

    2014-07-15

    There is little knowledge about macroscopic electrical propagation in the wall of the urinary bladder. Recording simultaneously from a large number of extracellular electrodes is one technology that could be used to study the patterns of macroscopic electrical propagations. The urinary bladders from 14 guinea pigs were isolated and placed in an organ bath. A 16 × 4-electrode array was positioned at various sites on the serosal bladder surface, and recordings were performed at different intravesical volumes. In four experiments, carbachol (CCH; 10(-6) M), nifedipine (10 mM), or tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10(-6) M) was added to the superfusing fluid. After the experiments, the extracellular signals were analyzed and propagation maps were constructed. Electrical waves were detected at all sites on the bladder surface and propagated for a limited distance before terminating spontaneously. The majority of waves (>90%) propagated in the axial direction (i.e., from dome to base or vice versa). An increase in vesicle volume significantly decreased the conduction velocity (from 4.9 ± 1.5 to 2.7 ± 0.7 cm/s; P < 0.05). CCH increased, nifedipine decreased, while TTX had little effect on electrical activities. In addition, a new electrical phenomenon, termed a "patch," was discovered whereby a simultaneous electrical deflection was detected across an area of the bladder surface. Two types of electrical activities were detected on the bladder surface: 1) electrical waves propagating preferentially in the axial direction and 2) electrical patches. The propagating electrical waves could form the basis for local spontaneous contractions in the bladder during the filling phase.

  20. [Fall during dancing can lead to urinary bladder rupture].

    PubMed

    Winck-Flyvholm, Lili

    2013-12-02

    The definition of dancing is body movements performed to music. It is hard to imagine any festive occasion without music and dancing. It is also a great exercise which helps you to stay in shape. As with any other form of sports, dancing can lead to injury. In this case report it is described how a fall during dancing resulted in urinary bladder rupture. This type of injury under these circumstances has never been described before in the literature.

  1. mTOR inhibitors in urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Leite, R; Arantes-Rodrigues, R; Sousa, Nuno; Oliveira, P A; Santos, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the great scientific advances that have been made in cancer treatment, there is still much to do, particularly with regard to urinary bladder cancer. Some of the drugs used in urinary bladder cancer treatment have been in use for more than 30 years and show reduced effectiveness and high recurrence rates. There have been several attempts to find new and more effective drugs, to be used alone or in combination with the drugs already in use, in order to overcome this situation.The biologically important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is altered in cancer and mTOR inhibitors have raised many expectations as potentially important anticancer drugs. In this article, the authors will review the mTOR pathway and present their experiences of the use of some mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, in isolation and in conjunction with non-mTOR inhibitors cisplatin and gemcitabine, on urinary bladder tumour cell lines. The non-muscle-invasive cell line, 5637, is the only one that exhibits a small alteration in the mTOR and AKT phosphorylation after rapalogs exposure. Also, there was a small inhibition of cell proliferation. With gemcitabine plus everolimus or temsirolimus, the results were encouraging as a more effective response was noticed with both combinations, especially in the 5637 and T24 cell lines. Cisplatin associated with everolimus or temsirolimus also gave promising results, as an antiproliferative effect was observed when the drugs were associated, in particular on the 5637 and HT1376 cell lines. Everolimus or temsirolimus in conjunction with gemcitabine or cisplatin could have an important role to play in urinary bladder cancer treatment, depending on the tumour grading.

  2. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Iida, Keitaro; Etani, Toshiki; Ando, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB) is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB. PMID:27099604

  3. Organic cation secretion by Cancer borealis urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.; Holliday, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    In the crab, Cancer borealis, initial clearance studies showed a potent renal excretory system for the model organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA). (/sup 14/C)-TEA clearance averaged 145 +/- 32 ml/day, which was 18 times the paired polyethylene glycol clearance. TEA uptake by slices of urinary bladder was concentrative, saturable, inhibitable by N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide chloride, and dependent on glycolytic, but not oxidative, metabolism. When mounted in flux chambers, bladders exhibited a large net secretory flux. For 0.1 mM TEA, the ratio of secretory to reabsorptive fluxes was 65. Urinary bladders from another crab, Cancer irroratus, and a lobster, Homarus americanus, also exhibited net TEA secretion. In C. borealis bladder, secretory transport was concentrative, saturable, and nearly abolished by addition of 1 mM quinine to the serosol bath. Reabsorptive transport was not concentrative and was not reduced by luminal quinine. The data are consistent with a secretory pathway that is transcellular and mediated by carriers at both the serosal and luminal membranes.

  4. Functional role of cannabinoid receptors in urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas; Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa (maijuana), and their derivatives produce a wide spectrum of central and peripheral effects, some of which may have clinical applications. The discovery of specific cannabinoid receptors and a family of endogenous ligands of those receptors has attracted much attention to the general cannabinoid pharmacology. In recent years, studies on the functional role of cannabinoid receptors in bladder have been motivated by the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids on voiding dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. In this review, we shall summarize the literature on the expression of cannabinoid receptors in urinary bladder and the peripheral influence of locally and systemically administered cannabinoids in the bladder. The ongoing search for cannabinoid-based therapeutic strategies devoid of psychotropic effects can be complemented with local delivery into bladder by the intravesical route. A greater understanding of the role of the peripheral CB1 and CB2 receptor system in lower urinary tract is necessary to allow the development of new treatment for pelvic disorders. PMID:20535281

  5. [Functional status of urinary tract after plastic surgery of the urinary bladder with a segment of the ileum (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Kirpatovskiĭ, V I; Mudraia, I S; David'iants, A A; Kaprin, A D; Obukhova, T V; Lavrinova, L N

    1999-01-01

    Replacement of the gall bladder with an isolated ileal segment was made to evaluate function of the urinary tracts depending on configuration of the created urine reservoir early and late after the operation in dogs. Intestinoplasty of the gall bladder changes parameters of ureteral function. Upper urinary tract urodynamics after ileocystoplasty is characterized by lowering of intraureteral pressure, decreased amplitude of the contractions, high tonicity and motility. The intestinal bladder has the same mean basal pressure at rest but less when full than the control animals. Reflex urination after the bladder reconstruction in subtotal resection was intact. Detubulized urinary reservoir had low intravesical pressure and no spontaneous contraction activity.

  6. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Angela

    2014-10-01

    We review the morphology and differential diagnoses of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the bladder, using a study case to illustrate the discussion. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia is a rare, reactive response to an ischemic insult, classically to radiation therapy, and consists of proliferative, pseudoinfiltrative urothelial nests within the stroma. The presence of background radiation therapy-related changes, such as numerous dilated thrombosed vessels, reactive-appearing endothelial and stromal cells, edema, and hemorrhage, can provide clues to the diagnosis. The main differential diagnoses include invasive urothelial carcinoma and the nested variant of urothelial carcinoma; morphologic features, such as the presence or absence of background therapy-related changes and the architecture and the cytologic atypia of the nests, can help distinguish between pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia and urothelial carcinoma.

  7. The Urinary Bladder Transcriptome and Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling.

    PubMed

    Habuka, Masato; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Pontén, Fredrik; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Uhlen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    To understand functions and diseases of urinary bladder, it is important to define its molecular constituents and their roles in urinary bladder biology. Here, we performed genome-wide deep RNA sequencing analysis of human urinary bladder samples and identified genes up-regulated in the urinary bladder by comparing the transcriptome data to those of all other major human tissue types. 90 protein-coding genes were elevated in the urinary bladder, either with enhanced expression uniquely in the urinary bladder or elevated expression together with at least one other tissue (group enriched). We further examined the localization of these proteins by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays and 20 of these 90 proteins were localized to the whole urothelium with a majority not yet described in the context of the urinary bladder. Four additional proteins were found specifically in the umbrella cells (Uroplakin 1a, 2, 3a, and 3b), and three in the intermediate/basal cells (KRT17, PCP4L1 and ATP1A4). 61 of the 90 elevated genes have not been previously described in the context of urinary bladder and the corresponding proteins are interesting targets for more in-depth studies. In summary, an integrated omics approach using transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling has been used to define a comprehensive list of proteins elevated in the urinary bladder.

  8. Effects of propiverine hydrochloride on the spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig urinary bladder strip and rhythmic urinary bladder contractions of anesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Haruno, A

    1992-12-01

    The effects of propiverine hydrochloride (P-4, CAS 60569-19-9), a new drug to treat pollakiuria, was investigated on the spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig urinary bladder strip and rhythmic urinary bladder contractions of anesthetized dog. At 10(-6)-10(-5) mol/l P-4 raised the base line of an isolated guinea-pig urinary bladder strip and accelerated its spontaneous contraction. At 10(-4) mol/l P-4 raised, and then lowered the baseline, and accelerated then suppressed its spontaneous contractions. Papaverine at 10(-6)-10(-4) mol/l also showed a similar action as P-4 in the isolated guinea-pig urinary bladder strip. Flavoxate at 10(-6)-10(-4) mol/l raised its base line and accelerated its spontaneous contractions. Those of P-4 at 10(-5) mol/l were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin 10(-6) mol/l). At doses of 50 mg/kg or more, intraduodenal administration of P-4 suppressed the frequency of rhythmic urinary bladder contractions of anesthetized dog in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that P-4 shows mainly an accelerating action on the endogenous spontaneous contractions of urinary bladder, but on exogenous contractions induced by the Balloon's method it shows an suppressing action and regulates the functions of the urinary bladder, so P-4 might become a useful drug for the clinical treatment of micturitional dysfunction, for example, pollakiuria.

  9. Bladder Neck Urothelial Carcinoma: A Urinary Bladder Subsite Carcinoma With Distinct Clinicopathology.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Rashid, Hani

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the clinicopathology of carcinomas originating in the urinary bladder neck, 316 cystectomies for urinary bladder carcinoma performed between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2013, were analyzed. Clinicopathological parameters were compared between bladder neck carcinomas (BNCs) and non-BNCs. Among the 316 cystectomies were 19 BNCs and 297 non-BNCs. BNCs accounted for 19/316 (6%) of all the cases, with a male-to-female ratio 18:1. Bladder neck location was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage. Ninety percent and 58% BNCs presented at stage ≥T2 and ≥T3, respectively, versus 62% and 38% non-BNCs at ≥T2 and ≥T3, respectively. Significantly higher percentage of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis were also seen in BNCs (68% and 47%, respectively) than in non-BNCs (29% and 17%, respectively). In conclusion, BNCs present with a significantly higher frequency of muscle invasion and advanced tumor stage, lymphovascular invasion, as well as local and distant metastasis at diagnosis compared with the non-BNCs group. Recognition of these unique clinicopathologic features with early detection and possibly more aggressive management of BNC can potentially have a significant impact on the patient's outcome.

  10. Optogenetic Modulation of Urinary Bladder Contraction for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hong; Hong, Jin Ki; Jang, Ja Yun; An, Jieun; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kang, Tong Mook; Shin, Hyun Joon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis

    2017-01-01

    As current clinical approaches for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction such as pharmacological and electrical stimulation treatments lack target specificity, thus resulting in suboptimal outcomes with various side effects, a better treatment modality with spatial and temporal target-specificity is necessary. In this study, we delivered optogenetic membrane proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mice using either the Cre-loxp transgenic system or a viral transfection method. The results showed that depolarizing ChR2-SMCs with blue light induced bladder contraction, whereas hyperpolarizing NpHR-SMCs with yellow light suppressed PGE2-induced overactive contraction. We also confirmed that optogenetic contraction of bladder smooth muscles in this study is not neurogenic, but solely myogenic, and that optogenetic light stimulation can modulate the urination in vivo. This study thus demonstrated the utility of optogenetic modulation of smooth muscle as a means to actively control the urinary bladder contraction with spatial and temporal accuracy. These features would increase the efficacy of bladder control in LUT dysfunctions without the side effects of conventional clinical therapies. PMID:28098199

  11. Optogenetic Modulation of Urinary Bladder Contraction for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hong; Hong, Jin Ki; Jang, Ja Yun; An, Jieun; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kang, Tong Mook; Shin, Hyun Joon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis

    2017-01-01

    As current clinical approaches for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction such as pharmacological and electrical stimulation treatments lack target specificity, thus resulting in suboptimal outcomes with various side effects, a better treatment modality with spatial and temporal target-specificity is necessary. In this study, we delivered optogenetic membrane proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mice using either the Cre-loxp transgenic system or a viral transfection method. The results showed that depolarizing ChR2-SMCs with blue light induced bladder contraction, whereas hyperpolarizing NpHR-SMCs with yellow light suppressed PGE2-induced overactive contraction. We also confirmed that optogenetic contraction of bladder smooth muscles in this study is not neurogenic, but solely myogenic, and that optogenetic light stimulation can modulate the urination in vivo. This study thus demonstrated the utility of optogenetic modulation of smooth muscle as a means to actively control the urinary bladder contraction with spatial and temporal accuracy. These features would increase the efficacy of bladder control in LUT dysfunctions without the side effects of conventional clinical therapies.

  12. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of gallium in bladder tissue following gallium maltolate administration during urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L; Blyth, Robert I R; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M; Thompson, Julie

    2013-11-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli.

  13. Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy of Gallium in Bladder Tissue following Gallium Maltolate Administration during Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L.; Blyth, Robert I. R.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M.; Thompson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23877680

  14. Prognostic significance of selected lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wakai, K; Ohno, Y; Obata, K; Aoki, K

    1993-12-01

    To examine the prognostic significance of lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer, we conducted a follow-up study of 258 incident bladder cancer patients, who were originally recruited in a case-control study in metropolitan Nagoya. Information on individual survivals was obtained from the computer data-file of the tumor registry of the Nagoya Bladder Cancer Research Group. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations of 5-year survivorship with educational attainment, marital status, drinking habits and consumption of green tea in males, and age at first consultation, histological type and grade of tumor, stage and distant metastasis in both sexes. After adjustment for age, stage, histology (histological type and grade) and distant metastasis by means of a proportional hazards model, drinking of alcoholic beverages was significantly associated with the prognosis of bladder cancer in males. Its adjusted hazard ratio was 0.46 (95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.79), favoring patients who had taken alcoholic beverages. In detailed analysis, ex-drinkers and all levels of current drinkers demonstrated hazard ratios smaller than unity, although no clear dose-response relationship was detected. No prognostic significance was found for such lifestyle factors as smoking habit, uses of artificial sweeteners and hairdye, and consumption of coffee, black tea, matcha (powdered green tea) and cola.

  15. Recent Advances in Urinary Tract Reconstruction for Neuropathic Bladder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Lorenzo, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic bladder usually causes several limitations to patients’ quality of life, including urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, and upper urinary tract damage. Its management has significantly changed over the last few years. The aim of our paper is to address some salient features of recent literature dealing with reconstructive procedures in pediatric and adolescent patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26962441

  16. Differences in the expression of transient receptor potential channel V1, transient receptor potential channel A1 and mechanosensitive two pore-domain K+ channels between the lumbar splanchnic and pelvic nerve innervations of mouse urinary bladder and colon.

    PubMed

    La, J H; Schwartz, E S; Gebhart, G F

    2011-07-14

    The bladder and distal colon are innervated by lumbar splanchnic (LSN) and pelvic nerves (PN) whose axons arise from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons at thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) spinal levels, respectively. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of differences between LSN and PN mechanosensitive afferents, we analyzed the gene expression of two potentially counteracting ion channel groups involved in mechanosensation, transient receptor potential channels (TRPV1 and TRPA1) and mechanosensitive two pore-domain K(+) (K(2P)) channels (TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK), in TL and LS DRG neurons innervating mouse bladder or distal colon. The proportion of TRPV1-expressing cells (41∼61%) did not differ between TL and LS neurons innervating bladder or colon. TRPA1 was seldom detected in bladder LS neurons whereas it was expressed in 64∼66% of bladder TL, colon TL and colon LS neurons. Coexpression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was frequent. TREK-1-expressing cells were more prevalent in LS than TL ganglia in both bladder- and colon-DRG neurons. All three K(2P) channels were detected more frequently in TRPV1-positive neurons in TL ganglia. More than half of TL neurons expressing only TRPA1 were devoid of any of the three K(2P) channels, whereas all TL neurons expressing both TRPA1 and TRPV1 expressed at least one of the K(2P) channels. These results reveal clear differences between LSN and PN sensory pathways in TRPA1 and TREK-1 gene expression and in the gene expression of K(2P) channels in TRPV1-expressing neurons. This study further documents heterogeneity of visceral afferents based on combinations of the five channels examined.

  17. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Dropkin, Benjamin M; Ingimarsson, Johann P; Jones, Jonathan D; Pettus, Jason R; Seigne, John D

    2015-06-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is a fibroinflammatory condition of unclear etiology that can present with inflammatory changes and enlargement of a wide variety of organs, most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. A diagnosis requires an elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 concentration and a tissue biopsy showing a dense plasma cell infiltrate with an increased percentage of immunoglobulin G4+ plasma cells. This disease infrequently presents in the genitourinary tract, and as such might be unfamiliar to and potentially overlooked by urologists. Here we present the third reported case of immunoglobulin G4-related disease manifesting as a mass in the urinary bladder.

  18. Urinary bladder herniation through a caudoventral abdominal wall defect in a mature cat.

    PubMed

    Neville-Towle, Jack; Sakals, Sherisse

    2015-09-01

    A 16-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with no history of trauma was presented to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine for assessment of urinary incontinence. Diagnostic investigation revealed herniation of the urinary bladder through a caudoventral abdominal wall defect. Clinical signs resolved after surgical reduction of the bladder.

  19. Urinary bladder diverticulum and its association with malignancy: an anatomical study on cadavers.

    PubMed

    Prakash; Rajini, T; Kumar Bhardwaj, Ajay; V, Jayanthi; Kalyani Rao, P; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Present work was directed to study the prevalence and anatomical basis of diverticulum formation and its association with malignancy inside the urinary bladder on cadavers. Urinary bladder diverticulum and its complications including malignancy has been reported by different authors based on their study on radiological findings and endoscopy. Present study was undertaken on cadavers to meet the aforementioned objectives. Thirty properly embalmed cadavers (19 males and 11 females) of different ages were dissected. Sagittal section of pelvis was studied. Urinary bladder was incised to expose the interior and it was examined for the presence of diverticulum (including number and location). Detailed history of the cause of death of cadavers with diverticulum was studied to determine how many of them suffered from urinary bladder diverticular carcinoma. 23.4% cadavers (31.6% males and 9.1% females) showed presence of urinary bladder diverticulum. The location of the diverticulum in all the cadavers was on superior and lateral side of the ureteric opening on the posterior surface of the urinary bladder. Diverticulum of one male cadaver aged 74 years was complicated by malignancy. Our study observed greater prevalence of diverticulum formation as compared to previous reports. In the present work, 14.3% diverticulum of the urinary bladder showed malignant change, which is more than earlier reports in the literature. Urinary bladder diverticulum should neither be neglected nor ignored. Appropriate early treatment (including the cause) of the diverticulum should be undertaken to avoid complications like malignancy which will finally ensure longevity.

  20. Interesting Layering of Excreted 18F-FDG in the Urinary Bladder in Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Distended Bladder.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhang, Wenjie; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu

    2015-09-01

    Settling of (18)F-FDG in the bladder is often noted on whole-body PET/CT images, but this phenomenon has never received any careful attention and the mechanism has been unclear. The 2 patients described in this report, one with a T1 pathologic fracture and another with widespread bone and lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor, underwent PET/CT. Both had urinary tract infection and a distended bladder during scanning. The interesting layering of (18)F-FDG in the urinary bladder was observed in both patients. The presence of this phenomenon demands careful evaluation of the urine by the clinician, and the mechanism is hypothesized to be slow (18)F-FDG excretion in patients with a distended urinary bladder, resulting in delayed mixing with urine. In addition, urinary tract infection may be a potential cause. Images showing this interesting layering should be interpreted with care.

  1. Urinary APE1/Ref-1: A Potential Bladder Cancer Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunga; Shin, Ju Hyun; Lee, Yu Ran; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Song, Ki Hak; Na, Yong Gil; Chang, Seok Jong; Lim, Jae Sung; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common urothelial cancers with still noticeable incidence rate. Early detection of BCa is highly correlated with successful therapeutic outcomes. We previously showed that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) was expressed at an increased level in the serum of BCa patients when compared to the level in healthy controls. In this study, we investigated whether urinary APE1/Ref-1 was also elevated in patients with BCa. In this case-control study, voided urine was collected from 277 subjects including 169 BCa patients and 108 non-BCa controls. Urinary APE1/Ref-1 level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). APE1/Ref-1 levels were significantly elevated in BCa patients relative to levels in non-BCa controls and were correlated with tumor grade and stage. Urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels were also higher in patients with recurrence history of BCa. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of APE1/Ref-1 showed an area under the curve of 0.83, indicating the reliability and validity of this biomarker. The optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity was determined to be 82% and 80% at a cut-off value of 0.376 ng/100 μL for detection of APE1/Ref-1 in urine. In conclusion, urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels measured from noninvasively obtained body fluids would be clinically applicable for diagnosis of BCa.

  2. Explosion of the urinary bladder during transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Baldvinsdóttir, Bryndís; Gíslason, Thornorsteinn; Jónsson, Eiríkur

    2014-12-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Complications during the procedure are rare. An extremely rare complication is a rupture of the urinary bladder. This article reports a case where an explosion occurred during TURP, resulting in a large intraperitoneal rupture of the urinary bladder. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy to repair the bladder.

  3. Structural Changes of the Urinary Bladder After Chronic Complete Spinal Cord Injury in Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Roider, Karin; Patras, Irina; Hutu, Ioan; Bauer, Sophina; Janetschek, Günter; Zimmermann, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the structural changes of the urinary bladder after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) in minipigs with the primary focus on the analysis of urinary bladder wall proteins and their quantitative distribution. Methods Seven Göttingen minipigs (adult, female) underwent a complete spinal cord transection. Follow-up time was 4 months during which the bladder was drained by frequent single catheterisation and data from the bladder diary and daily urine strip test were collected. Samples from the urinary bladder were taken, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and stained for histological analyses. Bladder wall thickness, single tissue quantities/distributions, types I and III collagen, and elastin quantifications were performed. Comparisons to healthy urinary bladder tissue of age-matched minipigs were performed for statistical analyses. Results No urinary tract infections were observed in our SCI minipig collective during follow-up. A trend towards a reduction in bladder volumes and an increase in incontinence periods were seen. The bladder wall thickness significantly increased after chronic SCI. Furthermore, bladder wall composition was severely altered by a significant loss of smooth muscle tissue and a significant increase in connective tissue. Elastic fibres were reduced in number and altered in their structural appearance after SCI. Type I collagen was significantly increased, while type III collagen was significantly decreased after SCI. Conclusions Chronic SCI highlighted that the urinary bladder wall undergoes fibrotic events with reduced contractile and elastic properties due to changes of the bladder wall protein composition. These changes show in detail how SCI severely influences the urinary bladder wall composition and depicts the similarities between minipigs and humans. PMID:28361517

  4. Improved estimates of the radiation absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin; Minarik, David; Johansson, Lennart; Mattsson, Sören; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2014-05-07

    Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have been calculated as a function of the content in the urinary bladder in order to allow more realistic calculations of the absorbed dose to the bladder wall. The SAFs were calculated using the urinary bladder anatomy from the ICRP male and female adult reference computational phantoms. The urinary bladder and its content were approximated by a sphere with a wall of constant mass, where the thickness of the wall depended on the amount of urine in the bladder. SAFs were calculated for males and females with 17 different urinary bladder volumes from 10 to 800 mL, using the Monte Carlo computer program MCNP5, at 25 energies of mono-energetic photons and electrons ranging from 10 KeV to 10 MeV. The decay was assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the urinary bladder content and the urinary bladder wall, and the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall was calculated. The Monte Carlo simulations were validated against measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters. The SAFs obtained for a urine volume of 200 mL were compared to the values calculated for the urinary bladder wall using the adult reference computational phantoms. The mean absorbed dose to the urinary wall from (18)F-FDG was found to be 77 µGy/MBq formales and 86 µGy/MBq for females, while for (99m)Tc-DTPA the mean absorbed doses were 80 µGy/MBq for males and 86 µGy/MBq for females. Compared to calculations using a constant value of the SAF from the adult reference computational phantoms, the mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were 60% higher for (18)F-FDG and 30% higher for (99m)Tc-DTPA using the new SAFs.

  5. 5-hydroxytryptamine induced relaxation in the pig urinary bladder neck

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Paz; Barahona, María Victoria; Orensanz, Luis M; Bustamante, Salvador; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernández, Medardo

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the inhibitory mediators in the urinary bladder outlet region. Here we investigated mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced relaxations of the pig bladder neck. Experimental approach Urothelium-denuded strips of pig bladder were mounted in organ baths for isometric force recordings of responses to 5-HT and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Key results After phenylephrine-induced contraction, 5-HT and 5-HT receptor agonists concentration-dependently relaxed the preparations, with the potency order: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-HT = RS67333 > (±)-8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralinhydrobromide > m-chlorophenylbiguanide > α-methyl-5-HT > ergotamine. 5-HT and 5-CT relaxations were reduced by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulphonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride and potentiated by (S)-N-tert-butyl-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-2-phenylpropanamide dihydrochloride (WAY 100135) and cyanopindolol, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonists respectively. Inhibitors of 5-HT1B/1D, 5-HT2, 5-HT2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A and 5-HT6 receptors failed to modify 5-HT responses. Blockade of monoamine oxidase A/B, noradrenergic neurotransmission, α-adrenoceptors, muscarinic and purinergic receptors, nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase and prostanoid synthesis did not alter relaxations to 5-HT. Inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ and ATP-dependent K+ channels failed to modify 5-HT responses but blockade of neuronal voltage-gated Na+-, Ca2+-and voltage-gated K+ (Kv)-channels potentiated these relaxations. Adenylyl cyclase activation and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibition potentiated and reduced, respectively, 5-HT-induced responses. Under non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic, non-nitrergic conditions, EFS induced neurogenic, frequency-dependent, relaxations which were resistant to WAY 100135 and cyanopindolol. Conclusions and implications 5-HT relaxed

  6. A RARE CASE OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN URINARY BLADDER DIVERTICULUM SUCCESSFULLY TREATED BY BLADDER-SPARING SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Štimac, Goran; Knežević, Matej; Grubišić, Igor; Soipi, Soip; Tomas, Davor; Krušlin, Božo

    2015-09-01

    The aim is to report a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a urinary bladder diverticulum and present recent literature overview of treatment options. A 56-year-old man presented with intermittent hematuria. Ultrasound examination indicated primary carcinoma in the urinary bladder diverticulum. Diagnosis was confirmed with cystoscopy and computed tomography. Transvesical diverticulectomy with regional lymphadenectomy was undertaken. Two years after initial treatment, the patient was well without evidence of tumor relapse. This report implicates that although aggressive surgical approach is recommended in the majority of bladder diverticulum tumors, simple diverticulectomy may be indicated in selected, confined cases.

  7. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male.

  8. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male. PMID:22606637

  9. Is the poly (L- lactide- co- caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane suitable for urinary bladder regeneration?

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Jundzill, Arkadiusz; Adamowicz, Jan; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Warda, Karolina; Rasmus, Marta; Buchholz, Lukasz; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Nakielski, Pawel; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Debski, Robert; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Nowacki, Maciej; Kowalewski, Tomasz A; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×10(6) cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×10(6)ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×10(6)ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold.

  10. Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Warda, Karolina; Rasmus, Marta; Buchholz, Lukasz; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Nakielski, Pawel; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszalek, Andrzej; Debski, Robert; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Mikułowski, Grzegorz; Nowacki, Maciej; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×106 cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×106ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×106ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold. PMID:25162451

  11. Human urinary bladder regeneration through tissue engineering - an analysis of 131 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Adamowicz, Jan; Sharma, Arun K; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Replacement of urinary bladder tissue with functional equivalents remains one of the most challenging problems of reconstructive urology over the last several decades. The gold standard treatment for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is the ileal conduit or neobladder; however, this technique is associated with numerous complications including electrolyte imbalances, mucus production, and the potential for malignant transformation. Tissue engineering techniques provide the impetus to construct functional bladder substitutes de novo. Within this review, we have thoroughly perused the literature utilizing PubMed in order to identify clinical studies involving bladder reconstruction utilizing tissue engineering methodologies. The idea of urinary bladder regeneration through tissue engineering dates back to the 1950s. Many natural and synthetic biomaterials such as plastic mold, gelatin sponge, Japanese paper, preserved dog bladder, lyophilized human dura, bovine pericardium, small intestinal submucosa, bladder acellular matrix, or composite of collagen and polyglycolic acid were used for urinary bladder regeneration with a wide range of outcomes. Recent progress in the tissue engineering field suggest that in vitro engineered bladder wall substitutes may have expanded clinical applicability in near future but preclinical investigations on large animal models with defective bladders are necessary to optimize the methods of bladder reconstruction by tissue engineering in humans.

  12. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild t...

  13. Unusual appearance for urinary bladder obstruction detected with 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chadwick L; Sharma, Akash

    2015-12-01

    Unanticipated but clinically significant nonosseous findings can be detected during routine bone scintigraphy. We present a case of an 83-year-old man who presented with a pathologic fracture of the right femur. Whole-body bone scintigraphy for osseous staging revealed intense radiotracer accumulation in the kidneys and ureters but no activity within the urinary bladder. The patient had not voided for 14 hours. A Foley catheter was inserted, and more than 2000 mL of urine was drained, most consistent with urinary bladder obstruction. Subsequent repeat images demonstrated marked reduction of the renal and ureteral activity with trace activity in the urinary bladder.

  14. Case report: microcystic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Radopoulos, Demetrios; Kalyvas, Konstantinos; Kotakidou, Rodi; Panagiotopoulou, Konstantina; Katsikas, Vasilios; Papathanasiou, Michalis

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of microcystic transitional cell carcinoma involving the urinary bladder, in a 38-year-old man, and we add our experience in the treatment of this neoplasm. The tumor was muscle invasive, and a radical cystectomy was performed. The patient received no postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and he has not signs of local recurrence or distal metastasis after 3 years of intense follow up. Even though the number of cases documented so far, is insufficient to draw safe conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of the microcystic variant of transitional cell carcinoma. Our case indicates that even in cases of microcystic transitional cell carcinoma with infiltrative nature, aggressive therapy is associated with good control of the disease locally and distally.

  15. Perineal Bull Gore with Urinary Bladder Perforation and Pneumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    R, Santhosh; Barad, Arun Kumar; Ghalige, Hemanth Sureshwara; K, Sridartha; Sharma M, Birkumar

    2013-01-01

    Animal related injuries are frequently reported in India and other countries, where bulls are used for sporting events as well as in places where farming and livestock rearing is practised. The presentation is, many times, atypical and misleading as well. They have unique mechanics of injury. The patterns of the injury are reviewed. An intra-peritoneal urinary bladder injury which is caused by a perineal bull gore with a pneumoperitoneum is unusual and it has not been reported in the literature which was reviewed. We are reporting a successfully treated 25 years old male patient from the slopes of the southern district of Manipur, India, who had presented 40 hours after he was injured. The identification and prompt exploration, keeping in mind the mechanics of bull goring, helps the surgeons to adequately deal such atypical injuries, for optimal outcomes. PMID:23814738

  16. Unexpected small urinary bladder pheochromocytoma: a nonspecific presentation.

    PubMed

    Mallat, Faouzi; Hmida, Wissem; Slama, Adel; Mosbah, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely rare tumor that typically presents with a hypertensive crisis during micturition. Preoperatively, it may be misdiagnosed due to nonspecific symptomatology, physical, and radiologic findings. Method. We report a case of unsuspected small pheochromocytoma which was incidentally found by CT scan and confirmed by the histological aspects after transurethral resection in a 63-year-old woman. Here, we have described the clinical presentation, physical findings, laboratory investigations, and treatment provided in our case. We have also included radiological images and histopathology slides with input from both radiologists and pathologists. Surgical management and postoperative follow-up are discussed, as are details of previous published data. Results. After undergoing surgical treatment (transurethral resection), our patient is asymptomatic, with complete resolution of her pathology. Conclusion. Diagnosis is difficult before histopathological examination and should be considered in patients with no risk factors for usual bladder tumor. Our purpose is to raise clinician's awareness for this condition so that they will be more likely to diagnose it. This will facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment and especially prevent complications due to pheochromocytoma which may be severe.

  17. The Role(s) of Cytokines/Chemokines in Urinary Bladder Inflammation and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Eric J.; Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be bladder related and with at least one urinary symptom. It was recently concluded that 3.3–7.9 million women (>18 years old) in the United States exhibit BPS/IC symptoms. The impact of BPS/IC on quality of life is enormous and the economic burden is significant. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of BPS/IC are unknown, numerous theories including infection, inflammation, autoimmune disorder, toxic urinary agents, urothelial dysfunction, and neurogenic causes have been proposed. Altered visceral sensations from the urinary bladder (i.e., pain at low or moderate bladder filling) that accompany BPS/IC may be mediated by many factors including changes in the properties of peripheral bladder afferent pathways such that bladder afferent neurons respond in an exaggerated manner to normally innocuous stimuli (allodynia). The goals for this review are to describe chemokine/receptor (CXCL12/CXCR4; CCL2/CCR2) signaling and cytokine/receptor (transforming growth factor (TGF-β)/TGF-β type 1 receptor) signaling that may be valuable LUT targets for pharmacologic therapy to improve urinary bladder function and reduce somatic sensitivity associated with urinary bladder inflammation. PMID:24738044

  18. The role of prostanoids in the urinary bladder function and a potential use of prostanoid-targeting pharmacological agents in bladder overactivity treatment.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome involving urinary urgency with accompanying increased daytime urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, in the absence of an urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. The detailed OAB pathophysiology remains unclear. There is evidence that OAB pathogenesis also includes abnormal bladder paracrine activity, associated with release of local prostanoids. Those agents contribute to disturbances of peripheral neuronal bladder control resulting in detrusor instability. Thus, pharmacological agents abolishing prostanoid-induced bladder overactivity seem to be a potential, future OAB therapeutical option. This paper shortly describes the rationale for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and EP-1 receptor antagonists administration in future OAB pharmacotherapy.

  19. Primary carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder with prominent subnuclear eosinophilic granules.

    PubMed

    Zozumi, Masataka; Nakai, Mayumi; Matsuda, Ikuo; Hao, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yasuo; Nojima, Michio; Yamamoto, Shingo; Hirota, Seiichi

    2012-02-15

    Primary carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder is a very rare neoplasm. We report here a case of primary carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder with an unusual cytological feature in a 72-year-old Japanese man. A bladder polypoid mass was incidentally found by ultrasonography during the follow-up of a benign prostate hyperplasia. Histological examination of the transurethrally resected tissue revealed that the upper part of the mass was a tumor showing tubuloglandular anastomosing structures. Most of the tumor cells had peculiar subnuclear eosinophilic granules. The features of the granules were reminiscent of those observed in neuroendocrine cells of the intestine. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The tumor was diagnosed as carcinoid tumor of pure form of the urinary bladder. The lower part of the mass showed the findings of glandular cystitis, as its coexistence with carcinoid tumors of the bladder has often been described in previous reports.

  20. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) grafts in reconstruction of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Senel, F M; Akman, R Y; Arikan, A Y; Gürdal, M; Can, C

    1999-01-01

    The safety and histopathologic effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) grafts in reconstruction of the urinary bladder were examined. Following partial excision of the bladder Gore-Tex was placed, and the rats were sacrificed at days 7, 14 and 30. Gore-Tex did not cause urine infection, and there was no peritonitis or sepsis in any of the rats. Inflammation around the Gore-Tex diminished after four weeks. Some mononuclear cells and exudate were observed on the inner surface of the Gore-Tex. There was no inflammation or fibrosis in the mucosa and muscular layers of the remaining bladder. In this study the Gore-Tex graft was found to be an infection resistant, urine impermeable material, with no adverse effects on the urinary bladder. Gore-Tex is suggested as a safe material for the reconstruction of the urinary bladder.

  1. Foreign body in urinary bladder--early CT cystogram is investigation of choice.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, Raja Farhat; Anwar, Fahim; Barron, Dominic

    2008-05-01

    Extra peritoneal bladder injuries are very difficult to diagnose on clinical examination alone. CT-scan with cystogram (Contrast: Ultavista300) is a reliable diagnostic tool to evaluate such injuries at an early stage. For accurate diagnosis of bladder injury, enhancement of bladder contents is necessary otherwise extravasated urine can be mistaken for haematoma or ascites. Retrograde filling of bladder with minimum 250 -300 ml of contrast material is necessary before performing abdominopelvic CT to rule out any form of bladder injury. Therefore in case of suspected bladder injury CT cystogram should be performed at the time of initial CT examination in the emergency room. We report a case of extraperitoneal bladder injury and foreign body in urinary bladder after a firework injury.

  2. [Effective dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) occlusive dressing technique for amyloidosis of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kanda, Hideki; Miki, Manabu; Masui, Satoru; Yoshio, Yuko; Yamada, Yasushi; Soga, Norihito; Arima, Kiminobu; Sugimura, Yoshiki

    2013-10-01

    A 48-year-old married woman complaining of macroscopic hematuria and cystitis symptom was admitted to our institute. Flexible cystoscopy revealed many yellowish, nodular masses at the paries posterior of the urinary bladder, and cold-punch biopsy proved it to be amyloidosis. Serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was high, and suggested systemic amyloidosis. Renal biopsy and colon fiberscopy did not reveal any abnormalities. We therefore diagnosed a primary localized amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. Transurethral resection and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) infusion therapy are used to treat amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. However there is no definite cure for amyloidosis of the urinary bladder. Therefore we selected DMSO occlusive dressing technique therapy. After 5 years of therapy, there was no evidence of a recurrence of amyloidosis.

  3. Mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation induces urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of epithelial sodium channel expression in the rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Hotta, Yuji; Maeda, Kotomi; Kataoka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Hamakawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Yasui, Takahiro; Asai, Kiyofumi; Kimura, Kazunori

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in rat bladder and the physiological role of the MR-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) pathway in controlling bladder function in 10-12-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats. First, we examined the mRNA expression of MR and localization of MR and ENaC-α proteins in the urinary bladder. MR mRNA expression was observed in untreated-rat urinary bladders, and MR and ENaC-α proteins were localized in the epithelium. Next, rats were treated with vehicle (controls) or fludrocortisone (an MR agonist) for 3 days, and ENaC-α protein expression levels and bladder function were evaluated on day 4. ENaC-α protein expression was significantly higher in fludrocortisone-treated rats than in controls. In addition, cystometry was performed during intravesical infusion of saline and amiloride (an ENaC inhibitor). While intercontraction intervals (ICIs) during saline infusion were significantly shorter in the fludrocortisone group than in the controls, infusion of amiloride normalized the ICIs in the fludrocortisone group. However, no intra- or inter-group differences in maximum intravesical pressure were observed. Taken together, MR protein is localized in the rat urinary bladder epithelium, and may regulate ENaC expression and bladder afferent input. The MR-ENaC pathway may be a therapeutic target for ameliorating storage symptoms.

  4. Rare case of urinary bladder agenesis--multislice CT abdomen imaging.

    PubMed

    Indiran, Venkatraman; Chokkappan, Kabilan; Gunaseelan, Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    Complete agenesis of urinary bladder is an extremely rare anomaly with only a few live cases reported so far. In most of the instances death occurs early as it may be incompatible with life. Here we report a case of adolescent female with urinary bladder and unilateral renal agenesis, who presented with a rather unusual presentation of incontinence, for a computed tomography (CT) examination. Other congenital abnormalities visualised in the CT abdomen are also discussed.

  5. Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in a 14-year-old dog.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Melissa

    2011-06-01

    A 14-year-old spayed female poodle-pekinese dog with a history of hematuria was tentatively diagnosed with non-radiopaque uroliths or urinary bladder neoplasia following temporary resolution of clinical signs after several rounds of antibiotic treatments, normal abdominal radiographs and no growth on urine culture. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the trigone area of the urinary bladder which was confirmed to be an invasive transitional cell carcinoma by histopathology following euthanasia.

  6. Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in a 14-year-old dog

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old spayed female poodle-pekinese dog with a history of hematuria was tentatively diagnosed with non-radiopaque uroliths or urinary bladder neoplasia following temporary resolution of clinical signs after several rounds of antibiotic treatments, normal abdominal radiographs and no growth on urine culture. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the trigone area of the urinary bladder which was confirmed to be an invasive transitional cell carcinoma by histopathology following euthanasia. PMID:22131588

  7. [Mast cells and innervation of the wall of the hyperactive urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Shvalev, V N; Pisarev, S A; Kleĭmenova, N V; Sukhorukov, V S

    2007-01-01

    Anterior urinary bladder wall biopsy specimens were examined in 24 males and 4 females, aged 52 to 76 years, who had been suffering from the hyperactive urinary bladder for 1-10 years. Increases in the number and activity of interstitial mast cells and their degranulation and the symptoms of chronic immune inflammation were revealed. Neuromuscular spastic dysfunction of the detrusor is considered to result from the activation of mast cells.

  8. [Peculiarities of urinary bladder cancer tumor cells apoptosis response on neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Iatsyna, A I; Stakhovskiĭ, É A; Sheremet, Ia A; Spivak, S I; Stakhovskiĭ, A É; Gavriliuk, O N; Vitruk, Iu V; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2011-01-01

    Induced apoptosis in urinary bladder cancer tumor cells of patients was studied using TUNEL reaction. It was shown that increase in induced apoptosis value had a definite correlation between corresponding features of tumor reaction as a response on Gemcitabine-Cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy application. It was found that evaluation of induced apoptosis in urinary bladder cancer tumor cells using TUNEL method allows forecasting the effectiveness of chemotherapy on the cellular level in patients with this type of cancer.

  9. G-protein-coupled receptor 137 accelerates proliferation of urinary bladder cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiheng; Bi, Wenhuan; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Wenbo; Xia, Shujie; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a worldwide concern because of its level of incidence and recurrence. To search an effective therapeutic strategy for urinary bladder cancer, it is important to identify proteins involved in tumorigenesis that could serve as potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) constitute a large protein family of receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate signal transduction pathways and cellular responses inside the cell. GPR137 is a newly discovered human gene encoding orphan GPRs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of GPR137 in urinary bladder cancer. The effect of GPR137 on cell growth was examined via an RNA interference (RNAi) lentivirus system in two human urinary bladder cancer cell lines BT5637 and T24. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi could specifically suppressed GPR137 expression in vitro, resulting in alleviated cell viability and impaired colony formation, as well as blocks G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results suggested GPR137 as an essential player in urinary bladder cancer cell growth, and it may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer.

  10. The urinary bladder carcinogen propoxur does not produce genotoxic effects in the urinary bladder of Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Iatropoulos, M J; Duan, J-D; Schmuck, G; Williams, G M

    2015-09-01

    Propoxur (PPX) is a carbamate insecticide which induced urinary bladder cancer in Wistar rats when fed at 5000ppm in Altromin 1321 diet (1321). In the present investigation, PPX was studied for induction of several key events related to modes of action (MOA) of carcinogenicity in urinary bladders (UBs). Wistar rats were administered the compound for 28 days at 8000ppm in Provini Liba SA 3883 diet, which is similar to the 1321 diet. o-Anisidine HCl (AH) was used as a genotoxic UB carcinogenic comparator, and trisodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as an epigenetic UB carcinogen comparator. Along with the non-dosed control and three test substance groups (PPX, AH, NTA), four more groups were additionally fed 2% ammonium chloride (AC) in the diet to acidify the urine, since 1321 was reported to increase urinary pH. AC did acidify the urine, as expected, although the 3883 diet itself did not increase pH values above 8. In the alkaline comet assay, AH produced DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the UB urothelium (UBU) irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. In the nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay (NPL), AH produced DNA adducts irrespective of AC administration, whereas PPX and NTA did not. Routine (H&E) histopathology evaluation of the UBU did not reveal any hyperplasia or evidence of luminal microprecipitates or calculi in any of the groups. Assessment of UBU proliferation as measured by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, revealed that NTA and NTA plus AC increased the replicating fraction (RF). Also AH plus AC, but not AH alone, increased the RF of UBU, whereas PPX groups were not significantly different from controls. Thus, the results reveal no evidence for DNA SSBs, binding, or alteration of DNA synthesis in the UBU by PPX, while demonstrating UBU DNA damage by AH and showing that NTA does not damage DNA, but causes increased UBU proliferation. The findings are in accord with a genotoxic MOA for AH, and an epigenetic

  11. Perineal hernia because of retroflexion of the urinary bladder in a rottweiler bitch during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sontas, B H; Apaydin, S O; Toydemir, T S F; Kasikci, G; Ekici, H

    2008-08-01

    A young pregnant rottweiler bitch was presented with a large mass of tissue protruding through the vulvar lips. Foetal death was diagnosed on ultrasonography, and ovariohysterectomy was performed, at which time the bladder was observed to be dislocated caudally into the pelvic cavity under the vagina. The bladder was manually repositioned during surgery. One week later, the bitch was healthy with no evidence of dysuria, stranguria or urinary incontinence. Two months later, the owner reported that the bitch was clinically normal with no recurrence of the retroflexion. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of retroflexion of the urinary bladder during pregnancy.

  12. Passive Electrical Properties of Toad Urinary Bladder Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Reuss, Luis; Finn, Arthur L.

    1974-01-01

    The electrical resistances of the transcellular and paracellular pathways across the toad urinary bladder epithelium (a typical "tight" sodium-transporting epithelium) were determined by two independent sets of electrophysiological measurements: (a) the measurement of the total transepithelial resistance, the ratio of resistance of the apical to the basal cell membrane, and cable analysis of the voltage spread into the epithelium; (b) the measurement of the total transepithelial resistance and the ratio of resistances of both cell membranes before and after replacing all mucosal sodium with potassium (thus, increasing selectively the resistance of the apical membrane). The results obtained with both methods indicate the presence of a finite transepithelial shunt pathway, whose resistance is about 1.8 times the resistance of the transcellular pathway. Appropriate calculations show that the resistance of the shunt pathway is almost exclusively determined by the zonula occludens section of the limiting junctions. The mean resistance of the apical cell membrane is 1.7 times that of the basal cell membrane. The use of nonconducting materials on the mucosal side allowed us to demonstrate that apparently all epithelial cells are electrically coupled, with a mean space constant of 460 µm, and a voltage spread consistent with a thin sheet model. PMID:4209766

  13. Respiration and sodium transport in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, S U; Eaton, D C

    1982-07-28

    Respiration of rabbit urinary bladder was measured in free-floating pieces and in short-circuited pieces mounted in an Ussing chamber. Ouabain, amiloride, and potassium-free saline inhibited respiration approx. 20%; sodium-free saline depressed respiration approx. 40-50%. The coupling ratio between respiration and transport in short-circuited tissues was about two sodium ions per molecule O2. Chloride-free saline depressed mean oxygen consumption 21% in free-floating tissue pieces; 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) and furosemide had no effect. The effect of chloride-free saline in short-circuited tissues was variable; in tissues with low transport rates, respiration was stimulated about 21% while in tissue with high transport rates respiration was reduced about 24%. Nystatin and monensin, both of which markedly increase the conductance of cell membranes with a concomitant increase in sodium entry, stimulated respiration. These data indicate that 50-60% of the total oxygen consumption is not influenced by sodium, 20-25% is linked to (Na+ +K+)-ATPase transport, while the remaining 25-30% is sodium-dependent but not ouabain-inhibitable.

  14. ISL1 is a major susceptibility gene for classic bladder exstrophy and a regulator of urinary tract development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Knapp, Michael; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kajioka, Daiki; Schmidt, Johanna M; Winkler, Jonas; Yilmaz, Öznur; Pleschka, Michael; Cao, Jia; Kockum, Christina Clementson; Barker, Gillian; Holmdahl, Gundela; Beaman, Glenda; Keene, David; Woolf, Adrian S; Cervellione, Raimondo M; Cheng, Wei; Wilkins, Simon; Gearhart, John P; Sirchia, Fabio; Di Grazia, Massimo; Ebert, Anne-Karolin; Rösch, Wolfgang; Ellinger, Jörg; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Zwink, Nadine; Feitz, Wout F; Marcelis, Carlo; Schumacher, Johannes; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Hibberd, Martin Lloyd; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Barth, Sandra; Boyadjiev, Simeon A; Brusco, Alfredo; Ludwig, Michael; Newman, William; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Yamada, Gen; Odermatt, Benjamin; Reutter, Heiko

    2017-02-08

    Previously genome-wide association methods in patients with classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) found association with ISL1, a master control gene expressed in pericloacal mesenchyme. This study sought to further explore the genetics in a larger set of patients following-up on the most promising genomic regions previously reported. Genotypes of 12 markers obtained from 268 CBE patients of Australian, British, German Italian, Spanish and Swedish origin and 1,354 ethnically matched controls and from 92 CBE case-parent trios from North America were analysed. Only marker rs6874700 at the ISL1 locus showed association (p = 2.22 × 10(-08)). A meta-analysis of rs6874700 of our previous and present study showed a p value of 9.2 × 10(-19). Developmental biology models were used to clarify the location of ISL1 activity in the forming urinary tract. Genetic lineage analysis of Isl1-expressing cells by the lineage tracer mouse model showed Isl1-expressing cells in the urinary tract of mouse embryos at E10.5 and distributed in the bladder at E15.5. Expression of isl1 in zebrafish larvae staged 48 hpf was detected in a small region of the developing pronephros. Our study supports ISL1 as a major susceptibility gene for CBE and as a regulator of urinary tract development.

  15. ISL1 is a major susceptibility gene for classic bladder exstrophy and a regulator of urinary tract development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Knapp, Michael; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kajioka, Daiki; Schmidt, Johanna M.; Winkler, Jonas; Yilmaz, Öznur; Pleschka, Michael; Cao, Jia; Kockum, Christina Clementson; Barker, Gillian; Holmdahl, Gundela; Beaman, Glenda; Keene, David; Woolf, Adrian S.; Cervellione, Raimondo M.; Cheng, Wei; Wilkins, Simon; Gearhart, John P.; Sirchia, Fabio; Di Grazia, Massimo; Ebert, Anne-Karolin; Rösch, Wolfgang; Ellinger, Jörg; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Zwink, Nadine; Feitz, Wout F.; Marcelis, Carlo; Schumacher, Johannes; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Hibberd, Martin Lloyd; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Barth, Sandra; Boyadjiev, Simeon A.; Brusco, Alfredo; Ludwig, Michael; Newman, William; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Yamada, Gen; Odermatt, Benjamin; Reutter, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Previously genome-wide association methods in patients with classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) found association with ISL1, a master control gene expressed in pericloacal mesenchyme. This study sought to further explore the genetics in a larger set of patients following-up on the most promising genomic regions previously reported. Genotypes of 12 markers obtained from 268 CBE patients of Australian, British, German Italian, Spanish and Swedish origin and 1,354 ethnically matched controls and from 92 CBE case-parent trios from North America were analysed. Only marker rs6874700 at the ISL1 locus showed association (p = 2.22 × 10−08). A meta-analysis of rs6874700 of our previous and present study showed a p value of 9.2 × 10−19. Developmental biology models were used to clarify the location of ISL1 activity in the forming urinary tract. Genetic lineage analysis of Isl1-expressing cells by the lineage tracer mouse model showed Isl1-expressing cells in the urinary tract of mouse embryos at E10.5 and distributed in the bladder at E15.5. Expression of isl1 in zebrafish larvae staged 48 hpf was detected in a small region of the developing pronephros. Our study supports ISL1 as a major susceptibility gene for CBE and as a regulator of urinary tract development. PMID:28176844

  16. Cure of urinary bladder functions in severe (95%) motoric complete cervical spinal cord injury in human.

    PubMed

    Schalow, G

    2010-01-01

    Severe cervical Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) leads to quadriplegia, and autonomic dysfunctions. Bladder/bowel continence, cardiovascular performance, and breathing are impaired besides movements. Even though there are no fully restorative treatments for SCI, I report about a patient, who suffered a severe cervical, motoric complete SCI, in whom urinary bladder functions were fully repaired by functional and structural repair (limited regeneration of the cord) upon 2.5 years of Coordination Dynamics Therapy (CDT). On the repair of the blood circulation (no occurrence of pressure ulcers any more), breathing and motor functions was reported earlier. The mechanism that underlies this important repair of urinary bladder functions is the learning transfer from movements to bladder functions. The human bladder repair is analyzed at the neuron level, the collective variable level (System Theory of Pattern Formation), the movement, and the clinical diagnostic level.

  17. Spontaneous Atraumatic Urinary Bladder Rupture Secondary to Alcohol Intoxication: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Mohammed; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Zarour, Ahmad; Awad, Ahmed; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 45 Final Diagnosis: Atraumatic urinary bladder rupture Symptoms: Drowsiness • diffuse abdominal pain • vomiting Medication: None Clinical Procedure: CT cystogram • exploratory laparotomy • urinary bladder repair Specialty: Urology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB) secondary to alcohol intoxication is an uncommon presentation with high morbidity and mortality. Herein, we reported a rare case of spontaneous atraumatic rupture of the urinary bladder due to alcohol intoxication. Case Reports: A 45-year-old Sri Lankan man presented with drowsiness, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting with odor of alcohol, and urinary retention 24 hours prior to the index admission. CT cystogram confirmed the urinary bladder rupture at the dome, which was repaired through exploratory laparotomy. Conclusions: An SRUB patient with alcohol abuse often presents with non-specific symptoms due to absence of a traumatic event, which results in missed or delayed-diagnosis. Early diagnosis and management of SRUB is crucial for uneventful recovery. PMID:26522816

  18. Use of bladder volume measurement assessed with ultrasound to predict postoperative urinary retention

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Nilgun Kavrut; Kavakli, Ali Sait

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common complication after spinal anesthesia. Ultrasound (US) is a simple, non-invasive method to estimate bladder volume before and after surgery. Primary aim of the present study was to investigate utility of bladder volume measured before and after surgery in prediction of POUR risk. Secondary aim was to investigate necessity of urethral catheter use and risk of urethral catheter-related infections. METHODS: Eighty patients who received spinal anesthesia for arthroscopic knee surgery were included in the study. Level and duration of sensory and motor block; bladder volume measured preoperatively, in post-anesthetic care unit (PACU), and when discharged from PACU; use of urethral catheter; and incidence of urinary tract infection data were recorded. RESULTS: POUR was observed in 28.7% of patients. Length of time for sensory block regression was significantly shorter in patients without POUR (p=0.012). Spontaneous urination was not observed in 3 of 23 patients with POUR, although bladder volume was less than 600 mL. Bladder volume over 600 mL without urination was recorded in 20 patients. There was no statistical difference in preoperative bladder volume between patients who did or did not develop POUR. Bladder volume on admission to PACU was higher in patients with POUR (p=0.023). Urgency and dysuria were observed in 5 patients who required urethral catheterization during postoperative period. Urinary tract infection developed in 1 patient. There was no statistical difference in development of urinary tract infection between patient groups who did and did not undergo urethral catheterization. CONCLUSION: Assessment of patient bladder volume with US before arthroscopic knee surgery may be used to foresee development of POUR. Avoiding elective urinary catheterization may reduce urinary infections. PMID:28275753

  19. Development of Urinary Bladder Pre-Neoplasia by Schistosoma haematobium Eggs and Chemical Carcinogen in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chala, Bayissa; Choi, Min-Ho; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, Hyung Suk; Kwak, Cheol; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium is a biocarcinogen of human urinary bladder (UB). The present study investigated developing UB cancer mouse model by injecting S. haematobium eggs into the bladder wall and introduction of chemical carcinogens. Histopathological findings showed mild hyperplasia to epithelial vacuolar change, and high grade dysplasia. Squamous metaplasia was observed in the S. haematobium eggs+NDMA group at week 12 but not in other groups. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly high expression of Ki-67 in urothelial epithelial cells of the S. haematobium eggs+BBN group at week 20. The qRT-PCR showed high expression of p53 gene in S. haematobium eggs group at week 4 and S. haematobium eggs+BBN group at week 20. E-cadherin and vimentin showed contrasting expression in S. haematobium eggs+BBN group. Such inverse expression of E-cadherin and vimentin may indicate epithelial mesenchymal transition in the UB tissue. In conclusion, S. haematobium eggs and nitrosamines may transform UB cells into squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in correlation with increased expression of Ki-67. Marked decrease in E-cadherin and increase in p53 and vimentin expressions may support the transformation. The present study introduces a promising modified animal model for UB cancer study using S. haematobium eggs. PMID:28285503

  20. Intrauterine device migration to the urinary bladder causing sexual dysfunction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulos, K; Skriapas, K; Karvounis, G; Tzortzis, V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intravesical migration represents an uncommon complication of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. We present the case of an IUD that migrated to the urinary bladder, causing significant sexual complaints. Case report: A 38-year-old woman presented with complaints of gradually evolving dyspareunia and recurrent urinary tract infections during the past 12 months. She reported an IUD insertion 18 months before. Further detailed evaluation revealed disorders in all sexual domains. Imaging and cystoscopy detected the presence of IUD in the urinary bladder. Under anesthesia, the IUD was removed out of the bladder without any complications. In her follow-up evaluation after six months, her sexual function was significantly improved and she had no urinary symptoms. Conclusion: Sexual difficulties in a woman with an IUD should raise the suspicion of device dislodgement or dislocation. Hippokratia 2016, 20(1): 70-72 PMID:27895447

  1. Pleomorphic lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Renshaw, Idris L; Rubin, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the urinary bladder is often mixed with conventional transitional cell carcinoma and/or other histotypes. The pathologist's determination of the morphologic purity of a given LELC at the biopsy stage is a clinically relevant endeavour, because there is some anecdotal evidence suggesting that pure or predominant LELC may be comparatively chemosensitive and have a favorable prognostic profile, which may potentially offer the possibility of effective therapy without bladder resection. The precise degree of cellular pleomorphism that is allowed in a pure LELC is unclear. We describe herein an otherwise conventional and pure LELC that showed, in a localized area that constituted approximately 25% of the overall tumor volume, a two to six fold variation in nuclear size, including multinucleated tumor cells. These pleomorphic areas were set in the same lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate as their conventional counterparts, and similarly displayed cellular syncytia. We performed a detailed immunophenotypic comparison between the conventional areas and the pleomorphic areas. No significant differences were found between the 2 areas in overall lymphoplasmacytic or histiocytic density, lymphocytic CD4/CD8 ratio, and lymphoplasmacytic kappa/lambda ratio. Similarly, both displayed similar qualitative and quantitative staining indices for p53, Ki67, cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and p16(INKa). Scattered cells were cytoplasmically beta-catenin positive exclusively in the pleomorphic areas; however these cells were not notably larger than the cells in the conventional areas. Both components were immunohistochemically negative for HMB-45, CD1a, the estrogen receptor, Epstein-Barr virus, CD117, D2-40, CD56, cytokeratin 20 and chromogranin. Clinicopathologic analysis of a series of cases is required to establish if there is any significance to nuclear pleomorphism in LELC. However, the phenotypic similarity between the 2 areas in this case, the intimate

  2. Nicotine interferes with purinergic signaling in smooth muscle cells isolated from urinary bladders of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jenes, Agnes; Szigeti, Gyula P; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Varga, Attila; Lorincz, Laszlo; Csernoch, Laszlo

    2013-09-01

    In patients with outlet obstruction, the contraction of the base is reduced compared to that of healthy individuals, while the contraction of the dome is not affected. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms that might be responsible for cholinergic effects blocking non-adrenergic non-cholinergic contractions in the base of the urinary bladder. Smooth muscle cells either from the base or from the dome of human urinary bladders were cultured to determine the contribution of cholinergic and purinergic mechanisms to their Ca2+ homeostasis. While ATP evoked Ca2+ transients in all the cells, nicotine and carbachol induced Ca2+ transients only in 56% and 44% of the cells, respectively. When ATP was administered together with nicotine or carbachol, the amplitudes of the Ca2+ transients recorded from cells prepared from the base of bladders were significantly smaller (42 ± 6% with nicotine and 56 ± 9% with carbachol) than those evoked by ATP alone. This inhibition was much less apparent in the dome of bladders. The inhibition between the cholinergic and purinergic signaling pathways reported in this work may decrease the strength of the contraction of the base of the urinary bladder in patients with outlet obstruction during voiding.

  3. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  4. Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript Peptide (CARTp): Distribution and Function in Rat Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Zvarova, K.; Herrera, G. M.; May, V.; Vizzard, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of CARTp(55-102) in rat lower urinary tract and evaluated its effect on urinary bladder function in vitro. Immunohistochemistry and a vertical isolated tissue bath system were used. Neurons, clusters of non-neuronal endocrine cells, and nerve fibers stained positive for CARTp(55-102) in young adult rat urinary bladder. In addition, a dense plexus of CARTp-immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers was detected in ureters and small blood vessels in the bladder. The CARTp-expressing neuronal elements were nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR, whereas all non-neuronal CARTp-IR elements stained positively only for TH (100%). In isolated bladder strips, CARTp significantly increased the amplitude of electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced detrusor contractions at stimulation frequencies ≤ 12.5 Hz (p ≤ 0.001) as well as amplitude and frequency of spontaneous phasic urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) contractions (p ≤ 0.05). The responses to CARTp stimulation were dose-dependent and increased in the presence of the urothelium. To determine if the CARTp-increase in nerve mediated contractions may involve an action of CARTp on specific neural pathways, we blocked cholinergic, purinergic and adrenergic pathways and determined CARTp actions on EFS-medicated contractions. CARTp enhancement of EFS-mediated contractions does not involve alteration in purinergic, adrenergic or cholinergic pathways. The study demonstrates that CARTp(55-102) is highly expressed in rat urinary bladder. CARTp increased the amplitude of EFS-induced detrusor contractions as well as the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous phasic urinary bladder smooth muscle contractions. We conclude that CARTp may alter the release of compounds from the urothelium that leads to an enhancement of UBSM contractility/excitability. PMID:24740629

  5. Subchronic urinary bladder toxicity evaluation of N-Nitrosodiphenylamine in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Darol E; Pluta, Linda J; Sochaski, Mark A; Funk, Kathleen A; Thomas, Russell S

    2013-05-01

    Female Fischer 344 (F344) rats were exposed to N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPA) by dietary feed at concentrations of 0, 250, 1000, 2000, 3000 or 4000 ppm for 5 days, 2, 4 and 13 weeks duration. Endpoints evaluated included clinical observations, body weights, urinary bladder weights, blood NDPA, gross pathology and urinary bladder histopathology. There were no NDPA exposure-related clinical signs of toxicity. The mean body weight decreased 3% to 5% compared with the control in the 4000 ppm group during study weeks 2 through to 13. Statistically significant increases in urinary bladder weight were observed as early as after 5 days exposure and were concentration dependent at ≥ 3000 ppm. NDPA-related urinary bladder microscopic alterations consisted of mixed cell infiltrates, increased mitosis, increased necrosis of epithelial cells, diffuse and/or nodular transitional epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of transitional epithelium. These changes affected only rats exposed to NDPA concentrations ≥ 2000 ppm. Blood NDPA concentrations were negligible in animals exposed to ≤ 1000 ppm and ranged from 0.12 to 0.19 µg ml(-1) in rats of the ≥ 2000 ppm groups at the 5 days and 2 weeks time points. A no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 1000 ppm NDPA (60 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) was selected based on the absence of urinary bladder histopathology.

  6. [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of invasive cancer of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Selivanov, S P; Isaeva, S N; Kovalik, T A; Chén', M N; Aleksandrovich, I N; Kaliev, E A

    2007-01-01

    We studied efficacy of a combination of intraosseous and systemic administration of drugs in patients with invasive cancer of the urinary bladder (UB). A total of 20 patients aged 54-79 years with verified had recurrence, 2 had tumors with continuous growth. T2N0M0 UB carcinoma was diagnosed in 7 patients, T3N0M0--in 12, T6N0M0--in 1 patient. All the patients received systemic chemotherapy with gemzar in a single daily dose 800-1000 mg/m2 on day 1, 7 and 14. On day 2 a single intraosseous 100 mg eloxatin was given. A total of three courses of combined chemotherapy with 4-week interval was used. Intravenous gemzar administration was accompanied with mild leukopenia in 4 patients, moderate leukopenia--in 1, allergic reaction--in 2 patients. This required gemzar discontinuation. No side effects were seen in response to intraosseous administration of eloxatin. The combined chemotherapy produced complete regression of UB cancer in 3 of 18 patients, partial regression--in 12, stabilization--in 3 patients. Neither local nor long-term tumor progression was found. Short-term therapeutic efficacy of combined therapy was 70%. Fifteen patients with partial regression or stabilization have undergone transurethral resection. Duration of a recurrence-free period reached 5 to 72 months (mean 17 months). The neoadjuvant chemotherapy proposed by us allows achievement of a high percentage of regression in patients with invasive UB cancer located in UB cervix and provides concervative surgery including patients over 70 years of age.

  7. Urinary excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J; Nyholm, K

    1993-01-01

    The preoperative and postoperative values of urinary pseudouridine:creatinine (phi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid:creatinine (beta AIB:C) were estimated, in 192 patients with urothelial tumours of the bladder, 92 of whom had not previously been diagnosed. Urinary phi:C ratio correlated with the grade of tumour cell dysplasia (being highest in dysplasia grade 3), and to a lesser extent with the clinical stage. The treatment had no major influence on the excretion ratios. Decreased ratios, or those within the reference range, were associated with a better prognosis than increased ratios, and if both were increased at the same time the risk for progression of the disease was high. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract, and in the follow-up of patients with tumours of the bladder.

  8. Clinical outcome of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chen-Pang; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Chien-Lun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignant disease. It accounts for less than 1% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical features, the treatment modalities, and the overall survival of these patients. We also compare the clinical outcomes between patients of bladder small cell carcinoma (SCC) and bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC). Materials and methods We reviewed the charts of patients with bladder tumors from January 1995 to December 2012 in the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. A total of 2421 malignant bladder tumor patients were reviewed and there were 18 patients who were diagnosed with primary bladder SCC. The patients’ characteristics, including age, gender, smoking history, presented symptoms, tumor size, locations, clinical stages, treatment modalities, pathology appearance, recurrence conditions, and survival conditions were all recorded. We also compared the clinical outcomes and the overall survival rates between patients with bladder SCC and those with UC. Results Bladder SCC accounted for about 0.74% of all bladder malignancies in our institution. The mean age at diagnosis was 70.67 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.6:1. Thirteen patients had a history of cigarette smoking. All patients presented with symptoms of gross hematuria, and three of them had bladder tamponade requiring blood clot evacuation by cystoscopy. Only one patient had T1 disease, ten patients had stage III disease, and seven patients had lymph node or distant metastasis (stage IV disease). The mean tumor size was 4.29 cm in diameter. For the majority (61.11%) of patients, SCC coexisted with UC components. The average survival time was 10.92 months. Patients with bladder SCC had worse overall survival rates than those of stage III and stage IV bladder UC. Performing radical cystectomy does not significantly improve their overall survival rates. None of the clinicopathologic parameters, including

  9. The effect of hysterectomy on urinary symptoms and residual bladder volume.

    PubMed

    Prasad, M; Sadhukhan, M; Tom, B; Al-Taher, H

    2002-09-01

    This was a prospective, clinical study to evaluate the effect of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy for benign indications on urinary symptoms and residual bladder volume. One hundred and seven women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions were included in the study that took place in a district general hospital between April 1998 and January 2000. Urinary symptoms such as stress incontinence of urine, urgency, frequency, nocturia, sensation of incomplete voiding and voiding difficulties were considered. A questionnaire was filled out and the residual bladder volume measured with a 'Bard' bladder scanner on three occasions-before the operation, postoperative days 3 or 4 and at the 6-week postoperative visit. Statistical analysis involved using a generalised estimating equation and significance assessed at the 5% level. Each woman acted as her own control. There was no evidence of changes in nocturia and voiding difficulties after surgery. All other symptoms and residual bladder volumes decreased significantly postoperatively. The type of hysterectomy did not have an effect.

  10. Metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Topal, Cumhur Selcuk; Kır, Gözde; Daş, Taner; Sarbay, Billur; Tosun, Muzaffer İlkay

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic bladder tumors constitute <5% of all bladder tumors and metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. We present a case report of a metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder. A 70-year-old woman without any apparent significant clinical history was admitted to the Department of Urology for gross hematuria. Microscopic findings of the transurethral resection specimen revealed fascicles, sheets, and diffuse areas composed of oval and fusiform cells with focal pigmentation. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumor cells were positive for human melanoma black-45, Melan-A, and S100, and negative for pancytokeratin. Subsequently, we contacted the patient and learned that she was admitted to the Department of Ophthalmology for painless and progressive visual field loss 15 years ago. She had been diagnosed with a primary ocular (uveal) melanoma. A detailed patient history coupled with histological and immunohistochemical findings were necessary to make the final diagnosis of metastatic melanoma.

  11. From gene discovery to new biological mechanisms: heparanases and congenital urinary bladder disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Neil A.; Hilton, Emma N.; Woolf, Adrian S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a scientific investigation into the pathogenesis of a urinary bladder disease. The disease in question is called urofacial syndrome (UFS), a congenital condition inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. UFS features incomplete urinary bladder emptying and vesicoureteric reflux, with a high risk of recurrent urosepsis and end-stage renal disease. The story starts from a human genomic perspective, then proceeds through experiments that seek to determine the roles of the implicated molecules in embryonic frogs and newborn mice. A future aim would be to use such biological knowledge to intelligently choose novel therapies for UFS. We focus on heparanase proteins and the peripheral nervous system, molecules and tissues that appear to be key players in the pathogenesis of UFS and therefore must also be critical for functional differentiation of healthy bladders. These considerations allow the envisioning of novel biological treatments, although the potential difficulties of targeting the developing bladder in vivo should not be underestimated. PMID:26315301

  12. Urinary bladder stone associated with seminal vesicle and prostate infection in a Copenhagen rat

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Shantibhusan; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Mallik, Hrudananda; Panda, Sabyasachi; Hota, Datteswar; Baisakh, Manas R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a very rare case of urinary bladder stone in a laboratory rat, which was associated with severe prostatitis and seminal vesiculitis. Importantly, the histopathological analysis revealed the rare variety of keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia of bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicle epithelium. Immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin protein and aniline blue staining for collagen clearly showed interstitial prostate fibrosis. The detail information about these findings and subsequent discussion are provided here. PMID:27433075

  13. Contractile mechanisms coupled to TRPA1 receptor activation in rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Edinéia Lemos; Ferreira, Juliano; André, Eunice; Calixto, João B

    2006-06-28

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family present in sensory neurons. Here we show that vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) stimulation with capsaicin and activation of TRPA1 with allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde cause a graded contraction of the rat urinary bladder in vitro. Repeated applications of maximal concentrations of the agonists produce desensitization to their contractile effects. Moreover, contraction caused by TRPA1 agonists generates cross-desensitization with capsaicin. The TRP receptor antagonist ruthenium red (10-100 microM) inhibits capsaicin (0.03 microM), allyl isothiocyanate (100 microM) and cinnamaldehyde (300 microM)-induced contractions in the rat urinary bladder. The selective TRPV1 receptor antagonist SB 366791 (10 microM) blocks capsaicin-induced contraction, but partially reduces allyl isothiocyanate- or cinnamaldehyde-mediated contraction. However, allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde (10-1000 microM) completely fail to interfere with the specific binding sites for the TRPV1 agonist [(3)H]-resiniferatoxin. Allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde-mediated contractions of rat urinary bladder, which rely on external Ca(2+) influx, are significantly inhibited by tachykinin receptor antagonists as well as by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or indomethacin (1 microM). Allyl isothiocyanate-induced contraction is not changed by atropine (1 microM) or suramin (300 microM). The exposure of urinary bladders to allyl isothiocyanate (100 microM) causes an increase in the prostaglandin E(2) and substance P levels. Taken together, these results indicate that TRPA1 agonists contract rat urinary bladder through sensory fibre stimulation, depending on extracellular Ca(2+) influx and release of tachykinins and cyclooxygenase metabolites, probably prostaglandin E(2). Thus, TRPA1 appears to exert an important role in urinary bladder function.

  14. Toxic effects of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (Raphasatin) in the rat urinary bladder without genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Isamu; Cho, Young-Man; Hirata, Tadashi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Akagi, Jun-Ichi; Nakamura, Yasushi; Sasaki, Azusa; Nakamura, Takako; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Shirota, Koji; Suetome, Noboru; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2017-04-01

    We recently reported that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) exerts chemopreventive effects on the rat esophageal carcinogenesis model at a low dose of 80 ppm in a diet. In contrast, some isothiocyanates (ITCs) have been reported to cause toxic effects, promotion activity, and/or carcinogenic potential in the urinary bladder of rats. In the present study, we investigated whether MTBITC had toxic effects in the urinary bladder similar to other ITCs, such as phenethyl ITC (PEITC). First, to examine the early toxicity of MTBITC, rats were fed a diet supplemented with 100, 300 or 1000 ppm MTBITC for 14 days. Treatment with 1000 ppm MTBITC caused increased organ weights and histopathological changes in the urinary bladder, producing lesions similar to those of 1000 ppm PEITC. In contrast, rats treated with 100 or 300 ppm MTBITC showed no signs of toxicity. Additionally, we performed in vivo genotoxicity studies to clarify whether MTBITC may exhibit a carcinogenic potential through a genotoxic mechanism in rats. Rats were treated with MTBITC for 3 days at doses of 10, 30 or 90 mg kg(-1) body weight by gavage, and comet assays in the urinary bladder and micronucleus assays in the bone marrow were performed. No genotoxic changes were observed after treatment with MTBITC at all doses. Overall, these results suggested that the effects of MTBITC in the rat urinary bladder are less than those of PEITC, but that MTBITC could have toxic effects through a nongenotoxic mechanism in the urinary bladder of rats at high doses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp): distribution and function in rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Zvarova, K; Herrera, G M; May, V; Vizzard, M A

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the distribution of CARTp(55-102) in rat lower urinary tract and evaluated its effect on urinary bladder function in vitro. Immunohistochemistry and a vertical isolated tissue bath system were used. Neurons, clusters of nonneuronal endocrine cells, and nerve fibers stained positive for CARTp(55-102) in young adult rat urinary bladder. The CARTp-expressing neuronal elements were nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR, whereas all nonneuronal CARTp-IR elements stained positively only for TH (100 %). In isolated bladder strips, CARTp significantly increased the amplitude of electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced detrusor contractions at stimulation frequencies ≤12.5 Hz (p ≤ 0.001) as well as amplitude and frequency of spontaneous phasic urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) contractions (p ≤ 0.05). The responses to CARTp stimulation were dose-dependent and increased in the presence of the urothelium. To determine if the CARTp increase in nerve-mediated contractions may involve an action of CARTp on specific neural pathways, we blocked cholinergic, purinergic, and adrenergic pathways and determined CARTp actions on EFS-medicated contractions. CARTp enhancement of EFS-mediated contractions does not involve alteration in purinergic, adrenergic, or cholinergic pathways. The study demonstrates that CARTp(55-102) is highly expressed in rat urinary bladder. CARTp increased the amplitude of EFS-induced detrusor contractions as well as the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous phasic urinary bladder smooth muscle contractions. We conclude that CARTp may alter the release of compounds from the urothelium that leads to an enhancement of UBSM contractility/excitability.

  16. Molecular and cellular characterization of urinary bladder-type aquaporin in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yuki; Katayama, Izumi; Nakakura, Takashi; Ogushi, Yuji; Okada, Reiko; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to many anuran amphibians, water is not reabsorbed from the urinary bladder in aquatic Xenopus, thereby helping to prevent excessive water influx. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms for this process. In the present study, we have identified urinary bladder-type aquaporin, AQP-x2, in Xenopus laevis by cDNA cloning. The predicted amino acid sequence contained six putative transmembrane domains and the two conserved Asn-Pro-Ala motifs, characteristic of AQPs. The sequence also contained a putative N-glycosylation site and phosphorylation motifs for protein kinase A and protein kinase C. The oocyte swelling assay showed that AQP-x2 facilitated water permeability. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that AQP-x2 mRNA was expressed in the urinary bladder and lung, and faintly in the kidney. Immunomicroscopical study further localized AQP-x2 protein to the cytoplasm of granular cells in the luminal epithelium of the urinary bladder whilst AQP3 was observed along the basolateral side of these cells. In vitro stimulation of the urinary bladder with 10(-8)M vasotocin (AVT), 10(-8)M hydrin 1, or 10(-8)M hydrin 2 had no clear effect on the subcellular distribution of AQP-x2. When the AVT concentration was increased to 10(-6)M, however, AQP-x2 was partially transferred to the apical plasma membrane. The treatment with hydrin 1 or hydrin 2 at the same concentration failed to induce the translocation to the apical membrane. On the other hand, AQP3 remained along the basolateral side even after the treatment with vasotocin or hydrins. The results suggest that the poor responsiveness of AQP-x2 to neurohypophyseal peptides may be a main cause for the little water permeability of the urinary bladder of X. laevis.

  17. [Metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, S; Komatsu, H; Doi, N; Wakumoto, Y; Tominaga, T; Nishimura, Y

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of metastasis of a hepatocellular carcinoma to the bladder. Clinically the tumor was suspected to be a primary bladder tumor with subsequent metastasis to the liver. However, the pathological diagnosis yielded different results. The tumor cells resembled liver cells and sometimes bile production was even observed. No therapy was available and the patient died of cachexia 6 months later.

  18. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, D.; Lagacé, A.; Massé, R.; Morin, M.; Béland, P.

    1985-01-01

    A transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder was found in a beluga whale stranded in the St. Lawrence middle estuary. Various organs of this animal were submitted to high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. High frequency of urinary bladder cancer in the human population of the same area and the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the marine environment of this animal are discussed. Concurrent isolation of Edwardsiella tarda from various organs of this whale is also reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:17422578

  19. Expect the unexpected: malposition of a large-bore central venous catheter in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Wolfram; Schummer, Claudia; Gorse, Andrej; Becker, Udo; Marx, Christiane; Brauer, Martin

    2004-12-01

    We report the case of a femoral vein cannulation in a critically ill trauma patient with the malposition of a large-bore central venous catheter in the urinary bladder. Recognition of the malposition was hampered by bloody tamponade of the bladder in the context of blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma with kidney and liver laceration. A high index of clinical suspicion and the institution of adequate therapy were the key to achieving a successful clinical outcome. We discuss the anatomy of femoral veins, including their close relation to a distended bladder. The application of ultrasound even in emergency situations is stressed.

  20. Nonkeratinised Squamous Metaplasia of the Urinary Bladder in Children: A Report of Case Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jurkiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Background. Squamous metaplasia refers to the pathological transformation of the urothelium leading to nonkeratinised stratified squamous metaplasia (N-KSM). Objective. To present our experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of N-KSM of the urinary bladder in children. Materials and Methods. In this study, we present our experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of N-KSM of the urinary bladder in children aged from 5 to 17 years. From 2005 to 2013, metaplasia was diagnosed in 119 patients. The reasons behind visiting the hospital were nonspecific intense pain in the abdomen, recurrent urinary tract infections, and urination disorders. The most common symptoms of urinary bladder dysfunction were pollakiuria and difficulties in initiating micturition and retention of urine (reduced detrusor muscle activity). Results. In 20/119 patients (16.8%), metaplasia was incidentally diagnosed during cystoscopy performed for other causes. The changes characteristic for squamous metaplasia were diagnosed—in all these patients, a biopsy was performed. In all 119 patients, a squamous metaplasia was histopathologically diagnosed. Conclusions. Squamous metaplasia of the urinary bladder mucosa occurs in children and adolescents. Symptomatic treatment is administered mainly to improve the patients' quality of life and disease prognosis. PMID:24822222

  1. Transvaginal Sonography Versus Cystoscopy for Detecting Urinary Bladder Invasion in Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zutshi, Vijay; Garg, Anju; Batra, Swaraj

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality from cancer among women. In it’s early stage pre operative staging with cystoscopy is a standard procedure for the detection of urinary bladder involvement. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to compare the efficacy of Transvaginal Sonography (TVS) and cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder involvement in early stage cervical cancer patients by confirming it intraoperatively and further by histopathologic examination. Materials and Methods A prospective partially blinded study was conducted between March 2006 and September 2008 on 30 patients with early stage cervical cancer (Stage I and IIa) who were planned to undergo radical hysterectomy. Pre operatively, these patients underwent both TVS and cystoscopy to diagnose bladder involvement. Presence or absence of bladder involvement was then confirmed intra operatively and by histopathologic examination. Results In all the 30 patients studied, no bladder involvement was seen on cystoscopy where as TVS showed bladder involvement in three patients. Involvement of the bladder in these three patients was confirmed intra operatively and by histopathologic examination. Thus, in our study, TVS was 100% sensitive in detecting bladder involvement. Conclusion TVS is highly sensitive in diagnosing bladder involvement in early stage cervical cancer and could potentially detect cases missed with a cystoscopy.

  2. De novo reconstitution of a functional mammalian urinary bladder by tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Oberpenning, F; Meng, J; Yoo, J J; Atala, A

    1999-02-01

    Human organ replacement is limited by a donor shortage, problems with tissue compatibility, and rejection. Creation of an organ with autologous tissue would be advantageous. In this study, transplantable urinary bladder neo-organs were reproducibly created in vitro from urothelial and smooth muscle cells grown in culture from canine native bladder biopsies and seeded onto preformed bladder-shaped polymers. The native bladders were subsequently excised from canine donors and replaced with the tissue-engineered neo-organs. In functional evaluations for up to 11 months, the bladder neo-organs demonstrated a normal capacity to retain urine, normal elastic properties, and histologic architecture. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that successful reconstitution of an autonomous hollow organ is possible using tissue-engineering methods.

  3. Metastatic tumors to the urinary bladder: clinicopathologic study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Chow, Jonathan; Unger, Pamela D

    2012-08-01

    Secondary neoplasms of the urinary bladder are uncommon, with metastatic tumors being an even rarer event. The authors studied the clinicopathology of 11 cases of metastatic tumors to bladder, which were collected from their archives between 1995 and 2010. The most common metastases in this series were breast. Some unusual metastases, including several not being previously reported, were also presented, namely, ileal carcinoid tumor, ileal gastrointestinal stromal tumor, ovarian squamous carcinoma, pancreatic gastrinoma, and renal collecting duct carcinoma. Vast majority of these patients (10/11, 91%) were female. Ninety percent of the patients presented with hematuria and/or obstructive urinary symptom as well as bladder lesions in the area of trigone, posterior wall, and/or bladder neck. Seven of the 11 patients had a known history of other metastases besides the bladder. Most of the patients (4/7, 57%) died within 1 year after diagnosis of bladder metastasis. Metastasis must be distinguished from a primary bladder neoplasm. Morphology and clinical correlation supplemented with immunohistochemical study is critical for the correct diagnosis.

  4. Management of Urinary Incontinence in Complete Bladder Duplication by Injection of Bulking Agent at Bladder Neck Level into the Proximal Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Khorramirouz, Reza; Ladi Seyedian, Seyedeh Sanam; Keihani, Sorena; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Bladder duplication is a rare entity in children. The term encompasses a wide spectrum of anomalies from isolated bladder duplication in coronal or sagittal planes to duplicated bladder exstrophy and associated musculoskeletal and visceral anomalies. Given this wide variability, the treatment of these patients is not standardized. We hereby present a female patient with chief complaint of long-standing urinary incontinence who had complete bladder and urethral duplication and pubic diastasis. The patient was treated with bulking agent injection at the incompetent bladder neck and proximal urethra with resolution of incontinence, obviating the need for extensive surgeries. PMID:26904349

  5. [Testing an ultrasonic scanner for determination of urinary bladder volume].

    PubMed

    Rohde, T; Jensen, K M; Colstrup, H

    1992-11-30

    Bladderscan BVI 2000 is a portable ultrasound scanner, specially constructed for determination of bladder volume. We have tested this scanner for accuracy, systematic errors and the training required to use it. The bladder volumes measured by ultrasound scanning were compared with the true volumes. Fifty-six measurements were made. We found the accuracy of BVI 2000 sufficient to determine bladder volumes as either small or large. We found no systematic errors. No special training is required to use the scanner. The device is thus useful in most clinical situations when greater accuracy than indicated here is not necessary.

  6. Improved bladder emptying in urinary retention by electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Cheng, Chen-Li; Grill, Warren M.

    2008-06-01

    Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder completely, and may result from bladder hypocontractility, increases in outlet resistance or both. Chronic urinary retention can lead to several urological complications and is often refractory to pharmacologic, behavioral and surgical treatments. We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve could engage an augmenting reflex and thereby improve bladder emptying in an animal model of urinary retention. We measured the efficiency of bladder emptying with and without concomitant electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents in urethane-anesthetized rats. Voiding efficiency (VE = voided volume/initial volume) was reduced from 72 ± 7% to 29 ± 7% following unilateral transection of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve (UST) and from 70 ± 5% to 18 ± 4% following bilateral transection (BST). Unilateral electrical stimulation of the proximal transected sensory pudendal nerve during distention-evoked voiding contractions significantly improved VE. Low-intensity stimulation at frequencies of 1-50 Hz increased VE to 40-51% following UST and to 39-49% following BST, while high-intensity stimulation was ineffective at increasing VE. The increase in VE was mediated by increases in the duration of distention-evoked voiding bladder contractions, rather than increases in contraction amplitude. These results are consistent with an essential role for pudendal sensory feedback in efficient bladder emptying, and raise the possibility that electrical activation of pudendal nerve afferents may provide a new approach to restore efficient bladder emptying in persons with urinary retention.

  7. IMPROVED BLADDER EMPTYING IN URINARY RETENTION BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF PUDENDAL AFFERENTS

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Cheng, Chen-Li; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder completely, and may result from bladder hypocontractility, increases in outlet resistance, or both. Chronic urinary retention can lead to several urological complications and is often refractory to pharmacologic, behavioral, and surgical treatments. We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve could engage an augmenting reflex and thereby improve bladder emptying in an animal model of urinary retention. We measured the efficiency of bladder emptying with and without concomitant electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents in urethane anesthetized rats. Voiding efficiency (VE=voided volume/initial volume) was reduced from 72±7% to 29±7% following unilateral transection of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve (UST) and from 70±5% to 18±4% following bilateral transection (BST). Unilateral electrical stimulation of the proximal transected sensory pudendal nerve during distention-evoked voiding contractions significantly improved VE. Low intensity stimulation at frequencies of 1–50 Hz increased VE to 40–51% following UST and to 39–49% following BST, while high intensity stimulation was ineffective at increasing VE. The increase in VE was mediated by increases in the duration of distention-evoked voiding bladder contractions, rather than increases in contraction amplitude. These results are consistent with an essential role for pudendal sensory feedback in efficient bladder emptying, and raise the possibility that electrical activation of pudendal nerve afferents may provide a new approach to restore efficient bladder emptying in persons with urinary retention. PMID:18430976

  8. Appraisal of diagnostic ability of UCA1 as a biomarker of carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Singh, P K; Rath, S K; Dalela, D; Goel, M M; Bhatt, M L B

    2014-11-01

    Initial diagnosis of carcinoma of the urinary bladder remains to be a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) is a novel non-coding RNA gene, which plays a pivotal role in bladder cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate the significance of urinary UCA1 for the non-invasive diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. We examined UCA1 expression in a bladder cancer cell line (T24) and in urine of 28 healthy individuals, 46 patients of non-malignant disorders, and 117 cases (69 primary and 48 recurrent cases) of histologically proven TCC prior to transurethral resection by using real-time PCR and compared it with voided urinary cytology. UCA1 expression was found in T24 cell line and also found to be significantly higher in the cancer group as compared to the controls (p<0.001). UCA1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression showed a significant (p<0.05) association with stage and grade (p<0.05). UCA1 showed a sensitivity of 79.49% and a specificity of 79.73% (p<0.001), whereas urine cytology had a sensitivity of 66.67% and a specificity of 95.95% for TCC cases. Higher expression of UCA1 was associated with high grade (G2-G3, sensitivity=84.09%) (p<0.001). UCA1 mRNA expression did not significantly correlate with the patient's age, sex, and smoking habit (p>0.05). UCA1 can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC bladder as an adjunct to cytology in the early diagnosis of primary urinary bladder cancer.

  9. Immunoglobulin G4-associated inflammatory pseudotumor of urinary bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghui; Ro, Jae Y; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Choi, Sun Young; Koo, Heasoo

    2013-12-01

    A previously healthy 72-year old woman was admitted with a chief complaint of gross hematuria and fecaluria for 4 months. On initial computed tomographic examination, a lobulated shaped intravesical protruding mass with adhesion to the sigmoid colon was identified. Under a clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer with vesicosigmoid fistula vs sigmoid colon cancer with vesicosigmoid fistula, a frozen section evaluation of the bladder mass was performed to determine the origin of the tumor. Because the frozen section diagnosis of the bladder mass was an inflammatory origin, a partial cystectomy with segmental resection of the adherent sigmoid colon was elected. The microscopic examination of the partial resection of the urinary bladder revealed suburothelial inflammatory mass lesion, involving the entire wall of bladder with extension to the sigmoid colon, which was composed of spindle cells without significant atypia admixed with many lymphocytes, plasma cells, and some scattered eosinophils. Chronic inflammation around nerve bundles, sclerotic fibrosis, and prominent lymphoid follicles with plasma cells were the main features of the mass. No urothelial dysplasia or malignancy was seen. An average of 57 plasma cells per 1 high-power field was immunoreactive for immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 with IgG4/IgG ratio of more than 40%, a diagnostic feature of IgG4-associated inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT), arising in the bladder with the secondary involvement of the sigmoid colon. Recent studies reported many IPTs associated with IgG4 in other locations; however, to the best of our knowledge, IgG4-associated IPT in the urinary bladder has not been reported. We describe herein the first case of IgG4-associated IPT, lymphoplasmacytic type in the urinary bladder.

  10. Effect of urinary excretion on the bladder tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones in rats.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Makiko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which of blood or urine has the greater effect on bladder tissue concentrations of fluoroquinolones important for the treatment of urinary tract infections by measuring concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the vesical tissue (chemically and immunohistochemically) and intravesical space (chemically). Thirty-minute incubation of isolated rat bladders with fluoroquinolones showed only a 1.9-fold difference in transferability among norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Intravesical instillation of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin in rats yielded similar vesical tissue distributions. Thus, there were no large differences in vesical tissue transfer among the four fluoroquinolones. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin (high urinary excretion-type) and sparfloxacin (low urinary excretion-type) at 1 h after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg) to rats were 15.4 and 1.3, respectively. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin after an intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) to ureter-catheterized and sham-operated rats were 1.36 and 57.8. Thus the bladder tissue distribution was significantly higher in the urine-exposed bladder. Immunohistochemical examination of the vesical tissue localization of norfloxacin in rats given a single intravenous dose revealed the presence of the drug-positive image in the cytoplasm of surface layer cells (both in umbrella and cover cells) of the bladder transitional epithelium. In conclusion, the results suggest that norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are excreted into urine and then transferred to the surface layer of the bladder transitional epithelium. Therefore, the urine levels have a greater effect on the vesicle tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones than the plasma levels in rats.

  11. Mouse Models of Human Bladder Cancer as a Tool for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Seager, Catherine; Puzio-Kuter, Anna M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; McKiernan, James; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2010-01-01

    Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a deadly condition in dire need of effective new treatments. This unit contains a description of mouse models suitable for the evaluation of potential new therapies. Included is a genetically engineered mouse model of bladder cancer generated by the delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase into the bladder lumen. Also described is an orthotopic mouse model created by the instillation of human bladder tumor cells into the bladder lumen of immune deficient mice. Protocols are also provided on the use of these models for the preclinical evaluation of new chemical entities, with mTOR inhibitors shown as an example. PMID:22294368

  12. [A collision cancer between urothelial carcinoma and malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder: a case report].

    PubMed

    Okumura, Keiko; Kato, Kumiko; Furuhashi, Kenichi; Suzuki, Koichi; Murase, Tatsuro

    2007-09-01

    A man in his 70's visited the Department of Internal Medicine due to lumbago that had first appeared two months previously. Abdominal computed tomography showed a low-density area in the liver and swelling of lymph nodes surrounding the abdominal aorta. Four months later, he was hospitalized on an emergency basis in a urology ward in order to control bladder tamponade. Cystoscopy revealed massive blood clots and a papillary tumor at the left wall of the urinary bladder. He underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, and the pathological diagnosis was a collision tumor between urothelial carcinoma (G2, pTa) and malignant lymphoma (B cell type). He underwent a liver biopsy soon thereafter, and the pathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma (as for the one found in the urinary bladder). Bladder tamponade was repeated, which was relieved after one course of chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma. He underwent six courses of chemotherapy (THP-CO), and he was well without recurrence of either malignant lymphoma or urothelial carcinoma with 3 years' follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the 14th reported case of a collision tumor in the urinary tract.

  13. Neuronal GABA release and GABA inhibition of ACh release in guinea pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, M; Taniyama, K; Tanaka, C

    1984-04-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) are present in the urinary bladder of guinea pigs, and the possible correlation in regional distribution between GABA, GAD, and the number of vesical ganglion cells was studied. Electrical stimulation of the bladder strips produced an increase in the calcium-dependent and tetrodotoxin-sensitive [3H]GABA release and contractions in the strips preloaded with [3H]GABA. Nicotine, acetylcholine chloride (ACh), and hexamethonium did not significantly alter the release of [3H]GABA. Bicuculline significantly enhanced [3H]ACh release and cholinergic components of contractions evoked by electrical stimulation of the bladder strips preloaded with [3H]choline, thereby suggesting that this compound antagonizes the effect of endogenous GABA released during stimulation. GABA and muscimol but not baclofen reduced both the [3H]ACh release and contractions evoked by nicotine. These effects of GABA were antagonized by bicuculline and furosemide but not by alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockers. These findings suggest that GABA may be a noncholinergic nonadrenergic inhibitory neurotransmitter in the urinary bladder. The motility of the urinary bladder is thus inhibited by reducing the release of ACh from the postganglionic cholinergic neurons through bicuculline-sensitive GABA receptors probably associated with the chloride ion channel.

  14. Early Detection of Genotoxic Urinary Bladder Carcinogens by Immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Takeshi; Cho, Young-Man; Akagi, Jun-Ichi; Mizuta, Yasuko; Hirata, Tadashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2015-12-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by exposure to genotoxic agents are known to cause genome instability and cancer development. To evaluate the applicability of γ-H2AX, a sensitive marker of DSBs, in the early detection of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of chemicals using animal models, we examined γ-H2AX expression in urinary bladders of rats. Six-week-old male F344 rats were orally treated for 4 weeks with a total of 12 chemicals divided into 4 categories based on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in the urinary bladder. Animals were sacrificed at the end of administration or after 2 weeks of recovery, and immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX was performed. At week 4, γ-H2AX expression in bladder epithelial cells was significantly increased by all 4 genotoxic bladder carcinogens as compared with the controls, whereas the 3 chemicals that were genotoxic but not carcinogenic in the bladders did not cause upregulation of γ-H2AX. After the recovery period, γ-H2AX expression was markedly reduced in all groups but remained significantly elevated in rats treated with 3 of the 4 genotoxic bladder carcinogens. Although slight increases in γ-H2AX expression were induced by a weak bladder carcinogen with equivocal genotoxicity (phenethyl isothiocyanate) and 2 nongenotoxic bladder carcinogens (melamine and uracil) at week 4, these differences were not significant and were thought to be associated with activated proliferation by urothelial hyperplasia, as demonstrated by increased Ki67-positive cells. These results suggested that γ-H2AX may be a potential biomarker for the early detection of genotoxic bladder carcinogens.

  15. [EFFECT OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ON NEUTRAL LIPID METABOLISM AND CELLULAR ENERGETICS IN FROG URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL CELLS].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, E V; Fock, E M; Braylovskaya, I V; Bachteeva, V T; Lavrova, E A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Parnova, R G

    2015-09-01

    It was shown previously that colonization of the frog urinary bladder by gram-negative bacteria leads to decreased ability of antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from the urinary bladder (Fock et al. J. Exp. Zool., 2013, 319A: 487-494). In the present work performed on epithelial cells isolated from the frog urinary bladder the influence of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on neutral lipid metabolism and cellular energetics was studied. It was shown that incubation of cells with LPS led to decrease of fatty acids oxidation and to retention of triacylglycerols (TAG) followed by an increase of the cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and cellular amount of TAG. Fatty acid composition of TAG was not changed under LPS. LPS did not alter mitochondrial membrane potential, however, LPS decreased oxygen consumption rate both in basal and uncoupling conditions. Cellular ATP production was also reduced in the presence of LPS. The data obtained indicate that a decreased ability of antidiuretic hormone to reabsorb water from the urinary bladder induced by bacterial pathogens could be related to inhibition of fatty acids oxidation and impaired energy metabolism.

  16. Endoscopy-guided ectopic egg removal from the urinary bladder in a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis).

    PubMed

    Mans, Christoph; Foster, Jonathan D

    2014-06-01

    Egg retention in the urinary bladder of a leopard tortoise was diagnosed by radiography and confirmed by cystoscopy. The egg was removed with a modified polypectomy snare, aided by a flexible endoscope and insufflation. No complications occurred during the procedures and the tortoise made a complete recovery.

  17. The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Kerec, M; Svigelj, V; Bogataj, M; Mrhar, A

    2002-06-20

    The influence of interactions between polycarbophil and calcium on a model drug permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall was investigated. Pipemidic acid was used as a model drug. One percent w/v polycarbophil dispersion significantly increases the permeation of pipemidic acid into the urinary bladder wall. The enhanced absorption of pipemidic acid caused by polycarbophil is significantly less pronounced in polycarbophil dispersions containing calcium. The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the urinary bladder wall could be due to the opening of tight junctions, which causes higher paracellular permeability. In the case of polycarbophil dispersion with calcium some carboxylic groups of polymer are already occupied with calcium, present in the dispersions. As a consequence extracellular calcium binds to polycarbophil in lower extent if compared with polycarbophil dispersion without calcium and transport is increased to a lesser degree. We concluded that the mechanism of drug absorption enhancement caused by polycarbophil could be similar for urinary bladder as described in the literature for intestinal mucosa.

  18. Retrograde catheterization of the urinary bladder in healthy male goats by use of angiographic catheters.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Emily J; Streeter, Robert N; Simpson, Katharine M; Taylor, Jared D

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify and evaluate 3 types of angiographic catheters for retrograde urinary bladder catheterization in healthy male goats. ANIMALS 12 sexually intact yearling Alpine-cross bucks. PROCEDURES Three 5F angiographic catheters of the same length (100 cm) and diameter (0.17 cm) but differing in curvature at the tip were labeled A (straight tip), B (tip bent in 1 place), and C (tip bent in 2 places). During a single anesthetic episode, attempts were made to blindly pass each catheter into the urinary bladder of each goat. Order of catheters used was randomized, and the veterinarian passing the catheter was blinded as to catheter identity. The total number of attempts at catheter passage and the total number of successful attempts were recorded. RESULTS Catheter A was unsuccessfully passed in all 12 goats, catheter B was successfully passed in 8 goats, and catheter C was successfully passed in 4 goats. The success rate for catheter B was significantly greater than that for catheter A; however, no significant difference was identified between catheters B and C or catheters A and C. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 2 angiographic catheters were identified that could be successfully, blindly advanced in a retrograde direction into the urinary bladder of healthy sexually intact male goats. Such catheters may be useful for determining urethral patency, emptying the urinary bladder, and instilling chemolysing agents in goats with clinical obstructive urolithiasis.

  19. COMPARISON OF GENE EXPRESSION IN KIDNEY AND URINARY BLADDER FROM RATS TREATED WITH DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is widespread in the environment and a human carcinogen. A major metabolite of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in most species, including humans, is dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which is also used as a pesticide. Unlike iAs, DMA induces urinary bladder tumors in rats. DMA is belie...

  20. Recurrent urinary tract infections and bladder dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Duran-Barragan, S; Ruvalcaba-Naranjo, H; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, L; Solano-Moreno, H; Hernandez-Rios, G; Sanchez-Ortiz, A; Ramos-Remus, C

    2008-12-01

    To assess bladder function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). A convenience sample of consecutive patients with SLE (American College of Rheumatology criteria), with recurrent UTIs (>/=3 events in the preceding 12 months), without history of central nervous system involvement, urolithiasis or preceding tuberculosis were studied. Disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), damage (SDI), lower urinary tract symptoms [Pelvic pain and Urgency/Frequency (PUF) and the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Index (ICSPI) scales] and Autonomic Symptom Profile (ASP) were assessed. All patients underwent urological examination and urodynamic assessment with cystometry, uroflow, micturition and urethral pressure profile. Ten patients (nine women) were included. The majority of the patients reported urinary symptoms: urgency (n = 8), frequency (n = 8), nocturia (n = 9) and pain (n = 10). The patients had a mean (SD) ICSPI score of 18.4 (9.8), PUF score of 17.4 (5.3) and ASP weighted score of 31.7 (16.1). Abnormal urodynamics findings were identified in seven of the 10 patients, including small bladder capacity (two patients), reduced bladder sensation (four patients), subnormal urinary flow rate (one patient) and a significant amount of residual urine (two patients). The urodynamics findings suggest that bladder dysfunction could be one of the mechanisms involved on the occurrence of recurrent UTIs in patients with SLE. These findings have potential implications for the proper assessment and management of SLE patients with recurrent UTIs. Further studies are needed to corroborate our results.

  1. Breast metastasis from signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YAOMIN; WEI, HAIYAN; LI, JUN; LIU, XIAOJIAO; FU, PEIFEN

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of the bladder metastatic to the breast is only sporadically reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first described case of signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder metastasizing to the breast. The patient was a 43-year-old woman who underwent transurethral partial cystectomy for signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine. At 7 months postcystectomy, the patient presented with a solitary nodule in the right breast. Following transdermic core needle puncture biopsy of the lesion and histological examination, the tumor was found to be composed of signet ring cells, which were similar to the cells in the original cystectomy specimen. The patient underwent mastectomy without further chemotherapy and has remained free from metastasis to other organs during 1 year follow-up. PMID:27330778

  2. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2007-04-01

    Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit.

  3. Rb deficiency accelerates progression of carcinoma of the urinary bladder in vivo and in vitro through inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Jiang-Ping; Jiao, Yong; Zhang, Bo

    2017-02-22

    Urinary bladder cancer is known as a common cancer diagnosed across the world and results in significant mortality and morbidity rates among patients. The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, as a main tumor suppressor, controls cellular responses to potentially oncogenic stimulation. Rb phosphorylation could disrupt E2F complex formation, resulting in diverse transcription factor dysfunction. In our study, we investigated how Rb is involved in controlling urinary bladder cancer progression. The results indicate that Rb expression is reduced in mice with urinary bladder tumor, and its suppression leads to urinary bladder cancer progression in vivo and in vitro. Rb mutation directly results in tumor size with lower survival rate in vivo. Rb knockdown in vitro promoted bladder tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Interestingly, Rb knockout and knockdown result in autophagy and apoptosis inhibition via suppressing p53 and caspase-3 signaling pathways, enhancing bladder cancer development in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal that Rb deficiency accelerated urinary bladder cancer progression, exposing an important role of Rb in suppressing urinary bladder cancer for treatment in the future.

  4. Association of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence in rats with pudendal nerve ligation injury.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Akira; Kita, Masafumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Egawa, Shin; Chancellor, Michael B; de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) also suffer from urgency incontinence, which is one of the major symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Pudendal nerve injury has been recognized as a possible cause for both SUI and OAB. Therefore, we investigated the effects of pudendal nerve ligation (PNL) on bladder function and urinary continence in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Conscious cystometry with or without capsaicin pretreatment (125 mg/kg sc), leak point pressures (LPPs), contractile responses of bladder muscle strips to carbachol or phenylephrine, and levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) protein and mRNA in the bladder were compared in sham and PNL rats 4 wk after the injury. Urinary frequency detected by a reduction in intercontraction intervals and voided volume was observed in PNL rats compared with sham rats, but it was not seen in PNL rats with capsaicin pretreatment that desensitizes C-fiber-afferent pathways. LPPs in PNL rats were significantly decreased compared with sham rats. The contractile responses of detrusor muscle strips to phenylephrine, but not to carbachol, were significantly increased in PNL rats. The levels of NGF protein and mRNA in the bladder of PNL rats were significantly increased compared with sham rats. These results suggest that pudendal nerve neuropathy induced by PNL may be one of the potential risk factors for OAB, as well as SUI. Somato-visceral cross sensitization between somatic (pudendal) and visceral (bladder) sensory pathways that increases NGF expression and alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-mediated contractility in the bladder may be involved in this pathophysiological mechanism.

  5. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  6. α1-, α2- and β-adrenoceptors in the urinary bladder, urethra and prostate

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Martin C; Vrydag, Wim

    2006-01-01

    We have systematically reviewed the presence, functional responses and regulation of α1-, α2- and β-adrenoceptors in the bladder, urethra and prostate, with special emphasis on human tissues and receptor subtypes. α1-Adrenoceptors are only poorly expressed and play a limited functional role in the detrusor. α1-Adrenoceptors, particularly their α1A-subtype, show a more pronounced expression and promote contraction of the bladder neck, urethra and prostate to enhance bladder outlet resistance, particularly in elderly men with enlarged prostates. α1-Adrenoceptor agonists are important in the treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, but their beneficial effects may involve receptors within and outside the prostate. α2-Adrenoceptors, mainly their α2A-subtype, are expressed in bladder, urethra and prostate. They mediate pre-junctional inhibition of neurotransmitter release and also a weak contractile effect in the urethra of some species, but not humans. Their overall post-junctional function in the lower urinary tract remains largely unclear. β-Adrenoceptors mediate relaxation of smooth muscle in the bladder, urethra and prostate. The available tools have limited the unequivocal identification of receptor subtypes at the protein and functional levels, but it appears that the β3- and β2-subtypes are important in the human bladder and urethra, respectively. β3-Adrenoceptor agonists are promising drug candidates for the treatment of the overactive bladder. We propose that the overall function of adrenoceptors in the lower urinary tract is to promote urinary continence. Further elucidation of the functional roles of their subtypes will help a better understanding of voiding dysfunction and its treatment. PMID:16465187

  7. Effects of seven chemicals on DNA damage in the rat urinary bladder: a comet assay study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kunio; Yoshida, Toshinori; Takahashi, Naofumi; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2014-07-15

    The in vivo comet assay has been used for the evaluation of DNA damage and repair in various tissues of rodents. However, it can give false-positive results due to non-specific DNA damage associated with cell death. In this study, we examined whether the in vivo comet assay can distinguish between genotoxic and non-genotoxic DNA damage in urinary bladder cells, by using the following seven chemicals related to urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rodents: N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), glycidol, 2,2-bis(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP), 2-nitroanisole (2-NA), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), uracil, and melamine. BBN, glycidol, BMP, and 2-NA are known to be Ames test-positive and they are expected to produce DNA damage in the absence of cytotoxicity. BITC, uracil, and melamine are Ames test-negative with metabolic activation but have the potential to induce non-specific DNA damage due to cytotoxicity. The test chemicals were administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats (five per group) for each of two consecutive days. Urinary bladders were sampled 3h after the second administration and urothelial cells were analyzed by the comet assay and subjected to histopathological examination to evaluate cytotoxicity. In the urinary bladders of rats treated with BBN, glycidol, and BMP, DNA damage was detected. In contrast, 2-NA induced neither DNA damage nor cytotoxicity. The non-genotoxic chemicals (BITC, uracil, and melamine) did not induce DNA damage in the urinary bladders under conditions where some histopathological changes were observed. The results indicate that the comet assay could distinguish between genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals and that no false-positive responses were obtained.

  8. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  9. Kinetic model of drug distribution in the urinary bladder wall following intravesical instillation.

    PubMed

    Grabnar, I; Bogataj, M; Belic, A; Logar, V; Karba, R; Mrhar, A

    2006-09-28

    Intravesical administration of cytotoxic agents is commonly used in urological practice for treatment of superficial bladder cancer. The leading motive is optimisation of drug delivery near the site of action and reduction of systemic toxicity. Bladder pharmacokinetics is complicated by several mechanisms. The objectives of this work were to develop a kinetic model of drug distribution in the bladder wall following intravesical instillation and to study the effect of various parameters on tissue and systemic drug exposure and explore the potential benefits of permeability enhancing effects of chitosan (CH) and polycarbophil (PC) through simulation. Key elements of the model are variable urinary drug concentration due to urine formation and voiding, biphasic diffusion in the bladder tissue and systemic absorption. Model parameters were estimated from bladder-tissue concentration profiles obtained in previous in vitro experiments with pipemidic acid (PPA) as a model drug. The results support further investigations on application of CH and PC in intravesical drug delivery. Both polymers increase permeability of the bladder wall by diffusion enhancement in the urothelium and presumably by improving the contact with the bladder surface. The developed mathematical model could serve for optimisation of intravesical drug delivery and future development of intravesical drug delivery systems.

  10. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Risk of Bladder Cancer in Men: Results from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiachen; Kelsey, Karl T.; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand the association between Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and risk of bladder cancer in a large men's cohort. Methods Using data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined risk of bladder cancer in relation to severity of LUTS among 30,183 men. During the follow-up period from 1996 until 2010, 476 newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Among men with severe LUTS, risk of bladder cancer was 64% higher (relative risk (RR): 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 3.08) compared with men who reported no LUTS. Subjects with both voiding and storage dysfunction had a significantly higher risk of bladder cancer (RR: 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.56). Among individual urinary symptoms, urinary hesitancy was strongly associated with bladder cancer; those who experienced urinary hesitancy at least 50% of the time had more than twice the risk of bladder cancer (RR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.78). Conclusions Our findings suggest that LUTS, especially urinary hesitancy, are associated with the development of bladder cancer in men. PMID:25863833

  11. Urinary pH, cigarette smoking and bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Alguacil, Juan; Kogevinas, Manolis; Silverman, Debra T.; Malats, Núria; Real, Francisco X.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Tardón, Adonina; Rivas, Manuel; Torà, Montserrat; García-Closas, Reina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Fortuny, Joan; Samanic, Claudine; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    Glucuronide conjugates of 4-aminobiphenyl and its N-hydroxy metabolite can be rapidly hydrolyzed in acidic urine to undergo further metabolic activation and form DNA adducts in the urothelium. We conducted a large multicenter case–control study in Spain to explore the etiology of bladder cancer and evaluated the association between urine pH and bladder cancer risk, alone and in combination with cigarette smoking. In total, 712 incident urothelial cell carcinoma cases and 611 hospital controls directly measured their urine pH with dipsticks twice a day (first void in the morning and early in the evening) during four consecutive days 2 weeks after hospital discharge. We found that a consistently acidic urine pH ≤6.0 was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–1.9] compared with all other subjects. Furthermore, risk estimates for smoking intensity and risk of bladder cancer among current smokers tended to be higher for those with a consistently acidic urine (OR = 8.8, 11.5 and 23.8) compared with those without (OR = 4.3, 7.7 and 5.8, respectively, for 1–19, 20–29 and 30+ cigarettes per day; Pinteraction for 30+ cigarettes per day = 0.024). These results suggest that urine pH, which is determined primarily by diet and body surface area, may be an important modifier of smoking and risk of bladder cancer. PMID:21402590

  12. Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. Case presentation The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. Conclusions The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum. PMID:24666697

  13. Downregulation of glutathione S-transferase M1 protein in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced mouse bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jing-Jing; Dai, Yuan-Chang; Lin, Yung-Lun; Chen, Yang-Yi; Lin, Wei-Han; Chan, Hong-Lin; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Bladder cancer is highly recurrent following specific transurethral resection and intravesical chemotherapy, which has prompted continuing efforts to develop novel therapeutic agents and early-stage diagnostic tools. Specific changes in protein expression can provide a diagnostic marker. In our present study, we investigated changes in protein expression during urothelial carcinogenesis. The carcinogen BBN was used to induce mouse bladder tumor formation. Mouse bladder mucosa proteins were collected and analyzed by 2D electrophoresis from 6 to 20 weeks after commencing continuous BBN treatment. By histological examination, the connective layer of the submucosa showed gradual thickening and the number of submucosal capillaries gradually increased after BBN treatment. At 12-weeks after the start of BBN treatment, the urothelia became moderately dysplastic and tumors arose after 20-weeks of treatment. These induced bladder lesions included carcinoma in situ and connective tissue invasive cancer. In protein 2D analysis, the sequentially downregulated proteins from 6 to 20 weeks included GSTM1, L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain, keratin 8, keratin 18 and major urinary proteins 2 and 11/8. In contrast, the sequentially upregulated proteins identified were GSTO1, keratin 15 and myosin light polypeptide 6. Western blotting confirmed that GSTM1 and NQO-1 were decreased, while GSTO1 and Sp1 were increased, after BBN treatment. In human bladder cancer cells, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased the GSTM1 mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that the downregulation of GSTM1 in the urothelia is a biomarker of bladder carcinogenesis and that this may be mediated by DNA CpG methylation. - Highlights: • GSTM1 and NQO-1 proteins decreased in the mouse bladder mucosa after BBN treatment. • BBN induced GSTO1 and Sp1 protein expression in the mouse bladder mucosa. • 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased GSTM1 mRNA and protein in human bladder cancer cell. • GSTM1

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Gomez, Enrique; Tamboli, Pheroze; Bondaruk, Jolanta E; Kamat, Ashish; Bassett, Roland; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2009-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon histologic type in the urinary bladder. We searched our surgical pathology files and identified 16 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The mean age of patients was 65.4 years (range, 41-77 years). All patients received transurethral resection of the bladder, which demonstrated pure squamous cell carcinomas. Seven patients had clinical evidence of tumor spreading out of the bladder (T4) and did not undergo radical cystectomy. The other 9 patients underwent cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. The cystectomy specimens revealed tumors invading muscularis propria (T2) (n = 4) or perivesical soft tissue (T3) (n = 5). Two patients also had metastasis to lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that squamous cell carcinoma cells were positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (n = 16) and for p53 (n = 11). For the 9 patients who received cystectomy, 5 patients were alive at a mean of 92.8 months (range, 59-128 months) and 4 patients died of disease at a mean of 24.0 months (range, 6-58 months). For the 7 patients who did not receive cystectomy, 6 died at a mean of 5.7 months (range, 3-9 months), and no follow-up was available for the remaining patient. In conclusion, squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder frequently presents at an advanced stage and is associated with enhanced expression of EGFR and p53.

  15. Modeling and simulation of a low-grade urinary bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky, Svetlana; Pisarev, Vladimir; Kashdan, Eugene

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical model of the initiation and progression of a low-grade urinary bladder carcinoma. We simulate the crucial processes affecting tumor growth, such as oxygen diffusion, carcinogen penetration, and angiogenesis, within the framework of the urothelial cell dynamics. The cell dynamics are modeled using the discrete technique of cellular automata, while the continuous processes of carcinogen penetration and oxygen diffusion are described by nonlinear diffusion-absorption equations. As the availability of oxygen is necessary for tumor progression, processes of oxygen transport to the tumor growth site seem most important. Our model yields a theoretical insight into the main stages of development and growth of urinary bladder carcinoma with emphasis on the two most common types: bladder polyps and carcinoma in situ. Analysis of histological structure of bladder tumor is important to avoid misdiagnosis and wrong treatment. We expect our model to be a valuable tool in the study of bladder cancer progression due to the exposure to carcinogens and the oxygen dependent expression of genes promoting tumor growth. Our numerical simulations have good qualitative agreement with in vivo results reported in the corresponding medical literature.

  16. Novel pathologic findings associated with urinary retention in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB.

    PubMed

    Gografe, Sylvia I; Sanberg, Paul R; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Monforte, Hector; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana

    2009-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB; Sanfilippo syndrome type B) is a metabolic disorder with devastating clinical characteristics starting in early childhood and leading to premature death. A knockout mouse strain was developed that models this disease. Mice of the strain B6.129S6- Naglu(tm1Efn)/J are invaluable for investigating pathogenesis and possible treatment modalities. However, the mouse strain also exhibits some objectionable phenotypic features. One such feature, urinary retention, not only is atypical of human MPS IIIB but often leads to early termination of experiments due to animal welfare concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate abnormalities associated with the urinary retention. Necropsies were performed on 9-mo-old mice; urinalysis, hematology and blood chemistry parameters were evaluated, and urogenital specimens were microscopically examined. Histopathologic examinations of urinary tract specimens proved illuminating regarding pathology in the urinary tract. A large mononuclear cell infiltrate was discovered in mutant mice of both sexes, more pronounced in females compared with male mice. The infiltrate comprises of large rounded or polygonal cells with generous variably vacuolated, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and small round vesicular nuclei. These cells were present throughout and expand the interstitium of the lower urinary tract. Either this results in extrinsic compression of the lumen of the urethra, eventually leading to obstructive uropathy, bladder hyperdistension, and urinary retention or possibly interferes with the neurogenic component of micturition needs to be further investigated. The novel finding of an unexpected mononuclear cell infiltrate in the urinary tract in the knockout mice B6.129S6- Naglu(tm1Efn)/J is reported.

  17. Novel Pathologic Findings Associated with Urinary Retention in a Mouse Model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB

    PubMed Central

    Gografe, Sylvia I; Sanberg, Paul R; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Monforte, Hector; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana

    2009-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB; Sanfilippo syndrome type B) is a metabolic disorder with devastating clinical characteristics starting in early childhood and leading to premature death. A knockout mouse strain was developed that models this disease. Mice of the strain B6.129S6- Naglutm1Efn/J are invaluable for investigating pathogenesis and possible treatment modalities. However, the mouse strain also exhibits some objectionable phenotypic features. One such feature, urinary retention, not only is atypical of human MPS IIIB but often leads to early termination of experiments due to animal welfare concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate abnormalities associated with the urinary retention. Necropsies were performed on 9-mo-old mice; urinalysis, hematology and blood chemistry parameters were evaluated, and urogenital specimens were microscopically examined. Histopathologic examinations of urinary tract specimens proved illuminating regarding pathology in the urinary tract. A large mononuclear cell infiltrate was discovered in mutant mice of both sexes, more pronounced in females compared with male mice. The infiltrate comprises of large rounded or polygonal cells with generous variably vacuolated, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and small round vesicular nuclei. These cells were present throughout and expand the interstitium of the lower urinary tract. Either this results in extrinsic compression of the lumen of the urethra, eventually leading to obstructive uropathy, bladder hyperdistension, and urinary retention or possibly interferes with the neurogenic component of micturition needs to be further investigated. The novel finding of an unexpected mononuclear cell infiltrate in the urinary tract in the knockout mice B6.129S6- Naglutm1Efn/J is reported. PMID:19389305

  18. Botulinum Toxin A Injection in the Bladder Neck: A Promising Treatment for Urinary Retention

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Marianne; Zgheib, Joseph; El Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Secondary to failure of optimal medical therapy and the high morbidity that accompanies surgical techniques in high risk patients, the use of de novo treatments including botulinum toxin A is emerging in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the treatment of urinary retention secondary to BPH via injecting botulinum toxin into the bladder neck is not well established in the literature. This case report describes the case of a 75-year-old male patient with a chronic history of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and multiple comorbidities who was admitted to the hospital for management of recurrent urinary retention. The patient was not a surgical candidate for transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP) or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Botulinum toxin injection into the bladder neck was performed with very satisfying results. Botulinum toxin injection in the bladder neck presents a promising minimally invasive, tolerated, and cost-effective approach for the treatment of urinary retention in patients with benign prostatic obstruction who are not candidates for surgery or in whom medical treatment has failed. More research is needed to identify the efficacy of this novel approach. PMID:27088032

  19. Risk of Fracture After Radical Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion for Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit; Atoria, Coral L.; Ehdaie, Behfar; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Rabbani, Farhang; Herr, Harry W.; Bochner, Bernard H.; Elkin, Elena B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Radical cystectomy and urinary diversion may cause chronic metabolic acidosis, leading to long-term bone loss in patients with bladder cancer. However, the risk of fractures after radical cystectomy has not been defined. We assessed whether radical cystectomy and intestinal urinary diversion are associated with increased risk of fracture. Patients and Methods Population-based study using SEER-Medicare–linked data from 2000 through 2007 for patients with stage 0-III bladder cancer. We evaluated the association between radical cystectomy and risk of fracture at any site, controlling for patient and disease characteristics. Results The cohort included 50,520 patients, of whom 4,878 had cystectomy and urinary diversion. The incidence of fracture in the cystectomy group was 6.55 fractures per 100 person-years, compared with 6.39 fractures per 100 person-years in those without cystectomy. Cystectomy was associated with a 21% greater risk of fracture (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.32) compared with no cystectomy, controlling for patient and disease characteristics. There was no evidence of an interaction between radical cystectomy and age, sex, comorbidity score, or cancer stage. Conclusion Patients with bladder cancer who have radical cystectomy and urinary diversion are at increased risk of fracture. PMID:25185104

  20. Effect of Doxazosin on Autonomic Nervous Control and Urodynamics of Rat Urinary Bladder during Modeled Infravesical Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kirpatovskii, V I; Mudraya, I S; Revenko, S V; Bablumyan, A Yu; Adamyan, N K; Ivanov, V P

    2016-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of doxazosin (40 μg/kg/day over one month) on urinary bladder was examined in female rats with modeled chronic infravesical obstruction (IVO) produced by graduated mechanical constriction of the proximal urethral segment. In one month, IVO induced a pronounced vesical hypertrophy both in treated and untreated rats that manifested in increased bladder weight and capacity, the latter increment being pronouncedly greater in treated rats. In untreated IVO rats, infusion cystometry revealed elevated basal intravesical pressure of void bladder P0, markedly increased maximal (premicturitional) pressure Pmax, and increased amplitude of spontaneous oscillations of intravesical pressure ΔPdet in filled bladder. Doxazosin produced no significant effect on Pmax rise during IVO, but prevented elevation of P0 and increment of ΔPdet in filled bladder. During gradual filling of urinary bladder in control (intact) rats, the parasympathetic vesical influences increased progressively, while in untreated IVO rats, the adrenergic influences prevailed even at maximal filling of the bladder. In IVO rats, doxazosin prevented the bias of the sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the filled bladder in favor of sympathetic influences, but did not prevent this bias in a void bladder. It is hypothesized that α-adrenoblockers improve micturition during IVO caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia not only by decreasing the urethral resistance to urine flow due to down-regulation of prostate smooth muscle tone, but also by a direct action of these blockers on detrusor adrenergic receptors and central structures involved in urinary bladder control.

  1. Simultaneous Transabdominal Hysterectomy and Cystolithotomy in an Augmented Urinary Bladder: Challenges and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijay; Kapoor, Rakesh; Yadav, Priyank; Gaur, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation cystoplasty is a procedure to increase the anatomical as well as functional capacity of the urinary bladder using a segment of bowel or ureter. Upto half of these patients develop complications but most of them are minor and managed easily. Urolithiasis, especially bladder calculi are seen in upto half of the cases and are removed endoscopically or by open approach. Hysterectomy is an uncommon procedure in patients with augmentation cystoplasty and is complicated by the altered anatomy of the pelvis. We describe a rare case of simultaneous abdominal hysterectomy and cystolithotomy in a patient with augmentation cystoplasty and discuss the relevant surgical anatomy. PMID:28208926

  2. Mechanical stretch upregulates proteins involved in Ca2+ sensitization in urinary bladder smooth muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Gomes, Cristiano; Zderic, Stephen A; Malkowicz, Bruce; Chakrabarti, Ranjita; Patel, Darshan P; Wein, Alan J; Chacko, Samuel

    2014-09-15

    Partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO)-induced remodeling of bladder detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is associated with the modulation of cell signals regulating contraction. We analyzed the DSM from obstructed murine urinary bladders for the temporal regulation of RhoA GTPase and Rho-activated kinase (ROCK), which are linked to Ca(2+) sensitization. In addition, the effects of equibiaxial cell stretch, a condition thought to be associated with pBOO-induced bladder wall smooth muscle hypertrophy and voiding frequency, on the expression of RhoA, ROCK, and C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase I inhibitor (CPI-17) were investigated. DSM from 1-, 3-, 7-, and 14-day obstructed male mice bladders and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-induced obstructed human bladders revealed overexpression of RhoA and ROCK-β at the mRNA and protein levels compared with control. Primary human bladder myocytes seeded onto type I collagen-coated elastic silicone membranes were subjected to cyclic equibiaxial stretch, mimicking the cellular mechanical stretch in the bladder in vivo, and analyzed for the expression of RhoA, ROCK-β, and CPI-17. Stretch caused a significant increase of RhoA, ROCKβ, and CPI-17 expression. The stretch-induced increase in CPI-17 expression occurs at the transcriptional level and is associated with CPI-17 promoter binding by GATA-6 and NF-κB, the transcription factors responsible for CPI-17 gene transcription. Cell stretch caused by bladder overdistension in pBOO is the likely mechanism for initiating overexpression of the signaling proteins regulating DSM tone.

  3. Transrectal impalement of an incense stick in a child presenting as foreign body in the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Singha Mahapatra, Rajkumar; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Sarma Madduri, Vijay kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of objects that can be found in the urinary bladder often surpasses the urologist's imagination and mostly they are introduced per urethrally. Impalement injuries of the rectum with bladder perforation have been rarely reported. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of bladder perforation while assessing patients presenting with rectal impalement. In this interesting case, a young male child presented with haematuria and dysuria. He had a history of accidentally sitting on an agarbatti (Indian incense stick) stand while playing, followed by perianal pain which subsided spontaneously. Next day he presented with haematuria and dysuria. Clinical examination was inconclusive. On thorough investigation, a linear echogenic foreign body was found in the urinary bladder. The child was operated and the foreign body (incense stick) was removed. This is the first reported case of rectal impalement injury with incense stick, migrated to the urinary bladder in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24925539

  4. Central role of the BK channel in urinary bladder smooth muscle physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Petkov, Georgi V

    2014-09-15

    The physiological functions of the urinary bladder are to store and periodically expel urine. These tasks are facilitated by the contraction and relaxation of the urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM), also known as detrusor smooth muscle, which comprises the bladder wall. The large-conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK, BKCa, MaxiK, Slo1, or KCa1.1) channel is highly expressed in UBSM and is arguably the most important physiologically relevant K(+) channel that regulates UBSM function. Its significance arises from the fact that the BK channel is the only K(+) channel that is activated by increases in both voltage and intracellular Ca(2+). The BK channels control UBSM excitability and contractility by maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping the repolarization phase of the spontaneous action potentials that determine UBSM spontaneous rhythmic contractility. In UBSM, these channels have complex regulatory mechanisms involving integrated intracellular Ca(2+) signals, protein kinases, phosphodiesterases, and close functional interactions with muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors. BK channel dysfunction is implicated in some forms of bladder pathologies, such as detrusor overactivity, and related overactive bladder. This review article summarizes the current state of knowledge of the functional role of UBSM BK channels under normal and pathophysiological conditions and provides new insight toward the BK channels as targets for pharmacological or genetic control of UBSM function. Modulation of UBSM BK channels can occur by directly or indirectly targeting their regulatory mechanisms, which has the potential to provide novel therapeutic approaches for bladder dysfunction, such as overactive bladder and detrusor underactivity.

  5. Impaired Excitatory Neurotransmission in the Urinary Bladder from the Obese Zucker Rat: Role of Cannabinoid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Blaha, Igor; Recio, Paz; Martínez, María Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Ribeiro, Ana S. F.; Agis-Torres, Ángel; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Fernandes, Vítor S.; Hernández, Medardo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a known risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms. This study investigates whether functional and expression changes of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are involved in the bladder dysfunction in an obese rat model with insulin resistance. Bladder samples from obese Zucker rat (OZR) and their respective controls lean Zucker rat (LZR) were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blot for studying the cannabinoid receptors expression. Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) strips from LZR and OZR were also mounted in myographs for isometric force recordings. Neuronal and smooth muscle CB1 and CB2 receptor expression and the nerve fiber density was diminished in the OZR bladder. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh) induced frequency- and concentration-dependent contractions of LZR and OZR DSM. ACh contractile responses were similar in LZR and OZR. EFS-elicited contractions, however, were reduced in OZR bladder. Cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists failed to modify the DSM basal tension in LZR and OZR In LZR bladder, EFS responses were inhibited by ACEA and SER-601, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, respectively, these effects being reversed by ACEA plus the CB1 antagonist, AM-251 or SER-601 plus the CB2 antagonist, AM-630. In OZR bladder, the inhibitory action of ACEA on nerve-evoked contractions was diminished, whereas that SER-601 did not change EFS responses. These results suggest that a diminished function and expression of neuronal cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as a lower nerve fiber density is involved in the impaired excitatory neurotransmission of the urinary bladder from the OZR. PMID:27285468

  6. Impaired Excitatory Neurotransmission in the Urinary Bladder from the Obese Zucker Rat: Role of Cannabinoid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Blaha, Igor; Recio, Paz; Martínez, María Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Ribeiro, Ana S F; Agis-Torres, Ángel; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Fernandes, Vítor S; Hernández, Medardo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a known risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms. This study investigates whether functional and expression changes of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are involved in the bladder dysfunction in an obese rat model with insulin resistance. Bladder samples from obese Zucker rat (OZR) and their respective controls lean Zucker rat (LZR) were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blot for studying the cannabinoid receptors expression. Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) strips from LZR and OZR were also mounted in myographs for isometric force recordings. Neuronal and smooth muscle CB1 and CB2 receptor expression and the nerve fiber density was diminished in the OZR bladder. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh) induced frequency- and concentration-dependent contractions of LZR and OZR DSM. ACh contractile responses were similar in LZR and OZR. EFS-elicited contractions, however, were reduced in OZR bladder. Cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists failed to modify the DSM basal tension in LZR and OZR In LZR bladder, EFS responses were inhibited by ACEA and SER-601, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, respectively, these effects being reversed by ACEA plus the CB1 antagonist, AM-251 or SER-601 plus the CB2 antagonist, AM-630. In OZR bladder, the inhibitory action of ACEA on nerve-evoked contractions was diminished, whereas that SER-601 did not change EFS responses. These results suggest that a diminished function and expression of neuronal cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as a lower nerve fiber density is involved in the impaired excitatory neurotransmission of the urinary bladder from the OZR.

  7. Time-dependent aldosterone metabolism in toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Brem, A.S.; Pacholski, M.; Morris, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    Aldosterone (Aldo) metabolism was examined in the toad bladder. Bladders were incubated with (/sup 3/H)aldosterone (10(-7) M) for 5 h, 1 h, or 10 min. Tissues were analyzed for metabolites using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In separate experiments, Na+ transport was assessed by the short-circuit current (SCC) technique. Following a 5-h tissue incubation, about 25% of the (/sup 3/H)-aldosterone was converted into metabolites including a polar monosulfate metabolite, 20 beta-dihydroaldo (20 beta-DHAldo), small quantities of 5 beta-reduced products, and a variety of 5 alpha-reduced Aldo products including 5 alpha-DHAldo, 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydroaldo (3 alpha,5 alpha-THAldo), and 3 beta,5 alpha-THAldo. Tissues metabolized approximately 10% of the labeled hormone into the same compounds by 1 h. Measurable quantities of these metabolites were also synthesized by bladders exposed to Aldo for only 10 min and then incubated in buffer for an additional 50 min without Aldo. Bladders pretreated with the spironolactone, K+-canrenoate (3.5 X 10(-4) M), and stimulated with Aldo (10(-7) M) generated a peak SCC 44 +/- 6% of that observed in matched pairs stimulated with Aldo (P less than 0.001; n = 6). K+-canrenoate also markedly diminished (/sup 3/H)aldosterone metabolism at both 5 and 1 h. Thus, metabolic transformation of Aldo begins prior to hormone-induced increases in Na+ transport. Both the generation of certain metabolites (e.g., 5 alpha-reductase pathway products) and the increase in Na+ transport can be selectively inhibited by K+-canrenoate.

  8. Experimental Reconstruction of the Trachea with Urinary Bladder Wall

    PubMed Central

    Hirayasu, Tsuneo; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Uehara, Kanou; Kinjo, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate tracheal reconstruction with autologous bladder wall using modern refined surgical procedures. Methods: Experiments were performed on 16 female beagle dogs. Six tracheal cartilages were resected to create a tracheal deficit, then tracheal replacement with autologous bladder wall was performed. In the first 10 dogs (first series), the transplant site was covered with pedicled omental flap. In the next six dogs (second series), we performed tracheal reconstruction without omental covering, and secured tracheal cartilages above and below the graft with sutures to prevent excessive graft stretching. Results: No surgical mortality or lethal infection of the transplant site was encountered in either series. Complications in the first series comprised tracheal stenosis in four dogs. One dog died suddenly at 4 months postoperatively due to stent migration, so cartilage sutures were adopted in the second series. The lumen surface of the grafts was covered with squamous metaplastic epithelium. Osseous tissue was present in the submucosa of grafts, particularly prominently in areas lacking omental covering. Conclusions: Tracheal reconstruction using bladder wall may become clinically useful. A pedicled omental covering does not appear always necessary to prevent graft necrosis and infection. Ischemic stimulation may be involved with bone formation in grafts. PMID:27009558

  9. Flavonoid galangin prevents smooth muscle fatigue of pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Dambros, Miriam; de Jongh, Rik; van Koeveringe, Gommert A; Bast, Aalt; Heijnen, C G M; van Kerrebroeck, Philip E V

    2005-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the generation of free radicals plays a role in the development of bladder dysfunction. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds with broad pharmacological activity. In the present study, the protective effects of the flavonoid galangin on the progressive decrease of bladder smooth muscle contractile responses during repetitive field stimulation (RFS; a model for muscular fatigue) were demonstrated. Pig detrusor strips were mounted for tension recording in organ baths aand were subjected to RFS for 90 min at 32 Hz for 15 s every 5 min. The strips were then washed four times with fresh buffer and allowed a period of recovery for 90 min. The 90 min of RFS caused a progressive decrease in maximal contractile response to electrical field stimulation and to muscarinic agonist-induced contractions (34% and 46% decrease, respectively). Galangin (10(-7) M) prevented the decrease in contractile smooth muscle response of strips to electrical field stimulation during RFS compared with untreated tissues. The antioxidant activity of galangin was assessed by measuring its ability to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by iron and ascorbate in rat liver microsomes (IC50 1.7+0.12x10(-6) M). If the data are confirmed in-vivo, exogenously administered galangin may be a new approach in the prevention and/or treatment of bladder dysfunction.

  10. Stimulation of urinary acidification by insulin in the turtle bladder.

    PubMed

    Arruda, J A

    1983-07-01

    Addition of insulin to the substrate-containing serosal solution of freshly excised bladders or to that of bladders incubated overnight in substrate-enriched media increases the rate of H+ secretion to a greater extent in the latter (overnight group) than in the former. This effect can be blocked by pretreatment with anti-insulin antibody, suggesting that the stimulation of H+ secretion is a specific effect of insulin. The effect of insulin is concentration dependent with half-maximal stimulation of H+ secretion at 100 mU/ml and maximal stimulation at 250 mU/ml. Other characteristics of the insulin-induced stimulation of H+ secretion were its independence of any effect of Na transport and its absolute requirement for the presence of substrate (glucose or pyruvate) under aerobic conditions only. The proton-secreting action of insulin is associated with an increase in the proton-selective conductance in series with the proton pump while the estimated electromotive force of the proton pump remains constant. Finally, the insulin-induced and aldosterone-induced stimulations of proton secretion are mutually independent, as shown by the additivity of these events and by the fact that the effect of insulin was not blocked by pretreatment with cycloheximide. These data suggest that endogenous insulin modulates the rate of H+ secretion by the in vivo turtle bladder.

  11. Functional and biochemical characteristics of urinary bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Jeová Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To re-examine the function of the urinary bladder in vivo as well as to determine the functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan-induced diabetes rats. Methods Two-month-old male Wistar rats were injected with alloxan and the animals showing blood glucose levels >300mg/dL together with age-paired untreated animals were kept for 11 months. Body weight, bladder weight, blood glucose, and urinary volume over a period of 24 hours were determined in both groups of animals. A voiding cystometry in conscious control and diabetic rats was performed to determine maximal micturition pressure, micturition contraction interval and duration as well as voided and post-voiding residual volume. In addition, concentration-response curves for bethanechol in isolated bladder strips, as well as [3H]-N methyl-scopolamine binding site characteristics in bladder homogenates were determined. Results Mean bladder weight was 162.5±21.2mg versus 290±37.9mg in control and treated animals, respectively (p<0.05). Micturition contraction amplitude (34.6±4.7mmHg versus 49.6±2.5mmHg), duration (14.5±1.7 seconds versus 23.33±4.6 seconds) and interval (87.5±17.02 seconds versus 281.11±20.24 seconds) were significantly greater in alloxan diabetic rats. Voided urine volume per micturition contraction was also significantly higher in diabetic animals. However the post-voiding residual volume was not statistically different. Bethanechol potency (EC50 3µM versus 5µM) and maximal effect (31.2±5.9g/g versus 36.1±6.8g/g) in isolated bladder strips as well as number (169±4fmol/mg versus 176±3fmol/mg protein) and affinity (0.69±0.1nM versus 0.57±0.1nM) of bladder muscarinic receptors were also not statistically different. Conclusion Bladder function in vivo is altered in chronic alloxan-induced diabetes rats without changes in functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors. PMID:26466064

  12. Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A novel management approach to a rare tumour

    PubMed Central

    Pugashetti, Neil; Yap, Stanley A.; Lara, Primo N.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Dall’Era, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the urinary bladder, a variant of adenocarcinoma, is exceedingly rare and as a result no gold standard exists for its management. We report a case of primary SRCC of the bladder with recurrent metastases; we utilized an innovative diagnostic approach and the patient exhibited a treatment response to palliative FOLFOX-6 chemotherapy. PMID:26085880

  13. Errors in the ultrasound diagnosis of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Andrzej Paweł; Woźniak, Magdalena Maria; Tyloch, Janusz F

    2013-09-01

    The article presents the most frequent errors made in the ultrasound diagnosis of the urinary system. They usually result from improper technique of ultrasound examination or its erroneous interpretation. Such errors are frequent effects of insufficient experience of the ultrasonographer, inadequate class of the scanner, insufficient knowledge of its operation as well as of wrong preparation of patients, their constitution, severe condition and the lack of cooperation during the examination. The reasons for misinterpretations of ultrasound images of the urinary system may lie in a large polymorphism of the kidney (defects and developmental variants) and may result from improper access to the organ as well as from the presence of artefacts. Errors may also result from the lack of knowledge concerning clinical and laboratory data. Moreover, mistakes in ultrasound diagnosis of the urinary system are frequently related to the lack of knowledge of the management algorithms and diagnostic possibilities of other imaging modalities. The paper lists errors in ultrasound diagnosis of the urinary system divided into: errors resulting from improper technique of examination, artefacts caused by incorrect preparation of patients for the examination or their constitution and errors resulting from misinterpretation of ultrasound images of the kidneys (such as their number, size, fluid spaces, pathological lesions and others), ureters and urinary bladder. Each physician performing kidney or bladder ultrasound examination should possess the knowledge of the most frequent errors and their causes which might help to avoid them.

  14. Female Functional Constipation Is Associated with Overactive Bladder Symptoms and Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Masuomi; Sakai, Gen; Funakoshi, Shinsuke; Komatsuda, Akari; Ito, Yujiro; Nagata, Hirohiko; Tsukada, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, So

    2017-01-01

    This noninterventional cross-sectional study aims to assess the association between functional constipation (FC) and urinary symptoms in female patients with no treatment for urination and defecation. The Rome III criteria for evaluation of defecation, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) for evaluation of urinary symptoms, and clinical features were investigated in 145 female patients. Latent FC and moderate to severe overactive bladder (OAB) were defined on the basis of positivity for two or more of the Rome III criteria and an OABSS ≥ 6 with OABSS Q3 ≥ 2, respectively. In 60 latent FC patients, the OABSS was higher (5.0 versus 3.2, p = 0.001), and concurrent moderate to severe OAB symptoms and OAB with urinary incontinence were more frequent than those in 85 nonlatent FC patients (33.3 versus 10.6%, p = 0.001, and 31.7 versus 7.1%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that moderate to severe OAB symptoms were a significant associated factor of latent FC (odds ratio (OR) = 4.125, p = 0.005), while latent FC was the only associated factor of moderate to severe OAB and OAB with urinary incontinence (OR = 4.227, p = 0.005 and OR = 4.753, p = 0.004). In conclusion, moderate to severe OAB symptoms are correlated with FC. Moreover, FC is related to moderate to severe OAB symptoms and to OAB with urinary incontinence. PMID:28337444

  15. Role of urinary and cloacal bladders in chelonian water economy: historical and comparative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, C B

    1998-11-01

    The Parisian comparative anatomist Claude Perrault, dissecting an Indian giant tortoise in 1676, was the first to observe that the urinary bladder is of an extraordinary size in terrestrial tortoises. In 1799, the English comparative physiologist Robert Townson suggested that the bladder functioned as a water reservoir, as he had shown previously for frogs and toads. However, these observations went unnoticed in subsequent reports on tortoise water economy that were made by travellers and naturalists visiting the Galapagos Archipelago and marvelling over the huge numbers of giant tortoises that inhabited these desert-like islands. The first such report was by an American naval officer, David Porter, who was a privateer in the 1812-15 war with England. In his journal he referred to the constant supply of water which the Galapagos tortoises carried with them. References to the location in the body, as well as the amounts and quality of the water stored, were, however, contradictory. The confusion concerning the anatomical identity of the water reservoir in the Galapagos tortoise, Geochelone elephantopus, persisted throughout the nineteenth century, and continued when studies of tortoise water economy and drinking behaviour in arid environments were taken up independently in the desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii, which inhabits the desert regions in the south-western United States. In 1881 Cox found large sacs filled with clear water under the carapace, but it was half a century later that these sacs were identified as the large bilobed bladder; references to specific water sacs continued to appear in the literature until the 1960s. Since 1970, information on the water economy of desert tortoises has been obtained from extensive field studies. Rates of disappearance of tritiated water injected into the body have shown that during the drought periods of the summer, water turnover (intake) rates do not differ from the rates of metabolic water production. Under these

  16. Scientific basis for learning transfer from movements to urinary bladder functions for bladder repair in human patients with CNS injury.

    PubMed

    Schalow, G

    2010-01-01

    Coordination Dynamics Therapy (CDT) has been shown to be able to partly repair CNS injury. The repair is based on a movement-based re-learning theory which requires at least three levels of description: the movement or pattern (and anamnesis) level, the collective variable level, and the neuron level. Upon CDT not only the actually performed movement pattern itself is repaired, but the entire dynamics of CNS organization is improved, which is the theoretical basis for (re-) learning transfer. The transfer of learning for repair from jumping on springboard and exercising on a special CDT and recording device to urinary bladder functions is investigated at the neuron level. At the movement or pattern level, the improvement of central nervous system (CNS) functioning in human patients can be seen (or partly measured) by the improvement of the performance of the pattern. At the collective variable level, coordination tendencies can be measured by the so-called 'coordination dynamics' before, during and after treatment. At the neuron level, re-learning can additionally be assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) as alterations of single motor unit firings and motor programs. But to express the ongoing interaction between the numerous neural, muscular, and metabolic elements involved in perception and action, it is relevant to inquire how the individual afferent and efferent neurons adjust their phase and frequency coordination to other neurons to satisfy learning task requirements. With the single-nerve fibre action potential recording method it was possible to measure that distributed single neurons communicate by phase and frequency coordination. It is shown that this timed firing of neurons is getting impaired upon injury and has to be improved by learning The stability of phase and frequency coordination among afferent and efferent neuron firings can be related to pattern stability. The stability of phase and frequency coordination at the neuron level can

  17. Histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia-Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, E T; Junqueira, L C

    1999-03-01

    The histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus was studied by light microscopy in semithin sections of tissue embedded in hydrophilic resin. The kidney's nephron comprises the renal corpuscle, neck segment, proximal tubule, intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule. Nephrostomes are present. This structure, the neck segment, and intermediate tubules present long cilia, and probably play important roles in the propulsion of the peritoneal fluid and glomerular filtrate. The proximal tubule cells possess loosely packed microvilli and contain abundant polymorphic granules and vesicles that assume the aspect of lysosomes in different stages of intracellular digestion. The distal tubules are characterized by large, vertically disposed mitochondria assuming the aspect of ions transporting cells. The urinary bladder is lined with a transitional epithelium, whose aspect varies according to the quantity of urine.

  18. Effect of the flavonoid galangin on urinary bladder rat contractility in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Tavares, Ignatius A

    2002-08-01

    Galangin is a flavanol with several biological activities. We have evaluated the effect of galangin on the contractile response elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the rat isolated urinary bladder. Galangin (10(-8)-10(-4) M) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the EFS contractile response without modifying the contractions produced by exogenous acetylcholine (10(-6) M). Blockade of adrenergic and cholinergic nerves with a combination of atropine (10(-6) M), phentolamine (10(-6) M) and propranolol (10(-6) M) or blockade of tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors with SR140333 (10(-7) M) and SR48968 (10(-6) M) did not modify the inhibitory effect of galangin. However, verapamil (10(-7) M) significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of galangin. It is concluded that the galangin inhibits EFS-induced contractions of the rat urinary bladder by acting on L-type calcium channels on presynaptic nerves.

  19. Smooth muscle in the wall of the developing human urinary bladder and urethra.

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, S A; Gosling, J A

    1983-01-01

    A series of human fetal and neonatal specimens ranging in age from the second month of intrauterine development to 4 1/2 years after birth has been examined using histological and histochemical techniques. In both sexes histologically differentiated smooth muscle cells were evident in the bladder wall from the 52 mm crown-rump length stage onwards--urethral smooth muscle was not distinguishable until 119 mm crown-rump length. In addition to relatively late differentiation, urethral smooth muscle was histochemically distinct from the urinary bladder detrusor muscle. Sex differences in the arrangement and innervation of smooth muscle in the proximal urethra have also been observed, and these findings lend support to the presence of a pre-prostatic urethra sphincter. It seems likely that this sphincter acts principally to prevent reflux of ejaculate into the bladder during seminal emission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6654742

  20. Dual effect of GABA on the contractile activity of the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Maggi, C A; Santicioli, P; Meli, A

    1985-06-01

    The effects of GABA and related substances were examined in isolated detrusor strips from the dome of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. GABA (0.01-1 mM) produced concentration-related phasic contractions of isolated strips from the guinea-pig urinary bladder dome. This effect of GABA was mimicked by homotaurine and muscimol, selective GABAA receptor agonists but not by (+/-)-baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist. A specific cross desensitization was observed between GABA, homotaurine and muscimol but not between (+/-)-baclofen and GABA. GABA (1 mM)-induced contractions were antagonized by picrotoxin, a selective GABAA receptor antagonist. GABA-induced contractions were almost abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM, TTX) thus indicating their neurogenic origin. In addition GABA-induced contractions were partially antagonized by atropine (to about the same extent as those produced by dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), a ganglionic stimulant), but were unaffected by hexamethonium (10 microM), phentolamine (0.2 microM) or indomethacin (5 microM). In the presence of GABA the contractile effect of both DMPP (TTX-sensitive) and acetylcholine (ACh, TTX-insensitive) were significantly reduced. Similar findings were obtained with DMPP, i.e. in preparations exposed to this ganglionic stimulant both GABA- and ACh-induced contractions were depressed. Homotaurine but not (+/-)-baclofen mimicked the depressant effect of GABA on DMPP-induced contractions. The depressant effect of GABA on ACh-induced contractions of the guinea-pig urinary bladder was neurogenic in origin, i.e., was not observed in preparations exposed to TTX. These experiments indicate that GABA has a dual effect on the contractile behaviour of the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder. Recently it has been proposed that endogenous GABA plays a neuromodulatory role in this organ. Our data suggest that in the early phase of neurogenic activation of detrusor muscle (micturition reflex) GABA might transiently

  1. Cystogram with dumbbell shaped urinary bladder in a sliding inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Mahadevappa, Basant; Suresh, Sumanth Channapatna; Natarajan, K; Thomas, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sliding inguinal hernias present with various symptoms and these are usually direct inguinal hernias containing various abdominal viscera. Case reports and series have been published with various organs and rare organs being part of the hernia. Urinary bladder is a known content of sliding hernias. This case report emphasizes this aspect in a picturesque manner and the importance of radiological investigations for pre-surgical evaluation.

  2. Guinea worm infection of urinary bladder manifesting as obstructive uropathy in rural Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Birare, Shivaji D; Kamble, M H; Lanjewar, D N; Parija, S C; Girji, D D; Kulkarni, P V; Gupta, Rashmi S; Abdul Jabbar, A M

    2005-10-01

    Guinea worm or Dracunculus medinensis is a well-documented helminthic infestation in many areas of Asia. In this report, we describe a rare case of guinea worm infestation in a 25-year-old woman who had developed symptoms of obstructive uropathy, in whom fragments of guinea worm were removed after urethral catheterization. To the best of our knowledge, adult guinea worm occurring in the urinary bladder has not been previously described.

  3. Comparative biochemical responses and antioxidant activities of the rabbit urinary bladder to whole grapes versus resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Francis, Johdi-Ann; Leggett, Robert E; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the antioxidant activity of a whole-grape suspension with the antioxidant activity or pure resveratrol on the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, calcium ATPase activity, and sarcoendoplasmic reticular ATPase (SERCA) of the male rabbit urinary bladder. MDA was used as a model for the effect of H2O2 on lipid peroxidation. ChAT, SERCA, and calcium ATPase were evaluated based on their importance in urinary bladder physiology and pathology. Four male rabbit bladders were used. Each bladder was separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C for biochemical evaluation. The effect of H2O2 on the enzymes listed above was determined in the presence and absence of either resveratrol or a whole-grape suspension. (1) Resveratrol was significantly more effective than the grape suspension at protecting the bladder muscle and mucosa against peroxidation as quantitated by MDA formation. (2) The grape suspension was significantly more effective at protecting ChAT activity against oxidative stress of the muscle than resveratrol. (3) Neither the grape suspension nor resveratrol were particularly effective at protecting the bladder muscle or mucosa calcium ATPase or SERCA against oxidative stress. (4) ChAT was significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than either calcium ATPase or SERCA. These data support the idea that the grape suspension protects the mitochondria and nerve terminals to a significantly greater degree than resveratrol which suggests that the activities of the grape suspension are due to the combination of active components found in the grape suspension and not just resveratrol alone.

  4. Malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A; Norton, A; Baithun, S

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To report the clinical and histological features and outcome of primary and secondary malignant lymphomas of the urinary bladder. Methods—Eleven cases of malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder were obtained from the registry of cases at St Bartholomews and the Royal London Hospitals. The lymphomas were classified on the basis of their morphology and immunophenotype, and the clinical records were reviewed. Results—There were six primary lymphomas: three extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and three diffuse large B cell lymphomas. Of the five secondary cases, four were diffuse large B cell lymphomas, one secondary to a systemic follicular follicle centre lymphoma, and one nodular sclerosis Hodgkins disease. Four patients with secondary lymphoma for whom follow up was available had died of disease within 13 months of diagnosis. Primary lymphomas followed a more indolent course. In one case, there was evidence of transformation from low grade MALT-type to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The most common presenting symptom was haematuria. Cystoscopic appearances were of solid, sometimes necrotic tumours resembling transitional cell carcinoma, and in one case the tumours were multiple. These cases represented 0.2% of all bladder neoplasms. Conclusions—Diffuse large B cell lymphoma and MALT-type lymphoma are the most common primary malignant lymphomas of the bladder. Lymphoepithelial lesions in MALT-type lymphoma involve transitional epithelium, and their presence in high grade lymphoma suggests a primary origin owing to transformation of low grade MALT-type lymphoma. Primary and secondary diffuse large B cell lymphomas of the bladder are histologically similar, but the prognosis of the former is favourable. Key Words: bladder • lymphoma • mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma PMID:10911804

  5. Chronic psychological stress enhances nociceptive processing in the urinary bladder in high-anxiety rats.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M T; DeBerry, J; Ness, T J

    2007-08-15

    This study sought to determine whether acute and/or chronic psychological stress produce changes in urinary bladder nociception. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD; low/moderate anxiety) or Wistar-Kyoto (WK; high-anxiety) rats were exposed to either an acute (1 day) or a chronic (10 days) water avoidance stress paradigm or a sham stress paradigm. Paw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli and fecal pellet output, were quantified at baseline and after the final stress or sham stress exposure. Rats were then sedated, and visceromotor responses (VMRs) to urinary bladder distension (UBD) were recorded. While acute stress exposure did not significantly alter bladder nociceptive responses in either strain of rats, WK rats exposed to a chronic stress paradigm exhibited enhanced responses to UBD. These high-anxiety rats also exhibited somatic analgesia following acute, but not chronic, stress. Furthermore, WK rats had greater fecal pellet output than SD rats when stressed. Significant stress-induced changes in nociceptive responses to mechanical stimuli were observed in SD rats. That chronic psychological stress significantly enhanced bladder nociceptive responses only in high-anxiety rats provides further support for a critical role of genetics, stress and anxiety as exacerbating factors in painful urogenital disorders such as interstitial cystitis (IC).

  6. Developing urinary metabolomic signatures as early bladder cancer diagnostic markers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Sun, Zeyu; Chen, Deying; Su, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jing; Li, Gonghui; Lin, Biaoyang; Yan, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Early detection is vital to improve the overall survival rate of bladder cancer (BCa) patients, yet there is a lack of a reliable urine-based assay for early detection of BCa. Urine metabolites represented a potential rich source of biomarkers for BCa. This study aimed to develop a metabolomics approach for high coverage discovery and identification of metabolites in urine samples. Urine samples from 23 early stage BCa patients and 21 healthy volunteers with minimum sample preparations were analyzed by a short 30 min UPLC-HRMS method. We detected and quantified over 9000 unique UPLC-HRMS features, which is more than four times than about 2000 features detected in previous urine metabolomic studies. Furthermore, multivariate OPLS-DA classification models were established to differentiate urine samples from bladder cancer cohort and normal health cohort. We identified three BCa-upregulated metabolites: nicotinuric acid, trehalose, AspAspGlyTrp, and three BCa-downregulated metabolites: inosinic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, GlyCysAlaLys. Finally, analysis of six post-surgery BCa urine samples showed that these BCa-metabolomic features reverted to normal state after tumor removal, suggesting that they reflected metabolomic features associated with BCa. ROC analyses using two linear regression models to combine the identified markers showed a high diagnostic performance for detecting BCa with AUC (area under the ROC curve) values of 0.919 to 0.934. In summary, we developed a high coverage metabolomic approach that has potential for biomarker discovery in cancers.

  7. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  8. Serum periplakin as a potential biomarker for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Masaomi; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Nagashio, Ryo; Nishimori, Takanori; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Nomura, Fumio; Sato, Yuichi; Kitasato, Hidero; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine serum periplakin expression in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder and in normal controls, and to examine relationships with clinicopathological findings. Detection of serum periplakin was performed in 50 patients and 30 normal controls with anti-periplakin antibodies using the automatic dot blot system, and a micro-dot blot array with a 256 solid-pin system. Levels in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder were significantly lower than those in normal controls (0.31 and 5.68, respectively; p<0.0001). The area under the receiver-operator curve level for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder was 0.845. The sensitivity and specificity, using a cut-off point of 4.045, were 83.7% and 73.3%, respectively. In addition, serum periplakin levels were significantly higher in patients with muscle-invasive cancer than in those with nonmuscle-invasive cancer (P=0.03). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, none of the clinicopathological factors was associated with an increased risk for progression and cancer-specific survival. Examination of the serum periplakin level may play a role as a non- invasive diagnostic modality to aid urine cytology and cystoscopy.

  9. Fish bone migration to the urinary bladder after rectosigmoid colon perforation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min-Kyung; Lee, Moon-Soo; Han, Hyun-Young; Woo, Seung Hyo

    2014-06-14

    Fish bones are the most common foreign objects leading to bowel perforation. Most cases are confined to the extraluminal space without penetration of an adjacent organ. However, abscess formation due to the perforation of the rectosigmoid colon by a fish bone can lead to the penetration of the urinary bladder and may subsequently cause the fish bone to migrate into the urinary bladder. In the presented case, a 42-year-old female was admitted for lower abdominal pain. The computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 5 cm pelvic abscess containing a thin and curvilinear foreign body. After conservative management, the patient was discharged. After 1 mo, the subject developed a mechanical ileus. Surgery had to be delayed due to her hyperthyroidism. Migration of the foreign body to the urinary bladder was shown on additional CT. A Yellowish fish bone 3.5 cm in size was removed through intra-operative cystoscopy. The patient was discharged 8 d after the operation without any unexpected event.

  10. Mucoadhesion on urinary bladder mucosa: the influence of sodium, calcium, and magnesium ions.

    PubMed

    Kos, M Kerec; Bogataj, M; Mrhar, A

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to establish if different cations present in the lumen of the urinary bladder at the time of application affect the mucoadhesion strength of cationic chitosan, anionic sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), and nonionic hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). The mucoadhesion strength of polymeric films was determined on pig urinary bladder mucosa. Sodium, calcium, and magnesium ions decreased the mucoadhesion strength of all three polymers except NaCMC, whose detachment forces were not influenced by the presence of sodium. Lower mucoadhesion strength in the presence of cations should be considered when drug delivery systems, for example microspheres, containing the tested mucoadhesive polymers are applied intravesically. In the majority of the experiments, cations decreased the mucoadhesion strength of the polymers already in concentrations normally present in urine. For stronger mucoadhesion, application of microspheres into the empty urinary bladder would be recommended. Additionally, the mucoadhesion properties of the tested polymers could be controlled by the selection of a proper medium for the suspension of microspheres. Namely, for all three polymers bivalent calcium and magnesium had stronger influence on mucoadhesion compared to univalent sodium, and with increasing concentrations of cations mucoadhesion strength of the polymers decreased.

  11. Polyomavirus (BK)-associated pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Papadimitriou, John C; Chai, Toby C; Ramos, Emilio; Staats, Paul N; Drachenberg, Cinthia B

    2013-04-01

    This report describes the morphological features of a pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma with focal trophoblastic differentiation of the urinary bladder in a male, 12 years post living related donor renal transplant. The voided urine cytology demonstrated rare decoy cells admixed with markedly atypical urothelial cell clusters, papillae and giant cells. Cystoprostatectomy demonstrated a nodular mass involving the trigone and right lateral-posterior wall, adjacent to the ureteral orifice. Hematoxylin-eosin stained sections showed two synchronous malignancies: (a) pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma with focal trophoblastic differentiation of the urinary bladder, metastatic to the omentum and (b) prostatic adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 3+4=7, involving the right prostate lobe. Strong diffuse expression of polyomavirus large T antigen was demonstrated in the primary and metastatic pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma, supporting a possible role for polyomavirus (BK) in the oncogenetic pathway. The prostatic adenocarcinoma was negative for polyomavirus large T antigen. Our findings of p63, CK7 and CK903 expression in pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma suggest that the tumor is of urothelial derivation. This is the first report describing the morphological features of urinary bladder pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation, positive for polyomavirus large T antigen, arising in the background of BKV reactivation.

  12. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SB. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 55. Sharma R, ...

  13. Common site of urinary calculi in kidney, ureter and bladder region.

    PubMed

    Chand, R B; Shah, A K; Pant, D K; Paudel, S

    2013-03-01

    Urolithiasis is an ancient disease with global distribution. It refers to stones originating anywhere in the urinary system. Urinary calculi or stones are the most common cause of acute urinary system obstruction. The study was aimed with finding out the common site of urinary calculus in kidney ureter bladder (KUB) region. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from June 2012 to September 2012 at Tribhuvan University, Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj. A total 240 urolitiasis patients were enrolled for plain KUB examination. Site of urinary calculus was identified by observing KUB film of the subjects under the supervision of radiologist. The data were analyzed prospectively with outcome measures of gender & stone location. Out of 240 patients, 138 were male and 102 were female with male to female ratio of 1.35:1. The age ranged from 9 to 83 years. Out of total 240 patients, 71.9% (187) patients belonged to productive age group (20-60 years). Total number of urinary calculi was 345 in which 208 were found in male patients and 137 were found in female patients. Of total 345 calculi, 237 were renal stones, 47 were ureteric stones, 22 of the stones were found in pelviureteric junction (PUJ), 33 of stones were found in vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), and 6 were in bladder. In conclusion, urinary stone disease is a major public health problem in a developing country like Nepal with male and productive age group predominance. Kidney stones are most common. Distal ureter is the most common site of ureteric stone.

  14. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder complicated by extensive fascitis: the importance of a high index of suspicion.

    PubMed

    Carmon, M; Nissan, A; Pappo, I; Perlberg, S; Seror, D; Haskel, Y

    1994-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder is a rare entity. This is, in part, the cause for the low rate of correct preoperative diagnosis, the high rate of delayed diagnosis, morbidity and mortality. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in an adult patient, complicated by extensive fascitis of the abdominal wall. The stormy course and long hospitalization in the case described are characteristic of patients with spontaneous bladder rupture and warrant a high index of suspicion in order to achieve an early diagnosis.

  15. Placenta previa percreta with urinary bladder and ureter invasion.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, E; Tan, O; Kurtaran, V; Dilbaz, B; Haberal, A

    2003-10-01

    A 26-year-old woman, with one previous cesarean delivery and two uterine curettage due to incomplete abortion, was admitted to the labor ward with the diagnosis of partial placenta previa at 35 weeks of gestation. Repeat cesarean section was performed due to profuse vaginal bleeding. Placenta previa percreta invading the bladder trigone was confirmed with cystotomy. As bilateral hypogastric artery ligation and supracervical hysterectomy performed were not successful in stopping the profuse bleeding, the abdomen was packed with laparotomy pads. Dilatation of the left ureter was noticed on the second postoperative day. Relaparotomy was performed to remove the pads, and placental invasion of the distal left ureter was noticed. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the double-J-catheter was removed two months later.

  16. Ultrastructural diagnostic markers of the urinary bladder precancer.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, A M

    1989-03-01

    A morphological analysis of 346 biopsy specimens from 140 patients with chronic cystitis permits one to evaluate the proliferative forms of the disease, the cases with atypical hyperplasia of the urothelium or metaplasia of the squamous cells with acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the group at risk, belonging to bladder precancer. The early ultrastructural signs of urothelial atypia are determined, among them the thickening of the glycocalyx layer (up to 30-60 nm) irregularly covering the entire surface of atypical cells, the disappearance of vesicular apparatus and AUM, the widening of the intercellular spaces. It was found that the squamous epithelium, formed by atypical cytodifferentiation of urothelium, is inadequate for performing the barrier function inherent in normal urothelium.

  17. TGF-β/MAPK signaling mediates the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on urinary control and interstitial cystitis after urinary bladder transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ya; Song, Ya-Jun; Song, Bo; Huang, Chi-Bing; Ling, Qing; Yu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the role of the transforming growth factor-β/mitogen activated protein kinase (TGF-β/MAPK) signaling pathway in the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on urinary control and interstitial cystitis in a rat model of urinary bladder transplantation. Methods: A urinary bladder transplantation model was established using Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were assigned to normal (blank control), negative control (phosphate-buffered saline injection), BMSCs (BMSC injection), sp600125 (MAPK inhibitor injection), or protamine sulfate (protamine sulfate injection) groups. Immunohistochemistry, urodynamic testing, hematoxylin-eosin staining, Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and MTT assay were used to assess BMSC growth, the kinetics of bladder urinary excretion, pathological changes in bladder tissue, bladder tissue ultrastructure, the expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and the effects of antiproliferative factor on cell proliferation. Results: Compared with normal, negative control, BMSCs, and sp600125 groups, rats in the PS group exhibited decreased discharge volume, maximal micturition volume, contraction interval, and bladder capacity but increased residual urine volume, bladder pressure, bladder peak pressure, expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins, levels of inflammatory cytokines, and growth inhibition rate. Levels of inflammatory cytokines and the growth inhibition rate were positively correlated with the expression of TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway-related proteins. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the TGF-β/MAPK signaling pathway mediates the beneficial effects of BMSCs on urinary control and interstitial cystitis. PMID:28386345

  18. Trajectories of urinary incontinence in childhood and bladder and bowel symptoms in adolescence: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Jon; Grzeda, Mariusz T; von Gontard, Alexander; Wright, Anne; Joinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify different patterns (trajectories) of childhood urinary incontinence and examine which patterns are associated with bladder and bowel symptoms in adolescence. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting General community. Participants The starting sample included 8751 children (4507 men and 4244 women) with parent-reported data on frequency of bedwetting and daytime wetting for at least three of five time points (4½, 5½, 6½, 7½ and 9½ years—hereafter referred to as 4–9 years). Study children provided data on a range of bladder and bowel symptoms at age 14 (data available for 5899 participants). Outcome measures Self-reported bladder and bowel symptoms at 14 years including daytime wetting, bedwetting, nocturia, urgency, frequent urination, low voided volume, voiding postponement, passing hard stools and low stool frequency. Results We extracted 5 trajectories of urinary incontinence from 4 to 9 years using longitudinal latent class analysis: (1) normative development of daytime and night-time bladder control (63.0% of the sample), (2) delayed attainment of bladder control (8.6%), (3) bedwetting alone (no daytime wetting) (15.6%), (4) daytime wetting alone (no bedwetting) (5.8%) and (5) persistent wetting (bedwetting with daytime wetting to age 9) (7.0%). The persistent wetting class generally showed the strongest associations with the adolescent bladder and bowel symptoms: OR for bedwetting at 14 years=23.5, 95% CI (15.1 to 36.5), daytime wetting (6.98 (4.50 to 10.8)), nocturia (2.39 (1.79 to 3.20)), urgency (2.10 (1.44 to 3.07)) and passing hard stools (2.64 (1.63 to 4.27)) (reference category=normative development). The association with adolescent bedwetting was weaker for children with bedwetting alone (3.69 (2.21 to 6.17)). Conclusions Trajectories of childhood urinary incontinence are differentially associated with adolescent bladder and bowel symptoms. Children exhibiting persistent bedwetting with daytime wetting had the

  19. Development of a Long-Term Ascending Urinary Tract Infection Mouse Model for Antibiotic Treatment Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hvidberg, Hanne; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Christensen, Nils; Rasmussen, Søren N.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2000-01-01

    A model of ascending unobstructed urinary tract infection (UTI) in mice was developed to study the significance of the antibiotic concentration in urine, serum, and kidney tissue for efficacy of treatment of UTI in general and pyelonephritis in particular. Outbred Ssc-CF1 female mice were used throughout the study, and Escherichia coli was used as the pathogen. The virulence of 11 uropathogenic E. coli isolates and 1 nonpathogenic laboratory E. coli strain was examined. Strain C175-94 achieved the highest counts in the kidneys, and this strain was subsequently used as the infecting organism. The model gave reproducible bladder infections, i.e., bacteria were recovered from 22 of 23 control mice after 3 days, and histological examination of kidney tissue showed that of 14 infected kidneys, 7 (50%) showed major histological changes, whereas 3 of 36 uninfected kidneys showed major histological changes (P = 0.018). Once the model was established, the efficacies of different doses of cefuroxime and gentamicin, corresponding to active concentrations in urine only or in urine, serum, and kidney tissue simultaneously, were examined. All cefuroxime doses resulted in significantly lower counts in urine than control treatments, but the dose which produced concentrations of cefuroxime only in urine and not in serum or kidney tissue had no effect on kidney infection. Even low doses of gentamicin (0.05 mg/mouse) resulted in concentrations in renal tissue for prolonged times due to accumulation. All gentamicin doses had a significant effect (compared to the effect of the control treatment) on bacterial counts in urine and kidneys. The antibiotic effect on bacterial counts in bladders was negligible for unknown reasons. Use of the mouse UTI model is feasible for study of the effect of an antibiotic in the urinary system, although the missing antibacterial effect in the bladder needs further evaluation. PMID:10602738

  20. Hydrogen sulfide mediates hypoxia-induced relaxation of trout urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Ryan A; Doellman, Meredith M; Head, Sally K; Olson, Kenneth R

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a recently identified gasotransmitter that may mediate hypoxic responses in vascular smooth muscle. H2S also appears to be a signaling molecule in mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle, but its existence and function in non-mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle have not been examined. In the present study we examined H2S production and its physiological effects in urinary bladder from steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and evaluated the relationship between H2S and hypoxia. H2S was produced by trout bladders, and its production was sensitive to inhibitors of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. H2S produced a dose-dependent relaxation in unstimulated and carbachol pre-contracted bladders and inhibited spontaneous contractions. Bladders pre-contracted with 80 mmol l(-1) KCl were less sensitive to H2S than bladders contracted with either 80 mmol l(-1) KC2H3O2 (KAc) or carbachol, suggesting that some of the H2S effects are mediated through an ion channel. However, H2S relaxation of bladders was not affected by the potassium channel inhibitors, apamin, charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, and glybenclamide, or by chloride channel/exchange inhibitors 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt, tamoxifen and glybenclamide, or by the presence or absence of extracellular HCO3-. Inhibitors of neuronal mechanisms, tetrodotoxin, strychnine and N-vanillylnonanamide were likewise ineffective. Hypoxia (aeration with N2) also relaxed bladders, was competitive with H2S for relaxation, and it was equally sensitive to KCl, and unaffected by neuronal blockade or the presence of extracellular HCO3-. Inhibitors of H2S synthesis also inhibited hypoxic relaxation. These experiments suggest that H2S is a phylogenetically ancient gasotransmitter in non-mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle and that it serves as an oxygen sensor/transducer, mediating the effects of hypoxia.

  1. Urinary incontinence due to the presence of necrotic adult Schistosoma haematobium parasite in the bladder following travel to Egypt.

    PubMed

    Papoutsoglou, N; Tappe, D; Demmer, P; Kocot, A; Riedmiller, H

    2012-07-01

    A case of seronegative urinary Schistosomiasis is reported in a 68-year-old Caucasian male presenting with urgency of micturition and incontinence several months after bathing in a chlorinated pool of a first class hotel in Egypt. The symptoms were initiated by a necrotic adult Schistosoma haematobium parasite found in the urinary bladder following a cystoscopic examination. The purpose of this report is to describe this probable and uncommon source of Schistosomiasis, to demonstrate that Schistosoma parasites can also be found in the urinary bladder and to emphasize the importance of travel history.

  2. Radiation effects on cellularity, proliferation and EGFR expression in mouse bladder urothelium.

    PubMed

    Jaal, Jana; Dörr, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    This study was designed to determine changes in cell numbers, proliferation (using Ki-67) and EGFR expression in mouse bladder urothelium during the early and late radiation response. Groups of mice were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy and assayed 0-360 days later. Urothelial cells were counted. After immunohistochemistry, the absolute and relative numbers of Ki-67(+) and EGFR(+) cells were analyzed. Radiation exposure resulted in a decrease in total urothelial cell numbers to 49% by day 31, with restoration of cellularity by day 180. In contrast, at day 360, an increase in total cell number (143%) was seen. Slightly increased Ki-67 expression was found at days 120 and 180 after treatment, followed by a pronounced elevation at days 240 and 360. Compared to controls, higher EGFR expression was detected up to day 360 after irradiation. A positive correlation was found between total urothelial cells numbers and Ki-67 as well as EGFR expression. Radiation exposure results in an increased urothelial expression of EGFR that precedes urothelial restoration, indicating a contribution of the EGF/EGFR system to urothelial proliferation and differentiation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of EGFR inhibition on radiation effects in the urinary bladder.

  3. Unique properties of muscularis mucosae smooth muscle in guinea pig urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Layne, Jeffrey J.; Pearson, Jessica M.; Sarkissian, Hagop; Nelson, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    The muscularis mucosae, a type of smooth muscle located between the urothelium and the urinary bladder detrusor, has been described, although its properties and role in bladder function have not been characterized. Here, using mucosal tissue strips isolated from guinea pig urinary bladders, we identified spontaneous phasic contractions (SPCs) that appear to originate in the muscularis mucosae. This smooth muscle layer exhibited Ca2+ waves and flashes, but localized Ca2+ events (Ca2+ sparks, purinergic receptor-mediated transients) were not detected. Ca2+ flashes, often in bursts, occurred with a frequency (∼5.7/min) similar to that of SPCs (∼4/min), suggesting that SPCs are triggered by bursts of Ca2+ flashes. The force generated by a single mucosal SPC represented the maximal force of the strip, whereas a single detrusor SPC was ∼3% of maximal force of the detrusor strip. Electrical field stimulation (0.5–50 Hz) evoked force transients in isolated detrusor and mucosal strips. Inhibition of cholinergic receptors significantly decreased force in detrusor and mucosal strips (at higher frequencies). Concurrent inhibition of purinergic and cholinergic receptors nearly abolished evoked responses in detrusor and mucosae. Mucosal SPCs were unaffected by blocking small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels with apamin and were unchanged by blocking large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels with iberiotoxin (IbTX), indicating that SK and BK channels play a much smaller role in regulating muscularis mucosae SPCs than they do in regulating detrusor SPCs. Consistent with this, BK channel current density in myocytes from muscularis mucosae was ∼20% of that in detrusor myocytes. These findings indicate that the muscularis mucosae in guinea pig represents a second smooth muscle compartment that is physiologically and pharmacologically distinct from the detrusor and may contribute to the overall contractile properties of the urinary bladder. PMID:21632849

  4. Proliposomal Intravesical Paclitaxel for Treatment of Low-Grade, Stage Ta, Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-16

    Bladder Cancer Cell Transitional; Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Urinary Bladder; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms; Urologic Neoplasms; Urogenital Neoplasms; Urinary Bladder Diseases; Urologic Diseases

  5. Development of a wearable microwave bladder monitor for the management and treatment of urinary incontinence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krewer, F.; Morgan, F.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.; O'Halloran, M.

    2014-05-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as the inability to stop the flow of urine from the bladder. In the US alone, the annual societal cost of incontinence-related care is estimated at 12.6 billion dollars. Clinicians agree that those suffering from urinary incontinence would greatly benefit from a wearable system that could continually monitor the bladder, providing continuous feedback to the patient. While existing ultrasound-based solutions are highly accurate, they are severely limited by form-factor, battery size, cost and ease of use. In this study the authors propose an alternative bladder-state sensing system, based on Ultra Wideband (UWB) Radar. As part of an initial proof-of-concept, the authors developed one of the first dielectrically and anatomically-representative Finite Difference Time Domain models of the pelvis. These models (one male and one female) are derived from Magnetic Resonance images provided by the IT'IS Foundation. These IT'IS models provide the foundation upon which an anatomically-plausible bladder growth model was constructed. The authors employed accurate multi-pole Debye models to simulate the dielectric properties of each of the pelvic tissues. Two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were completed for a range of bladder volumes. Relevant features were extracted from the FDTD-derived signals using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and then classified using a k-Nearest-Neighbour and Support Vector Machine algorithms (incorporating the Leave-one-out cross-validation approach). Additionally the authors investigated the effects of signal fidelity, noise and antenna movement relative to the target as potential sources of error. The results of this initial study provide strong motivation for further research into this timely application, particularly in the context of an ageing population.

  6. The promotion of functional urinary bladder regeneration using anti-inflammatory nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Matthew I.; Fuller, Natalie J.; Meisner, Jay W.; Hofer, Matthias D.; Webber, Matthew J.; Chow, Lesley W.; Prasad, Sheba; Thaker, Hatim; Yue, Xuan; Menon, Vani S.; Diaz, Edward C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Cheng, Earl Y.; Sharma, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Current attempts at tissue regeneration utilizing synthetic and decellularized biologic-based materials have typically been met in part by innate immune responses in the form of a robust inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation or grafting. This can ultimately lead to tissue fibrosis with direct negative impact on tissue growth, development, and function. In order to temper the innate inflammatory response, anti-inflammatory signals were incorporated through display on self-assembling peptide nanofibers to promote tissue healing and subsequent graft compliance throughout the regenerative process. Utilizing an established urinary bladder augmentation model, the highly pro-inflammatory biologic scaffold (decellularized small intestinal submucosa) was treated with anti-inflammatory peptide amphiphiles (AIF-PAs) or control peptide amphiphiles and used for augmentation. Significant regenerative advantages of the AIF-PAs were observed including potent angiogenic responses, limited tissue collagen accumulation, and the modulation of macrophage and neutrophil responses in regenerated bladder tissue. Upon further characterization, a reduction in the levels of M2 macrophages was observed, but not in M1 macrophages in control groups, while treatment groups exhibited decreased levels of M1 macrophages and stabilized levels of M2 macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production was decreased while anti-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated in treatment groups. This resulted in far fewer incidences of tissue granuloma and bladder stone formation. Finally, functional urinary bladder testing revealed greater bladder compliance and similar capacities in groups treated with AIF-PAs. Data demonstrate that AIF-PAs can alleviate galvanic innate immune responses and provide a highly conducive regenerative milieu that may be applicable in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:25145852

  7. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Taha, Nevine R; Amin, Hanan Ali; Sultan, Asrar A

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease. It is known to cause urinary bladder damage due to inducing oxidative stress. Moringa oleifera (Mof) is commonly known as drumstick tree. Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. It acts as a good source of natural antioxidants; due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. The aim of this work was to test the possible antioxidant protective effects of M. oleifera leaves against CP induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats. Female Wister albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as control, received orally normal saline, group II received a single dose CP 100mg/kg intraperitoneally, group III and VI both received orally hydroethanolic extract of Mof; 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively daily for a week, 1h before and 4h after CP administration. Rats were sacrificed 24h after CP injection. The bladder was removed, sectioned, and subjected to light, transition electron microscopic studies, and biochemical studies (measuring the parameter of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde along with the activities of the antioxidant enzyme reduced glutathione). The bladders of CP treated rats showed ulcered mucosa, edematous, hemorrhagic, and fibrotic submucosa by light microscopy. Ultrastructure observation showed; losing large areas of uroepithelium, extended intercellular gaps, junction complexes were affected as well as damage of mitochondria in the form of swelling and destruction of cristae. Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation of malondialdhyde, while reduced glutathione activity was significantly lowered. From the results obtained in this work, we can say that Moringa leaves play an important role in ameliorating and protecting the bladder from CP toxicity.

  8. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H. . E-mail: shliu@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-10-15

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-{alpha} translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator {beta}-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-{alpha} translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-{delta} translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-{alpha} translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment.

  9. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Bedwetting Kidneys and Urinary Tract Urine Tests X-Ray ... Bladder) Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Your Urinary System Bedwetting Urinary Tract Infections Kidneys and Urinary Tract Bedwetting ( ...

  10. Management of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs: a review.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Christopher M; Knapp, Deborah W

    2015-08-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also referred to as urothelial carcinoma, is the most common form of urinary bladder cancer in dogs, affecting tens of thousands of dogs worldwide each year. Canine TCC is usually a high grade invasive cancer. Problems associated with TCC include urinary tract obstruction, distant metastases in >50% of affected dogs, and clinical signs that are troubling both to the dogs and to their owners. Risk factors for TCC include exposure to older types of flea control products and lawn chemicals, obesity, female sex, and a very strong breed-associated risk. This knowledge is allowing pet owners to take steps to reduce the risk of TCC in their dog. The diagnosis of TCC is made by histopathology of tissue biopsies obtained by cystoscopy, surgery, or catheter. Percutaneous aspirates and biopsies should be avoided due to the risk of tumor seeding. TCC is most commonly located in the trigone region of the bladder precluding complete surgical resection. Medical treatment is the mainstay for TCC therapy in dogs. Although TCC is not usually curable in dogs, multiple drugs have activity against it. Approximately 75% of dogs respond favorably to TCC treatment and can enjoy several months to a year or more of good quality life. Many promising new therapies for TCC are emerging and with the close similarity between TCC in dogs and high grade invasive bladder cancer in humans, new treatment strategies found to be successful in canine studies are expected to help dogs and to be subsequently translated to humans.

  11. Urinary incontinence in women treated by ischemic compression over the bladder area: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hains, Guy; Hains, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Bussières, André

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if ischemic compression therapy over the bladder area results in clinically important changes among female patients with stress and mixed (stress and urge) incontinence. Methods One group of patients (n = 24) received ischemic compression therapy directed over the bladder area (experimental group). The control group (n = 9) received ischemic compression therapy directed toward structures of the hip joint. Changes in urinary incontinence symptoms were monitored using a 2-part questionnaire: the urogenital distress inventory and the incontinence impact questionnaire. Patients' perceived amelioration (improvement) was quantified using a scale divided from 0% to 100%. Results Mean scores for the first questionnaire (urogenital distress inventory + incontinence impact questionnaire, 19 questions) were 23.3 vs 25.3 at baseline and 10.2 vs 22.2 after 15 treatments for the experimental and control group, respectively. The experimental group scores were 6.9 at 30 days after the last treatment and 11.3 at the 6-month follow-up. The perceived percentages of amelioration after 15 treatments were 69% vs 32% for the experimental and control group, respectively. The experimental group scores were 73% at 30 days after the last treatment and 60% at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In this study, ischemic compression directed toward elicited trigger points over bladder area was found to be an effective treatment of patients presenting symptoms of urinary incontinence. Improvement in symptoms was still present in follow-up at 6 months. PMID:19674707

  12. Increased susceptibility of estrogen-induced bladder outlet obstruction in a novel mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tam, Neville Ngai-Chung; Zhang, Xiang; Xiao, Hong; Song, Dan; Levin, Linda; Meller, Jarek; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Disorders of the prostate and lower urinary tract are common in elderly men. We investigated the role of metallothionein-1 (MT1) in prostate carcinogenesis by generating a prostate-specific, MT1-expressing mouse. Unexpectedly, genomic analyses revealed that a 12.1-kb genomic region harboring several conserved noncoding elements was unintentionally deleted, upstream of the transgene integration site in the mouse, which we named it 12.1ΔMT1. Male 12.1ΔMT1 mice chronically treated with testosterone (T) plus 17β-estradiol (E2) to induce prostate cancer exhibited no evidence of precancerous or cancerous lesions. Instead, most of them exhibited a bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) phenotype not observed in treated wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, we hypothesized that 12.1ΔMT1 is a novel model for studying the hormonal requirement for BOO induction. Adult male 12.1ΔMT1 and WT mice were treated with T, E2, bisphenol A (BPA), T+E2, or T+BPA for up to 6 months. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the prostate, bladder, and urethra were performed. No significant prostate pathologies were observed in WT or 12.1ΔMT1 mice treated with any of the hormone regimens. As expected, prostatic regression occurred in all E2-treated animals (WT and 12.1ΔMT1). Of great interest, despite a small prostate, 100% of E2-treated 12.1ΔMT1 mice, but only 40% of E2-treated WT mice, developed severe BOO (P<0.01). In contrast, T+E2 treatment was less effective than E2 treatment in inducing severe BOO in 12.1ΔMT1 mice (68%, P<0.05) and was completely ineffective in WT animals. Similarly, T, BPA, and T+BPA treatments did not induce BOO in either WT or 12.1ΔMT1 mice. The BOO pathology includes a thinner detrusor wall, narrowing of bladder neck and urethral lumen, and basal cell hyperplasia in the bladder body and urethra. These findings indicate that 12.1ΔMT1 mice exhibit enhanced susceptibility to E2-induced BOO that is independent of prostate enlargement but that is attenuated by the

  13. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC.

  14. Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305 is internalized into human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line 5637.

    PubMed

    Szabados, Florian; Kleine, Britta; Anders, Agnes; Kaase, Martin; Sakinç, Türkân; Schmitz, Inge; Gatermann, Sören

    2008-08-01

    Invasion of bacteria into nonphagocytic host cells is an important pathogenicity factor for escaping the host defence system. Gram-positive organisms, for example Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, are invasive in nonphagocytic cells, and this mechanism is discussed as an important part of the infection process. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus can cause acute and recurrent urinary tract infections as well as bloodstream infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus shows strong adhesion to human urinary bladder carcinoma and Hep2 cells and expresses the 'Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix molecule' (MSCRAMM)-protein SdrI with collagen-binding activity. MSCRAMMs are responsible for adhesion and collagen binding in S. aureus and are discussed as an important pathogenicity factor for invasion. To investigate internalization in S. aureus, several fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) assays have been described recently. We used a previously described FACS assay, with slight modifications, in addition to an antibiotic protection assay and transmission electron microscopy to show that S. saprophyticus ATCC 15305 and the wild-type strain 7108 were internalized into the human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. The discovery of the internalization of S. saprophyticus may be an important step for understanding the pathogenicity of recurrent infections caused by this organism.

  15. Characteristics of hydrogen ion transport in urinary bladder of water turtle.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, P R

    1967-10-01

    The mechanism of acidification by the urinary bladder of the water turtle was studied in an in vitro system which permitted control and measurement of electrical and concentration driving forces. The rate of hydrogen ion secretion was measured by means of a pH stat technique in the absence of exogenous carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. Transport of hydrogen ion into the solution bathing the mucosal surface of the bladder was associated with the appearance of alkali in the serosal compartment. The mean rate of hydrogen ion secretion in the absence of electrical and concentration gradients across the bladder was 0.96 mumole/hr. The secretion rate was only slightly greater in the presence of the spontaneous potential difference. The maximal hydrogen ion gradient that could be generated by the bladder was 3.33 pH units in the presence of the spontaneous voltage and 3.02 pH units in the short-circuited state. Hydrogen ion secretion was markedly reduced by acetazolamide and anaerobiosis, which indicated that under our experimental conditions acidification depended on the production and enzymatic hydration of metabolic carbon dioxide. On the basis of the stoichiometry of the pH changes across the membrane under different conditions, it is suggested that the active transport mechanism for hydrogen ion is located near the mucosal surface of the epithelial cell and that the alkali generated in back of the pump moves passively into the serosal fluid along an electrochemical gradient.

  16. Nephrogenic Adenoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nephrogenic adenoma of the urinary bladder (NAUB) is a rare lesion associated with nonspecific symptoms and could inadvertently be misdiagnosed. Aim. To review the literature. Methods. Various internet search engines were used. Results. NAUB is a benign tubular and papillary lesion of the bladder, is more common in men and adults, and has been associated with chronic inflammation/irritation, previous bladder surgery, diverticula, renal transplantation, and intravesical BCG; recurrences and malignant transformations have been reported. Differential diagnoses include clear cell adenocarcinoma, endocervicosis, papillary urothelial carcinoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma of bladder, and nested variant of urothelial carcinoma; most NAUBs have both surface papillary and submucosal tubular components; both the papillae and tubules tend to be lined by a single layer of mitotically inactive bland cells which have pale to clear cytoplasm. Diagnosis may be established by using immunohistochemistry (positive staining with racemase; PAX2; keratins stain positive with fibromyxoid variant), electron microscopy, DNA analysis, and cytological studies. Treatment. Endoscopic resection is the treatment but recurrences including sporadic malignant transformation have been reported. Conclusions. There is no consensus on best treatment. A multicentre study is required to identify the treatment that would reduce the recurrence rate, taking into consideration that intravesical BCG is associated with NAUB. PMID:27347540

  17. Therapeutic modulation of urinary bladder function: multiple targets at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Michel, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    Storage dysfunction of the urinary bladder, specifically overactive bladder syndrome, is a condition that occurs frequently in the general population. Historically, pathophysiological and treatment concepts related to overactive bladder have focused on smooth muscle cells. Although these are the central effector, numerous anatomic structures are involved in their regulation, including the urothelium, afferent and efferent nerves, and the central nervous system. Each of these structures involves receptors for—and the urothelium itself also releases—many mediators. Moreover, hypoperfusion, hypertrophy, and fibrosis can affect bladder function. Established treatments such as muscarinic antagonists, β-adrenoceptor agonists, and onabotulinumtoxinA each work in part through their effects on the urothelium and afferent nerves, as do α1-adrenoceptor antagonists in the treatment of voiding dysfunction associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia; however, none of these treatments are specifically targeted to the urothelium and afferent nerves. It remains to be explored whether future treatments that specifically act at one of these structures will provide a therapeutic advantage.

  18. Tumefactive intramural gossypiboma of the urinary bladder mimicking an invasive adnexal malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shivi; Verma, Ashish; Jain, Madhu; Trivedi, Sameer; Shukla, Ram C; Srivastava, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    A surgical swab retained in the body after surgery is known as ‘Gossypiboma’. The purpose of this report is to highlight an intramural vesical gossypiboma mimicking an invasive adnexal malignancy. A 28-year-old multiparous, with open-tubal ligation three years ago, presented with painless hematuria and a nontender mass on vaginal examination. USG suggested ‘pelvic endometriosis’ infiltrating into the bladder and cystoscopy showed no intraluminal extension of the mass. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) misdiagnosed it as invasive malignancy of the fallopian tube. Exploratory laparotomy found it to be an intramural vesical gossypiboma. A pelvic gossypiboma infiltrating into the wall of the urinary bladder may easily be misinterpreted as an invasive pelvic malignancy on imaging and may make one consider unwarranted radical surgery. PMID:25969644

  19. New genetic variants of LATS1 detected in urinary bladder and colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saadeldin, Mona K.; Shawer, Heba; Mostafa, Ahmed; Kassem, Neemat M.; Amleh, Asma; Siam, Rania

    2015-01-01

    LATS1, the large tumor suppressor 1 gene, encodes for a serine/threonine kinase protein and is implicated in cell cycle progression. LATS1 is down-regulated in various human cancers, such as breast cancer, and astrocytoma. Point mutations in LATS1 were reported in human sarcomas. Additionally, loss of heterozygosity of LATS1 chromosomal region predisposes to breast, ovarian, and cervical tumors. In the current study, we investigated LATS1 genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in 28 Egyptian patients with either urinary bladder or colon cancers. The LATS1 gene was amplified and sequenced and the expression of LATS1 at the RNA level was assessed in 12 urinary bladder cancer samples. We report, the identification of a total of 29 variants including previously identified SNPs within LATS1 coding and non-coding sequences. A total of 18 variants were novel. Majority of the novel variants, 13, were mapped to intronic sequences and un-translated regions of the gene. Four of the five novel variants located in the coding region of the gene, represented missense mutations within the serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain. Interestingly, LATS1 RNA steady state levels was lost in urinary bladder cancerous tissue harboring four specific SNPs (16045 + 41736 + 34614 + 56177) positioned in the 5′UTR, intron 6, and two silent mutations within exon 4 and exon 8, respectively. This study identifies novel single-base-sequence alterations in the LATS1 gene. These newly identified variants could potentially be used as novel diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer. PMID:25628642

  20. The Role of Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Urinary Bladder Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Natalie J.; Hannick, Jessica H.; Ahmad, Nida; Sharma, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic/stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) can function as surrogate urinary bladder cells to synergistically promote multi-faceted bladder tissue regeneration. However, the molecular pathways governing these events are unknown. The pleiotropic effects of Wnt5a and Cyr61 are known to affect aspects of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and muscle and nerve regeneration. Within this study, the effects of Cyr61 and Wnt5a on bladder tissue regeneration were evaluated by grafting scaffolds containing modified human bone marrow derived MSCs. These cell lines were engineered to independently over-express Wnt5a or Cyr61, or to exhibit reduced expression of Cyr61 within the context of a nude rat bladder augmentation model. At 4 weeks post-surgery, data demonstrated increased vessel number (~250 vs ~109 vessels/mm2) and bladder smooth muscle content (~42% vs ~36%) in Cyr61OX (over-expressing) vs Cyr61KD (knock-down) groups. Muscle content decreased to ~25% at 10 weeks in Cyr61KD groups. Wnt5aOX resulted in high numbers of vessels and muscle content (~206 vessels/mm2 and ~51%, respectively) at 4 weeks. Over-expressing cell constructs resulted in peripheral nerve regeneration while Cyr61KD animals were devoid of peripheral nerve regeneration at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks post-grafting, peripheral nerve regeneration was at a minimal level for both Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines. Blood vessel and bladder functionality were evident at both time-points in all animals. Results from this study indicate that MSC-based Cyr61OX and Wnt5aOX cell lines play pivotal roles with regards to increasing the levels of functional vasculature, influencing muscle regeneration, and the regeneration of peripheral nerves in a model of bladder augmentation. Wnt5aOX constructs closely approximated the outcomes previously observed with the co-transplantation of MSCs with CD34+ HSPCs and may be specifically targeted as an

  1. INCREASED TRPV4 EXPRESSION IN URINARY BLADDER AND LUMBOSACRAL DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA IN MICE WITH CHRONIC OVEREXPRESSION OF NGF IN UROTHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Beatrice M.; Merrill, Liana; Malley, Susan; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family member 4 (TRPV4) expression has been demonstrated in urothelial cells and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and roles in normal micturition reflexes as well as micturition dysfunction have been suggested. TRP channel expression and function is dependent upon target tissue expression of growth factors. These studies expand upon the target tissue dependence of TRPV4 expression in the urinary bladder and lumbosacral DRG using a recently characterized transgenic mouse model with chronic overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF-OE) in the urothelium. Immunohistochemistry with image analyses, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blotting were used to determine TRPV4 protein and transcript expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium + suburothelium, detrusor) and lumbosacral DRG from littermate wildtype (WT) and NGF-OE mice. Antibody specificity controls were performed in TRPV4-/- mice. TRPV4 transcript and protein expression was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased in the urothelium + suburothelium and suburothelial nerve plexus of the urinary bladder and in small- and medium-sized lumbosacral (L1, L2, L6-S1) DRG cells from NGF-OE mice compared to littermate WT mice. NGF-OE mice exhibit significant (p ≤ 0.001) increases in NGF transcript and protein in the urothelium + suburothelium and lumbosacral DRG. These studies demonstrate regulation of TRPV4 expression by NGF in lower urinary tract tissues. Ongoing studies are characterizing the functional roles of TRPV4 expression in the sensory limb (DRG, urothelium) of the micturition reflex. PMID:23690258

  2. Unusual Displacement of Urinary Bladder by a Dilated Rectosigmoid Colon on Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Mehrosadat; Kalhor, Leila; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2017-04-01

    A 7-year-old boy with chief complaint of chronic pelvic pain was referred to our nuclear medicine department for bone scintigraphy. The images showed a focus of radiotracer activity in the right side of pelvic cavity, which is further confirmed as urinary bladder by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and delayed images. Because of high possibility of mass effect in pelvic cavity, pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and it revealed an unusual dilatation of rectosigmoid colon with no evidence of pelvic mass.

  3. The bladder is not sterile: History and current discoveries on the urinary microbiome.

    PubMed

    Thomas-White, Krystal; Brady, Megan; Wolfe, Alan J; Mueller, Elizabeth R

    2016-03-01

    In the human body, there are 10 bacterial cells for every one human cell. This fact highlights the importance of the National institutes of Health's initiative to map the human microbiome. The Human Microbiome Project was the first large-scale mapping of the human microbiome of 5 body sites: GI tract, mouth, vagina, skin and nasal cavity using culture-independent methods. The bladder was not originally tested because it was considered to be sterile and there were complexities regarding sample collection. Over the last couple years our team along with other investigators have shown that a urinary microbiome exists and for most individuals it plays a protective role.

  4. Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    GHERVAN, LIVIU; ZAHARIE, ANDREEA; ENE, BOGDAN; ELEC, FLORIN I.

    2017-01-01

    Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a very rare pathology, but with a very aggressive behavior and disappointing prognosis. The literature concerning this type of cancer is scarce and physicians may encounter difficulty trying to manage it. Most articles involve the study of case series, without definite results due to the small number of patients. The present article aims at gathering the most significant articles and results in order to offer a broad perspective on the existing literature concerning this pathology. PMID:28246491

  5. Transcriptomic dose-and-time-course indicators of early key events in a cytotoxicity-mediated mode of action for rodent urinary bladder tumorigenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSCRIPTOMIC DOSE- AND TIME-COURSE INDICATORS OF EARLY KEY EVENTS IN A CYTOTOXICITY-MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION FOR RODENT URINARY BLADDER TUMORIGENESISDiuron is a substituted urea compound used globally as an herbicide. Urinary bladder tumors were induced in rats after chronic die...

  6. Arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water did not affect DNA damage repair in urinary bladder transitional cells or micronuclei in bone marrow

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a recognized human skin, lung, and urinary bladder carcinogen, and may act as a cocarcinogen in the urinary bladder (with cigarette smoking) and skin (with UV light exposure). Possible modes of action of arsenic carcinogenesis/cocarcinogenesis include induction of DNA ...

  7. Detection of bovine papillomavirus type 14 DNA sequences in urinary bladder tumors in cattle.

    PubMed

    Roperto, Sante; Munday, John S; Corrado, Federica; Goria, Maria; Roperto, Franco

    2016-07-15

    Bovine papillomavirus type 14 (BPV-14) is a novel Deltapapillomavirus (δPV) which is most closely related to BPV-1, -2, and -13, well-known members of the δPV genus. So far BPV-14 has been detected in cutaneous neoplastic lesions in cattle and in feline sarcoids. As BPV-14 may share biological and pathological properties with BPV-1, -2 and -13, it has been hypothesized that, like other δPVs, BPV-14 could be associated with bovine bladder neoplasia. In this study, 50 tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle were diagnosed. DNA was extracted from all tumor samples as well as from 25 normal bladder samples and submitted to BPV-14 L1 PCR and subsequent amplicon sequencing analysis. BPV-14 L1 DNA sequences of specific 195bp amplicons were obtained from 17 of 50 (34%) tumor DNA isolates; no BPV-14 DNA was detected from 25 normal samples. Amplicons revealed a 99% homology with the corresponding BPV-14 L1 DNA region (GenBank accession number KP276343.1). Co-infections by two or three δPV types were also seen. This study reveals the presence of BPV-14 DNA alone or in combination with other δPV DNA in bovine bladder tumors alone and suggests that BPV-14 could also be involved in bladder neoplasia as its E5 oncoprotein has the potential to induce cell proliferation. Furthermore, this is the first study to show the presence of BPV-14 in Europe, suggesting that BPV-14, like other δPVs, has a worldwide distribution.

  8. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Bellezza, Guido; Colella, Renato; Mameli, Maria Grazia; Sidoni, Angelo; Cavaliere, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare histologic variant of adenocarcinoma. Generally, this neoplasm occurs in middle age and the clinical presentation does not differ from the most frequent transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is frequently poor as at diagnosis it is often in an advanced phase. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from metastases, as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary. We present 5 cases of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and we used a panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical markers for differential diagnosis from secondary carcinoma in an attempt to elucidate the histogenetic derivation of this neoplasia.

  9. Laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder following total extra-peritoneal repair of inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sandeep; Praneeth, Kokkula; Rathore, Yashwant; Waran, Vignesh; Singh, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    Mesh erosion into visceral organs is a rare complication following laparoscopic mesh repair for inguinal hernia with only 15 cases reported in English literature. We report the first case of complete laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder. A 62-year-male underwent laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal repair of left inguinal hernia at another centre in April 2012. He presented to our centre 21 months later with persistent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). On evaluation mesh erosion into bowel and urinary bladder was suspected. At laparoscopy, a small bowel loop was adhered to the area of inflammation in the left lower abdomen. After adhesiolysis, mesh was seen to be eroding into small bowel. The entire infected mesh was pulled out from the pre-peritoneal space and urinary bladder wall using gentle traction. The involved small bowel segment was resected, and bowel continuity restored using endoscopic linear cutter. The resected bowel along with the mesh was extracted in a plastic bag. Intra-operative test for leak from urinary bladder was found to be negative. The patient recovered uneventfully and is doing well at 12 months follow-up with resolution of UTI. Laparoscopic approach to mesh erosion is feasible as the plane of mesh placement during laparoscopic hernia repair is closer to peritoneum than during open hernia repair. PMID:26917927

  10. Large diverticulum of the urinary bladder: A rare cause of deep vein thrombosis with consecutive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Oliver; Torzewski, Jan; Reichenbach-Klinke, Ekkehard; Zenk, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted with progressive dyspnea; he also had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An angio computed tomography scan showed pulmonary embolism with thrombi in both main pulmonary arteries. By duplex ultrasonography, we detected a thrombus in the right vena femoralis superficialis and vena femoralis communis. Simultaneously, we also noticed a large diverticulum on the right side of the urinary bladder and urinary stasis II of the left kidney. We consider the BPH as the trigger for a secondary diverticulum of the urinary bladder. As a result of its large dimensions, mechanical compression of the deep right pelvic veins resulted in thrombosis which finally caused the pulmonary embolism. With respect to the urinary stasis II, surgical excavation of the diverticulum with infravesical desobstruction was planned. The potentially lethal course of large diverticula may require surgery. PMID:26029307

  11. The relationship between urinary infection, cystoscopic appearance, and pathology of the bladder in man

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, F. P.; Banerjee, R.; Panchamia, P.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of bladder histology were made in patients with recurrent urinary infection or symptoms of cystitis, with a view to establishing its relationship to symptoms, cystoscopic appearance, and bacilluria. Bladder biopsies were taken from the patients and compared with control material obtained at necropsy. Acute inflammatory changes were inconstant and sometimes sparse. Chronic inflammatory changes were often marked, and were ranked by severity into four grades. There was a statistically significant correlation between the more severe grades and the finding of bacilluria, which was not dependent on sex or age. The grades in patients with recurrent non-bacterial dysuria (`urethritis') lay between those of the controls and the infected patients, and were statistically different from both. There was no correlation between these grades and either symptoms or the finding of trigonal hyperaemia during cystoscopy. However, heavy lymphocytic infiltration, and particularly germinal follicle formation, frequently resulted in macroscopic tubercle-like nodules which were visible on cystoscopy. Such germinal follicles may contribute to local antibacterial defences by their production of immunoglobulins, and may explain the high antibacterial antibody titres sometimes found in the sera of subjects with infection confined to the lower urinary tract. Images PMID:4855039

  12. Flexible cystoscopic bladder biopsies: a technique for outpatient evaluation of the lower urinary tract urothelium.

    PubMed

    Beaghler, M; Grasso, M

    1994-11-01

    Routine urothelial biopsies of the lower urinary tract are obtained using the cold cup biopsy technique. This procedure is most often performed in the surgical suite and requires rigid endoscopic access and the use of biopsy forceps and Bugbee electrodes to obtain tissue for histologic examination. A new single-step biopsy forceps has been used through the flexible cystoscope. Using a 16 F actively deflectable, flexible cystoscope and the 5.4 F Therma Jaw Hot Urologic Forceps, bladder biopsies were obtained in 27 patients for a variety of indications. This biopsy forceps allows simultaneous tissue sampling and electrocoagulation of the biopsy site, thus eliminating the need for exchange of instruments through the flexible cystoscope. Tissue samples are somewhat protected from thermal changes during coagulation through the use of a Faraday cage. Biopsies were frequently obtained in an outpatient setting, requiring only local topical anesthesia (2% lidocaine jelly). Carcinoma in situ, transitional cell carcinoma, acute and chronic inflammation, and normal bladder mucosa were differentiated histologically. Using this technique, lower urinary tract urothelial mapping can be performed safely in the office with minimal patient discomfort.

  13. Histopathology of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mesenchymal tumours of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, E.; Ruschitzka, F.; Schwalbe, K.

    1990-01-01

    The present study reports the induction, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, growth pattern and proliferative behaviour of mesenchymal tumours of the urinary bladder of rats induced by a single intravesical dose (5 mg/kg/body weight) of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). In 14 of 283 female Wistar rats (incidence: 4.9%). 16 non-epithelial tumours had developed after an experimental period of 14 months. The most common histological type induced was of fibrohistiocytic origin (eight benign-appearing and three malignant fibrous histiocytomas). Furthermore, two pure histiocytomas (one benign and one malignant) and three capillary and cavernous haemangiomas were produced. Since no metastases occurred and no clear-cut distinction between a merely expansive and a truly invasive growth was possible, the diagnosis of malignancy was based on the degree of cellular atypia and the mitotic activity. The benign-appearing fibrous histiocytomas showed a mean mitotic index of 0.06% and the malignant fibrous histiocytomas of 0.34%. The mitotic activity of the malignant histiocytoma was threefold (0.78%) as high as in the benign-appearing histiocytoma (0.25%). There exist close morphological similarities between the induced mesenchymal tumours in the rat and those occurring in the human bladder. Although the spectrum of histological types of mesenchymal tumours seen in the rat bladder was narrower than that encountered in man, MNU seems suitable for further studying the histogenesis, histopathology and biology of experimentally induced non-epithelial bladder neoplasms to gain information for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of human disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:2164825

  14. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. )

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  15. Influence of chitosan and polycarbophil on permeation of a model hydrophilic drug into the urinary bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Grabnar, I; Bogataj, M; Mrhar, A

    2003-04-30

    Influence of dispersions of mucoadhesive polymers chitosan and polycarbophil on permeability properties of urinary bladder was investigated in vitro on isolated porcine urinary bladder. Pipemidic acid as a model hydrophilic drug was used. Its distribution in the bladder wall was determined from actual tissue concentrations by a method based on sectioning of frozen tissue and extraction of tissue slices. Pipemidic acid tissue concentration versus tissue depth profiles were evaluated by a diffusion model assuming constant diffusion coefficient. Increase in bladder wall permeability was observed in the presence of both polymers. Apparent permeability (mean+/-S.D.) of urinary bladder wall was increased 2.7+/-2.9 and 2.8+/-2.0 times for chitosan, and 2.3+/-2.0 and 4.3+/-4.2 times for polycarbophil at 0.5 and 1.0%, w/v polymer concentration, respectively. This increase is a consequence of the increased permeability of urothelium. These findings support investigations on application of chitosan and polycarbophil in development of mucoadhesive intravesical drug delivery systems. Experimental model may be applied to evaluate the results of experiments with drugs used in intravesical therapy.

  16. TRPA1 mediates bladder hyperalgesia in a mouse model of cystitis.

    PubMed

    DeBerry, Jennifer J; Schwartz, Erica S; Davis, Brian M

    2014-07-01

    Urinary bladder pain is a primary symptom associated with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. We used systemic injections of cyclophosphamide (CYP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent, to induce cystitis and examine the roles of 2 channels previously demonstrated to be required for inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia: transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). Injection of CYP (100 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day for 5 days was accompanied by bladder edema and urothelial ulceration, but without significant plasma extravasation or infiltration of neutrophils. Toluidine blue staining showed a significant increase in the number of degranulated bladder mast cells after CYP treatment. Despite this mild pathology, CYP-treated mice exhibited bladder hyperalgesia 1 day after the final injection that persisted 7 days later. Although many previous studies of visceral hyperalgesia have reported changes in dorsal root ganglion neuron TRPV1 expression and/or function, we found no change in bladder afferent TRPV1 expression or sensitivity on the basis of the percentage of bladder afferents responsive to capsaicin, including at submaximal concentrations. In contrast, the percentage of bladder afferents expressing functional TRPA1 protein (i.e., those responsive to mustard oil) increased ∼2.5-fold 1 day after CYP treatment, and remained significantly elevated 7 days later. Moreover, bladder hyperalgesia was reversed by acute treatment with the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Our results indicate that CYP-induced bladder hyperalgesia can be induced without robust inflammation or changes in primary afferent TRPV1. However, significant changes were observed in TRPA1 expression, and blockade of TRPA1 alleviated CYP-induced bladder hyperalgesia.

  17. An exploratory study for bladder dysfunction in atypical antipsychotic-emergent urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Preeti; Gupta, Anupam; Reddi, V. Senthil Kumar; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This is an exploratory study, which aimed to analyze urodynamic findings in patients who are on atypical antipsychotics and present with urinary incontinence (UI) in order to understand the mechanisms of antipsychotic-emergent UI. Patients and Methods: Eight patients (34 ± 7.6 years; five males and three females) diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, who were on risperidone, olanzapine, or clozapine monotherapy and having UI were recruited. Urodynamic study was performed in all patients. Results: Six out of eight (75%) patients had abnormal urodynamic findings. Three of them had detrusor overactivity (DO) without detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD); two had DO with DSD; and one had hypoactive detrusor with nonrelaxing sphincter during void phase. The common urinary symptoms were urgency, enuresis, and straining to void urine. Significant postvoid residual urine was found in two patients. Conclusion: The evidence of bladder dysfunction in atypical antipsychotic-emergent UI is similar to that present in patients with neurological disorders. Urinary complaints in patients on antipsychotics thus need to be evaluated and managed systematically using the protocol followed for neurological conditions. PMID:28197002

  18. Orthotopic urinary diversion after radical cystectomy in treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Jovan, Hadži-Djokić; Vladan, Andrejević; Tomislav, Pejčić; Miodrag, Aćimović; Uroš, Babić; Miodrag, Stanić; Zoran, Džamić

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment of invasive carcinoma of the bladder in males includes total cystectomy removal of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and the distal parts of the urethers and the pelvic lymph node dissection as well. At this moment it is not possible to recommend a particular type of urinary diversion, but today in clinical practice commonly used derivative are ileal orthotopic neobladder as the continent one and ileal conduit as non-continent urinary diversion. Continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy are the result of the application of technological innovation in surgery, but also knowledge, imagination and skill of well trained urologist. This type of operation significantly improves the quality of life in patients who underwent radical cystectomy, and the proposal is to operate whenever there is a possibility for this type of procedure. Also it is very important, during surgery to respect oncological principles, of complete removal of tumorous tissue and that the functional principle of ensur- ing that the patients have daytime and also nighttime continence later on after the surgery.

  19. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CANCER-RELATED MOLECULAR NETWORKS IN HUMAN AND RAT URINARY BLADDER CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (As) is classified as a known human carcinogen with primary targets of urinary bladder (UB), skin and lung. The most prevalent source of As exposure in humans is drinking water contaminated with inorganic As (iAs), and millions of people worldwide are exposed to drinking ...

  20. Transcriptional profile of diurnon-induces toxicity on the urinary bladder of male wistar rats to inform mode of action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that induces rat urinary bladder urothelial tumors at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). The specific mode of action and molecular alterations triggered by diuron, however, have not been clarified. Th...

  1. Changes in nerve-mediated contractility of the lower urinary tract in a mouse model of premature ageing

    PubMed Central

    Triguero, D; Lafuente-Sanchis, A; Garcia-Pascual, A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A high incidence of lower urinary tract disorders is associated with ageing. In the senescent-accelerated prone (SAMP8) mouse strain and the senescent-accelerated resistant (SAMR1) strain, we compared smooth muscle contractility in responses to intrinsic neurotransmitters, both in the bladder and urethra. Experimental Approach We analysed micturition frequency, the changes in muscle tension induced by electrical field stimulation or agonist administration, the density of nerves (adrenergic, cholinergic and nitrergic) and interstitial cells (ICs), as well as cGMP accumulation in bladder and urethral preparations. Key Results Senescent mice of the SAMP8 strain displayed increased micturition frequency and excitatory contractility of neurogenic origin in the bladder. While cholinergic nerve density remained unchanged, there was a mild sensitization to ACh in male mice. Potentiation in the detrusor may be also provoked by the stronger contribution of ATP, together with reduced adrenergic innervation in males and COX-derived prostanoid production in females. The greater excitatory contractility in the urethra was probably due to the sensitization to noradrenaline, in conjunction with attenuated nitrergic relaxation. There were also fewer neuronal NOS immunoreactive (ir) nerves and vimentin-positive ICs, although the sildenafil-and diethylamine-NONOate-induced relaxations and cGMP-ir remained unchanged. Conclusions and Implications Premature senescent mice exhibit bladder and urethral hyperexcitability, coupled with reduced urethral relaxation of neurogenic origin, which could model the impaired urinary function in elderly humans. We propose that senescence-accelerated mice provide a useful tool to analyse the basic mechanisms of age-related changes in bladder and urethral function. PMID:24372152

  2. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 infects the urinary bladder of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and plays a crucial role in bubaline urothelial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Ozkul, Ayhan; Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Maiolino, Paola; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Marcus, Ioan; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita Georgia; Roperto, Franco

    2013-02-01

    Bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) has been shown to infect and play a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis of buffaloes grazed on pastures with ferns from the Marmara and Black Sea Regions of Turkey. BPV-2 DNA has been found in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder. Furthermore, this virus may be a normal inhabitant of the urinary bladder since BPV-2 DNA has also been detected in clinically normal buffaloes. The viral activation by fern immunosuppressant or carcinogen may trigger the urothelial cell transformation. The E5 oncoprotein was solely detected in urothelial tumours and appeared to be co-localized with the overexpressed and phosphorylated platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptor in a double-colour immunofluorescence assay. Our results indicate that the E5-PDGF β receptor interaction also occurs in spontaneous tumours of the bubaline urinary bladder, revealing an additional role of BPV-2 in bladder carcinogenesis of buffaloes.

  3. [A case of small cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder responding to gemcitabine/cisplatin combination therapy as neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Shirato, Akitomi; Shimamoto, Kenji; Ozawa, Akira; Tanji, Nozomu; Yokoyama, Masayoshi

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A 79-year-old man with the chief complaints of macrohematuria and pollakisuria was admitted to our hospital. Cystoscopy and computed tomography (CT) revealed a non-papillary broad-based bladder tumor. Histological diagnosis was small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and he underwent 3 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy including gemcitabine and cisplatin with a preoperative diagnosis of cT3bN0M0. After the chemotherapy, cystoscopy and CT showed complete remission. Total cystectomy with ileal conduit was performed following 3 courses of chemotherapy. Microscopic examination revealed that the small cell carcinoma had disappeared and the converted squamous cell carcinoma remained only in a small part of the specimens. The patient was carefully followed for 10 months after operation, with no tumor recurrence.

  4. Urothelial Dysfunction and Increased Suburothelial Inflammation of Urinary Bladder Are Involved in Patients with Upper Urinary Tract Urolithiasis – Clinical and Immunohistochemistry Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the urothelial dysfunction and inflammation of urinary bladder in patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) urolithiasis through the results of cystoscopic hydrodistension and immunohistochemistry study. Methods Ninety-one patients with UUT urolithiasis underwent cystoscopic hydrodistension before the stone surgery. Immunofluorescence staining of E-cadherin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), tryptase (mast cell activation), and TUNEL (urothelial apoptosis) were performed in 42 patients with glomerulations after hydrodistension, 10 without glomerulations, and 10 controls. Results Of the 91 patients, 62 (68.2%) developed glomerulations after hydrodistension. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were present in 53.8% patients, in whom significantly smaller maximal anesthetic bladder capacity (MBC) was noted. Patients with middle or lower 1/3 ureteral stones had a significantly higher glomerulation rate (88.6% vs. 55.4%, p<0.01) and lower MBC (618.4±167.6 vs. 701.2±158.4 ml, p = 0.027) than those with upper 1/3 ureteral or renal stones. Patients with UUT urolithiasis had significantly lower expression of E-cadherin (26.2±14.8 vs. 42.4±16.7) and ZO-1 (5.16±4.02 vs. 11.02±5.66); and higher suburothelial mast cell (13.3±6.8 vs. 1.3±1.2) and apoptotic cell (2.6±2.5 vs. 0.1±0.3) numbers than in controls (all p<0.01). Conclusions Urothelial dysfunction and increased suburothelial inflammation and apoptosis are highly prevalent in the bladders of UUT urolithiasis patients, indicating inflammation cross-talk between UUT and urinary bladder. Patients with UUT urolithiaisis concomitant with LUTS had a smaller MBC, which may explain the presence of irritative bladder symptoms. PMID:25329457

  5. Electrical properties of smooth muscle in the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Bramich, N J; Brading, A F

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of transmural nerve stimulation were examined on preparations of detrusor smooth muscle from guinea-pig urinary bladder using intracellular recording techniques. Most recordings were made from preparations in which spontaneous and evoked action potentials had been inhibited by nifedipine (10 microM), a dihydropyridine that blocks L-type Ca2+ channels. 2. Supramaximal stimuli evoked excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) which could be divided into three basic types. Type 1 EJPs had short latencies (< 30 ms) and fast rise times (< 60 ms). Type 2 EJPs consisted of two components: a small depolarization that was followed by a second depolarization with a faster rise time. In a third type of cell, at high strengths of stimulation, EJPs resembled type 1 EJPs but at lower strengths of stimulation were similar in time course to type 2 EJPs. 3. All EJPs were abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) and reduced by omega-conotoxin (0.1 microM), but were unaffected by hexamethonium (0.1 mM), suggesting that they result from the release of transmitter from post-ganglionic nerve fibres. All responses persisted in the presence of atropine (1 microM) but were abolished following the desensitization of P2-purinoceptors with alpha, beta-methylene ATP (m-ATP; 10 microM). 4. Spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (SEJPs) were also recorded from most cells. SEJPs were similar in appearance to fast single-component EJPs; however, in general they had a briefer time course. SEJPs persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 microM). 5. The electrical properties of urinary bladder smooth muscle were also examined. Voltage changes induced by point current injection into cells had fast rates of rise and decay (time constant, 5-20 ms). The input resistance of cells ranged between 12 and 108 M omega. When recordings were taken from cells near the point of current injection, resultant electrotonic potentials could be detected in only a small proportions of cells. 6. The results

  6. Ethanol-extracted propolis enhances BBN-initiated urinary bladder carcinogenesis via non-mutagenic mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Li; Gi, Min; Fujioka, Masaki; Doi, Kenichiro; Yamano, Shotaro; Tachibana, Hirokazu; Fang, He; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    Ethanol-extracted propolis (EEP) is used for medical, dietetic and cosmetic purposes. In this study, the effects of EEP on urinary bladder carcinogenesis, its underlying mechanism and in vivo genotoxicity were investigated. In experiment 1, rats were treated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) for 2 or 4 weeks followed by dietary administration of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 or 1% EEP for 4 or 32 weeks, respectively. At week 6, the mRNA levels of top2a, cyclin D1 and survivin were significantly elevated in the 0.5 and 1% EEP groups. At week 36, the incidence and multiplicity of urothelial carcinomas and total tumors were markedly elevated in all EEP groups. In experiment 2, rats were fed basal diet or the 1% EEP diet for 13 weeks without carcinogen initiation. Increases in urinary precipitate, cell proliferation and incidence of simple hyperplasia were observed in the 1% EEP group. In experiment 3, dietary administration of 2.5% EEP to gpt delta rats for 13 weeks did not induce any obvious mutagenicity in the urinary bladder urothelium. Taken together, EEP enhanced BBN-initiated rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis in a non-genotoxic manner through increasing formation of urinary precipitate, enhancing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis during the early stages of carcinogenesis.

  7. Recurrence of childhood nephrogenic adenoma in urinary bladder developed four years after previous surgery despite intravesical sodium hyaluronate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Özçift, Burak; Kaçar, Ayper; Tiryaki, Hüseyin Tuğrul

    2016-01-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma (NA) is a rarely seen benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract. Its etiology is uncertain, but induced by chronic inflammation, irritation, and trauma. NA is located in the urinary tract, most commonly in the bladder. NA usually presents with hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms. In the literature it is mostly seen in adults but about 30 cases of NA’s have been reported in children. Treatment of intravesical lesions consists of transurethral resection (TUR) and fulguration and rarely partial or total cystectomy may be required in ineffective TUR. Recurrence rate is high during long-term follow-up. The intravesical application of sodium hyaluronate produces a protective effect on the glycosaminoglycan layer and delays or prevents its recurrence. We report a case of recurrent NA of the bladder in a pediatric male patient who was presented four years after previous surgery despite intravesical sodium hyaluronate therapy. PMID:27909627

  8. Urinary oncofetal ED-A fibronectin correlates with poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Shanna A; Loomans, Holli A; Ketova, Tatiana; Andl, Claudia D; Clark, Peter E; Zijlstra, Andries

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) contributes to the structural integrity of tissues as well as the adhesive and migratory functions of cells. While FN is abundantly expressed in adult tissues, the expression of several alternatively spliced FN isoforms is restricted to embryonic development, tissue remodeling and cancer. These FN isoforms, designated ED-A and ED-B, are frequently expressed by cancer cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts and newly forming blood vessels. Using a highly sensitive collagen-based indirect ELISA, we evaluated the correlation of urinary ED-A and ED-B at time of cystectomy with overall survival in patients with high-grade bladder cancer (BCa). Detectable levels of total FN as well as ED-A and ED-B were found in urine from 85, 73 and 51 % of BCa patients, respectively. The presence of urinary ED-A was a significant independent predictor of 2-year overall survival (OS) after adjusting for age, tumor stage, lymph node stage, and urinary creatinine by multivariable Logistic Regression (p = 0.029, OR = 4.26, 95 % CI 1.16-15.71) and improved accuracy by 3.6 %. Furthermore, detection of ED-A in the urine was a significant discriminator of survival specifically in BCa patients with negative lymph node status (Log-Rank, p = 0.006; HR = 5.78, 95 % CI 1.39-24.13). Lastly, multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that urinary ED-A was an independent prognostic indicator of 5-year OS rate for patients with BCa (p = 0.04, HR = 2.20, 95 % CI 1.04-4.69). Together, these data suggest that cancer-derived, alternatively spliced FN isoforms can act as prognostic indicators and that additional studies are warranted to assess the clinical utility of ED-A in BCa.

  9. Validation of the diagnostic utility of urinary midkine for the detection of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Vu Van, Dana; Heberling, Ulrike; Wirth, Manfred P; Fuessel, Susanne

    2016-11-01

    As it has been demonstrated previously that midkine (also known as neurite growth-promoting factor 2) protein levels in urine of bladder cancer (BCa) patients are increased compared to healthy controls, the present study validated the diagnostic utility of midkine in an independent patient cohort and compared the observed values with voided urine cytology (VUC), which is the current reference standard for non-invasive diagnosis of BCa. Voided urine samples were prospectively collected from 92 BCa patients and 70 control subjects. Protein levels of midkine were assessed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and normalized to urinary creatinine. The diagnostic performance of urinary midkine was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves. The best combinations of sensitivities and specificities were determined by Youden's Index. Midkine concentrations were significantly elevated in urine samples from BCa patients compared to controls (P<0.001; Mann-Whitney U Test). The level of midkine was associated with disease progression, with the highest concentrations in urine specimens of patients with pT1 and ≥pT2a, as well as high-grade tumors (P<0.001; Mann-Whitney U test). Sensitivities of urinary midkine and VUC were 69.7 and 87.6%, respectively. The corresponding specificities for midkine and VUC were 77.9 and 87.7%, respectively. The combined use of VUC and midkine improved the sensitivity to 93.3%, but reduced the specificity to 66.2%. Despite its reduced discriminatory power for low-grade and low-stage BCa, urinary midkine can be utilized for the identification of high-grade pT1 and ≥pT2a tumors. This means that midkine may potentially be suitable for the identification of patients with high risk BCa.

  10. The bladder is not sterile: History and current discoveries on the urinary microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-White, Krystal; Brady, Megan; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    In the human body, there are 10 bacterial cells for every one human cell. This fact highlights the importance of the National institutes of Health’s initiative to map the human microbiome. The Human Microbiome Project was the first large-scale mapping of the human microbiome of 5 body sites: GI tract, mouth, vagina, skin and nasal cavity using culture-independent methods. The bladder was not originally tested because it was considered to be sterile and there were complexities regarding sample collection. Over the last couple years our team along with other investigators have shown that a urinary microbiome exists and for most individuals it plays a protective role. PMID:27182288

  11. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder: An underutilized staging and grading modality

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vijayant Govinda; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Lal, Anupam; Kakkar, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a modality to predict T stage of cancer of urinary bladder (CAUB) and to predict the grade of the tumor preoperatively. Material and methods 110 patients with CAUB presenting to the Department of Urology at our institution between July 2014 and December 2015 underwent CEUS prior to endoscopic resection and the CEUS findings were compared with histopathology results. Results CEUS had a sensitivity of 75, 65 and 90% and specificity of 95, 85 and 92% in detecting Ta, T1 and muscle invasion respectively. CEUS had a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 85% in detecting the grade of the lesion. Conclusions CEUS is a good alternative for T staging and grading of CAUB preoperatively. It is uniquely advantageous in detecting clots or necrosis and in patients with low eGFR where other imaging modalities are contraindicated. PMID:28127451

  12. [Criteria of efficacy of adjuvant immunotherapy of surface cancer of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Medvedev, V L; Budnik, N V

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of prognostic significance of interleukine-8 (L-8) urine levels was made in 12 patients with verified surface cancer of the urinary bladder (SCUB) on adjuvant intravesical immunotherapy. Quantitative enzyme immunoassay identified IL-8 in the urine before intravesical injection of BCG vaccine and 6 hours later. A total of 192 urine samples were studied ("Multiskan-Jems", 405 nm). Adjuvant immunotherapy raises an L-8 level in the urine of the patients. After 8-week immunotherapy IL-8 elevated from 169.4 pg/ml to 326 pg/ml. Four patients with minimal difference in IL-8 urine levels (120 pg/ml, on the average) before and 6 hours after intravesical injection of BCG vaccine developed recurrence. Thus, quantitative assessment of IL-8 in urine of SCUB patients given intravesical BCG therapy can serve as one of prognostic criteria of adjuvant immunotherapy efficacy.

  13. Type IV Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Displacing the Urinary Bladder: Unique Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharzadeh, Sahar; Keihani, Sorena; Fareghi, Mehdi; Alamsahebpour, Alireza; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma is a rare pediatric tumor that is confined to the presacral area with no external component. The signs and symptoms often arise due to mass effect and compression of adjacent organs. Urinary retention is an uncommon presenting symptom in these patients. A wide spectrum of imaging findings may be encountered in cases with sacrococcygeal teratoma because of variability of tumor size and components. We hereby present a unique magnetic resonance urography finding in a type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma which caused bladder displacement. A meticulous and complete resection of tumor with special attention to the pelvic plexus led to preservation of normal voiding function and normal bowel function in this patient. PMID:27413571

  14. Influence of ovariohysterectomy and deslorelin acetate on the spontaneous activity of the rabbit urinary bladder in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bujok, Jolanta; Wincewicz, Edyta; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are not only a serious health problem but also a substantial sociologic issue affecting human beings and companion animals. Estrogen deficiency is considered an etiologic factor of urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women and spayed female dogs. However, insufficient effectiveness of hormonal therapy has caused an intensive search for new therapeutic options. GnRH analogs have positive clinical effects in neutered female dogs suffering from incontinence, but the mechanism of action is not known. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of long-acting deslorelin acetate on the spontaneous activity of urinary bladder sections from a rabbit model of long-term estrogen deprivation. The study was conducted on 21 female New Zealand White rabbits divided into the following groups: control group, ovariohysterectomized (OHX) group, and ovariohysterectomized group given a deslorelin acetate implant. Urinary bladders were excised immediately after sacrifice, and the spontaneous activity of dorsal and ventral strips of the bladder body was examined in organ bath chambers. The amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions were evaluated. Most of the sections developed spontaneous activity. Ovariohysterectomy caused a decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the tissues obtained only from the dorsal part of the bladder body. After OHX, the frequency was higher compared with the control group in both parts of the bladder. Deslorelin acetate did not significantly affect the spontaneous contraction amplitude but caused a decrease in the frequency in the dorsal and ventral parts of the bladder. In conclusion, long-term changes in the levels of hormones and other regulatory substances associated with the reproductive system are related to altered spontaneous activity of the urinary bladder, which may impact the symptoms of urgency and incontinence appearing in women after menopause and in female animals after

  15. Translating Health Care–Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention Research into Practice via the Bladder Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Sanjay; Olmsted, Russell N.; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Kowalski, Christine P.; Watson, Sam R.; Sales, Anne E.; Krein, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a frequent health care–associated infection (HAI), is a costly and common condition resulting in patient discomfort, activity restriction, and hospital discharge delays. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) no longer reimburses hospitals for the extra cost of caring for patients who develop CAUTI. The Michigan Health and Hospital Association (MHA) Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality has initiated a statewide initiative, MHA Keystone HAI, to help ameliorate the burden of disease associated with indwelling catheterization. In addition, a long-term research project is being conducted to evaluate the current initiative and to identify practical strategies to ensure the effective use of proven infection prevention and patient safety practices. Overview of the Bladder Bundle Initiative in Michigan: The bladder bundle as conceived by MHA Keystone HAI focuses on preventing CAUTI by optimizing the use of urinary catheters with a specific emphasis on continual assessment and catheter removal as soon as possible, especially for patients without a clear indication. Collaboration Between Researchers and State wide Patient Safety Organizations: A synergistic collaboration between patient safety researchers and a statewide patient safety organization is aimed at identifying effective strategies to move evidence from peer-reviewed literature to the bedside. Practical strategies that facilitate implementation of the bundle will be developed and tested using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Discussion: Simply disseminating scientific evidence is often ineffective in changing clinical practice. Therefore, learning how to implement these findings is critically important to promoting high-quality care and a safe health care environment. PMID:19769204

  16. Urothelial Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in Young Patients: A Clinicopathologic Study of 59 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Melissa L.; Xiao, Li; Czerniak, Bogdan A.; Guo, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Urothelial tumors are rare in young patients. Because of its rarity, the natural history of the disease in young patients remains poorly understood. Objective To understand the pathologic and clinical features of urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in young patients. Design We identified 59 young patients with urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder treated at our institution and analyzed the tumors’ pathologic features and the patients’ clinical outcomes. Results All patients were 30 years old or younger, with a mean age of 23.5 years (range, 4 to 30). Thirty-eight patients were male, and 21 were female. Most tumors were noninvasive papillary urothelial tumors (n = 49), including papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential (n = 7), low-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (n = 38), and high-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (n = 4). Only a minority of urothelial tumors were invasive, invading the lamina propria (n = 5), muscularis propria (n = 4), or perivesical soft tissue (n = 1). Clinical follow-up information was available for 41 patients, with a mean follow-up time of 77 months. Of 31 patients with noninvasive papillary urothelial tumors, only 1 patient later developed an invasive urothelial carcinoma and died of the disease, and 30 of these patients were alive at the end of follow-up, although 10 had local tumor recurrences. In the 10 patients with invasive urothelial carcinomas, 3 patients died of the disease and 5 others were alive with metastases. Conclusion Urothelial tumors in young patients are mostly noninvasive papillary carcinomas and have an excellent prognosis; however, a small subset of patients may present with high-grade invasive urothelial carcinomas that result in poor clinical outcomes. PMID:24079760

  17. The effect of cromakalim on the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, C. D.; Fujii, K.; Kingdon, J.; Brading, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    1. The actions of cromakalim were studied on the detrusor muscle from guinea-pig urinary bladder. Cromakalim reduced the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractile activity of the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig urinary bladder at 5 x 10(-8)M and abolished the activity at concentrations above 5 x 10(-7)M. 2. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that cromakalim increased membrane conductance, caused a dose-dependent hyperpolarization of the cell membrane and loss of spike activity. These events are consistent with the opening of K+ channels. 3. The effects of 10(-6)M and 10(-5)M cromakalim on the contractile responses to carbachol, potassium and transmural nerve stimulation were studied. Cromakalim did not prevent the detrusor from responding to these agents, although it significantly reduced the contractile response to K+ at concentrations below 70 mM. 4. Uptake and efflux experiments using 86Rb+ were unable to demonstrate any significant effect on transmembrane movement produced by cromakalim (10(-5)M). 5. 43K+ efflux showed a dose-dependent increase in the rate constant on addition of cromakalim. The difference in the selectivity for K+ over Rb+ was confirmed in dual label uptake experiments. 6. Substitution experiments in which the K+ ions in the tissue were gradually replaced by Rb+ demonstrated that cromakalim had a progressively decreasing effect on spontaneous activity as internal K+ was lowered. When all the K+ was replaced by Rb+, cromakalim no longer inhibited spontaneous activity, confirming that the channel opened by cromakalim appears relatively impermeant to Rb+. PMID:2720312

  18. A histochemical approach to glycan diversity in the urothelium of pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Mastrodonato, Maria; Mentino, Donatella; Lopedota, Angela; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Scillitani, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Intracellular glycans in the urothelium of urinary bladder of 10 adult male Landrace pigs were characterized in situ by immunohistochemical detection of Muc1 mucin by anti MUC1 from rabbit, conventional histochemical techniques (Periodic-Acid Schiff, Alcian Blue pH 2.5, High-Iron Diamine), and binding with 13 lectins (PNA, DBA, RCA-I, WGA, SBA, BSI-B4, ConA, AAA, UEA-I, LTA, LFA, MAA-II, SNA) combined with chemical and enzymatic pre-treatments (β-elimination, desulfation and neuraminidase) to gather reference data for this model animal. Muc1 mucin was detected in the secreting granules of superficial cells and the underlying layer of intermediate cells. The secreting granules in both intermediate cells and superficial cells were rich in carbohydrates, with the oligosaccharidic chains mostly O-linked to proteins. Glycoproteins were prevailing over glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In both superficial and intermediate cells sulfated and/or sialylated glycans were present, sulfation decreasing in the deeper layers. Lectin-binding detected presence of terminal sialic acid linked mostly in α2,6 to GalNAc, Gal terminal or subterminal to sulfates, GalNAc, GlcNAc, and Fuc, mostly linked in α1,6, α1,3 α1,4 and α1,2 to GlcNAc or Gal, but not to lactosamine chains. Except for fucosylation, the oligosaccharidic chains in the glycoproteins of the urothelium of pig urinary bladder were similar to those linked to human MUC1, which is fundamental in cell adhesion and immunological processes in the urothelium. The co-distribution of Muc1 and saccharidic residues suggests that many of them are linked to the glycoprotein.

  19. Apical membrane permeability and kinetic properties of the sodium pump in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S A; Wills, N K

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that aldosterone stimulates the rate of Na+ transport across the rabbit urinary bladder epithelium by increasing the apical membrane permeability to Na+. Paradoxically, ion-sensitive and conventional micro-electrode measurements demonstrated that intracellular Na+ activity aiNa+ was essentially unchanged by aldosterone, i.e. aiNa+ was constant regardless of the rate of Na+ transport. The present study was designed to resolve this apparent contradiction. The effects of elevated, endogenous aldosterone levels produced by low-Na+ diet (Lewis & Diamond, 1976) on urinary bladder Na+ transport were investigated in vitro using Ussing-type chambers and intracellular conventional and ion-sensitive microelectrodes. Apical membrane selectivity and kinetics of the Na+ pump were assessed as a function of hormone stimulation. The aldosterone-stimulated increase in Na+ transport was accounted for by increases in both the relative selective permeability of the apical membrane to Na+ and an increase in its absolute Na+ permeability. The kinetics of the Na+ pump were evaluated electrically by loading the cells with Na+ (monitored with Na+-sensitive micro-electrodes) or alternatively by manipulating serosal solution K+ concentration and measuring changes in the basolateral membrane electromotive forces and resistance. From these measurements the current generated by the pump was calculated as a function of intracellular Na+ or extracellular K+. The kinetics of the pump were not altered by aldosterone. A model of highly co-operative binding estimated Km for Na+ as 14.2 mM and 2.3 mM for K+. Hill coefficients for these ions were 2.8 and 1.8, respectively, consistent with a pump stoichiometry of 3 Na+ to 2 K+. The kinetic properties of the Na-K pump indicate that physiological levels of aiNa+ are poised at the foot of a step kinetic curve which energetically favours Na+ extrusion. PMID:6312027

  20. Metabolic Pathway Signatures Associated with Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers Differentiate Bladder Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Yan, Chunri; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Ye Hwan; Lee, Il-Seok; Kang, Ho-Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin. The objective of the current study was to determine which metabolic pathways are perturbed in BCA, based on our previously identified urinary metabolome. Materials and Methods A total of 135 primary BCA samples and 26 control tissue samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed. The association between specific urinary metabolites and their related encoding genes was analyzed. Results Significant alterations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways were detected in urine specimens from BCA patients compared to those of healthy controls. The expression of eight genes involved in the carnitine-acylcarnitine metabolic pathway (CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, SLC25A20, and CRAT) or tryptophan metabolism (TPH1 and IDO1) was assessed by RT-PCR in our BCA cohort (n=135). CPT1B, CPT1C, SLC25A20, CRAT, TPH1, and IOD1 were significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (p<0.05 all) of patients with non-muscle invasive BCA, whereas CPT1B, CPT1C, CRAT, and TPH1 were downregulated in those with muscle invasive BCA (p<0.05), with no changes in IDO1 expression. Conclusion Alterations in the expression of genes associated with the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways, which were the most perturbed pathways in BCA, were determined. PMID:27189278

  1. Intravesical gentamicin for recurrent urinary tract infection in patients with intermittent bladder catheterisation.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwkoop, C; den Exter, P L; Elzevier, H W; den Hartigh, J; van Dissel, J T

    2010-12-01

    Clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC) of the bladder is used to imitate normal bladder emptying in patients with bladder dysfunction. CIC is associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) that may be difficult to treat in the case of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to establish the effect and safety of intravesical gentamicin treatment in such settings. In 2009, intravesical gentamicin treatment was started in selected patients. Here we describe our experience with two patients treated until March 2010. Two patients using CIC suffering recurrent UTI with multiresistant Escherichia coli were treated with daily administration of 80 mg intravesical gentamicin. On treatment they appeared asymptomatic. During 8- and 9-month follow-up they were free of UTI, urine cultures were negative and there were no side effects. A systematic review was conducted through searches of PubMed and other databases. Clinical trials that met the eligibility criteria and displayed the efficacy or safety of intravesical aminoglycoside treatment in patients using CIC were studied. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers. Eight studies were included for review. Owing to study heterogeneity, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Of four controlled studies using neomycin or kanamycin, two demonstrated a significant reduction in bacteriuria, whilst two other trials did not. One case series on neomycin/polymyxin showed that the majority of patients still developed bacteriuria. Three case series using gentamicin all pointed towards a significant reduction in bacteriuria and UTIs. There were no clinically relevant side effects reported but follow-up in all studies was limited. Although data are limited, intravesical treatment with gentamicin might be a reasonable treatment option in selected patients practicing CIC who suffer recurrent UTIs with highly resistant microorganisms.

  2. Quantification of DNA in urinary porcine bladder matrix using the ACTB gene.

    PubMed

    Silva-Benítez, Erika; Soto-Sáinz, Eduardo; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury; Romero-Quintana, José Geovanni; Aguilar-Medina, Maribel; Ayala-Ham, Alfredo; Peña-Martínez, Eri; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío; Flores, Héctor

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a rich network of proteins and proteoglycans that has proved to be very useful in tissue regeneration. Porcine ECM has been proposed as a biological scaffold, and urinary bladder matrix (UBM) has demonstrated superior biological properties; however, its use in human treatment requires ensuring that it is DNA free. Several protocols have been used for decellularization and to demonstrate the absence of DNA, but until now, a porcine housekeeping gene for quantifying DNA by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been limiting. The aim of this study was to propose a protocol to quantify the DNA content of decellularized UBM by qPCR for the beta-actin gene (ACTB). A total of 20 porcine bladders were used, and each bladder was divided into three pieces: one as a control and the others decellularized with either SDS or Triton X-100 detergent. The presence of DNA was assessed by histology, spectrophotometry, conventional PCR, and qPCR for the ACTB. Histological analysis demonstrated the absence of nuclei using both protocols. Spectrophotometrical evaluation resulted in DNA concentrations of 1561.4 ± 357.1 and 1211.9 ± 635.2 ng of DNA/mg dry weight after the SDS and Triton X-100 protocols, respectively. DNA was not detected in any protocol by conventional PCR. In contrast, using qPCR, we found 3.9 ± 2.8 ng of DNA/mg dry weight in the Triton X-100 protocol. Therefore, the use of qPCR is a reliable method to quantify residual DNA content after decellularization procedures.

  3. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  4. Structural Requirements for the Action of Neurohypophyseal Hormones upon the Isolated Amphibian Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Howard; Schwartz, Irving L.; Young, Richard; Marc-Aurele, Julien

    1963-01-01

    The response of the isolated amphibian urinary bladder to thirty-four structural analogs of arginine vasotocin was determined in an effort to define the physiological significance of specific structural groups on the hormone molecule. All but one of the analogs tested possessed full intrinsic activity in this system but varied greatly in their affinity for the receptor site. An analysis of the effect of changes in hydrogen ion concentration upon the response of the bladder to oxytocin was performed in order to determine the number and nature of the ionizable groups involved in hormone receptor interaction. Two ionizable groups with apparent pK's of 7.1 and 7.75 were found to be important in determining the magnitude of the hormonal response. On the basis of the results it was postulated that hormone-receptor interaction can be considered a two-step process: (a) The binding or attachment of hormone to receptor site through ionic, hydrogen, and hydrophobic bonds and (b) a disulfide interchange reaction between hormonal disulfide and receptor sulfhydryl. The latter step is considered to be the reaction which initiates the chain of events leading to the observed change in permeability. PMID:14042998

  5. Malignant glandular lesions and glandular differentiation in invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Although the lumen of the urinary bladder is covered with only urothelial epithelium, malign glandular lesions (eg, nonurachal adenocarcinoma) and benign lesions (eg, cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis) can also rarely occur in this site due to its characteristic embryologic development. Glandular differentiation is uncommon in urothelial carcinomas and is even less common in noninvasive urothelial cancers. In addition, in situ urothelial carcinomas are more likely to progress in the presence of glandular differentiation toward high-grade urothelial carcinomas and/or aggressive urothelial carcinomas. Pure nonurachal adenocarcinomas and mixed carcinomas (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) are very rare, and their pathogenesis is not clear. Most of the nonurachal adenocarcinomas are thought to arise on the grounds of cystitis glandularus with intestinal metaplasia. Here, I present 2 cases with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with substantial glandular differentiation showing progression to signet ring cell carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma, one case with mixed carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and another case with pure adenocarcinoma developing from cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia, and discuss malign glandular lesions in the bladder and invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation.

  6. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF ABSORPTION OF TRACER MATERIALS BY TOAD URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Kwon

    1965-01-01

    The absorption of Thorotrast and saccharated iron oxide by the epithelium of the toad urinary bladder was studied by electron microscopy. Whether the toads were hydrated, dehydrated, or given Pitressin, no significant differences in transport of colloidal particles by epithelial cells were observed. This implies that these physiological factors had little effect on the transport of the tracer particles. Tracer particles were encountered in three types of epithelial cells which line the bladder lumen, but most frequently in the mitochondria-rich cells. Tracer materials were incorporated into the cytoplasm of epithelial cells after being adsorbed to the coating layer covering the luminal surface of the cells. In the intermediate stage (1 to 3 hours after introducing tracer) particles were present in small vesicles, tubules, and multivesicular bodies. In the later stages (up to 65 hours), the particles were more commonly seen to be densely packed within large membrane-bounded bodies which were often found near the Golgi region. These large bodies probably were formed by the fusion of small vesicles. Irrespective of the stages of absorption, no particles were found in the intercellular spaces or in the submucosa. Particles apparently did not penetrate the intercellular spaces of the epithelium beyond the level of the tight junction. PMID:14287173

  7. Urinary bladder paragangliomas: How Immunohistochemistry can assist to identify patients with SDHB germ line and somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Giubellino, Alessio; Lara, Karlena; Martucci, Victoria; Huynh, T; Agarwal, Piyush; Pacak, Karel; Merino, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder paraganglioma (paraganglioma) is a rare tumor of chromaffin cells of the sympathetic system of the urinary bladder wall. We studied 14 cases of this entity and investigated the usefulness of SDHB protein staining by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a diagnostic tool to identify patients with bladder paragangliomas that could be associated with SDHB gene mutations, since these patient have a more aggressive disease. Eleven tumors from these patients were stained by IHC. Six out of 11 tumors were negative for SDHB staining by IHC with no cytoplasmic staining in tumor cells when compared with normal tissues. Five out of these 6 negative cases were confirmed to be positive for germline SDHB mutations. One case showed negative staining and no germline SDHB mutation, however, further investigation of the tumor revealed a somatic SDHB gene deletion. The remaining 5 cases showed strong cytoplasmic staining but they were negative for the presence of SDHB mutation. They were found to be either sporadic tumors or part of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Staining for SDH-A was positive in all cases. Our study confirms that there is very good correlation between the presence of an SDHB mutation, whether germline or sporadic, and negative SDHB IHC staining in urinary bladder paragangliomas, and represents the first study to demonstrate that somatic mutations can be recognized by IHC staining. PMID:26457353

  8. Experimental supratrigonal cystectomy: II--Evaluation of urinary calculi, infection, and bladder dysfunction in the pathogenesis of renal failure.

    PubMed

    Barros, Milton; Martinelli, Reinaldo; Rocha, Heonir

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of urolithiasis, infection, and bladder dysfunction in the pathogenesis of renal failure in rats subjected to supratrigonal cystectomy. One group of Sprague-Dawley rats was submitted to supratrigonal cystectomy, a second to cystectomy during which a suspension of Proteus mirabilis was injected into the bladder stump, and a third to sham surgery (controls). The animals were sacrificed two months after surgery. Blood pressure and serum urea and creatinine were measured before surgery and at sacrifice when a careful inspection of the urinary tract was performed to determine the presence of hydronephrosis and calculi. Microbiological analyses were performed on urine aspirated from the bladder and on the kidneys. Significant differences were found between values of systolic blood pressure and serum urea and creatinine recorded prior to the surgical procedure and those recorded at sacrifice in each group except the control group. Renal failure was present in all animals subjected to cystectomy. Urinary calculi were documented in 5/10 animals subjected to cystectomy only and in all rats inoculated with P. mirabilis. Hypertension was documented in 43.75% of animals subjected to cystectomy. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed only in animals with urinary calculi, in each of which urine culture was also positive. No cases of renal failure, hypertension, calculi, and/or pyelonephritis were detected in the sham group. The findings of this study indicate that kidney failure in rats subjected to supratrigonal cystectomy is related to the severe bladder dysfunction induced by the surgical procedure.

  9. Initial presentation in psychiatry emergency room led to diagnosis of many urinary bladder stones in a male patient.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Nagaraja, Aarathi; Mahmood, Aza K

    2013-01-01

    The first case of man who presented to psychiatry emergency room for evaluation of abnormal behavior because of urinary stones was reported. Careful evaluation of patient led to a diagnosis of 37 urinary bladder stones in an Egyptian man with obstructive uropathy and metabolic defects in the form of hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of metabolic defects can lead to successful outcome in preventing reformation of urinary tract stones after surgery. A 61-year-old Egyptian man presented to psychiatry emergency room because he was found lying on floor in bathroom to urinate by his wife who thought her husband needed psychiatric evaluation. Patient gave history of frequent urination and dysuria on and off for 3 years. In the last 3 months before his presentation to emergency room, he got into a habit of lying down on his left side when he went to bathroom to urinate because it was easier for him to pass urine. Renal consultation requested because of presence of red blood cells in urinalysis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed bilateral hydronephrosis and multiple bladder stones. Twenty-four-hour urine collection showed low urinary citrate and high oxalate. Patient underwent open vesicolithotomy and removal of 36 stones. Stone analysis showed 75% uric acid and 25% calcium oxalate. Patient did very well after surgery, and 1 month later, he underwent transuretheral resection of prostate without any complications. Now patient has no difficulty passing urine and he has no recent attack of urinary tract infection. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of metabolic defects in men with urinary bladder stones would hopefully provide clinicians with the proper diagnostic tools to more specifically treat such patients with improved success in preventing reformation of urinary tract stones after surgery.

  10. Urodynamic assessment of bladder and urethral function among men with lower urinary tract symptoms after radical prostatectomy: A comparison between men with and without urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansol; Kim, Ki Bom; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Oh, Seung-June

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared bladder and urethral functions following radical prostatectomy (RP) between men with and without urinary incontinence (UI), using a large-scale database from SNU-experts-of-urodynamics-leading (SEOUL) Study Group. Materials and Methods Since July 2004, we have prospectively collected data on urodynamics from 303 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following RP at three affiliated hospitals of SEOUL Study Group. After excluding 35 patients with neurogenic abnormality, pelvic irradiation after surgery, or a history of surgery on the lower urinary tract, 268 men were evaluated. We compared the urodynamic findings between men who had LUTS with UI (postprostatectomy incontinence [PPI] group) and those who had LUTS without UI (non-PPI group). Results The mean age at an urodynamic study was 68.2 years. Overall, a reduced bladder compliance (≤20 mL/cmH2O) was shown in 27.2% of patients; and 31.3% patients had idiopathic detrusor overactivity. The patients in the PPI group were older (p=0.001) at an urodynamic study and had a lower maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (p<0.001), as compared with those in the non-PPI group. Bladder capacity and detrusor pressure during voiding were also significantly lower in the PPI group. In the logistic regression, only MUCP and maximum cystometric capacity were identified as the related factor with the presence of PPI. Conclusions In our study, significant number of patients with LUTS following RP showed a reduced bladder compliance and detrusor overactivity. PPI is associated with both impairment of the urethral closuring mechanism and bladder storage dysfunction. PMID:26682020

  11. β-Adrenoceptor-mediated Relaxation of Urinary Bladder Muscle in β2-Adrenoceptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Propping, Stefan; Lorenz, Kristina; Michel, Martin C.; Wirth, Manfred P.; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In order to characterize the β-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes involved in agonist-stimulated relaxation of murine urinary bladder we studied the effects of (-)-isoprenaline and CL 316,243 on tonic contraction and spontaneous contractions in detrusor strips of wild-type (WT) and β2-AR knockout (β2-AR KO) mice. Materials and Methods: Urinary bladders were isolated from male WT and β2-AR KO mice. β-AR subtype expression was determined with quantitative real-time PCR. Intact muscle strips pre-contracted with KCl (40 mM) were exposed to cumulatively increasing concentrations of (-)-isoprenaline or β3-AR agonist CL 316,243 in the presence and absence of the subtype-selective β-AR blockers CGP 20712A (β1-ARs), ICI 118,551 (β2-ARs), and L748,337 (β3-ARs). Results: Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed lack of β2-AR expression in bladder tissue from β2-AR KO mice. In isolated detrusor strips, pre-contraction with KCl increased basal tone and enhanced spontaneous activity significantly more in β2-AR KO than in WT. (-)-Isoprenaline relaxed tonic tension and attenuated spontaneous activity with similar potency, but the concentrations required were two orders of magnitude higher in β2-AR KO than WT. The concentration-response curves (CRCs) for relaxation were not affected by CGP 20712A (300 nM), but were shifted to the right by ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and L748,337 (10 μM). The -logEC50 values for (-)-isoprenaline in WT and β2-AR KO tissue were 7.98 and 6.00, respectively, suggesting a large receptor reserve of β2-AR. (-)-CL 316,243 relaxed detrusor and attenuated spontaneous contractions from WT and β2-AR KO mice with a potency corresponding to the drug’s affinity for β3-AR. L743,337 shifted the CRCs to the right. Conclusion: Our findings in β2-AR KO mice suggest that there is a large receptor reserve for β2-AR in WT mice so that this β-AR subtype will mediate relaxation of tone and attenuation of spontaneous activity under physiological

  12. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Children With Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Keren, Ron; Gotman, Nathan; Docimo, Steven G.; Mathews, Ranjiv; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Ivanova, Anastasia; Mattoo, Tej K.; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Carpenter, Myra A.; Pohl, Hans G.; Greenfield, Saul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little generalizable information is available on the outcomes of children diagnosed with bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) after a urinary tract infection (UTI). Our objectives were to describe the clinical characteristics of children with BBD and to examine the effects of BBD on patient outcomes in children with and without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). METHODS: We combined data from 2 longitudinal studies (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) in which children <6 years of age with a first or second UTI were followed for 2 years. We compared outcomes for children with and without BBD, children with and without VUR, and children with VUR randomly assigned to prophylaxis or placebo. The outcomes examined were incidence of recurrent UTIs, renal scarring, surgical intervention, resolution of VUR, and treatment failure. RESULTS: BBD was present at baseline in 54% of the 181 toilet-trained children included; 94% of children with BBD reported daytime wetting, withholding maneuvers, or constipation. In children not on antimicrobial prophylaxis, 51% of those with both BBD and VUR experienced recurrent UTIs, compared with 20% of those with VUR alone, 35% with BBD alone, and 32% with neither BBD nor VUR. BBD was not associated with any of the other outcomes investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Among toilet-trained children, those with both BBD and VUR are at higher risk of developing recurrent UTIs than children with isolated VUR or children with isolated BBD and, accordingly, exhibit the greatest benefit from antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26647376

  13. Urinary cell microRNA-based prognostic classifier for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ingelmo-Torres, Mercedes; Lozano, Juan José; Izquierdo, Laura; Carrion, Albert; Costa, Meritxell; Gómez, Lidia; Ribal, María José; Alcaraz, Antonio; Mengual, Lourdes

    2017-02-14

    Current prognostic tools for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) do not have enough discriminative capacity to predict the risk of tumour progression. This study aimed to identify urinary cell microRNAs that may be useful as non-invasive predictive biomarkers of tumour progression in NMIBC patients. To this end, 210 urine samples from NMIBC patients were included in the study. RNA was extracted from urinary cells and expression of 8 microRNAs, previously described by our group, was analysed by quantitative PCR. A tumour progression predicting model was developed by Cox regression analysis and validated by bootstrapping. Regression analysis identified miR-140-5p and miR-92a-3p as independent predictors of tumour progression. The risk score derived from the model containing these two microRNAs was able to discriminate between two groups with a highly significant different probability of tumour progression (HR, 5.204; p<0.001) which was maintained when patients were stratified according to tumour risk. The algorithm was also able to identify two groups with different cancer-specific survival (HR, 3.879; p=0.021). Although the data needs to be externally validated, miRNA analysis in urine appears to be a valuable prognostic tool in NMIBC patients.

  14. Dysuria and fever in a young woman diagnosed as having inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Patne, Shashikant Chandrakant Urmila; Katiyar, Richa; Chaudhary, Deepshikha; Trivedi, Sameer

    2016-02-15

    A 38-year-old woman presented with dysuria and fever. Her medical and family histories were unremarkable. CT scan of the abdomen revealed a polypoid mass of 4×2.6×2.2 cm. Her cystoscopy showed a 4×2 cm solid broad-based growth at trigone of the urinary bladder. She underwent transurethral resection of the urinary bladder tumour (TURBT). Histopathology revealed a poorly circumscribed proliferation of spindle cells arranged in a haphazard and fascicular manner along with many traversing blood vessels in a myxoid and hyalinised stroma. Immunohistochemistry was positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1, smooth muscle actin, CD10, cytokeratin and desmin; and negative for CD34 and S-100 protein. Ki-67 proliferative index in the tumour was <1%. The patient was diagnosed as having inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the urinary bladder. After TURBT, her fever and urinary symptoms resolved. Her 1-month postoperative period was uneventful. She has been advised regular follow-up.

  15. Symplastic glomus tumor of the urinary bladder treated by robot-assisted partial cystectomy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Franco; Gadda, Franco; Spinelli, Matteo G; Maggioni, Marco; Rocco, Bernardo; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-01-16

    Glomus tumors arising in the urinary bladder are extremely rare, and only two cases have been reported in the English Literature. We present a case of a 58-year-old man with an asymptomatic mass of the anterior wall of the bladder that measured 2.5 × 2.5 cm. Endoscopic excision was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed as symplastic glomus tumor. The patient finally underwent robotic-assisted partial cystectomy, and he remains healthy without any recurrence to date.After reviewing this case and previous reports, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features and treatment options for this rare neoplasm.

  16. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Magdalena Maria; Wieczorek, Andrzej Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the principles of performing proper ultrasound examinations of the urinary tract. The following are discussed: preparation of patients, type of optimal apparatus, technique of examination and conditions which its description should fulfill. Urinary track examination in adults and in children constitutes an integral part of each abdominal examination. Such examinations should be performed with fasting patients or several hours after the last meal, with filled urinary bladder. Apparatus Ultrasound examinations in children and infants are performed using transducers with the frequency of 5.0–9.0 MHz and in adults – with the frequency of 2.0–6.0 MHz. Doppler options are desirable since they improve diagnostic capacity of sonography in terms of differentiation between renal focal lesions. Scanning technique Renal examinations are performed with the patients in the supine position. The right kidney is examined in the right hypochondriac region using the liver as the ultrasound “window.” The left kidney is examined in the left hypochondriac region, preferably in the posterior axillary line. Ultrasound examinations of the upper segment of the ureters are performed after renal examination when the pelvicalyceal system is dilated. A condition necessary for a proper examination of the perivesical portion of the ureter is full urinary bladder. The scans of the urinary bladder are performed in transverse, longitudinal and oblique planes when the bladder is filled. Description of the examination The description should include patient's personal details, details of the referring unit, of the unit in which the examination is performed, examining physician's details, type of ultrasound apparatus and transducers as well as the description proper. PMID:26673083

  17. [Mid-stream versus bladder puncture urine in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in pregnant patients].

    PubMed

    Retzke, U; Waitz, I; Loth, M; Liebetrau, B

    1988-01-01

    150 healthy women being pregnant in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester were examined. From the same content of urinary bladder suprapubic puncture urine (BPU) and mid-stream urine (MSU) were collected. The results concerning microbiological and microscopical analysis of urine proofs were compared. For qualitative and quantitative germ analysis MSU is sufficiently clean enough. In 95.3 there is a good correspondence of the microbiological results of both proofs. Exceptionally in 4.7% the MSU-results were not confirmed by BPU. With respect to the findings in sediment there is no good correspondence of the results. In case of sterile bladder content the BPU sediment - findings are significantly more frequent normal and significantly more seldom abnormal than in MSU. The sediment findings in MSU are more frequent false positive than in BPU. In case of an infected bladder content there are no significant differences in the sediment findings of both techniques in taking urine proofs. The rate of normal sediment findings in case of an infected bladder content is unrealistic high: In MSU in 11% and in BPU in 26%. For microbiologic germ diagnosis MSU and BPU proofs are equivalent. But, for detection or for exclusion of urinary tract infections the sediment finding is poorly pathognomonic for a urinary tract infection. A normal sediment finding does not exclude the existance of an urinary tract infection. Therefore, in the system of prenatal care we should waive of the sediment finding as a guide for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections.

  18. Cotransplantation with specific populations of spina bifida bone marrow stem/progenitor cells enhances urinary bladder regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun K; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Marks, Andrew J; Kollhoff, David M; Rao, Manoj V; Hota, Partha V; Matoka, Derek J; Edassery, Seby L; Thaker, Hatim; Sarwark, John F; Janicki, Joseph A; Ameer, Guillermo A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2013-03-05

    Spina bifida (SB) patients afflicted with myelomeningocele typically possess a neurogenic urinary bladder and exhibit varying degrees of bladder dysfunction. Although surgical intervention in the form of enterocystoplasty is the current standard of care in which to remedy the neurogenic bladder, it is still a stop-gap measure and is associated with many complications due to the use of bowel as a source of replacement tissue. Contemporary bladder tissue engineering strategies lack the ability to reform bladder smooth muscle, vasculature, and promote peripheral nerve tissue growth when using autologous populations of cells. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the role of two specific populations of bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells used in combination with a synthetic elastomeric scaffold that provides a unique and alternative means to current bladder regeneration approaches. In vitro differentiation, gene expression, and proliferation are similar among donor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas poly(1,8-octanediol-cocitrate) scaffolds seeded with SB BM MSCs perform analogously to control counterparts with regard to bladder smooth muscle wall formation in vivo. SB CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells cotransplanted with donor-matched MSCs cause a dramatic increase in tissue vascularization as well as an induction of peripheral nerve growth in grafted areas compared with samples not seeded with hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Finally, MSC/CD34(+) grafts provided the impetus for rapid urothelium regeneration. Data suggest that autologous BM stem/progenitor cells may be used as alternate, nonpathogenic cell sources for SB patient-specific bladder tissue regeneration in lieu of current enterocystoplasty procedures and have implications for other bladder regenerative therapies.

  19. Wild cane toads (Rhinella marina) expel foreign matter from the coelom via the urinary bladder in response to internal injury, endoparasites and disease.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I; Wood, Benjamin A; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder's organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages) were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects.

  20. Wild Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) Expel Foreign Matter from the Coelom via the Urinary Bladder in Response to Internal Injury, Endoparasites and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder’s organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages) were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects. PMID:26267862

  1. Pharmacological characterization of β-adrenoceptors mediating relaxation of the rat urinary bladder in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Penelope A; Levendusky, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Isoproterenol relaxed KCl-precontracted rat bladder strips with a pD2 of 7.21 leaving a residual contractile response of 3.2% after 30 μM. The selective β1-agonist, T-0509 (pD2 : 6.24, 10.1% residual contraction after 100 μM), β2-agonist, terbutaline (pD2 : 5.43, 13.7% residual contraction after 100 μM), and β3-agonists, BRL 37344A (pD2 : 6.60, 17.3% residual contraction after 100 μM), and SR 58611A (pD2 : 5.15, 34.0% residual contraction after 100 μM), also relaxed bladder strips.The relaxant response to isoproterenol was weakly but significantly antagonized by 1 μM propranolol which produced a 3 fold shift of the concentration-response curve to the right, and significantly antagonized by the β1-selective antagonist, metoprolol (10 μM, 3 fold shift), and the β2-selective antagonist, butoxamine (100 μM, 6 fold shift). A combination of 10 μM metoprolol and 100 μM butoxamine caused a 15 fold shift of the concentration-response curve for isoproterenol to the right. Incubation with the β3-antagonist, SR 59230A (1 μM), caused a 6 fold shift of the concentration response curve for isoproterenol to the right.The non-conventional partial agonist, CGP 12177A, weakly relaxed KCl-precontracted bladder strips (pD2 : 3.31, 51.3% residual contraction after 300 μM); the relaxation was resistant to blockade by 1 or 10 μM propranolol.In the presence of 200 μM propranolol, CGP 12177A (20 μM) or SR 59230A (10 μM) antagonized surmountably the relaxant effects of BRL 37344A.The data suggest that rat urinary bladder body contains β1, β2, and β3-adrenoceptors, all of which mediate relaxation. PMID:10455334

  2. Multiple mechanisms in the motor responses of the guinea-pig isolated urinary bladder to bradykinin.

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, C. A.; Patacchini, R.; Santicioli, P.; Geppetti, P.; Cecconi, R.; Giuliani, S.; Meli, A.

    1989-01-01

    1. Bradykinin (1 nm-1 microM) produced a contraction of bladder strips excised from the dome of the guinea-pig urinary bladder, an effect which was greatly enhanced by removal of the mucosal layer or by thiorphan (10 microM). All subsequent experiments were performed in mucosa-free strips and in the presence of thiorphan. 2. In carbachol (5 microM)-contracted strips, bradykinin produced a concentration (1 nm-1 microM)-dependent transient relaxation. 3. Kallidin was slightly more potent than bradykinin in producing a contraction and a relaxation of the carbachol-induced tone. By contrast, [des-Arg9]-bradykinin, a selective B1 receptor agonist was barely effective up to 1 microM. 4. The contractile response to bradykinin was: (a) unaffected by either tetrodotoxin (1 microM), in vitro capsaicin desensitization (10 microM for 30 min) or apamin (0.1 microM); (b) antagonized by indomethacin (5 microM), the prostaglandin receptor antagonist SC-19220 (100 microM) or the B2 receptor antagonist [D-Arg0, Hyp3, Thi5,8, Phe7]-bradykinin (10 micron) and (c) almost abolished by nifedipine (1 microM). 5. The antagonism of the contractile response to bradykinin produced by indomethacin and SC-19220 was non-additive while that produced by indomethacin and the B2 receptor antagonist was additive. 6. The relaxant response to bradykinin was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, in vitro capsaicin desensitization or indomethacin but antagonized in a competitive manner by the B2 receptor antagonist. Further, this response was abolished by apamin (0.1 microM) but unaffected by glibenclamide (1 microM). 7. Bradykinin (10 microM) produced a consistent release of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI) but not substance P-LI from the guinea-pig bladder muscle. CGRP-LI release by bradykinin was greatly reduced in bladders exposed to indomethacin. [des-Arg9]-bradykinin (10 microM) was ineffective. 8. We conclude that: (a) bradykinin-induced contraction involves activation of both

  3. THE URINARY BLADDER EXHIBITS A U-SHAPED GENOMIC DOSE-RESPONSE FOLLOWING SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURE OF MICE TO ARSENATE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies have demonstrated increased urinary bladder tumor incidence in populations exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water at concentrations on the order of several hundred micrograms per liter, but experimental animal studies at much higher concentrations have...

  4. Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented. PMID:22400020

  5. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology of urinary bladder but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy; Wolf, Douglas C; Sen, Banalata; Knapp, Geremy W; Holladay, Steven D; Huckle, William R; Caceci, Thomas; Robertson, John L

    2009-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In F344 rats, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA[V]) increases transitional cell carcinoma. Arsenic-induced inhibition of DNA repair has been reported in cultured cell lines and in lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed humans, but it has not been studied in urinary bladder. Should inhibition of DNA damage repair in transitional epithelium occur, it may contribute to carcinogenesis or cocarcinogenesis. We investigated morphology and expression of DNA repair genes in F344 rat transitional cells following up to 100 ppm DMA(V) in drinking water for four weeks. Mitochondria were very sensitive to DMA(V), and swollen mitochondria appeared to be the main source of vacuoles in the transitional epithelium. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time RT PCR) showed the mRNA levels of tested DNA repair genes, ataxia telangectasia mutant (ATM), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), excision repair cross-complementing group 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB), and DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta), were not altered by DMA(V). These data suggested that either DMA(V) does not affect DNA repair in the bladder or DMA(V) affects DNA repair without affecting baseline mRNA levels of repair genes. The possibility remains that DMA(V) may lower damage-induced increases in repair gene expression or cause post-translational modification of repair enzymes.

  6. AB283. SPR-10 Down-regulation of ryanodine receptor gene expression in murine urinary bladder smooth muscle following partial bladder outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Javed, Elham; Addya, Shankar; Fortina, Paolo; Zderic, Stephen; Wein, Alan; Chacko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) displays spontaneous action potentials and this potential is related to the phasic nature of spontaneous contractions in this tissue. The amplitude of a phasic contraction depends on the increase in Ca2+ entry caused by membrane depolarization. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in UBSM decreases the force production by decreasing the frequency of phasic contractions through interactions with large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Microarray and network analysis were employed to determine the changes in mRNA in 14-day obstructed murine bladders. We found that obstruction significantly down-regulated the RyRs in bladder smooth muscle (BSM). Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were surgically obstructed and kept for 14 days. Sham-operated mice served as a control. Bladders were excised; urothelium scraped off with a scalpel, and the serosa was removed. BSM obtained from PBOO and sham control animals were used for microarray and western blotting Results Pathway-based analysis of these gene signatures showed significant number of under-expressed genes in obstructed bladder and they were mapped to proteins involved in calcium signaling. We focused our work on RyR protein expression in BSM. There was a four-fold reduction of RyR3 in BSM in 14-day obstructed groups as shown by microarray and immunoblotting compared to that of sham-operated animals. Conclusions These results confirm that the RyR gene expression is down-regulated in obstructed murine bladder smooth muscle. Funding Source(s) None

  7. No Promoting Effect of Ethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (ETBE) on Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis Initiated with N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses.

  8. A Rare Case of an Adult with Untreated Bladder Exstrophy Presenting with Signet-Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikash; Kasat, Gaurav; Sawant, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Untreated bladder exstrophy in an adult is rare, as the defect is obvious and primary reconstruction is usually done in infancy. There are less than 90 reported cases of primary adenocarcinoma in an untreated bladder exstrophy in literature and only two such case reports from India. Of these, only one case was of signet-ring cell type of mucinous adenocarcinoma. Here we report the second case of signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma in a 63 year old male with untreated bladder exstrophy (oldest patient in literature), to highlight the extreme rarity, yet distinct possibility and challenges faced in surgical management of such cases. PMID:28050437

  9. A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Urinary Protein Biomarkers in Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Costa, Jamie J.; Goldsmith, James C.; Wilson, Jayne S.; Bryan, Richard T.; Ward, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    For over 80 years, cystoscopy has remained the gold-standard for detecting tumours of the urinary bladder. Since bladder tumours have a tendency to recur and progress, many patients are subjected to repeated cystoscopies during long-term surveillance, with the procedure being both unpleasant for the patient and expensive for healthcare providers. The identification and validation of bladder tumour specific molecular markers in urine could enable tumour detection and reduce reliance on cystoscopy, and numerous classes of biomarkers have been studied. Proteins represent the most intensively studied class of biomolecule in this setting. As an aid to researchers searching for better urinary biomarkers, we report a comprehensive systematic review of the literature and a searchable database of proteins that have been investigated to date. Our objective was to classify these proteins as: 1) those with robustly characterised sensitivity and specificity for bladder cancer detection; 2) those that show potential but further investigation is required; 3) those unlikely to warrant further investigation; and 4) those investigated as prognostic markers. This work should help to prioritise certain biomarkers for rigorous validation, whilst preventing wasted effort on proteins that have shown no association whatsoever with the disease, or only modest biomarker performance despite large-scale efforts at validation. PMID:27500198

  10. The fine structure of the human fetal urinary bladder. Development and maturation. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J; Antonakopoulos, G N

    1989-01-01

    The urinary bladders of 27 human fetuses, aged 7 weeks to full term, were studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy to establish the sequence of events in the development and maturation of the organ during fetal life. In the early specimens, 7-12 weeks old, the urinary bladder was lined by a bilayered, cuboidal and glycogen-rich epithelium. During the 13-17th weeks the epithelium thickened, a third layer developed and by light microscopy it now resembled urothelium. By 21 weeks this had evolved into a 3-4 layer thick epithelium with typical ultrastructural urothelial characteristics. Smooth muscle cells emerged from the condensed mesenchyme of the bladder wall by the 12th week of gestation, initially in the cephalic part of the organ but spreading within a week into the caudal end. Our findings indicate that the human fetal bladder undergoes a series of vital developmental changes during 13-21 weeks of gestation finally acquiring the typical urothelial lining and a well-developed muscular coat. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:2621133

  11. Effects of hypoxia and glucose-removal condition on muscle contraction of the smooth muscles of porcine urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yuta; Kaneda, Takeharu; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki; Nuruki, Takaomi; Kanda, Hidenori; Urakawa, Norimoto; Shimizu, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the dependence of aerobic energy metabolism and utilization of glucose in contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle, we investigated the changes in the reduced pyridine nucleotide (PNred) fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity, and determined the phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP contents of the porcine urinary bladder during contractions induced by high K(+) or carbachol (CCh) and with and without hypoxia (achieved by bubbling N2 instead of O2) or in a glucose-free condition. Hyperosmotic addition of 65 mM KCl (H-65K(+)) and 1 µM CCh induced a phasic contraction followed by a tonic contraction. A glucose-free physiological salt solution (PSS) did not change the subsequent contractile responses to H-65K(+) and CCh. However, hypoxia significantly attenuated H-65K(+)- and CCh-induced contraction. H-65K(+) and CCh induced a sustained increase in PNred fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity. Hypoxia enhanced H-65K(+)- and CCh-induced increases in PNred fluorescence, whereas glucose-free PSS decreased these increases, significantly. In the presence of H-65K(+), hypoxia decreased the PCr and ATP contents; however, the glucose-free PSS did not change the PCr contents. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high K(+)- and CCh-induced contractions depend on aerobic metabolism and that an endogenous substrate may be utilized to maintain muscle contraction in a glucose-free PSS in the porcine urinary bladder.

  12. Lipocalin 2 imparts selective pressure on bacterial growth in the bladder and is elevated in women with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Steigedal, Magnus; Marstad, Anne; Haug, Markus; Damås, Jan K; Strong, Roland K; Roberts, Pacita L; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Stapleton, Ann; Hooton, Thomas M; Mobley, Harry L T; Hawn, Thomas R; Flo, Trude H

    2014-12-15

    Competition for iron is a critical component of successful bacterial infections, but the underlying in vivo mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is an innate immunity protein that binds to bacterial siderophores and starves them for iron, thus representing a novel host defense mechanism to infection. In the present study we show that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa and protects against urinary tract infection (UTI). We found that LCN2 was expressed in the bladder, ureters, and kidneys of mice subject to UTI. LCN2 was protective with higher bacterial numbers retrieved from bladders of Lcn2-deficient mice than from wild-type mice infected with the LCN2-sensitive Escherichia coli strain H9049. Uropathogenic E. coli mutants in siderophore receptors for salmochelin, aerobactin, or yersiniabactin displayed reduced fitness in wild-type mice, but not in mice deficient of LCN2, demonstrating that LCN2 imparts a selective pressure on bacterial growth in the bladder. In a human cohort of women with recurrent E. coli UTIs, urine LCN2 levels were associated with UTI episodes and with levels of bacteriuria. The number of siderophore systems was associated with increasing bacteriuria during cystitis. Our data demonstrate that LCN2 is secreted by the urinary tract mucosa in response to uropathogenic E. coli challenge and acts in innate immune defenses as a colonization barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection.

  13. The Ewing’s Sarcoma Family of Tumors of Urinary Bladder: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tonyalı, Şenol; Yazıcı, Sertaç; Yeşilırmak, Aysun; Ergen, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Only 15 cases of Ewing’s Sarcoma (EWS) family of tumors of urinary bladder have been documented in the literature to date. Case Report: We presented here a 38 year-old female with primary urinary bladder EWS with no distant metastases. She had presented with macroscopic hematuria and had undergone transurethral resection of the tumor within the following week. Microscopic examination revealed a tumor diffusely infiltrating the lamina propria and muscularis propria under an intact urothelium, which was composed of small round blue cells with scant cytoplasm, monotonous round or oval nuclei, stippled chromatin and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry showed strong vimentin, synaptophysin and membranous CD99 expression by the tumor. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis displayed the EWSR1 rearrangement. Radical cystectomy with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, extended lymph node dissection, and ileal conduit were performed. As adjuvant chemotherapy, she received vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and mesna, alternating with courses of etoposide, iphosphamide and mesna. She is alive and well with no evidence of disease 14 months after the surgery. Conclusion: Surgery supported with chemotherapy should be considered as an option, especially in advanced Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors of urinary bladder. PMID:27606145

  14. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Beta: A Novel Urinary Biomarker for Recurrence of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yajun; Wang, Ying; Simpson, Richard J.; Zhang, Xiaorong; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun; Huang, Chibing

    2014-01-01

    Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the urological system with a high risk of recurrence, and effective non-invasive biomarkers for NMIBC relapse are still needed. The human urinary proteome can reflect the status of the microenvironment of the urinary system and is an ideal source for clinical diagnosis of urinary system diseases. Our previous work used proteomics to identify 1643 high-confidence urinary proteins in the urine from a healthy population. Here, we used bioinformatics to construct a cancer-associated protein-protein interaction (PPI) network comprising 16 high-abundance urinary proteins based on the urinary proteome database. As a result, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) was selected for further validation as a candidate biomarker for NMIBC diagnosis and prognosis. Although the levels of urinary PDGFRB showed no significant difference between patients pre- and post-surgery (n = 185, P>0.05), over 3 years of follow-up, urinary PDGFRB was shown to be significantly higher in relapsed patients (n = 68) than in relapse-free patients (n = 117, P<0.001). The levels of urinary PDGFRB were significantly correlated with the risk of 3-year recurrence of NMIBC, and these levels improved the accuracy of a NMIBC recurrence risk prediction model that included age, tumor size, and tumor number (area under the curve, 0.862; 95% CI, 0.809 to 0.914) compared to PDGFR alone. Therefore, we surmise that urinary PDGFRB could serve as a non-invasive biomarker for predicting NMIBC recurrence. PMID:24801713

  15. Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Could Be a Biomarker for Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Shi; Liu, Yi-Li; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) could serve as a biomarker for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 9 studies. Among the studies considered, patients with IC/PBS had higher urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels compared to those of healthy people (SMD = 1.94, 95%CI = 0.79–3.08, P = 0.0009 and SMD = 1.79, 95%CI = 0.65–2.93, P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, there was a significant difference between patients with IC/PBS and patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms with respect to the urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels (SMD = −0.62, 95%CI = −1.00–−0.24, P = 0.001 and SMD = −0.70, 95%CI = −1.01–−0.39, P<0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, patients had a significantly lower urinary NGF level after successful treatment (SMD = 1.74, 95%CI = 0.32–3.17, P = 0.02). In conclusion, urinary NGF could be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of OAB, a urinary biomarker for the differential diagnosis of IC/PBS and OAB (when a critical urinary NGF or NGF/Cr level is needed), and a predictive biomarker to help guide treatment. PMID:25181532

  16. [Arginase activity in the frog urinary bladder epithelial cells and its involvement in regulation of nitric oxide production].

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, S D; Bakhtereva, V T; Fok, E M; Lavrova, E A; Parnova, R G

    2008-01-01

    The activity of arginase converting arginine into ornithine and urea is of particular interest among many factors regulating NO production in the cells. It is known that by competing with NO-synthase for common substrate, arginase can affect the NO synthesis. In the present work, the properties of arginase from the frog Rana temporaria L. urinary bladder epithelial cells possessing the NO-synthase activity were characterized, and possible contribution of arginase to regulation of NO production by epithelial cells was studied. It has been shown that the enzyme had the temperature optimum in the range of 55-60 degrees C, K(m) for arginine 23 mM, and V(max) about 10 nmol urea/mg protein/min, and its activity was effictively inhibited by (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC), an inhibitor of arginase, at concentrations from 10(-6) to 10(-4) M. The comparison of arginase activity in various frog tissues revealed the following pattern: liver > kidney > brain > urinary bladder (epithelium) > heart > testis. The arginase activity in the isolated urinary bladder epithelial cells was 3 times higher than that in the intact urinary bladder. To evaluate the role of arginase in the regulation of NO production, epithelial cells were cultivated in the media L-15 or 199 containing different amounts of arginine; the concentration of NO2-, the stable NO metabolite, was determined in the culture fluid after 18-20 h of cells incubation. The vast majority of the produced nitrites are associated with the NOS activity, as L-NAME, the NOS-inhibitor, decreased their accumulation by 77.1% in the L-15 medium and by 80% in 199 medium. BEC (10(-4) M) increased the nitrite production by 18.0 % +/- 2.7 in the L-15 medium and by 24.2 +/- 3.5 in the 199 medium (p < 0.05). The obtained data indicate a relatively high arginase activity in the frog urinary bladder epithelium and its involvement in regulation of NO production by epithelial cells.

  17. Clinical Experiences of Korean Medicine Treatment against Urinary Bladder Cancer in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Taeyeol; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common cancers, with 1 out of every 26 men and 1 out of every 80 women worldwide developing the disease during their lifetime. Moreover, it is a disease that predominantly affects the elderly and is becoming a major health problem as the elderly population continues to rapidly increase. In spite of the rapid development of medical science, the 5-year survival rate has remained around 75% since the 1990s, and the FDA has approved no new drugs for UBC over the last 10 years. In addition, most patients experience frequent recurrence and poor quality of life after diagnosis. Therefore, in order to solve unmet needs by alternative methods, we present our clinical cases of UBC where we observed outstanding results including regression and recurrence prevention exclusively through Traditional Korean Medicine such as (1) herbal therapy, (2) acupuncture, (3) pharmacopuncture and needle-embedding therapy, (4) moxibustion, and (5) cupping therapy. From our experience, it appears that multimodal strategies for synergistic efficiency are more effective than single Korean Medicine treatment. We hope this will encourage investigation of the efficacy of Korean Medicine treatment in clinical trials for UBC patients. PMID:27190532

  18. The interface between epithelium and lamina propria in the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Inoué, T; Gabella, G

    1992-01-01

    We investigated by transmission and scanning election microscopy the interface between the epithelium and lamina propria in the rat urinary bladder. A digestion technique that dissolves the basal laminae and collagen fibrils was effective in cleaving the mucosa at this level; the specimens were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy, thus visualizing the basal epithelial surface and the uppermost surface of the lamina propria. The underside of the epithelium is scored by very numerous grooves which in the intact organ are occupied by a dense network of blood capillaries. These vascular grooves allow a large number of capillaries (epithelial capillaries) to run at a distance of a few tenths of a micron from the epithelium. On the side of the lamina propria, after collagen and other extracellular materials had been removed, the capillary network itself is visible in the uppermost region. The network is complementary to that of vascular grooves. Other smaller grooves on the basal surface of the epithelium correspond to nerve fibres which run within a few tenths of a micron from the epithelium.

  19. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-09-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority.

  20. Protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate water flow in vasopressin-stimulated toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch, B.S.; Ast, M.B.; Fusco, M.J.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin stimulates the introduction of aggregated particles, which may represent pathways for water flow, into the luminal membrane of toad urinary bladder. It is not known whether water transport pathways are degraded on removal from membrane or whether they are recycled. The authors examined the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin using repeated 30-min cycles of vasopressin followed by washout of vasopressin, all in the presence of an osmotic gradient, a protocol that maximizes aggregate turnover. High dose cycloheximide inhibited flow immediately. Low dose cycloheximide did not affect initial flow. In the absence of vasopressin, inhibition did not develop. Despite the inhibition of flow in vasopressin-treated tissues, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase ratio was elevated in cycloheximide-treated tissues, suggesting modulation at a distal site in the stimulatory cascade. ({sup 14}C)urea permeability was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin also inhibited water flow by the fourth challenge with vasopressin. The data suggest that protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate flow at a site that is distal to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, the reversal of inhibition in MIX-treated tissues suggests that the water pathway can be fully manifested given suitable stimulation. They conclude that either large stores of the transport system are available or that the transport system is extensively recycled on retrieval from the membrane.

  1. Doxorubicin enhances the capacity of B cells to activate T cells in urothelial urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zirakzadeh, A Ali; Kinn, Johan; Krantz, David; Rosenblatt, Robert; Winerdal, Malin E; Hu, Jin; Hartana, Ciputra Adijaya; Lundgren, Christian; Bergman, Emma Ahlén; Johansson, Markus; Holmström, Benny; Hansson, Johan; Sidikii, Alexander; Vasko, Janos; Marits, Per; Sherif, Amir; Winqvist, Ola

    2016-12-24

    Cancer is currently treated by a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy which is believed to suppress the immune system. Combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy correlates with improved survival but needs careful planning in order to achieve a synergistic effect. In this study, we have demonstrated that doxorubicin treatment of B cells resulted in increased expression of CD86 and concordantly increased CD4(+) T cell activation in the presence of superantigen, an effect that was inhibited by the addition of a CD86 blocking antibody. Furthermore, doxorubicin resulted in decreased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TNF-α. Finally, B cells from urinary bladder cancer patients, treated with a neoadjuvant regiment containing doxorubicin, displayed increased CD86-expression. We conclude that doxorubicin induces CD86 expression on B cells and hence enhances their antigen-presenting ability in vitro, a finding verified in patients. Development of tailored time and dose schedules may increase the effectiveness of combining chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

  2. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    PubMed Central

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority. PMID:27659167

  3. Lidocaine blockage of basolateral potassium channels in the amphibian urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, W

    1986-01-01

    1. Basolateral membranes of the frog urinary bladder were investigated after increasing the cationic conductance of the apical membrane by the incorporation of nystatin. 2. K+ currents were recorded in the presence of a mucosa to serosa oriented K+ gradient (SO4(2-) Ringer solution). Nystatin caused a rapid rise of the short-circuit current (Isc) followed by a slow increase over a period of 1-2 h. 3. Impedance analysis showed that the apical membrane resistance was drastically reduced by nystatin. The slow increase in Isc was accompanied by a progressive increase in basolateral conductance. 4. The transepithelial current and conductance recorded in the presence of nystatin could be depressed with lidocaine added to the mucosal and serosal solution. The effects of lidocaine were completely reversible. 5. Noise analysis showed that lidocaine induced additional fluctuations in Isc. The spectrum of these fluctuations was of the Lorentzian type. This noise component is caused by the random interruption of the current through the basolateral K+ channels. The Lorentzian parameters were used to calculate the microscopic parameters of the basolateral K+ channels. PMID:2442354

  4. [The diagnostic value of microsatellite LOH analysis and the prognostic relevance of angiogenic gene expression in urinary bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Szarvas, Tibor

    2009-12-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common malignancy affecting the urinary system. Currently, histology is the only tool that determines therapy and patients' prognosis. As the treatment of non-invasive (Ta/T1) and muscle invasive (T2-T4) bladder tumors are completely different, correct staging is important, although it is often hampered by disturbing factors. Molecular methods offer new prospects for early disease detection, confirmation of unclear histological findings and prognostication. Applying molecular biological methods, the present study is searching for answers to current diagnostic and prognostic problems in bladder carcinoma. We analyzed tumor, blood and/or urine samples of 334 bladder cancer patients and 117 control individuals. Genetic alterations were analyzed in urine samples of patients and controls, both by PCR-based microsatellite loss of heterozigosity (LOH) analysis using 12 fluorescently labeled primers and by DNA hybridization based UroVysion FISH technique using 4 probes, to assess the diagnostic values of these methods. Whole genome microsatellite analysis (with 400 markers) was performed in tumor and blood specimens of bladder cancer patients to find chromosomal regions, the loss of which may be associated with tumor stage. Furthermore, we assessed the prognostic value of Tie2, VEGF, Angiopoietin-1 and -2. We concluded that DNA analysis of voided urine samples by microsatellite analysis and FISH are sensitive and non-invasive methods to detect bladder cancer. Furthermore, we established a panel of microsatellite markers that could differentiate between non-invasive and invasive bladder cancer. However, further analyses in a larger cohort of patients are needed to assess their specificity and sensitivity. Finally, we identified high Ang-2 and low Tie2 gene expression as significant and independent risk factors of tumor recurrence and cancer related survival.

  5. Mirabegron, a β₃-adrenoceptor agonist for the potential treatment of urinary frequency, urinary incontinence or urgency associated with overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas

    2010-10-01

    Mirabegron (YM-178), currently in development by Astellas Pharma Inc, is an orally active β₃-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist for the potential symptomatic treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Mirabegron demonstrates nanomolar EC50 values against the human β₃-AR in biochemical assays with potent selectivity over the β₁- and β₂-ARs. Originally developed as a treatment for diabetes, the development of mirabegron was later refocused to OAB. Cystometric experiments in rats reported a reduction in resting intravesical pressure and contraction frequency in anesthetized rats, without any effect on the amplitude of micturition contraction. Mirabegron also reduced non-micturition bladder contractions in an awake rat model of bladder outlet obstruction. Top-line results from clinical trials to date indicate that mirabegron has been well tolerated with significant efficacy in reducing the number of incontinence episodes and mean micturition frequency in patients. Evidence of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 inhibition in clinical trials highlighted a concern for pharmacokinetic interaction with other drugs that are CYP2D6 substrates, as confirmed by a rise in the pharmacokinetic parameters of desipramine with concomitant administration of mirabegron. Mirabegron exhibits a novel mode of action in targeting the β₃-AR for bladder relaxation, and the studies and trials conducted to date suggest mirabegron as a promising new treatment in the management of OAB symptoms, such as increased urinary urgency and frequency, and urgency incontinence.

  6. Protective effect of preserved bladder-filling sensation on upper urinary tract in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Murat; Sayılır, Selçuk

    2014-10-01

    In this study the possible preventive effect of bladder-filling sensation (BFS) on upper urinary tract deterioration (UUTD) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients was investigated. Eighty-four (60 males, 24 females) patients with SCI who underwent neurourological assessment and urodynamic examinations because of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and were prescribed appropriate bladder management and were under follow-up and whose disease duration was at least 3 years were included in the study. Bladder-filling sensation was categorised as "absent", "partially preserved" or "preserved", and as "normal" (preserved) and "abnormal" (partially preserved, absent). Presence of hydronephrosis, renal stones, and chronic pyelonephritis in any renal USG or IVP performed during the follow-up period were accepted as criteria of UUTD. The frequencies of UUTD for BFS subgroups were determined and compared. Mean age and mean disease duration were 38.4 ± 13.0 years and 72.2 ± 36.2 months. The frequency of UUTD was 31/84 (36.9 %) in the study population. The frequencies of UUTD were 0/8 (0 %), 22/53 (41.5 %) and 9/23 (39.1 %) for "preserved" "partially preserved" and "absent" BFS subgroups, respectively (p = 0.074). There was a statistically significant difference between normal BFS [0/8 (0 %)] and abnormal BFS [31/76 (40.8 %)] subgroups (p = 0.024). According to the results of our study preserved (normal) bladder-filling sensation has protective effect on upper urinary tract in patients with SCI.

  7. Modulation of nerve-evoked contractions by β3-adrenoceptor agonism in human and rat isolated urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Rouget, Céline; Rekik, Moèz; Camparo, Philippe; Botto, Henry; Rischmann, Pascal; Lluel, Philippe; Palea, Stefano; Westfall, Timothy D

    2014-02-01

    Activation of β3-adrenoceptors has been shown to have a direct relaxant effect on urinary bladder smooth muscle from both rats and humans, however there are very few studies investigating the effects of β3-adrenoceptor agonists on nerve-evoked bladder contractions. Therefore in the current study, the role of β3-adrenoceptors in modulating efferent neurotransmission was evaluated. The effects of β3-adrenoceptor agonism on neurogenic contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) were compared with effects on contractions induced by exogenous acetylcholine (Ach) and αβ-methylene adenosine triphosphate (αβ-meATP) in order to determine the site of action. Isoproterenol inhibited EFS-induced neurogenic contractions of human bladder (pD2=6.79; Emax=65%). The effect of isoproterenol was selectively inhibited by the β3-adrenoceptor antagonist L-748,337 (pKB=7.34). Contractions induced by exogenous Ach (0.5-1μM) were inhibited 25% by isoproterenol (3μM) while contractions to 10Hz in the same strip were inhibited 67%. The selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL-316,243 inhibited EFS-induced neurogenic contractions of rat bladder (pD2=7.83; Emax=65%). The effects of CL-316,243 were inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by L-748,337 (pA2=6.42). Contractions induced by exogenous Ach and αβ-meATP were significantly inhibited by CL-316,243, 29% and 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the activation of β3-adrenoceptors inhibits neurogenic contractions of both rat and human urinary bladder. Contractions induced by exogenously applied parasympathetic neurotransmitters are also inhibited by β3-agonism however the effect is clearly less than on neurogenic contractions (particularly in human), suggesting that in addition to a direct effect on smooth muscle, activation of prejunctional β3-adrenoceptors may inhibit neurotransmitter release.

  8. Production of the Escherichia coli common pilus by uropathogenic E. coli is associated with adherence to HeLa and HTB-4 cells and invasion of mouse bladder urothelium.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Zeus; De la Cruz, Miguel A; Carrillo-Casas, Erika Margarita; Durán, Laura; Zhang, Yushan; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Puente, José L; Daaka, Yehia; Girón, Jorge A

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause urinary tract infections and employ type 1 and P pili in colonization of the bladder and kidney, respectively. Most intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli strains produce a pilus called E. coli common pilus (ECP) involved in cell adherence and biofilm formation. However, the contribution of ECP to the interaction of UPEC with uroepithelial cells remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that prototypic UPEC strains CFT073 and F11 mutated in the major pilin structural gene ecpA are significantly deficient in adherence to cultured HeLa (cervix) and HTB-4 (bladder) epithelial cells in vitro as compared to their parental strains. Complementation of the ecpA mutant restored adherence to wild-type levels. UPEC strains produce ECP upon growth in Luria-Bertani broth or DMEM tissue culture medium preferentially at 26°C, during incubation with cultured epithelial cells in vitro at 37°C, and upon colonization of mouse bladder urothelium ex vivo. ECP was demonstrated on and inside exfoliated bladder epithelial cells present in the urine of urinary tract infection patients. The ability of the CFT073 ecpA mutant to invade the mouse tissue was significantly reduced. The presence of ECP correlated with the architecture of the biofilms produced by UPEC strains on inert surfaces. These data suggest that ECP can potentially be produced in the bladder environment and contribute to the adhesive and invasive capabilities of UPEC during its interaction with the host bladder. We propose that along with other known adhesins, ECP plays a synergistic role in the multi-step infection of the urinary tract.

  9. Production of the Escherichia coli Common Pilus by Uropathogenic E. coli Is Associated with Adherence to HeLa and HTB-4 Cells and Invasion of Mouse Bladder Urothelium

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Casas, Erika Margarita; Durán, Laura; Zhang, Yushan; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Puente, José L.; Daaka, Yehia; Girón, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause urinary tract infections and employ type 1 and P pili in colonization of the bladder and kidney, respectively. Most intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli strains produce a pilus called E. coli common pilus (ECP) involved in cell adherence and biofilm formation. However, the contribution of ECP to the interaction of UPEC with uroepithelial cells remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that prototypic UPEC strains CFT073 and F11 mutated in the major pilin structural gene ecpA are significantly deficient in adherence to cultured HeLa (cervix) and HTB-4 (bladder) epithelial cells in vitro as compared to their parental strains. Complementation of the ecpA mutant restored adherence to wild-type levels. UPEC strains produce ECP upon growth in Luria-Bertani broth or DMEM tissue culture medium preferentially at 26°C, during incubation with cultured epithelial cells in vitro at 37°C, and upon colonization of mouse bladder urothelium ex vivo. ECP was demonstrated on and inside exfoliated bladder epithelial cells present in the urine of urinary tract infection patients. The ability of the CFT073 ecpA mutant to invade the mouse tissue was significantly reduced. The presence of ECP correlated with the architecture of the biofilms produced by UPEC strains on inert surfaces. These data suggest that ECP can potentially be produced in the bladder environment and contribute to the adhesive and invasive capabilities of UPEC during its interaction with the host bladder. We propose that along with other known adhesins, ECP plays a synergistic role in the multi-step infection of the urinary tract. PMID:25036370

  10. Primary adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XIONG, XING; JIA, LINGHUA; WANG, JINGEN

    2016-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma is a rare type of urological neoplasm. The present study reports the case of a 55-year-old man with multifocal adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder that occurred in association with a large cystic calculus and perinephric abscess. The patient had suffered from gross hematuria for 2 years and right flank pain for 2 months. Following a series of investigations, a large cystic calculus with multiple tumors in the renal pelvis and ureter was identified. Multifocal tumors and a large calculus were located in the bladder using a cystoscope. The pathological report of 3 individual biopsies revealed a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Right nephrectomy, ureterectomy, radical cystectomy and left ureterocutaneostomy were performed. The pathological investigation revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder. No additional treatment was administered and the patient remains alive at follow-up without disease recurrence or metastasis. Although uncommon, the development of a tumor is possible in patients that possess long-standing urolithiasis, particularly when accompanied by hydronephrosis or infection. PMID:26998081

  11. Comparison of the effect of anti-muscarinic agents on bladder activity, urinary ATP level, and autonomic nervous system in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Naka, Hidekatsu; Miyazato, Minoru

    2009-04-01

    We compared the effect of 4 anti-muscarinic agents on bladder activity, urinary ATP levels, and autonomic nervous system in rats. Rats were divided into the following 5 groups (control group, oxybutynin group, propiverine group, tolterodine group, imidafenacin group), and were administered daily the designated anti-muscarinic agent or distilled water into the stomach. After 2 weeks, we performed 1) continuous cystometry with physiological saline and 0.1% acetic acid solution, 2) measurement of urinary ATP level before and after bladder stimulation, and 3) measurement of the heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines. The maximum bladder contraction pressure increased and the interval between contractions became shorter during cystometry with acetic acid solution in the control group, but not in the 4 anti-muscarinic agent groups. The urinary ATP level increased after bladder stimulation in all groups, but the increase was smaller in the propiverine and imidafenacin groups. The plasma noradrenaline and dopamine levels of the propiverine group were higher. Taken together, all anti-muscarinic agents inhibited the bladder activity without changing the heart rate and blood pressure. Especially, the inhibitory effect of propiverine and imidafenacin on bladder activity may be partly due to blocking an increase of ATP release from the bladder urothelium.

  12. Potential role of melastatin-related transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M gene expression in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Gülay Güleç; Önalan, Ebru Etem; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Aydoğ, Gülten; Keleş, İbrahim; Tonyali, Şenol; Ceylan, Cavit

    2016-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Ion channels and calcium homeostasis are involved in almost all basic cellular mechanisms. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM) takes its name from the melastatin protein, which is classified as potential tumor suppressor. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous studies in the literature investigating the role of these ion channels in bladder cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether bladder cancer is associated with mRNA expression levels of TRPM ion channel genes, and whether there is the potential to conduct further studies to establish novel treatment modalities. The present study included a total of 47 subjects, of whom 40 were bladder cancer patients and 7 were controls. Following the histopathological evaluation for bladder carcinoma, the mRNA and protein expression of TRPM were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry in tumor and normal tissues, in order to determine whether there is a difference in the expression of these channels in tumor and normal tissues. Immunoreactivity for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPM8 was observed in epithelial bladder cells in the two groups. RT-qPCR revealed a significant increase in TRPM7 expression in bladder cancer tissue compared to the controls (healthy bladder tissue), whereas no differences in TRPM2 or TRPM4 expression levels were observed. There were significant reductions in the expression levels of TRPM5 and TRPM8 in bladder cancer tissues. In the present study, the effects of TRP ion channels on the formation of bladder cancer was investigated. This study is instructive for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM7 and TRPM8 and their therapeutic role in bladder cancer. The results support the fact that these gens can be novel targets and can also be tested for during the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:28101241

  13. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity.

  14. Association of urinary bladder paragangliomas with germline mutations in the SDHB and VHL genes

    PubMed Central

    Martucci, Victoria L.; Lorenzo, Zarina G.; Weintraub, Michael; del Rivero, Jaydira; Ling, Alexander; Merino, Maria; Siddiqui, Minhaj; Shuch, Brian; Vourganti, Srinivas; Linehan, W. Marston; Agarwal, Piyush K.; Pacak, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our primary goal was to examine the clinical characteristics of a series of patients with urinary bladder paragangliomas (UBPGLs), focusing particularly on their genetic backgrounds. Materials and methods We analyzed the medical records of patients who presented to the National Institutes of Health with UBPGL from 2000 to 2013 to determine their clinical characteristics and outcomes, biochemical phenotype, tumor size, and genetic background. Results Of the 27 patients with UBPGLs who were identified, 17 (63%) had underlying genetic mutations. Overall, 14 (51.9%) patients had a germline mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene (SDHB), and 3 (11.1%) had in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL). Of the 21 patients who had biochemical data available before their first operation, 19 (90.5%) presented with a noradrenergic biochemical phenotype; 7 (33.3%) patients had tumors that also secreted dopamine. In addition, 1 patient (4.8%) had elevated metanephrine levels, and 2 (9.5%) had normal biochemical data. In total, 13 (48.1%) patients in the series were diagnosed with metastatic disease, at either first presentation or follow-up; 6 of these patients (46.1%) had SDHB mutations. Conclusions UBPGLs typically present with a noradrenergic phenotype and are frequently associated with underlying germline mutations. Patients presenting with these rare neuroendocrine tumors should be screened for these mutations. In addition, patients with UBPGLs should be followed up closely for metastatic development regardless of genetic background, as almost half of the patients in this series presented with metastatic disease and less than half of them had SDHB mutations. PMID:25683602

  15. Active and passive Na+ fluxes across the basolateral membrane of rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Eaton, D C; Frace, A M; Silverthorn, S U

    1982-01-01

    The apical membrane of rabbit urinary bladder can be functionally removed by application of nystatin at high concentration if the mucosal surface of the tissue is bathed in a saline which mimics intracellular ion concentrations. Under these conditions, the tissue is as far as the movement of univalent ions no more than a sheet of basolateral membrane with some tight junctional membrane in parallel. In this manner the Na+ concentration at the inner surface of the basolateral membrane can be varied by altering the concentration in the mucosal bulk solution. When this was done both mucosal-to-serosal 22Na flux and net change in basolateral current were measured. The flux and the current could be further divided into the components of each that were either blocked by ouabain or insensitive to ouabain. Ouabain-insensitive mucosal-to-serosal Na+ flux was a linear function of mucosal Na+ concentration. Ouabain-sensitive Na+ flux and ouabain-sensitive, Na+-induced current both display a saturating relationship which cannot be accounted for by the presence of unstirred layers. If the interaction of Na+ with the basolateral transport process is assumed to involve the interaction of some number of Na+ ions, n, with a maximal flux, MMAX, then the data can be fit by assuming 3.2 equivalent sites for interaction and a value for MMAX of 287.8 pM cm-2 sec-1 with an intracellular Na concentration of 2.0 mM Na+ at half-maximal saturation. By comparing these values with the ouabain-sensitive, Na+-induced current, we calculate a Na+ to K+ coupling ratio of 1.40 +/- 0.07 for the transport process.

  16. Refinement in the Management of the Denervated Canine Urinary Bladder Using an Abdominal Vesicostomy

    PubMed Central

    Agelan, Alexis; Braverman, Alan S.; Dean, Gregory E.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in canine models of spinal cord injury presents challenges in ensuring bladder drainage. While vesicostomy is routine for humans, the procedure is not common in canines. Our study of bladder reinnervation involved transection of the nerve roots that mediate bladder contraction in 34 canines. An abdominal vesicostomy was created by fixing the everted mucosa to the skin incision. After euthanasia, we assessed the contractility of in vitro bladder muscle strips in response to muscarinic receptor stimulation. There were a total of 11 complications in 9 of the 34 animals. In two animals, the vesicostomy narrowed such that it could not be catheterized and in two other animals the vesicostomy closed to between 5 and 10 mm diameter. Another animal removed the stitches prior to complete healing, requiring further surgical procedures. In five animals, partial prolapse of the bladder through the vesicostomy required surgical repair, and in one animal the bladder became infected and required antibiotic treatment. In the few animals in which irritation resulted from the constant contact of urine with the skin, daily topical application of petrolatum ointment alleviated this symptom. Gross inspection of the bladder at euthanasia and in vitro contractility of bladder muscle strips from these animals revealed no evidence of changes associated with bladder hypertrophy. This study demonstrated that permanent cutaneous vesicostomy is an optimal refinement method for management of the neurogenic bladder in canines. The procedure avoids the distress as well as potential bladder hypertrophy induced by multiple daily interventions to empty the bladder by either catheterization or manual compression. PMID:18506057

  17. Coupling between H+ transport and anaerobic glycolysis in turtle urinary bladder: effect of inhibitors of H+ ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, P.R.; Husted, R.F.; Mueller, A.; Beauwens, R.

    1981-03-15

    The coupling between H+ transport (JH) and anaerobic glycolysis was examined in vitro in an anaerobic preparation of turtle urinary bladder. JH was measured as the short-circuit current after Na+ transport was abolished with ouabain and by pH stat titration. The media were gassed with N2 and 1% CO2 (PO2 less than 0.5 mm Hg) and contained 10 mM glucose. Under these conditions, JH was not inhibited by 3 mM serosal (S) cyanide or by 0.1 mM mucosal (M) dinitrophenol. Control anaerobic lactate production (Jlac) of 47 bladders was plotted as a function of simultaneously measured JH. The slope of Jlac on JH was 0.58

  18. βIII-tubulin overexpression is linked to aggressive tumor features and genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Andrea; Chaker, Aref; Burdelski, Christian; Koop, Christina; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Steurer, Stefan; Rink, Michael; Eichenauer, Till Simon; Wilczak, Waldemar; Wittmer, Corinna; Fisch, Margit; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Büschek, Franziska; Clauditz, Till; Minner, Sarah; Jacobsen, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Development of genetic instability is a hallmark of tumor progression. Type III β-tubulin (TUBB3) is a component of microtubules involved in chromosome segregation. Its overexpression has been linked to adverse features of urinary bladder cancer. To investigate the role of TUBB3 for development of genetic instability, we compared TUBB3 expression with histopathological features and surrogate markers of genetic instability and tumor aggressiveness; copy number changes of HER2, TOP2A, CCND1, RAF1, and FGFR1; nuclear accumulation of p53, and cell proliferation in a tissue microarray (TMA) with more than 700 bladder cancers. TUBB3 expression was linked to high-grade and advanced-stage cancers (P<.0001), rapid cell proliferation (P<.0001), presence of multiple gene copy number alterations (P=.0008), and nuclear accumulation of p53 (P=.0008). Strong TUBB3 staining was found in 43% of urothelial cancers harboring copy number alterations as compared with 28% of genetically stable cancers, and in 50% of p53-positive cancers as compared with 30% of p53-negative tumors. The fraction of tumors with concomitant TUBB3 and p53 positivity increased with tumor stage and grade: 2% in pTaG1-2, 11% in pTaG3, 17% in pT1G2, 23% in pT1G3, and 32% in pT2-4 cancers (P<.0001). Importantly, strong TUBB3 overexpression was detectable in about 20% of low-grade, noninvasive cancers. In summary, our study demonstrates that TUBB3 overexpression is linked to an aggressive subtype of urinary bladder cancers, which is characterized by increased genetic instability, p53 alterations, and rapid cell proliferation. Detection of TUBB3 overexpression in genetically stable, low-grade, and noninvasive bladder cancers may be clinically useful to identify patients requiring particular close monitoring.

  19. Tetronic(®)-based composite hydrogel scaffolds seeded with rat bladder smooth muscle cells for urinary bladder tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Srikanth; Ostendorff, Rachel; Fleishman, Benjamin; Nagatomi, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Natural hydrogels such as collagen offer desirable properties for tissue engineering, including cell adhesion sites, but their low mechanical strength is not suitable for bladder tissue regeneration. In contrast, synthetic hydrogels such as poly (ethylene glycol) allow tuning of mechanical properties, but do not elicit protein adsorption or cell adhesion. For this reason, we explored the use of composite hydrogel blends composed of Tetronic (BASF) 1107-acrylate (T1107A) in combination with extracellular matrix moieties collagen and hyaluronic acid seeded with bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMC). This composite hydrogel supported BSMC growth and distribution throughout the construct. When compared to the control (acellular) hydrogels, mechanical properties (peak stress, peak strain, and elastic modulus) of the cellular hydrogels were significantly greater. When compared to the 7-day time point after BSMC seeding, results of mechanical testing at the 14-day time point indicated a significant increase in both ultimate tensile stress (4.1-11.6 kPa) and elastic modulus (11.8-42.7 kPa) in cellular hydrogels. The time-dependent improvement in stiffness and strength of the cellular constructs can be attributed to the continuous collagen deposition and reconstruction by BSMC seeded in the matrix. The composite hydrogel provided a biocompatible scaffold for BSMC to thrive and strengthen the matrix; further, this trend could lead to strengthening the construct to match the mechanical properties of the bladder.

  20. Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cafarchio, Eduardo M; da Silva, Luiz A; Auresco, Luciana C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Almeida, Roberto L; Giannocco, Gisele; Luz, Maria C B; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Sato, Monica A

    2016-04-05

    The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB.

  1. Urinary bladder smooth muscle engineered from adipose stem cells and a three dimensional synthetic composite.

    PubMed

    Jack, Gregory S; Zhang, Rong; Lee, Min; Xu, Yuhan; Wu, Ben M; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2009-07-01

    Human adipose stem cells were cultured in smooth muscle inductive media and seeded into synthetic bladder composites to tissue engineer bladder smooth muscle. 85:15 Poly-lactic-glycolic acid bladder dome composites were cast using an electropulled microfiber luminal surface combined with an outer porous sponge. Cell-seeded bladders expressed smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, calponinin, and caldesmon via RT-PCR and immunoflourescence. Nude rats (n=45) underwent removal of half their bladder and repair using: (i) augmentation with the adipose stem cell-seeded composites, (ii) augmentation with a matched acellular composite, or (iii) suture closure. Animals were followed for 12 weeks post-implantation and bladders were explanted serially. Results showed that bladder capacity and compliance were maintained in the cell-seeded group throughout the 12 weeks, but deteriorated in the acellular scaffold group sequentially with time. Control animals repaired with sutures regained their baseline bladder capacities by week 12, demonstrating a long-term limitation of this model. Histological analysis of explanted materials demonstrated viable adipose stem cells and increasing smooth muscle mass in the cell-seeded scaffolds with time. Tissue bath stimulation demonstrated smooth muscle contraction of the seeded implants but not the acellular implants after 12 weeks in vivo. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and short term physical properties of bladder tissue engineered from adipose stem cells.

  2. Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Abdominal Wall: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Mithra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of adenocarcinoma metastatic to the abdominal wall in a 71-year-old man with a history of primary bladder adenocarcinoma. CT-guided core biopsy was performed; imprints and histologic sections showed malignant glands lined by tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, infiltrating through skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for CK7, membranous/cytoplasmic β-catenin, caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2), and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and negativity for CK20, p63, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). These findings were interpreted as metastatic adenocarcinoma, consistent with bladder primary. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising within glandular metaplasia and is associated with cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis. Predisposing factors include bladder exstrophy, schistosomiasis, and other causes of chronic bladder irritation. This tumor is divided into intestinal, clear cell, and signet ring cell subtypes. Treatment involves radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection, and prognosis is unfavorable. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma should be differentiated from urachal adenocarcinoma, which arises from urachal remnants near the bladder dome, and secondary adenocarcinoma, or vesical involvement by adenocarcinoma from a different primary. CK7, CK20, CDX2, thrombomodulin, and β-catenin can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from colonic adenocarcinoma; PSA and PSAP can help distinguish primary bladder adenocarcinoma from prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:27006847

  3. Solitary second metatarsal metastasis as the first site of distant spread in TCC urinary bladder: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Siddharth; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis to the skeleton is uncommon in muscle-invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder. When present, it most commonly involves the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton, and acrometastasis (metastasis to hand and foot) is very rare. We report a patient who developed a solitary metastatic lesion of the left metatarsal 2 weeks after radical cystectomy. The lack of suspicion and magnetic resonance imaging findings suggestive of inflammation led to a diagnosis of tubercular osteomyelitis and antitubercular therapy was started. The patient developed nodal metastasis and, because the foot lesion did not respond to treatment, fine needle aspiration cytology from it revealed poorly differentiated metastatic cancer.

  4. Treatment of “Bacterial Cystitis” in Fully Automatic Mechanical Models Simulating Conditions of Bacterial Growth in the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, F.; Mackintosh, I. P.; Greenwood, D.; Watson, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    Two fully automatic models are described in which growing cultures can be continuously diluted and periodically discharged producing conditions of growth resembling those of the infected urinary bladder. Both models generate a continuous record of the opacity of the growing culture and the second model also generates a record of the Eh. The effect of adding ampicillin to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli growing in these conditions is described and the relation of the results to human therapy is discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4577943

  5. Release of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide upon stimulation of postganglionic nerve terminals in blood vessels and urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Lisa M; Bobalova, Janette; Mendoza, Michael G; Lew, Christy; Mutafova-Yambolieva, Violeta N

    2004-11-19

    Chemical signaling in autonomic neuromuscular transmission involves agents that function as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators. Using high performance liquid chromatography techniques with fluorescence and electrochemical detection we observed that, in addition to ATP and norepinephrine (NE), electrical field stimulation (EFS, 4-16 Hz, 0.1-0.3 ms, 15 V, 60-120 s) of isolated vascular and non-vascular preparations co-releases a previously unidentified compound with apparent nucleotide or nucleoside structure. Extensive screening of more than 25 nucleotides and nucleosides followed by detailed peak identification revealed that beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (beta-NAD) is released in tissue superfusates upon EFS of canine mesenteric artery (CMA), canine urinary bladder, and murine urinary bladder in the amounts of 7.1 +/- 0.7, 26.5 +/- 4.5, and 15.1 +/- 3.2 fmol/mg of tissue, respectively. Smaller amounts of the beta-NAD metabolites cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) and ADPR were also present in the superfusates collected during EFS of CMA (2.5 +/- 0.9 and 5.8 +/- 0.8 fmol/mg of tissue, respectively), canine urinary bladder (1.8 +/- 0.5 and 9.0 +/- 6.0 fmol/mg of tissue, respectively), and murine urinary bladder (1.4 +/- 0.1 and 6.2 +/- 2.4 fmol/mg of tissue, respectively). The three nucleotides were also detected in the samples collected before EFS (0.2-1.6 fmol/mg of tissue). Exogenous beta-NAD, cADPR, and ADPR (all 100 nm) reduced the release of NE in CMA at 16 Hz from 27.8 +/- 6.0 fmol/mg of tissue to 15.5 +/- 5.0, 12 +/- 3.0, and 10.0 +/- 4.0 fmol/mg of tissue, respectively. In conclusion, we detected constitutive and nerve-evoked overflow of beta-NAD, cADPR, and ADPR in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscles, beta-NAD being the prevailing compound. These substances modulate the release of NE, implicating novel nucleotide mechanisms of autonomic nervous system control of smooth muscle.

  6. Pearsonema plica (Capillaria plica) infection and associated urinary bladder pathology in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Alić, Amer; Hodžić, Adnan; Kadrić, Mirsad; Beširović, Hajrudin; Prašović, Senad

    2015-05-01

    Pearsonema plica is a widely distributed nematode parasite that occurs in the urinary tract of various domestic and wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and geographical distribution of P. plica and associated urinary bladder pathology in 112 red foxes (70 males, 42 females; 87 adults >1 year, 25 juveniles <1 year) from six different geographical regions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The urinary bladders of the red foxes were subjected to gross examination and histopathology. Urine content (n = 40) and mucosal smears (n = 71) of the urinary bladders were examined microscopically for the presence of P. plica. Overall, adults and eggs of P. plica were detected in 65 (58.0 %; 95% CI 48.9-67.2%) of the foxes. Out of the positive foxes, 42 were males (64.6%) and 23 females (35.3%). According to age, 49 adults (75.3%) and 16 juveniles (24.6%) were positive. There were no statistically significant differences in the infection prevalence between the geographical regions (p = 0.701), sex (p = 0.693), or age (p = 0.646) of the host. Also, no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites in urine content (48.7%; 20/41) and mucosal smears (63.3%; 45/71) were observed (p = 0.165). Eosinophilic cystitis characterized with mild to severe infiltrates of eosinophils in the propria of the bladder mucosa accompanied by hyperemia and edema was observed in 36 examined foxes, 24 of which were P. plica positive. Parasites attached and embedded into the mucosa and free in the lumen were recorded in both cystitis positive and negative foxes. Beside clear numerical differences, the influence of P. plica infection on the occurrence of cystitis was not significant (p = 0.309). The results of this study give the first insight into the distribution of P. plica infection among the red fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Observed microscopic changes may contribute toward a better understanding of pathology caused by this

  7. Polymorphic expression of a human superficial bladder tumor antigen defined by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Y; Islam, N; Boucher, L; Parent-Vaugeois, C; Tardif, M

    1987-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which define a highly restricted antigen, were obtained by simultaneous immunizations with superficial papillary bladder tumor cells and mouse polyclonal serum against normal urothelium. The antigen was detected by the avidin/biotin/peroxidase method in 30/44 superficial bladder tumors (68%) but in only 4/27 infiltrating urothelial cancers (with much less intensity). No normal adult or fetal tissues tested expressed the antigen, including normal urothelium from 40 individuals, 13 of whom had a bladder tumor positive for the antigen. Only 1 of 45 nonbladder tumors showed some reactivity with one of the three mAbs. Serological tests on a large panel of human cancer cell lines and normal cultured cells were negative. The antigen is highly stable and well preserved on paraffin-embedded tissues. Electrophoretic transfer blot experiments with fresh tumor extracts showed that all three mAbs react with a determinant on a component of 300,000 Mr (pI 9.5) and 62,000 Mr (pI 6.5). The antigen shows polymorphic expression at the cellular level on tissue sections and also at a molecular level on immunoblots where the two bands are differentially detected on extracts of a series of tumors but are not visualized on normal urothelium extracts. The characteristics of this antigenic system suggest that it may provide some insights about the biology of bladder cancer. Specific detection of the antigen on 70% of superficial bladder tumors with normal cytology may be useful for their diagnosis and follow-up. Images PMID:3313389

  8. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Dimethylarsinous Acid (DMAIII) on the Urinary Bladder Epithelium of Arsenic (+3 Oxidation State) Methyltransferase (As3mt) Knockout and C57BL/6 Wild Type Female Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is carcinogenic to the human urinary bladder. It produces urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation in rats and mice. DMAv, a major methylated urinary metabolite of iAs, is a rat bladder carcinogen, but without effects on the...

  9. You are what you eat: the impact of diet on overactive bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-09-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a clinical syndrome describing the symptom complex of urgency, with or without urgency incontinence and is usually associated with frequency and nocturia. The symptoms associated with OAB are common and whilst not life threatening are known to have a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL). There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of OAB symptoms. Whilst fluid in-take is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of caffeine, carbonated drinks and artificial sweeteners are less well understood. Consequently the aim of this paper is to review the evidence and investigate the effect of diet on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction.

  10. Enhanced urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis in male CD1 mice exposed to transplacental inorganic arsenic and postnatal diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, Michael P. . E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov; Liu Jie; Ward, Jerrold M.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2006-09-15

    Pregnant CD1 mice received 85 ppm arsenite in the drinking water from gestation day 8 to 18, groups (n = 35) of male offspring were subsequently injected on postpartum days 1 through 5 with diethylstilbestrol (DES; 2 {mu}g/pup/day) or tamoxifen (TAM; 10 {mu}g/pup/day), and tumor formation was assessed over 90 weeks. Arsenic alone increased hepatocellular carcinoma (14%), adenoma (23%) and total tumors (31%) compared to control (0, 2 and 2%, respectively). Arsenic alone also increased lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal cortical adenoma and renal cystic tubular hyperplasia compared to control. Compared to arsenic alone, arsenic plus DES increased liver tumor incidence in mice at risk 2.2-fold and increased liver tumor multiplicity (tumors/liver) 1.8-fold. The treatments alone did not impact urinary bladder carcinogenesis, but arsenic plus TAM significantly increased formation of urinary bladder transitional cell tumors (papilloma and carcinoma; 13%) compared to control (0%). Urinary bladder proliferative lesions (combined tumors and hyperplasia) were also increased by arsenic plus TAM (40%) or arsenic plus DES (43%) compared to control (0%) or the treatments alone. Urinary bladder proliferative lesions occurred in the absence of any evidence of uroepithelial cytotoxic lesions. Urinary bladder lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma induced by arsenic plus TAM and/or DES overexpressed estrogen receptor-{alpha}, indicating that aberrant estrogen signaling may have been a factor in the enhanced carcinogenic response. Thus, in male CD1 mice, gestational arsenic exposure alone induced liver adenoma and carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, adrenal adenoma and renal cystic hyperplasia. Furthermore, DES enhanced transplacental arsenic-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In utero arsenic also initiated urinary bladder tumor formation when followed by postnatal TAM and uroepithelial proliferative lesions when followed by TAM or DES.

  11. Interplay between Bladder Microbiota and Urinary Antimicrobial Peptides: Mechanisms for Human Urinary Tract Infection Risk and Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Nienhouse, Vanessa; Gao, Xiang; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E.; Toh, Evelyn; McKinley, Kathleen; Schreckenberger, Paul; Shibata, Noriko; Fok, Cynthia S.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J.; Radek, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Resident bacterial communities (microbiota) and host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both essential components of normal host innate immune responses that limit infection and pathogen induced inflammation. However, their interdependence has not been investigated in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI) susceptibility. Here, we explored the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host AMP responses as mechanisms for UTI risk. Using prospectively collected day of surgery (DOS) urine specimens from female pelvic floor surgery participants, we report that the relative abundance and/or frequency of specific urinary microbiota distinguished between participants who did or did not develop a post-operative UTI. Furthermore, UTI risk significantly correlated with both specific urinary microbiota and β-defensin AMP levels. Finally, urinary AMP hydrophobicity and protease activity were greater in participants who developed UTI, and correlated positively with both UTI risk and pelvic floor symptoms. These data demonstrate an interdependency between the urinary microbiota, AMP responses and symptoms, and identify a potential mechanism for UTI risk. Assessment of bacterial microbiota and host innate immune AMP responses in parallel may identify increased risk of UTI in certain populations. PMID:25486068

  12. [Anesthetic management of exploratory laparotomy for a patient with panperitonitis with hyperkalemia: a case report of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kohei; Takaki, Osamu

    2006-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman was admitted with panperitonitis, hyperkalemia and acute renal failure. Immediately after a large amount of ascites had been drained by laparotomy, hyperkalemia and acidosis were remarkably improved. During the operation, rupture of the urinary bladder was detected and repaired. The level of potassium and renal function became normal the next morning, and it seemed that peritoneal-self-dialysis had been related to hyperkalemia and acute renal failure. Rupture of the urinary bladder is very rare but should be considered in any cases of acute abdomen with hyperkalemia and acute renal failure.

  13. Electric impedance tomography for monitoring volume and size of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Steffen; Cordes, Axel; Plewa, Harry; Pikkemaat, Robert; Soljanik, Irina; Moehring, Klaus; Gerner, Hans J; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2011-12-01

    A novel non-invasive technique for monitoring fluid content in the human bladder is described. Specifically, a precommercial electric impedance tomograph (EIT) was applied to measure and visualize impedance changes in the lower torso due to changes in bladder volume. Preliminary measurements were conducted during routine urodynamic tests of nine male paraplegic patients, in whom a contrast agent was slowly infused into the bladder for diagnostic purposes. In some patients, a good correlation between bladder volume and EIT measurements was found, whereas in others the correlation was still good but inverted, presumably due to a poor electrode positioning. These preliminary results indicate that a sufficiently accurate finite element modeling of the impedance distribution in the abdomen, and proper electrode positioning aids, are important prerequisites to enable this technology to be used for routine measurement of bladder volume.

  14. Effects of Tamsulosin on Urinary Bladder Function and Neuronal Activity in the Voiding Centers of Rats with Cyclophosphamide-induced Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Chung, Kyung-Jin; Jung, Han; Kim, Khae-Hawn; Lee, Jung-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urgency usually with frequency and nocturia. Tamsulosin, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to reduce symptoms of urinary obstruction and prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin can across the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of tamsulosin on the symptoms of OAB in relation to neuronal activity using rats. Methods Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250±10 g (9 weeks old), were used in this study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=8 in each group): control group, OAB-induced group, OAB-induced and 0.01 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, OAB-induced and 0.1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, and OAB-induced and 1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group. OAB was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) every third day for 10 days. The rats in the tamsulosin-treated groups orally received tamsulosin once a day for 14 consecutive days at the respective dose of the groups, starting 1 day after the induction of OAB. Cystometry for bladder pressure determination, immunohistochemistry for c-Fos, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the neuronal voiding centers and western blot for inducible NOS in the bladder were conducted. Results Cyclophosphamide injection enhanced contraction pressure and time, representing the induction of OAB. Contraction pressure and time were significantly suppressed by tamsulosin treatment. c-Fos and NOS expressions in the neuronal voiding centers were enhanced by induction of OAB. OAB-induced c-Fos and NOS expressions were suppressed by tamsulosin treatment. Conclusions Tamsulosin exerts inhibitory effect on neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers of OAB. The present results suggest the possibility that tamsulosin is effective therapeutic modality for ameliorating the symptoms of OAB. PMID:22500249

  15. Multiple sources of calcium for contraction of the human urinary bladder muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, C. A.; Giuliani, S.; Patacchini, R.; Turini, D.; Barbanti, G.; Giachetti, A.; Meli, A.

    1989-01-01

    1. KCl, carbachol, neurokinin A and endothelin produced concentration-dependent contractions of mucosa-free muscle strips from the dome of the human urinary bladder. The maximal response to carbachol or neurokinin A exceeded that to KCl, while the maximal response to endothelin approached that to KCl. 2. Nifedipine (1 microM) abolished the response to KCl, reduced the response to carbachol or neurokinin A but had no effect on the response to endothelin. Bay K 8644 (1 microM) markedly potentiated the response to KCl but had little or no effect on the response produced by the other stimulants. 3. Superfusion of the strips with a nominally calcium (Ca)-free medium containing EDTA (1 mM) for 30 min markedly reduced the response to carbachol, neurokinin A and endothelin, although a small response was still evident at high concentrations. Likewise, after a prolonged (60 min) superfusion of the strips with a high K (80 mM) Ca-free medium plus EDTA (1 mM) these three agonists still produced a small contractile response. 4. The nifedipine (1 microM) resistant response to carbachol, neurokinin A or endothelin was markedly depressed by LaCl3 (1 mM). In contrast, the nifedipine-(1 microM) resistant response to carbachol was not modified by NiCl2 (0.1 mM) or omega-conotoxin (0.1 microM). 5. Caffeine produced divergent effects depending upon the temperature of incubation: a relaxation at 37 degrees C and a concentration-dependent (2.5-20 mM) contraction at 25 degrees C. The latter was markedly inhibited by procaine (3 mM) but unaffected by nifedipine (1 microM). 6. After a prolonged (60 min) superfusion with a high K, Ca-free medium containing EDTA the response to carbachol (100 microM) was abolished by previous exposure to procaine (3 mM). Conversely, the response to endothelin (1 microM) was unaffected by procaine. The response to endothelin in these experimental conditions was also resistant to LaCl3 (1 mM). 7. These findings indicate that multiple sources of Ca are mobilized

  16. Primary urinary bladder mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma presenting as a close mimic for genitourinary tuberculosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jitani, Ankit Kumar; Mishra, Jaya; Sailo, Stephen L.; Raphael, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity. It has a distinctively different presentation than the urothelial carcinoma, which is the most common form of bladder cancer, but might mimic inflammatory lesions such as tubercular cystitis, clinically as well as radiologically. We present a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the bladder, which was a close mimicker of tuberculosis, leading to delay in diagnosis. We highlight the role of biopsy in prompt diagnosis of these cases. We emphasize on the high index of suspicion required to identify such cases at an early stage, which has pronounced prognostic implications. PMID:26834416

  17. Differences in expression of uroplakin III, cytokeratin 7, and cyclooxygenase-2 in canine proliferative urothelial lesions of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Sledge, D G; Patrick, D J; Fitzgerald, S D; Xie, Y; Kiupel, M

    2015-01-01

    The expression of immunohistochemical markers that have been used in diagnosis and/or prognostication of urothelial tumors in humans (uroplakin III [UPIII], cytokeratin 7 [CK7], cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2], and activated caspase 3) was evaluated in a series of 99 canine proliferative urothelial lesions of the urinary bladder and compared to the lesion classification and grade as defined by the World Health Organization / International Society of Urologic Pathology consensus system. There were significant associations between tumor classification and overall UPIII pattern (P = 1.49 × 10(-18)), loss of UPIII (P = 1.27 × 10(-4)), overall CK7 pattern (P = 4.34 × 10(-18)), and COX-2 pattern (P = 8.12 × 10(-25)). In addition, there were significant associations between depth of neoplastic cell infiltration into the urinary bladder wall and overall UPIII pattern (P = 1.54 × 10(-14)), loss of UPIII (P = 2.07 × 10(-4)), overall CK7 pattern (P = 1.17 × 10(-13)), loss of CK7 expression (P = .0485), and COX-2 pattern (P = 8.23 × 10(-21)). There were no significant associations between tumor classification or infiltration and caspase 3 expression pattern.

  18. The Prognostic Role of NEDD9 and P38 Protein Expression Levels in Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Maged M.; El Shorbagy, Shereen; Abdelbary, Abeer M.; Abdelaziz, Lobna A.; Salim, Reham A.; Abdel Wahab, Khaled M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The most common malignant tumor of the urinary bladder is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 9 (NEDD9) is found to be a cell adhesion mediator. P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase is a serine/threonine kinases member which can mediate carcinogenesis through intracellular signaling. Methods. To assess their prognostic role; NEDD9 and p38 protein were evaluated in sections from 50 paraffin blocks of TCC. Results. The high expressions of NEDD9 and p38 protein were significantly associated with grade, stage, distant metastasis (p < 0.001), number of tumors, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size (p < 0.001, 0.002; 0.018, <0.001; and 0.004, 0.007, respectively). High NEDD9 and p38 detection had a worse 3-year OS (p = 0.041 and <0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis the NEDD9 and p38 protein expression levels and various clinicopathological criteria including gender, grade, stage of the tumor, and regional lymph node involvement were independent prognostic parameters of TCC of the urinary bladder patients' outcome. Conclusion. NEDD9 and p38 protein expressions were poor prognostic markers of TCC. PMID:28194179

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and its molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yohei; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Akashi, Takumi; Kurata, Morihito; Nakamura, Takuro; Kihara, Kazunori

    2011-08-01

    We report a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma (PNET/ES) arising from the urinary bladder. A 65-year-old man presented with hematuria and dysuria. Computed tomography revealed an enlarged invasive tumor at the base of the bladder. No additional abnormal findings were disclosed by other diagnostic imaging methods. The surgical specimens showed small round cell tumor with positive staining for MIC2 gene product (CD99). EWS-FLI1 fusion transcripts were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing, confirming the diagnosis of PNET/ES. The patient developed swollen pelvic lymph nodes as well as multiple lung metastases at 8 months postoperatively. No effective results could be obtained even with systemic chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin and etoposide (VIDE) based on the EUROpean Ewing tumour Working Initiative of National Groups 1999 (EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99) multinational trial. The patient died of acute superior mesenteric artery thrombosis at 22 months postoperatively. PNET/ES could have been included in past cases of small cell carcinoma because of the difficulty in its differential diagnosis. Exact diagnosis is crucial for deciding the treatment strategy for rare bladder tumors consisting of small round cells.

  20. A Novel Intraurethral Device Diagnostic Index to Classify Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Leonardo O.; Barreiro, Guilherme C.; Prudente, Alessandro; Silva, Cleide M.; Bassani, José W. M.; D'Ancona, Carlos A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Using a urethral device at the fossa navicularis, bladder pressure during voiding can be estimated by a minimal invasive technique. This study purposes a new diagnostic index for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs). Methods. Fifty one patients presenting with LUTSs were submitted to a conventional urodynamic and a minimal invasive study. The results obtained through the urethral device and invasive classic urodynamics were compared. The existing bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI) equation that classifies men with LUTSs was modified to allow minimal invasive measurement of isovolumetric bladder pressure in place of detrusor pressure at maximum urine flow. Accuracy of the new equation for classifying obstruction was then tested in this group of men. Results. The modified equation identified men with obstruction with a positive predictive value of 68% and a negative predictive value of 70%, with an overall accuracy of 70%. Conclusions. The proposed equation can accurately classify over 70% of men without resorting to invasive pressure flow studies. We must now evaluate the usefulness of this classification for the surgical treatment of men with LUTSs. PMID:19125194

  1. Effects of internal and external pH on amiloride-blockable Na transport across toad urinary bladder vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, E.D.; Civan, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of internal and external pH on Na+ transport across toad bladder membrane vesicles. Of the total SSNa uptake measured 0.5-2.0 min after introducing tracer, 80 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE, n = 9) is blocked by the diuretic with a KI of 2 X 10(-8) M. Thus, this amiloride-sensitive flux is mediated by the apical sodium-selective channels. Varying the internal (cytosolic) pH over the physiologic range 7.0-8.0 had no effect on sodium transport; this result suggests that variation of intracellular pH in vivo has no direct apical effect on modulating sodium uptake. On the other hand, SSNa was directly and monotonically dependent on external pH. External acidification also reduced the amiloride-sensitive efflux across the walls of the vesicles. This inhibition of 22Na efflux was noted at external Na concentrations of both 0.2 microM and 53 mM. These results are different from those reported with whole toad bladder. A number of possible bases for these differences are considered and discussed. They suggest that the natriferic response induced by mucosal acidification of whole toad urinary bladder appears to operate indirectly through one or more factors, presumably cytosolic, present in whole cells and absent from the vesicles.

  2. Gross anatomical study of bilateral megaureters associated with renal pelvis dilatation and a giant urinary bladder: an adult cadaver with a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Naito, Munekazu; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Kawata, Shinichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2013-06-01

    Although bilateral megaureters are not an infrequent occurrence in the urinary tract, bilateral megaureters associated with bilateral renal pelvis dilatation and a giant urinary bladder appear to be rare. In this paper, a cadaver case of an adult Japanese male with bilateral megaureters is described. In addition to describing and illustrating this case, the anatomy and etiology of these anomalous structures is discussed with a brief review of the literature.

  3. Pannexin 1 channels mediate the release of ATP into the lumen of the rat urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Beckel, Jonathan M; Daugherty, Stephanie L; Tyagi, Pradeep; Wolf-Johnston, Amanda S; Birder, Lori A; Mitchell, Claire H; de Groat, William C

    2015-01-01

    ATP is released from the bladder epithelium, also termed the urothelium, in response to mechanical or chemical stimuli. Although numerous studies have described the contribution of this release to the development of various bladder disorders, little information exists regarding the mechanisms of release. In the present study, we examined the role of pannexin channels in mechanically-induced ATP release from the urothelium. PCR confirmed the presence of pannexin 1 and 2 mRNA in rat urothelial tissue, whereas immunofluorescence experiments localized pannexin 1 to all three layers of the urothelium. During continuous bladder cystometry in anaesthetized rats, inhibition of pannexin 1 channels using carbenoxolone (CBX) or Brilliant Blue FCF (BB-FCF) (1–100 μm, intravesically), or by using intravesical small interfering RNA, increased the interval between voiding contractions. Intravenous administration of BB-FCF (1–100 μg kg−1) did not alter bladder activity. CBX or BB-FCF (100 μm intravesically) also decreased basal ATP concentrations in the perfusate from non-distended bladders and inhibited increases in ATP concentrations in response to bladder distension (15 and 30 cmH2O pressure). Intravesical perfusion of the ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase (2 U ml−1), or the ATPase inhibitor ARL67156 (10 μm) increased or decreased reflex bladder activity, respectively. Intravesical instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055:B5, 100 μg ml−1) increased ATP concentrations in the bladder perfusate, and also increased voiding frequency; these effects were suppressed by BB-FCF. These data indicate that pannexin channels contribute to distension- or LPS-evoked ATP release into the lumen of the bladder and that luminal release can modulate voiding function. PMID:25630792

  4. Acacia senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Gado, Ali M; Daba, Mohammad H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; El-Azab, Adel S

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days) through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA) and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL and/or the

  5. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder: A diagnostic challange and therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aneeta; Lahori, Mega; Khajuria, Arvind; Gupta, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, aggressive tumor of indeterminate malignant potential with myofibroblastic differentiation. Though bladder location is very uncommon, it arises from the bladder submucosal stroma as a polypoidal growth and is easily mistaken for a malignant neoplasm- clinically, radiologically and histologically. Essential criteria for the diagnosis of IMT are: spindle myoepithelial cell proliferation and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Here we report the case of a 30 years old man who presented with painless gross haematuria for 2 weeks. The patient underwent open partial cystectomy and the final pathological diagnosis was IMT of bladder.

  6. Urinary IL-33 and galectin-3 increase in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (review).

    PubMed

    Kochiashvili, G; Kochiashvili, D

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is an enigmatic chronic disorder characterized by vague bladder pain of variable severity accompanied by urinary symptoms. The pathogenesis and etiology of IC/BPS remain incompletely defined. However, there is an emerging consensus about the central role of epithelial dysfunction, bladder sensory nerve up-regulation, and mast cell activation in the genesis of IC/BPS. Accumulating evidences have suggested that tissue damage is recognized at the cell level via receptor-mediated detection of intracellular proteins (so-called alarmins) released by the necrotic cells. Among these proteins IL-33, galectin-3 (Gal-3) and advanced glycation end products (AGE), may have an important role because they can be participated as cellular components that stimulate the immune system. We determined IL-33, Gal-3, and AGE in 24-hour urine specimens from patients with IC/BPS and healthy subjects. Study participants included 43 woman with IC/BPS and 29 female volunteers. Urinary IL-33, EGF and Gal-3 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas the content of AGE was quantified by natural AGE-specific fluorescence (Ex. 370 nm, Em. 440 nm). Urinary IL-33, and Gal-3 levels were normalized by urinary creatinine (Cr) levels and compared among subgroups. We have found that the levels of IL-33 and Gal-3 were significantly increased in IC/BPS. The level of the IL-33 in the urine of healthy women was equal to 0.32, while the level of IL-33 in IC/BPS patients increases up to 0.58 (p<0.05). Further, the amounts of urine Gal-3 were also elevated in IC/BPS compared to healthy subjects (0.16 versus 0.07; p>0.01) and AGE-specific fluorescence in urine was increased up to 140% in IC/BPS patients. These data suggest on the participation of IL-33, Gal-3 and AGE in the pathogenesis of IC/BPS.

  7. Dietary administration of sodium arsenite to rats: Relations between dose and urinary concentrations of methylated and thio-metabolites and effects on the rat urinary bladder epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shugo; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Chen, Baowei; Naranmandura, Hua; Le, X. Chris; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-04-15

    Based on epidemiological data, chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is carcinogenic to humans, inducing skin, urinary bladder and lung tumors. In vivo, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to organic methylated arsenicals including the highly toxic dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}). Short-term treatment of rats with 100 mug/g trivalent arsenic (As{sup III}) as sodium arsenite in the diet or in drinking water induced cytotoxicity and necrosis of the urothelial superficial layer, with increased cell proliferation and hyperplasia. The objectives of this study were to determine if these arsenic-induced urothelial effects are dose responsive, the dose of arsenic at which urothelial effects are not detected, and the urinary concentrations of the arsenical metabolites. We treated female F344 rats for 5 weeks with sodium arsenite at dietary doses of 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. Cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and hyperplasia of urothelial superficial cells were increased in a dose-responsive manner, with maximum effects found at 50 ppm As{sup III}. There were no effects at 1 ppm As{sup III}. The main urinary arsenical in As{sup III}-treated rats was the organic arsenical dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}). The thio-metabolites dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA{sup V}) and monomethylmonothioarsinic acid (MMMTA{sup V}) were also found in the urine of As{sup III}-treated rats. The LC{sub 50} concentrations of DMMTA{sup V} for rat and human urothelial cells in vitro were similar to trivalent oxygen-containing arsenicals. These data suggest that dietary As{sup III}-induced urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation are dose responsive, and the urothelial effects have a threshold corresponding to the urinary excretion of measurable reactive metabolites.

  8. Pure Pancreaticocutaneous Fistula Shunted Into the Urinary Bladder. Lesson Learned by an Incomplete, Original Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Violi, Vincenzo; Salvemini, Carlo; Darecchio, Antonio; Detullio, Paolo; Costi, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Because pancreaticocystostomy is a method of exocrine secretion management in pancreas transplantation, a legitimate question is whether a pure pancreatic fistula could be shunted into the bladder. After duodenopancreatectomy for cancer, a pancreaticojejunostomy leakage was treated by pancreas-saving anastomosis disconnection. The resulting pure pancreaticocutaneous fistula was later diverted into the bladder using a Denver valved-pump device. Technical problems necessitated redoing the shunt using a modified technique and device. Although the system did work, catheter displacement outside the bladder finally caused device takedown and external fistula restoration. Our attempt did not succeed mostly because of our inexperience in dealing with an altogether novel issue without appropriate technology. Supposing its feasibility, a pancreatic-bladder shunt might have a role in treating pure pancreatic fistulas or creating an external fistula whenever the pancreatic remnant is unreliable for an anastomosis, or when a leaked anastomosis' disconnection is preferable to completion pancreatectomy. PMID:24833149

  9. Prevalence of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence in women who have sex with women: an internet-based survey.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Renea M; Breyer, Benjamin N; Li, Chin-Shang; Subak, Leslee L; Brown, Jeannete S; Shindel, Alan W

    2014-11-01

    Women who have sex with women (WSW) are a medically underserved population. Data on urologic health in WSW are scant. We hypothesized that the prevalence of urinary symptoms in WSW is similar to population norms and that urinary symptoms in WSW would be associated with known risk factors for urologic problems. WSW were recruited to participate in an internet-based survey via invitations, listserves, and social media. Primary outcome measures were the validated Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and a single question assessing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). OAB status was dichotomized by OAB-q score (0-8=none/mild; >8=moderate/severe). SUI was dichotomized by single item response (none/little bit of the time=none/mild; sometimes through always=moderate/severe). Ethnodemographic, health, sexuality, and relationship data was also collected. Multivariable logistic regression utilizing 17 factors was performed with SAS V9.2, followed by multivariable analysis with stepwise selection based on the initial analysis (included factors, p<0.25). The final study population consisted of 1,566 adult WSW with mean age 34.6±10.4 years. Moderate/severe OAB was present in 354 (23%) women; 275 (18%) reported moderate /severe SUI. Concomitant OAB and SUI were present in 183 (12%). In multivariable analysis with stepwise selection, OAB symptoms were significantly associated with diabetes, history of urinary tract infection, gynecologic surgery, routine health care, and consultation with a provider regarding urinary symptoms. SUI symptoms were associated with sexual bother. This is the first survey report of prevalence and associations of OAB and SUI in a population of WSW. SUI and OAB were prevalent in WSW. Further attention to urological health in WSW is warranted.

  10. Prevalence of Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women Who Have Sex with Women: An Internet-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Renea M.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Li, Chin-Shang; Subak, Leslee L.; Brown, Jeannete S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Women who have sex with women (WSW) are a medically underserved population. Data on urologic health in WSW are scant. We hypothesized that the prevalence of urinary symptoms in WSW is similar to population norms and that urinary symptoms in WSW would be associated with known risk factors for urologic problems. WSW were recruited to participate in an internet-based survey via invitations, listserves, and social media. Primary outcome measures were the validated Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and a single question assessing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). OAB status was dichotomized by OAB-q score (0–8=none/mild; >8=moderate/severe). SUI was dichotomized by single item response (none/little bit of the time=none/mild; sometimes through always=moderate/severe). Ethnodemographic, health, sexuality, and relationship data was also collected. Multivariable logistic regression utilizing 17 factors was performed with SAS V9.2, followed by multivariable analysis with stepwise selection based on the initial analysis (included factors, p<0.25). The final study population consisted of 1,566 adult WSW with mean age 34.6±10.4 years. Moderate/severe OAB was present in 354 (23%) women; 275 (18%) reported moderate /severe SUI. Concomitant OAB and SUI were present in 183 (12%). In multivariable analysis with stepwise selection, OAB symptoms were significantly associated with diabetes, history of urinary tract infection, gynecologic surgery, routine health care, and consultation with a provider regarding urinary symptoms. SUI symptoms were associated with sexual bother. This is the first survey report of prevalence and associations of OAB and SUI in a population of WSW. SUI and OAB were prevalent in WSW. Further attention to urological health in WSW is warranted. PMID:25314336

  11. Altered distribution of interstitial cells and innervation in the rat urinary bladder following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Louise; Cunningham, Rebecca MJ; Young, John S; Fry, Christopher H; McMurray, Gordon; Eccles, Rachel; McCloskey, Karen D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Changes in the distribution of interstitial cells (IC) are reportedly associated with dysfunctional bladder. This study investigated whether spinal cord injury (SCI) resulted in changes to IC subpopulations (vimentin-positive with the ultrastructural profile of IC), smooth muscle and nerves within the bladder wall and correlated cellular remodelling with functional properties. Bladders from SCI (T8/9 transection) and sham-operated rats 5 weeks post-injury were used for ex vivo pressure–volume experiments or processed for morphological analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light/confocal microscopy. Pressure-volume relationships revealed low-pressure, hypercompliance in SCI bladders indicative of decompensation. Extensive networks of vimentin-positive IC were typical in sham lamina propria and detrusor but were markedly reduced post-SCI; semi-quantitative analysis showed significant reduction. Nerves labelled with anti-neurofilament and anti-vAChT were notably decreased post-SCI. TEM revealed lamina propria IC and detrusor IC which formed close synaptic-like contacts with vesicle-containing nerve varicosities in shams. Lamina propria and detrusor IC were ultrastructurally damaged post-SCI with retracted/lost cell processes and were adjacent to areas of cellular debris and neuronal degradation. Smooth muscle hypertrophy was common to SCI tissues. In conclusion, IC populations in bladder wall were decreased 5 weeks post-SCI, accompanied with reduced innervation, smooth muscle hypertrophy and increased compliance. These novel findings indicate that bladder wall remodelling post-SCI affects the integrity of interactions between smooth muscle, nerves and IC, with compromised IC populations. Correlation between IC reduction and a hypercompliant phenotype suggests that disruption to bladder IC contribute to pathophysiological processes underpinning the dysfunctional SCI bladder. PMID:21883887

  12. Epithelia hyperplasia in the renal papilla and pelvis but not the urinary bladder of male F344 rats associated with dietary sodium phosphates after uracil exposure.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M A; Sano, M; Shirai, T; Imaida, K; Fukushima, S

    1993-08-01

    Effects of the bladder tumor promoter Na3PO4 and the non-bladder-tumor promoter NaH2PO4 on development of hyperplastic lesions of urinary bladder and renal papilla/pelvis were investigated after exposure of male F344 rats to the nongenotoxic carcinogen uracil. Animals were administered with 3.0% uracil in the diet for 4 weeks and thereafter fed 3.0% Na3PO4 or 3.0% NaH2PO4 for 32 weeks. No enhancing effect of either phosphate salt on uracil-induced proliferative lesions of urinary bladder was observed. However, the sequential treatments gave rise to enhanced development of hyperplastic lesions in the renal papilla/pelvis compared to the case with uracil alone. In addition, a small number of renal pelvic papillomas were observed in the group given Na3PO4 after uracil. These phosphate salts also induced nephrocalcinosis in the papilla/pelvis concomitant with development of renal hyperplastic lesions in this location. A sequential study revealed calculus formation and proliferative lesions in both the urinary bladder and renal papilla/pelvis after 4 weeks dietary application of uracil. After cessation, calculi disappeared and the majority of hyperplastic lesions regressed, consistent with a decrease in DNA synthesis levels. Persistence of uracil-induced epithelial hyperplasia in renal papilla/pelvis under the influence of phosphate salts might have been directly due to chronic stimulation by nephrocalcinosis in these sites.

  13. Discovery and validation of potential urinary biomarkers for bladder cancer diagnosis using a pseudotargeted GC-MS metabolomics method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Song, Ruixiang; Ma, Chong; Zhou, Lina; Liu, Xinyu; Yin, Peiyuan; Zhang, Zhensheng; Sun, Yinghao; Xu, Chuanliang; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most prevalent malignancy in the urinary system and is associated with significant mortality; thus, there is an urgent need for novel noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers. A urinary pseudotargeted method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and validated for a BC metabolomics study. The method exhibited good repeatability, intraday and interday precision, linearity and metabolome coverage. A total of 76 differential metabolites were defined in the discovery sample set, 58 of which were verified using an independent validation urine set. The verified differential metabolites revealed that energy metabolism, anabolic metabolism and cell redox states were disordered in BC. Based on a binary logistic regression analysis, a four-biomarker panel was defined for the diagnosis of BC. The area under the receiving operator characteristic curve was 0.885 with 88.0% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in the discovery set and 0.804 with 78.0% sensitivity and 70.3% specificity in the validation set. The combinatorial biomarker panel was also useful for the early diagnosis of BC. This approach can be used to discriminate non-muscle invasive and low-grade BCs from healthy controls with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. The results show that the developed urinary metabolomics method can be employed to effectively screen noninvasive biomarkers.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES IN TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM FROM URINARY BLADDERS OF RATS EXPOSED TO DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Development of a Novel Method for Analysis of Transcriptional Changes in Transitional Epithelium from Urinary Bladders of Rats Exposed to Drinking Water Disinfection By- products.

    Epidemiologic studies in human populations that drink chemically disinfected drinking wa...

  15. INDUCTION OF URINARY BLADDER PATHOLOGY IN MALE AND FEMALE C3H MICE EXPOSED TO SODIUM ARSENITE FROM GESTATION THROUGH YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology studies suggest that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cancer of the skin, urinary bladder and lung as well as the kidney and liver. Recently, an in utero animal model was developed to characterize the carcinogenic properties of inorganic arsen...

  16. Serotonin enhances urinary bladder nociceptive processing via a 5-HT3 receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jason D; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T

    2015-09-14

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was used to quantify peripheral and central changes in serotonin and its major metabolite following 5-HTP administration, and the potential role of the 5-HT3 receptor on changes in bladder sensation elicited by 5-HTP was investigated. 5-HTP produced bladder hypersensitivity and somatic analgesia. The pro-nociceptive effect of 5-HTP was attenuated by intrathecal, but not systemic, ondansetron. Peripheral increases in serotonin, its metabolism and rate of turnover were detectable within 30min of 5-HTP administration. Significant enhancement of serotonin metabolism was observed centrally. These findings suggest that 5-HTP increases serotonin, which may then affect descending facilitatory systems to produce bladder hypersensitivity via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors.

  17. Polymorphic enzymes, urinary bladder cancer risk, and structural change in the local industry.

    PubMed

    Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Selinski, Silvia; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Moormann, Oliver; Haenel, Matthias W; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In the 1990s, an uncommonly high percentage of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) negative bladder cancer cases (70%) was reported in the greater Dortmund area. The question arose as to whether this uncommonly high percentage of GSTM1 negative bladder cancer cases was due to environmental and/or occupational exposure decades ago. Thus, 15 years later, another study on bladder cancer was performed in the same area after the coal, iron, and steel industries had finally closed in the 1990s. In total 196 bladder cancer patients from the St.-Josefs-Hospital Dortmund-Hörde and 235 controls with benign urological diseases were assessed by questionnaire and genotyped for GSTM1, glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), and the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) tag SNP rs1495741. The frequency of the GSTM1 negative genotype was 52% in bladder cancer cases and thus lower compared to a previous study performed from 1992 to 1995 in the same area (70%). NAT2 genotypes were distributed equally among cases and controls (63% slow acetylators). Fewer GSTT1 negative genotypes were present in cases (17%) than in controls (20%).

  18. Dose-dependent binding of ortho-phenylphenol to protein but not DNA in the urinary bladder of male F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Kwok, E S; Buchholz, B A; Vogel, J S; Turteltaub, K W; Eastmond, D A

    1999-08-15

    ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) is a widely used fungicide and antibacterial agent that is also known to be highly effective in inducing bladder tumors in male F344 rats. At present, neither the role of the urinary bladder in the bioactivation of OPP metabolites nor the nature of the molecular target is understood. To address these issues, we investigated the relationship between OPP dosage and macromolecular adduct formation in the urinary bladder of male F344 rats. Male F344 rats were treated with 0, 15, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg of OPP and its radiocarbon analogue via oral gavage. The dosed rats were euthanized after 24 h, and the proteins were extracted from the liver, kidney, and bladder. The amount of radioactivity associated with the extracted protein was quantified using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry. Protein binding in liver and kidney exhibited a linear or modest curvilinear relationship over the dose range studied. In the urinary bladder, however, a pronounced nonlinear relationship between protein adduct levels and administered dose was observed. The measured protein adduct levels were in agreement with the predicted concentrations of phenylbenzoquinone based on a proposed mechanism involving free phenylhydroquinone autoxidation in the urine. Unlike protein binding, DNA adducts measured from the same bladder samples did not show a significant difference from the control group. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that OPP is an indirect acting carcinogen, and that regenerative hyperplasia due to OPP-metabolite cytotoxicity and/or binding of OPP metabolites to protein targets may play an important role in OPP-induced bladder carcinogenesis.

  19. Extracellular adenosine 5’-triphosphate concentrations changes in rat spinal cord associated with the activation of urinary bladder afferents. A microdialysis study

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Jeová Nina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine adenosine 5’-triphosphate levels in the interstice of spinal cord L6-S1 segment, under basal conditions or during mechanical and chemical activation of urinary bladder afferents. Methods A microdialysis probe was transversally implanted in the dorsal half of spinal cord L6-S1 segment in female rats. Microdialysate was collected at 15 minutes intervals during 135 minutes, in anesthetized animals. Adenosine 5’-triphosphate concentrations were determined with a bioluminescent assay. In one group of animals (n=7) microdialysate samples were obtained with an empty bladder during a 10-minutes bladder distension to 20 or 40cmH2O with either saline, saline with acetic acid or saline with capsaicin. In another group of animals (n=6) bladder distention was performed and the microdialysis solution contained the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL 67156. Results Basal extracellular adenosine triphosphate levels were 110.9±35.34fmol/15 minutes, (mean±SEM, n=13), and bladder distention was associated with a significant increase in adenosine 5’-triphosphate levels which was not observed after bladder distention with saline solution containing capsaicin (10µM). Microdialysis with solution containing ARL 67156 (1mM) was associated with significantly higher extracellular adenosine 5’-triphosphate levels and no further increase in adenosine 5’-triphosphate was observed during bladder distension. Conclusion Adenosine 5’-triphosphate was present in the interstice of L6-S1 spinal cord segments, was degraded by ectonucleotidase, and its concentration increased following the activation of bladder mechanosensitive but not of the chemosensitive afferents fibers. Adenosine 5’-triphosphate may originate either from the central endings of bladder mechanosensitive primary afferent neurons, or most likely from intrinsic spinal neurons, or glial cells and its release appears to be modulated by capsaicin activated bladder primary afferent or by adenosine

  20. Octodon degus, a new model to study the agonist and plexus-induced response in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Martin-Cano, Francisco Eduardo; Caso-Agundez, Mercedes; Camello-Almaraz, Cristina; Santos, Francisco Juan; Espin, María Teresa; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Camello, Pedro Javier; Pozo, Maria Jose

    2017-02-01

    Urinary bladder function consists in the storage and controlled voiding of urine. Translational studies require animal models that match human characteristics, such as Octodon degus, a diurnal rodent. This study aims to characterize the contractility of the detrusor muscle and the morphology and code of the vesical plexus from O. degus. Body temperature was measured by an intra-abdominal sensor, the contractility of detrusor strips was evaluated by isometric tension recording, and the vesical plexus was studied by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and immunofluorescence. The animals showed a diurnal chronotype as judged from core temperature. The myogenic contractile response of the detrusor muscle to increasing doses of KCl reached its maximum (31.04 mN/mm(2)) at 60 mM. In the case of cumulative dose-response of bethanecol, the maximum response (37.42 mN/mm(2)) was reached at 3.2 × 10(-4) M. The response to ATP was clearly smaller (3.8 mN/mm(2)). The pharmacological dissection of the EFS-induced contraction identified ACh and sensory fibers as the main contributors to this response. The neurons of the vesical plexus were located mainly in the trigone area, grouped in big and small ganglia. Out of them, 48.1 % of the neurons were nitrergic and 62.7 % cholinergic. Our results show functional and morphological similarities between the urinary bladder of O. degus and that of humans.

  1. Prognostic Impact of Thrombospodin-2 (THBS2) Overexpression on Patients with Urothelial Carcinomas of Upper Urinary Tracts and Bladders

    PubMed Central

    Chang, I-Wei; Li, Chien-Feng; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; He, Hong-Lin; Liang, Per-In; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Li, Ching-Chia; Huang, Chun-Nung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a type of tumor, especially of the urinary bladder, that affects people worldwide. Clarification of its detailed tumor biology and discovery of potential targets for developing treatment strategies are imperative because of frequent recurrences and poor prognosis of advanced UCs. By data mining a published dataset of UC of bladder (UCB) transcriptome (GSE31684) from Gene Expression Omnibus, National Center of Biotechnology Information (GEO, NCBI), we identified that THBS2 was the most significantly upregulated gene among those related to structural molecule activity (GO:0005198). Therefore, we evaluated the clinical significance and prognostic impact of thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) protein, A.K.A. TSP2, which encoded by THBS2 gene. Materials and Methods: THBS2 immunostaining was performed in 340 UCs of upper urinary tract (UC-UUTs) and 295 UCBs; subsequently, both groups were dichotomized into high- and low-expression subgroups. Moreover, statistical analyses were performed to correlate the association between THBS2 expression and clinicopathological parameters with two survival indexes: disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). Results: High THBS2 immunoexpression was significantly associated with advanced primary tumor status, nodal metastasis, and vascular invasion in both UC-UUT and UCB groups (all P ≤ .001). In addition, THBS2 overexpression was linked to adverse DSS and MeFS in univariate analyses and served as an independent prognosticator indicating poor outcomes in both groups in multivariate analyses. Conclusion: THBS2 may play a crucial role in UC progression and may be a novel prognostic marker. Additional investigations to elucidate the molecular pathway are necessary for developing potential THBS2-targeted therapies for UCs. PMID:27471570

  2. Alterations in urinary bladder M2-muscarinic receptor protein and mRNA in 2-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y C; Chin, W T; Cheng, J T

    1999-12-31

    The M2 receptor (M2-mAChR) is quantitatively the dominant muscarinic subtype in animal bladders. The alterations in its protein quantity and biosynthesis during diabetic cystopathy were investigated. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) 2-week-old diabetics; and (2) normoglycemic control rats. Diabetes was induced by single intravenous injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. The amount of M2 receptor protein in the rat bladder body tissue was measured by Western immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies. For determination of M2 muscarinic receptor mRNA in the bladder tissue, the method of Northern blotting was employed. The results of the Western immunoblotting showed that the amount of M2-mAChR protein in the diabetic bladder was significantly increased by 40.0 +/- 6.2% when compared with the control bladder (P < 0.05, n = 8). The Northern blotting demonstrated a 69.3 +/- 8.5% increase of the M2-mAChR mRNA in the diabetic bladder (P < 0.05, n = 8). The findings of the present study demonstrated an up-regulation of M2-mAChR biosynthesis in the diabetic urinary bladder. This phenomenon could lead to increased reactivity to acetylcholine and thus results in detrusor instability.

  3. Short-term effect of acute and repeated urinary bladder inflammation on thigmotactic behaviour in the laboratory rat

    PubMed Central

    Morland, Rosemary H; Novejarque, Amparo; Huang, Wenlong; Wodarski, Rachel; Denk, Franziska; Dawes, John D; Pheby, Tim; McMahon, Stephen B; Rice, Andrew SC

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the non-sensory components of the pain experience is crucial to developing effective treatments for pain conditions. Chronic pain is associated with increased incidence of anxio-depressive disorders, and patients often report feelings of vulnerability which can decrease quality of life. In animal models of pain, observation of behaviours such as thigmotaxis can be used to detect such affective disturbances by exploiting the influence of nociceptive stimuli on the innate behavioural conflict between exploration of a novel space and predator avoidance behaviour. This study investigates whether acute and repeated bladder inflammation in adult female Wistar rats increases thigmotactic behaviour in the open field paradigm, and aims to determine whether this correlates with activation in the central amygdala, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Additionally, up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in the urinary bladder was measured using RT-qPCR array featuring 92 transcripts to examine how local mediators change under experimental conditions. We found acute but not repeated turpentine inflammation of the bladder increased thigmotactic behaviour (decreased frequency of entry to the inner zone) in the open field paradigm, a result that was also observed in the catheter-only instrumentation group. Decreases in locomotor activity were also observed in both models in turpentine and instrumentation groups. No differences were observed in c-Fos activation, although a general increased in activation along the rostro-caudal axis was seen. Inflammatory mediator up-regulation was greatest following acute inflammation, with CCL12, CCL7, and IL-1β significantly up-regulated in both conditions when compared to naïve tissue. These results suggest that acute catheterisation, with or without turpentine inflammation, induces affective alterations detectable in the open field paradigm accompanied by up-regulation of multiple inflammatory mediators. PMID:27158443

  4. Dysregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in plasmacytoid variant of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda D; Chaux, Alcides; Al-Hussain, Turki; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Bezerra, Stephania Martins; Hicks, Jessica; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2013-04-01

    Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma is a rare but aggressive variant of bladder cancer with no clear therapeutic guidelines. Dysregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been linked to oncogenesis in conventional bladder cancer. Several antineoplastic agents targeting mTOR pathway are currently available. This study assesses mTOR pathway status as well as c-myc and p27 expression. We retrieved 19 archival cases of plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma from two institutions. Whole tissue sections were evaluated for immunoexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphorylated mTOR, phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT), phosphorylated S6, c-myc, and p27. We evaluated intensity (0 to 3+) and extent (0%-100%) of expression for all markers. An H score was calculated as the sum of products of intensity and extent for each marker and used during analysis. In addition, PTEN loss was defined as absence of expression in >10% of tumor cells. We encountered PTEN loss in 28%. Higher H score for nuclear phosphorylated AKT and a lower H score for phosphorylated S6 was encountered in muscle invasive tumors compared to non-muscle invasive tumors (P = .007 and P = .009, respectively). Although a trend for negative prognostic impact on overall survival for higher phosphorylated mTOR expression was noted (P = .051), markers expression levels failed to predict survival in our cohort. We found dysregulation of mTOR pathway members in urinary bladder plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma, suggesting that the use of mTOR pathway inhibitors might be beneficial for patients with this aggressive tumor.

  5. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions in Urinary Bladder and Small Intestine and How to Apply Them in Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Jerman, Urška Dragin; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Veranič, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme are essential for the establishment of proper tissue morphology during organogenesis and tissue regeneration as well as for the maintenance of cell differentiation. With this review, we highlight the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal cross talk in healthy tissue and further discuss its significance in engineering functional tissues in vitro. We focus on the urinary bladder and small intestine, organs that are often compromised by disease and are as such in need of research that would advance effective treatment or tissue replacement. To date, the understanding of epithelial-mesenchymal reciprocal interactions has enabled the development of in vitro biomimetic tissue equivalents that have provided many possibilities in treating defective, damaged, or even cancerous tissues. Although research of the past several years has advanced the field of bladder and small intestine tissue engineering, one must be aware of its current limitations in successfully and above all safely introducing tissue-engineered constructs into clinical practice. Special attention is in particular needed when treating cancerous tissues, as initially successful tumor excision and tissue reconstruction may later on result in cancer recurrence due to oncogenic signals originating from an altered stroma. Recent rather poor outcomes in pioneering clinical trials of bladder reconstructions should serve as a reminder that recreating a functional organ to replace a dysfunctional one is an objective far more difficult to reach than initially foreseen. When considering effective tissue engineering approaches for diseased tissues in humans, it is imperative to introduce animal models with dysfunctional or, even more importantly, cancerous organs, which would greatly contribute to predicting possible complications and, hence, reducing risks when translating to the clinic.

  6. Urinary retention in patients in a geriatric rehabilitation unit: prevalence, risk factors, and validity of bladder scan evaluation.

    PubMed

    Borrie, M J; Campbell, K; Arcese, Z A; Bray, J; Hart, P; Labate, T; Hesch, P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for urinary retention (UR) in frail, elderly patients, to determine its prevalence, and to assess the validity of the use of the BladderScan BVI 2500+ ultrasound scanner to measure postvoid residual urine volumes of > or = 150 ml. Probable UR was defined as two consecutive ultrasound scans with postvoid residual urine estimations of > or = 150 ml. The estimates were confirmed by in- and out-catheterization of actual postvoid residual urine (PVR). Risk factors for UR were the independent variables used in the regression analysis. Nineteen of the 167 people (11%) had UR. The risk of UR was greatest among patients who were older, or who were on anticholinergic medication, or who had diabetes of long standing, or who had fecal impaction. The correlation between paired scans and catheter volumes of > or = 150 ml was 0.87. The results suggest that the BladderScan BVI 2500+ ultrasound scanner, when used by trained nursing staff, provides conservative and valid estimates of PVR of > or = 150 ml in people undergoing geriatric rehabilitation.

  7. Morphology and intercellular communication in glial cells of intramural ganglia from the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Hanani, M; Maudlej, N; Härtig, W

    1999-04-16

    Neurons in most peripheral ganglia are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SCs), but these cells have so far received little attention. We used immunohistochemistry and intracellular injections of tracers to characterize SCs in the intramural ganglia of the guinea-pig urinary bladder, which are part of the parasympathetic system. Intracellular injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) revealed two morphological types: cells that surrounded neurons and are SCs proper, and bipolar cells with processes that projected into the nerve fiber bundles connecting the ganglia. SCs were immunopositive for glutamine synthetase (GS) and S100beta and immunonegative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Injections of Lucifer yellow (LY) or biocytin (molecules known to cross gap junctions) into single SCs showed that these cells have a very low degree of intercellular coupling. A mean of 0.31 and 0.71 cells were coupled to the injected cells, using LY and biocytin, respectively. It appears that SCs in the bladder ganglia are distinct from central and enteric glial cells in the small degree of their coupling and in the absence of GFAP immunostaining.

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the bladder: a new technique for studying lower urinary tract function in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Afshar, Kourosh; Stothers, Lynn; Macnab, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Background: Continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor chromophore change in the bladder detrusor muscle during voiding; oxygenation and hemodynamic data derived differ in health and disease. Application of wireless NIRS for evaluation of voiding dysfunction would benefit children. Methods: Subjects: 20 children (4-17 yrs) [5 normal, 15 with urinary tract pathology]. Instrumentation: self-contained device weight 84 gm; 3 paired light emitting diodes (760/850 nm) in a spatially resolved configuration; source-detector separation distances (30, 35 and 40 mm); silicon photodiode detector; and Bluetooth®. Procedure: Transcutaneous monitoring (midline abdominal skin 2 cm above pubis) during spontaneous voiding (bladder contraction) of oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb) and total hemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI %) at 10 Hz. Results: All 20 trials produced clear graphic data with no movement effect evident. Comparison of patterns of chromophore change between normal and symptomatic subjects revealed trend differences in O2Hb and tHb. (Normal positive; Symptomatic negative, and TSI% fell in symptomatic group). Conclusions: Wireless NIRS is technically feasible in ambulant children. Negative trends in chromophore concentration and falls in TSI% suggest a hemodynamic impairment may underlie some forms of voiding dysfunction, with abnormal physiology involving the microcirculation possibly resulting in muscle fatigue during voiding.

  9. Detection of tumorigenesis in urinary bladder with optical coherence tomography: optical characterization of morphological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, T.-Q.; Zeidel, M. L.; Pan, Yingtian

    2002-12-01

    Most transitional cell tumorigenesis involves three stages of subcellular morphological changes: hyperplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia. Previous studies demonstrated that owing to its high spatial resolution and intermediate penetration depth, current OCT technology including endoscopic OCT could delineate the urothelium, submucosa and the upper muscular layers of the bladder wall. In this paper, we will discuss the sensitivity and limitations of OCT in diagnosing and staging bladder cancer. Based on histomorphometric evaluations of nuclear morphology, we modeled the resultant backscattering changes and the characteristic changes in OCT image contrast. In the theoretical modeling, we assumed that nuclei were the primary sources of scattering and were uniformly distributed in the uroepithelium, and compared with the results of the corresponding prior OCT measurements. According to our theoretical modeling, normal bladder shows a thin, uniform and low scattering urothelium, so does an inflammatory lesion except thickening in the submucosa. Compared with a normal bladder, a hyperplastic lesion exhibits a thickened, low scattering urothelium whereas a neoplastic lesion shows a thickened urothelium with increased backscattering. These results support our previous animal study that OCT has the potential to differentiate inflammation, hyperplasia, and neoplasia by quantifying the changes in urothelial thickening and backscattering. The results also suggest that OCT might not have the sensitivity to differentiate the subtle morphological changes between hyperplasia and dysplasia based on minor backscattering differences.

  10. Mechanism responsible for the antitumor effect of BCG-CWS using the LEEL method in a mouse bladder cancer model.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Fukiage, Masafumi; Suzuki, Yoshiteru; Yano, Ikuya; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Akaza, Hideyuki; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-12-28

    We previously reported on the development of a water soluble formulation of the cell wall skeleton of BCG (BCG-CWS), a major immune active center of BCG, by encapsulating it into a nanoparticle (CWS-NP). The CWS-NP allowed us to clarify the machinery associated with the BCG mediated anti-bladder tumor effect, especially the roles of bladder cancer cells and dendritic cells (DCs) in the initial step, which remains poorly understood. We show herein that the internalization of BCG-CWS by bladder cancer cells, but not DCs, is indispensable for the induction of an antitumor effect against bladder cancer. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in mice that had been inoculated with mouse bladder cancer (MBT-2) cells containing internalized BCG-CWS. On the other hand, the internalization of BCG-CWS by DCs had only a minor effect on inducing an antitumor effect against MBT-2 tumors. This was clarified for the first time by using the CWS-NP. This finding provides insights into our understanding of the role of bladder cancer cells and DCs in BCG therapy against bladder cancer.

  11. CT urography: segmentation of urinary bladder using CLASS with local contour refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-06-01

    We are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CT urography (CTU), as a critical component for computer-aided detection of bladder cancer. The presence of regions filled with intravenous contrast and without contrast presents a challenge for bladder segmentation. Previously, we proposed a conjoint level set analysis and segmentation system (CLASS). In case the bladder is partially filled with contrast, CLASS segments the non-contrast (NC) region and the contrast-filled (C) region separately and automatically conjoins the NC and C region contours; however, inaccuracies in the NC and C region contours may cause the conjoint contour to exclude portions of the bladder. To alleviate this problem, we implemented a local contour refinement (LCR) method that exploits model-guided refinement (MGR) and energy-driven wavefront propagation (EDWP). MGR propagates the C region contours if the level set propagation in the C region stops prematurely due to substantial non-uniformity of the contrast. EDWP with regularized energies further propagates the conjoint contours to the correct bladder boundary. EDWP uses changes in energies, smoothness criteria of the contour, and previous slice contour to determine when to stop the propagation, following decision rules derived from training. A data set of 173 cases was collected for this study: 81 cases in the training set (42 lesions, 21 wall thickenings, 18 normal bladders) and 92 cases in the test set (43 lesions, 36 wall thickenings, 13 normal bladders). For all cases, 3D hand segmented contours were obtained as reference standard and used for the evaluation of the computerized segmentation accuracy. For CLASS with LCR, the average volume intersection ratio, average volume error, absolute average volume error, average minimum distance and Jaccard index were 84.2 ± 11.4%, 8.2 ± 17.4%, 13.0 ± 14.1%, 3.5 ± 1.9 mm, 78.8 ± 11.6%, respectively, for the training set and 78.0 ± 14.7%, 16.4 ± 16.9%, 18.2 ± 15.0%, 3

  12. CT urography: segmentation of urinary bladder using CLASS with local contour refinement.

    PubMed

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M; Cohan, Richard H; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-06-07

    We are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CT urography (CTU), as a critical component for computer-aided detection of bladder cancer. The presence of regions filled with intravenous contrast and without contrast presents a challenge for bladder segmentation. Previously, we proposed a conjoint level set analysis and segmentation system (CLASS). In case the bladder is partially filled with contrast, CLASS segments the non-contrast (NC) region and the contrast-filled (C) region separately and automatically conjoins the NC and C region contours; however, inaccuracies in the NC and C region contours may cause the conjoint contour to exclude portions of the bladder. To alleviate this problem, we implemented a local contour refinement (LCR) method that exploits model-guided refinement (MGR) and energy-driven wavefront propagation (EDWP). MGR propagates the C region contours if the level set propagation in the C region stops prematurely due to substantial non-uniformity of the contrast. EDWP with regularized energies further propagates the conjoint contours to the correct bladder boundary. EDWP uses changes in energies, smoothness criteria of the contour, and previous slice contour to determine when to stop the propagation, following decision rules derived from training. A data set of 173 cases was collected for this study: 81 cases in the training set (42 lesions, 21 wall thickenings, 18 normal bladders) and 92 cases in the test set (43 lesions, 36 wall thickenings, 13 normal bladders). For all cases, 3D hand segmented contours were obtained as reference standard and used for the evaluation of the computerized segmentation accuracy. For CLASS with LCR, the average volume intersection ratio, average volume error, absolute average volume error, average minimum distance and Jaccard index were 84.2 ± 11.4%, 8.2 ± 17.4%, 13.0 ± 14.1%, 3.5 ± 1.9 mm, 78.8 ± 11.6%, respectively, for the training set and 78.0 ± 14.7%, 16.4 ± 16.9%, 18.2 ± 15.0%, 3

  13. Polymorphisms in the XPC gene affect urinary bladder cancer risk: a case-control study, meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    Compromised activity of the DNA repair enzymes may raise the risk of a number of cancers. We analyzed polymorphisms in the Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C (XPC) gene for their correlation with urinary bladder cancer. Ala499Val and Lys939Gln polymorphisms were genotyped in 234 urinary bladder cancer cases and 258 control samples. A significant association between Ala499Val polymorphism and bladder cancer was observed (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.19–2.66, p = 0.005); however, Lys939Gln was unrelated (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.65–1.45, P = 0.89). Further analysis revealed that Ala499Val was a significant risk factor only in the presence of smoking (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.28–3.87, p < 0.004) or tobacco chewing (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.43–4.04, p = 0.0008). To further appraise the association, we undertook meta-analyses on seven studies (2893 cases and 3056 controls) on Ala499Val polymorphism and eleven studies (5064 cases and 5208 controls) on Lys939Gln polymorphism. Meta-analyses corroborated the above results, showing strong association of Ala499Val (OR = 1.54, CI = 1.21–1.97, p = 0.001) but not that of Lys939Gln (OR = 1.13, CI = 0.95–1.34, p = 0.171) with urinary bladder cancer risk. In conclusion, XPC Ala499Val substitution increases urinary bladder cancer risk, but Lys939Gln appears to be neutral. PMID:27246180

  14. Inorganic alkalizers and acidifiers under conditions of high urinary Na+ or K+ on cell proliferation and two-stage carcinogenesis in the rat bladder.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Tamano, S; Shirai, T; Kawabe, M; Fukushima, S

    1992-08-01

    Effects of alkalizers and acidifiers on bladder cell proliferation and two-stage carcinogenesis were investigated under conditions of high urinary Na+ or K+. Animals were given 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in their drinking water for 4 weeks and then received Na3PO4, NaH2PO4, NaCl, NaH2PO4 + NaCl, K3PO4, KH2PO4, KCl, KH2PO4 + KCl or no chemical supplement in the diet from weeks 5 to 8 and from weeks 12 to 20. During weeks 9 to 11, the rats were fed 3% uracil in their diet for acceleration of promotion. Na3PO4 or K3PO4 induced marked natriuresis or kaluresis and alkalinuria associated with strong promoting potential for bladder carcinogenesis. NaH2PO4 induced moderate natriuresis and aciduria and exhibited weak promoting activity. NaH2PO4 + NaCl or KH2PO4 + KCl caused marked increase in the respective cation levels and aciduria with elevation of promotion as compared to NaH2PO4 or KH2PO4 alone. NaCl or KCl induced moderate natriuresis or kaluresis and did not alter urinary pH. NaCl but not KCl also exerted weak promoting activity for bladder carcinogenesis. Increased DNA synthesis after test chemical exposure for 8 weeks and morphological alterations observed by scanning electron microscopy in the bladder epithelium were only quantitatively linked with promoting activity in the Na3PO4 case. With the other treatments no clear correlation between early cell proliferation and promotion potential was apparent. The present results suggest that although elevation in urinary Na+ or K+ level may be an essential factor for promotion of rat bladder carcinogenesis, the action of these cations may depend strongly on urinary alkalinity.

  15. Involvement of interleukin-6-regulated nitric oxide synthase in hemorrhagic cystitis and impaired bladder contractions in young rats induced by acrolein, a urinary metabolite of cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Chia; Weng, Te-I; Wu, En-Ting; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Yang, Rong-Sen; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication in children receiving cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent. Acrolein is a urinary metabolite from cyclophosphamide and can induce hemorrhagic cystitis. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of acrolein by intravesical instillation on urinary bladder muscle contractions and pathological alterations in rats. Acrolein instillation significantly increased the muscle contractions of rat bladder detrusor after 1 and 6 h but markedly decreased detrusor contractions after 24 h. Acrolein increased phosphorylated protein kinase C (pan-PKC) expressions in bladders after 1 and 6 h but inhibited it after 24 h. Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) protein expressions were markedly induced in bladders 24 h after acrolein treatment. Twenty-four-hour acrolein instillation increased the levels of nitrite/nitrate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urinary bladder. The iNOS inhibitors significantly inhibited the acrolein-increased nitrite/nitrate levels, but not IL-6 levels. IL-6-neutralizing antibodies effectively inhibited the acrolein-increased NOx levels. The increased detrusor contractions by 1-h acrolein treatment were significantly reversed by the PKC inhibitor RO32-0432, and the decreased detrusor contractions by 24-h acrolein treatment were significantly reversed by the iNOS inhibitor and IL-6-neutralizing antibody. Both the iNOS inhibitor and IL-6-neutralizing antibody effectively reversed the increased iNOS expression, decreased PKC phosphorylation, increased bladder weight, and hemorrhagic cystitis in rats 24 h after acrolein treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that an IL-6-regulated iNOS/NO signaling pathway participates in the acrolein-triggered detrusor contraction inhibition and hemorrhagic cystitis. These findings may help us to find a new strategy to treat cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  16. Botulinum toxin type A-induced changes in the chemical coding of dorsal root ganglion neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Bossowska, A; Majewski, M

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX) is a potent neurotoxin, which in recent years has been effectively applied in experimental treatments of many neurogenic disorders of the urinary bladder. BTX is a selective, presynaptically-acting blocking agent of acetylcholine release from nerve terminals what, in turn, leads to the cessation of somatic motor and/or parasympathetic transmission. However, application of this toxin in urological practice is still in the developmental stages and the full mechanism of its action remain elusive. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the neurochemical characterization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after BTX treatment. Retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the urinary bladder wall in six juvenile female pigs and three weeks later, intramural bladder injections of BTX (100 IU per animal) were carried out in all the animals. After a week, DRG from L1 to Cql were harvested from the pigs and neurochemical characterization of FB+ neurons was performed using double- labeling immunofluorescence technique on 10-microm-thick cryostat sections. BTX injections led to a significant decrease in the number of FB+ neurons containing substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calbindin (CB), somatostatin (SOM) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) when compared with that found in the healthy animals (19% vs. 45%, 18% vs. 36%, 0.6% vs. 3%, 0.4 vs. 4% and 0.1% vs. 6%, respectively) These data demonstrated that BTX changed the chemical coding of bladder sensory neurons, and therefore this drug should be taken into consideration when it planning experimental therapy of selected neurogenic bladder disorders.

  17. Omeprazole and SCH 28080 inhibit acid secretion by the turtle urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Graber, M L; Devine, P

    1993-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence that in addition to the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase, a gastric-type H+/K(+)-ATPase participates in acidification by the distal nephron. To determine whether a similar pump exists in the turtle bladder, we examined the dependence of acid secretion on mucosal K+, and the effects of supposedly specific inhibitors of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase, omeprazole and SCH 28080. In CO2-stimulated bladders both drugs produced dose-dependent inhibition of electrogenic H+ secretion measured as the reverse short-circuit current (RSCC). At the highest concentrations tested, H+ secretion decreased 45 +/- 16% with mucosal and 20 +/- 7% with serosal omeprazole (P < 0.01). SCH 28080 at 400 microM produced essentially complete inhibition of H+ secretion with either mucosal or serosal application. When H+ secretion was purposefully inhibited by DIDS or an adverse mucosal pH gradient, SCH 28080 had no effect on RSCC. Removing mucosal K+ (measured K+ < 50 microM), with or without mucosal barium, had no effect on RSCC. The inhibition of RSCC by omeprazole was reversed by mercaptoethanol. Finally, HCO3 secretion, as measured by either RSCC or pH-stat titration, increased significantly in response to 400 microM SCH 28080. The results demonstrate that these compounds inhibit acid secretion by the turtle bladder but stimulate the secretion of base. In view of the total independence of acid secretion on potassium, it is unlikely that any of the bladder's acid secretion is mediated by an H+/K(+)-ATPase. The most reasonable interpretation of the data is that omeprazole and SCH 28080, previously thought to be specific inhibitors of the H+/K(+)-ATPase, also inhibit the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase of the turtle bladder. The results also indicate that HCO3 secretion by the bladder employ a different mechanism of H+ transport than is used for acid secretion; there is no simple reversal of polarity in the acid- versus base-secreting cells.

  18. Guizhi Fuling Wan as a Novel Agent for Intravesical Treatment for Bladder Cancer in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chi-Chen; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Chia-Bin; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Wu, Jiann-Der; Tseng, Ling-Huei; Hwang, Dennis W; Chen, Syue-Yi; Wu, Shu-Fen; Chan, Michael W Y; Hsu, Cheng-Da

    2016-01-01

    Alternative intravesical agents are required to overcome the side effects currently associated with the treatment of bladder cancer. This study used an orthotopic bladder cancer mouse model to evaluate Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) as an intravesical agent. The effects of GFW were compared with those of mitomycin-C (Mito-C) and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We began by evaluating the response of the mouse bladder cancer cell line MB49 to GFW treatment, with regard to cell viability, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. MB49 cells were subsequently implanted into the urothelial walls of the bladder in female C57BL/6 mice. The success of the model was confirmed by the appearance of hematuria and tumor growth in the bladder. Intravesical chemotherapy was administered in accordance with a published protocol. In vitro data revealed that GFW arrested MB49 cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, resulting in the suppression of cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. One possible mechanism underlying these effects is an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels leading to the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) and ATM/P53 pathways, thereby mediating cell cycle progression and apoptosis, respectively. This mouse model demonstrates the effectiveness of GFW in the tumor growth, with results comparable to those achieved by using BCG and Mito-C. Furthermore, GFW was shown to cause only mild hematuria. The low toxicity of the compound was confirmed by a complete lack of lesions on bladder tissue, even after 10 consecutive treatments using high concentrations of GFW. These results demonstrate the potential of GFW for the intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. PMID:26837068

  19. Response of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli to cephalosporins in an in vitro model simulating conditions of bacterial growth in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, D.; O'Grady, F.

    1975-01-01

    Five ampicillin resistant strains of Escherichia coli were exposed to cephalosporins in an in vitro model which simulates the hydrokinetic features of the urinary bladder. Although the strains showed substantial zones of inhibition when tested against cephalosporins by the disc diffusion method, the results in the bladder model suggest that, in conditions where the antibiotic concentration is being reduced by dilution and micturition as well as enzymic hydrolysis by the organism, activity of this group of agents may be insufficient to eradicate infection. It is suggested that the results warrant a closer investigation into the efficacy of cephalosporins against ampicillin resistant Gram negative bacilli in vivo. PMID:1106751

  20. Micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Amel; Stita, Wided; Soumaya, Rammeh; Mestiri, Sarra; Jaidene, Mehdi; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok

    2008-10-01

    Micropapillary carcinoma is an uncommon variant of urothelial carcinoma with high metastatic potential. The presence of micropapillary carcinoma component in bladder biopsies should alert urologists to its aggressive behaviour. We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with macroscopic hematuria lasting 2 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bladder tumour in the dome area extended to perivascular adipose. The transurethral biopsy showed a high-grade micropapillary carcinoma with muscle invasion. Radical cystectomy with lymph node dissection was then performed. The pathological examination revealed a high-grade purely micropapillary carcinoma invading the perivesical adipose. No tumour recurrence or metastasis were reported at the 6-month follow-up.

  1. Quantitative study of phenol as a neurolytic agent in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Parkhouse, H F; Gilpin, S A; Gosling, J A; Turner-Warwick, R T

    1987-11-01

    The endoscopic subtrigonal injection of a 6% aqueous phenol solution is an effective technique for denervating the bladder but its clinical usefulness is limited by unpredictable side effects. This study explored the possibility of making this procedure safer by comparing the neurolytic effects of different concentrations and carriers of phenol. Phenol in 2.5 and 5% solutions in three different carriers (water, glycerine and oil) was injected into the rectovesical pouch in 35 rats. After 3 weeks the bladders were excised and the effects on the density of acetylcholinesterase-positive nerves were assessed in each animal using morphometric techniques. The density of enzyme-containing nerves was reduced by 20% in the phenolised animals when compared with controls. This reduction was maximum when water was used as the carrier for either 2.5 or 5% phenol solutions.

  2. Age-Related Alterations in Regeneration of the Urinary Bladder after Subtotal Cystectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    collection began at the start of the diurnal dark cycle and continued for 20 hours. Before and after urine collection, weights were recorded for all animals...Studies Animals were sacrificed with CO2 inhalation and bilateral thoracotomy. The bladders were harvested and immediately placed in ice-cold Krebs ...reduction in maximum pressures generated during the voiding cycle . Although the cause is unclear, possibilities include reduced outflow resistance in the

  3. [Effects of transcranial magnetotherapy on electroencephalographic parameters in females with overactive urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, A I; Klyzhina, E A; Neĭmark, B A; Mel'nik, M A

    2007-01-01

    Urodynamic parameters and bioelectric brain activity were studied in 30 females aged 24-66 years with overactive bladder (OAB) before and after transcranial magnetotherapy. It was found that OAB patients have disorders of bioelectric brain activity by two types of EEG patterns (I.A. Svyatogor classification)--thalamic and stem, Patients with thalamic type EEG benefit more from magnetotherapy higher efficacy of which manifests with regress of clinical symptoms and urodynamic improvement.

  4. Technologic developments in the field of photonics for the detection of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Scott; Sokolovski, Sergei G; Rafailov, Edik; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-12-01

    Bladder cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in an aging population. Each year, thousands of people, mostly men, are diagnosed with this disease, but many of them present too late to receive optimal treatment. As with all cancers, early diagnosis of bladder cancer significantly improves the efficacy of therapy and increases survival and recurrence-free survival rates. Ongoing research has identified many limitations about the sensitivity of standard diagnostic procedures in detecting early-stage tumors and precancerous changes. The consequences of this are often tumor progression and increased tumor burden, leading to a decrease in patient quality of life and a vast increase in treatment costs. The necessity for improved early detection of bladder cancer has spurred on research into novel methods that use a wide range of biological and photonic phenomena. This review will broadly discuss standard detection methodologies and their major limitations before covering novel photonic techniques for early tumor detection and staging, assessing their diagnostic accuracy for flat and precancerous changes. We will do so in the context of both cystoscopic examination and the screening of voided urine and will also touch on the concept of using photonic technology as a surgical tool for tumor ablation.

  5. [Biofeedback for urinary bladder dysfunctions in childhood. Indications, practice and the results of therapy].

    PubMed

    Hoang-Böhm, J; Lusch, A; Sha, W; Alken, P

    2004-07-01

    In children, abnormal behavior during micturition, i.e. detrusor/sphincter dyscoordination, causes persistent voiding problems, urinary incontinence and/or recurrent urinary tract infections in up to 15% of cases. Contractions of the external urethral sphincter during micturition lead to functional subvesical obstruction. Nowadays, biofeedback training is the most suitable therapy. Biofeedback training for children is based on the assumption that relaxation and contraction of the urinary external sphincter is a habitual phenomenon and can be restored. With specially developed, computer-assisted biofeedback programs, sphincter contraction and relaxation can be transformed into acoustic or visual signals. Acoustic or optical feedback indicates relaxation and contraction control to the patient. The residual urine volume should subsequently be assessed. The results should be reviewed after each micturition. Poor compliance sometimes makes biofeedback training impossible. Further biofeedback training at home is a reasonable suggestion. Good results-a response rate of up to 90%-demonstrates that biofeedback training is successful in the treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyscoordination. After effective therapy, associated urinary tract infections and vesicoureterorenal reflux may disappear.

  6. Urinary Bladder Cancer: Biomarkers and Target Therapy, New Era for More Attention

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Amrallah A.; EL-Tanni, Hani; EL-Khatib, Hani M.; Mirza, Ahmad A.; Mirza, Abdulrahim A.; Alturaifi, Turki H.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, bladder cancer (BCa) evaluation depends mainly on traditional clinicopathological parameters encompassing tumor stage and grade, which will not reflect the behavior of the disease. Diverse molecular alterations are responsible for the heterogeneous course. The differences in molecular pathogenesis between non-invasive BCa and invasive BCa have been recognized. Molecular biomarkers are promising to predict progression and survival. The management of advanced BCa remains somewhat primitive in comparison with other more common malignancies. This topic will discuss the molecular pathways, biomarkers and potential targets that may improve the outcome in BCa. PMID:28058098

  7. The role of urinary pH in o-phenylphenol-induced cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage in the bladders of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Hasegawa, L; Eastmond, D A

    2016-04-01

    o-Phenylphenol (OPP) is a widely used fungicide and antibacterial agent that at high doses has been shown to cause bladder cancer in male F344 rats. The mechanisms underlying OPP-induced bladder carcinogenicity remain unclear but it has been proposed that a non-enzymatic pH-dependent autoxidation of phenylhydroquinone (PHQ), a primary metabolite of OPP, may be a key step in OPP-induced rat bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this mechanism and to provide insights into the potential human health relevance of OPP-induced cancer, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted. In human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells and rat bladder epithelial NBT-II cells, strong increases in cytotoxicity were seen at a constant concentration of PHQ by increasing the buffer pH as well as by increasing concentrations of PHQ at a constant pH. In in vivo studies, male rats were administered OPP (4,000 and 8,000 ppm) in a diet supplemented with either 1% ammonium chloride or 3% sodium bicarbonate to produce acidic and alkaline urinary pH, respectively. Significant increases in cell proliferation as detected by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and micronucleus formation were seen in the bladder cells of OPP-treated rats with neutral or alkaline urinary pH but not in animals with the acidified urine. The results from these in vitro and in vivo studies provide support for the autoxidation hypothesis of bioactivation, and provide additional evidence that urinary pH can significantly influence the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of this important agent.

  8. Detection of multiple mutations in urinary exfoliated cells from male bladder cancer patients at diagnosis and during follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Critelli, Rossana; Fasanelli, Francesca; Oderda, Marco; Polidoro, Silvia; Assumma, Manuela Bianca; Viberti, Clara; Preto, Mirko; Gontero, Paolo; Cucchiarale, Giuseppina; Lurkin, Irene; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Naccarati, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Most bladder cancer (BC) patients need life-long, invasive and expensive monitoring and treatment, making it a serious burden on the health system. Thus, there is a pressing need for an accurate test to assist diagnosis and surveillance of BC as an alternative to cystoscopy. Mutations in human TERT, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and RAS genes have been proposed as potential molecular markers in bladder tumor. Their concomitant presence in urine samples has not been fully explored. We investigated a panel of mutations in DNA from exfoliated urinary cells of 255 BC patients at diagnosis. Forty-one mutations in TERT, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and RAS were analyzed by SNaPshot assay in relation to clinical outcome. In 81 of these patients under surveillance, the same set of mutations was screened in additional 324 samples prospectively collected. The most common mutations detected in urine at diagnosis were in the TERT promoter. In non-invasive BC, these mutations were related to high risk and grade (p<0.0001) as well as progression to muscle-invasive disease (p=0.01), whereas FGFR3 mutations were observed in low-grade BC (p=0.02) and patients with recurrences (p=0.05). Stronger associations were observed for combined TERT and FGFR3 mutations and number of recurrences (OR: 4.54 95% CI: 1.23-16.79, p=0.02). Analyses of the area under the curve for combinations of mutations detected at diagnosis and follow-up showed an accuracy of prediction of recurrence of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71-0.89). Mutations in urine of BC patients may represent reliable biomarkers. In particular, TERT and FGFR3 mutations have a good accuracy of recurrence prediction. PMID:27611947

  9. Fucoidan inhibits the proliferation of human urinary bladder cancer T24 cells by blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Young; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun Jae; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-05-09

    Although fucoidan has been shown to exert anticancer activity against several types of cancer cell lines, no reports have explored fucoidan-affected cell growth in human urinary bladder cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of fucoidan in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Our results indicated that fucoidan decreased the viability of T24 cells through the induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Fucoidan-induced G1 arrest is associated with the enhanced expression of the Cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and dephosphorylation of the pRB along with enhanced binding of p21 to Cdk4/6 as well as pRB to the transcription factor E2Fs. Further investigations showed the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, proving mitochondrial dysfunction upon fucoidan treatment with a corresponding increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio. Fucoidan-triggered apoptosis was also accompanied by the up-regulation of Fas and truncated Bid as well as the sequential activation of caspase-8. Furthermore, a significant increased activation of caspase-9/-3 was detected in response to fucoidan treatment with the decreased expression of IAPs and degradation of PARP, whereas a pan-caspase inhibitor significantly suppressed apoptosis and rescued the cell viability reduction. In conclusion, these observations suggest that fucoidan attenuates G1-S phase cell cycle progression and serves as an important mediator of crosstalk between caspase-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in T24 cells.

  10. beta-NAD is a novel nucleotide released on stimulation of nerve terminals in human urinary bladder detrusor muscle.

    PubMed

    Breen, Leanne T; Smyth, Lisa M; Yamboliev, Ilia A; Mutafova-Yambolieva, Violeta N

    2006-02-01

    Endogenous nucleotides with extracellular functions may be involved in the complex neural control of human urinary bladder (HUB). Using HPLC techniques with fluorescence detection, we observed that in addition to ATP and its metabolites ADP, AMP and adenosine, electrical field stimulation (EFS; 4-16 Hz, 0.1 ms, 15 V, 60 s) of HUB detrusor smooth muscle coreleases novel nucleotide factors, which produce etheno-1N(6)-ADP-ribose (eADPR) on etheno-derivatization at high temperature. A detailed HPLC fraction analysis determined that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (beta-NAD+; 7.0 +/- 0.7 fmol/mg tissue) is the primary nucleotide that contributes to the formation of eADPR. The tissue superfusates collected during EFS also contained the beta-NAD+ metabolite ADPR (0.35 +/- 0.2 fmol/mg tissue) but not cyclic ADPR (cADPR). HUB failed to degrade nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD+), a specific substrate of ADP ribosyl cyclase, suggesting that the activity of this enzyme in the HUB is negligible. The EFS-evoked release of beta-NAD+ was frequency dependent and is reduced in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.3 micromol/l), omega-conotoxin GVIA (50 nmol/l), and botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A; 100 nmol/l), but remained unchanged in the presence of guanethidine (3 micromol/l), omega-agatoxin IVA (50 nmol/l), or charbachol (1 micromol/l). Capsaicin (10 micromol/l) increased both the resting and EFS-evoked overflow of beta-NAD+. Exogenous beta-NAD+ (1 micromol/l) reduced both the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions. In conclusion, we detected nerve-evoked overflow of beta-NAD+ and ADPR in HUB. The beta-NAD(+)/ADPR system may constitute a novel inhibitory extracellular nucleotide mechanism of neural control of the human bladder.

  11. Single-cell analyses of transcriptional heterogeneity in squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yong; Xu, Liqin; Li, Weidong; Zou, Zhihui; Liu, Chunxiao; Xu, Abai; Wu, Song

    2016-01-01

    Cell-to-cell expression heterogeneity within a single tumor is a common phenotype among various cancer types including squamous cell carcinoma. To further study the fundamentals and importance of heterogeneity of cell functions and its potential mechanisms, we performed single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) on human squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) and its corresponding physiologically normal epithelia. Extensive differentially expressed genes were uncovered by comparing cancer and normal single cells, which were preferentially enriched in cancer-correlated pathways, such as p53 signaling and bladder cancer pathway. Furthermore, the most diversely expressed genes were particularly enriched in MAPK signaling pathway, such as CACNG4, CACNA1E and CACNA1H, which involve in cancer evolution and heterogeneity formation. Co-expression network and hub-gene analyses revealed several remarkable “hub genes” of each regulatory module. Some of them are cancer related, such as POU2F3, NKD1 and CYP2C8, while LINC00189, GCC2 and OR9Q1 genes are rarely reported in human diseases. The genes within an interesting module are highly correlated with others, which could be treated as potential targets for SCCB patients. Our findings have fundamental implications for SCCB biology and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27602771

  12. Case-control study of urinary bladder cancer in metropolitan Nagoya.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Aoki, K; Obata, K; Morrison, A S

    1985-12-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study of patients with bladder cancer and of controls drawn randomly from the general population of Metropolitan Nagoya and interviewed both groups. The incidence rates of bladder cancer were 2.42 and 7.05/100,000 for females and males, respectively. The analysis, based on 293 patients and 589 controls who were frequency matched for age, sex, and residence, provided the following major findings. Age-adjusted relative risks of 1.89 (1.15-3.10) and 3.53 (1.71-7.27) were found in male and female cigarette smokers, respectively. Significant relative risk was also found in males who drank cocoa. Elevated risk with a dose-response relationship was observed among women who used hair dye and who smoke, but this risk was insignificant, with the disappearance of a dose-response relationship, when it was adjusted for smoking. Age- and smoking-adjusted relative risk of coffee drinking was insignificant with no dose-response relationship. Relative risk of artificial sweetener use was below 1 with adjustment for age and smoking. Intake of alcoholic beverages and cola was insignificantly associated. Reduced risk of significance was suggested for the intake of black tea and matcha (powdered green tea) in females and of fruit juice in males.

  13. Stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome: current options and new targets for management.

    PubMed

    Elser, Denise M

    2012-05-01

    In the United States, office visits for women seeking treatment for urinary incontinence more than doubled between 1994 and 2000, from 1845 per 100 000 women. This review article addresses treatment options for 2 common types of incontinence in women: stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and detrusor overactivity (DO), commonly referred to as urge urinary incontinence (UUI). In the past, those with SUI typically faced limited treatment options, such as Kegel exercises, pessaries, or major surgery (Burch or Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz operations). However, treatment options for women also included anticholinergic medications, behavioral therapy, and implantable neuromodulation. In recent years, more options have become available. For women with SUI, a variety of minimally invasive synthetic midurethral sling approaches (eg, retropubic, transobturator, and single incision) and office-based procedures (eg, periurethral injection of bulking agents and radiofrequency collagen denaturation [Renessa®; Novasys Medical]) are now offered. More outpatient options will hopefully be available soon, including an inflatable, free-floating balloon to act as a shock absorber, and injection of muscle-derived stem cells into the periurethral tissue. Women with UUI now have targeted options, such as posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) and intravesical injections of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®; Allergan, Inc.), in addition to nonoral systemic medications.

  14. Localization of Peripheral Autonomic Neurons Innervating the Boar Urinary Bladder Trigone and Neurochemical Features of the Sympathetic Component

    PubMed Central

    Ragionieri, L.; Botti, M.; Gazza, F.; Sorteni, C.; Chiocchetti, R.; Clavenzani, P.; Minelli, L. Bo; Panu, R.

    2013-01-01

    The urinary bladder trigone (UBT) is a limited area through which the majority of vessels and nerve fibers penetrate into the urinary bladder and where nerve fibers and intramural neurons are more concentrated. We localized the extramural post-ganglionic autonomic neurons supplying the porcine UBT by means of retrograde tracing (Fast Blue, FB). Moreover, we investigated the phenotype of sympathetic trunk ganglia (STG) and caudal mesenteric ganglia (CMG) neurons positive to FB (FB+) by coupling retrograde tracing and double-labeling immunofluorescence methods. A mean number of 1845.1±259.3 FB+ neurons were localized bilaterally in the L1-S3 STG, which appeared as small pericarya (465.6±82.7 µm2) mainly localized along an edge of the ganglion. A large number (4287.5±1450.6) of small (476.1±103.9 µm2) FB+ neurons were localized mainly along a border of both CMG. The largest number (4793.3±1990.8) of FB+ neurons was observed in the pelvic plexus (PP), where labeled neurons were often clustered within different microganglia and had smaller soma cross-sectional area (374.9±85.4 µm2). STG and CMG FB+ neurons were immunoreactive (IR) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (66±10.1% and 52.7±8.2%, respectively), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH) (62±6.2% and 52±6.2%, respectively), neuropeptide Y (NPY) (59±8.2% and 65.8±7.3%, respectively), calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) (24.1±3.3% and 22.1±3.3%, respectively), substance P (SP) (21.6±2.4% and 37.7±7.5%, respectively), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) (18.9±2.3% and 35.4±4.4%, respectively), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) (15.3±2% and 32.9±7.7%, respectively), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) (15±2% and 34.7±4.5%, respectively), leuenkephalin (LENK) (14.3±7.1% and 25.9±8.9%, respectively), and somatostatin (SOM) (12.4±3% and 31.8±7.3%, respectively). UBT-projecting neurons were also surrounded by VAChT-, CGRP-, LENK-, and nNOSIR fibers. The possible role of these neurons

  15. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study of 107 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David; Barney, Brandon; Sundar, Santhanam; Poortmans, Philip; Villa, Salvador; Nasrallah, Haitam; Boujelbene, Noureddine; Ghadjar, Pirus; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin; Senkus, Elżbieta; Oar, Andrew; Roelandts, Martine; Amichetti, Maurizio; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zilli, Thomas; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Small cell carcinomas of the bladder (SCCB) account for fewer than 1% of all urinary bladder tumors. There is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for SCCB. Methods and Materials: Fifteen academic Rare Cancer Network medical centers contributed SCCB cases. The eligibility criteria were as follows: pure or mixed SCC; local, locoregional, and metastatic stages; and age ≥18 years. The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze survival as functions of clinical and therapeutic factors. Results: The study included 107 patients (mean [±standard deviation, SD] age, 69.6 [±10.6] years; mean follow-up time, 4.4 years) with primary bladder SCC, with 66% of these patients having pure SCC. Seventy-two percent and 12% of the patients presented with T2-4N0M0 and T2-4N1-3M0 stages, respectively, and 16% presented with synchronous metastases. The most frequent curative treatments were radical surgery and chemotherapy, sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and radical surgery alone. The median (interquartile range, IQR) OS and DFS times were 12.9 months (IQR, 7-32 months) and 9 months (IQR, 5-23 months), respectively. The metastatic, T2-4N0M0, and T2-4N1-3M0 groups differed significantly (P=.001) in terms of median OS and DFS. In a multivariate analysis, impaired creatinine clearance (OS and DFS), clinical stage (OS and DFS), a Karnofsky performance status <80 (OS), and pure SCC histology (OS) were independent and significant adverse prognostic factors. In the patients with nonmetastatic disease, the type of treatment (ie radical surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy vs conservative treatment) did not significantly influence OS or DFS (P=.7). Conclusions: The prognosis for SCCB remains poor. The finding that radical cystectomy did not influence DFS or OS in the patients with nonmetastatic disease

  16. Foreign Bodies in the Urinary Bladder and Their Management: A Single-Centre Experience From North India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to characterise the nature, clinical presentation, mode of insertion, and management of intravesical foreign bodies in patients treated at our hospital. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2014, 49 patients were treated for intravesical foreign bodies at King George Medical University, Lucknow. All records of these patients were retrospectively analysed to characterise the nature of the foreign body, each patient’s clinical presentation, the mode of insertion, and how the case was managed. Results A total of 49 foreign bodies were retrieved from patients’ urinary bladders during the study period. The patients ranged in age from 11 to 68 years. Thirty-three patients presented with complaints of haematuria (67.3%), 29 complained of frequency of urination and dysuria (59.1%), and 5 patients reported pelvic pain (10.2%). The circumstances of insertion were iatrogenic in 20 cases (40.8%), self-insertion in 17 cases (34.6%), sexual abuse in 4 cases (8.1%), migration from another organ in 4 cases (8.1%), and assault in 4 cases (8.1%). Of the foreign bodies, 33 (67.3%) were retrieved by cystoscopy, while transurethral cystolitholapaxy was required in 10 patients (20.4%), percutaneous suprapubic cystolitholapaxy was performed in 4 patients (8.1%), and holmium laser lithotripsy was performed in 2 patients (4.08%). Conclusions Foreign bodies should always be included in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient who presents with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms. A large percentage of foreign bodies can be retrieved using endoscopic techniques. Open surgical removal may be performed in cases where endoscopic techniques are unsuitable or have failed. PMID:27706010

  17. Effect of Bladder Neck Preservation and Posterior Urethral Reconstruction during Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Urinary Continence

    PubMed Central

    You, Youn Chul; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report our results on urinary continence after bladder neck preservation (BNP) and posterior urethral reconstruction (PUR) during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Materials and Methods Data from 107 patients who underwent RALP were compared on the basis of whether the patients underwent BNP and PUR, BNP only, or the standard technique (ST). In group A (n=31 patients), ST was performed by using Ven velthoven continuous suturing for urethrovesical anastomosis. In group B (n=28 patients), ST with only PUR was performed. In group C (n=48 patients), both the BNP and PUR techniques were used. "Recovery of continence" was defined as the use of 1 pad (50 ml) or less within 24 hours. Results The three groups were comparable in terms of patient demographics. The mean operative time and the mean blood loss decreased significantly from group A to group C (p=0.021 for mean operative time and p=0.004 for the mean blood loss). Mean catheterization time was 8.9, 7.8, and 7.1 days in each group (p=0.047). Early return of urinary continence at 3 months was observed in group B (89.2%) and group C (90.6%) compared with group A (71%). However, continence at 6 months was comparable in the 3 groups (87.5% in group A, 92.8% in group B, and 92.3% in group C). Rates of positive surgical margins decreased from 30.2% in group A to 20% in group B and 12% in group C. Conclusions BNP and PUR during RALP showed a favorable impact on the early postoperative recovery of continence while not affecting positive surgical margins. PMID:22323971

  18. Expression and function of K(V)2-containing channels in human urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Kiril L; Chen, Muyan; Afeli, Serge A Y; Cheng, Qiuping; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2012-06-01

    The functional role of the voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is largely unexplored. Here, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and the electrically silent K(V)9.3 subunits in human DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)4.2 homotetrameric channels and of K(V)2.1/9.3 heterotetrameric channels, was used to examine the role of these channels in human DSM function. Human DSM tissues were obtained during open bladder surgeries from patients without a history of overactive bladder. Freshly isolated human DSM cells were studied using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, live-cell Ca(2+) imaging, and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique. Isometric DSM tension recordings of human DSM isolated strips were conducted using tissue baths. RT-PCR experiments showed mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)9.3 (but not K(V)4.2) channel subunits in human isolated DSM cells. K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the voltage step-induced K(V) current in freshly isolated human DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) significantly increased the intracellular Ca(2+) level in DSM cells. In human DSM isolated strips, ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and muscle force, and enhanced the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions within the range of 3.5-30 Hz stimulation frequencies. These findings reveal that ScTx1-sensitive K(V)2-containing channels are key regulators of human DSM excitability and contractility and may represent new targets for pharmacological or genetic intervention for bladder dysfunction.

  19. [Allergic inflammation as one of the factors of pathogenesis of overactive urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Pisarev, S A; Kleĭmenova, N V; Sukhorukov, V S

    2007-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is still a serious problem because of its high prevalence in men and women. Endoscopic or open detrusor biopsies were obtained from 28 (24 male and 4 female) patients of 52 to 75 years of age with obstructive or idiopathic OAB of 1 to 10 year duration. The control group included 6 males and 2 females without OAB symptoms. Allergic inflammation with involvement of mast cells, parasympathetic element hyperplasia, ultrastructural changes of myocytes with structural damage to mitochondria were detected in the detrusor of patients with both obstructive and idiopathic OAB. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was low but lactate dehydrogenase activity was enhanced in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. Severity of these changes correlated with morphological features of decreased tissue respiration in the detrusor muscles. In view of the detected inflammatory pathogenetic aspects it is recommended to add antiallergic drugs improving detrusor bioenergetics to combined treatment of OAB.

  20. Neurohumoral regulation of spontaneous constrictions in suburothelial venules of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuki; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Mitsui, Retsu; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2014-02-01

    Venules of the bladder suburothelium develop spontaneous phasic constrictions that may play a critical role in maintaining venular drainage of tissue metabolites. We aimed to investigate neurohumoral regulation of the spontaneous venular constrictions (SVCs). Changes in venular diameter of the rat bladder suburothelium were monitored using a video tracking system, whilst the effects of electrical field stimulation (EFS) and bath-applied bioactive substances were investigated. The innervation of the suburothelial microvasculature was examined by immunohistochemistry. EFS (10Hz for 30s) induced an increase in the frequency of SVCs that was prevented by phentolamine (1μM). In phentolamine-pretreated venules, EFS suppressed SVCs with a venular dilatation in a manner attenuated by propranolol (1μM) or l-nitro arginine (LNA, 10μM). BRL37344 (1μM), a β3 adrenoceptor agonist, dilated venules and reduced the frequency of SVCs in an LNA-sensitive manner. ACh (1-10μM) increased the frequency of SVCs. ATP (1μM) transiently constricted venules and then caused LNA-sensitive cessation of SVCs associated with a dilatation. Substance P (100nM) caused a venular constriction, whilst calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, 100nM) caused a dilatation of venules and suppression of SVCs that were not inhibited by LNA. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated sympathetic as well as substance P- and CGRP-containing nerves running along the venules. Spontaneous constrictions of suburothelial venules are accelerated by sympathetic α-adrenergic stimulation, but suppressed upon β-adrenergic stimulation. In addition, suburothelial venular constrictions appear to be modulated by several bioactive substances that could be released from urothelium or suburothelial sensory nerves.

  1. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  2. Conditional ablation of TGF-β signaling inhibits tumor progression and invasion in an induced mouse bladder cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu; Zhu, Fengyu; Zhang, Haojie; Chen, Demeng; Zhang, Xiuhong; Gao, Qian; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer progression is still under debate. To determine the function of TGF-β signaling in bladder cancer progression, we conditionally knocked out the Tgfbr2 in mouse model after a N-butyl-N-4-hydroxybutyl Nitrosamine induced bladder carcinogenesis. We found the ablation of TGF-β signaling could inhibit the cancer cell proliferation, cancer stem cell population and EMT, hence suppressed the invasive cancer progression, which is similar with the result of TGF-β receptor I inhibitor treatment. These findings recognize the roles and mechanisms of TGF-β signaling in bladder cancer progression in vivo for the first time. PMID:27378170

  3. Effect of CD44 gene polymorphisms on risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei-Chun; Huang, Yu-Hui; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Hsueh, Chao-Wen; Huang, Ching-Hsuan; Chou, Ying-Erh

    2016-05-01

    The carcinogenesis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder involves etiological factors, such as ethnicity, the environment, genetics, and diet. Cluster of differentiation (CD44), a well-known tumor marker, plays a crucial role in regulating tumor cell differentiation and metastasis. This study investigated the effect of CD44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on TCC risk and clinicopathological characteristics. Five SNPs of CD44 were analyzed through real-time polymerase chain reaction in 275 patients with TCC and 275 participants without cancer. In this study, we observed that CD44 rs187115 polymorphism carriers with the genotype of at least one G were associated with TCC risk. Furthermore, TCC patients who carried at least one G allele at CD44 rs187115 had a higher stage risk than did patients carrying the wild-type allele (p < 0.05). In addition, The AATAC or GACGC haplotype among the five CD44 sites was also associated with a reduced risk of TCC. In conclusion, our results suggest that CD44 SNPs influence the risk of TCC. Patients with CD44 rs187115 variant genotypes (AG + GG) exhibited a higher risk of TCC; these patients may possess chemoresistance to developing late-stage TCC compared with those with the wild-type genotype. The CD44 rs187115 SNP may predict poor prognosis in patients with TCC.

  4. Modulation of Purinergic Neuromuscular Transmission by Phorbol Dibutyrate is Independent of Protein Kinase C in Murine Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Silinsky, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasympathetic control of murine urinary bladder consists of contractile components mediated by both muscarinic and purinergic receptors. Using intracellular recording techniques, the purinergic component of transmission was measured as both evoked excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) in response to electrical field stimulation and spontaneous events [spontaneous EJPs (sEJPs)]. EJPs, but not sEJPs, were abolished by the application of the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin and the Ca2+ channel blocker Cd2+. Both EJPs and sEJPs were abolished by the application of the P2X1 antagonist 8,8′-[carbonylbis(imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)]bis-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid hexasodium salt (NF279). Application of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) increased electrically evoked EJP amplitudes with no effect on mean sEJP amplitudes. Similar increases in EJP amplitudes were produced by PDBu in the presence of either the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine or the specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor 2-[1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)indol-3-yl]-3-(indol-3-yl) maleimide (GF109203X). These results suggest that PDBu increases the purinergic component of detrusor transmission through increasing neurogenic ATP release via a PKC-independent mechanism. PMID:22547572

  5. Unusual finding of endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in continuity with urothelium in endocervicosis of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Phaik-Leng; Looi, Lai-Meng; Lee, George Eng-Geap; Teoh, Kean-Hooi; Mun, Kein-Seong; Nazarina, Abdul Rahman

    2011-06-23

    Endocervicosis in the urinary bladder is a rare benign condition. We present a case in a 37-year-old woman with classical clinical and pathological features of endocervicosis. The unusual observation of endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in continuity with the urothelium in addition to fully developed endocervicosis prompted immunohistochemical profiling of the case using antibodies to cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, CK19, CK7, CK5/6, CK20), HBME-1, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) to assess the relationship of the surface mucinous and endocervicosis glandular epithelia. The surface mucinous epithelium, urothelium and endocervicosis glands were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK7 and CK19 while CK20 was only expressed by few urothelial umbrella cells. The surface mucinous epithelium was CK5/6 and HBME-1 immunonegative but showed presence of ER and PR. This was in contrast to the urothelium's expression of CK5/6 but not ER and PR. In comparison, endocervicosis glands expressed HBME-1, unlike the surface mucinous epithelium. The endocervicosis epithelium also demonstrated the expected presence of ER and PR and CK5/6 immunonegativity. The slightly differing immunohistochemical phenotypes of the surface mucinous and morphologically similar endocervicosis glandular epithelium is interesting and requires further clarification to its actual nature. The patient has remained well and without evidence of disease 18-months following transurethral resection of the lesion.

  6. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Knowles, Margaret A.; de Verdier, Petra J.; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I.; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Veldink, Jan H.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E.; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2011-01-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10−11. SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the ‘urogenous contact hypothesis’ that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC. PMID:21750109

  7. Increased urinary lysophosphatidic acid in mouse with subtotal nephrectomy: potential involvement in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mirzoyan, Koryun; Baïotto, Anna; Dupuy, Aude; Marsal, Dimitri; Denis, Colette; Vinel, Claire; Sicard, Pierre; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Klein, Julie; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with consecutive progression to end-stage renal disease represents a significant burden to healthcare systems. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a classical hallmark of CKD and is well correlated with the loss of renal function. The bioactive lysophospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting through specific G-protein-coupled receptors, was previously shown to be involved in TIF development in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Here, we study the role of LPA in a mouse subjected to subtotal nephrectomy (SNx), a more chronic and progressive model of CKD. Five months after surgical nephron reduction, SNx mice showed massive albuminuria, extensive TIF, and glomerular hypertrophy when compared to sham-operated animals. Urinary and plasma levels of LPA were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. LPA was significantly increased in SNx urine, not in plasma, and was significantly correlated with albuminuria and TIF. Moreover, SNx mice showed significant downregulation in the renal expression of lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPP1, 2, and 3) that might be involved in reduced LPA bioavailability through dephosphorylation. We concluded that SNx increases urinary LPA through a mechanism that could involve co-excretion of plasma LPA with albumin associated with a reduction of its catabolism in the kidney. Because of the previously demonstrated profibrotic activity of LPA, the association of urinary LPA with TIF suggests the potential involvement of LPA in the development of advanced CKD in the SNx mouse model. Targeting LPA metabolism might represent an interesting approach in CKD treatment.

  8. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in Women With Stress Urinary Incontinence Causes Hypertrophy of the Urethral Sphincters and Reduces Bladder Neck Mobility During Coughing

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Linda; Varette, Kevin; Gentilcore-Saulnier, Evelyne; Harvey, Marie-Andree; Baker, Kevin; Sauerbrei, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 12-week pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training program on urethral morphology and mobility in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Forty women with SUI were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the treatment group received 12 weekly physiotherapy sessions during which they learned how to properly contract their pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) and a home exercise program was prescribed, reviewed, and progressed; the control group received no treatment. Before and after the 12-week study period, ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate bladder neck position and mobility during coughing and Valsalva maneuver in supine and in standing, as well as urethral morphology. Secondary outcome measures included a 3-day bladder diary, 30-min pad test, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6). Results The women in the treatment group demonstrated reduced bladder neck mobility during coughing and increased cross-sectional area of their urethra after as compared to before the training. These changes were not evident in the control group. No differences in the resting position of the bladder neck or in bladder neck excursion during Valsalva maneuver were noted in either group. Concomitantly the women in the treatment group demonstrated significant improvements in the 3-day bladder diary and IIQ-7 after the PFM training and improved significantly more than the control group. Conclusion Physiotherapist-supervised PFM training reduces bladder neck motion during coughing, and results in hypertrophy of the urethral sphincter in women who present with SUI. PMID:23861324

  9. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on contractility and citrate synthase activity of the rabbit urinary bladder in the presence and absence of resveratrol and a whole-grape suspension.

    PubMed

    Francis, Johdi-Ann; Leggett, Robert E; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    One etiology related directly to obstructive urinary bladder dysfunction is ischemia/reperfusion resulting in significant oxidative stress to the bladder. Grapes, a natural source of antioxidants, have been proven effective in preventing obstructive and ischemic bladder dysfunction. Many investigators believe that resveratrol is the primary active antioxidant ingredient in grapes. We compared the ability of a whole-grape suspension with pure resveratrol in their ability to protect the bladder from in vitro oxidative stress mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Four male rabbit bladders were used. Two strips from each bladder were incubated in the presence of 1 mg/mL grape suspension for 30 min, another two strips were incubated in the presence of 1 mg/mL resveratrol solution, and the last two strips were incubated in the presence of 1 mg/mL sucrose/and fructose as controls. The rest of the bladder was separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen and stored for biochemical evaluation. (1) Chemically, resveratrol has about 20 times the antioxidant capacity of the grape suspension. (2) The grape suspension had significant protective effects when the rate of tension was quantitated at all concentrations of H2O2, while the resveratrol had no effect. (3) Citrate synthase activities of the muscle and mucosa were significantly protected by the grape suspension but not by resveratrol. These data demonstrate that the grape suspension protects the mitochondria to a significantly greater degree than resveratrol, which suggests that the antioxidant activities are due to the combination of active components found in the grape suspension and not just resveratrol.

  10. Colistin bladder instillation, an alternative way of treating multi-resistant Acinetobacter urinary tract infection: a case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Giua, R; Pedone, C; Cortese, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R

    2014-02-01

    The multiresistant Acinetobacter species bacteria are frequently involved in urinary or respiratory tract infections, and one of the most effective drugs, colistine, is associated with significant nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Given that very high concentrations of colistine into biological fluids are safe for the human organism, attempts have been made at delivering the drug topically, by aerosol, or, occasionally, intratechally or intraventricularly for meningitis. These topical treatments could eradicate the Pseudomonas sp. from the lung of patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis and the Acinetobacter baumannii from lung and meninges. However, only one case of colistin topic treatment in urinary tract infection is described. We report a case series of three patients successfully undergone colistin bladder instillations for multi drug resistant Acinetobacter urinary tract infection, and we review the literature about colistin topic treatment.

  11. Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    White, Nicola; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2016-03-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a condition affecting millions of individuals in the United States. Anticholinergics are the mainstay of treatment. Bladder botulinum toxin injections have shown an improvement in symptoms of OAB equivalent to anticholinergic therapy. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation can decrease symptoms of urinary frequency and urge incontinence. Sacral neuromodulation for refractory patients has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of OAB, urge incontinence, and urinary retention. Few randomized, head-to-head comparisons of the different available alternatives exist; however, patients now have increasing options to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

  12. Intravesical administration of exogenous microRNA-145 as a therapy for mouse orthotopic human bladder cancer xenograft

    PubMed Central

    Inamoto, Teruo; Taniguchi, Kohei; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Iwatsuki, Ayako; Takai, Tomoaki; Komura, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Tanda, Naoki; Kouno, Junko; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Akao, Yukihiro; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that the level of microRNA (miR)-145 is attenuated in human bladder cancer cells. In this current study, we investigated whether intravesical administration of miR-145 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling bladder cancer by using an orthotopic human bladder cancer xenograft model. Following transfection of 253J B-V cells with miR-145, the effects of the ectopic expression of miR-145 were examined by performing MTT, Western blotting analysis, Hoechst33342 staining, and wound healing assay in vitro. Also, a mouse orthotopic human bladder cancer model was established by inoculating 253J B-V cells into the bladder wall of mice. The anti-cancer effects of intravesical injections of miR-145 into these mice were then assessed. Transfection of 253J B-V cells with miR-145 induced apoptosis and suppression of cell migration in vitro. Western blotting showed that the levels of c-Myc, socs7, FSCN1, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and catenin δ-1 were decreased and that the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways were increased in compensatory fashion. In vivo, mice treated with miR-145 showed 76% inhibition of tumor growth, with a significant prolongation of animal survival (p = 0.0183 vs. control). Western blotting showed that both apoptosis and cell motility-related genes were significantly decreased as seen in vitro. Furthermore, PI3k/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, which were activated in a compensatory manner in vitro, were decreased in vivo. Intravesical administration of exogenous miR-145 was thus concluded to be a valid therapy for bladder cancer in this human bladder cancer xenograft model. PMID:26036261

  13. Effect of local estrogen therapy (LET) on urinary and sexual symptoms in premenopausal women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS).

    PubMed

    Gardella, Barbara; Iacobone, Anna Daniela; Porru, Daniele; Musacchi, Valentina; Dominoni, Mattia; Tinelli, Carmine; Spinillo, Arsenio; Nappi, Rossella E

    2015-10-01

    The association between vulvodynia and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a chronic, debilitating disease of unknown etiology, may involve sex hormone-dependent mechanisms regulating vulvo-vaginal health. We aimed to prospectively investigate the effects of 12 weeks of local estrogen therapy (LET) on urinary/bladder and sexual symptoms in premenopausal women with IC/BPS. Thirty-four women (mean age: 36.1 ± 8.4) diagnosed with IC/BPS were treated vulvo-vaginally three-times/week with estriol 0.5 mg cream and tested by validated questionnaires (ICSI/ICPI, pain urgency frequency [PUF], female sexual function index [FSFI]) and by cotton swab testing, vaginal health index (VHI) and maturation index (MI) before and after treatment. Vulvodynia was present in 94.1% of IC/BPS women. A significant positive effect of LET was evident on urinary and sexual function (p < 0.001, for both) following 12 weeks, as well as an improvement of the VHI (p < 0.001) and the MI (p < 0.04). The results of this open study indicate that 12 weeks of local estriol cream at vaginal and vestibular level may ameliorate urinary/bladder pain symptoms, as well as may improve domains of sexual function. The association between vulvar pain and bladder pain could, therefore, be related to a vaginal environment carrying signs of hypoestrogenism, but further studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  14. Role of neuronal voltage-gated K+ channels in the modulation of the nitrergic neurotransmission of the pig urinary bladder neck

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M; Barahona, M V; Recio, P; Navarro-Dorado, J; Bustamante, S; Benedito, S; García-Sacristán, A; Prieto, D; Orensanz, L M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: As nitric oxide (NO) plays an essential role in the inhibitory neurotransmission of the bladder neck of several species, the current study investigates the mechanisms underlying the NO-induced relaxations in the pig urinary bladder neck. Experimental approach: Urothelium-denuded bladder neck strips were dissected and mounted in isolated organ baths containing a physiological saline solution at 37 °C and continuously gassed with 5% CO2 and 95% O2, for isometric force recording. The relaxations to transmural nerve stimulation (EFS), or to exogenously applied acidified NaNO2 solution were carried out on strips pre-contracted with phenylephrine, and treated with guanethidine and atropine, to block noradrenergic neurotransmission and muscarinic receptors, respectively. Key results: EFS (0.2–1 Hz) and addition of acidified NaNO2 solution (1 μM–1 mM) evoked frequency- and concentration-dependent relaxations, respectively. These responses were potently reduced by the blockade of guanylate cyclase and were not modified by the K+ channel blockers iberiotoxin, charybdotoxin, apamin or glibenclamide. The voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels inhibitor 4-aminopyridine, greatly enhanced the nitrergic relaxations evoked by EFS, but did not affect the NaNO2 solution-induced relaxations. Conclusions and implications: NO, whose release is modulated by pre-junctional Kv channels, relaxes the pig urinary bladder neck through a mechanism dependent on the activation of guanylate cyclase, in which post-junctional K+ channels do not seem to be involved. Modulation of Kv channels could be useful in the therapy of the urinary incontinence produced by intrinsic sphincteric deficiency. PMID:18223671

  15. Testing and Treating Women after Unsuccessful Conservative Treatments for Overactive Bladder or Mixed Urinary Incontinence: A Model-Based Economic Evaluation Based on the BUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Pelham; Middleton, Lee J.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Daniels, Jane P.; Latthe, Pallavi; Coomarasamy, Arri; Rachaneni, Suneetha; McCooty, Shanteela; Verghese, Tina S.; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the cost-effectiveness of bladder ultrasonography, clinical history, and urodynamic testing in guiding treatment decisions in a secondary care setting for women failing first line conservative treatment for overactive bladder or urgency-predominant mixed urinary incontinence. Design Model-based economic evaluation from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective using data from the Bladder Ultrasound Study (BUS) and secondary sources. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision tree and a 5-year time horizon based on the outcomes of cost per woman successfully treated and cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and a value of information analysis are also undertaken. Results Bladder ultrasonography is more costly and less effective test-treat strategy than clinical history and urodynamics. Treatment on the basis of clinical history alone has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £491,100 per woman successfully treated and an ICER of £60,200 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women on the basis of urodynamics. Restricting the use of urodynamics to women with a clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only is the optimal test-treat strategy on cost-effectiveness grounds with ICERs of £19,500 per woman successfully treated and £12,700 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women based upon urodynamics. Conclusions remained robust to sensitivity analyses, but subject to large uncertainties. Conclusions Treatment based upon urodynamics can be seen as a cost-effective strategy, and particularly when targeted at women with clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only. Further research is needed to resolve current decision uncertainty. PMID:27513926

  16. Bladder hernia.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Massimiliano; De Luca, Francesco

    2006-06-01

    Bladder hernia is a rare condition, but crural herniation of the bladder into the scrotum is very rare. A case of bladder hernia presenting with urological symptoms is described. A 71-year-old man presented to the urological ward complaining for persistent frequency and nocturia associated with loss offorce and decrease of caliber of the urinary stream and the presence of a large mass of the right scrotum. An IVP (intra venous pyelography) showed a large herniation of the bladder through the right inguinal canal into the scrotum. An inguinal incision was made and a crural hernia was identified. The hernia sac, containing bowel and bladder, was dissectedfreefrom the spermatic cord and the testis and the hernia defect was repaired.

  17. A Pilot Study on the Potential of RNA-Associated to Urinary Vesicles as a Suitable Non-Invasive Source for Diagnostic Purposes in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Amparo; Loizaga, Ana; Arceo, Raquel; Lacasa, Isabel; Rabade, Ainara; Zorroza, Kerman; Mosen-Ansorena, David; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Aransay, Ana M.; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Unda-Urzaiz, Miguel; Royo, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers and, together with prostate carcinoma, accounts for the majority of the malignancies of the genitourinary tract. Since prognosis ameliorates with early detection, it will be beneficial to have a repertoire of diagnostic markers that could complement the current diagnosis protocols. Recently, cell-secreted extracellular vesicles have received great interest as a source of low invasive disease biomarkers because they are found in many body fluids, including urine. The current work describes a pilot study to generate an array-based catalogue of mRNA associated to urinary vesicles, and also a comparison with samples obtained from bladder cancer patients. After an analysis of presence/absence of transcripts in bladder cancer EVs, a list of genes was selected for further validation using PCR technique. We found four genes differentially expressed in cancer samples. LASS2 and GALNT1 were present in cancer patients, while ARHGEF39 and FOXO3 were found only in non-cancer urinary vesicles. Previous studies have pointed to the involvement of those genes in tumour progression and metastasis. PMID:24458310

  18. Influence of bladder distension on opacification of urinary collecting system during CT urography.

    PubMed

    Curić, Josip; Vukelić-Marković, Mirjana; Marusić, Petar; Hrkać-Pustahija, Ana; Brkljacić, Boris

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare opacification of the renal collecting system and ureters detected by computed tomographic urography (CTU) performed 20 min and 1 h after the ingestion of 1,000 ml of water. CTU was performed on 89 patients (55 men, 34 women; age 28-77 years) and 168 collecting systems and ureters were evaluated. A 16-detector-row scanner (Sensation 16, Siemens) was used; a two-phase protocol with a split bolus of contrast agent (total 120 ml) was applied. A combined nephrographic-excretory phase was obtained 100 s after the second injection. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the excretory phase were created and used to evaluate the degree of opacification of the collecting system and ureters. In 44 patients, water was administered 20 min before examination, and in 45 patients, 1 h before examination. CTU performed 1 h after water ingestion demonstrated complete opacification of calices in 87.5%, of renal pelvis in 97.5%, of upper ureter in 91.8% and of lower ureter in 87.5% of patients. CTU performed 20 min after water ingestion demonstrated complete opacification of calices in 79.5%, of renal pelvis in 85%, of upper ureter in 62.5% and of lower ureter in 54.5% of patients. Complete opacification of the proximal and distal ureter in the group with a 1-h delay was statistically higher (P<0.01). CTU performed on the distended bladder, 1 h after the oral ingestion of water, enables excellent opacification of collecting system, including distal ureters.

  19. ARID1A immunohistochemistry improves outcome prediction in invasive urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Ellis, Carla; Driscoll, Tina; Schoenberg, Mark P; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J

    2014-11-01

    AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is tumor suppressor gene that interacts with BRG1 adenosine triphosphatase to form a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling protein complex. Inactivation of ARID1A has been described in several neoplasms, including epithelial ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, and has been correlated with prognosis. In the current study, ARID1A expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and its association with clinicopathological parameters and outcome are addressed. Five tissue microarrays were constructed from 136 cystectomy specimens performed for UC at our institution. Nuclear ARID1A staining was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. An H-score was calculated as the sum of the products of intensity (0-3) multiplied by extent of expression (0%-100%). Average H-score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was categorized in low and high using Youden index to define the cut point. ARID1A expression significantly increased from normal to noninvasive UC to invasive UC. For both tumor progression and cancer death, Youden index yielded an H-score of 288 as the optimal cut point for ARID1A expression. Low ARID1A expression showed a tendency for lower risk of tumor progression and cancer mortality. Adding ARID1A expression to pathologic features offers a better model for predicting outcome than pathologic features alone. Low ARID1A expression was more frequently seen in earlier stage disease. There was a tendency for low ARID1A expression to predict better outcome. More importantly, the findings indicate that adding ARID1A expression to pathologic features increases the goodness of fit of the predictive model.

  20. Plasticity of urinary bladder reflexes evoked by stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves after chronic spinal cord injury in cats.

    PubMed

    Tai, Changfeng; Chen, Mang; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Liu, Hailong; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2011-03-01

    Bladder reflexes evoked by stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves (PudA-to-Bladder reflex) were studied in normal and chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) adult cats to examine the reflex plasticity. Physiological activation of pudendal afferent nerves by tactile stimulation of the perigenital skin elicits an inhibitory PudA-to-Bladder reflex in normal cats, but activates an excitatory reflex in chronic SCI cats. However, in both normal and chronic SCI cats electrical stimulation applied to the perigenital skin or directly to the pudendal nerve induces either inhibitory or excitatory PudA-to-Bladder reflexes depending on stimulation frequency. An inhibitory response occurs at 3-10 Hz stimulation, but becomes excitatory at 20-30 Hz. The inhibitory reflex activated by electrical stimulation significantly (P<0.05) increases the bladder capacity to about 180% of control capacity in normal and chronic SCI cats. The excitatory reflex significantly (P<0.05) reduces bladder capacity to about 40% of control capacity in chronic SCI cats, but does not change bladder capacity in normal cats. Electrical stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves during slow bladder filling elicits a large amplitude bladder contraction comparable to the contraction induced by distension alone. A bladder volume about 60% of bladder capacity was required to elicit this excitatory reflex in normal cats; however, in chronic SCI cats a volume less than 20% of bladder capacity was sufficient to unmask an excitatory response. This study revealed the co-existence of both inhibitory and excitatory PudA-to-Bladder reflex pathways in cats before and after chronic SCI. However our data combined with published electrophysiological data strongly indicates that the spinal circuitry for both the excitatory and inhibitory PudA-to-Bladder reflexes undergoes a marked reorganization after SCI.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in the Urinary Bladder: Comparison Between Cancerous, Adjacent Non-cancerous and Normal Cadaveric Tissue.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Mahmoud; Elsobky, Emad; Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abd-Elhameed, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahim, Mona; Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir

    2016-12-01

    The role of heavy metals and trace elements (HMTE) in the development of some cancers has been previously reported. Bladder carcinoma is a frequent malignancy of the urinary tract. The most common risk factors for bladder cancer are exposure to industrial carcinogens, cigarette smoking, gender, and possibly diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate HTME concentrations in the cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues and compare them with those of normal cadaveric bladder. This prospective study included 102 paired samples of full-thickness cancer and adjacent non-cancerous bladder tissues of radical cystectomy (RC) specimens that were histologically proven as invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We used 17 matched controls of non-malignant bladder tissue samples from cadavers. All samples were processed and evaluated for the concentration of 22 HMTE by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Outcome analysis was made by the Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. When compared with cadaveric control or cancerous, the adjacent non-cancerous tissue had higher levels of six elements (arsenic, lead, selenium, strontium, zinc, and aluminum), and when compared with the control alone, it had a higher concentration of calcium, cadmium, chromium, potassium, magnesium, and nickel. The cancerous tissue had a higher concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc than cadaveric control. Boron level was higher in cadaveric control than cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Cadmium level was higher in cancerous tissue with node-positive than node-negative cases. The high concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and zinc, in the cancerous together with arsenic in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues of RC specimens suggest a pathogenic role of these elements in BC. However, further work-up is needed to support this

  2. Differential urinary specific gravity as a molecular phenotype of the bladder cancer genetic association in the urea transporter gene, SLC14A1.

    PubMed

    Koutros, Stella; Baris, Dalsu; Fischer, Alexander; Tang, Wei; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Karagas, Margaret R; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Figueroa, Jonine; Waddell, Richard; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T

    2013-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified associations between markers within the solute carrier family 14 (urea transporter), member 1 (SLC14A1) gene and risk of bladder cancer. SLC14A1 defines the Kidd blood groups in erythrocytes and is also involved in concentration of the urine in the kidney. We evaluated the association between a representative genetic variant (rs10775480) of SLC14A1 and urine concentration, as measured by urinary specific gravity (USG), in a subset of 275 population-based controls enrolled in the New England Bladder Cancer Study. Overnight urine samples were collected, and USG was measured using refractometry. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate adjusted least square means for USG in relation to rs10775480. We also examined the mRNA expression of both urea transporters, SLC14A1 and SLC14A2, in a panel of human tissues. USG was decreased with each copy of the rs10775480 risk T allele (p-trend = 0.011) with a significant difference observed for CC vs. TT genotypes (p-value(tukey) = 0.024). RNA-sequencing in the bladder tissue showed high expression of SLC14A1 and the absence of SLC14A2, while both transporters were expressed in the kidney. We suggest that the molecular phenotype of this GWAS finding is the genotype-specific biological activity of SLC14A1 in the bladder tissue. Our data suggest that SLC14A1 could be a unique urea transporter in the bladder that has the ability to influence urine concentration and that this mechanism might explain the increased bladder cancer susceptibility associated with rs10775480.

  3. Comparison of structural genetics of non-schistosoma-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Marina; Junker, Kerstin; Eltze, Elke; Toma, Marieta; Denzinger, Stefan; Siegert, Sabine; Knuechel, Ruth; Gaisa, Nadine T

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about genetic changes in squamous differentiation of non-schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Therefore, we investigated pure squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC), squamous parts of mixed urothelial carcinomas with squamous differentiation (MIX) and mere urothelial cancers (UC) for structural genetic differences. Tissue microarray slides (n = 29 SqCC, n = 35 MIX and n = 23 UC) were analyzed by ZytoLight SPEC p16/CEN3/7/17 Quadruple Color Probe fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) and DNA was investigated by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) (n = 35 SqCCs, n = 40 MIX and n = 36 UC). By FISH the mean number of polysomic cells was lowest in SqCC (CEN3 P = 0.0498, CEN17 P = 0.0009). A slight tendency of lower copy numbers of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and higher numbers of the p16-locus in SqCC (P = 0.45) indicated less aneuploid tumor cells in SqCC compared to MIX and UC. In CGH SqCC showed the lowest mean number of aberrations per tumor (SqCC 5.37 changes, MIX 6.75 and UC 7.64; P = 0.1754). Significant differences between the three groups were found for loss of chromosome 3p (P = 0.004), 6q (P = 0.028), 11p (P = 0.024) and gains of 5p (P = 0.020). Loss of 3p was more frequent in SqCC (51.4%) than in MIX (37.5%) or UC (13.9%). To conclude, SqCCs show less polysomy and genetic alterations than MIX and UC. Loss of 3p is more frequent in SqCC but there are no absolute specific alterations for each tumor group. Squamous parts of mixed tumors show similar alterations than UC and should be considered as further development of UC, while pure SqCC seem to be a separate tumor group. PMID:26339383

  4. Intravesical PAC1 Receptor Antagonist, PACAP(6-38), Reduces Urinary Bladder Frequency and Pelvic Sensitivity in NGF-OE Mice.

    PubMed

    Girard, Beatrice M; Malley, Susan E; Mathews, Morgan M; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic NGF overexpression (OE) in the urothelium, achieved through the use of a highly urothelium-specific uroplakin II promoter, stimulates neuronal sprouting in the urinary bladder, produces increased voiding frequency and non-voiding contractions, and referred somatic sensitivity. Additional NGF-mediated pleiotropic changes might contribute to increased voiding frequency and pelvic hypersensitivity in NGF-OE mice such as neuropeptide/receptor systems including PACAP(Adcyap1) and PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1). Given the presence of PAC1-immunoreactive fibers and the expression of PAC1 receptor expression in bladder tissues, and PACAP-facilitated detrusor contraction, whether PACAP/receptor signaling contributes to increased voiding frequency and somatic sensitivity was evaluated in NGF-OE mice. Intravesical administration of the PAC1 receptor antagonist, PACAP(6-38) (300 nM), significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased intercontraction interval (2.0-fold) and void volume (2.5-fold) in NGF-OE mice. Intravesical instillation of PACAP(6-38) also decreased baseline bladder pressure in NGF-OE mice. PACAP(6-38) had no effects on bladder function in WT mice. Intravesical administration of PACAP(6-38) (300 nM) significantly (p ≤ 0.01) reduced pelvic sensitivity in NGF-OE mice but was without effect in WT mice. PACAP/receptor signaling contributes to the increased voiding frequency and pelvic sensitivity observed in NGF-OE mice.

  5. ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma with urinary bladder involvement diagnosed in urine cytology: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lobo, João; Henrique, Rui; Monteiro, Paula; Lobo, Cláudia

    2017-04-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is an aggressive T-cell neoplasm. It rarely involves the urinary bladder, with just twelve cases reported thus far and only one being ALK-negative. Immunophenotyping (particularly for ALK) is mandatory, both for prognostic and therapeutic reasons. Herein, we report the case of a patient with an ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma involving the bladder which was diagnosed and fully characterized by immunocytochemistry in urine cytology. The patient underwent a cystoscopy and the urine sample disclosed tumor diathesis background and aggregates of atypical cells, with evidence of multinucleation and mitotic figures. Immunocytochemistry revealed strong membrane/Golgi positivity for CD30 and negativity for ALK. The patient was submitted to transurethral resection for therapeutic purposes, which confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this represents only the third case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with bladder involvement diagnosed in urine cytology and the very first with diagnostic findings allowing for immunophenotyping of the disease in a bladder wash. The present report reinforces the role of urine cytology as a suitable method for establishing an earlier diagnosis and characterization of the disease, avoiding submitting patients to invasive procedures like transurethral resections. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:354-358. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Voltage-gated K+ channels sensitive to stromatoxin-1 regulate myogenic and neurogenic contractions of rat urinary bladder smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Muyan; Kellett, Whitney F.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the voltage-gated K+ (KV) channel family are suggested to control the resting membrane potential and the repolarization phase of the action potential in urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM). Recent studies report that stromatoxin-1, a peptide isolated from tarantulas, selectively inhibits KV2.1, KV2.2, KV4.2, and KV2.1/9.3 channels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether KV channels sensitive to stromatoxin-1 participate in the regulation of rat UBSM contractility and to identify their molecular fingerprints. Stromatoxin-1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude, muscle force, and tone in isolated UBSM strips. However, stromatoxin-1 (100 nM) had no effect on the UBSM contractions induced by depolarizing agents such as KCl (20 mM) or carbachol (1 μM). This indicates that, under conditions of sustained membrane depolarization, the KV channels sensitive to stromatoxin-1 have no further contribution to the membrane excitability and contractility. Stromatoxin-1 (100 nM) increased the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions, suggesting also a role for these channels in neurogenic contractions. RT-PCR experiments on freshly isolated UBSM cells showed mRNA expression of KV2.1, KV2.2, and KV9.3, but not KV4.2 channel subunits. Protein expression of KV2.1 and KV2.2 channels was detected using Western blot and was further confirmed by immunocytochemical detection in freshly isolated UBSM cells. These novel findings indicate that KV2.1 and KV2.2, but not KV4.2, channel subunits are expressed in rat UBSM and play a key role in opposing both myogenic and neurogenic UBSM contractions. PMID:20393158

  7. Dose Effect Relationship for Late Side Effects of the Rectum and Urinary Bladder in Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Cervix Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Georg, Petra; Poetter, Richard; Georg, Dietmar; Lang, Stefan; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Sturdza, Alina E.; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Doerr, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To establish dose-response relationships for late side effects of the rectum and bladder in cervix cancer patients after magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). Methods and Materials: A cohort of 141 patients was treated with 45 to 50.4 Gy with or without cisplatin plus 4 fractions of 7 Gy IGABT. Doses for the most exposed 2, 1, and 0.1-cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2cc}, D{sub 1cc}, D{sub 0.1cc}) volumes of the rectum and bladder were converted into the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2), using a linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy). Late side effects were prospectively assessed (using late effects in normal tissues subjective, objective, management and analytic [LENT SOMA]) scales. Dose-response relationships were determined by logit analyses. Results: Eleven patients developed rectal side effects, and 23 patients had urinary side effects. A significant dose effect was found for all rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for patients with side effect grades of 1 to 4 but was only significant for D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc} for grades {>=}2. The ED10 values for D{sub 2cc} were 73 Gy for grades 1 to 4 and 78 Gy for grades 2 to 4 rectal morbidity. For bladder side effects, a significant dose effect was shown for all DVH parameters for complication grades {>=}2; the respective ED10 was 101 Gy. Conclusions: Well-defined dose-response curves could be established for D{sub 2cc} in the rectum and the urinary bladder.

  8. The influence of intravesical administration of resiniferatoxin (RTX) on the chemical coding of sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Lepiarczyk, Ewa; Majewski, Mariusz; Bossowska, Agnieszka

    2015-11-01

    Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is used as an experimental drug in therapy of neurogenic urinary bladder disorders. The present study investigated the chemical coding of sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons supplying porcine urinary bladder after intravesical RTX instillation. The SChG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracing method and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH; marker of noradrenergic neurons), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), galanin, Leu(5)-enkephalin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). It was found that in both the control (n = 5) and RTX-treated pigs (n = 5), the vast majority (90.4 ± 2.8 and 89.7 ± 2.3%, respectively) of FB-positive (FB+) nerve cells were DβH+. RTX instillation caused a decrease in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons immunopositive to NPY (71.1 ± 12.1 vs 43.2 ± 6.7%), VIP (21.3 ± 10.7 vs 5.3 ± 4.3%) or SOM (16.5 ± 4.6 vs 2.3 ± 2.6%) and a distinct increase in the number of FB+/DβH+ neurons immunoreactive to nNOS (0.8 ± 1 vs 5.3 ± 1.9 %). The present study for the first time has provided some information that therapeutic effects of RTX on the mammalian urinary bladder can be partly mediated by SChG neurons.

  9. Prevention of Chemically-Induced Urinary Bladder Cancers by Naproxen: Protocols to Reduce Gastric Toxicity in Humans Do Not Alter Preventive Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lubet, Ronald A.; Scheiman, James M.; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M. Margaret; Boring, Daniel L.; Steele, Vernon E.; Grubbs, Cl