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Sample records for mouthwashes

  1. Do Mouthwashes Really Kill Bacteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corner, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    Errors in determining the effectiveness of mouthwashes, disinfectants, and other household products as antibacterial agents may result from using broth cultures and/or irregularly shaped bits of filter paper. Presents procedures for a better technique and, for advanced students, two additional procedures for introducing quantitative analysis into…

  2. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide mouthwash against halitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestari, M. D.; Sunarto, H.; Kemal, Y.

    2017-08-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of using chlorine dioxide mouthwash in addressing halitosis. Forty people were divided equally into the test group (required to gargle with mouthwash containing chlorine dioxide) and the control group (required to gargle with aquadest). The volatile sulfur compound (VSC) and organoleptic scores were measured before gargling and 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after. The Wilcoxon test analysis showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean value of VSC scores between the test group and the control group in four testing periods after gargling. Chlorine dioxide mouthwash is effective in addressing halitosis.

  3. Mouthwashes: Do They Work and Should We Use Them? Part 1: Antiplaque Efficacy of Mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Penny

    2016-01-01

    This article will focus on the antiplaque efficacy of mouthwashes. An antiplaque agent inhibits the formation of plaque and also reduces gingivitis. There is good evidence that chlorhexidine digluconate, used in the correct concentrations, is the gold standard agent against which all others should be measured. It does, however, have some unwanted side-effects. One of the major problems for antiplaque mouthwashes is that they have a much reduced effect on established plaque within the oral environment. Although they can flow into the biofilm channels and kill bacteria in the superficial layers of dental plaque, they cannot penetrate the biomass and inhibit the pathogenic bacteria adjacent to the tooth surface and gingival margin. There is no evidence that they prevent the progression of periodontitis. Clinical relevance: The evidence supporting the use of ‘over the counter’ antiplaque mouthwashes is evaluated. This provides guidance for dentists and dental care professionals of when it is appropriate to recommend mouthwash use to their patients.

  4. Mouthwashes: Do They Work and Should We Use Them? Part 2: Anticaries, Antihalitosis and Dry Mouth Relief Efficacy of Mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Penny

    2016-09-01

    This article will review the anticaries, antihalitosis and dry mouth relief efficacy of mouthwashes. Fluoride mouthwashes may provide an additional benefit to toothpaste and gel in children with a high risk of dental caries, but toothpaste alone may be a more acceptable mode of delivery. There may be a beneficial effect of fluoride mouthwashes on caries levels in older adults, particularly those at higher risk of root caries. The available data of the antihalitosis effect of mouthwashes neither supports nor contra-indicates their use. The key area where a mouthwash may be of use in the treatment of patients with a dry mouth is through the anticaries effect of fluoride. Clinical relevance: The evidence supporting the use of anticaries, antihalitosis and dry mouth relief mouthwashes is evaluated. This provides guidance for dentists and dental care professionals of when it is appropriate to recommend the use of a mouthwash in these situations.

  5. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  6. Effect of Green Tea Mouthwash on Oral Malodor

    PubMed Central

    Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks. PMID:24977093

  7. Effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks.

  8. Galvanic corrosion between orthodontic wires and brackets in fluoride mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Nicolas; Boinet, Mickaël; Morgon, Laurent; Lissac, Michèle; Dalard, Francis; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of fluoride in certain mouthwashes on the risk of corrosion through galvanic coupling of orthodontic wires and brackets. Two titanium alloy wires, nickel-titanium (NiTi) and copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi), and the three most commonly used brackets, titanium (Ti), iron-chromium-nickel (FeCrNi) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr), were tested in a reference solution of Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva and in two commercially available fluoride (250 ppm) mouthwashes, Elmex and Meridol. Corrosion resistance was assessed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-MS), analysis of released metal ions, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the metal surfaces after immersion of different wire-bracket pairs in the test solutions. The study was completed by an electrochemical analysis. Meridol mouthwash, which contains stannous fluoride, was the solution in which the NiTi wires coupled with the different brackets showed the highest corrosion risk, while in Elmex mouthwash, which contains sodium fluoride, the CuNiTi wires presented the highest corrosion risk. Such corrosion has two consequences: deterioration in mechanical performance of the wire-bracket system, which would negatively affect the final aesthetic result, and the risk of local allergic reactions caused by released Ni ions. The results suggest that mouthwashes should be prescribed according to the orthodontic materials used. A new type of mouthwash for use during orthodontic therapy could be an interesting development in this field.

  9. Antiseptic mouthwashes could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Marlene; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Precheur, Isabelle; Lamure, Julie; Pouyssegur-Rougier, Valerie

    2015-05-01

    Polypharmacy is a common cause of xerostomia. This study aimed to investigate whether xerostomia could be an adverse drug event of mouthwashes, when they are used for longer than 2 weeks by patients taking polypharmacy. This cross-sectional observational study included 120 hospitalized patients (60 middle-aged and 60 elderly patients), taking polypharmacy (≥4 drugs daily) and at risk of drug-induced xerostomia. Xerostomia was assessed by questioning participants. A total of 62.5% of patients complained of xerostomia. In the middle-aged group (mean age=44.0 (8.7) years; 35.0% women) xerostomia seemed independently associated to mouthwashes, at the limit of significance (OR=5.00, 95% CI=0.99-25.3, p=0.052). Active principles in mouthwashes were mainly quaternary ammonium compounds (91.9%). Mouthwashes may disturb the healthy balance of the biofilm moisturizing the oral mucosa. The biofilm contains mucins, salivary glycoproteins with oligosaccharides side chains able to sequester water and endogenous bacteria surrounded by a glycocalyx. Oral bacteria are fully susceptible to quaternary ammonium (chlorhexidine, hexetidine, cetylpyridinium chloride) and to other antiseptics used in mouthwashes, such as betain, resorcin, triclosan, essential oils and alcohol. However, caregivers currently recommend such dental plaque control products to patients suffering from xerostomia in order to reduce the risk of caries and periodontitis. This study is the first report that use of antiseptic mouthwashes for more than 2 weeks could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy. Oral care protocols should avoid this iatrogenic practice, particularly when xerostomia alters the quality-of-life and worsens malnutrition.

  10. Effect of Two Herbal Mouthwashes on Gingival Health of School Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ratika; Hebbal, Mamata; Ankola, Anil V.; Murugaboopathy, Vikneshan; Shetty, Sindhu Jayasimha

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the effect of indigenously prepared neem and mango chewing stick mouthwashes on plaque and gingival indices. A sample of 105 children aged 12-15 years was randomized into three groups, namely neem, mango, and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups. All the children were examined at baseline and gingival and plaque indices were recorded. Baseline scores for plaque and gingivitis were fair and moderate, respectively, in all the three groups and there existed no statistically significant difference among them. Ten millilitres each of herbal and chlorhexidine mouthwashes (0.2%) were administered according to the group allocation twice daily for 21 days. Indices were reassessed at 21 days (immediately after intervention) and at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after discontinuing the mouthwashes. Statistically significant reduction (P < 0.001) in plaque index was found in all the three mouthwash groups at 21 days and at 1 month from discontinuing the mouthwash. Chlorhexidine additionally showed statistically significant reduction in plaque index at 2 months from discontinuing the mouthwash. Statistically significant reduction (P < 0.001) in gingival index was found in all the three mouthwash groups at 21 days (immediately after discontinuing the mouthwash) and at 1 and 2 months from discontinuing the mouthwash. To conclude, all the three mouthwashes were effective antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Chlorhexidine and neem possess equivalent efficacy in reducing plaque, while chlorhexidine has superior antigingivitis properties. PMID:25379471

  11. Self-Reported Use of Mouthwash and Pharyngeal Gonorrhoea Detection by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Walker, Sandra; Read, Tim R H; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-10-01

    Use of alcohol-containing mouthwash has been found to have an inhibitory effect against pharyngeal gonorrhoea. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported mouthwash use and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection among men who have sex with men (MSM). A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 23, 2015, and June 30, 2015 among MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia. Men who have sex with men were invited to complete a short questionnaire on mouthwash use and they were also tested for pharyngeal gonorrhoea by nucleic acid amplification test. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between mouthwash use and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection. Of the 823 MSM, pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection decreased significantly with increasing age group (≤24 years, 14.5%; 25-34 years, 10.7%; ≥35 years, 6.0%; ptrend = 0.003). The proportion reporting daily use of mouthwash increased significantly with increasing age group (from 10.1% to 14.5% to 19.8%; ptrend = 0.005). However, there was no significant association between pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection and daily use of mouthwash after adjusting for age, number of male sexual partners, human immunodeficiency virus status, and type of mouthwash use. Although the proportion of daily use of mouthwash increased with age, and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection decreased with age, the association between self-reported mouthwash use and pharyngeal gonorrhoea detection by nucleic acid amplification test was not statistically significant.

  12. Repercussion of noni mouthwash on surface characterization of Nickel-Titanium archwire.

    PubMed

    Dilipkumar, Dhivya; Dhinahar, S; Deenadayalan, P; Tandon, Akshay; Suresh, Poonkuzhali

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining oral hygiene is very important during orthodontic therapy mouthwashes are prescribed as an adjunct to improve patient's oral hygiene. Commercially available mouthwashes e.g. Chlorhexidine, Listerine, fluoride containing mouthwashes have shown to alter the surface characteristics of orthodontic wires. Hence the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Noni mouthwash on surface quality and compositional changes of Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires. In this in vitro study pre-formed 0.014 inch NiTi arch wire was used. The study comprised of two samples, one control and one test sample which were 25mm in length. Control sample was stored at room temperature without any manipulation while test sample was immersed in Noni mouthwash solution for 1.5 hours, after which the test specimen was removed from the mouthwash solution and rinsed with distilled water. Both control and test samples were sent for scanning electron microscopy analysis, to qualitatively characterize the topography of the wire surface. Electron dispersion spectrum analysis was done to evaluate the various components of both the wires. No significant difference in the average surface roughness for both wire samples was observed. There was no significant difference seen in the composition of wire after immersion in Noni mouthwash. Noni mouthwash did not have significant influence on the surface roughness or altered the composition of the Ni-Ti wire. Hence Noni mouthwash may be prescribed as a natural, non-destructive prophylactic agent for orthodontic patients.

  13. Treatment of severe mucositis pain with oral ketamine mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Shillingburg, Alexandra; Kanate, Abraham S; Hamadani, Mehdi; Wen, Sijin; Craig, Michael; Cumpston, Aaron

    2017-07-01

    Mucositis is a significant complication of intensive chemotherapy or hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), with few treatment options. Ketamine mouthwashes have been used for pain relief, but supporting evidence is limited. The primary objective of this study was to assess the reduction in pain intensity of stomatodynia and odynophagia compared to baseline assessment. This open-label, prospective, phase II interventional study (NCT01566448) was conducted from February 2012 through July 2015. Patients with grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis according to the World Health Organization (WHO) scale as a result of chemotherapy were treated with ketamine mouthwash 20 mg/5 mL four times daily and every 4 h as needed. Thirty patients were enrolled and a total of 136 assessments were conducted. A statistically significant reduction in pain scores of 2 and 3 points was achieved after 1 h and 3 days, respectively (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0003). Pain scores were significantly improved while swallowing, reduced 1 and 4 points at 1-h and 3-day assessment, respectively (p = 0.0006, p = 0.0001). No patients developed adverse effects related to ketamine administration. Ketamine mouthwashes resulted in clinically meaningful and statistically significant reduction in pain scores, have an acceptable safety profile, and can be a useful adjunctive treatment in the multi-modal management of severe mucositis.

  14. Comparative evaluation of terminalia chebula extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on plaque and gingival inflammation - 4-week randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Terminalia chebula on plaque and gingival inflammation and compare it with the gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX 0.2%) and distilled water as control (placebo). A double-blind randomised control trial was conducted among undergraduate students who volunteered. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: 1) Terminalia chebula mouthwash (n = 30); 2) chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 30); 3) distilled water (placebo) (n = 30). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the effect of both mouthwashes. ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using SPSS version 17 with p ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. Our result showed that Terminalia chebula mouthrinse is as effective as chlorhexidine in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to the placebo. The results of the present study indicate that Terminalia chebula may prove to be an effective mouthwash. Terminalia chebula extract mouthrinse can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse as it has similar properties without the side-effects of the latter.

  15. Evaluation of corrosion resistance and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires immersed in different mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Nalbantgil, Didem; Ulkur, Feyza; Kardas, Gulfeza; Culha, Mustafa

    2016-11-25

    Patients use mouthwashes in addition to mechanical cleaning during orthodontic treatment. The effects of mouthwashes on the archwires have not been examined yet. To compare the corrosion resistance of four different arch wires and corrosion effects of different mouthwashes to formulate a biocompatible and mechanically useful arch wire and mouthwash combination. Each group comprised of 4 wire samples of 2 cm 0.016 × 0.022 inch. 1st group: ion implanted nickel titanium (INT), 2nd group: nickel titanium, without ion implantation (NT), 3rd group: micro layered esthetic nickel titanium (ENT), 4th group: stainless steel (SS) wires. They were immersed inside 2 ml of artificial saliva solutions (AS) for the control, or AS (9%) combined with 1 of the 3 mouthwashes (91%) for study groups, for 24 hours. These mouthwashes were essential oil (EO), chlorhexidine (CHX), sodium-fluoride (NaF). An electrochemical analyzer was used for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. High corrosion resistance was obtained for ENT than the other wires. The corrosion potentials are 0.007, -0.042, 0.074 and -0.015 V (Ag/AgCl) for ENT, INT, SS and NT in the artificial salivary, respectively. In NaF containing mouthwash Rp value of ENT is significantly high in comparison to others. The impedance responses of all materials increased significantly in the presence of NaF mouthwash as well as in the CHX mouthwash. Low frequencies are seen at all materials in EO mouthwash. Diameters of loops are 22, 5.9, 5.9 and 3.7 MΩ at ENT, INT, SS and NT. In this study, micro layered esthetic nickel titanium wires are found biocompatible among other wires and NaF and CHX mouthwashes can be recommend for their good corrosion resistance during fixed orthodontic therapy.

  16. The Effect of Preventive Agents (Mouthwashes/Gels) on the Color Stability of Dental Resin-Based Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H.

    2017-01-01

    The color of dental restorative material should be maintained throughout its functional lifetime in an oral environment. However, the frequent use of mouthwash may affect the color stability of these composite restorations. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of using various mouthwashes on the color stability of various dental restorative composite materials. For this purpose, four mouthwashes/gels (Flocare gel (0.4% stannous fluoride), Pascal gel (topical APF fluoride), Pro-Relief mouthwash (sodium fluoride), and Plax Soin mouthwash (sodium fluoride)), and distilled water as a control, were selected. These were divided into five groups: Group 1: Flocare gel; Group 2: Pascal gel; Group 3: Pro-Relief mouthwash; Group 4: Plax Soin mouthwash; and Group 5: distilled water (control). Prepared restorative materials samples were immersed in the groups of mouthwashes/gels and the distilled water (control) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The discoloration that all materials exhibited with all immersion groups was significantly different at each of the three time periods for all groups (p < 0.05). Results from immersion in Flocare gel, Pascal gel, Pro-Relief mouthwash, and Plax Soin mouthwash were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The color change chroma was not significant for Pro-Relief and Plax Soin mouthwash (p > 0.05). Mouthwashes/gels affect color shifting for all composite resin materials, and changes are exaggerated over time. However, discoloration effects are not perceptible to the human eye. PMID:29563424

  17. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of a herbal mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on select periodontal pathogens: An in vitro and ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Multazim Muradkhan; Bhat, Kishore Gajanan; Joshi, Vinayak Mahableshwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several herbal mouthwash and herbal extracts have been tested in vitro and in vivo in search of a suitable adjunct to mechanical therapy for long-term use. In this study, we aimed to look at the antimicrobial effect of the herbal mouthwash and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on select organisms in in vitro test and an ex vivo model. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial effects were determined against standard strains of bacteria that are involved in different stages of periodontal diseases. The in vitro tests included determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using broth dilution and agar diffusion. In the ex vivo part of the study supragingival dental plaque were obtained from 20 periodontally healthy adult volunteers. Descriptive analysis was done for the entire quantitative and qualitative variable recorded. Results: The MIC by broth dilution method found no statistically significant difference between the mouthwashes. The agar dilution method showed CHX was more effective as compared to the herbal mouthwash against standard strains of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. However, no difference was observed between the mouthwashes for Porphyromonas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The ex vivo results conclude that none of the selected mouthwashes were statistically significantly different from each other. Conclusion: In the present study, CHX showed higher levels of antimicrobial action than the herbal mouthwash against bacterial species. The results reinforce the earlier findings that the in vitro testing is sensitive to methods and due diligence is needed when extrapolating the data for further use. However, long-term use and in vivo effectiveness against the periopathogens need to be tested in well-planned clinical trials. PMID:29456300

  18. Effect of fluoride mouthwash on tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimah, D. I.; Anggani, H. S.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Patients with orthodontic treatment are commonly recommended to use a fluoride mouthwash for maintaining their oral hygiene and preventing dental caries. However, fluoride may affect the characteristics of stainless steel orthodontic archwires used during treatment. The effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to know the effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Examine the tensile strength of 0.016 inch stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersion in 0.05%, 100 ml fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min. There is no statistically significant difference in the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersed in fluoride mouthwash. The p-values on immersion fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min consecutively are 0.790; 0.742; and 0.085 (p > 0.05). The use of fluoride mouthwash did not have an effect on the tensile strength of stainless Steel orthodontic archwires.

  19. Comparison of the in vitro Effect of Chemical and Herbal Mouthwashes on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Somayeh; Sabokbar, Azar; Riazipour, Majid; Saffari, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the recent decades research has focused to find scientific evidence for the effects of herbal medicines. Researchers are interested in herbal remedies for medication and aim to substitute herbal material instead of chemical formula with limited side effects for human being. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to compare the in vitro effect of herbal and chemical mouthwashes against Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this research, we used a standard strain of C. albicans, PTCC 5027. The suspension was made by a fresh culture of C. albicans (24 hours) and the optical density (turbidity equating to a McFarland standard of 0.5) was read at 530 nm. The C. albicans suspension was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar plate. Next, two wells were filled with mouthwashes and after incubation at 30ºC for 24 hours, the inhibition zone was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of mouthwashes were determined. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, independent T-tests and one-sided variance analysis (ANOVA-one way). Results: Based on these findings on agar diffusion with (P = 0.764), MIC and MFC tests (P = 0.879), there were no significant differences between the antifungal effect of herbal and chemical mouthwashes. Conclusions: This study showed that, chemical mouthwashes acted better than herbal mouthwashes and among different chemical mouthwashes, Oral B was most effective. PMID:25741429

  20. In vitro quantitative comparison of erosive potential of infant mouthwashes on glass ionomer cement

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Aline-Bastos; Rapôso, Nayre-Maria-Lauande; Gomes, Isabella-Azevedo; Gonçalves, Letícia-Machado

    2018-01-01

    Background The widespread use of mouthwashes, specially in children, is a concern, since the long-term use may modify the topography of dental materials. However, this process still unclear regarding the wear related to infant mouthwashes on glass ionomer cement. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was evaluate the erosive potential of infant mouthwashes on glass ionomer cement specimens. Material and Methods Forty round-shaped specimens were divided into 4 groups (N=10) and submitted to erosive cycling for 15 days, being exposed 2X/day in the following children’s active agents mouthwash solutions: G1- cetylpyridinium chloride, G2- xylitol and triclosan and G3 - Malva sylvestris and xylitol. Prior to cycling, the specimens were submitted to the surface roughness measurement. After erosive cycling, the specimens were reanalyzed, and calculated the increase of roughness (∆Ra). Additionally, it was adopted distilled water as a negative control (G4). As an extra analysis, the mouthwashes had their pH values measured. The results were submitted to T-test and ANOVA followed by Tukey test at 5%. Results In relation to pH values, G2 presented the most acidic pH value (pH = 6.83) in comparison to other substances. Regarding the comparison of the final roughness values (R) among the groups, it was verified that the mouthwashes showed significant roughness increase in comparison to control group, especially to G3 group (Rf = 1.67 ± 0.14) as well the ΔRa values with statistical difference in comparison to distilled water. Still, with exception of control group outcome, an increase of roughness of each mouthwash was verified after the studied period. Conclusions Active agents present in infant mouthwashes were capable of roughness increased of glass ionomer cement surface, demonstrating an erosive potential of this material largely used in pediatric dentistry. Key words:Dental erosion, dental cements, mouthwash. PMID:29721219

  1. Effectiveness of probiotic, chlorhexidine and fluoride mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans – Randomized, single-blind, in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Jothika, Mohan; Vanajassun, P. Pranav; Someshwar, Battu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the short-term efficiency of probiotic, chlorhexidine, and fluoride mouthwashes on plaque Streptococcus mutans level at four periodic intervals. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind, randomized control study in which each subject was tested with only one mouthwash regimen. Fifty-two healthy qualified adult patients were selected randomly for the study and were divided into the following groups: group 1- 10 ml of distilled water, group 2- 10 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, group 3- 10 ml of 500 ppm F/400 ml sodium fluoride mouthwash, and group 4- 10 ml of probiotic mouthwash. Plaque samples were collected from the buccal surface of premolars and molars in the maxillary quadrant. Sampling procedure was carried out by a single examiner after 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days, respectively, after the use of the mouthwash. All the samples were subjected to microbiological analysis and statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc test. Results: One-way ANOVA comparison among groups 2, 3, and 4 showed no statistical significance, whereas group 1 showed statistically significant difference when compared with groups 2, 3, and 4 at 7th, 14th, and 30th day. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, and probiotic mouthwashes reduce plaque S. mutans levels. Probiotic mouthwash is effective and equivalent to chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthwashes. Thus, probiotic mouthwash can also be considered as an effective oral hygiene regimen. PMID:25984467

  2. The antibacterial effect of four mouthwashes against streptococcus mutans and escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghapanchi, Janan; Lavaee, Fatemeh; Moattari, Afagh; Shakib, Mahmood

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of several mouthwash concentrations on oral Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli. The study was conducted at Shiraz Medicine School in 2011. Serial dilutions of Chlorohexidin, Oral B and Persica and Irsha (2,4,8,16,64,128) were prepared in Muller-Hinton media. Minimum inhibitory concentration was visually determined and defined as the lowest concentration of each oral washing which inhibited > 95% growth reduction compared to the growth control well. Chlorhexidine, Oral B and Irsha mouthwash inhibited Streptococcus mutans even with diluted concentrations. Also, Chlorhexidine and Oral B prohibited Escherichia coli with different potencies. But Persica had no antimicrobial activity against either Escherichia coli or Streptococcus mutans. Chlorhexidine, Irsha, and Oral B mouthwashes can be used for antimicrobial effects, especially on Streptococcus mutans. This chemical activity of mouthwashes is an adjuvant for mechanical removing of plaque. However, the antimicrobial effect of Persicaremains controversial.

  3. Ion release from orthodontic brackets in 3 mouthwashes: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Danaei, Shahla Momeni; Safavi, Afsaneh; Roeinpeikar, S M Mehdi; Oshagh, Morteza; Iranpour, Shiva; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Omidekhoda, Maryam

    2011-06-01

    Stainless steel orthodontic brackets can release metal ions into the saliva. Fluoridated mouthwashes are often recommended to orthodontic patients to reduce the risk of white-spot lesions around their brackets. However, little information is available regarding the effect of different mouthwashes in ion release of orthodontic brackets. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of metal ion release from orthodontic brackets when kept in different mouthwashes. One hundred sixty stainless steel brackets (0.022-in, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups and immersed in Oral B (Procter & Gamble, Weybridge, United Kingdom), chlorhexidine (Shahdaru Labratories, Tehran, Iran), and Persica (Poursina Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Tehran, Iran) mouthwashes and distilled deionized water and incubated at 37°C for 45 days. Nickel, chromium, iron, copper, and manganese released from the orthodontic brackets were measured with an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. For statistical analysis, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Duncan multiple-range tests were used. The results showed that ion release in deionized water was significantly (P <0.05) higher than in the 3 mouthwashes. Higher ion release was found with chlorhexidine compared with the other 2 mouthwashes. There was no significant difference (P >0.05) in nickel, chromium, iron, and copper ion release in the Oral B and Persica mouthwashes. The level of manganese release was significantly different in all 4 groups. If ion release is a concern, Oral B and Persica mouthwashes might be better options than chlorhexidine for orthodontic patients with stainless steel brackets. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A clinical study to assess the 12-hour antimicrobial effects of cetylpyridinium chloride mouthwashes on supragingival plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    He, Songlin; Wei, Yin; Fan, Xu; Hu, Deyu; Sreenivasan, P K

    2011-01-01

    This randomized double-blind clinical study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of two mouthwashes containing (1) 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) + 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) in an alcohol-free base and (2) 0.075% CPC + 0.05% NaF in a 6% alcohol base, versus a negative control mouthwash containing 0.05% NaF in an alcohol-free base on numbers of bacteria in supragingival plaque 12 hours after a single use and 12 hours after 14 days' use. Enrolled subjects completed a one-week washout phase prior to providing baseline samples of supragingival plaque that were analyzed for numbers of anaerobic microorganisms. Subjects were randomized to a treatment group and instructed to rinse with 20 mL of the assigned mouthwash for 30 seconds. Post-treatment microbiological analyses were conducted on plaque samples collected 12 hours after the first use of each assigned mouthwash and after completing 14 days of twice-daily use of each assigned mouthwash. Oral examinations were completed by a dentist at each sample collection to assess soft and hard tissue oral health over the course of the study. The study enrolled 188 adults (mean age 45.78 years; age range 23-69). Subjects rinsing with the CPC-containing mouthwash realized a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in numbers of supragingival anaerobic bacteria at the 12-hour evaluation after a single use. In comparison to the control mouthwash, use of the CPC mouthwash in an alcohol base resulted in a 35.3% reduction in numbers of anaerobic plaque bacteria, while the CPC mouthwash in an alcohol-free base demonstrated a 34.5% reduction. Further, the analysis after twice-daily use for 14 days indicated that the CPC mouthwash in an alcohol base demonstrated a 73.8% reduction in anaerobic plaque bacteria, while the CPC mouthwash in an alcohol-free base demonstrated a 70.9% reduction in anaerobic plaque bacteria versus the control mouthwash. The CPC mouthwash in an alcohol-free base reduced supragingival plaque bacteria

  5. Neutralizing salivary pH by mouthwashes after an acidic challenge.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mojdeh; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Kymer-Davis, Emily; Stewart, Colette W; Zhang, Yanhui H; Versluis, Antheunis; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the neutralizing effect of mouthwashes on salivary pH after an acidic challenge. Twelve participants were recruited for three visits, one morning per week. Resting saliva was collected at baseline and after 2-min swishing with 20 mL orange juice as an acidic challenge. Participants then rinsed their mouth for 30 s with 20 mL water (control), an over-the-counter mouthwash (Listerine), or a two-step mouthwash, randomly assigned for each visit. Saliva was collected immediately, 15, and 45 min after rinsing. The pH values of the collected saliva were measured and analyzed with anova, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test (significance level: 0.05). Orange juice significantly lowered salivary pH. Immediately after rinsing, Listerine and water brought pH back to baseline values, with the pH significantly higher in the Listerine group. The two-step mouthwash raised pH significantly higher than Listerine and water, and higher than the baseline value. Salivary pH returned to baseline and was not significantly different among groups at 15 and 45 min post-rinsing. Mouth rinsing after an acidic challenge increased salivary pH. The tested mouthwashes raised pH higher than water. Mouthwashes with a neutralizing effect can potentially reduce tooth erosion from acid exposure. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Effect of mouthwash and accelerated aging on the color stability of esthetic restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; El Zawahry, M; Noaman, K M; Powers, J M

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the color stability of esthetic restorative materials after immersion in mouthwashes and accelerated aging. Compomers and resin-based composites (RBC) were measured at baseline and repeatedly after immersion in three kinds of mouthwash (Listerine, Peridex, Rembrandt Age Defying) for 24 hrs and 7 days, and after aging for 150 kJ/m2. Color was measured according to CIE L*a*b* color scale on a reflection spectrophotometer. After immersion for 7 days, the mouthwash groups did not produce significantly higher color changes than the distilled water group, except with some mouthwashes used with Tetric-Ceram. After immersion for 7 days and aging for 150 kJ/m2, the mouthwash groups did not produce significantly higher color changes than the distilled water group. Aging in weathering chamber produced color change (deltaE*) of 1.1-3.9, which was mainly influenced by the material. With some exceptions, the color changes from immersion of the RBCs and compomers in mouthwashes were not perceptible (deltaE*<3.3).

  7. Effect of commercial mouthwashes on the corrosion resistance of Ti-10Mo experimental alloy.

    PubMed

    Alves Rezende, Maria Cristina Rosifini; Alves, Ana Paula Rosifini; Codaro, Eduardo Norberto; Dutra, Conceição Aparecida Matsumoto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of three commercial mouthwashes on the corrosion resistance of Ti-10Mo experimental alloy. Experiments were made at 37.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C in a conventional three-compartment double wall glass cell containing commercial mouthwashes. Three mouthwashes with different active ingredients were tested: (I) 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; (II) 0.5 g/l cetylpyridinium chloride + 0.05% sodium fluoride; (III) 0.12% chlorohexidine digluconate. The assessment of the individual effect of active ingredients was studied by using 0.05% sodium fluoride. Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) was used as control. Microstructures from Ti-10Mo experimental alloy and CP Ti were also evaluated using optical microscopy. Ti-10Mo as-cast alloy shows the typical rapidly cooled dendrites microstructure (beta phase) while CP Ti has exhibited a metastable martensitic microstructure. Electrochemical behavior of dental materials here studied was more affected by mouthwash type than by Ti alloy composition or microstructure. In both alloys passivation phenomenon was observed. This process may be mainly related to Ti oxides or other Ti species present in spontaneously formed film. Small differences in passive current densities values may be connected with changes in film porosity and thickness. Protective characteristics of this passive film are lower in 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan mouthwash than in the other two mouthwashes tested.

  8. Chlorhexidine mouthwash and sodium lauryl sulphate dentifrice: do they mix effectively or interfere?

    PubMed

    Elkerbout, T A; Slot, D E; Bakker, E W P; Van der Weijden, G A

    2016-02-01

    What is the effectiveness of a chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash used in combination with a sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) dentifrice on the parameters of plaque and gingivitis? MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE and other electronic databases were searched up to July 2014. The inclusion criteria were (randomized) controlled clinical trials, subjects ≥18 years of age with good general health. Papers evaluating the effect of CHX mouthwash used in combination with SLS dentifrice or a dentifrice slurry compared with CHX mouthwash as a single oral hygiene intervention or in combination with an SLS-free dentifrice were included. From the eligible studies, data were extracted, and a meta-analysis was performed when feasible. Independent screening of 83 unique papers resulted in four eligible publications, with nine comparisons. The meta-analysis showed that when an SLS dentifrice was used as a slurry rinse, the interference on the plaque-inhibiting effect of a CHX mouthwash was significantly decreased (MD 0.33; P ≤ 0.00001; 95% CI: <0.24; 0.42>). No significant difference was observed when SLS dentifrice was applied as a paste in combination with CHX mouthwash (MD 0.08; P = 0.42; 95% CI: <-0.26; 0.11>). Descriptive and subgroup analyses support these findings. Moreover, the observed effect for the dentifrice paste occurred regardless of the order of use. This review demonstrates that when CHX mouthwash is recommended, it can be used in combination with an SLS dentifrice without any interference regarding its inhibiting effect on dental plaque, regardless of the order of use. Consequently, the collective evidence indicates that the combined use of dentifrice and CHX mouthwash is not contraindicated. However, this recommendation has been graded as moderate taking into account a potential publication bias because three of the four included studies emerged from the same research group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Neem Mouthwash on Plaque and Gingivitis: A Double-blind Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Jalaluddin, Md; Rajasekaran, U B; Paul, Sam; Dhanya, R S; Sudeep, C B; Adarsh, V J

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of neem-containing mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis. This randomized, double-blinded, crossover clinical trial included 40 participants aged 18 to 35 years with washout period of 1 week between the crossover phases. A total of 20 participants, each randomly allocated into groups I and II, wherein in the first phase, group I was provided with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and group II with 2% neem mouthwash. After the scores were recorded, 1-week time period was given to the participants to carry over the effects of the mouthwashes and then the second phase of the test was performed. The participants were instructed to use the other mouthwash through the second test phase. There was a slight reduction of plaque level in the first phase as well as in the second phase. When comparison was made between the groups, no statistically significant difference was seen. Both the groups showed reduction in the gingival index (GI) scores in the first phase, and there was a statistically significant difference in both groups at baseline and after intervention (0.005 and 0.01 respectively). In the second phase, GI scores were reduced in both groups, but there was a statistically significant difference between the groups only at baseline scores (0.01). In the present study, it has been concluded that neem mouthwash can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash based on the reduced scores in both the groups. Using neem mouthwash in maintaining oral hygiene might have a better impact in prevention as well as pervasiveness of oral diseases as it is cost-effective and easily available.

  10. Efficacy of Miswak toothpaste and mouthwash on cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Samim A.; Qasim, Huda J.; Al-Derzi, Nadia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of Salvadora persica (Miswak) products on cariogenic bacteria in comparison with ordinary toothpaste. Methods: The study was conducted in Zakho city, Kurdistan region, Iraq during the period from October 2013 to January 2014. A randomized controlled clinical trial of 40 students randomly allocated into 4 groups. They were instructed to use Mismark toothpaste, Miswak mouthwash, and ordinary toothpaste with water or with normal saline. Salivary samples were collected at 3-time intervals: before, immediately after use, and after 2 weeks of use. The effect of each method on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli was evaluated by using caries risk test. Results: One-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and least significant difference tests were used. Miswak wash has a significant reduction effect on both bacteria immediately and after 2 weeks of use. Miswak paste has a similar effect on Lactobacilli, while Streptococcus mutans showed a significant decrease only after 2 weeks of use. Ordinary paste showed a non significant effect on both bacteria at both time intervals; while the addition of normal saline showed a significant effect on both bacteria only after 2 weeks of use. Conclusion: Miswak products, especially mouth wash, were more effective in reducing the growth of cariogenic bacteria than ordinary toothpaste. PMID:27570858

  11. Effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on periodontal health: triple blind randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Karim, Bushra; Bhaskar, Dara John; Agali, Chandan; Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Jain, Ankita; Kanwar, Alpana

    2014-03-01

    With the increasing incidence of periodontal diseases and development of antibiotic resistance, the global need for alternative treatment modalities, safe, effective, and economical products is the need of time. Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing oral diseases disease. The aim of the study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque and gingivitis and comparing it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo. 345 healthy subjects were randomly allocated in 3 groups to the test group (n=115) - mouthwash containing Aloe vera, Control group (n=115) -chlorhexidene group, Distilled water - Placebo (n=115) . Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were assessed at days 0, 15 and 30. Subjects were asked to rinse their mouth with the stated mouthwash, twice a day, during a 30-day period. Our result showed that Aloe vera mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing periodontal indices as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to placebo group. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects as seen with chlorhexidine. The results of the present study indicate that Aloe vera may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in reducing periodontal indices.

  12. Metal ion release from silver soldering and laser welding caused by different types of mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ayse Tuygun; Nalbantgil, Didem; Ulkur, Feyza; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2015-07-01

    To compare metal ion release from samples welded with silver soldering and laser welding when immersed into mouthwashes with different ingredients. A total of 72 samples were prepared: 36 laser welded and 36 silver soldered. Four samples were chosen from each subgroup to study the morphologic changes on their surfaces via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each group was further divided into four groups where the samples were submerged into mouthwash containing sodium fluoride (NaF), mouthwash containing sodium fluoride + alcohol (NaF + alcohol), mouthwash containing chlorhexidine (CHX), or artificial saliva (AS) for 24 hours and removed thereafter. Subsequently, the metal ion release from the samples was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The metal ion release among the solutions and the welding methods were compared. The Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for the group comparisons, and post hoc Dunn multiple comparison test was utilized for the two group comparisons. The level of metal ion release from samples of silver soldering was higher than from samples of laser welding. Furthermore, greater amounts of nickel, chrome, and iron were released from silver soldering. With regard to the mouthwash solutions, the lowest amounts of metal ions were released in CHX, and the highest amounts of metal ions were released in NaF + alcohol. SEM images were in accord with these findings. The laser welding should be preferred over silver soldering. CHX can be recommended for patients who have welded appliances for orthodontic reasons.

  13. An in vitro analysis model for investigating the staining effect of various chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Alain-Ayepa; Struillou, Xavier; Bories, Céline; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Badran, Zahi; Soueidan, Assem

    2017-03-01

    There are different mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine in different concentrations, as well as various excipients. Chlorhexidine induce stains or discoloration in teeth and mucous membranes. The aim of this work was to design a model to reproduce in vitro staining associated with the use of different mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine. We used as substrates of natural teeth and elephant ivory slices. Different incubation baths were conducted over 21 days in culture dishes at 37°C. At the beginning of experiment before incubation (D0) and after 21 days (D21) of incubation with different mouthwashes, pictures of substrates were taken in a standardized manner and an image analysis software was used to analyse and quantify the staining under the various conditions by using the 3 main colours (Red, Green, Blue, RGB). The results of this work demonstrate a very good reproducibility of the protocol, and secondly, a different expression statistically significant of the primary blue colour. We suggest that for a given concentration of chlorhexidine, the staining effects may vary depending on the excipients used. This replicable model, easy to implement over a relatively short duration, can be used for evaluation of existing mouthwashes, and to test the excipients anti discoloration proposed by manufacturers. Key words: In vitro, chlorhexidine, mouthwashes, dental stain, tooth discoloration.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Probiotic, Herbal and Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on Gingival Health: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha; Khairnar, Mahesh Ravindra; Naik, Rahul Gaybarao; Jadhav, Harish Chaitram

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to inherent limitations of Chlorhexidine (CHX), search for an effective and potentially safe anti-plaque agent has led to emergence of alternative products. Aim The present study evaluated the comparative efficacy of probiotic, herbal and CHX mouthwashes on gingival health of healthy individuals. Materials and Methods The present study was randomized parallel group controlled trial. A group of 45 healthy subjects in the age group of 18-21 years received complete supragingival scaling at baseline and study variables viz., Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were recorded. Subjects were then randomly divided into three groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different mouthwashes i.e., HiOra mouthwash, CHX mouthwash and Probiotic mouthwash. Variables were again recorded on the seventh and 14th day after use of mouthwashes and data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference in the efficacy of CHX, HiOra regular and probiotic mouthwashes on plaque accumulation, gingival health and oral hygiene status. Conclusion Herbal and probiotic mouthwashes can prove to be effective alternatives to CHX with minimal side effects. PMID:28511500

  15. The comparative effect of propolis in two different vehicles; mouthwash and chewing-gum on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Nuray; Erdemir, Ebru Olgun; Ozkan, Serdar Yucel; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In general, chemical plaque agents have been used in mouthwashes, gels, and dentifrices. In some situations, application of mouthwashes and dentifrices can be difficult. Therefore, different approaches for oral health-care have been needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis chewing-gum compared to propolis-containing mouthwash on gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation on patients that refrained from daily oral hygiene procedures for 5 days. Materials and Methods: 10 college students with systemically healthy and very good oral hygiene and gingival health were included in this randomized, single-blind, crossover 5-day plaque regrowth with a 3-day washout period clinical study. After plaque scores were reduced to zero, participants were asked to refrain from oral hygiene procedures and allocated to either propolis mouthwash or chewing-gum group. Chewing-gum was performed after meals 3 times a day for 20 min mouthwash group was instructed to rinse mouthwash 2 times a day for 1 min. On day 5, the clinical periodontal measurements containing plaque and gingival indexes were taken from the participants. Results: The both plaque and gingival indexes of propolis mouthwash group were significantly lower than that of the propolis chewing-gum group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the propolis mouthwash was more effective than the propolis chewing gum on the plaque inhibition and the gingival inflammation. PMID:26038663

  16. Antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine, matrica drop mouthwash (chamomile extract), and normal saline on hospitalized patients with endotracheal tubes

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Maryam; Jouybari, Leila; Moghadam, Shahram; Ghaemi, Ezatolah; Behnampoor, Naser; Sanagoo, Akram; Hesam, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Background: The functions and use of mouthwashes are variable depending on their type. Oral care in patients with endotracheal tubes is important to prevent side effects such as pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine, drop of Matrica mouthwash (chamomile extract), and normal saline on hospitalized patients with endotracheal tube in an intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 39 patients admitted to the ICU were selected by convenience sampling, were matched based on age and sex, and randomly assigned to three groups (chlorhexidine, Matrica, saline). Mouth washing was performed every 8 to 48 hours. The samples were taken at time zero (before the intervention) and 48 hours after the intervention for bacterial culture. Antibacterial activity of each mouthwash on microorganisms was measured based on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococcal, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli. The obtained data were then analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Package version 18. Results: Chlorhexidine mouthwash was more effective in preventing colonization of bacteria in the mouth (point probability = 0.06) in comparison with chamomile and saline mouthwashes. Nevertheless, none of the tested mouthwashes were able to remove pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Acinetobacter. Conclusions: 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash has a significant effect on the bacterial colonization rate in comparison with Matrica and normal saline mouthwashes in ICU hospitalized patients with endotracheal tube. PMID:27904627

  17. Effect of Bleaching Mouthwash on Force Decay of Orthodontic Elastomeric Chains.

    PubMed

    Behnaz, Mohammad; Namvar, Fatemeh; Sohrabi, Setareh; Parishanian, Mina

    2018-02-01

    Force decay elastomeric chains are significant, and it is a clinical problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bleaching agent in the mouthwash on the force decay of orthodontic chains. In this experimental study, 160 gray closed elastomeric chains were randomly divided into three groups (one control and two test groups). Four loops of chains were stretched for 25 mm on custom-made jig. Control group specimens were immersed in artificial saliva during the test period. Test group specimens were immersed twice a day for 30 seconds in the whitening (LISTERINE® HEALTHY WHITE™) and daily sodium fluoride (LISTERINE® TOTAL CARE ZERO) mouthwashes. All specimens were immersed in artificial saliva at 37°C. Force was measured at different time points (initial, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 days). Statistical analysis was performed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni methods (a = 0.05). Force of elastomeric chains was decreased dramatically in all groups during the experiment. After 24 hours, force was decreased by 42.18, 48.34, and 53.38% in control group, daily, and bleaching mouthwash groups respectively. The corresponding numbers after 4 weeks were 66.30, 76.73, and 86.48. The difference between three groups at days 1 and 28 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of the current in vitro study, bleaching and sodium fluoride mouthwashes could cause force decay of orthodontic elastomeric chains. Whitening mouthwash is more weakening for elastomeric chains. Use of whitening mouthwash by orthodontic patients could decrease the force of elastomeric chains, so it could be recommended to use them for a short time.

  18. Biologic assessment of antiseptic mouthwashes using a three-dimensional human oral mucosal model.

    PubMed

    Moharamzadeh, Keyvan; Franklin, Kirsty L; Brook, Ian M; van Noort, Richard

    2009-05-01

    The biologic safety profile of oral health care products is often assumed on the basis of simplistic test models such as monolayer cell culture systems. We developed and characterized a tissue-engineered human oral mucosal model, which was proven to represent a potentially more informative and more clinically relevant alternative for the biologic assessment of mouthwashes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biologic effects of alcohol-containing mouthwashes on an engineered human oral mucosal model. Three-dimensional (3D) models were engineered by the air/liquid interface culture technique using human oral fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The models were exposed to phosphate buffered saline (negative control), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (positive control), cola, and three types of alcohol-containing mouthwashes. The biologic response was recorded using basic histology; a cell proliferation assay; 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tissue-viability assay; transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis; and the measurement of release of interleukin (IL)-1beta by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in tissue viability among the mouthwashes, cola, and negative control groups. However, exposure to the positive control significantly reduced the tissue viability and caused severe cytotoxic epithelial damage as confirmed by histology and TEM analysis. A significant increase of IL-1beta release was observed with the positive control and, to a lesser extent, with two of the tested mouthrinses. The 3D human oral mucosal model can be a suitable model for the biologic testing of mouthwashes. The alcohol-containing mouthwashes tested in this study do not cause significant cytotoxic damage and may slightly stimulate IL-1beta release.

  19. [Mouthwash solutions with microencapsuled natural extracts: Efficiency for dental plaque and gingivitis].

    PubMed

    Vervelle, A; Mouhyi, J; Del Corso, M; Hippolyte, M-P; Sammartino, G; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M

    2010-06-01

    Mouthwash solutions are mainly used for their antiseptic properties. They currently include synthetic agents (chlorhexidine, triclosan, etc.) or essential oils (especially Listerine). Many natural extracts may also be used. These associate both antiseptic effects and direct action on host response, due to their antioxidant, immunoregulatory, analgesic, buffering, or healing properties. The best known are avocado oil, manuka oil, propolis oil, grapefruit seed extract, pycnogenol, aloe vera, Q10 coenzyme, green tea, and megamin. The development of new technologies, such as microencapsulation (GingiNat concept), may allow an in situ slow release of active ingredients during several hours, and open new perspectives for mouthwash solutions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A multicentre double-blind randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of daily use of antibacterial mouthwash against oropharyngeal gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men: the OMEGA (Oral Mouthwash use to Eradicate GonorrhoeA) study protocol.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Walker, Sandra; Hocking, Jane S; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Chen, Marcus Y; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Howden, Benjamin P; Law, Matthew G; Maddaford, Kate; Read, Tim R H; Lewis, David A; Whiley, David M; Zhang, Lei; Grulich, Andrew E; Kaldor, John M; Cornelisse, Vincent J; Phillips, Samuel; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna M; Templeton, David J; Roth, Norman; Moore, Richard; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-06-28

    Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmissible infections in men who have sex with men (MSM). Gonorrhoea rates have increased substantially in recent years. There is concern that increasing gonorrhoea prevalence will increase the likelihood of worsening antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A recent randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that a single-dose of mouthwash has an inhibitory effect against oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. We are conducting the first RCT to evaluate whether daily use of mouthwash could reduce the risk of acquiring oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. The OMEGA (Oral Mouthwash use to Eradicate GonorrhoeA) study is a double-blind RCT and will be conducted at several sexual health clinics and high caseload General Practice (GP) clinics in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. A total of 504 MSM attending the participating sites will be recruited. Participants will be randomised to either using 'Study mouthwash A' or 'Study mouthwash B' for 12 weeks. Study mouthwash A was inhibitory against N. gonorrhoeae in vitro, whereas study mouthwash B was not. Participants will be instructed to rinse and gargle the study mouthwash for 60 seconds every day. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants with oropharyngeal gonorrhoea detected by nucleic acid amplification test by 12 weeks. The results from this trial may provide a novel way to reduce gonorrhoea prevalence and transmission without the use of antibiotics that may be associated with development of resistance. If shown to be effective, the widespread use of mouthwash will reduce the prevalence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, which plays key role in driving the emergence of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance through DNA exchange with oral commensal bacteria. The anticipated net effect will be interruption of onward transmission of N. gonorrhoeae within high density sexual networks within MSM populations. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000247471

  1. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

  2. Preliminary antiplaque efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash on 4 day plaque re-growth model: randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Yadav, Ankit; Obaid, Khursheed; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-04-01

    Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo (saline water). A total of 300 systemically healthy subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Aloe vera mouthwash group (n=100), control group (=100)-chlorhexidene group and saline water-Placebo (n=100). To begin with, Gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After randomization of the participants into three groups they were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (Aloe vera mouthwash, 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. The results showed that Aloe vera mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque as Chlorhexidine compared to placebo over a period of 4 days. There was a significant reduction on plaque in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects. The results of the present study indicated that Aloe vera may prove an effective mouthwash due to its ability in reducing dental plaque.

  3. Transcriptome changes induced in vitro by alcohol-containing mouthwashes in normal and dysplastic oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Fox, Simon A; Currie, Sean S; Dalley, Andrew J; Farah, Camile S

    2018-05-01

    The role of alcohol-containing mouthwash as a risk factor for the development of oral cancer is a subject of conflicting epidemiological evidence in the literature despite alcohol being a recognised carcinogen. The aim of this study was to use in vitro models to investigate mechanistic and global gene expression effects of exposure to alcohol-containing mouthwash. Two brands of alcohol-containing mouthwash and their alcohol-free counterparts were used to treat two oral cell lines derived from normal (OKF6-TERT) and dysplastic (DOK) tissues. Genotoxicity was determined by Comet assay. RNA-seq was performed using the Ion Torrent platform. Bioinformatics analysis used R/Bioconductor packages with differential expression using DEseq2. Pathway enrichment analysis used EnrichR with the WikiPathways and Kegg databases. Both cell lines displayed dose-dependent DNA damage in response to acute exposure to ethanol and alcohol-containing mouthwashes as well as alcohol-free mouthwashes reconstituted with ethanol as shown by Comet assay. The transcriptomic effects of alcohol-containing mouthwash exposure were more complex with significant differential gene expression ranging from >2000 genes in dysplastic (DOK) cells to <100 genes in normal (OKF6-TERT) cells. Pathway enrichment analysis in DOK cells revealed alcohol-containing mouthwashes showed common features between the two brands used including DNA damage response as well as cancer-associated pathways. In OKF6-TERT cells, the most significantly enriched pathways involved inflammatory signalling. Alcohol-containing mouthwashes are genotoxic in vitro to normal and dysplastic oral keratinocytes and induce widespread changes in gene expression. Dysplastic cells are more susceptible to the transcriptomic effects of mouthwash. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash on the Frictional Resistance of Orthodontic Wires.

    PubMed

    Geramy, Allahyar; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Etezadi, Tahura

    2017-09-01

    The friction between the brackets and orthodontic wire during sliding mechanics inflicts difficulties such as decreasing the applied force and tooth movement and also the loss of anchorage. Therefore, many studies have focused on the factors that affect the friction. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash on the friction between orthodontic brackets and wire. Four types of orthodontic wires including rectangular standard stainless steel (SS), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), nickel-titanium (NiTi) and copper-nickel-titanium (Cu-NiTi) were selected. In each group, half of the samples were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash and the others were immersed in artificial saliva for 10 hours. An elastomeric ligature was used for ligating the wires to brackets. The frictional test was performed in a universal testing machine at the speed of 10 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the friction rate. The friction rate was significantly higher after immersion in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash in comparison with artificial saliva (P=0.00). Cu-NiTi wire showed the highest friction value followed by TMA, NiTi and SS wires. According to the results of the current study, 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash increased the frictional characteristics of all the evaluated orthodontic wires.

  5. Chromosomal damage and apoptosis analysis in exfoliated oral epithelial cells from mouthwash and alcohol users

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rodrigo dos Santos; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Eneida

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal damage and apoptosis were analyzed in users of mouthwash and/or alcoholic beverages, using the micronucleus test on exfoliated oral mucosa cells. Samples from four groups of 20 individuals each were analyzed: three exposed groups (EG1, EG2 and EG3) and a control group (CG). EG1 comprised mouthwash users; EG2 comprised drinkers, and EG3 users of both mouthwashes and alcoholic beverages. Cell material was collected by gently scraping the insides of the cheeks. Then the cells were fixed in a methanol/acetic acid (3:1) solution and stained and counterstained, respectively, with Schiff reactive and fast green. Endpoints were computed on 2,000 cells in a blind test. Statistical analysis showed that chromosomal damage and apoptosis were significantly higher in individuals of groups EG1 and EG3 than in controls (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively). No significant difference in chromosomal damage and apoptosis was observed between the exposed groups. In EG2, only the occurrence of apoptosis was significantly higher than in the controls. These results suggest that mouthwashes alone or in association with alcoholic drinks induce genotoxic effects, manifested as chromosomal damage and apoptosis. They also suggest that alcoholic drinks are effective for stimulating the process of apoptosis. However, these data need to be confirmed in larger samples. PMID:25505845

  6. Nickel and chromium ion release from stainless steel bracket on immersion various types of mouthwashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihardjanti, M.; Ismah, N.; Purwanegara, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    The stainless steel bracket is widely used in orthodontics because of its mechanical properties, strength, and good biocompatibility. However, under certain conditions, it can be susceptible to corrosion. Studies have reported that the release of nickel and chromium ions because of corrosion can cause allergic reactions in some individuals and are mutagenic. The condition of the oral environment can lead to corrosion, and one factor that can alter the oral environment is mouthwash. The aim of this study was to measure the nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel brackets when immersed in mouthwash and aquadest. The objects consisted of four groups of 17 maxillary premolar brackets with .022 slots. Each group was immersed in a different mouthwash and aquadest and incubated at 37 °C for 30 days. After 30 days of immersion, the released ions were measured using the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). For statistical analysis, both the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used. The results showed differences among the four groups in the nickel ions released (p < 0.05) and the chromium ions released (p < 0.5). In conclusion, the ions released as a result of mouthwash immersion have a small value that is below the limit of daily intake recommended by the World Health Organization.

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of mouthwashes in reducing cariogenic biofilm in orthodontic patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Sant'Anna, Letícia Iandeyara Dantas Andrade; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2015-03-01

    The use of fixed orthodontic appliances makes it difficult to clean the teeth and accessories associated with it. For this reason, orthodontic patients have used oral antiseptics as coadjuvent means to reduce cariogenic plaque. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral antiseptics on the reduction of cariogenic plaque on orthodontic patients. This review has been registered at PROSPERO--international prospective register of systematic reviews under the number CRD42013006857. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in the following electronic databases: Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase and Cochrane, Grey literature and Clinical Trials, without limitations on the year of publication or language. Clinical studies in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, who were making use of oral mouthwashes in order to reduce cariogenic plaque, were included. Articles with patients using systemic drugs, syndromic patients, those using mouthwashes for other purposes and/or using different cleaning techniques, and clinical cases were excluded. After selection by title and abstract, potentially eligible articles were read in full. The methodological quality and risk of biases of articles included were evaluated according to the characteristics of the study, measurements and statistical analyses of the study. The methodological quality was classified as high, moderate or low. The search identified 2716 articles, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 analyzed chlorhexidine-based mouthwashes, while in 1 article Cetylpyridinium was used; 1 analyzed the mouthwash containing sanguinaria; 1 the use of NaF; 2 articles the use of AmF/SnF2; 2 the use of Listerine(®), 1 also analyzed the association between mouthwashes with octenidine and with PVP-I. Of the articles analyzed, 11 were classified as having high and 4 as having moderate methodological quality. There is evidence of effectiveness of the use of oral

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Pomegranate-Containing Mouthwash Against Oral-Biofilm Forming Organisms: An Invitro Microbial Study

    PubMed Central

    Dabholkar, Charuta Sadanand; Shah, Mona; Bajaj, Monika; Doshi, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pomegranate is considered “A pharmacy unto itself”. Hydrolysable tannins called punicalagins which have free scavenging properties are the most abundant polyphenols found in pomegranate-containing mouthwash. Aim To evaluate antimicrobial effect of pomegranate- containing mouthwash on oral biofilm-forming bacteria. Materials and Methods The mouthwashes used were divided into three groups- Group A: Chlorhexidine mouthwash (Hexidine); Group B: Herbal Mouthwash (Hiora) and Group C: Pomegranate-containing Mouthwash (Life-extension). Each mouthwash was diluted to five different concentrations. Reference strains of Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus salivarius (S.salivarius) (ATCC 7073), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) (NCTC 9710) were selected as being colonizers in dental biofilm formation. On each culture plate, five wells of 5mm were prepared and mouthwashes with different concentrations were added, followed by incubation in a CO2 jar for 24 hours at 37°C. Inhibition zone diameters were measured using a digital caliper. Results Chlorhexidine (0.12%) presented a zone of inhibition between 38.46% to 96.15% for all the three organisms, while Hiora presented zone of inhibition ranging from 33.33% to 69.23% but was resistant at <10 ml of dilution. Pomegranate mouthwash presented a zone of inhibition ranging from 38.48 to 57.69%, but was resistant at <10ml for S.mutans, and <25ml for A.a and S.salivarius. ANOVA test was done to compare the dilution of mouthwashes for a particular organism and Tukey’s multiple comparison tests were done to find the exact difference. A significant difference was seen between all the three groups at 50ml and 75 ml of dilution. At 75 ml concentration, a statistical difference was found between Groups B & C and Groups A & B; and at 50 ml between Groups A&C. Conclusion All the three types of mouthwash exhibit anti-microbial activity against biofilm forming organisms but at varying

  9. Beyond-use dating of lidocaine alone and in two "magic mouthwash" preparations.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Loren Madden; Brown, Stacy D; Luu, Yao; Ogle, Amanda; Huffman, Jessica; Lewis, Paul O

    2017-05-01

    Beyond-use dating (BUD) of lidocaine alone and in two "magic mouthwash" preparations stored in amber oral syringes at room temperature was determined. Two formulations of mouthwash containing oral topical lidocaine 2% (viscous), diphenhydramine 2.5 mg/mL, and aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide-simethicone were prepared in 1:1:1 and 1:2.5:2.5 ratios, divided into 3-mL samples, and stored in unit-dose oral amber syringes. Unit-dose single-product lidocaine samples were also prepared to serve as controls and stored in oral amber syringes. The lidocaine concentrations in these samples were measured periodically for 90 days. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for system suitability, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, specificity, linearity, and robustness. Based on the calculated percentages versus the initial concentration and the results from an analysis of variance comparing the two formulations, a BUD of 21 days is deemed appropriate for both magic mouthwash formulations. Based on the stability data, published safety concerns, and lack of efficacy in combination, packaging and dispensing lidocaine separately from other ingredients are recommended when administering magic mouthwash mixtures. Utilizing a 90-day BUD, lidocaine can be packaged separately from other magic mouthwash ingredients in individual dosage units and applied to the oral cavity using the swish-and-spit method. The delivery of the diphenhydramine and aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide-simethicone could be separated, allowing for a swish-and-swallow method of administration. A BUD of 21 days is recommended for lidocaine prepared with diphenhydramine and aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide-simethicone in ratios of 1:1:1 and 1:2.5:2.5 and stored at room temperature in amber oral plastic syringes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of mouthwash interventions on xerostomia and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate among hemodialysis patients: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yu, I-Chen; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yeh, Mei-Ming; Fang, Jia-You; Liu, Chieh-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Dry mouth (xerostomia) is a common symptom in hemodialysis patients, which is associated with a reduced salivary flow. Xerostomia affects patients' oral health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate using a mouthwash as a means to reduce xerostomia and improve saliva flow rates in hemodialysis patients. A randomized controlled trial. Three dialysis centers in Northern Taiwan served as the study sites. Patients were purposively sampled from three hemodialysis centers in Taiwan and randomly assigned to one of three groups: pure water mouthwash; n=41, licorice mouthwash; n=44, or no mouthwash (control); n=37. The Summated Xerostomia Inventory, and unstimulated whole salivary flow rate measured dry mouth and salivary flow, respectively. Data was collected at baseline, dialysis Day 5 and Day 10. One hundred twenty-two patients participated in this study. Baselines were adjusted for any imbalances in variables and generalized estimating equations analysed the data. Compared to control, a pure water mouthwash resulted in an increase in the unstimulated salivary flow rate of 25.85×10 -3 mL/min and 25.78×10 -3 mL/min (p<0.05) at Day 5 and Day 10, respectively. The estimated effect size was 1.38. However, there was no significant decrease in Summated Xerostomia Inventory scores. The licorice mouthwash also significantly improved the unstimulated salivary flow rates to 114.92×10 -3 mL/min, and 131.61×10 -3 mL/min at Day 5 and Day 10, respectively (p< 0.001). However, in contrast to the pure water mouthwash, the licorice mouthwash resulted in a significant improvement in the scores for the Summated Xerostomia Inventory (p<0.001). Although a pure water or a licorice mouthwash and improved the objective measure of salivary flow rate, only the licorice mouthwash provided subjective relief of xerostomia. This suggests the use of a licorice mouthwash may effectively relieve feelings of dry mouth in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Assessment of Ions released from Three Types of Orthodontic Brackets immersed in Different Mouthwashes: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Nahidh, Mohammed; Garma, Noor Mh; Jasim, Esraa S

    2018-01-01

    Herbs are used widely in medicine. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ion release from gold-plated orthodontic bracket compared with other stainless steel brackets, and based on the findings of the study, the orthodontists can choose the most biocompatible brackets and mouthwashes useful in the clinical practice. A total of 150 orthodontic brackets from Orthotechnology™ Company, USA (50 stainless steel one-piece brackets, 50 stainless steel two-piece brackets, and 50 gold brackets) were immersed in four mouthwashes in addition to distilled water. Ten of each type of brackets in every media were immersed under 37°C for 45 days. Ions released in these mouthwashes were measured, and comparisons among different bracket types and among various mouthwashes were done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then with Games-Howell tests. Increased amounts of ions released in herbal mouth-washes were recorded in gold and two-piece brackets in comparison with one-piece stainless steel brackets. Herbal mouthwashes must be used with caution as they showed an increased amount of ions released in comparison with chlorhexidine. One-piece stainless steel bracket system is the most compatible bracket type, as they released the least amount of ions. One-piece stainless steel brackets are better than two-piece brackets in terms of ions released.

  12. Corrosion Performance of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys in Artificial Saliva and Mouthwash Solution

    PubMed Central

    Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Casales-Diaz, M.; Salinas-Bravo, V. M.; Martinez-Gomez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Several austenitic stainless steels suitable for high temperature applications because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties were investigated as biomaterials for dental use. The steels were evaluated by electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization curves, cyclic polarization curves, measurements of open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance. The performance of steels was evaluated in two types of environments: artificial saliva and mouthwash solution at 37°C for 48 hours. In order to compare the behavior of steels, titanium a material commonly used in dental applications was also tested in the same conditions. Results show that tested steels have characteristics that may make them attractive as biomaterials for dental applications. Contents of Cr, Ni, and other minor alloying elements (Mo, Ti, and Nb) determine the performance of stainless steels. In artificial saliva steels show a corrosion rate of the same order of magnitude as titanium and in mouthwash have greater corrosion resistance than titanium. PMID:26064083

  13. Lactobacillus salivarius NK02: a Potent Probiotic for Clinical Application in Mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Sajedinejad, Neda; Paknejad, Mojgan; Houshmand, Behzad; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Jelodar, Reza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2017-06-19

    A specific strain of naturally occurring oral lactobacilli was isolated and identified based on morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The phylogenetic affiliation of the isolate confirmed that the NK02 strain had close association with the Lactobacillus salivarius. An effective mouthwash was developed for treatment of periodontitis and suppression of the indicator bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which is an obvious pathogen of periodontal disease. The mouthwash containing L. salivarius NK02 was tested at a dose level of 10 8 (colony forming units (CFU) ml -1 ), monitoring over a period of 4 weeks. The study was a randomized double-blind placebo control trial, and the patients were treated in two groups of control and test by using scaling and root planing (SRP) + placebo and scaling and root planing (SRP) + probiotic, respectively. It appeared that the probiotic mouthwash was able to inhibit the bacterial growth on both saliva and sub-gingival crevice and exhibited antibacterial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans. The results also showed that SRP+ probiotic treatment led to a significant decrease of gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) compared with that of SRP + placebo for the probiotic group. The rate of decrease in pocket depth was displayed in the group with SRP + probiotic treatment equal to 1/2 mm, and probing pocket depth (PPD) value was decreased in the probiotic bacteria treatment group that can explain the decrease in inflammation in gingiva. Our findings suggest that probiotic mouthwash is healthy for daily use as an alternative for maintaining dental and periodontal health.

  14. Release of nickel and chromium ions from orthodontic wires following the use of teeth whitening mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Mirhashemi, AmirHossein; Jahangiri, Sahar; Kharrazifard, MohammadJavad

    2018-02-05

    Corrosion resistance is an important requirement for orthodontic appliances. Nickel and chromium may be released from orthodontic wires and can cause allergic reactions and cytotoxicity when patients use various mouthwashes to whiten their teeth. Our study aimed to assess the release of nickel and chromium ions from nickel titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) orthodontic wires following the use of four common mouthwashes available on the market. This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 120 orthodontic appliances for one maxillary quadrant including five brackets, one band and half of the required length of SS, and NiTi wires. The samples were immersed in Oral B, Oral B 3D White Luxe, Listerine, and Listerine Advance White for 1, 6, 24, and 168 h. The samples immersed in distilled water served as the control group. Atomic absorption spectroscopy served to quantify the amount of released ions. Nickel ions were released from both wires at all time-points; the highest amount was in Listerine and the lowest in Oral B mouthwashes. The remaining two solutions were in-between this range. The process of release of chromium from the SS wire was the same as that of nickel. However, the release trend in NiTi wires was not uniform. Listerine caused the highest release of ions. Listerine Advance White, Oral B 3D White Luxe, and distilled water were the same in terms of ion release. Oral B showed the lowest amount of ion release.

  15. Short-term microbiological effects of scaling and root planing and essential-oils mouthwash in Chinese adults*

    PubMed Central

    He, Jia-yan; Qi, Gang-gang; Huang, Wu-jing; Sun, Xu-dong; Tong, Yu; Peng, Chun-mei; Zhou, Xue-ping; Chen, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) and essential-oils mouthwash on the levels of specific bacteria in Chinese adults. Methods: Fifty Chinese adults with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to full-mouth SRP or a 7-d essential-oils mouthwash regimen. In addition, 22 periodontally healthy adults used essential-oils mouthwash for 7 d. Clinical examination and plaque/saliva sampling were performed at baseline and on Day 7. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), and total bacterial loads in saliva, supra- and sub-gingival plaque samples. Results: The detection frequencies of four tested species remained unchanged after either treatment. However, the bacterial loads of Fn, Pg, and Pi were significantly reduced by SRP; the mean reduction of bacterial counts in saliva ranged from 52.2% to 62.5% (p<0.01), in supragingival plaque from 68.2% to 81.0% (p<0.05), and in subgingival plaque from 67.9% to 93.0% (p<0.01). Total bacterial loads were reduced after SRP in supra- and sub-gingival plaque (p<0.05). Essential-oils mouthwash reduced Fn levels in supragingival plaque by a mean of 53.2%, and reduced total bacterial loads in supra- and sub-gingival plaque (p<0.01). In subgingival plaque from periodontal patients, Pg and Pi reductions were high after SRP compared to essential-oils mouthwash (93.0% vs. 37.7% and 87.0% vs. 21.0%, p<0.05). No significant bacterial reduction was observed in periodontally healthy subjects using essential-oils mouthwash. Conclusions: SRP and essential-oils mouthwash both have an impact on saliva and gingival plaque flora in Chinese periodontitis patients in 7 d, with greater microbiological improvement by SRP. PMID:23645178

  16. Characterization of friction and moisture of porcine lingual tissue in vitro in response to artificial saliva and mouthwash solutions.

    PubMed

    Zundel, J; Ansari, S A; Trivedi, H M; Masters, J G; Mascaro, S

    2018-05-07

    The purpose of this research is to characterize the effects of mouthwash solutions on oral friction and moisture using a quantitative in vitro approach. The frictional coefficient of in vitro porcine tongue samples was measured using a magnetic levitation haptic device equipped with a custom tactor designed to mimic human skin. A commercially available moisture meter was used to measure moisture content of the samples. Tongue samples were first tested before treatment, then after application of saliva (either human or artificial), and again after application of 1 of 11 different mouthwash solutions. The data indicate that the samples treated with artificial saliva vs real saliva have comparable friction coefficient and moisture content. Furthermore, the moisture and friction coefficient remain relatively constant for up to 60 minutes after exposure to ambient conditions. Samples treated with artificial saliva have an average friction coefficient in the range of 0.70-0.80. Application of mouthwash solutions produced an average friction coefficient of 0.39-0.49 but retained the high moisture content of the artificial salivary layer. Several mouthwash solutions resulted in statistically significant differences in the friction coefficient relative to each other. The results of this study demonstrate that a magnetic levitation device can be an effective tool for in vitro oral tribology and that artificial saliva is an effective substitute for real saliva in extended in vitro experiments. The application of mouthwash generally reduces the coefficient of friction of the tongue samples while preserving a relatively high moisture level, and some mouthwashes reduce friction significantly more than others. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Determination of breath alcohol value after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Poggia, F; Foglio-Bonda, A; Mantovani, C; Pattarino, F; Giglietta, A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate breath alcohol value and blood alcohol concentration after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in a panel of healthy young adults. To determine zeroing time of these values and if subjects' body mass index or gender influenced it. Breathalyzer test is a practice performed to detect alcohol-impaired-drivers that can be penalized. Sometimes Italian judges revoke the penalty justifying that the presence of residual ethanol in the oral cavity can cause false positive values. Our study involved 40 young adult volunteers; the cohort was composed of University students aged between 21 and 30 years. They underwent a medical examination to evaluate BMI. We selected four alcoholic mouthwashes available on the market with a different ethanol amount and an ethanol/ water (10/90) mixture as a reference. Breath alcohol concentration values were collected using a portable breathalyzer immediately after the rinse (T0), after 10 and 20 minutes (T10 and T20). We evaluated blood alcohol concentration 5 minutes after the rinse. All T10 values are lower than 0.5 g/L (Italian BAC driving limit). Differences between average values at T0-T10 are statistically significant (p < 0.05). Correlations between BAV and BMI are not statistically significant respectively at T0 (A: p = 0.54. B: p = 0.96. C: p = 0.93. D: p = 0.53) and T10 (A: p = 0.42. C: p = 0.99. D: p = 0.66). Differences between male and female groups aren't statistically significant (A: p = 0.49; B: p = 0.79; C: p = 0.97; D: p = 0.06). High BAV values determined at T-0 are a consequence of residual ethanol present in the oral cavity, the zeroing time of these ones (oppure thereof) is very swift. Our study shows that rinsing with an alcoholic mouthwash before undergoing the breathalyzer test does not realistically influence the result.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoridated Mouthwash and Sodium Bicarbonate in Management of Dentin Hypersensitivity: An In Vitro SEM Study.

    PubMed

    Rikame, Vasundhara; Doshi, Yogesh; Horowitz, Robert A; Kevadia-Shah, Vidhi; Shah, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (ie, baking soda) can be used as an adjunct to surgical periodontal therapy to reduce dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Sodium bicarbonate mouthwash has numerous appealing attributes, including high availability, low cost, low abrasivity, water solubility, buffering capability, and, in high concentrations, antimicrobial properties. It is also safe to use. The primary underlying cause of DH is open dentinal tubules from loss of either cementum or enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, through scanning electron microscopic examination, the effect of sodium bicarbonate on dentinal tubule occlusion and compare it with that of fluoridated mouthwash.

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Schinus terebinthifolius Mouthwash to Treat Biofilm-Induced Gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Alves, Livia Araújo; Ferreira, Gabriela Lacet Silva; Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a Schinus terebinthifolius (ST) mouthwash in reducing gingival inflammation levels (GI) and biofilm accumulation (BA) in children with gingivitis. Methods. This was a randomized, controlled, triple blind, and phase II clinical trial, with children aged 9–13 years (n = 27) presenting with biofilm-induced gingivitis. The sample was randomized into experimental (0.3125% ST, n = 14) and control (0.12% chlorhexidine/CHX, n = 13) groups. Products were masked as regards color, flavor and aroma. Intervention protocol consisted in supervised rinsing of 10 mL/day for 01 minute for 10 days. Gingival bleeding and simplified oral hygiene indexes were used to assess the efficacy variables, measured at baseline and after intervention by calibrated examiners. Data were statistically treated with paired t-test, unpaired t-test, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). Results. It was found that both ST and CHX were able to significantly reduce GI levels after 10 days (P < 0.001) and there was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). CHX was the only product able to significantly reduce BA after 10 days when compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Conclusion. ST mouthwash showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (equivalent to CHX), but it was not able to reduce biofilm accumulation. PMID:23843886

  20. Comparative Efficacy of Aloe vera and Benzydamine Mouthwashes on Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Triple-blind, Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sahebjamee, Mahnaz; Mansourian, Arash; Hajimirzamohammad, Mohammad; Mohammad, Haji Mirza Mohammad; Zadeh, Mohsen Taghi; Bekhradi, Reza; Kazemian, Ali; Manifar, Soheila; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Doroudgar, Kiavash

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of an Aloe vera mouthwash with a benzydamine mouthwash in the alleviation of radiation- induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients using a triple-blind, randomised controlled trial. Twenty-six eligible head and neck cancer patients who were to receive conventional radiation therapy at the radiation oncology department were randomised to receive an Aloe vera mouthwash or a benzydamine mouthwash. Mucositis severity was assessed during the course of radiation therapy using the WHO grading system. At baseline, there was no difference in the distribution of mucositis severity between the two groups. The mean interval between radiation therapy and onset of mucositis was similar for both groups (Aloe vera 15.69±7.77 days, benzydamine 15.85±12.96 days). The mean interval between the start of radiation therapy and the maximum severity of mucositis were was also similar in both the Aloe vera and benzydamine groups (Aloe vera 23.38±10.75 days, benzydamine 23.54±15.45 days). Mean changes of mucositis severity over time in both groups were statistically similar and the effect of both treatments did not change signficantly with time (p=0.09). Aloe vera mouthwash was as beneficial as benzydamine mouthwash in alleviating the severity of radiation-induced mucositis and showed no side effects. The Aloe vera mouthwash could be an alternative agent in the treatment of radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers.

  1. Genotoxic assessment of chlorhexidine mouthwash on exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in chronic gingivitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saif; Khan, Asad Ullah; Hasan, Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the gold standard of all chemical plaque control agents and the most commonly prescribed mouthwash. However, several studies have shown cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CHX on various eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have used micronuclei as a biomarker of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells of chronic gingivitis patients who were given adjunct 0.2% CHX for plaque control. Materials and Methods: Chronic gingivitis patients who were exclusively on mechanical plaque control methods were taken as control (Group A) (n = 101), and chronic gingivitis patients who along with mechanical plaque control measures were taking 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash as adjunct were taken as cases (Group B) (n = 255). The Group B was further divided into 5 subgroups (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5) (n = 51) on increasing duration of usage of CHX from ≤1 week to 24 weeks. Buccal epithelial cells were gently scrapped from the buccal mucosa using soft toothbrush. The epithelial cells were collected in buffer solution and centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 5 min. The buccal epithelial cells were air dried, fixed, and stained with 5% Giemsa stain on preheated glass microscopic slides and observed under microscope to screen 2000 nucleated cells per individual for number of micronucleated cells and micronuclei as genotoxic measure. Results: The mean number of micronucleated cells was found to be 0.41 ± 0.71 for Group A as compared values ranging from 1.65 ± 2.09 (Group B1) to 11.7 ± 1.87 (Group B5) in different subgroups of Group B, and similarly, the mean number of micronuclei was found to be 0.48 ± 0.80 for Group A as compared to values ranging from 2.57 ± 1.64 (Group B1) to 14.5 ± 2.49 (Group B5) in different subgroups of Group B using analysis of variance (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that CHX mouthwash is genotoxic to buccal epithelial cells and there is incremental trend in genotoxicity as the duration of usage is increased. PMID:29238137

  2. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Beline, Thamara; Garcia, Camila S; Ogawa, Erika S; Marques, Isabella S V; Matos, Adaias O; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Mesquita, Marcelo F; Consani, Rafael X; Barão, Valentim A R

    2016-02-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sand blasted with Al2O3, and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (Rp) (P b .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P b .006), corrosion current density (Icorr) and corrosion rate (P b .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased Rp and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced Rp (P b .008) and increased Icorr and corrosion rate (P b .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P b .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi.

  3. Comparison of efficacy of herbal disinfectants with chlorhexidine mouthwash on decontamination of toothbrushes: An experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Anand, P J Swathy; Athira, S; Chandramohan, Sabari; Ranjith, K; Raj, V Veena; Manjula, V D

    2016-01-01

    Toothbrushes in regular use can become heavily contaminated with microorganisms, which can cause infection or reinfection. There is a need for toothbrush disinfection methods, which are rapidly effective, cost-effective, nontoxic, and that can be easily implemented. To compare the efficacy of 3% neem, garlic of concentration 4.15 mg/mL and green tea of concentration 40 mg/mL with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash as toothbrush disinfectants. The study was a parallel in vitro comparative experimental trial conducted among 75 randomly selected boys aged between 18 years and 21 years. The subjects were divided into five groups, namely, Group I, Group II, Group III, Group IV, and Group V. They were provided with a new set of precoded toothbrushes and nonfluoridated tooth pastes. After 14 days of tooth brushing, the toothbrushes were immersed in antimicrobial solution for 12 h [Group I--distilled water (control), Group II--3% neem, Group III--garlic of concentration 4.15 mg/mL, Group IV--green tea of concentration 40 mg/mL, and Group V--0.2% chlorhexidine] and then subjected to microbial analysis to check the presence of Streptococcus mutans. The t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16. All test solutions showed a statistically significant reduction of Streptococcus mutans count (P < 0.001). There was no statistical difference between the efficacies of neem, garlic, and green tea when compared with chlorhexidine mouthwash (P > 0.05). Neem, garlic, and green tea are equally efficacious as chlorhexidine and these herbal products can be used as potent alternatives to chlorhexidine as disinfectant for toothbrushes.

  4. Potential use of tea extract as a complementary mouthwash: comparative evaluation of two commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Esimone, C O; Adikwu, M U; Nwafor, S V; Okolo, C O

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the potential of using tea extracts as complementary mouthwash and to test the comparative efficacy of two commercial samples. A randomized controlled trial with 30 healthy human volunteers was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 6 subjects per group. The ability of Ndu tea (from Cameroon) and Lipton tea (from Nigeria) to reduce colony forming units (CFU) in the liquid expectorated after 60 seconds of gargling from the mouth of the volunteers at 5 and 60 minutes were evaluated. These were compared to the values obtained from bank water and Minty Brett (thymol 0.047%), a standard antiseptic. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty healthy human volunteers (18 males and 12 females, between 22-30 years of age) who met the eligibility requirement of being nonsmokers and not taking any other antimicrobial agent were selected for the study. Relative to the bank water, the results indicated that the hot water extract of both teas significantly (p < 0.05) reduced CFU per milliliter in the liquid expectorated after gargling at both 5 and 60 minutes. Minty Brett showed higher activity than both tea extracts; however, unlike Minty Brett both extracts still reduced the CFU per milliliter at time 60 minutes (an indication of longer duration of activity). The combination of the tea extracts with sodium lauryl sulfate (1.2% w/v), a surfactant and emulsifier, significantly increased the antimicrobial activity relative to each tea alone. Comparatively, the activity of Ndu tea was found to be slightly higher than that of Lipton tea but this was not significant (p < 0.05). Lipton and Ndu tea extracts potently reduced the CFU per milliliter. This activity was potentiated by sodium lauryl sulfate. Although Minty Brett had more potent antimicrobial activity, both tea extracts have longer duration of activity. The results indicate the potential usefulness of tea extracts as a complementary mouthwash.

  5. Mouthwash overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Chlorhexidine gluconate Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Hydrogen peroxide Methyl salicylate ... amounts of alcohol (drunkenness). Swallowing large amounts of methyl salicylate and hydrogen peroxide may also cause serious stomach ...

  6. A comparative, randomized, controlled study on clinical efficacy and dental staining reduction of a mouthwash containing Chlorhexidine 0.20% and Anti Discoloration System (ADS).

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Massimo; Amantea, Massimiliano; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A good control of bacterial plaque is an essential factor for the success of periodontal therapy, therefore it is the main objective that the clinician together with the patient must get to have a healthy periodontium. The plaque control with mouthwashes is the most important home therapy as it helps to reduce the formation of plaque between the mechanical removal with a toothbrush. Authors analyzed the clinical data from a trial carried out with 3 different mouthwashes containing 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX). In addition, the ADS (Anti Discoloration System - Curaden Healthcare) was tested in comparison with the other mouthwashes without this system. We tested antiplaque activity showed by 3 of the most commercialized mouthwashes, moreover, we tested the ability in reducing the dental staining related to the oral assumption of Chlorhexidine. Our results demonstrated the clinical efficacy of the 3 mouthwashes with CHX. Particularly performing was the anti discoloration system (Curaden Healthcare), with a clinical detection of dental stainings significantly less than the others tested. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of ADS system in the reduction of tooth staining, without a loss of antiplaque activity with respect to the competing mouthwashes containing CHX.

  7. Effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Radafshar, Golpar; Ghotbizadeh, Mahshid; Saadat, Farshid; Mirfarhadi, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of Iranian green tea mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis. In this randomized, double-blinded, parallel, controlled clinical trial, 40 volunteer dental students with a gingival index ≥1 were enrolled. At baseline, gingival, plaque, and bleeding indices were recorded and all the participants received dental polishing. Based on random allocation, 20 participants used the test and 20 used chlorhexidine mouthwash with no change in regular toothbrushing methods. The participants were asked to use 15 mL of the respective mouthwash for 1 min, twice a day for 28 days. All indices, as well as stain index, were recorded after 1 and 4 weeks post-rinsing. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Significant in-group differences, but not between-group differences, were observed in all indices after 1 and 4 weeks compared to baseline. The test mouthwash resulted in significantly less tooth staining than the control. The 1% tannin green tea mouthwash could be a safe and feasible adjunct to mechanical plaque control. The tested green tea mouthwash could be considered a good alternative for chlorhexidine in contraindicating situations. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The efficacy of 1% Betadine mouthwash on the incidence of dry socket after mandibular third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Hasheminia, Dariush; Moaddabi, Amirhossein; Moradi, Saeid; Soltani, Parisa; Moannaei, Mahsa; Issazadeh, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    Dry socket or alveolar osteitis is a delayed healing of alveolar bone after exodontia causing moderate to severe pain 2-4 days after extraction of teeth. Antibacterial agents such as antibiotics and chlorhexidine have been previously proved to prevent or reduce the incidence of dry socket. Betadine is a mixture of iodine and povidone which has bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative povidone iodine 1% mouthwash before surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar, however age, gender and oral hygiene were also considered. 189 patients who needed surgical extraction of Pell and Gregory class A and B mandibular third molars were included in this study. The patients who were not willing to participate in the study, took, women who took oral contraceptives or were in the first 22 days of menstrual cycle were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to control or test group. 97 patients in the test group took preoperative povidone iodine 1% mouthwash and 92 patients in the control group didn't take any antibiotic or mouthwash. Patients were examined in days 3 and 7 postoperatively for incidence of alveolar osteitis. Chi-square test didn't show any significant relation between dry socket incidence and gender ( p value: 0.848) and Oral hygiene ( p value: 0.866). However, it revealed a significant relation between age and dry socket incidence ( p value: 0.003) and patients older than 30 were reported to have higher incidence of dry socket. Independent T-Test showed a significant difference between the test and control group in incidence of dry socket ( p value: 0.036). Based on the results of this study povidone iodine 1% mouthwash can decrease dry socket incidence also as the age increases, the incidence of dry socket becomes higher. Key words: Dry socket, impaction, betadine, povidone iodine.

  9. The efficacy of 1% Betadine mouthwash on the incidence of dry socket after mandibular third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminia, Dariush; Moaddabi, Amirhossein; Moradi, Saeid; Moannaei, Mahsa; Issazadeh, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Background Dry socket or alveolar osteitis is a delayed healing of alveolar bone after exodontia causing moderate to severe pain 2-4 days after extraction of teeth. Antibacterial agents such as antibiotics and chlorhexidine have been previously proved to prevent or reduce the incidence of dry socket. Betadine is a mixture of iodine and povidone which has bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative povidone iodine 1% mouthwash before surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar, however age, gender and oral hygiene were also considered. Material and Methods 189 patients who needed surgical extraction of Pell and Gregory class A and B mandibular third molars were included in this study. The patients who were not willing to participate in the study, took, women who took oral contraceptives or were in the first 22 days of menstrual cycle were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to control or test group. 97 patients in the test group took preoperative povidone iodine 1% mouthwash and 92 patients in the control group didn’t take any antibiotic or mouthwash. Patients were examined in days 3 and 7 postoperatively for incidence of alveolar osteitis. Results Chi-square test didn’t show any significant relation between dry socket incidence and gender (p value: 0.848) and Oral hygiene (p value: 0.866). However, it revealed a significant relation between age and dry socket incidence (p value: 0.003) and patients older than 30 were reported to have higher incidence of dry socket. Independent T-Test showed a significant difference between the test and control group in incidence of dry socket (p value: 0.036). Conclusions Based on the results of this study povidone iodine 1% mouthwash can decrease dry socket incidence also as the age increases, the incidence of dry socket becomes higher. Key words:Dry socket, impaction, betadine, povidone iodine. PMID:29849968

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE MAXIMUM INHIBITORY DILUTION OF CETYLPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE-BASED MOUTHWASHES AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Evandro; Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Matoba, Fumio; Tanomaru, Mario; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the maximum inhibitory dilution (MID) of four cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)-based mouthwashes: CPC+Propolis, CPC+Malva, CPC+Eucaliptol+Juá+Romã+Propolis (Natural Honey®) and CPC (Cepacol®), against 28 Staphylococcus aureus field strains, using the agar dilution method. Decimal dilutions ranging from 1/10 to 1/ 655,360 were prepared and added to Mueller Hinton Agar. Strains were inoculated using Steers multipoint inoculator. The inocula were seeded onto the surface of the culture medium in Petri dishes containing different dilutions of the mouthwashes. The dishes were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. For readings, the MID was considered as the maximum dilution of mouthwash still capable of inhibiting microbial growth. The obtained data showed that CPC+Propolis had antimicrobial activity against 27 strains at 1/320 dilution and against all 28 strains at 1/160 dilution, CPC+Malva inhibited the growth of all 28 strains at 1/320 dilution, CPC+Eucaliptol+Juá+Romã+Propolis inhibited the growth of 2 strains at 1/640 dilution and all 28 strains at 1/320 dilution, and Cepacol® showed antimicrobial activity against 3 strains at 1/320 dilution and against all 28 strains at 1/160 dilution. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test, showing that the MID of Cepacol® was lower than that determined for the other products (p<0.05). In conclusion, CPC-mouthwashes showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and the addition of other substances to CPC improved its antimicrobial effect. PMID:19089260

  11. Effective oral health in infective endocarditis: efficacy of high-street mouthwashes against the viridans group streptococci.

    PubMed

    Elshibly, Ahmed; Coulter, Wilson A; Millar, Beverley Cherie; Prendergast, Bernard D; Thornhill, Martin; Irwin, Christopher; Goldsmith, Colin E; Moore, John E

    2014-05-01

    Recent UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines state that there is no longer a need for oral antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing dental procedures who are at risk of infective endocarditis (IE), and advocate the importance of maintaining good oral health. As viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of IE and inhabitants of the mouth, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of common high-street mouthwashes against four classes of VGS organisms (salivarius, mitis, anginosus, and mutans groupings). The survival of VGS, Streptococcus gordonii (National Collection of Type Cultures [NCTC] 7865), Streptococcus intermedius (NCTC 11324), Streptococcus mutans (NCTC 10449), Streptococcus oralis (NCTC 11427), Streptococcus pneumoniae (NCTC 7465, NCTC 7978, & American Type Culture Collection 49619) and Streptococcus salivarius (NCTC 8618) was assessed in vitro following treatment of approximately 10(7) c.f.u. in planktonic state with four mouthwashes. No organisms were culturable following 1-min exposure, and were not recovered following non-selective enrichment following incubation in Brain Heart Infusion broth supplemented with 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract. These data indicate that such mouthwashes are able to completely kill VGS organisms tested in planktonic solution, where their use would promote good oral hygiene in patients at risk of IE. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Effects of a Rebamipide Mouthwash on Stomatitis Caused by Cancer Chemotherapy-Evaluation of the Efficacy by Patients Themselves.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naoko; Kawano, Yayoi; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Seitaku; Akizuki, Norikazu; Komoda, Masayo; Hanawa, Takehisa

    2017-08-01

     Anticancer drug-induced stomatitis develops in 30% to 40% of cancer cases that undergo chemotherapy. However, medications for this condition are not commercially available in Japan. Upon obtaining approval of the ethics committee, a mouthwash containing rebamipide as the active ingredient (rebamipide mouthwash) was administered to one inpatient and four outpatients, who had developed stomatitis caused by cancer chemotherapy. Starting from 14 d after the administration of the rebamipide mouthwash, the patients scored a stomatitis survey on oral state, pain level, and diet and recorded the number of times they gargled, as well as any stomatitis observations, in a stomatitis diary. The total scores for the points for each of the three types of survey sections were classified into Grades 0 to 4 and evaluated as a stomatitis evaluation score (SES). The SES became "0" in three out of the five patients within 14 d of treatment. No change in SES was found in one patient. In the remaining patients, SES became "0" once but increased again later. Using image analysis software (ImageJ), the area at which the stomatitis was observed was measured. When comparing SES and change in the area in patients who agreed to participate, gradual reductions in the extent of stomatitis was observed even during the period when SES did not change. Having patients fill in an observation chart was effective for grasping changes in symptoms in outpatients.

  13. The use of an oxidising mouthwash to reduce staining associated with chlorhexidine. Studies in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; al-Arrayed, F; Moran, J

    1991-04-01

    Discolouration of the teeth, tongue and dental restorative materials associated with the use of cationic antiseptics is still the limiting factor in long-term usage of antiplaque agents such as chlorhexidine. Oxidising agents have been used successfully to remove dental stain in animals, but products and regimens have not been evaluated in humans. These pilot studies in vitro and in vivo assessed a long-established oxidising mouthwash, based on peroxyborate, for stain removal from teeth and acrylic. The laboratory studies measured chlorhexidine tea stain removal from tooth and acrylic specimens. The oxidising agent markedly reduced staining on specimens. In a short-term clinical experiment, dental staining was forced over a 2 1/2-day period by reciprocal chlorhexidine and tea rinsing. 5 rinses with the oxidising mouthwash during the next 1 1/2 days dramatically reduced staining compared with water after rinses. Additionally, a single rinse with peroxyborate following the 5 water after rinses, again considerably reduced the residual staining. Effects on tongue staining were less impressive. Both experimental models produced findings consistent with those from the animal model. The results suggest proprietary oxidising mouthwashes could have a place in the control of dental stain associated with the use of chlorhexidine. Further studies to evaluate such products in a more conventional chlorhexidine regimen are indicated.

  14. Effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in postoperative pain control following surgical removal of impacted third molars: double blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain following surgical removal of impacted molars has remained an important concern among practitioners. Various protocols have been proposed to reduce postoperative pain. However, each one has special side effects and limitations. As green tea possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in controlling postoperative pain. Materials and methods In a study with split-mouth and double blind design, 44 patients in need of bilateral removal of impacted third molars underwent randomized surgical extraction; following one surgery patients rinsed with a green tea mouthwash from the first to seventh postoperative day and after other extraction rinsed with placebo mouthwash in the same duration. Both patients and surgeon were blinded to the type of mouthwash. The predictor variable was type of mouthwash and primary outcome variable was postoperative pain measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) during first week after surgery. In addition, number of analgesics patients used after surgery recorded. To measure the effect of green tea mouthwash, repeated measures test with confidence interval of 95% was performed. Results Total of 43 patients with mean age of 24 years underwent total of 86 surgeries. VAS value had no statistically difference prior rinsing among groups (P-value > 0.05). However, the mean value of VAS following rinsing with green tea was statistically lower than placebo in postoperative days of 3–7 (P-value < 0.05). In addition, while rinsing with green tea, patients took significantly lower number of analgesics after surgery (P-value < 0.05). No side effects reported. Conclusion Green tea mouthwash could be an appropriate and safe choice to control postoperative pain after third molar surgery. PMID:23866761

  15. Efficacy of hydrogen-peroxide-based mouthwash in altering enamel color.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Ivone Maria de Lima; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the efficacy of Colgate Plax Whitening mouthwash containing 1.5% hydrogen peroxide. 30 enamel fragments, obtained from the proximal surfaces of human third molars were darkened with Orange II methyl orange. The fragments were divided into three groups according to the type of bleaching agent applied (n = 10): (1) 10% carbamide peroxide gel (positive control, PC) was applied for 2 hours/day for 28 days; (2) a solution containing 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (Plax) was applied for 4 minutes once a day for 28 days, and (3) no bleaching agent, kept in artificial saliva (negative control, AS). The specimens were kept in artificial saliva between treatment intervals. The specimens were photographed before darkening (baseline), after darkening and before lightening and on the 28th day of whitening. Afterwards, they were analyzed with color measurement software using the CIELab system. The data for the L*, a* and b* parameters were submitted to two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The values of deltaL *, deltaa *, deltab * and deltaE* were calculated using two procedures: (1) darkened versus original, and (2) bleached versus darkened. This data was submitted to the one-way ANOVA test. Multiple comparisons were conducted using the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). When the specimens were subjected to bleaching agents, there was a significant increase in the brightness (L* parameter) of the enamel exposed to the gel and also to the bleaching solution. However, higher brightness was observed for the PC (gel) group. As for the axis a* parameters, there were no significant differences between the bleaching products. Regarding the axis b* parameters, the PC group underwent major changes (indicating a color change toward blue chroma), statistically greater than those of the Plax group. After bleaching, there was a significantly greater color change (deltaE*) in the PC group. Although the Plax solution caused a color change, it was less than that produced by the gel. The slightest

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahyari, Saman; Mahyari, Behnam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-02-01

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease resulting from microbial infection and subsequent inflammation. The efficacy of herbal preparations in subjects with gingivitis has been reported in some previous studies. To investigate the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis (5% v/w) compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in subjects with gingivitis. Sixty patients participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the polyherbal mouthwash (n = 20), chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20) or placebo mouthwash (n = 20). Participants were instructed to use the mouthwash twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 30 s for a period of two weeks. Gingival and plaque indices were assessed using MGI, GBI and MQH scales at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of the trial. There were significant improvements in all assessed efficacy measures i.e. MGI, GBI and MQH scores from baseline to the end of trial in both polyherbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups; however, the scores remained statistically unchanged in the placebo group. MGI, BGI and MQH scores in the treatment groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group at both day 7 and day 14 of the trial. However, there was no significant difference between the polyherbal and chlorhexidine groups, neither at day 7 nor day 14 of the trial. Polyherbal mouthwash was safe and there was neither report of adverse reactions, nor any drop-out during the course of study. Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Galvanic Corrosion of and Ion Release from Various Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in a Fluoride-containing Mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Masudrad, Mahdis

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. This study compared the galvanic corrosion of orthodontic wires and brackets from various manufacturers following exposure to a fluoride mouthwash. Materials and methods. This study was conducted on 24 lower central incisor 0.022" Roth brackets of four different commercially available brands (Dentaurum, American Orthodontics, ORJ, Shinye). These brackets along with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires (0.016", round) were immersed in Oral-B mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride for 28 days. The electric potential (EP) difference of each bracket-wire couple was measured with a Saturated Calomel Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl saturated with KCl) via a voltmeter. The ions released in the electrolyte weremeasured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the specimens were assessed under a stereomicroscope and specimens with corrosion were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results. The copper ions released from specimens with NiTi wire were greater than those of samples containing SS wire. ORJ brackets released more Cu ions than other samples. The Ni ions released from Shinye brackets were significantly more than those of other specimens (P < 0.05). Corrosion rate of brackets coupled with NiTi wires was higher than that of brackets coupled with SS wires. Light and electron microscopic observations showed greater corrosion of ORJ brackets. Conclusion. In fluoride mouthwash, Shinye and ORJ brackets exhibited greater corrosion than Dentaurum and American Orthodontics brackets. Stainless steel brackets used with NiTi wires showed greater corrosion and thus caution is recommended when using them.

  18. Comparison of Electric Toothbrush, Persica and Chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Reduction of Gingival Enlargement in Orthodontic Patients: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Nasrin; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Jafari, Farhad; Mahmoudzadeh, Majid; Yaghobi, Mahdi; Miresmaeili, Amirfarhang

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine, Persica mouthwash and electric toothbrushes in improving gingival enlargement in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Seventy-two orthodontic patients with at least two sites of gingival enlargement were randomly allocated into four equal groups: 1) manual toothbrush; 2) electric toothbrush; 3) manual toothbrush+Persica mouthwash; 4) manual toothbrush+chlorhexidine mouthwash. All participants were instructed to brush their teeth at least twice a day. The subjects in groups 3 and 4 were instructed to use Persica or chlorhexidine according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Bleeding on probing (BOP) index, gingival index (GI), O'Leary's plaque index (PI) and constructed hyperplastic index (HI) of all the subjects were measured in a blind manner at the start of the study and 2 weeks later. Changes of indices in the entire oral cavity and individual affected teeth were analysed with SPSS 16 using chi-square, ANOVA, ANCOVA, LSD and the paired t-test. In the entire oral cavity, there was a statistically significant improvement in indices in all the groups except for HI, which significantly improved only in group 4 (p=0.001). Data of individual teeth with hyperplastic gingiva showed significant reduction of all the variables except for HI in group 1 (p=0.08). No significant differences were found between groups 1 and 2 or between groups 3 and 4. The efficacy of Persica was similar to that of chlorhexidine in improving gingival conditions. None of the treatment modalities could reduce gingival enlargement to the clinically acceptable level of health.

  19. Corrosion kinetics and topography analysis of Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to different mouthwash solutions.

    PubMed

    Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Barao, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Pires, Maria Flávia Araújo; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the corrosion kinetics and surface topography of Ti-6Al-4V alloy exposed to mouthwash solutions (0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.053% cetylpyridinium chloride and 3% hydrogen peroxide) compared to artificial saliva (pH6.5) (control). Twenty Ti-6Al-4V alloy disks were used and divided into 4 groups (n=5). For the electrochemical assay, standard tests as open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied at baseline, 7 and 14days after immersion in the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and profilometry (average roughness - Ra) were used for surface characterization. Total weight loss of disks was calculated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (α=0.05). Hydrogen peroxide generated the lowest polarization resistance (Rp) values for all periods (P<0.05). For the capacitance (Cdl), similar results were observed among groups at baseline (P=0.098). For the 7 and 14-day periods, hydrogen peroxide promoted the highest Cdl values (P<0.0001). Hydrogen peroxide promoted expressive superficial changes and greater Ra values than the others (P<0.0001). It could be concluded that solutions containing cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine digluconate might be the mouthwashes of choice during the post-operatory period of dental implants. However, hydrogen peroxide is counter-indicated in these situations. Further studies evaluating the dynamics of these solutions (tribocorrosion) and immersing the disks in daily cycles (two or three times a day) to mimic a clinical situation closest to the application of mouthwashes in the oral cavity are warranted to prove our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Galvanic Corrosion of and Ion Release from Various Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in a Fluoride-containing Mouthwash

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Masudrad, Mahdis

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. This study compared the galvanic corrosion of orthodontic wires and brackets from various manufacturers following exposure to a fluoride mouthwash. Materials and methods. This study was conducted on 24 lower central incisor 0.022" Roth brackets of four different commercially available brands (Dentaurum, American Orthodontics, ORJ, Shinye). These brackets along with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires (0.016", round) were immersed in Oral-B mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride for 28 days. The electric potential (EP) difference of each bracket-wire couple was measured with a Saturated Calomel Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl saturated with KCl) via a voltmeter. The ions released in the electrolyte weremeasured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the specimens were assessed under a stereomicroscope and specimens with corrosion were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results. The copper ions released from specimens with NiTi wire were greater than those of samples containing SS wire. ORJ brackets released more Cu ions than other samples. The Ni ions released from Shinye brackets were significantly more than those of other specimens (P < 0.05). Corrosion rate of brackets coupled with NiTi wires was higher than that of brackets coupled with SS wires. Light and electron microscopic observations showed greater corrosion of ORJ brackets. Conclusion. In fluoride mouthwash, Shinye and ORJ brackets exhibited greater corrosion than Dentaurum and American Orthodontics brackets. Stainless steel brackets used with NiTi wires showed greater corrosion and thus caution is recommended when using them. PMID:26697148

  1. Effect of Commonly Used Beverage, Soft Drink, and Mouthwash on Force Delivered by Elastomeric Chain: A Comparative In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Materials and Methods: Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a constant length. These jigs allowed for complete submersion of the elastomeric chain in a water bath throughout the test period, as well as the dipping of elastomeric chains in respective control and test solutions. For 60 s, twice a day, groups were exposed to the respective solutions, the two daily exposure was separated by 9 h and force measurements were taken at six time points during the experiment, that is, 1 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. Force measurements were made by Instron machine by a single blinded examiner with the help of a second examiner. Results: It was found out that there was highly significant difference between groups control, Coca-Cola®, Listerine®, and tea as well as there was highly significant (p < 0.01) between time periods. Group versus time was also highly significant (p < 0.01). For all groups substantial amount of force decay occurred until 7 days. The control group reached plateau between 7 and 14 days and then suddenly decreased from 14 days to 28 days. The Coca-Cola® and the Listerine® group reached a plateau between 7 and 21 days then decrease between 21 and 28 days. The tea group showed plateau phase between 7 and 28 days. After 28 days in the control group, 25% force decay occurred while the test groups force decay of 30-50% occurred. Conclusion: Coca-Cola®, Listerine® mouthwash, and tea cause an increase in force decay of elastomeric chains over time. Tea caused highest force decay followed by Listerine® and Coca-Cola® when compared

  2. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: a comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a constant length. These jigs allowed for complete submersion of the elastomeric chain in a water bath throughout the test period, as well as the dipping of elastomeric chains in respective control and test solutions. For 60 s, twice a day, groups were exposed to the respective solutions, the two daily exposure was separated by 9 h and force measurements were taken at six time points during the experiment, that is, 1 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. Force measurements were made by Instron machine by a single blinded examiner with the help of a second examiner. It was found out that there was highly significant difference between groups control, Coca-Cola®, Listerine®, and tea as well as there was highly significant (p < 0.01) between time periods. Group versus time was also highly significant (p < 0.01). For all groups substantial amount of force decay occurred until 7 days. The control group reached plateau between 7 and 14 days and then suddenly decreased from 14 days to 28 days. The Coca-Cola® and the Listerine® group reached a plateau between 7 and 21 days then decrease between 21 and 28 days. The tea group showed plateau phase between 7 and 28 days. After 28 days in the control group, 25% force decay occurred while the test groups force decay of 30-50% occurred. Coca-Cola®, Listerine® mouthwash, and tea cause an increase in force decay of elastomeric chains over time. Tea caused highest force decay followed by Listerine® and Coca-Cola® when compared to control group. How to cite the article: Kumar K

  3. Effect of beverages and mouthwashes on the hardness of polymers used in intraoral prostheses.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Nobrega, Adhara Smith; Moreno, Amalia; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves

    2014-10-01

    The mechanical properties of acrylic resins used in intraoral prostheses may be altered by frequent exposure to liquids such as beverages and mouthwashes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and liquid immersion on the hardness of four brands of acrylic resins commonly used in removable prostheses (Onda Cryl, QC-20, Clássico, Lucitone). For each brand of resin, seven specimens were immersed in each of six solutions (coffee, cola, red wine, Plax-Colgate, Listerine [LI], Oral B), and seven more were placed in artificial saliva (control). The hardness was tested using a microhardness tester before and after 5000 thermocycles and after 1, 3, 24, 48, and 96 hours of immersion. The results were analyzed using three-way repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The hardness of the resins decreased following thermocycling and immersion in the solutions. Specimens immersed in cola and wine exhibited significant decreases in hardness after immersion for 96 hours, although the greatest significant decrease in hardness occurred in specimens immersed in LI. However, according to American Dental Association specification 12, the Knoop hardness of acrylic resins for intraoral prostheses should not be below 15. Thus, the median values of superficial hardness observed in most of the acrylic resins in this study are considered clinically acceptable. The microhardness of polymers used for intraoral prostheses decreases following thermocycling. Among specimens immersed in beverages, those immersed in cola or wine experienced the greatest decrease in microhardness. Immersion of acrylic resins in LI significantly decreased the microhardness in relation to the initial value. Among the resins assessed, QC-20 exhibited the lowest initial hardness. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. In vitro CPC retention and VSC adsorption by IPM oil droplets: possible mechanisms of action of a two phase mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Sterer, N; Slutzky, H; Kohavi, D; Matalon, S

    2013-09-01

    Two phase oil-water mouthwash has been previously shown to efficiently bind oral microorganisms, relying on their cell surface hydrophobicity. The aim of the present in vitro study was to test the cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) retention and volatile sulfide compounds (VSCs) adsorption abilities of the oil droplets created by mixing of a two phase oil-water solution. VSC adsorption was assayed using a salivary incubation assay and garlic powder solutions, and demonstrated using microscopic sulfide assay. CPC retention was assayed by kinetic and endpoint measurement of Streptococcus salivarius outgrowth using microplate (ELISA) reader. Results showed that the isopropyl myristate (IPM) oil droplets in the two phase solutions were able to adsorb 68-80% of VSCs. CPC at a concentration of 0.05% was most affectively retained by the oil droplets showing a significantly increase in residual antibacterial activity against Streptococcus salivarius. These results taken together, suggests that VSC adsorption and CPC retention by IPM oil droplets may be two additional mechanisms in the activity of the two phase mouthwash formulation.

  5. The Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances and Fluoride Mouthwash on the Oral Microbiome of Adolescents - A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jessica E; van der Kaaij, Nicoline C W; Buijs, Mark J; Elyassi, Yassaman; van der Veen, Monique H; Crielaard, Wim; Ten Cate, Jacob M; Zaura, Egija

    2015-01-01

    While the aesthetic effect of orthodontic treatment is clear, the knowledge on how it influences the oral microbiota and the consequential effects on oral health are limited. In this randomized controlled clinical trial we investigated the changes introduced in the oral ecosystem, during and after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in combination with or without a fluoride mouthwash, of 10-16.8 year old individuals (N = 91). We followed several clinical parameters in time, in combination with microbiome changes using next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. During the course of our study, the oral microbial community displayed remarkable resilience towards the disturbances it was presented with. The effects of the fluoride mouthwash on the microbial composition were trivial. More pronounced microbial changes were related to gingival health status, orthodontic treatment and time. Periodontal pathogens (e.g. Selenomonas and Porphyromonas) were highest in abundance during the orthodontic treatment, while the health associated Streptococcus, Rothia and Haemophilus gained abundance towards the end and after the orthodontic treatment. Only minor compositional changes remained in the oral microbiome after the end of treatment. We conclude that, provided proper oral hygiene is maintained, changes in the oral microbiome composition resulting from orthodontic treatment are minimal and do not negatively affect oral health.

  6. Antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract (cinnamomum burmannii) and its application as a mouthwash to inhibit streptococcus growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waty, Syahdiana; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Cinnamon bark has been commonly used as spicy and traditional medicine. It contains several antibacterial compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, and cinnamaldehyde. Several studies have been done to know the antibacterial effect on bacteria such as Streptococcus in vitro. This study aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract against Streptococcus and its application as mouthwash to inhibit the bacteria. The cinnamon bark was macerated followed by extracted in 80% ethanol. Bacterial samples were isolated from dental plaque of patients visiting dental clinic drg. Syahdiana Waty in Medan, North Sumatra. The isolates were identified using Vitek 2 compact. Secondary metabolites were detected using previously described method. Antibacterial assay was done at extract concentration of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 25%. The result showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and glycoside were detected in the extract. Nine bacterial species were identified as Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S. pluranimalium, S. pneumoniae, S. alactolyticus, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, and Spingomonas paucimolis. It showed that the extract of Cinnamon bark significantly inhibited Streptococcus growth, and it was effective as mouthwash.

  7. The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Mamta; Reddy, Pallavi; Sharma, Roshni; Udameshi, Pooja; Mehra, Neha; Marwaha, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Oil pulling is an age-old practice that has gained modern popularity in promoting oral and systemic health. The scientific verification for this practice is insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of coconut oil pulling on the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and to compare its efficacy with that of Chlorhexidine mouthwash: in vivo. The null hypothesis was that coconut oil pulling has no effect on the bacterial count in saliva. A randomized controlled study was planned and 60 subjects were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups, Group A: Oil pulling, Group B: Chlorhexidine, and Group C: Distilled water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 10 ml of coconut oil for 10 minutes. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml Chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute and Group C with 5 ml distilled water for 1 minute in the morning before brushing. Saliva samples were collected and cultured on 1st day and after 2 weeks from all subjects. Colonies were counted to compare the efficacy of coconut oil and Chlorhexidine with distilled water. Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in both the coconut oil pulling and Chlorhexidine group. Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine. Edible oil-pulling therapy is natural, safe and has no side effects. Hence, it can be considered as a preventive therapy at home to maintain oral hygiene.

  8. Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers.

  9. Optimization of four types of antimicrobial agents to increase the inhibitory ability of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei; Wang, Shujun; Lü, Mingsheng; Wang, Xiaobei; Fang, Yaowei; Jiao, Yuliang; Hu, Jianen

    2016-03-01

    We adopted the response surface methodology using single factor and orthogonal experiments to optimize four types of antimicrobial agents that could inhibit biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, which is commonly found in the human oral cavity and causes tooth decay. The objective was to improve the function of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash (designed and developed by our laboratory). The experiment was conducted in a three-level, four-variable central composite design to determine the best combination of ZnSO4, lysozyme, citric acid and chitosan. The optimized antibacterial agents were 2.16 g/L ZnSO4, 14 g/L lysozyme, 4.5 g/L citric acid and 5 g/L chitosan. The biofilm formation inhibition reached 84.49%. In addition, microscopic observation of the biofilm was performed using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The optimized formula was tested in marine dextranase Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 mouthwash and enhanced the inhibition of S. mutans. This work may be promoted for the design and development of future marine dextranase oral care products.

  10. The Effect of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica Mouthwash on Dental Plaque Bacteria and Subgingival Microorganisms: a Randomized and Controlled Triple-blind Study.

    PubMed

    Arami, S; Mojaddadi, M A; Pourabbas, R; Chitsaz, M T; Delazar, A; Mobayen, H

    2015-09-01

    Dental plaque is a well-documented etiologic factor for periodontal diseases. While chlorhexidine (CHX) is the gold-standard agent for treating dental plaques, undesirable side effects are often found after continuous use of the mouthwash. Therefore, this single-center, randomized, triple-blinded and clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica extract mouthwash on de novo dental plaque bacteria and subgingival microorganisms compared to CHX on a total of 28 patients. The mean aerobic plaque bacterial count of patients at baseline was 2.17 × 10(6). After 4 days of treatment, there were statistically significant decreases in the mean aerobic bacteria in the patients who received P. atlantica and/or CHX (7.25 × 10(4), p = 0.006) and (9.91 × 10(3), p = 0.002), respectively, compared to the patients who received the placebo (6.26 × 10(5)). This study showed that P. atlantica mouthwash is effective against gingival microorganisms. Because of its reduced side effects, P. atlantica mouthwash may be a good alternative choice for patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The effect of ice slushy ingestion and mouthwash on thermoregulation and endurance performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Catriona A; Hoon, Matthew W; Johnson, Nathan A; Chapman, Phillip G; O'Connor, Helen T

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether sensory factors associated with cold-beverage ingestion exert an ergogenic effect on endurance performance independent of thermoregulatory or cardiovascular factors. Ten males performed three trials involving 90 min of steady state cycling (SS; 62% VO2max) in the heat (32.1 ± 0.9 °C, 40 ± 2.4% relative humidity) followed by a 4 kJ/kg body mass time trial (TT). During SS, participants consumed an identical volume (260 ± 38 g) of sports beverage (7.4% carbohydrate) every 15 min as either ice slushy (-1 °C; ICE), thermoneutral liquid (37 °C; CON), or thermoneutral liquid consumption with expectorated ice slushy mouthwash (WASH). Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, and skin blood flow were not different between trials. Gastrointestinal (pill) temperature was lower in ICE (35.6 ± 2.7 °C) versus CON (37.4 ± 0.7 °C, p = .05). Heat storage tended to be lower with ICE during SS (14.7 ± 8.4 W.m(-2), p = .08) and higher during TT (68.9 ± 38.6 W.m(-2), p = .03) compared with CON (22.1 ± 6.6 and 31.4 ± 27.6 W.m(-2)). ICE tended to lower the rating of perceived exertion (RPE, 12.9 ± 0.6, p = .05) and improve thermal comfort (TC, 4.5 ± 0.2; p = .01) vs. CON (13.8 ± 1.0 and 5.2 ± 0.2 respectively). WASH RPE (13.0 ± 0.8) and TC (4.8 ± 0.2) tended to be lower versus CON (p = .07 and p = .09 respectively). ICE improved performance (18:28 ± 1:03) compared with CON (20:24 ± 1:46) but not WASH (19:45 ± 1:43). Improved performance with ICE ingestion likely resulted from the creation of a gastrointestinal heat sink, reducing SS heat storage. Although the benefits of cold-beverage consumption are more potent when there is ingestion, improved RPE, TC, and meaningful performance improvement with WASH supports an independent sensory effect of presenting a cold stimulus to the mouth.

  12. Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes

    SciT

    Ros-Llor, Irene; Lopez-Jornet, Pia, E-mail: majornet@um.es

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential and cell death caused by the frequent use of mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and essential oils in ethanolic solution, compared to a placebo mouthwash. Study design: This double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial included 80 Caucasian patients. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group I used a mouthrinse, Triclosan; Group II used physiological saline; Group III used chlorhexidine; Group IV a mouthrinse with essential oils in ethanolic solution. All subjects used the mouthrinses for two weeks (15 ml, twice a day, rinsing for 30 s).more » Two cell samples per subject were collected, before and after mouthrinse use (on day 0 and day 15). Samples were processed as follows: cell collection from cheeks with a cytobrush; cell centrifuge; slide preparation, fixation and staining; and fluorescent microscope analysis. 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, particularly the presence of micronuclei by means of cytome assay. Results: No significant differences between study times (before and after use of mouthwash) were identified for any of the variables studied (p>0.05). Differences between mouthrinse groups were also compared but no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study did not observe any genotoxic effect resulting from mouthrinse use. - Highlights: • Mouthrinses are used widely, mainly for their capacity to control dental plaque. • No genotoxic effects from the mouthrinses triclosan, chlorhexidine essential oils solution. • The buccal cytome assay is a sensitive, non-invasive, and low cost technique.« less

  13. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes

    PubMed Central

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Eslami, Neda; Rajabi, Omid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Barati, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-based solution, six groups were prepared. Groups I to IV included colloidal solutions containing nanoZnO, nanoCuO, nanoTiO2 and nanoAg, respectively. Groups V and VI consisted of 2.0% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes, respectively as controls. We used serial dilution method to find minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and with subcultures obtained minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the solutions against S. mutans and S. sangius. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan test and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The sodium fluoride mouthrinse did not show any antibacterial effect. The nanoTiO2-containing solution had the lowest MIC against both microorganisms and also displayed the lowest MBC against S. mutans (P < 0.05). The colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO2 and nanoZnO showed the lowest MBC against S. sangius (P < 0.05). On the other hand, chlorhexidine showed the highest MIC and MBC against both streptococci (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The nanoTiO2-containing mouthwash proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent and thus it can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride mouthrinses in the oral cavity provided the lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on biologic tissues. PMID:25709674

  14. Clinical effect of a mouthwash containing Anacardium occidentale Linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; Cavalcante, Dhiogo Gonçalves; Filho, José Eduardo Girão; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; da Silva Pereira, Sérgio Luís

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing 10% Anacardium occidentale (AO) Linn., a typical plant commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil, on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in comparison to a gold-standard chemotherapeutic agent. Thirty normosystemic adult volunteers of both genders, who had a minimum of twenty natural teeth, aging between 18 and 32 years, were enrolled in this crossover, controlled, examiner-blind clinical study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: 10% AO Linn. (n = 10); 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX, n = 10); or placebo (PB, n = 10). All volunteers were instructed to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice two times a day (12/12 h) and to rinse for 1 min with one of the mouthwashes (AO, CLX, or PB) 30 min after tooth brushing for 1 month. Plaque index (PLI) and gingival bleeding index (BLI) were recorded on days 0 and 30. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05) were performed to evaluate statistical differences among groups. There was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) on plaque and gingivitis at day 30 just in CLX ([PLI = 0.47 ± 0.16; -30%]; [BLI = 0.15 ± 0.09; -55.8%]) and AO ([PLI = 0.49 ± 0.21; -31%]; [BLI = 0.13 ± 0.10; -56.6%]) groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (P > 0.05). Mouthwash containing 10% AO was effective as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that 0.12% CLX.

  15. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM), and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S), the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is needed to examine long

  16. Effect of oral cleaning using mouthwash and a mouth moisturizing gel on bacterial number and moisture level of the tongue surface of older adults requiring nursing care.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Ryu, Masahiro; Izumi, Sachi; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral cleaning using a mouthwash and a mouth moisturizing gel on the number of bacteria and moisture level of the tongue surface of older adults requiring nursing care. The 60 participants were randomly divided into groups according to their use of oral cleaning procedures as follows: group 1, mouthwash and a moisturizing gel (M + m); group 2, mouthwash (M); group 3, water and a moisturizing gel (W + m); and group 4, water (W). The number of anaerobic bacteria, tongue coating index and moisture level of the tongue surface were measured at baseline, and after 1 and 2 weeks after cleaning commenced to compare the effectiveness of oral cleaning among the groups. There was no significant difference in baseline measurements among the groups. The numbers of anaerobic bacteria decreased for all groups, and there were significant differences in the rates of decrease after 2 weeks between the M + m and W + m groups, M + m and W groups, and M and W groups. The tongue coating index decreased for all groups. There was no significant difference in the rate of decrease among the groups after 1 week, and there was a significant difference after 2 weeks between the M + m and W groups. The moisture levels of all groups increased, and there were significant differences after 2 weeks between the M + m and M groups, the M + m and W groups, and the W + m and W groups. The most effective cleaning technique was the combination of a mouthwash and a moisturizing gel. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 116-121. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Phenytoin mouthwash to treat cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis: A pilot studyPrimary neuroendocrine carcinoma of breast: A rare tumor.

    PubMed

    Baharvand, M; Hamian, M; Moosavizadeh, M A; Mortazavi, A; Ameri, A

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer therapy with no definite treatment. Phenytoin has positive effects on healing of mucosal and dermal wounds. In this study efficacy of 1% phenytoin mouthwash on severity of mucositis (on the basis of WHO scale), pain relief (based on Visual Analogue Scale), and improvement of patients' quality of life (on the basis of EORTC-QLQ-H and N35 questionnaire) was evaluated. In a pilot -double-blind randomized clinical trial, eight patients in study group were given 1% phenytoin mouthwash while eight patients in control group used normal saline. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney and Repeated Measured ANOVA tests. Reduction of mucositis severity was observed, but the difference was not significant. On the other hand, patients on phenytoin therapy had better pain relief (VAS# 6.75 ± 1.58 at the beginning of the study reached to # 3.75 ± 1.16 after 3 weeks in phenytoin group) and improvement in quality of life (score of QOL was 70.63 ± 5.5 that reached to 63.61 ± 6.39 in phenytoin group) than normal saline group significantly (P < 0.05). One percent phenytoin mouthwash caused pain relief and improvement of life quality significantly in patients with mucositis due to cancer therapy, but it did not reduce the severity of mucositis in a statistically significant scale.

  18. Comparison of aloe vera mouthwash with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% on oral lichen planus: a randomized double-blinded clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Arash; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Saheb-Jamee, Mahnaz; Esfehani, Mahsa; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Momen-Beitollahi, Jalil

    2011-12-01

    Corticosteroids are the mainstay for treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP) and have their own side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of aloe vera (AV) mouthwash with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% (TA) on OLP. A total of 46 patients with OLP were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Each group was treated with received AV mouthwash or TA. The treatment period for both groups was 4 weeks. The basement data were recorded for each patient. Patients were evaluated on days 8, 16 and after completing the course of treatment (visit 1-3). The last follow-up was 2 months after the start of treatment (visit 4). Visual analogue scale was used for evaluating pain and burning sensation and Thongprasom index for clinical improvement and healing. In addition, lesion sizes were measured and recorded at each visit using a grid. Baseline characteristics, including pain and burning sensation score, size and clinical characteristics of the lesions according to Thongprasom index, were not different between the 2 treatment groups. Both AV and TA significantly reduced visual analogue scale score, Thongprasom score and size of the lesions after treatment (P < 0.001) and after 2 months of discontinuation of the treatment (P < 0.001). In the AV group, 74% of patients and in the TA group 78% of patients showed some degrees of healing in the last follow-up. AV mouthwash is an effective substitute for TA in the treatment of OLP.

  19. The Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances and Fluoride Mouthwash on the Oral Microbiome of Adolescents – A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buijs, Mark J.; Elyassi, Yassaman; van der Veen, Monique H.; Crielaard, Wim; ten Cate, Jacob M.; Zaura, Egija

    2015-01-01

    While the aesthetic effect of orthodontic treatment is clear, the knowledge on how it influences the oral microbiota and the consequential effects on oral health are limited. In this randomized controlled clinical trial we investigated the changes introduced in the oral ecosystem, during and after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in combination with or without a fluoride mouthwash, of 10–16.8 year old individuals (N = 91). We followed several clinical parameters in time, in combination with microbiome changes using next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. During the course of our study, the oral microbial community displayed remarkable resilience towards the disturbances it was presented with. The effects of the fluoride mouthwash on the microbial composition were trivial. More pronounced microbial changes were related to gingival health status, orthodontic treatment and time. Periodontal pathogens (e.g. Selenomonas and Porphyromonas) were highest in abundance during the orthodontic treatment, while the health associated Streptococcus, Rothia and Haemophilus gained abundance towards the end and after the orthodontic treatment. Only minor compositional changes remained in the oral microbiome after the end of treatment. We conclude that, provided proper oral hygiene is maintained, changes in the oral microbiome composition resulting from orthodontic treatment are minimal and do not negatively affect oral health. PMID:26332408

  20. Clinical efficacy of a 1% Matricaria chamomile L. mouthwash and 0.12% chlorhexidine for gingivitis control in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Goes, Paula; Dutra, Caio S; Lisboa, Mário R P; Gondim, Delane V; Leitão, Renata; Brito, Gerly A C; Rego, Rodrigo O

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash containing 1% Matricaria chamomilla L. (MTC) extract in reducing gingival inflammation and plaque formation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled a total of 30 males and females (age, 10-40 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances and a minimum of 20 natural teeth. The participants were allocated to three groups (n = 10 each) and asked to rinse with 15 mL of a placebo, 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), or 1% MTC mouthwash, immediately after brushing for 1 min, in the morning and evening, for 15 days. Data (mean ± SD) on visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded on days 1 and 15. The placebo group exhibited increases in VPI and GBI (10.2% and 23.1%, respectively) from day 1 to day 15. As compared with placebo, VPI and GBI significantly decreased in the MTC group (-25.6% and -29.9%, respectively) and the CHX group (-39.9% and -32.0%, respectively). In summary, MTC reduced biofilm accumulation and gingival bleeding in patients with gingivitis, probably because of its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.(J Oral Sci 58, 569-574, 2016).

  1. Evaluation of the antigingivitis effect of a chlorhexidine mouthwash with or without an antidiscoloration system compared to placebo during experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Wang, Ren E; Finger, Martin; Lang, Niklaus P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine (CHX) with an antidiscoloration system (ADS) on stain, plaque accumulation, and gingivitis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 26 students. After a preparatory period, the students were randomly assigned to either group P (placebo), group T1 (0.12% CHX without an ADS), or group T2 (0.12% CHX with an ADS). During the 3-week experimental period, all mechanical oral hygiene was abolished. Rinsing with 10 mL mouthwash or placebo was performed twice daily under supervision. The parameters assessed on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 included the Discoloration Index (DI), Plaque Index (PII), and Gingival Index (GI). There were no significant mean differences in the DI, PII, or GI between groups T2 and P. Significant mean differences existed in the DI between groups T2 and T1 on days 14 and 21. Significant mean differences existed in the PI between groups T2 and T1 on days 7, 14, and 21. Likewise, significant mean differences existed in the GI between groups T2 and T1 on days 14 and 21. CHX with an ADS did not prevent plaque or gingivitis development. In fact, the CHX mouthwash with an ADS showed no superior effect over placebo on oral hygiene or the prevention of gingivitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. A randomised clinical trial to evaluate the effect of a 67 % sodium bicarbonate-containing dentifrice on 0.2 % chlorhexidine digluconate mouthwash tooth staining.

    PubMed

    Akwagyiram, Ivy; Butler, Andrew; Maclure, Robert; Colgan, Patrick; Yan, Nicole; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2016-08-25

    Gingivitis can develop as a reaction to dental plaque. It can be limited by curtailing plaque build-up through actions including tooth brushing and the use of medicinal mouthwashes, such as those containing chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), that can reach parts of the mouth that may be missed when brushing. This study aimed to compare dental stain control of twice-daily brushing with a sodium fluoride (NaF) dentifrice containing 67 % sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a commercially available NaF silica dentifrice without NaHCO3, while using a mouthwash containing 0.2 % CHX. This was a 6-week, randomised, two-site, examiner-blind, parallel-group study in healthy subjects with at least 'mild' stain levels on the facial surfaces of ≥4 teeth and ≥15 bleeding sites. Assessment was via modified Lobene Stain Index (MLSI), the score being the mean of stain intensity multiplied by area (MLSI [IxA]). One hundred and fifty of 160 randomised subjects completed the study. There were no significant differences in Overall (facial and lingual) MLSI (IxA) scores between dentifrices. The Facial MLSI (IxA) was statistically significant at 6 weeks, favouring the 67 % NaHCO3 dentifrice (p = 0.0404). Post-hoc analysis, conducted due to a significant site interaction, found significant differences for all MLSI scores in favour of the 67 % NaHCO3 dentifrice at Site 1 (both weeks) but not Site 2. No overall significant differences were found between a 67 and 0 % NaHCO3 dentifrice in controlling CHX stain; a significant difference on facial surfaces suggests advantage of the former on more accessible surfaces. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01962493 ) on 10 October 2013 and was funded by GSK Consumer Healthcare.

  3. Oral nitrite circumvents antiseptic mouthwash-induced disruption of enterosalivary circuit of nitrate and promotes nitrosation and blood pressure lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Lucas C; Ferreira, Graziele C; Amaral, Jefferson H; Portella, Rafael L; Tella, Sandra de O C; Passos, Madla A; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2016-12-01

    The nitric oxide (NO • ) metabolites nitrite and nitrate exert antihypertensive effects by mechanisms that involve gastric formation of S-nitrosothiols. However, while the use of antiseptic mouthwash (AM) is known to attenuate the responses to nitrate by disrupting its enterosalivary cycle, there is little information about whether AM attenuates the effects of orally administered nitrite. We hypothesized that the antihypertensive effects of orally administered nitrite would not be prevented by AM because, in contrast to oral nitrate, oral nitrite could promote S-nitrosothiols formation in the stomach without intereference by AM. Chronic effects of oral nitrite or nitrate were studied in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats (and normotensive controls) treated with AM (or vehicle) once/day. We found that orally administered nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects that were not affected by AM. This finding contrasts with lack of antihypertensive responses to oral nitrate in 2K1C hypertensive rats treated with AM. Nitrite and nitrate treatments increased plasma nitrites, nitrates, and S-nitrosothiols concentrations. However, while treatment with AM attenuated the increases in plasma nitrite concentrations after both nitrite and nitrate treatments, AM attenuated the increases in S-nitrosothiols in nitrate-treated rats, but not in nitrite-treated rats. Moreover, AM attenuated vascular S-nitrosylation (detected by the SNO-RAC method) after nitrate, but not after nitrite treatment. Significant correlations were found between the hypotensive responses and S-nitrosothiols, and vascular S-nitrosylation levels. These results show for the first time that oral nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects notwithstanding the fact that antiseptic mouthwash disrupts the enterosalivary circulation of nitrate. Our results support a major role for S-nitrosothiols formation resulting in vascular S-nitrosylation as a key mechanism for the antihypertensive effects of both oral

  4. The influence of different types of brackets and efficacy of two chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral hygiene and the incidence of white spot lesions in adolescents during the orthodontic therapy.

    PubMed

    Jurišić, Sanja; Kozomara, Davorin; Jurić, Hrvoje; Verzak, Željko; Jurišić, Gordan

    2016-12-01

    To detect the effect of two different types of brackets (ceramic and stainless steel) and investigate the effectiveness of two chlorhexidine mouthwashes 0.2% (CHX) on oral hygiene status and incidence of white spot lesions (WSLs) in adolescents wearing fixed orthodontic appliance. One hundred and twenty subjects (aged 11 to 18 years, mean age 14.5 years) were divided into six equal groups according to brackets type and to different mouthwashes: Group 1: metal brackets and conventional CHX, Group 2: metal brackets and CHX with anti-discoloration system (CHX-ADS), Group 3: ceramic brackets and conventional CHX, Group 4: ceramic brackets and CHX-ADS, Group 5: metal brackets and water correction flavors mouthwash (placebo), Group 6: ceramic brackets and placebo. Four weeks after the placement of fixed orthodontic appliance the subjects were provided with three different mouthwashes for use during the next two weeks. Assessment was carried out according to oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) and WSL index performed: prior to placement of the appliance (baseline), four weeks, six weeks, eighteen weeks, and thirty weeks after the placement. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Group 4 showed reduction in the OHI-S scores when compared to the Group 5 (in the 6 th week), and Group 6 (in the 6 th and 18 th week), which was statistically significant, P<0.05. Group 4 showed decrease in the WSLs scores when compared to the Group 1 (in the 4 th , 6 th , 18 th and 30 th week), Group 5 (in the 18 th and 30 th week) and Group 6 (in the 6 th , 18 th and 30 th week), which was statistically significant, P<0.05. The ceramic brackets and the usage of CHX-ADS resulted in better oral hygiene status and lower incidence of WSLs.

  5. Short-term effects of scaling and root planing with or without adjunctive use of an essential-oil-based mouthwash in the treatment of periodontal inflammation in smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Mohammad; Alshail, Faisal; Alqahtani, Sami H; Aloriny, Tawfeeg Saleh; Alsharif, Abdulhakim; Kujan, Omar

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present short-term follow-up study was to assess the effects of scaling and root planing (SRP) with or without adjunctive use of an essential-oil-based mouthwash in the treatment of periodontal inflammation in smokers. In total, 120 individuals were divided into 2 groups. In Group-1, 60 smokers with periodontal inflammation received SRP alone; and in Group-2, 60 smokers with periodontal inflammation received adjunct essential-oil mouthwash therapy. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding-on-probing [BOP], and probing pocket depth [PD] ≥ 4 mm) were assessed at baseline and after 90 days of treatment. There was no significant difference in periodontal parameters (PI, BOP, and PD ≥ 4 mm) among participants in Group-1 and -2. Participants in both groups showed significant reductions in PI (P < 0.01), BOP (P < 0.01), and PD ≥ 4 mm (P < 0.01) at follow-up compared to baseline. At 90 days of follow-up, PI (P < 0.05), BOP (P < 0.05), and PD ≥ 4 mm (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in Group-1 compared to Group-2. SRP with adjunct essential-oil mouthwash therapy is more effective in the treatment of periodontal inflammation in smokers as compared to when SRP is performed alone.

  6. Caphosol(®) mouthwash gives no additional protection against oral mucositis compared to cryotherapy alone in stem cell transplantation. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Anncarin; Öhrn, Kerstin; Birgegård, Gunnar

    2015-02-01

    To investigate if adding Caphosol(®), a mouthwash solution, to oral cryotherapy (OC) further protects against oral mucositis (OM), a toxic painful complication to high dose chemotherapy. The study was a randomised, controlled, study design. Patients ≥16 years scheduled for allogeneic stem cell transplantation were included consecutively and randomised to experimental group receiving OC combined with Caphosol(®) (n = 20) or control group receiving OC only (n = 20). OC was given from start to end of HDCT. Caphosol(®), from day 0 to day 21. There were no significant differences regarding age or gender between the groups. Mucositis was assessed with the World Health Organisation (WHO) grading scale. Pain was assessed with a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst imaginable pain. Start and duration of therapy with pain relieving drugs, serum C-reactive protein values, and number of days of hospitalisation were collected from the medical records. Data on OM, oral pain, use of i.v. opioids and total parenteral nutrition were collected during 22 days. There was no significant difference between the groups on OM, oral pain, use of i.v. opioids or TPN between the groups. The study showed no additional effect of combining Caphosol(®) with OC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing the Effect of Echinacea and Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on the Microbial Flora of Intubated Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Safarabadi, Mehdi; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Pakniyat, Abdolghader; Rezaie, Korosh; Jadidi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Providing intubated patients admitted to the intensive care units with oral healthcare is one of the main tasks of nurses in order to prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP). This study aimed at comparing the effects of two mouthwash solutions (echinacea and chlorhexidine) on the oral microbial flora of patients hospitalized in the intensive care units. In this clinical trial, 70 patients aged between18 and 65 years undergoing tracheal intubation through the mouth in three hospitals in Arak, were selected using simple random sampling and were randomly divided into two groups: the intervention group and the control group. The oral health checklist was used to collect the data (before and after the intervention). The samples were obtained from the orally intubated patients and were then cultured in selective media. Afterwards, the aerobic microbial growth was investigated in all culture media. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. The microbial flora in the echinacea group significantly decreased after the intervention ( p < 0.0001) and it was also the case withmicrobial flora of the patients in the chlorhexidine group ( p < 0.001). After 4 days, the oral microbial flora of the patients in the intervention group was lower than that of the patients in the control group ( p < 0.001). The results showed that the echinacea solution was more effective in decreasing the oral microbial flora of patients in the intensive care unit. Given the benefits of the components of the herb Echinacea, it can be suggested as a viable alternative to chlorhexidine.

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness of 0.5% tea, 2% neem and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral health: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Balappanavar, Aswini Y; Sardana, Varun; Singh, Malkeet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of 0.5% tea, 2% neem, and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral health. A randomized blinded controlled trial with 30 healthy human volunteers of age group 18-25 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups i.e., group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (bench mark control), Group B - 2% neem, and group C - 0.5% tea of 10 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS). Salivary pH was assessed by indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after 1 st rinse, after 1 week, 2 nd week, and 3 rd week. The 3 rd week was skipped for group A. Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 3 week trial period for experimental and control groups. Anti-plaque effectiveness was observed in all groups and the highest being in group C (P < 0.05). Neem and tea showed comparative effectiveness on gingiva better than chlorhexidine (P < 0.05). The salivary pH rise was sustained and significant in Group B and C compared to Group A. Oral hygiene improvement was better appreciated in Group B and Group C. The effectiveness of 0.5% tea was more compared to 2% neem and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse.

  9. Comparing the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% Camellia sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children.

    PubMed

    Hambire, Chaitali U; Jawade, Rashmi; Patil, Amol; Wani, Vaibhav R; Kulkarni, Ankur A; Nehete, Parag B

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which requires a susceptible host, a cariogenic microflora, and a suitable substrate that must be present for a sufficient length of time. Tea is prepared by the infusion of dried leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which contains bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechins that are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to tea. These compounds have multidimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase, and inhibition of acid production. The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% C. sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children. A randomized blinded controlled trial with 60 healthy children of age group 9-14 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, i.e. group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, group B - 0.05% sodium fluoride, and group C - 0.5% C. sinensis extract, with 20 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS). Salivary pH was assessed using indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after first rinse, after 1 week, and in the 2(nd) week. The data were analyzed using a computer software program (SPSS version 17). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify significant differences between the means of the study groups. Finally, paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of changes within each group between time periods. Critical P values of significance were set at 0.05 and the confidence level set at 95%. Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 2-week trial period in the experimental groups. Antiplaque effectiveness was

  10. Prevention of everolimus-related stomatitis in women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer using dexamethasone mouthwash (SWISH): a single-arm, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Hope S; Seneviratne, Lasika; Beck, J Thaddeus; Glaspy, John A; Peguero, Julio A; Pluard, Timothy J; Dhillon, Navneet; Hwang, Leon Christopher; Nangia, Chaitali; Mayer, Ingrid A; Meiller, Timothy F; Chambers, Mark S; Sweetman, Robert W; Sabo, J Randy; Litton, Jennifer K

    2017-05-01

    Stomatitis is a class effect associated with the inhibition of mTOR and is associated with everolimus therapy for breast cancer. Topical steroids might reduce stomatitis incidence and severity, and the need for dose reductions and interruptions of everolimus. Anecdotal use of topical steroid oral prophylaxis has been reported in patients with breast cancer. We aimed to assess dexamethasone-based mouthwash for prevention of stomatitis in patients with breast cancer. This US-based, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 prevention study enrolled women aged 18 years and older with postmenopausal status who had histologically or cytologically confirmed metastatic hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. Beginning on day 1 of cycle 1, patients received everolimus 10 mg plus exemestane 25 mg daily, with 10 mL of alcohol-free dexamethasone 0·5 mg per 5 mL oral solution (swish for 2 min and spit, four times daily for 8 weeks). After 8 weeks, dexamethasone mouthwash could be continued for up to eight additional weeks at the discretion of the clinician and patient. The primary endpoint was incidence of grade 2 or worse stomatitis by 8 weeks assessed in the full analysis set (patients who received at least one dose of everolimus and exemestane and at least one confirmed dose of dexamethasone mouthwash) versus historical controls from the BOLERO-2 trial (everolimus and exemestane treatment in patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer who were not given dexamethasone mouthwash for prevention of stomatitis). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02069093. Between May 28, 2014, and Oct 8, 2015, we enrolled 92 women; 85 were evaluable for efficacy. By 8 weeks, the incidence of grade 2 or worse stomatitis was two (2%) of 85 patients (95% CI 0·29-8·24), versus 159 (33%) of 482 patients (95% CI 28·8-37·4) for the duration of the BOLERO-2 study. Overall, 83 (90%) of 92 patients had at least one adverse event. The most frequently

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Triphala and Ela Decoction With 0.2% Chlorhexidine as Mouthwash in the Treatment of Plaque-Induced Gingivitis and Halitosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mamgain, Pratibha; Kandwal, Abhishek; Mamgain, Ravindra K

    2016-12-08

    Present study evaluates efficacy of Trifala and Ela as plaque controlling agent and compares it with chlorhexidine. To evaluate Antigingivitis, Antiplaque and Antihalitosis effect of Triphala and Ela decoction. A randomized sample of 60 patients with plaque induced gingivitis was enrolled and equally divided into two groups group A and group B. Group A was given Trifala and Ela decoction and Group B Chlorehexidine mouthwash for 21 days twice daily. Gingival inflammation index, plaque index and Organoleptic scoring scale was recorded at baseline, 14th day and 21st day. Comparing the plaque index for Group A with group B the reduction in from baseline to 14 day was 42.59 % and 38.62% respectively while from baseline to 21 day was 56.20% and 68.57% respectively. On comparing Gingival index for group A with group B the reduction from baseline to 14 day was 31.95% and 38.62 % respectively while from baseline to 21 day was 69.95 % and 68.57% respectively. Halitosis Percentage reduction at 14th day from base line was 33.33% and 38.18%; at 21 day from baseline 66.66% and 72.72% respectively for group A and group B. No statistical significant difference for intergroup comparison was found using paired t test. Intra group analysis using unpaired t test was significant for all the indices at different time intervals. Triphala and Ela decoction is organic, easy to prepare economical and equally effective as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. The role of Octenidol(®), Glandomed(®) and chlorhexidine mouthwash in the prevention of mucositis and in the reduction of the oropharyngeal flora: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mutters, Nico T; Neubert, Thomas R; Nieth, Rudolf; Mutters, Reinier

    2015-01-01

    The oropharyngeal flora is of importance for the development of oral mucositis, which is a frequent complication in oncologic practice. It also plays a role in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Mucositis is associated with significantly worse clinical and economic outcomes. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of Octenidol(®), Glandomed(®) and chlorhexidine mouthwash in the prevention of mucositis and reduction of the oropharyngeal flora. A prospective, double-blinded RCT including two strata was conducted between October 2008 and November 2010. Stratum i consisted of ventilated cardiothoracic surgical patients. Stratum ii consisted of medical patients with haemato-oncological malignancies requiring stem cell transplantation. The primary outcome measures were development of mucositis regarding to OMAS/WHO score and reduction of the oropharyngeal flora. Both strata showed low OMAS/WHO scores which did not differ significantly between the groups. The overall mean reduction of colony forming units was significantly higher in the Octenidol(®) group compared to the chlorhexidine and the Glandomed(®) groups. No significant differences in the development of mucositis were found, thus all solutions proved successful in the prevention of mucositis. However, Octenidol(®) was superior in the reduction of the oropharyngeal flora. Hence, the preventive effect on nosocomial infections might be higher in patients using Octenidol(®) rather than chlorhexidine or Glandomed(®).

  13. Chlorhexidine mouthwash reduces plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, David

    2013-03-01

    Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched along with the reference lists of all selected studies. Only English language studies were included. Randomised controlled clinical trials comparing chlorhexidine (CHX) to placebo/control mouthrinses for oral hygiene in studies of at least four weeks duration were included. Screening, selection and data abstractions were conducted independently by two reviewers. Where possible meta-analysis of weighted mean differences was carried out using fixed or random effects models where appropriate. Thirty studies were included, with 13 studies contributing to the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis found significant differences favouring CHX for a range of indices; the Plaque Index Silness & Löe, Plaque-Index Quigley & Hein (PIQH), the Gingival Index (GI), Papillary BIeeding Index, Bleeding on Marginal Probing and the Lobene Stain Index. Relative to control, the reduction with CHX for plaque was 33% and for gingivitis 26%. CHX rinsing groups demonstrated significantly more staining. In gingivitis patients, CHX mouthrinses together with OH versus placebo, or control mouthrinse provide significant reductions in plaque and gingivitis scores, but a significant increase in staining score.

  14. Chlorhexidine mouthwash plaque levels and gingival health.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek

    2017-06-23

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Medline; clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. There were no language or date restrictions on searches.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of chlorhexidine mouthrinse used as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene procedures for at least four weeks on gingivitis in children and adults.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Mean and standardised mean differences were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes. Meta-analysis was carried out where studies of similar comparisons reported the same outcomes at the same time interval.ResultsFifty-one RCTs involving a total of 5,345 patients were included. Only one study was at low risk of bias, the other 50 were at high risk. For patients with mild gingivitis (gingival index [GI] 0 to 3 scale) four to six weeks' use of chlorhexidine mouthrinse reduced gingivitis by 0.21 (95% CI; 0.11 to 0.31) with a similar effect at six months. There were insufficient data to assess the effect on patients with moderate or severe gingival inflammation. For plaque there was a larger effect in favour of chlorhexidine mouthrinse at four to six weeks, SMD (standardised mean difference) = -1.45 (95% CI; -1.90 to -1.00), with a similarly large reduction at six months. A large increase in extrinsic tooth staining was seen with chlorhexidine use at four to six weeks, SMD = 1.07 (95%CI; 0.80 to 1.34) and seven to twelve weeks and six months. A range of other adverse effects were reported including taste disturbance/alteration, oral mucosa symptoms including soreness, irritation, mild desquamation and mucosal ulceration/erosions, and a general burning sensation or a burning tongue or both.ConclusionsThere is high quality evidence from studies that reported the Löe and Silness Gingival Index of a reduction in gingivitis in individuals with mild gingival inflammation on average (mean score of 1 on the 0 to 3 GI scale) that was not considered to be clinically relevant. There is high quality evidence of a large reduction in dental plaque with chlorhexidine mouthrinse used as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene procedures for four to six weeks and six months. There is no evidence that one concentration of chlorhexidine rinse is more effective than another. There is insufficient evidence to determine the reduction in gingivitis associated with chlorhexidine mouthrinse use in individuals with mean GI scores of 1.1 to 3 indicating moderate or severe levels of gingival inflammation. Rinsing with chlorhexidine mouthrinse for four weeks or longer causes extrinsic tooth staining. In addition, other adverse effects such as calculus build up, transient taste disturbance and effects on the oral mucosa were reported in the included studies.

  15. Dentifrices, mouthwashes, and remineralization/caries arrestment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zero, Domenick T

    2006-01-01

    While our knowledge of the dental caries process and its prevention has greatly advanced over the past fifty years, it is fair to state that the management of this disease at the level of the individual patient remains largely empirical. Recommendations for fluoride use by patients at different levels of caries risk are mainly based on the adage that more is better. There is a general understanding that the fluoride compound, concentration, frequency of use, duration of exposure, and method of delivery can influence fluoride efficacy. Two important factors are (1) the initial interaction of relatively high concentrations of fluoride with the tooth surface and plaque during application and (2) the retention of fluoride in oral fluids after application. Fluoride dentifrices remain the most widely used method of delivering topical fluoride. The efficacy of this approach in preventing dental caries is beyond dispute. However, the vast majority of currently marketed dentifrice products have not been clinically tested and have met only the minimal requirements of the FDA monograph using mainly laboratory testing and animal caries testing. Daily use of fluoride dental rinses as an adjunct to fluoride dentifrice has been shown to be clinically effective as has biweekly use of higher concentration fluoride rinses. The use of remineralizing agents (other than fluoride), directed at reversing or arresting non-cavitated lesions, remains a promising yet largely unproven strategy. High fluoride concentration compounds, e.g., AgF, Ag(NH3)2F, to arrest more advanced carious lesions with and without prior removal of carious tissue are being used in several countries as part of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. Most of the recent innovations in oral care products have been directed toward making cosmetic marketing claims. There continues to be a need for innovation and collaboration with other scientific disciplines to fully understand and prevent dental caries. PMID:16934126

  16. Effect of fluoride sodium mouthwash solutions on cpTI: evaluation of physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Toniollo, Marcelo Bighetti; Galo, Rodrigo; Macedo, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fluoride, which is present in different oral hygiene products, deserve more investigation because little is known about their impact on the surface of titanium, which is largely used in Implantology. This study evaluated the surface of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) after exposure to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF). The hypothesis tested in this study was that different concentrations of NaF applied at different time intervals can affect the titanium surface in different ways. The treatments resulted in the following groups: GA (control): immersion in distilled water; GB: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min daily; GC: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min daily; GD: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks; and GE: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks. The experiment lasted 60 days. Roughness was measured initially and every 15 days subsequently up to 60 days. After 60 days, corrosion analysis and anodic polarization were done. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roughness data were analyzed by ANOVA and there was no significant difference among groups and among time intervals. The corrosion data (i(corr)) were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test, and significant differences were found between GA and GC, GB and GC, GC and GD, GC and GE. SEM micrographs showed that the titanium surface exposed to NaF presented corrosion that varied with the different concentrations. This study suggests that the use of 0.05% NaF solution on cpTi is safe, whereas the 0.2% NaF solution should be carefully evaluated with regard to its daily use.

  17. Gums - swollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... dentures or other dental appliances Pregnancy Sensitivity to toothpaste or mouthwash Scurvy Side effect of a medicine ... such as mouthwashes, alcohol, and tobacco. Change your toothpaste brand and stop using mouthwashes if sensitivity to ...

  18. Saliva and tongue coating pH before and after use of mouthwashes and relationship with parameters of halitosis

    PubMed Central

    TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; TARZIA, Olinda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this work was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH in oral healthy patients with morning bad breath before and after use of different oral mouthrinses. Material and Methods aliva and tongue coating pH of 50 patients allocated in 5 groups were measured respectively by a digital pHmeter and color pH indicators, before, immediately after and 30 min after rinsing 5 different mouthrinses: cetilpiridine chloride associated with sodium chloride, triclosan, enzymatic solution, essential oil and distilled water. Results Only triclosan and essential oil increased salivary pH immediately after rising. The enzymatic solution decreased salivary and tongue coating pH immediately after rinsing. Conclusion Salivary pH tended to be acidic while tongue coating pH tended to be alkaline, even after rising. Triclosan and essential oil mouthrinses increased salivary pH immediately after rinsing. Enzymatic solution decreased saliva and tongue coating pH immediately after rising. PMID:21552707

  19. Impact of different concentrations of an octenidine dihydrochloride mouthwash on salivary bacterial counts: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Katrin; Jockel-Schneider, Yvonne; Petersen, Nicole; Stölzel, Peggy; Petzold, Markus; Vogel, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schlagenhauf, Ulrich; Noack, Barbara

    2018-03-02

    This bi-centric, placebo-controlled, randomized, evaluator-blinded, incomplete cross-over clinical phase II trial was initialized to identify the most appropriate concentration of octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) in mouth rinses. Rinses of 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20% OCT were compared to a saline placebo rinse regarding the reduction of salivary bacterial counts (SBCs) in 90 gingivitis patients over 4 days. Changes in plaque (PI) and gingival index (GI), taste perception, and safety issues were evaluated. At baseline, the first OCT (0.10, 0.15, 0.20%) rinse resulted in a decrease of SBC (reduction by 3.63-5.44 log 10 colony forming units [CFU]) compared to placebo (p < 0.001). Differences between OCT concentrations were not verified. After 4 days, the last OCT rinse again resulted in a significant SBC decrease (3.69-4.22 log 10 CFU) compared to placebo (p < 0.001). Overall, SBC reduction between baseline and day 4 was significantly higher in OCT 0.15 and 0.20% groups compared to OCT 0.10% and placebo. Mean GI/PIs were significantly lower in OCT groups than in the placebo group (p < 0.001). Differences in GI/PI between OCT groups were not verified. Adverse effects increased with increasing OCT concentrations. Considering antibacterial efficacy, frequency of adverse events, and user acceptance, 0.10% OCT was identified as the preferred concentration to be used in future clinical trials. Due to its low toxicity and pronounced antibacterial properties, octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) is a promising candidate for the use in antiseptic mouth rinses. OCT concentrations of 0.10% are recommended for future clinical trials evaluating the plaque-reducing properties of OCT mouth rinses. ( www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT022138552).

  20. Mouth sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... gel (Lidex), anti-inflammatory amlexanox paste (Aphthasol), or chlorhexidine gluconate (Peridex) mouthwash. Over-the-counter medicines, such as ... Aphthasol). A special type of mouthwash such as chlorhexidine gluconate (such as Peridex). Alternative Names Aphthous stomatitis; Herpes ...

  1. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), an ingredient in many toothpastes and mouthwashes, has been linked to canker sores, ... you brush your teeth . Brush and rinse with toothpastes and mouthwashes that don't contain SLS. And ...

  2. Antibacterial activity of four mouthrinses containing triclosan against salivary Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Watanabe, Evandro; Matoba-Júnior, Fumio; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2008-01-01

    The maximum inhibitory dilution (MID) of triclosan-based mouthwashes against 28 Staphylococcus aureus strains was evaluated. Dilutions ranging from 1/10 to 1/655,360 were prepared. Strains were inoculated using a Steers multipoint inoculator. The MID was considered as the maximum dilution capable of inhibiting microorganism growth. The mouthwashes presented different MIDs. PMID:24031267

  3. Antibacterial activity of four mouthrinses containing triclosan against salivary Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Watanabe, Evandro; Matoba-Júnior, Fumio; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2008-07-01

    The maximum inhibitory dilution (MID) of triclosan-based mouthwashes against 28 Staphylococcus aureus strains was evaluated. Dilutions ranging from 1/10 to 1/655,360 were prepared. Strains were inoculated using a Steers multipoint inoculator. The MID was considered as the maximum dilution capable of inhibiting microorganism growth. The mouthwashes presented different MIDs.

  4. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... liniments Diaper rash creams Inhalers to relieve nasal congestion Medicine for sore gums, mouth, and throat Mouthwashes ... IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Activated charcoal Laxative Tube through the nose into the stomach to wash ...

  5. Kills Germs by the Millions!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swails, Molly

    1980-01-01

    Described is a science experiment involving the isolation and study of microorganisms. Bacteria from the mouth are cultured on blood agar culture plates and are then exposed to four different mouthwashes to test their effectiveness. (DS)

  6. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouthwash, which also offer protection against tooth decay. Avoid using over-the-counter antihistamines and decongestants ... and drinks because they increase your risk of tooth decay. Brush with a fluoride toothpaste — ask your dentist ...

  7. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry in Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents chemical information related to dental health: (1) the composition of toothpaste, (2) dental diseases, (3) the role of fluoride, (4) proper oral health care, (5) mouthwashes, and (6) adhesive sealants. (MA)

  8. 27 CFR 20.42 - Data for application, Form 5150.22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., external medicines, solvents, fuels, mouthwashes, laboratory uses, inks, etc.) to be made of the specially... a corporation or other legal entity, the appropriate TTB officer may require information which...

  9. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Green Tea Extract on Mouth Bacterial Activity in the Presence of Propylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Moghbel, Abdolhossein; Farjzadeh, Ahmad; Aghel, Nasrin; Agheli, Homaun; Raisi, Nafiseh

    2012-01-01

    Background Compounds present in green tea have proved to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with infections. Objectives To assess the effects of green tea leaves extract in presence of propylene glycol on the aerobic mouth bacteria load. Materials and Methods Saliva of 25 volunteer girl students aging 20-25 years were selected and evaluated by a mouthwash sample containing 1% tannin, as the most effective antibacterial complex in green tea. Comparative studies were also conducted between green tea mouthwashes containing 1% tannin and a similar sample with 10% propylene glycol added during extraction. This comparison was applied for a chlorhexidine 0.2% sample as a chemical mouthwash brand, too. Results There was a meaningful difference between the green tea mouthwashes containing 10% propylene glycol and the simple green tea extract (P < 0.05). Significant difference was also seen between the herbal and chemical mouthwashes (P < 0.05). The extract 1% tannin containing 10% propylene glycol reduced the aerobic mouth bacterial load of the student salvia about 64 percent. The pH monotonousness in different days and temperatures approved the stability of tannin in liquid water medium. Conclusions Using green tea extract as a herbal mouthwash is safe and harmless specially for children and pregnant women. This result led us to suppose that green tea may prevent plaque formation on teeth, coming over halitosis due to mouth infection, too. These effects need to be approved in an in vivo trial as a second study. PMID:24624155

  11. Evaluation of the effect of green tea extract on mouth bacterial activity in the presence of propylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Moghbel, Abdolhossein; Farjzadeh, Ahmad; Aghel, Nasrin; Agheli, Homaun; Raisi, Nafiseh

    2012-01-01

    Compounds present in green tea have proved to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with infections. To assess the effects of green tea leaves extract in presence of propylene glycol on the aerobic mouth bacteria load. Saliva of 25 volunteer girl students aging 20-25 years were selected and evaluated by a mouthwash sample containing 1% tannin, as the most effective antibacterial complex in green tea. Comparative studies were also conducted between green tea mouthwashes containing 1% tannin and a similar sample with 10% propylene glycol added during extraction. This comparison was applied for a chlorhexidine 0.2% sample as a chemical mouthwash brand, too. There was a meaningful difference between the green tea mouthwashes containing 10% propylene glycol and the simple green tea extract (P < 0.05). Significant difference was also seen between the herbal and chemical mouthwashes (P < 0.05). The extract 1% tannin containing 10% propylene glycol reduced the aerobic mouth bacterial load of the student salvia about 64 percent. The pH monotonousness in different days and temperatures approved the stability of tannin in liquid water medium. Using green tea extract as a herbal mouthwash is safe and harmless specially for children and pregnant women. This result led us to suppose that green tea may prevent plaque formation on teeth, coming over halitosis due to mouth infection, too. These effects need to be approved in an in vivo trial as a second study.

  12. Surface Hardness of Dental Composite Resin Restorations in Response to Preventive Agents.

    PubMed

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H

    2016-12-01

    To assess the impact of using preventive mouthwash agents on the surface hardness of various resins composites. Hundred specimens were prepared from five types of composite resin material in a Teflon mold. Five specimens from each type of restorative materials (Herculite XRV Ultra, Estelite Σ Quick, Z Hermack, Versa Comp Sultan, and Empress Direct IPS) were evaluated posttreatment with immersion in four types of preventive mouthwashes gels and rinses - group 1: Flocare gel (0.4% stannous fluoride), group 2: Pascal gel (topical APF fluoride), group 3: Pro-relief mouthwash (Na fluoride), and group 4: Plax Soin mouthwash (Na fluoride) - at 37°C in a dark glass container at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Surface hardness measurement was made for each tested material. Statistically, we analyzed the mean values with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test, with significance level of p < 0.05. All composite resin materials showed decrease in their surface hardness with the time elapsed (24, 48, and 72 hours) postimmersion in the preventive mouthwashes and gels except the Herculite XRV Ultra and Versa Comp Sultan materials. Flocare gel group showed increase in the surface hardness after 48 hours of immersion than the other periods and in Estelite Σ Quick after 72 hours. There was significant differences in all materials tested with the immersion in the preventive mouthwashes and gels, such as Flocare gel (0.4% stannous fluoride), Pro-relief mouthwash (Na fluoride), and Plax Soin mouthwash (Na fluoride) except Pascal gel (topical APF fluoride) (p > 0.05), at time intervals mentioned earlier (p < 0.05). The effect of preventive mouthwashes and gels on resin composite materials was decreased surface hardness with the time elapse of immersion for all materials except the Flocare gel group, which contains 0.4% stannous fluoride as a preventive ingredient increases the surface hardness after 48 h for Herculite XRV Ultra and Versa Comp Sultan and Estelite Σ Quick after

  13. Effects of the medicinal plants Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis on halitosis control.

    PubMed

    Farina, Vitor Hugo; Lima, Ana Paula de; Balducci, Ivan; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2012-01-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea). These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water). The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from the School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP, SP, Brazil. Each volunteer tested the four mouthwashes. The Cysteine Challenge Method, modified for this study, was used for initial breath standardization. Four breath assessments were conducted after volunteers rinsed orally with acetylcysteine: one before the test mouthwash was used; the second, one minute after its use; a third 90 minutes later; and the last 180 minutes later. The results showed that chlorhexidine gluconate lowered VSC production immediately, and that this effect lasted up to 3 hours, while the tested plants had immediate inhibitory effects but no residual inhibitory effects on VSC. We concluded that Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis, prepared as infusions and used as mouthwashes, did not have a residual neutralizing effect on VSC.

  14. Effectiveness of Oral Antiseptics on Tooth Biofilm: A Study in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mouchrek Junior, José Carlos Elias; Nunes, Lívia Helena de Araújo Castro; Arruda, Cleidiane Silveira; Rizzi, Claudia de Castro; Mouchrek, Adriana Quinzeiro E Silva; Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of five different mouthwashes through measurement of the plaque index. Fifty subjects took part in this blind study, randomized into blocks of five groups according to the active ingredient of the mouthwash: CHX group (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate), essential oils (EO) group, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) group, Tri group (triclosan) and Hamamelis virginiana (HV) group. All subjects were evaluated for a reduction in the bacterial plaque index at 7, 14 and 21 days. There was a significant reduction in the mean plaque index during the period of evaluation (p < 0.01), and the reduction during the period of evaluation was different between mouthwashes (p < 0.01). The reduction in the plaque index at the end of 21 days was, in decreasing order, CHX > EO > CPC > Tri > HV. The reduction in the plaque index during the period of evaluation was different between the types of mouth-wash. The mouthwash containing the active ingredient chlorhexidine was the most effective, followed by the essential oil, cetylpyridinium chloride, triclosan and H. virginiana.

  15. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure.

    PubMed

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media.

  16. Effect of 0.12% chlorhexidine in reducing microorganisms found in aerosol used for dental prophylaxis of patients submitted to fixed orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Isis Rodrigues Menezes; Moreira, Ana Cristina Azevedo; Costa, Myrela Galvão Cardoso; Barbosa, Marcelo de Castellucci e

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at assessing, in vivo, whether the prior use of 0.12% chlorhexidine as mouthwash would decrease air contamination caused by aerosolized sodium bicarbonate during dental prophylaxis. The study was conducted with 23 patients aged between 10 and 40 years old who were randomly selected and undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods The study was divided into two phases (T1 and T2) with a 30-day interval in between. In both phases, dental prophylaxis was performed with aerosolized sodium bicarbonate jetted to the upper and lower arches for 4 minutes. In T1, 10 minutes before the prophylaxis procedure, the participants used distilled water as mouthwash for one minute; whereas in T2, mouthwash was performed with 0.12% chlorhexidine. Microbial samples were collected in BHI agar plates for microbiological analysis. Two dishes were positioned on the clinician (10 cm from the mouth) and a third one at 15 cm from the patient's mouth. The samples were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C. Results were expressed in colony-forming units (CFU). Results Statistical analysis carried out by means of Student's t test, as well as Wilconxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that the prior use of 0.12% chlorhexidine as mouthwash significantly reduced CFU in the three positions studied (P < 0.001). Conclusion The prior use of 0.12% chlorhexidine as mouthwash significantly reduced contamination caused by aerosolized sodium bicarbonate during dental prophylaxis in the orthodontic clinic. PMID:25162572

  17. Alcohol-containing mouthwasheses: effect on composite color.

    PubMed

    Settembrini, L; Penugonda, B; Scherer, W; Strassler, H; Hittelman, E

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated whether commercially available mouthwashes could affect or change the color of a hybrid composite resin. Twenty-four disks were fabricated and divided into eight equal groups for testing. At baseline, six colorimetric recordings and color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were recorded for each grouping of disks using a Chroma Meter CR-300 in reflectance mode. The groups of disks were immersed in their respective mouthwashes for 2 minutes a day in a vibratory fashion over a 6-month period. At the end of 6 months, color differences, delta E, were calculated between the base line and test recordings. The results indicate that rinsing with mouthwashes for 6 months can cause a hybrid resin to undergo color variations. Except for one product the color variations were not clinically significant.

  18. [A PhD completed. Prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and bad breath].

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, E; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A

    2018-01-01

    Rinsing the mouth with water, or brushing with a dry toothbrush, does not contribute to an improvement in plaque removal during toothbrushing, nor does brushing according to a specific brushing regimen. Rinsing with water or drinking water has an immediate effect on bad morning breath. The combination of toothbrushing, tongue cleaning and a mouthwash has an effect on bad morning breath after 24 hours, in contrast with brushing with toothpaste only. The use of mouthwash with the specific ingredients chlorhexidine and essential oils has a positive effect on the reduction of gingivitis. The use of similar mouthwashes as a cooling solution in an ultrasonic device has no added effect on treatment results among periodontal patients. Water is an effective cooling solution.

  19. Prevention of oral mucositis in children receiving cancer therapy: a systematic review and evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Qutob, Akram F; Gue, Sumant; Revesz, Tamas; Logan, Richard M; Keefe, Dorothy

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review investigated, critically appraised, and rated the evidence on agents used to prevent oral mucositis in children. A comprehensive search of the relevant literature was performed up to December 2011. Articles were included according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critically appraised for validation and quality assessment using a checklist consisting of 18 categories. Each article was then rated for its strength of evidence. 16,471 articles were retrieved from 19 different databases and then reduced to 27 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. Five articles on oral care protocols supported their use to prevent oral mucositis in children. Seven articles on chlorhexidine mouthwash and three on laser therapy had conflicting evidence of its use. The preventative agents that were supported by one or two articles included: benzydamine mouthwash, iseganan mouthwash, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwash, oral/enteral glutamine, oral propantheline and cryotherapy, oral cryotherapy, oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and chewing gum. The reduction in the rates of occurrence of oral mucositis when using agents of fair (B) to good (A) evidence ranged from 22% to 52%. In conclusion, this review suggests the use of oral care protocols to prevent oral mucositis in children because of their strength of evidence (fair to good). The authors suggest avoiding agents with fair to good evidence against their use (oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and GM-CSF mouthwash). Agents with conflicting evidence (chlorhexidine mouthwash (used solely), laser therapy, and glutamine) should also be avoided until further research confirms their efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment and two new mouth rinses on gingival health: A prospective cohort followed by a single-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid; Heydari, Mohaddeseh; Keikavusi, Shohreh; Dadgar, Sepideh; Shariati, Mahsa

    2018-03-01

    Routine brushing protocols might not suffice to reduce the increased plaque accumulation in orthodontic patients. Antimicrobial mouth rinses are favorable in this regard. This two-phase study evaluated the effects of orthodontic treatment and the application of two mouthwashes not studied before on oral health indices. In this two-phase study (a prospective cohort followed by a parallel randomized controlled trial), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and pocket probing depth (PPD) were measured in 54 orthodontic patients before orthodontic treatment and 4 months later. Then patients were randomized into three groups of mouthrinses: Persica (herbal), Ortho-Kin (containing diluted chlorhexidine), and Placebo (n=18×3). The effects of orthodontic treatment and mouthrinses were analyzed statistically (α=0.05). All the 4 indices increased between the baseline and 4th month of treatment (P values<0.01, paired t-test). They decreased back to baseline levels or below them, after one month of mouthwash application (P values<0.002). Both mouthwashes showed therapeutic effects compared to placebo in terms of PI and GBI. In the case of GI, only Persica showed significantly better results compared to placebo. Regarding PPD, only Ortho-Kin acted better than placebo (P values≤0.05, Tukey). Lack of positive control (regular chlorhexidine mouth rinse) and negative control (a group with no mouthwashes, even without the placebo). Lack of sample size predetermination based on a priori power calculations. The difference between the regime of Persica with that of Ortho-Kin and placebo (which had similar application protocols) disallowed perfectly effective blinding of the patients (hence, single-blind). Fixed orthodontic treatment might disrupt gingival health. Antimicrobial mouthwashes might reverse this. Both evaluated mouthwashes might have therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2018 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring mouthwashes and dentifrices that are ingested cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring mouthwashes and dentifrices that are ingested cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good...

  3. Pediatric epstein-barr virus carriers with or without tonsillar enlargement may substantially contribute to spreading of the virus.

    PubMed

    Hug, Martina; Dorner, Marcus; Fröhlich, Franziska Zucol; Gysin, Claudine; Neuhaus, Diego; Nadal, David; Berger, Christoph

    2010-10-15

    Human-to-human transmission of the persistent infection establishing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) occurs via saliva. Tonsils act as important portal of entry and exit of EBV. The contagiousness of pediatric EBV carriers and the role played by tonsillar enlargement (TE) are not known. We compared EBV shedding in mouthwash samples from pediatric EBV carriers with or without TE to that in mouthwash samples from pediatric patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), the symptomatic form of primary infection if delayed after the age of 5 years. EBV DNA was quantified by polymerase chain reaction, and contagiousness was assessed using the cord lymphocyte transformation assay. EBV carriers with TE shed EBV DNA at an almost similar frequency (although in lower amounts) as pediatric patients with acute IM but more frequently (P <.001) and in higher amounts (P = .038) than EBV carriers without TE. EBV DNA levels in mouthwash samples from EBV carriers with TE mirrored levels in tonsils and gradually declined after tonsillectomy. Almost half of the mouthwash samples from pediatric EBV carriers contained infectious EBV. Pediatric EBV carriers--in particular, those with TE-may considerably contribute to the spreading of EBV in industrialized countries.

  4. Micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluoresence mapping of enamel and dental materials after chemical erosion.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sídnei; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-10-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence was employed to test the hypothesis that beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization will change the chemical properties of dental materials and enamel mineral content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 45) each received two cavity preparations (n = 90), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin; GIC: glass-ionomer cement; RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: saliva; E: erosion/Pepsi Twist®; or EM: erosion+mouthwash/Colgate Plax®). It was found that mineral loss in enamel was greater in GICE samples than in RE > RMGICE > RMGICEM > REM > GICEM. An increased percentage of Zr was found in REM indicating organic matrix degradation. Dental materials tested (R, GIC, and RMGIC) were not able to protect adjacent enamel from acid erosion by the soft drink tested. The use of mouthwash promoted protection of enamel after erosion by the soft drink. To avoid chemical dissolution by mouthwashes, protection by resin composites with surface sealants is recommended.

  5. Canker sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... most cases, the canker sores go away without treatment. Try not to eat hot or spicy foods, which can cause pain. Use over-the-counter medicines that ease pain in the area. Rinse your mouth with salt water or mild, over-the-counter mouthwashes. (DO NOT ...

  6. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Assessment Teams for First Responders in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional assessments versus more specialized thematic or sectional surveys • Formal, structured and often scientific assessments as...required output. Data collection issues - Observation. - Interviews. - Surveys . - Checklists. - Sampling. - Indicators and standards...Jacket Sleeping bag / pad Cash, $50 min, small bills/coins Poncho/rain suit Deodorant Toothbrush/paste Shampoo Mouthwash Dental floss Hand

  7. Using a Novel Sediment Exposure to Determine the Effects of Triclosan on Marine Benthic Communities (SETAC Europe)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol), is an emerging contaminant commonly used as an antimicrobial compound in many personal care products such as softsoap, detergent, toothpaste, mouthwash, and is infused in many consumer products, such as kitchen utensils, toys, b...

  8. Using a Novel Sediment Exposure to Determine the Effects of Triclosan on Marine Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol), is an emerging contaminant commonly used as an antimicrobial compound in many personal care products such as softsoap, detergent, toothpaste, mouthwash, and is infused in many consumer products, such as kitchen utensils, toys, b...

  9. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    PubMed Central

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method of mouth rinsing and classical method of Gandusha. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 40 patients, 20 in each Group-1 and 2. Group -1 was given prepared Triphaladi mouthwash (mouth rinse) while Group-2 was given Triphaladi Kwath for Gandusha (retention). Results: The effect of treatment was assessed by subjective and objective parameters (like salivary pH, buffering capacity and microbial count). Triphaladi Gandusha (retention) in Group - 2 provided better results in the improvement of Ruja (toothache), Dantaharsha (tooth sensitivity), Sarambha (inflammation), pH of saliva, microbial count in salivary sample. And Triphaladi Mouthwash in Group - 1 provided better results in Srava (discharge), bad breath, pH of saliva and buffering capacity of salivary sample. There was no improvement in Chidrata (cavity formation), Krishnata (discoloration) and Chaladanta (mobility) with Triphaladi Gandusha and mouthwash. Conclusion: Study concluded that although both groups were effective, but Gandusha group patients’ got better relief in subjective symptoms compared to mouthwash group. PMID:25364198

  10. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients.

    PubMed

    Atara, Achyuta G; Manjusha, R; Shukla, Vinay J; Vaghela, Dharmendra B; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- "caries as a disease" and "caries as a lesion". To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method of mouth rinsing and classical method of Gandusha. The study was conducted in 40 patients, 20 in each Group-1 and 2. Group -1 was given prepared Triphaladi mouthwash (mouth rinse) while Group-2 was given Triphaladi Kwath for Gandusha (retention). The effect of treatment was assessed by subjective and objective parameters (like salivary pH, buffering capacity and microbial count). Triphaladi Gandusha (retention) in Group - 2 provided better results in the improvement of Ruja (toothache), Dantaharsha (tooth sensitivity), Sarambha (inflammation), pH of saliva, microbial count in salivary sample. And Triphaladi Mouthwash in Group - 1 provided better results in Srava (discharge), bad breath, pH of saliva and buffering capacity of salivary sample. There was no improvement in Chidrata (cavity formation), Krishnata (discoloration) and Chaladanta (mobility) with Triphaladi Gandusha and mouthwash. Study concluded that although both groups were effective, but Gandusha group patients' got better relief in subjective symptoms compared to mouthwash group.

  11. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Nóbrega, Adhara Smith; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU). The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage). A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB), beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W), and artificial saliva (AS; control). The color change (DE) was evaluated before (baseline) and after thermocycling (T1), and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), 24 h (T4), 48 h (T5), and 96 h (T6). The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars.

    PubMed

    Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Cardoso, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; Akisue, Gokithi; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Santos Júnior, Paulo Villela

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

    PubMed Central

    FARIA, Raquel Lourdes; CARDOSO, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; AKISUE, Gokithi; PEREIRA, Cristiane Aparecida; JUNQUEIRA, Juliana Campos; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SANTOS JÚNIOR, Paulo Villela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Material and Methods Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). Results The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Conclusions Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate. PMID:21986652

  14. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure

    PubMed Central

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Materials and Methods: Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Conclusion: Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media. PMID:25709675

  15. The effects of acid erosion and remineralization on enamel and three different dental materials: FT-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Soares, Ana Lúcia Silva; De Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sidnei

    2016-07-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to test the hypothesis that the beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization would change the chemistry of dental materials and enamel inorganic content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 36) each received two cavity preparations (n = 72), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin, GIC: glass-ionomer cement, RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: artificial saliva, E: erosion/Pepsi Twist or EM: erosion + mouthwash/Colgate Plax). Reduction of carbonate content of enamel was greater in RE than RS (P < 0.01). Increment of carbonate was greater in GICEM than in GICE and GICS (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Significant material degradation was found in RE, REM, GICE, and GICEM than in RS and GICS (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). SEM showed clear enamel demineralization after erosion. Material degradation was greater after E and EM than S. GIC and RMGIC materials had a positive effect against acid erosion in the adjacent enamel after remineralization with mouthwash. The beverage and mouthwash utilization would change R and GIC chemical properties. A professional should periodically monitor the glass-ionomer and resin restorations, as they degrade over time under erosive challenges and mouthwash utilization. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:646-656, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ex vivo vs. in vivo antibacterial activity of two antiseptics on oral biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Prada-López, Isabel; Quintas, Víctor; Casares-De-Cal, Maria A.; Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan A.; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the immediate antibacterial effect of two application methods (passive immersion and active mouthwash) of two antiseptic solutions on the in situ oral biofilm. Material and Methods: A randomized observer-masked crossover study was conducted. Fifteen healthy volunteers wore a specific intraoral device for 48 h to form a biofilm in three glass disks. One of these disks was used as a baseline; another one was immersed in a solution of 0.2% Chlorhexidine (0.2% CHX), remaining the third in the device, placed in the oral cavity, during the 0.2% CHX mouthwash application. After a 2-weeks washout period, the protocol was repeated using a solution of Essential Oils (EO). Samples were analyzed for bacterial viability with the confocal laser scanning microscope after previous staining with LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™. Results: The EO showed a better antibacterial effect compared to the 0.2% CHX after the mouthwash application (% of bacterial viability = 1.16 ± 1.00% vs. 5.08 ± 5.79%, respectively), and was more effective in all layers (p < 0.05). In the immersion, both antiseptics were significantly less effective (% of bacterial viability = 26.93 ± 13.11%, EO vs. 15.17 ± 6.14%, 0.2% CHX); in the case of EO immersion, there were no significant changes in the bacterial viability of the deepest layer in comparison with the baseline. Conclusions: The method of application conditioned the antibacterial activity of the 0.2% CHX and EO solutions on the in situ oral biofilm. The in vivo active mouthwash was more effective than the ex vivo passive immersion in both antiseptic solutions. There was more penetration of the antiseptic inside the biofilm with an active mouthwash, especially with the EO. Trial registered in clinicaltrials.gov with the number NCT02267239. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02267239. PMID:26191050

  17. Basal and induced NO formation in the pharyngo-oral tract influences estimates of alveolar NO levels.

    PubMed

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Janson, Christer; Holm, Lena; Nordvall, Lennart; Alving, Kjell

    2009-02-01

    The present study analyzed how models currently used to distinguish alveolar from bronchial contribution to exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are affected by manipulation of NO formation in the pharyngo-oral tract. Exhaled NO was measured at multiple flow rates in 15 healthy subjects in two experiments: 1) measurements at baseline and 5 min after chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash and 2) measurements at baseline, 60 min after ingestion of 10 mg NaNO(3)/kg body wt, and 5 min after CHX mouthwash. Alveolar NO concentration (Calv(NO)) and bronchial flux (J'aw(NO)) were calculated by using the slope-intercept model with or without adjustment for trumpet shape of airways and axial diffusion (TMAD). Salivary nitrate and nitrite were measured in the second experiment. Calv(NO) [median (range)] was reduced from 1.16 ppb (0.77, 1.96) at baseline to 0.84 ppb (0.57, 1.48) 5 min after CHX mouthwash (P < 0.001). The TMAD-adjusted Calv(NO) value after CHX mouthwash was 0.50 ppb (0, 0.85). The nitrate load increased J'aw(NO) from 32.2 nl/min (12.2, 60.3) to 57.1 nl/min (22.0, 119) in all subjects and Calv(NO) from 1.47 ppb (0.73, 1.95) to 1.87 ppb (10.85, 7.20) in subjects with high nitrate turnover (>10-fold increase of salivary nitrite after nitrate load). CHX mouthwash reduced Calv(NO) levels to 1.15 ppb (0.72, 2.07) in these subjects with high nitrate turnover. All these results remained consistent after TMAD adjustment. We conclude that estimated alveolar NO concentration is affected by pharyngo-oral tract production of NO in healthy subjects, with a decrease after CHX mouthwash. Moreover, unknown ingestion of dietary nitrate could significantly increase estimated alveolar NO in subjects with high nitrate turnover, and this might be falsely interpreted as a sign of peripheral inflammation. These findings were robust for TMAD.

  18. Antibacterial effect of electrolyzed water on oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Bong-Kyu

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial effect of electrolyzed water on oral bacteria both in vitro and in vivo. Tap water was electrolyzed in a water vessel using platinum cell technology. The electrolyzed tap water (called Puri-water) was put in contact with five major periodontopathogens or toothbrushes contaminated with these bacteria for 30 sec. In addition, Puri-water was used as a mouthwash for 30 sec in 16 subjects and the antibacterial effect on salivary bacteria was evaluated. Puri-water significantly reduced the growth of all periodontopathogens in culture and on toothbrushes, and that of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in saliva, when compared to the effect of tap water. It also significantly reduced mutans streptococci growing on mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar. Our results demonstrate that the electrolyzed tap water is effective as a mouthwash and for toothbrush disinfection.

  19. The fraction of NO in exhaled air and estimates of alveolar NO in adolescents with asthma: methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Heijkenskjöld-Rentzhog, Charlotte; Alving, Kjell; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Lundberg, Jon O; Nordvall, Lennart; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the oral contribution to exhaled NO in young people with asthma and its potential effects on estimated alveolar NO (Calv(NO) ), a proposed marker of inflammation in peripheral airways. Secondary aims were to investigate the effects of various exhalation flow-rates and the feasibility of different proposed adjustments of (Calv(NO) ) for trumpet model and axial diffusion (TMAD). Exhaled NO at flow rates of 50-300 ml/sec, and salivary nitrite was measured before and after antibacterial mouthwash in 29 healthy young people (10-20 years) and 29 with asthma (10-19 years). Calv(NO) was calculated using the slope-intercept model with and without TMAD adjustment. Exhaled NO at 50 ml/sec decreased significantly after mouthwash, to a similar degree in asthmatic and healthy subjects (8.8% vs. 9.8%, P = 0.49). The two groups had similar salivary nitrite levels (56.4 vs. 78.4 µM, P = 0.25). Calv(NO) was not significantly decreased by mouthwash. Calv(NO) levels were similar when flow-rates between 50-200 or 100-300 ml/sec were used (P = 0.34 in asthmatics and P = 0.90 in healthy subjects). A positive association was found between bronchial and alveolar NO in asthmatic subjects and this disappeared after the TMAD-adjustment. Negative TMAD-adjusted Calv(NO) values were found in a minority of the subjects. Young people with and without asthma have similar salivary nitrite levels and oral contributions to exhaled NO and therefore no antibacterial mouthwash is necessary in routine use. TMAD corrections of alveolar NO could be successfully applied in young people with asthma and yielded negative results only in a minority of subjects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Oral bacteria--the missing link to ambiguous findings of exhaled nitrogen oxides in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zetterquist, Wilhelm; Marteus, Helena; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Näs, Elisabeth; Nordvall, Lennart; Johannesson, Marie; Alving, Kjell

    2009-02-01

    Nitrite in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been shown to be elevated in cystic fibrosis (CF), while exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is paradoxically low. This has been argued to reflect increased metabolism of NO while its diffusion is obstructed by mucus. However, we wanted to study the possible influence of salivary nitrite and bacterial nitrate reduction on these parameters in CF patients by the intervention of an anti-bacterial mouthwash. EBC and saliva were collected from 15 CF patients (10-43 years) and 15 controls (9-44 years) before and 5 min after a 30s chlorhexidine mouthwash, in parallel with measurements of FENO. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations were measured fluorometrically. EBC nitrite, but not nitrate, was significantly higher in the CF patients (median 3.6 vs 1.3 microM in controls, p<0.05) and decreased after mouthwash in both groups (3.6-1.4 microM, p<0.01; 1.3-0.5 microM, p<0.01). Salivary nitrite correlated significantly to EBC nitrite (r=0.60, p<0.001) and decreased correspondingly after chlorhexidine, whereas salivary nitrate increased. FENO was lower in CF and the difference between patients and controls was accentuated after mouthwash (5.4 vs 8.4 ppb in controls, p<0.05). EBC nitrite mainly originates in the pharyngo-oral tract and its increase in CF is possibly explained by a regional change in bacterial activity. The limited lower airway contribution supports the view of a genuinely impaired formation and metabolism of NO in CF, rather than poor diffusion of the molecule.

  1. Current therapies for xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction associated with cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Nieuw Amerongen, A V; Veerman, E C I

    2003-04-01

    In cancer patients, as in the general population, medication is the most common cause of xerostomia. In general, saliva flow in these patients can be stimulated by mechanical or pharmacological stimulation of the salivary glands. Painful damaged oral mucosa can be treated by softening, lubricating mouthwashes or gels. A specific group of patients are those receiving radiotherapy for malignant tumours in the head and neck region. This treatment is inevitably associated with damages to the oral tissues, including the salivary glands, resulting in salivary gland hypofunction. When residual secretory capacity is present, it is advisable to stimulate the salivary glands by mechanical or gustatory stimuli regularly in these patients as supportive oral care. Alternatively, salivary flow can be stimulated by the use of cholinergic pharmaceutical preparations, such as pilocarpine or cevimeline. After the radiation therapy is ended, a dental check-up should be done every 3 months to allow control of any incipient oral inflammation and dental decay. For daily use, a special dentifrice (e.g. children's toothpaste) is recommended, since the taste of a regular dentifrice may be too strong for these patients. Nocturnal oral dryness can be alleviated by spraying the oral surfaces with water, or by applying a small amount of dentifrice on the dental smooth surfaces. When stimulation of salivary secretion fails, patients can be given palliative oral care in the form of application of mouthwashes and saliva substitutes. The daily use of a mouthwash, e.g. Biotène, Oral Balance or Zendium, or one of the saliva substitutes is indicated. Different types of saliva substitutes are now commercially available, containing different polymers as thickening agents, e.g. carboxymethylcellulose (Oralube and Glandosane), polyacrylic acid, and xanthan gum (Xialine). Recent developments, which are, however, still in the experimental stage, are bio-active saliva substitutes and mouthwashes containing

  2. The Bacterial Flora of Incipient Occlusal Lesions in Naval Recruits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    fluoridation of water and dental caries experiences. Int. Dent. J. 17:582-665, 1967. 15. Koch, G. Effect of sodium fluoride in dentifrice and mouthwash on...WIRTHLIN, JR. Captain, DC, USN Commanding Officer Dental caries is a bacterial disease in which the prime etiological agent(s) responsible for its...that dental caries occurs more frequently in occlusal fissures rather than on smooth surfaces, which have up to now received the major share of study

  3. Willingness to change behaviours to reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea transmission and acquisition in men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric Pf; Walker, Sandra; Phillips, Tiffany; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM) to change their behaviours to potentially reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea transmission and acquisition. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, between March and September 2015. Participants were asked how likely they would change their behaviours to reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Six different potential preventive interventions were asked: (1) stop tongue kissing; (2) stop having receptive oral sex; (3) stop performing rimming; (4) stop using saliva as a lubricant during anal sex; (5) use of condoms during oral sex; and (6) use of alcohol-containing mouthwash daily. Of the 926 MSM who completed the questionnaire, 65.4% (95% CI 62.3% to 68.5%) expressed they were likely to use mouthwash daily to reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea, 63.0% (95% CI 59.8% to 66.1%) would stop using saliva as a lubricant, and 49.5% (95% CI 46.2% to 52.7%) would stop rimming. In contrast, 77.6% (95% CI 74.8% to 80.3%) of MSM expressed they were unlikely to stop tongue kissing. MSM who were younger and had less male partners expressed they were unlikely to use mouthwash daily as an intervention to reduce risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea acquisition. The practices MSM are willing to change to reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea transmission and acquisition vary greatly; however, the majority of men are likely to use mouthwash daily to reduce the risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The Definition of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)’s Role in HTLV-III Infected USAF Personnel as Related to Disease Progression.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-27

    individuals and patients with acute EBV infectious mononucleosis . Of 124 mouthwash specimens from III patients, 33% were positive for EBV DNA with...controls and persons with acute EBV infectious mononucleosis , including those with oropharyngeal ERV detected by the bioassay. By the quantitative...oropharyngeal secretions compared to patients with acute infectious " mononucleosis (Table 5). EBV genotyping findings. Southern analysis using the Epstein-Barr

  5. Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on Streptococcus mutans Count: A Randomised Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Mamta; Roshni, Roshni; Reddy, Pallavi; Mehra, Neha; Jain, Vallari; Rana, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mouth rinses have been popularly used as a supplementary oral hygiene aid. A lot of commercially available mouth rinses possess few adverse effects, which has necessitated the search for alternative and herbal mouth rinses. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rinsing with green coffee bean extract in comparison with chlorhexidine mouthwash and sterile water on salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and Methods A randomized parallel controlled clinical trial was planned and 45 subjects aged between 18-22 years were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups (n=15 in each group): Group A: Study group: 2% Green coffee bean extract, Group B: Positive control: 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), Group C: Negative control: Sterile water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml of 2% Green coffee bean extract for one minute. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml 0.2% CHX mouthwash for one minute. Group C subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml of Sterile water for one minute twice daily for two weeks. Baseline samples (Pre rinse) were collected on day 1 and post rinsing saliva samples were collected after 14 days. The samples were cultured using Mitis Salivarius Agar enriched with Bacitracin and colonies were counted using a hand held digital colony counter. The statistical analysis was done using paired t-test, One-way variance ANOVA and Post-Hoc tests. Results The Green coffee bean extract group showed a statistical significant reduction in Streptococcus mutans colony count before and after intervention which was comparable with CHX group. Conclusion Green coffee bean extract as a mouthwash can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to CHX mouthwash. PMID:28658911

  6. Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, Neha; Chatterjee, Anirban; Goyal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. It is widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing, as an analgesic, and for its anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included in the study. They were divided into three groups with fifteen patients in each group. Group 1 was asked to rinse with 10 ml of aloe vera mouthwash twice daily for three months. Group 2 were treated with scaling only. Group 3 patients were asked to rinse with aloe vera mouthwash and scaling was done. The clinical changes were evaluated with Loe and Silness gingival index (1963) and Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) at baseline, after one month and three months, respectively. Results: The data obtained was compared statistically. The paired ‘t’ test was done for intragroup comparison and one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison. The data was obtained at the baseline, end of first month, and end of the third month. The result suggested reduction in gingival inflammation in all the three groups, but it was more in the aloe vera mouthwash and scaling group. Hence, it was concluded that aloe vera had a significant anti-inflammatory property. Thus, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for treating plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:24174720

  7. SciT

    Yen, Sang-Hue; Wang, Ling-Wei; National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

    Purpose: Deleterious oral mucositis (OM) develops during radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients. There are currently no effective cytoprotective treatments for OM without a potential risk of tumor protection. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study aimed to determine the therapeutic safety and efficacy of phenylbutyrate (an antitumor histone deacetylase inhibitor and chemical chaperone) 5% mouthwash for treating OM caused by cancer therapy. Methods and Materials: Between September 2005 and June 2006, 36 HNC patients were randomized to standard oral care plus 5 mL of either phenylbutyrate 5% mouthwash (n = 17) or placebo (mouthwash vehicle, n =more » 19) taken four times daily (swish and spit). Treatment began when mild mucositis (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1) occurred, and ended 4 weeks after RT completion. Safety and efficacy were based on adverse events, physical examination, laboratory determinations, vital signs, Oral Mucosa Assessment Scale (OMAS) and World Health Organization scores, the ability to eat, body weight change, local control, and survival. Results: We found no severe drug-related side effect. At RT doses of 5500-7500 cGy, phenylbutyrate significantly mitigated the severity of mucositis compared with placebo, based on both the WHO score (severity {>=} 3; p = 0.0262) and the OMAS scale (ulceration score {>=} 2; p = 0.0049). The Kaplan-Meier estimates for 2- and 3-year local control, and overall survival were 100% and 80.8%, and 78.6% and 64.3%, respectively, in the phenylbutyrate group and 74.2% and 74.2%, and 57.4% and 50.2%, respectively, in the placebo group. Conclusions: This pilot trial suggested that phenylbutyrate mouthwash significantly decreased the impact of OM in HNC patients receiving RT or chemoradiotherapy and did not confront the tumor control. Larger Phase II randomized trials are needed to confirm these results.« less

  8. Pretreatment oral hygiene habits and survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Juliane; Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Kathrin; Heibeck, Mathias; Günther, Frauke; Pflueger, Maren; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Behrens, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Nimzyk, Rolf; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2016-03-11

    The survival time of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is related to health behavior, such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Poor oral health (OH), dental care (DC) and the frequent use of mouthwash have been shown to represent independent risk factors for head and neck cancerogenesis, but their impact on the survival of HNSCC patients has not been systematically investigated. Two hundred seventy-six incident HNSCC cases recruited for the ARCAGE study were followed through a period of 6-10 years. Interview-based information on wearing of dentures, gum bleeding, teeth brushing, use of floss and dentist visits were grouped into weighted composite scores, i.e. oral health (OH) and dental care (DH). Use of mouthwash was assessed as frequency per day. Also obtained were other types of health behavior, such as smoking, alcohol drinking and diet, appreciated as both confounding and study variables. Endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival and tumor-specific survival. Prognostic values were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models. A good dental care score, summarizing annual dental visits, daily teeth cleaning and use of floss was associated with longer overall survival time (p = .001). The results of the Cox regression models similarly suggested a higher risk of tumor progression and shortened overall survival in patients with poor dental care, but the results lost their statistical significance after other types of health behavior had been controlled for. Frequent use of mouthwash (≥ 2 times/day) significantly increased the risk of tumor-specific death (HR = 2.26; CI = 1.19-4.32). Alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were dose-dependently associated with tumor progression and shorter overall survival. Frequent mouthwash use of ≥ 2 times/day seems to elevate the risk of tumor-specific death in HNSCC patients. Good dental care scores are associated with longer overall

  9. Efficacy of Chlorhexidine, Xylitol, and Chlorhexidine + Xylitol against Dental Plaque, Gingivitis, and Salivary Streptococcus mutans Load: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Taneja, Pratibha; Nagpal, Ruchi; Marya, Vandana; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Arora, Dimple

    To compare the antiplaque, antigingivitis and antibacterial efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX), XYL and a mouthwash combining CHX and XYL against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). A parallel design, randomised controlled trial was conducted among 75 dental students. Participants were randomised into CHX, CHX+XYL and XYL-only groups using the lottery method. Subjects were instructed to use 10 ml of the provided mouthwash for 15 s twice daily for 3 weeks. All the outcome measures, gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and number of salivary S. mutans CFU were recorded at baseline and 3 weeks post intervention. Nonparametric tests were used for inferential statistics. All outcome variables (GI, PI scores and log10 salivary S. mutans counts) decreased significantly from baseline compared to post intervention among all three groups. Intergroup comparison demonstrated that reduction in GI was not significantly different among the three groups. The decrease in PI scores was found to be significantly higher in the XYL group, while the decrease in the log10 salivary S. mutans count was significantly higher in the CHX+XYL group. The present study provided sufficient data to suggest that all the three mouthwashes are effective against plaque, gingivitis and S. mutans load in saliva. Further investigations should be carried out to confirm the results and develop strategies for using such products to prevent tooth decay.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy and roughness study of dental composite degradation.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Cortez, Louise Ribeiro; Zarur, Raquel de Oliveira; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the use of mouthwashes, consumption of soft drinks, as well as the type of light curing unit (LCU), would change the surface roughness (Ra) and morphology of a nanofilled composite resin (Z350® 3M ESPE). Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: Halogen LCU, group 1, saliva (control); group 2, Pepsi Twist®; group 3, Listerine®; group 4, Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, group 5, saliva; group 6, Pepsi Twist®; group 7, Listerine®; group 8, Colgate Plax®. Ra values were measured at baseline, and after 7 and 14 days. One specimen of each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis after 14 days. The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post-hoc test. All the treatments resulted in morphological changes in composite resin surface, and the most significant change was in Pepsi Twist® groups. The samples of G6 had the greatest increase in Ra. The immersion of nanofilled resin in mouthwashes with alcohol and soft drink increases the surface roughness. Polymerization by halogen LCU (reduced light intensity) associated with alcohol contained mouthwash resulted in significant roughness on the composite.

  11. Extent and quality of systematic review evidence related to minimum intervention in dentistry: essential oils, powered toothbrushes, triclosan, xylitol.

    PubMed

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2011-08-01

    To investigate extent and quality of current systematic review evidence regarding: powered toothbrushes, triclosan toothpaste, essential oil mouthwashes, xylitol chewing gum. Five databases were searched for systematic reviews until 13 November 2010. relevant to topic, systematic review according to title and/or abstract, published in English. Article exclusion criteria were based on QUOROM recommendations for the reporting of systematic review methods. Systematic review quality was judged using the AMSTAR tool. All trials included by reviews were assessed for selection bias. 119 articles were found, of which 11 systematic reviews were included. Of these, six were excluded and five accepted: one for triclosan toothpaste; one for xylitol chewing gum; two for powered toothbrushes; one for essential oil mouthwashes. AMSTAR scores: triclosan toothpaste 7; powered toothbrushes 9 and 11; xylitol chewing gum 9; essential oil mouthwashes 8. In total, 75 (out of 76) reviewed trials were identified. In-depth assessment showed a high risk of selection bias for all trials. The extent of available systematic review evidence is low. Although the few identified systematic reviews could be rated as of medium and high quality, the validity of their conclusions needs to be treated with caution, owing to high risk of selection bias in the reviewed trials. High quality randomised control trials are needed in order to provide convincing evidence regarding true clinical efficacy. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  12. Cyclosporine: a novel therapeutic approach for Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saraceno, Rosita; Lorè, Bruno; Pavlidis, Athanasios; Karaiskou, Maria; Arcuri, Claudio; Chimenti, Sergio; Magnato, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical cyclosporine applied as mouthwash in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This was a prospective and pilot study conducted by the Department of Dermatology of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. Patients were treated with cyclosporine topically applied as mouthwash for 4 weeks. Clinical improvement was assessed using a 5 grade clinical evaluation scale and a visual analogue scale from 0 to 10 was also used to evaluate the burning symptoms. Fifteen patients between 22-85 years (61.1±19.3), 11 female and 4 male, with a mean duration of BMS of 12.5 months, completed the study. Five out of 15 patients presented a marked improvement, 6 patients showed a moderate response, 3 patients had a slight improvement and 1 patient did not show any change. The VAS showed a reduction from 8.7 to 3.5. Adverse events were not reported. Cyclosporine mouthwash appeared to be safe and beneficial for reducing the burning sensation in patients with BMS representing an alternative therapy in this condition.

  13. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez y Mostajo, Mercedes; van der Reijden, Wil A.; Buijs, Mark J.; Beertsen, Wouter; van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2014-01-01

    Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX), has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. Material and methods: In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at 1 month before the experiment (Pre-exp), at the start of the experiment (Baseline) and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp). During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results: AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193), nor did the microbial composition of plaque. During a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31) at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39) Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after 1 week of rinsing deserves further research

  14. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  15. Measurements of chlorhexidine, p-chloroaniline, and p-chloronitrobenzene in saliva after mouth wash before and after operation with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate in maxillofacial surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Below, H; Assadian, O; Baguhl, R; Hildebrandt, U; Jäger, B; Meissner, K; Leaper, D J; Kramer, A

    2017-02-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is used to prevent the accumulation of dental plaque and gingivitis, infection of the surgical site, and ventilator-associated pneumonia in maxillofacial surgery, but it is not clear whether the metabolites of chlorhexidine are detectable in the patient's saliva at clinically relevant concentrations. Forty-three patients who had orofacial operations were randomised to use a 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (n=23), or an octenidine-based, chlorhexidine-free (n=20), mouthwash once preoperatively and three times daily for five postoperative days. After the first, 8.7 (23.3) mg/L chlorhexidine (0.7%-2.5% of the total amount used) was measured in saliva. The concentration increased to 15.2 (6.2) mg/L after the second rinse (first postoperative day), and peaked at 29.4 (11.2) mg/L on the fourth postoperative day. It remained detectable for up to 12hours after the last one, but was not detectable in serum or urine at any time. The potentially carcinogenic metabolite p-chloroaniline was detectable in saliva at higher concentrations in the chlorhexidine group (0.55mg/L) than the octenidine group (0.21mg/L), and p-chloronitrobenzene was detected in both groups in only minimal concentrations (0.001-0.21mg/L). Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwashes do increase the concentration of p-chloroaniline, but a single use seems to be safe. Whether prolonged exposure over many years may have carcinogenic potential is still not clear. Based on the hitherto unknown kinetics of p-chloroaniline in saliva, the recent recommendation of the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA to limit the use of a chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash to a maximum of six months seems to be justified. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect. PMID:23497687

  17. Pharyngeal Gonorrhoea: The Willingness of Australian Men Who Have Sex with Men to Change Current Sexual Practices to Reduce Their Risk of Transmission—A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellhouse, Clare; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bilardi, Jade E.; Chow, Eric P. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The pharynx is a common site of gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men (MSM) and may serve as a reservoir for infection, with saliva implicated in transmission possibly through oral sex, kissing, and rimming. Reducing sexual activities involving saliva may reduce pharyngeal gonorrhoea. This study aimed to explore MSM’s views and knowledge of pharyngeal gonorrhoea and their willingness to change saliva transmitting sexual practices. MSM were also asked their views on using alcohol-containing mouthwash to potentially reduce transmission. Methods Using a qualitative descriptive approach, 30 MSM who were part of a larger study (GONE) conducted at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre agreed to take part in semi-structured interviews between 14th May and 8th September 2015. The 10 interviews conducted face to face and 20 by telephone, lasted between 20–45 minutes. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Most men considered pharyngeal gonorrhoea to be a non-serious sexually transmitted infection and attributed transmission primarily to oral sex. Almost all men reported they would not stop kissing, oral sex, or consider using condoms for oral sex to reduce their risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Kissing and oral sex were commonly practised and considered enjoyable low risk sexual activities. Men were more likely to consider stopping sexual activities they did not enjoy or practice often, in particular insertive rimming. If proven effective, the majority of men reported they would use alcohol-containing mouthwash to reduce or prevent their risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest MSM are unlikely to stop saliva transmitting sexual practices they enjoy and consider low risk. Men would, however, consider using alcohol-containing mouthwash if found to be effective, highlighting the importance of exploring innovative strategies to reduce pharyngeal gonorrhoea. PMID:27992427

  18. Treatment of oral malodour. Medium-term efficacy of mechanical and/or chemical agents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Slot, Dagmar E; De Geest, Sophie; van der Weijden, Fridus A; Quirynen, Marc

    2015-04-01

    What is the effect of a dentifrice (DF), a mouthwash (MW), tongue cleaning (TC), or any combination of these as adjunct to toothbrushing on intra-oral malodour and tongue coating as compared to toothbrushing alone in systemically healthy patients, when used for a minimum follow-up period of 2 weeks? The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to August 2014. Measurements of Volatile Sulphur Compounds and organoleptic scores of oral malodour were selected as outcome variables. Data were extracted and a descriptive analysis was performed. Independent screening of 1054 unique papers resulted in 12 eligible clinical trials with a medium-term (≥2 weeks) duration. The majority of studies provided a significant reduction in oral malodour when evaluating products with an active ingredient (incorporated into a DF or a MW) used adjunctively to toothbrushing. The added value of tongue cleaning over a MW was evaluated in one study. Due to very limited evidence, the potential effect of a specifically formulated dentifrice, a mouthwash or a tongue scraper for treating oral malodour is, in general, unclear. For mouthwashes containing the active ingredients chlorhexidine + cetylpyridinium chloride + zinc (CHX + CPC + Zn) and zinc chloride + cetylpyridinium chloride (ZnCl + CPC) most evidence was available. The strength of a recommendation to use these products was graded to be 'weak'. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pharyngeal Gonorrhoea: The Willingness of Australian Men Who Have Sex with Men to Change Current Sexual Practices to Reduce Their Risk of Transmission-A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sandra; Bellhouse, Clare; Fairley, Christopher K; Bilardi, Jade E; Chow, Eric P F

    2016-01-01

    The pharynx is a common site of gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men (MSM) and may serve as a reservoir for infection, with saliva implicated in transmission possibly through oral sex, kissing, and rimming. Reducing sexual activities involving saliva may reduce pharyngeal gonorrhoea. This study aimed to explore MSM's views and knowledge of pharyngeal gonorrhoea and their willingness to change saliva transmitting sexual practices. MSM were also asked their views on using alcohol-containing mouthwash to potentially reduce transmission. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, 30 MSM who were part of a larger study (GONE) conducted at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre agreed to take part in semi-structured interviews between 14th May and 8th September 2015. The 10 interviews conducted face to face and 20 by telephone, lasted between 20-45 minutes. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Most men considered pharyngeal gonorrhoea to be a non-serious sexually transmitted infection and attributed transmission primarily to oral sex. Almost all men reported they would not stop kissing, oral sex, or consider using condoms for oral sex to reduce their risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Kissing and oral sex were commonly practised and considered enjoyable low risk sexual activities. Men were more likely to consider stopping sexual activities they did not enjoy or practice often, in particular insertive rimming. If proven effective, the majority of men reported they would use alcohol-containing mouthwash to reduce or prevent their risk of pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Findings from this study suggest MSM are unlikely to stop saliva transmitting sexual practices they enjoy and consider low risk. Men would, however, consider using alcohol-containing mouthwash if found to be effective, highlighting the importance of exploring innovative strategies to reduce pharyngeal gonorrhoea.

  20. Effectiveness of fluoride sealant in the prevention of carious lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Mariana de Jesus; de Souza, Camilla Andrade; Leão, Jorge César Borges; Braz, Ana Karla Souza; de Araujo, Renato Evangelista; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article aimed to evaluate in vitro the efficiency of Pro Seal fluoride sealant application in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of bovine incisors, and five groups were formed (n = 15) according to the exposure of teeth to oral hygiene substances and the application of enamel sealant: G1 (control), only brushing was performed with 1.450 ppm fluoride; G2 (control) brushing associated with the use of mouthwash with 225 ppm fluoride; G3, only Pro Seal sealant application was performed with 1.000 ppm fluoride; G4 Pro Seal associated with brushing; G5 Pro Seal associated with brushing and mouthwash. Experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described. All specimens were kept at a temperature of 37 °C throughout the entire experiment. Both brushing and immersion in solutions were performed within a time interval of one minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days. Afterwards, an evaluation by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of the spectral type was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the sites where brackets were bonded) and depth measurement of carious lesions were performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine whether there were significant differences among groups. For post hoc analysis, Tukey test was used. Results: There was statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.003), 1 and 3 (p = 0.008), 1 and 4 (p = 0.000) and 1 and 5 (p = 0.000). The group in which only brushing was performed (Group 1) showed deeper enamel lesion. Conclusion: Pro Seal sealant alone or combined with brushing and/or brushing and the use of a mouthwash with fluoride was more effective in protecting enamel, in comparison to brushing alone. PMID:26691968

  1. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Babaee, Neda; Moslemi, Dariush; Khalilpour, Mohammad; Vejdani, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Bijani, Ali; Baradaran, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2013-03-07

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30-35 fractions within 4-7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  2. Use of Curcumin Mouthrinse in Radio-Chemotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis Patients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V; Kulkarni, P K; Keshari, Deepika; Tayal, Srishti

    2015-08-01

    Oral Mucositis is a complex and distinct pathobiologic entity resulting in injuries in mucosa that is a common complication in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT). Phytochemicals, such as Curcumin, turmeric extract, has attracted great attention for its therapeutic benefits in clinical oncology due to its chemopreventive, antitumoral, chemosensibilizing and radiosensibilizing activities against various types of cancers and the complications associated with their management. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of curcumin mouthwash in the management of Oral Mucositis in cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy. The research group consisted of 20 adult cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy at the Regional Oncology Centre, who were evaluated for signs and symptoms of oral mucositis and then randomly divided into two groups. Standard preventive oral care i.e. chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.2% was given to one group while the other group was provided with freshly prepared curcumin mouthwash; each to be used thrice daily. Oral mucositis was assessed at days 0, 10 and 20. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale, the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS), and a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS; patient reporting scale of 0-10) were used. Adverse events were tracked. Descriptive statistics, Independent sample t-test and repeated measure ANOVA test were performed. Statistically significant difference was found in the NRS (p=0.000), Erythema (p=0.050), ulceration (p=0.000) and WHO scores (p=0.003) between the two groups. Curcumin was found to be better than chlorhexidine mouth wash in terms of rapid wound healing and better patient compliance in management of radio-chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. No oral or systemic complications were reported.

  3. Development and validation of procedures for assessment of competency of non-pharmacists in extemporaneous dispensing.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ryan F; McNally, Martin J; Barry, Johanne G

    2009-02-01

    To develop and validate procedures that may be suitable for assessment of competency of two groups of non-pharmacist staff (pharmacy students and trainee support staff) in extemporaneous dispensing. This is important given the prospect of remote supervision of community pharmacies in the UK. Analytical methods were validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation specifications and procedures were optimized to allow efficient drug extraction. This permitted straightforward determination of drug content in extemporaneously prepared lidocaine hydrochloride mouthwashes and norfloxacin creams and suspensions prepared by 10 participants recruited to represent the two groups of non-pharmacist staff. All 10 participants had completed the extemporaneous dispensing of all three products within 90 min. Extraction and analysis took approximately 15 min for each lidocaine hydrochloride mouthwash and 30 min for each diluted norfloxacin cream and norfloxacin suspension. The mean drug concentrations in lidocaine hydrochloride mouthwashes and diluted norfloxacin creams were within what are generally accepted as being pharmaceutically acceptable limits for drug content (100 +/- 5%) for both groups of participants. There was no significant difference in the mean drug concentration of norfloxacin suspensions prepared by the participant groups. However, it was notable that only one participant prepared a suspension containing a norfloxacin concentration that was within pharmaceutically acceptable limits (101.51%). A laboratory possessing suitable equipment and appropriately trained staff could cope readily with the large number of products prepared, for example, by a cohort of pre-registration students. Consequently, the validated procedures developed here could usefully be incorporated into the pre-registration examination for pharmacy students and a final qualifying examination for dispensers and pharmacy technicians. We believe that this is essential if the public

  4. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Fernandez y Mostajo, Mercedes; van der Reijden, Wil A; Buijs, Mark J; Beertsen, Wouter; Van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2014-01-01

    Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX), has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at 1 month before the experiment (Pre-exp), at the start of the experiment (Baseline) and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp). During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193), nor did the microbial composition of plaque. During a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31) at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39) Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001). AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after 1 week of rinsing deserves further research.

  5. Antiplaque Effect of Essential Oils and 0.2% Chlorhexidine on an In Situ Model of Oral Biofilm Growth: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in situ antiplaque effect after 4 days of using of 2 commercial antimicrobial agents in short term on undisturbed plaque-like biofilm. Trial Design and Participants An observer-masked, crossover randomised clinical trial on 15 oral and systemically healthy volunteers between 20–30 years who were randomly and sequentially allocated in the same group which performed 3 interventions in different randomised sequences. Intervention The participants wore an appliance in 3 different rinsing periods doing mouthwashes twice a day (1/0/1) with essential oils, 0.2% chlorhexidine or sterile water (negative control). At the end of each 4-day mouthwash period, samples were removed from the appliance. Posteriorly, after bacterial vital staining, samples were analysed using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Main Outcome Measures Bacterial vitality, thickness and covering grade by the biofilm after 4 days of applying each of the mouthwashes. Results The essential oils and the 0.2% chlorhexidine were significantly more effective than the sterile water at reducing bacterial vitality, thickness and covering grade by the biofilm. No significant differences were found between the 0.2% chlorhexidine and the essential oils at reducing the bacterial vitality (13.2% vs. 14.7%). However, the 0.2% chlorhexidine showed more reduction than the essential oils in thickness (6.5 μm vs. 10.0 μm; p<0.05) and covering grade by the biofilm (20.0% vs. 54.3%; p<0.001). Conclusion The essential oils and 0.2% chlorhexidine showed a high antiplaque effect. Although the 0.2% chlorhexidine showed better results with regard to reducing the thickness and covering grade by the biofilm, both antiseptics showed a high and similar antibacterial activity. Clinical Relevance Daily essential oils or 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes are effective when reducing dental plaque formation in the short term. Although 0.2% chlorhexidine continues to be the “gold standard” in terms of

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on Mechanical Properties of Nickel Titanium Wires using Scanning Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay K; Shukla, Gita; Sharma, Poonam; Gupta, Amit K; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Deepika

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontic treatment these days is increasing in demand, and therefore, it is relatively imperative for the orthodontist to prescribe the use of fluoride-containing products, such as mouthwashes and gels, to help prevent dental caries and maintain healthy oral health. The aim of the study was to assess and evaluate the effects of fluoride prophylactic agents on mechanical properties of nickel titanium (NiTi) wires during orthodontic treatment using scanning electron microscope (SEM). We used the commercially available round preformed NiTi orthodontic archwire (3M company) and three different mouthwash solutions, i.e., Phos-Flur gel (1.1% sodium acidulated phosphate fluoride, APF, 0.5% w/v fluoride, pH = 5.1; Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals) and Prevident 5000 (1.1% sodium fluoride neutral agent, 0.5% w/v fluoride, pH = 7; Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals). All the specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test on a universal testing machine. To observe the surface morphological changes, one wire from each group was randomly selected and observed under a SEM. It was observed that there was not much difference in the values of both modulus of elasticity and yield strength obtained after loading of stress on the wires in all the three experimental conditions. A significant difference in both modulus of elasticity and yield strength was observed during unloading of stress. Further, when the surface characteristics were observed for all the specimens using SEM images, it was observed that NiTi wires treated with Phos-Flur showed large surface defects which appeared as round, pitted areas depicting corrosion, numerous white inclusions, and overall damaged surface structure of the wire as compared with the control. Thus, fluoridated mouthwashes are essential to maintain good oral hygiene and decrease instance of caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The prophylactic usage of topical fluoride agents on NiTi wire seems to diminish the mechanical properties

  7. Randomized clinical trial of two oral care regimens in reducing and controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Farid; Mateo, Luis R; Dillon, Rensi; Miller, Jeffrey M; Pilch, Shira; Stewart, Bernal

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a test regimen (TR) integrating the use of a commercially available triclosan, PVM/MA copolymer, and sodium fluoride containing toothpaste, an alcohol-free, fluoride-free cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash, and a manual toothbrush with cheek and tongue cleaner compared to a negative control regimen (NCR) integrating a commercially available 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste, a manual toothbrush and a fluoride-free and alcohol-free non-antibacterial mouthwash in the reduction and control of established plaque and gingivitis after 4 weeks of product use. A 4-week, two-cell, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical study was conducted in Cedar Knolls, New Jersey, USA. Recruited subjects were randomly assigned to two regimens: (1) a commercially available toothpaste containing triclosan, PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride, a manual toothbrush with cheek and tongue cleaner, and commercially available mouthwash containing 0.075% CPC in a fluoride-free and alcohol-free base (TR), or (2) a commercially available 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste, a manual toothbrush with rounded/polished bristles, and a fluoride-free and alcohol-free non-antibacterial mouthwash (NCR). Subjects were examined for dental plaque and gingivitis. Gingival, Gingival Severity, Gingival Interproximal, Plaque, Plaque Severity and Plaque Interproximal Index scores were calculated. For regimen comparison, independent t-test and ANCOVA analyses were performed. 130 subjects were screened; 120 enrolled; and 115 subjects completed the randomized clinical trial (RCT). After 4 weeks of product use, subjects using TR exhibited statistically significant (P < 0.001) reductions of 22.3%, 27.8% and 20.4% in mean Gingival, Gingival Severity and Gingival Interproximal Index scores, respectively, as compared to subjects using NCR. After 4 weeks of product use, subjects using TR exhibited statistically significant (P < 0.001) reductions of 28

  8. Discussion Material for Small Unit Leaders: Issues of Garrison Ethics and Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Fraud………………………....8 Case 4. Surrogate Parenting; Honor; Fraud……………………………..10 Case 5. Alcohol Use /Abuse; Sexual Harassment…………………………12 Case 6...Manual. 11 Case 5. Alcohol use /abuse; Sexual Harassment You are an instructor at a SNCO academy. You work with another...his eyes are often glassy and he keeps a large bottle of mouthwash in his desk. Several times, when working late, he was giddy and his breath smelled

  9. Tongue erosions and diet cola.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2007-04-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of painful ulcerations on her tongue. She reported that she drank large quantities of diet cola and some orange juice daily and that she used cinnamon-flavored toothpaste and mouthwash nightly. Patch testing elicited positive reactions to balsam of Peru (a fragrance as well as a flavoring agent put in cola drinks that cross-reacts with orange juice) and cinnamic aldehyde. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis. She was put on a restricted diet and a fragrance-free regimen, and her condition resolved.

  10. Microbiological Assessment of Moringa Oleifera Extracts and Its Incorporation in Novel Dental Remedies against Some Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Elgamily, Hanaa; Moussa, Amani; Elboraey, Asmaa; EL-Sayed, Hoda; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Abdalla, Aboelfetoh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of different parts of Moringa oleifera plant using different extraction methods in attempts to formulate natural dental remedies from this plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three solvents extracts (Ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate) of different parts of Egyptian Moringa tree were prepared and tested against oral pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method; As well as to incorporate the plant extract to formulate experimental toothpaste and mouthwash. The two dental remedies were assessed against the same microbial strains. Statistical analysis was performed using One-Way ANOVA test to compare the inhibition zone diameter and t-test. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts as well as leaves extracts demonstrated the highest significant mean inhibition zone values (P ≤ 0.05) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. However, all extracts revealed no inhibition zone against Candida albicans. For dental remedies, experimental toothpaste exhibited higher mean inhibition than the mouthwash against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and only the toothpaste revealed antifungal effect against Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: The different extracts of different parts of Moringa showed an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. The novel toothpaste of ethanolic leaves extract has antimicrobial and antifungal potential effects all selected strains. PMID:28028395

  11. Dental plaque - associated infections and antibacterial oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Verran, J

    1991-02-01

    Synopsis Dental plaque accumulates on hard non-shedding surfaces such as teeth, dentures and orthodontic appliances. This accumulation is facilitated by the absence of adequate oral hygiene procedures. The term 'plaque' describes a mass of microorganisms embedded in an organic matrix of host and microbial origin. In addition to the aesthetic desirability of 'clean teeth, healthy gums and fresh breath' associated with the absence of plaque, obvious consequences of the presence of plaque include tooth decay (dental caries), gingivitis and periodontal (gum) disease and denture associated problems. Thus the prevention of plaque formation, the reduction of plaque accumulation and the effective removal of plaque are considerations of the cosmetic and health professions alike. There are many oral hygiene products available to the general public - toothpastes, mouthwashes, denture cleaners, and, more recently, chewing gums and novel mouthwashes. Several of these products have antimicrobial components. This paper reviews the microbiology of plaque and plaque associated problems, and surveys the type of products currently available for maintenance of good oral hygiene. Potential areas for future development are also explored.

  12. Evaluation of the stability and antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract of Libidibia ferrea

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Marreiro, Raquel; Bandeira, Maria Fulgência Costa Lima; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; de Almeida, Mailza Costa; Bendaham, Katiana; Venâncio, Gisely Naura; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Coelho, Cristiane Nagai; Milério, Patrícia Sâmea Lêdo Lima; de Oliveira, Glauber Palma; de Oliveira Conde, Nikeila Chacon

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm is a dense, whitish, noncalcified aggregate of bacteria, with desquamated epithelial cells and food debris creating conditions for an imbalance of resident oral microflora and favoring the destruction of hard and soft tissues by development of caries and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize an extract of Libidibia ferrea, ex Caesalpinia ferrea L. and to evaluate its feasibility for formulation as a mouthwash, according to current legislation. For this purpose, pH, sedimentation, density, and stability were evaluated, along with microbiological testing of the extract. The microbiological test was used to verify the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, yeasts, coliforms, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis strains. Characterization, microbiological evaluation, and minimum inhibitory concentration results were tabulated and described using descriptive statistics. The L. ferrea extract showed stable characteristics, product quality, and antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested irrespective of experimental time intervals. According to these results, it can be concluded that formulation of a mouthwash containing L. ferrea extract to control biofilm is feasible, but further studies are needed. PMID:24501546

  13. Condition of periodontium in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Andjelić, Jasminka; Matijević, Snežana

    2014-10-01

    Orthodontic patients should be familiar with techniques of maintaining oral hygiene as well as with proper methods of checking maintenance of oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between condition of periodontium and techniques of maintaining oral hygiene in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The research population included 100 patients, aged 15-25, treated by the orthodontist from 2005 to 2010. The maintenance of oral hygiene and the condition of periodontium was assessed using the following indices: plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index and oral hygiene index. The study was carried out using data obtained from the especially designed questionnaire as well as by objective examination of periodontal condition in accordance with the World Health Organization methodology, using adequate indicators and indices. The results of the study show a significant correlation between condition of periodontium and oral hygiene in those with fixed orthodontic appliances. The use ofinterdental brushes and mouthwash liquid, as well as teeth brushing, were among the most significant predictors of healthy teeth and mouth. Teeth and mouth hygiene determined by frequency of teeth brushing, using of interdental brushes and mouthwash liquid are the basic preconditions for preservation and promotion of tooth and mouth health in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  14. Effectiveness of Hexetidine 0.1% Compared to Chlorhexidine Digluconate 0.12% in Eliminating Candida Albicans Colonizing Dentures: A Randomized Clinical In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Georges; Saadeh, Maria; Berberi, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Denture hygiene is an important factor in the prevention and treatment of denture stomatitis (DS). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two different mouthwashes (chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12% and hexetidine 0.1%) in eliminating Candida albicans on dentures. A total of 60 denture wearers (20 men, 40 women; age range 40-80 years) with clinical evidence of DS were randomly divided into 2 test groups and 1 control group. The dentures of each test group were treated by immersion in one of the two mouthwashes while those of the control group were immersed in distilled water. Swab samples from the palatal surfaces of the upper dentures were collected before and after of cleaner use and examined mycologically. Reduction in the number of colony-forming units of Candida albicans after immersion of the dentures with chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12% was significantly greater than that of the group using hexetidine 0.1% and those of the control group. Hexetidine 0.1% solution tested for the first time as a product of disinfection of the acrylic dentures showed average results after immersion of 8 night hours for 4 days and was less effective than chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12%.

  15. Pediatric ingestions of house hold products containing ethanol: a review.

    PubMed

    Rayar, Praveen; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol is present in a number of household items that are readily accessible to children. Ingestion of these household products containing alcohol can lead to significant health risks. To identify reported cases of ingestions of common household items that have led to ethanol intoxication, poisoning, or death in children up to the age of 18 years. The OVID MEDLINE database from 1948 to March 2011, Embase from 1980 to March 2011, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) from 1982 to February 2011 were searched for articles with the following key terms: alcohols(ethanol or ethyl alcohol) and ingest*(ingestion) or intoxic*(intoxication) or poisoning* or death. The search was limited to children (0-18 years). All articles that reported ingestion of household products that contained ethanol were included in the analysis. Results. Many household products, particularly mouthwashes, hand sanitizers, and cosmetics contain quantities of ethanol that are significant enough to induce intoxication and hypoglycemia. There were 17 publications directly reporting on children with alcohol intoxication from household products. Serious adverse events included hypoglycemia, seizures, and death. Child-resistant closures appear to have reduced the incidence of ingestion of ethanol-based products, including mouthwashes, and may be applicable to other products such as hand sanitizers. Ingestion of household substances containing alcohol continues to be a health care problem. Legislature to reduce alcohol content in household products and public education should be instituted to prevent poisonings in children.

  16. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Palit, Madhuchanda; Hegde, Sundeep K; Bhat, Sham S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticar-iogenic efficacy of hot and cold aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula against Streptococcus mutans as an oral rinse and also to discover the acceptability of the mouthwash in children. Sixty children between 8 and 12 years with high caries risk were selected. 10% concentration of hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared. Children were randomly divided into extract and control group. Baseline salivary samples were taken, and the samples were re-collected at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval after rinsing. Microbial and pH analysis were done. An acceptability questionnaire was filled. Tukey's multiple comparison test. The results show statistically significant difference in S. mutans counts at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval when compared with negative control. However, when the hot and cold extracts were compared, there was no significant difference. Acceptability questionnaire showed 65 to 75% overall acceptability for both types of extract. Results of this study showed that both types of aqueous extract of T. chebula may be used as potential anticariogenic mouthwash with acceptable taste in children. Palit MC, Hegde SK, Bhat SS. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):349-354.

  17. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of organic matrix degradation in nanofilled resin composite.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Nahórny, Sídnei; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2013-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of light curing unit (LCU) type, mouthwashes, and soft drink on chemical degradation of a nanofilled resin composite. Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: halogen LCU, HS--saliva (control); HPT--Pepsi Twist®; HLC--Listerine®; HCP--Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, LS--saliva (control); LPT--Pepsi Twist®; LLC--Listerine®; LCP--Colgate Plax®. The degree of conversion analysis and the measure of the peak area at 2,930 cm-1 (organic matrix) of resin composite were done by Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy (baseline, after 7 and 14 days). The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's HSD post-hoc test. The DC ranged from 58.0% (Halogen) to 59.3% (LED) without significance. Differences in the peak area between LCUs were found after 7 days of storage in S and PT. A marked increase in the peak intensity of HLC and LLC groups was found. The soft-start light-activation may influence the chemical degradation of organic matrix in resin composite. Ethanol contained in Listerine® Cool Mint mouthwash had the most significant degradation effect. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a useful tool to investigate resin composite degradation.

  18. Changes in oral trace gas concentrations following orthognathic surgery and intermaxillary fixation: a case study using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery is frequently accompanied by intermaxillary fixation. Intermaxillary fixation impedes the maintenance of effective oral hygiene and prolonged fixation can result in periodontal disease. A potential shorter term effect is the generation of oral malodour. It is unclear, however, as to how the production of malodorous compounds in the oral cavity is altered post-surgery. Oral air concentration of sulphur containing compounds, short chain organic acids, ammonia, isoprene and acetone were measured using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry in a patient who had undergone orthognathic surgery with subsequent intermaxillary fixation. Total sulphide levels rose approximately 5-fold during fixation with metal ties, with smaller increases recorded for the other compounds measured with the exception of isoprene which remained close to baseline levels. Organic acid levels declined markedly once elastic ties had replaced metal ties, with a lesser reduction being observed in sulphide levels, with both declining further after the commencement of a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash. These data suggest that bacterial generation of a variety of malodorous compounds increases markedly following intermaxillary fixation. This single case also suggests that the use of elastic ties and effective oral hygiene techniques, including the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash, may help ameliorate such post-surgical effects. PMID:21789965

  19. Corrosive effects of fluoride on titanium: investigation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and human epithelial cell culturing.

    PubMed

    Stájer, Anette; Ungvári, Krisztina; Pelsoczi, István K; Polyánka, Hilda; Oszkó, Albert; Mihalik, Erzsébet; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Radnai, Márta; Kemény, Lajos; Fazekas, András; Turzó, Kinga

    2008-11-01

    High fluoride (F(-)) concentrations and acidic pH impair the corrosion resistance of titanium (Ti). Effects of F(-)-containing caries-preventive prophylactic rinses, and gels on Ti were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human epithelial cell attachment and proliferation were investigated by dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and protein content assays. Aqueous 1% NaF solution (3800 ppm F(-), pH 4.5) or high (12,500 ppm) F(-) content gel (pH 4.8) strongly corroded the surface and modified its composition. XPS revealed formation of a strongly bound F(-)-containing complex (Na(2)TiF(6)). AFM indicated an increase in roughness (R(a)) of the surfaces: 10-fold for the NaF solution and smaller for the gel or a mouthwash (250 ppm F(-), pH 4.4). MTT revealed that cell attachment was significantly increased by the gel, but was not disturbed by either the mouthwash or the NaF. Cell proliferation determined by MTT decreased significantly only for the NaF-treated samples; protein content assay experiments showed no such effect. This study indicates that epithelial cell culturing results can depend on the method used, and the adverse effects of a high F(-) concentration and low pH should be considered when prophylactic gels are applied by patients with Ti implants or other dental devices.

  20. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  1. Intra-alveolar epsilon-aminocaproic acid for the control of post-extraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    da Silva, R V; Gadelha, T B; Luiz, R R; Torres, S R

    2018-03-27

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the intra-alveolar administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and daily gentle rinsing with EACA mouthwash with that of routine postoperative procedures for the control of bleeding after tooth extraction in anticoagulated patients. A randomized clinical trial was conducted involving 52 patients submitted to 140 tooth extractions, assigned randomly to two groups. The intervention group was treated with intra-alveolar administration of EACA immediately after surgery and gentle rinsing with EACA mouthwash during the postoperative period. The control group received routine postoperative recommendations. A single episode of immediate bleeding occurred in the intervention group. Late bleeding episodes occurred in 23 procedures (16.4%): 11 (15.7%) in the intervention group and 12 (17.1%) in the control group. Among the patients with late bleeding, 18 (78.3%) events were classified as moderate and were controlled by the patient applying pressure to a gauze pack placed over the extraction socket. The remaining five cases (21.7%) required re-intervention. No statistically significant difference in the frequency of postoperative bleeding was observed between the groups. Thus, routine measures were as effective for the control of bleeding after simple tooth extractions in anticoagulated patients as the topical administration of EACA. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of 4-hydroxy-1-(-3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing DNA adducts in human exfoliated oral mucosa cells by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Irina; Muzic, John; Le, Chap T.; Sebero, Erin; Villalta, Peter; Ma, Bin; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitation of DNA adducts could provide critical information on the relationship between exposure to tobacco smoke and cancer risk in smokers. In this study, we developed a robust and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB1)-releasing DNA adducts in human oral cells, a non-invasive source of DNA for biomarker studies. Isolated DNA undergoes acid hydrolysis, after which samples are purified by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The developed method was applied for analysis of samples obtained via collection with a commercial mouthwash from 30 smokers and 15 nonsmokers. In smokers, the levels of HPB-releasing DNA adducts averaged 12.0 pmol HPB/mg DNA (detected in 20 out of 28 samples with quantifiable DNA yield) and in nonsmokers, the levels of adducts averaged 0.23 pmol/mg DNA (detected in 3 out of 15 samples). For the 30 smoking subjects, matching buccal brushings were also analyzed and HPB-releasing DNA adducts were detected in 24 out of 27 samples with quantifiable DNA yield, averaging 44.7 pmol HPB/mg DNA. The levels of adducts in buccal brushings correlated with those in mouthwash samples of smokers (R = 0.73, p < 0.0001). Potentially the method can be applied in studies of individual susceptibility to tobacco-induced cancers in humans. PMID:23252610

  3. Alcohol and the young child.

    PubMed

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  4. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-polymer suppresses an increase of oral bacteria: a single-blind, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Natsumi; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Miyamoto, Koji; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Nakae, Hiromi; Tanaka, Saya; Murakami, Keiji; Kudo, Yasusei; Ozaki, Kazumi; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2018-05-16

    The biocompatible 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-polymers, which mimic a biomembrane, reduce protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion and inhibit cell attachment. The aim of this study is to clarify whether MPC-polymer can suppress the bacterial adherence in oral cavity by a crossover design. We also investigated the number of Fusobacterium nucleatum, which is the key bacterium forming dental plaque, in clinical samples. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover study, with two treatment periods separated by a 2-week washout period. We conducted clinical trial with 20 healthy subjects to evaluate the effect of 5% MPC-polymer mouthwash after 5 h on oral microflora. PBS was used as a control. The bacterial number in the gargling sample before and after intervention was counted by an electronic bacterial counter and a culture method. DNA amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum were examined by q-PCR. The numbers of total bacteria and oral streptcocci after 5 h of 5% MPC-polymer treatment significantly decreased, compared to the control group. Moreover, the DNA amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum significantly decreased by 5% MPC-polymer mouthwash. We suggest that MPC-polymer coating in the oral cavity may suppress the oral bacterial adherence. MPC-polymer can be a potent compound for the control of oral microflora to prevent oral infection.

  5. Dental plaque bacteria with reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine are multidrug resistant.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza; Seers, Christine Ann; Sabri, Anjum Nasim; Reynolds, Eric Charles

    2016-09-15

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is used in oral care products to help control dental plaque. In this study dental plaque bacteria were grown on media containing 2 μg/ml chlorhexidine gluconate to screen for bacteria with reduced CHX susceptibility. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined using the disc diffusion method. The isolates were variably resistant to multiple drugs including ampicillin, kanamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. Two species, Chryseobacterium culicis and Chryseobacterium indologenes were able to grow planktonically and form biofilms in the presence of 32 μg/ml CHX. In the CHX and multidrug resistant C. indologenes we demonstrated a 19-fold up-regulation of expression of the HlyD-like periplasmic adaptor protein of a tripartite efflux pump upon exposure to 16 μg/ml CHX suggesting that multidrug resistance may be mediated by this system. Exposure of biofilms of these resistant species to undiluted commercial CHX mouthwash for intervals from 5 to 60 s indicated that the mouthwash was unlikely to eliminate them from dental plaque in vivo. The study highlights the requirement for increased vigilance of the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria in dental plaque and raises a potential risk of long-term use of oral care products containing antimicrobial agents for the control of dental plaque.

  6. Effect of Fluoride on Nickel-Titanium and Stainless Steel Orthodontic Archwires: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Moayed, Mohamad Hadi; Mokhber, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The commonly used Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) archwires in orthodontic treatment are often exposed to fluoride-containing mouthwashes. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate and compare the corrosion resistance of three commercially available NiTi archwires exposed to 0.05 wt% and 0.2 wt% fluoride mouthwashes. Materials and Methods: Three different types of NiTi archwires, 0.016″ in diameter, from Dentaurum, Global, and GAC, and a stainless steel archwire from Dentaurum were examined to assess their corrosion resistance in Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva and in two other artificial saliva containing 0.05 wt% and 0.2 wt% sodium fluoride (NaF). After the primary setup of wires, they were tested by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization and corrosion potential/time analyses. Their surfaces were evaluated using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Results: The results showed that all the wires were passive in artificial saliva. In contrast, by adding fluoride ions to the solution, the decrease in the archwires’ corrosion resistance was in direct proportion to the increase in fluoride concentration. Conclusion: The NiTi wires experienced deterioration of their corrosion properties under the effect of fluoride but not as much as the stainless steel archwires. PMID:26005454

  7. In Situ Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils with and without Alcohol on Oral Biofilm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Quintas, Victor; Prada-López, Isabel; Carreira, María J.; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Balsa-Castro, Carlos; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is little evidence on the in situ antibacterial activity of essential oils (EO) without alcohol. This study aimed to evaluate in situ the substantivity and antiplaque effect on the plaque-like biofilm (PL-biofilm) of two solutions, a traditional formulation that contains EO with alcohol (T-EO) and an alcohol-free formulation of EO (Af-EO). Eighteen healthy adults performed a single mouthwash of: T-EO, Af-EO, and sterile water (WATER) after wearing an individualized disk-holding splint for 2 days. The bacterial viability (BV) and thickness of the PL-biofilm were quantified at baseline, 30 s, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 h post-rinsing (Test 1). Subsequently, each volunteer wore the splint for 4 days, applying two daily mouthwashes of: T-EO, Af-EO, and WATER. The BV, thickness, and covering grade (CG) of the PL-biofilm were quantified (Test 2). Samples were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ solution. To conduct the computations of the BV automatically, a Matlab toolbox called Dentius Biofilm was developed. In test 1, both EO antiseptics had a similar antibacterial effect, reducing BV after a single rinse compared to the WATER, and keeping it below baseline levels up to 7 h post-rinse (P < 0.001). The mean thickness of the PL-biofilm after rinsing was not affected by any of the EO formulations and ranged from 18.58 to 20.19 μm. After 4 days, the T-EO and Af-EO solutions were significantly more effective than the WATER, reducing the BV, thickness, and CG of the PL-biofilm (P < 0.001). Although, both EO antiseptics presented a similar bactericidal activity, the Af-EO rinses led to more significant reductions in the thickness and CG of the PL-biofilm than the T-EO rinses (thickness = 7.90 vs. 9.92 μm, P = 0.012; CG = 33.36 vs. 46.61%, P = 0.001). In conclusion, both essential oils antiseptics had very high immediate antibacterial activity and substantivity in situ on the 2-day PL-biofilm after a single

  8. Risk factors for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men: an age-matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cornelisse, Vincent J; Walker, Sandra; Phillips, Tiffany; Hocking, Jane S; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Lewis, David A; Prestage, Garrett Paul; Grulich, Andrew E; Fairley, Christopher K; Chow, Eric P F

    2018-01-22

    Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea is common among men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to clarify which oral sex practices were independent risk factors for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea: tongue kissing, receptive oro-penile sex (fellatio) or insertive oro-anal sex (rimming), and whether daily use of mouthwash and recent antibiotic use was protective. In 2015, we conducted an age-matched case-control study of MSM who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. Cases had tested positive for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea by nucleic acid amplification testing, and controls had tested negative. Questionnaire items included tongue kissing, oral sex practices, condom use, recent antibiotic use, mouthwash use and alcohol consumption. We identified 177 cases, age matched to 354 controls. In univariable analyses, cases were 1.90 times (95% CI 1.13 to 3.20) more likely than controls to have had casual sexual partners (CSP) in the preceding 3 months, were 2.17 times (95% CI 1.31 to 3.59) more likely to have kissed CSP and were 2.04 times (95% CI 1.26 to 3.30) more likely to have had receptive oro-penile sex with CSP. Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea was not associated with insertive oro-anal sex or mouthwash use. The number of CSP for tongue kissing and receptive oral sex and total CSP were highly correlated, and in multivariable analysis neither kissing nor receptive oro-penile sex was significantly associated with having oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, after adjusting for total number of CSP. The finding that oropharyngeal gonorrhoea was associated with a higher number of sexual partners but not specific sexual practices highlights the need for further research in the area of gonorrhoea transmission to define the probability of transmission from specific sex acts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Discoloration of Provisional Restorations after Oral Rinses

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Ulusoy, Kıvanç Utku; Altintas, Subutay Han; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bagis, Nilsun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic®) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II®, Luxatemp® and Fill-In®) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (∆E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically

  10. Oral hygiene in intensive care unit patients with photodynamic therapy: study protocol for randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Da Collina, Gabriela Alves; Tempestini-Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto; da Silva, Daniela de Fátima Teixeira; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Makabe, Maria Luisa Faria; Pavani, Christiane

    2017-08-22

    In intensive care units (ICUs), nosocomial infections are prevalent conditions and they have been related to high mortality indexes. Some studies have suggested that inefficient oral hygiene and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are related. Nowadays, in the Brazilian public health system there is no well-defined protocol for oral hygiene in an ICU. Due to the drawbacks of the use of antibiotics, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an interesting technique in order to reduce antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Methylene blue (MB) is the most common chemical agent for PDT in Brazil. However, new formulations for improved effectiveness are still lacking. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of an MB mouthwash as an effective oral-hygiene procedure in an ICU and to show that oral hygiene using PDT with MB mouthwash may reduce VAP frequency to rates similar to, or higher than, chlorhexidine. Phase 1 will evaluate the most effective cleaning procedure, while phase 2 will correlate oral hygiene to VAP incidence. At the start of phase 1, the ICU patients will be randomly allocated into three different groups (10 patients/group): the efficacy of chlorhexidine, classical MB-PDT, and mouthwash MB-PDT will all be measured for the quantification of viable bacteria, both pre- and post-treatment, by a Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). In phase 2, the most effective procedure found in phase 1 and a mechanical cleaning with filtered water will be carried out daily, once a day, over 5 days, with a total of 52 ICU patients randomly allocated into the two groups. The clinical records will be evaluated in order to find any pneumonic diagnoses. Since a variety of bacterial species are related to VAP, a universal primer for bacteria will be used in order to quantify the total bacteria count in the participants' samples. In order to quantify only the living bacteria before DNA extraction, the samples will be treated with propidium monoazide

  11. White spot lesions: prevention and management during the orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zabokova-Bilbilova, Efka; Popovska, Lidija; Kapusevska, Biljana; Stefanovska, Emilija

    2014-01-01

    The formation of white spot lesions, or enamel demineralization, around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and following fixed orthodontic treatment, which marks the result of a successfully completed case. This article is a contemporary review of the risk factors and preventive methods of these orthodontics scars. Preventive programmes must be emphasized to all orthodontic patients. The responsibility of an orthodontist is to minimize the risk of the patient having decalcification as a consequence of orthodontic treatment by educating and motivating the patients for excellent oral hygiene practice. Prophylaxis with topical fluoride application should be implemented: high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels and varnishes during and after the orthodontic treatment, especially for patients at high risk of caries.

  12. The effect of royal jelly on oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Ozden; Güngörmüş, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly on oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The study population consisted of 103 patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Oral mucositis was graded according to the World Health Organization criteria, and patients were divided into 2 groups. All patients received mouthwash therapy with benzydamine hydrochloride and nystatin rinses. In addition, patients in the experimental group received royal jelly. The mean resolution time of oral mucositis in the royal jelly group was significantly shorter than that of the control group. As a result, the study results demonstrate that royal jelly administrated by a certain procedure improved the signs and symptoms of oral mucositis and markedly shortened its healing time.

  13. Effects of Compounded Stanford Modified Oral Rinse (MucoLox) on the Survival and Migration of Oral Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts: Implications for Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Song, Guiyun; Banov, Daniel; Bassani, August S

    2018-01-01

    Several oral rinses are commercially available to alleviate the symptoms of oral mucositis. Prolonged retention of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the oral cavity is a major problem. In this study, we modified the Stanford oral rinse by including a proprietary mucoadhesive polymer called MucoLox, which we hypothesized would improve active pharmaceutical ingredient mucoadhesion. Characterization of this newly compounded oral rinse showed absence of cytotoxicity in human oral keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines. The compounded formulation significantly stimulated the migration of these two cell lines in Oris Cell Migration Assay plates, better than the reference commercial product Magic mouthwash. Based on this in vitro study, the new Stanford modified oral rinse with MucoLox is safe and may promote healing of oral mucositis. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  14. [Halitosis: a multidisciplinary problem].

    PubMed

    Bollen, C M; Rompen, E H; Demanez, J P

    1999-01-01

    Bad breath, or halitosis, affects between 50 and 65% of the population. Despite its frequency, this problem is often unaccepted and declared taboo. In about 8% of the cases, bad breath is related to an ENT pathology (sinusitis, tonsillitis, ...). More rarely it is caused by a metabolic (diabetes, trimethylaminuremia, ...) or gastric dysfunction. Ninety percent of the cases however, are associated to an oral disease: either gingivitis due to an inadequate removal of dental plaque, especially from interdental spaces, or periodontitis (alveolar bone destruction), or bacterial accumulation on the dorsum of the tongue. In most cases, an intensive disinfection of the mouth by scaling and root planing and/or instruction of a perfect oral hygiene will be sufficient to solve the problem. Perfumed mouthwashes or toothpastes will only give a short-term masking effect. An effective collaboration between a dentist or a periodontist and an ENT specialist is of great importance to dealt with bad breath.

  15. Colorimetric detection of anions in aqueous media using N-monosubstituted diaminomaleonitrile-based azo-azomethine receptors: Real-life applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Rezaeian, Khatereh; Abdollahi, Alieh

    2015-03-01

    New N-monosubstituted diaminomaleonitrile-based azo-azomethine dyes have been synthesized in order to develop colorimetric sensors for detection of biologically important anions in aqueous media. Importantly, the reported sensor decorated with strong electron-withdrawing group can detect inorganic fluoride in water even at 0.037 ppm level, which is lower than WHO permissible level (below 1 ppm). Successfully, the prepared dyes were used for qualitative and quantitative detection of inorganic fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. The anion recognition mechanism was also investigated by detailed UV-Vis and 1H NMR experiments. The detailed 1H NMR experiments corroborated that anion recognition is based on the deprotonation phenomenon.

  16. Triclosan exposure, transformation, and human health effects.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Lisa M; Gosse, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial used so ubiquitously that 75% of the US population is likely exposed to this compound via consumer goods and personal care products. In September 2016, TCS was banned from soap products following the risk assessment by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, TCS still remains, at high concentrations, in other personal care products such as toothpaste, mouthwash, hand sanitizer, and surgical soaps. TCS is readily absorbed into human skin and oral mucosa and found in various human tissues and fluids. The aim of this review was to describe TCS exposure routes and levels as well as metabolism and transformation processes. The burgeoning literature on human health effects associated with TCS exposure, such as reproductive problems, was also summarized.

  17. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician’s diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case. PMID:27789914

  18. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician's diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case.

  19. Advances in Dental Materials through Nanotechnology: Facts, Perspectives and Toxicological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Gislaine C; Feitosa, Victor P; Sauro, Salvatore; Tay, Franklin R; Durán, Gabriela; Paula, Amauri J; Durán, Nelson

    2015-11-01

    Nanotechnology is currently driving the dental materials industry to substantial growth, thus reflecting on improvements in materials available for oral prevention and treatment. The present review discusses new developments in nanotechnology applied to dentistry, focusing on the use of nanomaterials for improving the quality of oral care, the perspectives of research in this arena, and discussions on safety concerns regarding the use of dental nanomaterials. Details are provided on the cutting-edge properties (morphological, antibacterial, mechanical, fluorescence, antitumoral, and remineralization and regeneration potential) of polymeric, metallic and inorganic nano-based materials, as well as their use as nanocluster fillers, in nanocomposites, mouthwashes, medicines, and biomimetic dental materials. Nanotoxicological aspects, clinical applications, and perspectives for these nanomaterials are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

    PubMed Central

    Croaker, Andrew; King, Graham J.; Pyne, John H.; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics. PMID:27618894

  1. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses.

    PubMed

    Croaker, Andrew; King, Graham J; Pyne, John H; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Liu, Lei

    2016-08-27

    Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant's history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  2. Phytochemical composition and in vitro screening of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils on oral pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tardugno, Roberta; Pellati, Federica; Iseppi, Ramona; Bondi, Moreno; Bruzzesi, Giacomo; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the activity of essential oils (EOs) against microorganisms involved in oral diseases was evaluated. Fourteen EOs were selected and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis, including Illicium verum, Eucaliptus globulus, Eugenia caryophyllata, Leptospermum scoparium, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Myrtus communis, Salvia officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula x intermedia, Thymus capitatus and Thymus vulgaris. These EOs were tested for their antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species clinically isolated from dental surgery patients. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by means of the disc diffusion and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Five EOs, having shown an interesting antimicrobial activity, were selected for a second screening in combination between them and with chlorhexidine. From the second assays, two EO-EO and three EO-chlorhexidine associations gave interesting results as potential constituents of mouthwashes, especially for the contribution of oxygenated monoterpenes, including menthol, thymol and carvacrol.

  3. Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K.

    2003-12-01

    An FTIR spectrometer equipped with a long-path gas cell can be used to measure breath alcohol concentrations in an instrumental analysis laboratory course. Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash. They also calculate their blood alcohol levels immediately after chewing bread. The main goal of the experiment is to provide the students with an interesting laboratory exercise that teaches them about infrared spectrometers. While the results are meant to be only semiquantitative, they have compared well with results from other published studies. A reference is included that describes how to fabricate a long-path gas cell.

  4. [Dentinal hypersensitivity in periodontal disease. Aetiology Aetiology--management].

    PubMed

    Andronikaki-Faldani, A; Kamma, I

    1988-01-01

    The exposure of dentine has a multifactoral aetiology and pain may frequently be elicited by a number of stimuli. Management of dentinal hypersensitivity tends to be empirical because of the lack of knowledge concerning the mechanism of pain transmission through dentine. Nevertheless, whichever theory proves to be correct, occlusion of dentinal tubules would appear an essential prerequisite for an effective desensitising agent. A large number of compounds as well as iontophoresis have been employed in the management of dentinal hypersensitivity. These desensitising agents are: sodium, fluoride, stannous fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate, strontium chloride, calcium hydroxide, potassium nitrate, silver nitrate, formalin, corticosteroids, resins, varnishes and glass ionomers. The most effective of the compounds mentioned above, are fluorides used as gels, varnishes, mouthwashes or toothpastes, strontium chloride and potassium nitrate.

  5. Using 'nudge' principles for order set design: a before and after evaluation of an electronic prescribing template in critical care.

    PubMed

    Bourdeaux, Christopher P; Davies, Keith J; Thomas, Matthew J C; Bewley, Jeremy S; Gould, Timothy H

    2014-05-01

    Computerised order sets have the potential to reduce clinical variation and improve patient safety but the effect is variable. We sought to evaluate the impact of changes to the design of an order set on the delivery of chlorhexidine mouthwash and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) to patients in the intensive care unit. The study was conducted at University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Our intensive care unit uses a clinical information system (CIS). All drugs and fluids are prescribed with the CIS and drug and fluid charts are stored within a database. Chlorhexidine mouthwash was added as a default prescription to the prescribing template in January 2010. HES was removed from the prescribing template in April 2009. Both interventions were available to prescribe manually throughout the study period. We conducted a database review of all patients eligible for each intervention before and after changes to the configuration of choices within the prescribing system. 2231 ventilated patients were identified as appropriate for treatment with chlorhexidine, 591 before the intervention and 1640 after. 55.3% were prescribed chlorhexidine before the change and 90.4% after (p<0.001). 6199 patients were considered in the HES intervention, 2177 before the intervention and 4022 after. The mean volume of HES infused per patient fell from 630 mL to 20 mL after the change (p<0.001) and the percentage of patients receiving HES fell from 54.1% to 3.1% (p<0.001). These results were well sustained with time. The presentation of choices within an electronic prescribing system influenced the delivery of evidence-based interventions in a predictable way and the effect was well sustained. This approach has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of computerised order sets.

  6. Management of oral Graft versus Host Disease with topical agents: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zahid; Poveda, Ana; Higham, Jonathan; Richards, Andrea; Monteiro, Luis; Jané-Salas, Enric; Lopez-Lopez, José; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral Graft-versus-Host Disease (oGvHD) is a common complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Choosing the right topical application to be used intra orally can be a challenge. Consequently, the aim of this work is to review the effectiveness and safety of topical agents currently used in the management of the inflammatory mucosal lesions encountered in oGVHD. Material and Methods We carried out electronic searches of publications up to May 2015 of the databases Pubmed, National Library of Medicine’s Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials to identify potentially relevant studies (keywords: “oral”, “graft”, “versus”, “host”, “disease” and “treatment”). The main inclusion criterion was the reported use of a topical agent which was not intentionally swallowed when used for the treatment of oGVHD. A 3-point grading system, described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, was used to rate the methodological quality of the papers. Results From the 902 entries identified in the search, 7 studies qualifying for inclusion were analysed. Overall, there is limited evidence with regards to the effectiveness of topical steroids for oGVHD. However, the studies showed some effect of Budesonide alone and when combined with dexamethasone. Topical tacrolimus also appears to have some effect and clobetasol propionate mouthwash had a significantly better clinical response than dexamethasone mouthwash in treating oGVHD. Conclusions As the number of clinical trials conducted is limited, there is little evidence to support the use of topical therapies to treat the inflammatory mucosal lesions found in oGVHD. High quality randomised control trials are needed in order to measure the effectiveness of any topical application for the treatment of the inflammatory mucosal lesions found in oGVHD. Key words

  7. Temporal Variability of Oral Microbiota over 10 Months and the Implications for Future Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Hua, Xing; Zhou, Liang; Wan, Yunhu; Suman, Shalabh; Zhu, Bin; Dagnall, Casey L; Hutchinson, Amy; Jones, Kristine; Hicks, Belynda D; Sinha, Rashmi; Shi, Jianxin; Abnet, Christian C

    2018-05-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively evaluated the association between oral microbiota and health outcomes. Precise estimates of the intrasubject microbial metric stability will allow better study planning. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the temporal variability of oral microbiota. Methods: Forty individuals provided six oral samples using the OMNIgene ORAL kit and Scope mouthwash oral rinses approximately every two months over 10 months. DNA was extracted using the QIAsymphony and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the MiSeq. To estimate temporal variation, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for a variety of metrics and examined stability after clustering samples into distinct community types using Dirichlet multinomial models (DMMs). Results: The ICCs for the alpha diversity measures were high, including for number of observed bacterial species [0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.82 and 0.79; 95% CI: 0.75-0.94] from OMNIgene ORAL and Scope mouthwash, respectively. The ICCs for the relative abundance of the top four phyla and beta diversity matrices were lower. Three clusters provided the best model fit for the DMM from the OMNIgene ORAL samples, and the probability of remaining in a specific cluster was high (59.5%-80.7%). Conclusions: The oral microbiota appears to be stable over time for multiple metrics, but some measures, particularly relative abundance, were less stable. Impact: We used this information to calculate stability-adjusted power calculations that will inform future field study protocols and experimental analytic designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(5); 594-600. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. The efficacy of two oral hygiene regimens in reducing oral malodour: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Feres, Magda; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Faveri, Marcelo; Guerra, Marcelo C; Mateo, Luis R; Stewart, Bernal; Williams, Malcolm; Panagakos, Foti

    2015-12-01

    This study compared the efficacy of two oral hygiene regimens in reducing oral malodour and the proportions of bacterial species involved in the production of volatile sulphur compounds. Seventy subjects who participated in a halitosis-induction phase and achieved an organoleptic score of ≥ 3.0 [time point 0 (T0)] randomised into two groups: brushing with regular fluoride toothpaste alone (control group) or brushing with regular fluoride toothpaste followed by rinsing with a 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash (CPC group). Subjects followed their assigned oral hygiene regimen for 21 days. Then, they underwent an organoleptic examination and measurement of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) using a portable gas chromatograph, 12 hours after their last oral hygiene procedure (T1) and 4 hours after an on-site oral hygiene (T2). Microbiological samples (supragingival biofilm, tongue coating and saliva) were analysed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation. Both therapies statistically significantly improved the organoleptic scores (P < 0.05), but the VSC levels and/or concentrations were reduced only in the CPC group (P < 0.05). In subjects rinsing with CPC, oral malodour scores were reduced by 49% at the 4-hour assessment (T2) compared with those not rinsing (P < 0.05). Red-complex pathogens were reduced more effectively in the CPC group than in the control group. Brushing followed by rinsing with a 0.075% CPC mouthwash provided statistically significantly greater reductions in oral malodour, measured organoleptically and instrumentally, and in the proportions of red-complex species when compared with brushing alone. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. Effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine on microbial and fungal contamination of dental unit waterlines

    PubMed Central

    Agahi, Raha Habib; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Kalantari, Mahsa; Ayatollah-Mosavi, Amin; Aghassi, Hossein; Nassab, Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that dental unit waterline can be a source of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a mouthwash, chlorhexidine, in controlling microbial and fungal contamination of dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, the water in high-speed handpieces and air/water syringes of 35 dental units in a dental school was investigated microbiologically. Five of the units and one tap water served as controls; 100-200-mL water samples were collected aseptically in sterile containers in the morning after a 2-min purge. Water reservoir bottles were emptied and 50 mL of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash was introduced into the tank. Then the water syringe was used to flush the waterline until the pink-colored chlorhexidine was observed to flow from the water syringe. Before the next day's session and before the students used the unit, two water samples from the water syringe and water turbine was collected. The samples were transferred to the laboratory. After 48 h at 37°C, the microbial colonies were counted. The number of these colonies was evaluated using colony forming unit CFU. Data were analyzed with Mann — Whitney U test and SPSS 13.5 statistical program. The statistical significance was defined at P ≤ 0.05. Results: All 35 units were contaminated before chlorhexidine use; no contamination was detected after adding chlorhexidine to the waterlines of the units. After week 1, 28 of the 30 treated dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) had values of CFU/mL less than 200. Conclusion: The present study showed that the use of chlorhexidine could reduce microbial counts in dental unit waterlines. PMID:25097645

  10. Awareness and Practices of Oral Hygiene and its Relation to Sociodemographic Factors among Patients attending the General Outpatient Department in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bobby; Basu, Mausumi; Dutta, Sinjita; Chattopadhyay, Sita; Sinha, Debasis; Misra, Raghunath

    2014-04-01

    Periodontal diseases, dental caries, malocclusion, and oral cancer are the most prevalent dental diseases affecting people in the Indian community. The study was conducted to assess the awareness and practices on oral hygiene and its association with the sociodemographic factors among patients attending the general Outpatient Department (OPD). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 224 patients attending the general OPD of the SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, India, from 1 April to 30 April, 2013. The study tool was a pre-designed and pre-tested semi-structured schedule. About 69.20% of the participants used a toothbrush with toothpaste as a method of cleaning their teeth; 35.71% brushed twice in a day; 33.03% brushed both in the morning and at bedtime; and 8.93% used mouthwash. About 40.62% visited the dentist during the last six months; among them 61.18% attended because of pain. Almost three-fourth of the participants knew that tooth decay and bad breath were the effects of not cleaning the teeth. It was known to 71.42, 63.39, 70.53, and 73.21% of the respondents, respectively, that excess sweet, cold drink, alcohol, and smoking/pan chewing were bad for dental health. Television was the source of knowledge to 57.14% of the participants and 35.71% acquired their knowledge from a dentist. Females, literates, urban residents, users of mouthwash, and regular visitors to the dentist had good oral hygiene practices. Oral health awareness and practices among the study population are poor and need to improve.

  11. Caries lesion remineralization with fluoride toothpastes and chlorhexidine - effects of application timing and toothpaste surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Almohefer, Sami A.; Levon, John A.; Gregory, Richard L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Habitual toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste followed by rinsing with antibacterial mouthwashes is a method to maintain good oral hygiene and to diminish the occurrence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. However, our understanding of how antimicrobial agents in mouthwashes affect fluoride-mediated caries lesion remineralization is still poor. Objective: The objectives of this in vitro study were a) to determine the effects of the waiting period of chlorhexidine (CHX) rinsing after fluoride toothpaste use and b) to further determine the effect of the type of toothpaste surfactant [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB)] on caries lesion remineralization associated with CHX rinsing. Material and Methods: Caries lesions were formed in bovine enamel specimens and assigned to 10 treatment groups (n=18) based on Vickers surface microhardness (VHN). Lesions were then pH-cycled for 10 days with daily regimen comprised of twice daily toothpaste slurry treatments (1150 ppm fluoride, with SDS or CAPB), followed by CHX solution treatments [0, 15, 30 or 60 minutes following slurry treatment or no CHX treatment (negative control)]. VHN was measured again and the extent of lesion remineralization calculated (∆VHN). Results: ∆VHN with SDS-toothpaste was significantly lower than with CAPB-toothpaste, indicating more remineralization for the CAPB-toothpaste. ∆VHN with 0-minute waiting time was significantly lower than with 30-minute waiting time and with negative control. Conclusions: The absence of CHX as an adjunct to fluoride toothpastes led to greater remineralization of enamel lesions compared with the immediate use of CHX treatment for both SDS- and CAPB-toothpastes. CAPB-toothpastes indicated significantly greater remineralization than SDS-toothpastes, and can be suggested for patients at high risk of caries. A 30-minute waiting time for CHX treatment is recommended after brushing.

  12. The role of fluoride and chlorhexidine in preserving hardness and mineralization of enamel and cementum after gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Rowida; Niazy, Maha A; Jamil, Wael E; Hazzaa, Hala A; Elbatouti, Amal A

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on the micro-hardness of tooth enamel and cementum that was exposed to therapeutic doses of gamma radiation. Sixty extracted human teeth were divided into two groups, one was irradiated, the other was not irradiated. The two groups were further subdivided into three subgroups, which were each treated either with 0.05% sodium fluoride or with 0.12% chlorhexidine; the third subgroup served as a control. After demineralization-remineralization cycling, teeth from the irradiated groups showed a significantly lower micro-hardness when compared to those from the non-irradiated groups. Both in the irradiated and non-irradiated groups, teeth from the control subgroups showed a significantly lower micro-hardness, as compared to teeth treated with sodium fluoride and chlorhexidine. For non-irradiated enamel samples, those treated with chlorhexidine showed a significantly less micro-hardness compared to those treated with sodium fluoride. In contrast, irradiated enamel showed no significant difference in micro-hardness, whatever treatment (chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride) was applied. For cementum, treatment with chlorhexidine resulted in a significantly lower micro-hardness compared to sodium fluoride, both for the irradiated and non-irradiated groups. It is concluded that gamma irradiation with therapeutic doses typically used for head and neck carcinoma treatment has a direct effect in reducing micro-hardness of tooth enamel and cementum. Mouthwash protocols including, for example, application of 0.05% sodium fluoride or 0.12% chlorhexidine three times per day for 6 weeks, can protect enamel and cementum against the reduction in hardness and demineralization caused by gamma irradiation. Sodium fluoride offers more protection compared to chlorhexidine.

  13. Randomized control trial of benzydamine HCl versus sodium bicarbonate for prophylaxis of concurrent chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Chitapanarux, Imjai; Tungkasamit, Tharatorn; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Kannarunimit, Danita; Katanyoo, Kanyarat; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Setakornnukul, Jiraporn; Wongsrita, Somying; Jirawatwarakul, Naruemon; Lertbusayanukul, Chawalit; Sripan, Patumrat; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the efficacy of benzydamine HCl with sodium bicarbonate in the prevention of concurrent chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Sixty locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either benzydamine HCl or sodium bicarbonate from the first day of treatment to 2 weeks after the completion of treatment. The total score for mucositis, based on the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS), was used for the assessment, conducted weekly during the treatment period and at the fourth week of the follow-up. Pain score, all prescribed medications, and tube feeding needs were also recorded and compared. The median of total OMAS score was statistically significant lower in patients who received benzydamine HCl during concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) than in those who received sodium bicarbonate, (p value < 0.001). There was no difference in median pain score, (p value = 0.52). Nineteen percent of patients in sodium bicarbonate arm needed oral antifungal agents whereas none in the benzydamine HCl arm required such medications, (p value = 0.06). Tube feeding needs and the compliance of CCRT were not different between the two study arms. For patients undergoing high-dose radiotherapy concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy, using benzydamine HCl mouthwash as a preventive approach was superior to basic oral care using sodium bicarbonate mouthwash in terms of reducing the severity of oral mucositis and encouraging trend for the less need of oral antifungal drugs.

  14. Commercial Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Testing is Not Vulnerable to Incidental Alcohol Exposure in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Ondersma, Steven J; Beatty, Jessica R; Rosano, Thomas G; Strickler, Ronald C; Graham, Amy E; Sokol, Robert J

    2016-01-02

    Ethyl Glucoronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) have shown promise as biomarkers for alcohol and may be sensitive enough for use with pregnant women in whom even low-level alcohol use is important. However, there have been reports of over-sensitivity of EtG and EtS to incidental exposure to sources such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Further, few studies have evaluated these biomarkers among pregnant women, in whom the dynamics of these metabolites may differ. This study evaluated whether commercial EtG-EtS testing was vulnerable to high levels of environmental exposure to alcohol in pregnant women. Two separate samples of five nurses-one pregnant and the other postpartum, all of whom reported high levels of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use-provided urine samples before and 4-8 hours after rinsing with alcohol-based mouthwash and using hand sanitizer. The five pregnant nurses provided urine samples before, during, and after an 8-hour nursing shift, during which they repeatedly cleansed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer (mean 33.8 uses). The five postpartum nurses used hand sanitizer repeatedly between baseline and follow-up urine samples. No urine samples were positive for EtG-EtS at baseline or follow-up, despite use of mouthwash and-in the pregnant sample-heavy use of hand sanitizer (mean of 33.8 uses) throughout the 8-hour shift. Current, commercially available EtG-EtS testing does not appear vulnerable to even heavy exposure to incidental sources of alcohol among pregnant and postpartum women.

  15. Commercial Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Testing is not Vulnerable to Incidental Alcohol Exposure in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Jessica R.; Rosano, Thomas G.; Strickler, Ronald C.; Graham, Amy E.; Sokol, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethyl Glucoronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) have shown promise as biomarkers for alcohol and may be sensitive enough for use with pregnant women in whom even low-level alcohol use is important. However, there have been reports of over-sensitivity of EtG and EtS to incidental exposure to sources such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Further, few studies have evaluated these biomarkers among pregnant women, in whom the dynamics of these metabolites may differ. Objectives This study evaluated whether commercial EtG-EtS testing was vulnerable to high levels of environmental exposure to alcohol in pregnant women. Methods Two separate samples of five nurses—one pregnant and the other postpartum, all of whom reported high levels of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use—provided urine samples before and 4–8 hours after rinsing with alcohol-based mouthwash and using hand sanitizer. The five pregnant nurses provided urine samples before, during, and after an 8-hour nursing shift, during which they repeatedly cleansed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer (mean 33.8 uses). The five postpartum nurses used hand sanitizer repeatedly between baseline and follow-up urine samples. Results No urine samples were positive for EtG-EtS at baseline or follow-up, despite use of mouthwash and—in the pregnant sample—heavy use of hand sanitizer (mean of 33.8 uses) throughout the 8-hour shift. Conclusions/Importance Current, commercially available EtG-EtS testing does not appear vulnerable to even heavy exposure to incidental sources of alcohol among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:26771303

  16. Efficacy of desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate for hypersensitivity relief in MIH-affected molars: an 8-week clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bekes, Katrin; Heinzelmann, Karolin; Lettner, Stefan; Schaller, Hans-Günter

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy in reducing hypersensitivity in molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)-affected molars immediately and over 8 weeks combining a single in-office application and a homed-based program with desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate. Nineteen children with at least one MIH-affected molar with hypersensitivity were included. Hypersensitivity was assessed with an evaporative (air) stimulus and a tactile stimulus. Each child received a single in-office treatment with a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (elmex Sensitive Professional desensitizing paste), followed by 8 weeks of brushing twice daily with a desensitizing toothpaste containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate with 1450 ppm fluoride (elmex Sensitive Professional toothpaste), using the elmex Sensitive Professional toothbrush. Additionally, the corresponding mouthwash (elmex Sensitive Professional mouthwash) was used. Clinical assessments were made at baseline, immediately after the in-office treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of brushing twice daily. Fifty-six molars with an air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Cold Air Sensitivity Scale) were included. Application of the desensitizing paste decreased hypersensitivity significantly immediately and throughout the 8 weeks recalls (p < 0.001). In conclusion, 8% arginine and calcium carbonate were able to reduce hypersensitivity successfully during this 8-week trial. Hypersensitivity is a major complaint in patients with MIH. This is the first study evaluating the desensitizing effect of a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate in patients with MIH.

  17. Interdental cleaning among persons with diabetes: relationships with individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Strauss, S M; Stefanou, L B

    2014-05-01

    Given the existence of many potential oral health complications for adults with diabetes (especially for those who do not practise regular oral self-care), and the specific importance of regular interdental cleaning, the research determined the proportion of U.S. adults with diabetes who practise daily interdental cleaning and their socio-demographic, economic and oral health characteristics related to this practice. Analyses were conducted using data collected from 573 dentulous adults with diabetes ≥ 30 years who participated in the U.S. 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey. Using complex sample survey software, findings were extrapolated to >15 million U.S. adults. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the frequency of interdental cleaning, and chi-square tests were used to identify salient individual characteristics related to this practice. 41.2% reported that they never used any interdental device, while 24.8% indicated that they practised interdental cleaning daily. Statistically significant relationships (P < 0.05) with daily interdental cleaning included female sex, ever having had treatment for gum disease and using mouthwash daily for a dental problem. Because so many adults with diabetes do not practise regular interdental cleaning, and in view of the important role that dental hygienists fulfil as oral healthcare educators, there is a great need for dental hygienists to teach and motivate adults with diabetes to practise regular interdental cleaning. This need is especially great for subgroups of these adults who are men, have not been treated for periodontitis and do not regularly use a mouthwash for dental problems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of Buccal Cell Samples for Studies of Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoqin; Phillips, Steve; Gail, Mitchell H; Goedert, James J; Humphrys, Michael; Ravel, Jacques; Ren, Yanfang; Caporaso, Neil E

    2017-02-01

    The human microbiota is postulated to affect cancer risk, but collecting microbiota specimens with prospective follow-up for diseases will take time. Buccal cell samples have been obtained from mouthwash for the study of human genomic DNA in many cohort studies. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of using buccal cell samples to examine associations of human microbiota and disease risk. We obtained buccal cells from mouthwash in 41 healthy participants using a protocol that is widely employed to obtain buccal cells for the study of human DNA. We compared oral microbiota from buccal cells with that from eight other oral sample types collected by following the protocols of the Human Microbiome Project. Microbiota profiles were determined by sequencing 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region. Compared with each of the eight other oral samples, the buccal cell samples had significantly more observed species (P < 0.002) and higher alpha diversity (Shannon index, P < 0.02). The microbial communities were more similar (smaller beta diversity) among buccal cells samples than in the other samples (P < 0.001 for 12 of 16 weighted and unweighted UniFrac distance comparisons). Buccal cell microbial profiles closely resembled saliva but were distinct from dental plaque and tongue dorsum. Stored buccal cell samples in prospective cohort studies are a promising resource to study associations of oral microbiota with disease. The feasibility of using existing buccal cell collections in large prospective cohorts allows investigations of the role of oral microbiota in chronic disease etiology in large population studies possible today. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 249-53. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine on microbial and fungal contamination of dental unit waterlines.

    PubMed

    Agahi, Raha Habib; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Kalantari, Mahsa; Ayatollah-Mosavi, Amin; Aghassi, Hossein; Nassab, Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan

    2014-05-01

    It is known that dental unit waterline can be a source of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a mouthwash, chlorhexidine, in controlling microbial and fungal contamination of dental unit waterlines. In the present experimental study, the water in high-speed handpieces and air/water syringes of 35 dental units in a dental school was investigated microbiologically. Five of the units and one tap water served as controls; 100-200-mL water samples were collected aseptically in sterile containers in the morning after a 2-min purge. Water reservoir bottles were emptied and 50 mL of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash was introduced into the tank. Then the water syringe was used to flush the waterline until the pink-colored chlorhexidine was observed to flow from the water syringe. Before the next day's session and before the students used the unit, two water samples from the water syringe and water turbine was collected. The samples were transferred to the laboratory. After 48 h at 37°C, the microbial colonies were counted. The number of these colonies was evaluated using colony forming unit CFU. Data were analyzed with Mann - Whitney U test and SPSS 13.5 statistical program. The statistical significance was defined at P ≤ 0.05. All 35 units were contaminated before chlorhexidine use; no contamination was detected after adding chlorhexidine to the waterlines of the units. After week 1, 28 of the 30 treated dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) had values of CFU/mL less than 200. The present study showed that the use of chlorhexidine could reduce microbial counts in dental unit waterlines.

  20. Antibacterial Effects of Different Concentrations of Althaea officinalis Root Extract versus 0.2% Chlorhexidine and Penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus (In vitro).

    PubMed

    Haghgoo, Roza; Mehran, Majid; Afshari, Elahe; Zadeh, Hamide Farajian; Ahmadvand, Motahare

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine and compare the effects of different concentrations of Althaea officinalis extract, 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro . The laboratory study was done, for a period of 8 weeks. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the test tube, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in a plate culture medium, and growth inhibition zone diameter methods were used to compare the antibacterial effects of 0.2% CHX, penicillin, and different concentrations of A. officinalis root extract. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 24 using ANOVA and t -test analysis. The results showed A. officinalis root extract had antibacterial effect, but significant differences were in MIC and MBC against L. acidophilus and S. mutans with penicillin and 0.2% CHX mouthwash. In addition, the mean growth inhibition zones of all the concentrations of the plant extract were less than that of the positive control group ( P = 0.001). However, the difference in the maximum growth inhibition zone from that with the negative control group was significant. In addition, the antibacterial effect of the extract increased with an increase in its concentration. The extract exerted a greater antibacterial effect on S. mutans than on L. acidophilus . The plant polyphenols content is 3.7% which is equivalent to 29.93 g/ml. The root extract of A. officinalis exhibited antibacterial effects on S. mutans and L. acidophilus , but this effect was less than those of CHX mouthwash and penicillin. The antibacterial effect increased with an increase in the concentration of the extract.

  1. High-Velocity Microsprays Enhance Antimicrobial Activity in Streptococcus mutans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, S; Johnston, D A; Rmaile, A; Gottenbos, B; De Jager, M; Aspiras, M; Starke, E M; Ward, M T; Stoodley, P

    2016-12-01

    Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque biofilms play a role in caries development. The biofilm's complex structure enhances the resistance to antimicrobial agents by limiting the transport of active agents inside the biofilm. The authors assessed the ability of high-velocity water microsprays to enhance delivery of antimicrobials into 3-d-old S. mutans biofilms. Biofilms were exposed to a 90° or 30° impact, first using a 1-µm tracer bead solution (10 9 beads/mL) and, second, a 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) or 0.085% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) solution. For comparison, a 30-s diffusive transport and simulated mouthwash were also performed. Confocal microscopy was used to determine number and relative bead penetration depth into the biofilm. Assessment of antimicrobial penetration was determined by calculating the killing depth detected by live/dead viability staining. The authors first demonstrated that the microspray was able to deliver significantly more microbeads deeper in the biofilm compared with diffusion and mouthwashing exposures. Next, these experiments revealed that the microspray yielded better antimicrobial penetration evidenced by deeper killing inside the biofilm and a wider killing zone around the zone of clearance than diffusion alone. Interestingly the 30° impact in the distal position delivered approximately 16 times more microbeads and yielded approximately 20% more bacteria killing (for both CHX and CPC) than the 90° impact. These data suggest that high-velocity water microsprays can be used as an effective mechanism to deliver microparticles and antimicrobials inside S. mutans biofilms. High shear stresses generated at the biofilm-burst interface might have enhanced bead and antimicrobial delivery inside the remaining biofilm by combining forced advection into the biofilm matrix and physical restructuring of the biofilm itself. Further, the impact angle has potential to be optimized both for biofilm removal and active agents' delivery inside

  2. Association of Oral Microbiome With Risk for Incident Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung; Fan, Xiaozhou; Peters, Brandilyn A; Ma, Yingfei; Yang, Liying; Agalliu, Ilir; Burk, Robert D; Ganly, Ian; Purdue, Mark P; Freedman, Neal D; Gapstur, Susan M; Pei, Zhiheng

    2018-03-01

    Case-control studies show a possible relationship between oral bacteria and head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prospective studies are needed to examine the temporal relationship between oral microbiome and subsequent risk of HNSCC. To prospectively examine associations between the oral microbiome and incident HNSCC. This nested case-control study was carried out in 2 prospective cohort studies: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Among 122 004 participants, 129 incident patient cases of HNSCC were identified during an average 3.9 years of follow-up. Two controls per patient case (n = 254) were selected through incidence density sampling, matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. All participants provided mouthwash samples and were cancer-free at baseline. Oral microbiome composition and specific bacterial abundances were determined through bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall oral microbiome composition and specific taxa abundances were compared for the case group and the control group, using PERMANOVA and negative binomial generalized linear models, respectively, controlling for age, sex, race, cohort, smoking, alcohol, and oral human papillomavirus-16 status. Taxa with a 2-sided false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P-value (q-value) <.10 were considered significant. Incident HNSCC. The study included 58 patient cases from CPS-II (mean [SD] age, 71.0 [6.4] years; 16 [27.6%] women) and 71 patient cases from PLCO (mean [SD] age, 62.7 [4.8] years; 13 [18.3%] women). Two controls per patient case (n = 254) were selected through incidence density sampling, matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. Head and neck squamous cell cancer cases and controls were similar with respect to age, sex, and race. Patients in the case group were more often current tobacco

  3. Impact of different tongue cleaning methods on the bacterial load of the tongue dorsum.

    PubMed

    Bordas, Alice; McNab, Rod; Staples, Angela M; Bowman, Jim; Kanapka, Joe; Bosma, Marylynn P

    2008-04-01

    To assess the extent and duration of the effect of tongue cleaning procedures on bacterial load on the dorsal surface of the tongue. 19 subjects participated in this blinded crossover study. Subjects abstained from oral hygiene, eating and drinking from 22:00 h the previous evening. Tongue samples were collected at baseline and within 15 minutes of one of three procedures: teeth brushing alone; teeth brushing plus tongue scraping; teeth brushing plus tongue cleaning using a high speed vacuum ejector and irrigation with 20 ml antibacterial mouthwash. Subjects then brushed twice daily for 3 days apart from the second group who additionally scraped their tongue twice daily. On day 4, baseline and post-treatment samples were collected as per day 1. Bacteria (total anaerobes, Gram-negative anaerobes, VSC-producing bacteria and Streptococcus saliuarius) were enumerated using appropriate selective media. The tongue dorsum was colonized by all 4 bacterial categories (log(10) 6-8 cfu/sample). For subjects who brushed their teeth only, there was a significant reduction from baseline for S. saliuarius only. In contrast, tooth brushing plus tongue scraping resulted in statistically significant reductions from baseline for all bacterial categories (range log(10) 0.11-0.40 cfu/sample). Highly statistically significant reductions (log(10) 1.11-1.96 cfu/sample) were observed for subjects who underwent thorough tongue cleaning with the saliva ejector/mouthwash. To determine longevity of treatment effects, baseline bacterial loads for days 1 and 4 were compared. Only daily tongue scraping resulted in statistical significant reduction in baseline microbial loads on day 4. While mechanical tongue cleaning with or without chemical intervention can reduce bacterial load on the tongue, this effect is transient, and regular tongue cleaning is required to provide a long lasting (overnight) reduction in bacterial numbers. Nevertheless, tongue cleaning is an oral hygiene procedure that is

  4. Evaluation of HPV-16 and HPV-18 specific antibody measurements in saliva collected in oral rinses and merocel® sponges.

    PubMed

    Parker, Katherine H; Kemp, Troy J; Pan, Yuanji; Yang, Zhen; Giuliano, Anna R; Pinto, Ligia A

    2018-05-03

    Current Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP vaccines protect against HPV-16 and HPV-18-associated cancers, in females and males. Although correlates of protection have not been identified, HPV-specific antibodies at sites of infection are thought to be the main mechanism of protection afforded by vaccination. Oral sampling has gained increased attention as a potential alternative to serum in monitoring immunity to vaccination and understanding local immunity in oral cancers. Serum was collected via venipuncture, and saliva was collected via oral rinses and Merocel® sponges from healthy volunteers: 16 unvaccinated females, 6 females (ages 24-41) and 6 mid-adult aged males (ages 27-45) recipients of three doses of the HPV-16/18/6/11 vaccine (Gardasil®). Mid-adult male vaccine trial participants were compared to female participants. Samples were tested for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 immunoglobulin G levels by an L1 virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All vaccinated participants had detectable serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies. Optimal standard concentration range and sample serial dilutions for oral rinses were determined. The standard curve was not affected by the type of solution examined. Reproducibility of HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers in mouthwash (overall CV < 10%) or in Merocel® extraction buffer was robust (CV < 13%). Excellent assay linearity (R 2  > 0.9) was observed for sera spiked controls in both solutions. HPV-16 and HPV-18 specific antibodies were detectable in saliva from vaccine recipients, both in mouthwash and in Merocel® sponges but levels were several logs lower than those in serum. This study confirms the application of HPV-16 and HPV-18 ELISAs currently used in sero-epidemiological studies of immunogenicity of HPV vaccines for use with oral samples. Oral samples may be a useful resource for the detection of HPV-16 and HPV-18-specific antibodies in saliva following vaccination

  5. Tongue scraping for treating halitosis.

    PubMed

    Outhouse, T L; Al-Alawi, R; Fedorowicz, Z; Keenan, J V

    2006-04-19

    Halitosis is used to describe any disagreeable odour of expired air regardless of its origin. Mouthwashes which disguise oral malodor are more socially acceptable and generally more popular than tongue scrapers. To provide reliable evidence regarding the effectiveness of tongue scraping versus other interventions (including mouthwashes) to control halitosis. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 15th September 2005); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3 2005); MEDLINE 1966 to September Week 1 2005; EMBASE 1974 to September 2005 (searched September 19th 2005). Randomized controlled trials comparing different methods of tongue cleaning to reduce mouth odour in adults with halitosis. Clinical heterogeneity between the two included trials precluded pooling of data, therefore a descriptive summary is presented. This review included two trials involving 40 participants. Both trials were methodologically sound but included no data for the primary outcomes specified in this review. Secondary outcomes expressed as volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels were assessed by a portable sulfide monitor in both trials. One trial showed reductions of VSC levels of 42% with the tongue cleaner, 40% with the tongue scraper and 33% with the toothbrush. Reduced VSC levels persisted longer with the tongue cleaner than the toothbrush and could not be detected for more than 30 minutes after the intervention in any of the groups. Differences were assessed by the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests with the level of significance set at P < 0.05. The second trial, in which differences in totaled rank values between groups were compared by the Dunn method alpha = 0.01, showed a reduction of VSC levels compared with baseline measurements of 75% with the tongue scraper and 45% with the toothbrush. Adverse effects in one trial were nausea (60%) and trauma (10%) with the toothbrush and all participants

  6. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0

  7. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-11-01

    Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in

  8. [Influence of different ultrasonic irrigation solutions after root canal preparation with ProTaper by machine on micro-hardness of root canal dentin].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang-li; Zhang, Yan; Zhen, Lei

    2015-08-01

    To develope the influence of different ultrasonic irrigations after root canal preparation with nickel titanium ProTaper on micro-hardness of root canal dentin. Sixty of maxillary anterior teeth with single-canal were collected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Group A was control group, group B was prepared to F3 with nickel titanium ProTaper by machine, group C was ultrasonic irrigated with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution for 1 minute after preparation, group D was ultrasonic irrigated with koutai mouthwash for 1 minute after preparation, group E was ultrasonic irrigated with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute after preparation, group F was ultrasonic irrigated with distilled water for 1 minute after preparation. The roots were then sectioned horizontally into 3 parts, split longitudinally into halves and examined under a micro Vickers hardness test machine. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t test with SPSS 17.0 software package. The micro-hardness of group A was (52.66 ± 1.64) HV,(52.08 ± 1.53) HV and (51.47 ± 2.53) HV. There was no significant difference in all parts of the root canal in group A (P>0.05). The micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal was lower than that of the cervical and middle of root canal in the other groups (P<0.05). In the cervical and middle third of the root canals, the micro-hardness of group E was (44.65 ± 1.33) HV and(42.55 ± 1.12) HV, and there were statistical significances between group E and the other groups (P<0.05). In the apical third of root canal,the micro-hardness of group E was (37.82 ± 1.60) HV, and group C was (44.14±1.73) HV, both of the comparative differences with other groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference among group B, group D and group F (P>0.05). Root canal preparation to F3 with nickel titanium ProTaper by machine can make the micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal decrease. Ultrasonic irrigation with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute can

  9. Rapid and Effective Virucidal Activity of Povidone-Iodine Products Against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA).

    PubMed

    Eggers, Maren; Eickmann, Markus; Zorn, Juergen

    2015-12-01

    Since the first case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was reported in 2012, the virus has infected more than 1300 individuals in 26 countries, and caused more than 480 deaths. Human-to-human transmission requires close contact, and has typically occurred in the healthcare setting. Improved global awareness, together with improved hygiene practices in healthcare facilities, has been highlighted as key strategies in controlling the spread of MERS-CoV. This study tested the in vitro efficacy of three formulations of povidone iodine (PVP-I: 4% PVP-I skin cleanser, 7.5% PVP-I surgical scrub, and 1% PVP-I gargle/mouthwash) against a reference virus (Modified vaccinia virus Ankara, MVA) and MERS-CoV. According to EN14476, a standard suspension test was used to assess virucidal activity against MVA and large volume plating was used for MERS-CoV. All products were tested under clean (0.3 g/L bovine serum albumin, BSA) and dirty conditions (3.0 g/L BSA + 3.0 mL/L erythrocytes), with application times of 15, 30, and 60 s for MVA, and 15 s for MERS-CoV. The products were tested undiluted, 1:10 and 1:100 diluted against MVA, and undiluted against MERS-CoV. A reduction in virus titer of ≥4 log10 (corresponding to an inactivation of ≥99.99%) was regarded as evidence of virucidal activity. This was achieved versus MVA and MERS-CoV, under both clean and dirty conditions, within 15 s of application of each undiluted PVP-I product. These data indicate that PVP-I-based hand wash products for potentially contaminated skin, and PVP-I gargle/mouthwash for reduction of viral load in the oral cavity and the oropharynx, may help to support hygiene measures to prevent transmission of MERS-CoV. Mundipharma Research GmbH & Co.

  10. Dental health professional recommendation and consumer habits in denture cleansing.

    PubMed

    Axe, Alyson S; Varghese, Roshan; Bosma, MaryLynn; Kitson, Nicola; Bradshaw, David J

    2016-02-01

    Regular cleaning of dentures is essential to the oral and general health of denture wearers. Only limited systematic data are available on the recommendations that dental health care professionals (DHCPs) make to patients for denture cleaning. Data on denture wearers' cleaning regimens are also lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide data on recommendations that DHCPs make to patients for denture cleaning and on the cleaning regimens of denture wearers. DHCPs (n=613), including dentists and hygienists, were surveyed in developed (Japan, USA, Italy) and developing (Brazil, India) countries. A questionnaire assessing a range of denture cleaning recommendations was used. The questions addressed products, frequency, how to use remedies, the suggested dilution and duration of cleansing treatment, the location of dentures while cleaning, and the reasoning behind the recommendation of particular products or modes of treatment. Denture cleansing methods and the routine of denture wearers in developed and developing countries were also surveyed with a questionnaire (n=2862) and a 1-week diary (n=1462). An average of more than 2 treatments was recommended by DHCPs. Specialist denture cleanser tablets, "regular" toothpaste, mouthwash, soap and water, denture paste, foam or liquid denture cleanser, and dishwashing detergents were most commonly recommended; other product recommendations included baking soda, vinegar, salt water, and bleach. More than 10% of DHCPs made no primary recommendation on cleaning. Denture tablets were more commonly recommended in developed countries, whereas toothpaste was the most common recommendation in developing countries. Denture wearers used products and methods similar to those recommended by DHCPs. Toothpaste, water, and mouthwash were used more frequently than denture tablets. More than 75% of denture wearers reported using denture cleanser tablets for more than 5 minutes, whereas soap and toothpaste were typically used for less

  11. [Psychology of Hygiene: Rsult of a Comparative Study 1968/1976 (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bergler, R

    1976-01-01

    Object of the investigation is: (1) the analysis of the behaviour observed in adults between 18 and 23 years of age regarding cleanliness, body hygiene and changing of underwear,and a comparison of the results with those for 1968; (2) Differential "diagnosis" of the relationship between the degree of cleanliness and the various styles of the upbringing received at the hands of the parents, the different assessment of the personal body image and of cleanliness-related values ("cleanliness ideology"). Main results of the investigation (1) In 1976, too, women remain cleaner than men; the latter, however, have clearly improved their daily washing habits (lower part of the body, feet) and have taken to changing their underwear, night clothes and coloured shirts more frequently. With respect to the frequency with which women change their underwear there has been no change. (2) With respect to body hygiene and cosmetic care, women are found to be making increasing use of mouth-wash, foam bath agents, face lotions and face milk, nail polish, while men are making more use of mouth-wash, bubble bath agents as well as deodorants. In contrast, women are making less use of lip-sticks, eyebrow pencils, Eau de Cologne, (3) Women's behaviour with respect to the observed and evaluated parental upbringing and to their own body image is more differentiated: The 4-factor solution for women contrasts with the 3-factor solution for men. (4) Only a form of cleanliness training involving corporal punishment and associated with a tense or hostile relationship towards the mother or father cannot be correlated to a desirable observance of cleanliness. Other possible forms of cleanliness training including supervisory forms, do not prevent the learning and adoption of desirable practices for achieving cleanliness. (5) Less clean women show a generally less pronounced body-feeling as manifested in active physical exercise in some sports disciplines and in body care. There is also a tendency

  12. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  13. Fluoride concentration in saliva after use of oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Campus, Guglielmo; Lallai, Maria Rosario; Carboni, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this in vivo, single-blind, randomized study was to compare fluoride concentrations in saliva of patients treated with oral hygiene products containing different fluoride salts. The study involved 104 students attending the University of Sassari. Participants were subdivided: group A used a sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP) toothpaste; groups B and C used an amine fluoride (AmF) toothpaste; group D used a toothpaste and a mouthwash both based on AmF, and group E used a toothpaste and a varnish both on an NaMFP base. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected at baseline (t(0)), at the end of the 20 days' treatment phase (t(1)) and after 24 h, during which the volunteers refrained from any oral hygiene measure (t(2)). Saliva fluoride concentrations were measured using an ion-specific electrode. All measurements were made in triplicate and analysed statistically using ANOVA. In saliva, the mean fluoride concentration increased significantly in each treatment group. In conclusion, the fluoride concentration in saliva can be maintained to an optimal therapeutic level with the regular use of fluoridated products. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. [Determination of antibiotics in oral hygiene products by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weijun; Xie, Zhengfu; Shao, Linzhi

    2012-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 13 antibiotics in oral hygiene products, including five tetracyclines, three macrolides, two quinolones, one beta-lactam and two lincosamides. The sample was extracted with 0.1% (volume percentage, same hereinafter) formic acid-acetonitrile (95:5, v/v), then centrifuged, filtered and diluted. The target compounds were separated on a C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) with a gradient elution of 0. 1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phases, and detected by tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The quantification of 13 antibiotics was performed by the external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 5.0-50.0 microg/L with detection limits of 10.0 mg/kg. The recoveries of antibiotics in mouthwash and toothpaste samples at the three spiked levels of 10, 20 and 100 mg/kg were in the range of 80.1%-115% with the relative standard deviations in the range of 0.94%-8.69%. This method is accurate, reliable, simple, and suitable for the analysis of antibiotics in oral hygiene products.

  15. Oral hygiene products may cause dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Rytömaa, I; Meurman, J H; Franssila, S; Torkko, H

    1989-01-01

    The erosive effects of the mouthwashes Calcusan, Salisan and Veadent, and of a tablet, Salivin, meant to be sucked, were studied using enamel blocks from bovine permanent teeth. For comparison, the Hart-Sport sport drink (pH 3.1), which is known to be erosive, and carbonated mineral water Vichy (pH 5.4), which is known to have no erosive effect, were also tested. After two hours of exposure to each test product losses of tooth material were measured by recording the surface profile, using a Dectak profilometer. Changes in the enamel blocks were also studied using a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the profilometric study, Calcusan was found to have a marked erosive effect (77 +/- 5 microns), four times as severe as the erosive effect of the positive control Hart-Sport (19 +/- 4 microns). Veadent had a less marked effect (3 +/- 1 microns). Salisan and Salivin had no detectable erosive effects and were similar in action to the negative control, carbonated mineral water. From the SEM pictures, Calcusan resulted in an EDTA-type reaction, with dissolution of the peripheral areas of enamel prisms. It is important to recognize that the organic acids and chelating agents in various oral hygiene products may have deleterious effects on teeth.

  16. Quantifying the impact of standardized assessment and symptom management tools on symptoms associated with cancer-induced anorexia cachexia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Inga M; Waterfield, Kerry; Hildreth, Anthony J; Kirkpatrick, Graeme; Hawkins, Colette

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of standardized assessment and management tools on patient symptom scores in cancer-induced anorexia cachexia syndrome (ACS) using a within-group study design. Baseline assessments included the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) tool and an amended Symptoms and Concerns Checklist (SCC). Symptom management strategies, written for this project, were instigated. Follow-up SCC scores were collected at 2 and 4 weeks. Forty out of 79 patients referred were recruited; 29/79 (36.7%) were too unwell or had died prior to consent. At baseline, the PG-SGA tool revealed 250 active symptoms associated with ACS. Total PG-SGA score was above 9 for all patients. Predominant interventions involved simple dietary advice and prescription of artificial saliva, mouthwash and prokinetic antiemetics. Median total SCC score improved sequentially from 11 at baseline, to 7 and 4 at first and second review, respectively (visit 1 to 2, p = 0.001; visit 1 to 3, p < 0.001; and visit 2 to 3, p = 0.02). We conclude that patients with ACS are recognised late in their disease and have a considerable burden of active symptoms. A structured approach to assessment and management has a significant impact on symptom burden.

  17. The Breast Cancer Family Registry: an infrastructure for cooperative multinational, interdisciplinary and translational studies of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M; Hopper, John L; Beck, Jeanne C; Knight, Julia A; Neuhausen, Susan L; Senie, Ruby T; Ziogas, Argyrios; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Boyd, Norman; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; O'Malley, Frances P; Santella, Regina M; Southey, Melissa C; Venne, Vickie L; Venter, Deon J; West, Dee W; Whittemore, Alice S; Seminara, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The etiology of familial breast cancer is complex and involves genetic and environmental factors such as hormonal and lifestyle factors. Understanding familial aggregation is a key to understanding the causes of breast cancer and to facilitating the development of effective prevention and therapy. To address urgent research questions and to expedite the translation of research results to the clinical setting, the National Cancer Institute (USA) supported in 1995 the establishment of a novel research infrastructure, the Breast Cancer Family Registry, a collaboration of six academic and research institutions and their medical affiliates in the USA, Canada, and Australia. Methods The sites have developed core family history and epidemiology questionnaires, data dictionaries, and common protocols for biospecimen collection and processing and pathology review. An Informatics Center has been established to collate, manage, and distribute core data. Results As of September 2003, 9116 population-based and 2834 clinic-based families have been enrolled, including 2346 families from minority populations. Epidemiology questionnaire data are available for 6779 affected probands (with a personal history of breast cancer), 4116 unaffected probands, and 16,526 relatives with or without a personal history of breast or ovarian cancer. The biospecimen repository contains blood or mouthwash samples for 6316 affected probands, 2966 unaffected probands, and 10,763 relatives, and tumor tissue samples for 4293 individuals. Conclusion This resource is available to internal and external researchers for collaborative, interdisciplinary, and translational studies of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer. Detailed information can be found at the URL . PMID:15217505

  18. [Treatment and prevention of cancer treatment related oral mucositis].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Esquide, Gonzalo; Nervi, Bruno; Vargas, Alex; Maíz, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    One of the most common and troublesome complications of modern intensive anticancer treatments is oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence and clinical guidelines regarding its prevention and therapy. The use of keratinocyte growth factor-1, supplementary glutamine and other recently developed treatment modalities are discussed. The injury of the oral mucosa caused by antineoplastic agents promotes the local expression of multiple pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic molecules and eventually leads to the development of ulcers. Such lesions predispose patients to several infectious and nutritional complications. Also, they lead to modification of treatment schedules, potentially affecting overall prognosis. Local cryotherapy with ice chips and phototherapy with low energy laser may be useful as preventive measures. Mouthwashes with allopurinol and phototherapy with low energy laser can be used as treatment. In radiotherapy, special radiation administration techniques should be used to minimize mucosal injury. Pain control should always be optimized, with the use of patient controlled analgesia and topical use of morphine. Supplemental glutamine should not be used outside of research protocols. Lastly, thorough attention should be paid to general care and hygiene measures.

  19. Reduction of Streptococcus mutans adherence and dental biofilm formation by surface treatment with phosphorylated polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Shimotoyodome, Akira; Koudate, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Nakamura, Junji; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Hase, Tadashi; Inoue, Takashi; Matsukubo, Takashi; Takaesu, Yoshinori

    2007-10-01

    Initial attachment of the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans onto dental enamel is largely promoted by the adsorption of specific salivary proteins on enamel surface. Some phosphorylated salivary proteins were found to reduce S. mutans adhesion by competitively inhibiting the adsorption of S. mutans-binding salivary glycoproteins to hydroxyapatite (HA). The aim of this study was to develop antiadherence compounds for preventing dental biofilm development. We synthesized phosphorylated polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives and examined the possibility of surface pretreatment with them for preventing S. mutans adhesion in vitro and dental biofilm formation in vivo. Pretreatment of the HA surface with methacryloyloxydecyl phosphate (MDP)-PEG prior to saliva incubation hydrophilized the surface and thereby reduced salivary protein adsorption and saliva-promoted bacterial attachment to HA. However, when MDP-PEG was added to the saliva-pretreated HA (S-HA) surface, its inhibitory effect on bacterial binding was completely diminished. S. mutans adhesion onto S-HA was successfully reduced by treatment of the surface with pyrophosphate (PP), which desorbs salivary components from S-HA. Treatment of S-HA surfaces with MDP-PEG plus PP completely inhibited saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion even when followed by additional saliva treatment. Finally, mouthwash with MDP-PEG plus PP prevented de novo biofilm development after thorough teeth cleaning in humans compared to either water or PP alone. We conclude that MDP-PEG plus PP has the potential for use as an antiadherence agent that prevents dental biofilm development.

  20. Comparison of Clinpro Cario L-Pop estimates with CIA lactic acid estimates of the oral microflora.

    PubMed

    Gerardu, Véronique; Heijnsbroek, Muriel; Buijs, Mark; van der Weijden, Fridus; Ten Cate, Bob; van Loveren, Cor

    2006-04-01

    Clinpro Cario L-Pop (CCLP) is a semiquantitive test claimed to determine the general potential for caries development and to monitor the individual caries risk. This test translates the capacity of the tongue microflora to produce lactic acid into a score of 1-9, indicating a low, medium or high risk for caries development. The aim of this randomized crossover, clinical trial was to evaluate the CCLP on its variation over time and its capacity to monitor the effect of three different oral hygiene procedures. The CCLP readings were compared with measurements of lactic acid in tongue biofilm and plaque samples by capillary ion electrophoresis (CIA). After four washout periods, the distribution of scores in the low-, medium-, and high-risk categories was 10%, 16%, and 74%, respectively. Out of 30 subjects, 11 scored consistently in the same category. The coefficients of variance of lactic acid concentrations were 31% for tongue samples and 25% for plaque samples. After using antimicrobial toothpaste and mouthwash, the number of high-risk scores was reduced to 33%; reduced acidogenicity was also found in tongue and plaque samples. We conclude that CCLP can be used to monitor and stimulate compliance to an antimicrobial oral hygiene protocol.

  1. Comparison of nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel and NiTi wires after immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Moghaddas, Omid; Toopchi, Shabnam; Perillo, Letizia

    2014-07-01

    Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018" stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions. One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018" were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days. Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p < 0.002). Chromium and nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva. There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

  2. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions in Orthodontic Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs), around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence.

  3. Oral health changes during early phase of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudarević, Karlo; Jurela, Antonija; Repić, Dario; Jokić, Dražen; Mikić, Ivana Medvedec; Pejda, Slavica

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of fixed orthodontic appliance on Streptococcus (S.) mutans and S. sobrinus counts in orthodontic patients with regard to their previous caries experience (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index) during the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. Twenty-two patients that satisfied inclusion criteria (healthy systemic and periodontal condition, avoidance of antibiotic therapy and antiseptic mouthwashes in the past three months) were included. All clinical measurements took place prior to and 12 weeks after fixed orthodontic appliance placement, in the following order: 1) stimulated saliva flow (SS); 2) Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S); and 3) DMFT. The method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus at T1 and T2. T-test showed significant increase in DMFT index and SS between T1 and T2. Results also indicated significant improvement in OHI-S index. By use of the PCR method, S. mutans was detected in two patients at T1. At T2, two more patients had S. mutans, but the increase was not statistically significant. Using the same method, S. sobrinus was detected only in two patients at T2. In conclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances did not induce statistically significant changes in caries microflora even in the presence of enhanced oral hygiene habits.

  4. Reduction of saliva-promoted adhesion of Streptococcus mutans MT8148 and dental biofilm development by tragacanth gum and yeast-derived phosphomannan.

    PubMed

    Shimotoyodome, A; Kobayashi, H; Nakamura, J; Tokimitsu, I; Hase, T; Inoue, T; Matsukubo, T; Takaesu, Y

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate materials which reduce saliva-promoted adhesion of Streptococcus mutans onto enamel surfaces, and their potential in preventing dental biofilm development. The effects of hydroxyapatite (HA) surface pretreatment with hydrophilic polysaccharides on saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion in vitro and de novo dental biofilm deposition in vivo were examined. Saliva-promoted adhesion of S. mutans MT8148 was significantly reduced by pretreatment of the HA surface with tragacanth gum (TG) and yeast-derived phosphoglycans. Extracellular phosphomannan (PM) from Pichia capsulata NRRL Y-1842 and TG reduced biofilm development on lower incisors in plaque-susceptible rats when administered via drinking water at concentrations of 0.5% and 0.01%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of TG on de novo dental biofilm formation was also demonstrated when administered via mouthwash in humans. It is concluded that TG and yeast-derived PM have the potential for use as anti-adherent agents and are effective in reducing de novo dental biofilm formation.

  5. Intra-oral models to assess cariogenicity: evaluation of oral fluoride and pH.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, R M; Gilbert, R J

    1992-04-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the various methods used for evaluation of fluoride retention in saliva, plaque, and enamel following application of topical anti-caries treatments such as F dentifrices and F mouthwashes. Such methods monitor delivery of fluoride to the site of action, the mouth, and so can be regarded as assessing potential for treatment action. It is concluded that intra-oral fluoride measurements are appropriate to support bioequivalence claims for anti-caries treatments, provided that particular chosen methods have been calibrated against clinical data. Studies purporting to show superiority are of interest mechanistically, but links to caries are not sufficiently understood to define superiority claims. A wide variety of methods has been used for determination of the fluoride content of enamel. Of these, well-established methods such as the micro-drill and acid-etch procedures are appropriate for routine comparative testing, whereas sophisticated instrumental techniques such as SIMS are more appropriate for detailed mechanistic studies. Intra-oral pH measurements are also relevant to many topical treatments. Single-site determinations in plaque are preferred, but for comparative studies non-specific determinations may be adequate.

  6. [Epidemiology and risk factors of the oral carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Podlodowska, Justyna; Szumiło, Justyna; Podlodowski, Wiktor; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Burdan, Franciszek

    2012-02-01

    Oral cancer is the eleventh most common malignancy in the world, with squamous cell carcinoma being a predominant histologic type. The highest incidence is observed in India, Australia, Brazil, France and South Africa. In Europe the most affected regions are France, French-language cantons of Switzerland, northern Italy and countries of the Middle-East Europe. In most regions cancer is much more common in man. Oral cancer accounts for 1.34% of all registered malignant tumors in Poland in 2008. Etiology of the oral squamous cell carcinoma is complex. The most important risk factors, especially in well-developed countries are tobacco smoking and alcohol exposure. Alcohol promotes cancer development not only administered as a stimulant but also as a component of mouthwashes. Betel chewing, human papilloma virus infection, deficiency of vitamin A, riboflavin and iron, poor mouth hygiene and immunosuppressive therapy are also associated with higher incidence of oral carcinoma. More recently, relation between individual increased susceptibility to oral cancer and some genes polymorphisms, especially those encoding cytokines and enzymes engaged in alcohol metabolism has been found.

  7. [Oral health knowledge and practices among pregnant women using health services in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, 2007-2008].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Ferreira; Ribeiro, Tafnes Valverde; Fernandes, Daniela Braga; Calixto, Nayra Rodrigues de Vasconcelos; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coêlho; Pereira, Antônio Luiz Amaral; Pereira, Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    to describe characteristics of oral health care during prenatal check-ups and knowledge about oral health among pregnant women using public and private health services in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. this is a descriptive study of 300 women interviewed in public health services and a further 300 interviewed in private health services between August 2007 and July 2008. tooth brushing frequency was similar among users of public and private services (p=0.156), while flossing (64.0% and 47.0%; p<0.001) and mouthwashing (39.7% and 27.0%; p=0.001) was more frequent among private service users in relation to public service users; most users of public services (60.3%) and private services (65.7%) were unaware of the association between oral health and pregnancy. frequency of tooth brushing was similar among pregnant women in public and private services; the effects of pregnancy on oral health were not well known.

  8. Efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate-containing formulations and other mouthrinses against periodontopathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Eick, Sigrun; Goltz, Susann; Nietzsche, Sandor; Jentsch, Holger; Pfister, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    To determine in vitro the action of chlorhexidine digluconate and different commercially available mouthrinses on oral microorganisms. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and possible induction of resistance by chlorhexidine digluconate, an essential oil-containing mouthwash and an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride solution, were determined against microorganisms normally found in the oral cavity (10 streptococci, 2 enterobacteria, 1 Candida albicans, 8 Porphyromonas gingivalis, 6 Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and 1 Fusobacterium nucleatum). Further, the effect of a 1-minute exposure on cell and bacterial viability was studied. The susceptibility of the oral microorganisms to chlorhexidine digluconate ranged from 0.01% to 0.50%. Passages on agar plates containing subinhibitory concentrations of chlorhexidine digluconate resulted in a transitory moderate increase in the tolerance to chlorhexidine digluconate in five of the 24 isolates. After 1 minute of exposure, chlorhexidine digluconate solutions as well as the essential oil and the amine/stannous fluoride-containing solutions showed a high activity against the tested microorganisms. Commercially available chlorhexidine digluconate formulations (ie, those with antidiscoloration systems) were partly less efficient than the corresponding manually prepared chlorhexidine digluconate preparation. The determination of MTT resulted in a strong cytotoxicity of all tested preparations to gingival fibroblasts. The results indicate that most of the chlorhexidine digluconate formulations as well as essential oil and the amine fluoride/stannous fluoride solutions are active against oral microbes. Long-term use of these agents would not result in emergent antimicrobial resistance.

  9. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Behaviour among Secondary School Children in Chandigarh

    PubMed Central

    Blaggana, Anshu; Anjali; Kapoor, Anoop; Blaggana, Vikram; Tanwar, Renu; Kaur, Harleen; Haneet, Ryana Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health knowledge is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related practices and better oral health. Healthy practices adopted at young age are more sustainable. Aim Present cross-sectional exploratory study was planned to assess oral health knowledge and practices of secondary school students in Chandigarh, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was under-taken amongst 1027 secondary level school students, in Chandigarh, India. After obtaining informed consent subjects were administered pretested self administered questionnaire addressing demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice behaviour of participants. Frequency analysis was done using descriptive statistics. Results Survey revealed that only 40% subjects brushed twice daily. About 17% reported use of dental floss and 20% used either mouthwash or tongue cleaner as adjuncts. A total of 58% had knowledge that infrequent brushing led to dental caries, staining of teeth, dental plaque and bleeding from gums. Most of them knew sweets (92.7%) and soft drinks (67.8%) affected dental health. Only 12.9% visited dentist regularly after every 6-12 months. Conclusion Efficacy of dental health education can be increased only if health programs are tailored to directly impinge on attitudes of targeted population, especially school children in whom healthy practices can be inculcated easily and be sustained for long times. PMID:27891447

  10. Self-reported oral health and hygiene habits, dental decay, and periodontal condition among pregnant European women.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Beneyto, Yolanda; Vera-Delgado, María V; Pérez, Leonor; Maurandi, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among self-reported oral hygiene habits, dental decay, and periodontal condition among pregnant women. In a cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire and dental examination were used to assess pregnant women's knowledge of oral health and attitudes to oral hygiene, in addition to their dental and periodontal condition. Data were collected from 337 pregnant women living in Murcia in southeast Spain. The questionnaire was completed by 337 women, 282 of whom also had an oral examination. More than 57% were in their first pregnancy, their mean age was 30 years, and most (80.1%) were Spanish with a medium-high educational level. Most of the pregnant woman (84%) brushed their teeth 2 or 3 times a day, and a third (30.9%) used a mouthwash daily. The pregnant women who self-reported having good or very good dental health had a lower level of active decay (P < 0.001) and a lower periodontal index (P < 0.001). In the present study, there was a significant correlation between a high level of self-reported oral health in pregnant women and low levels of dental decay and low periodontal indexes. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of four chewing sticks commonly used in South India: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Arun; Muranga, Jayanthi; Joseph, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The use of chewing sticks has been well documented since ancient times in India. Chewing sticks are a good alternative to the toothbrush for maintaining oral hygiene. The present study was designed and conducted to compare and evaluate the antimicrobial effects of the aqueous extracts of neem, miswak, mango, and banyan chewing sticks against two bacterial species considered the most important in the initiation and progression of dental caries, namely Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively. Twigs of the above mentioned chewing sticks were sun dried and powdered, and sterile aqueous solutions of 10%, 25% and 50% concentrations were prepared. Culture plates for S mutans and L acidophilus were prepared and the growth was transferred to nutrient agar and Mueller-Hinton agar; antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested after 72 h, using the disc diffusion method. Normal saline was used as control. The antimicrobial activity of neem, miswak, and mango extracts increased as their concentrations increased. Both banyan extract and saline showed no antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested. Based on the zones of inhibition, aqueous extracts of neem showed the most antimicrobial activity against S mutans, while miswak extracts showed superior antimicrobial activity against L acidophilus. We recommend further phytochemical and pharmacological studies to discover newer nonsynthetic tooth pastes and mouthwashes.

  12. Exposure to triclosan augments the allergic response to ovalbumin in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Kashon, Michael L; Anderson, Katie L; Hubbs, Ann F; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-03-01

    During the last decade, there has been a remarkable and unexplained increase in the prevalence of asthma. These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to triclosan, an endocrine-disrupting compound, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. Triclosan has had widespread use in the general population as an antibacterial and antifungal agent and is commonly found in consumer products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouthwashes, and cleaning supplies. For these studies, BALB/c mice were exposed dermally to concentrations of triclosan ranging from 0.75 to 3% (0.375-1.5mg/mouse/day) for 28 consecutive days. Concordantly, mice were ip injected with OVA (0.9 µg) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5mg) on days 1 and 10 and challenged with OVA (125 µg) by pharyngeal aspiration on days 19 and 27. Compared with the animals exposed to OVA alone, increased spleen weights, OVA-specific IgE, interleukin-13 cytokine levels, and numbers of lung eosinophils were demonstrated when mice were coexposed to OVA and triclosan. Statistically significant increases in OVA-specific and nonspecific airway hyperreactivity were observed for all triclosan coexposed groups compared with the vehicle and OVA controls. In these studies, exposure to triclosan alone was not demonstrated to be allergenic; however, coexposure with a known allergen resulted in enhancement of the hypersensitivity response to that allergen, suggesting that triclosan exposure may augment the allergic responses to other environmental allergens.

  13. Intermittent subglottic secretion drainage may cause tracheal damage in patients with few oropharyngeal secretions.

    PubMed

    Suys, E; Nieboer, K; Stiers, W; De Regt, J; Huyghens, L; Spapen, H

    2013-12-01

    Injurious prolapse of tracheal mucosa into the suction port has been reported in up to 50% of intubated patients receiving continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions. We investigated whether similar injury could be inflicted by automated intermittent aspiration. Six consecutive patients, intubated with the Mallinckrodt TaperGuard Evac™ endotracheal tube, were studied. A flow sensor was placed between the vacuum regulating system and the mucus collector. Intermittent suctioning was performed at a pressure of -125 mmHg with a 25s interval and duration of 15s. After 24h, a CT scan of the tracheal region was performed. Excessive negative suction pressure, a fast drop in aspiration flow to zero, and important "swinging" movements of secretions in the evacuation line were observed in all patients. Oral instillation of antiseptic mouthwash restored normal aspiration flow and secretion mobility. CT imaging showed marked entrapment of tracheal mucosa into the suction port in all patients. In patients with few oropharyngeal secretions, automated intermittent subglottic aspiration may result in significant and potential harmful invagination of tracheal mucosa into the suction lumen. A critical amount of fluid must be present in the oropharynx to assure adequate and safe aspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Ho(III) potentiometric polymeric membrane sensor based on a new four dentate neutral ion carrier.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Zanganeh-Asadabadi, Abbas; Rohani, Mitra; Zabihi, Mohammad Saleh; Fadaee, Javad; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Faridbod, Farnoush; Meghdadi, Soraia

    2013-03-01

    In this research, we report a new Ho(3+)-PVC membrane electrode based on N-(4,5-dimethyl-2-(picolinamido)phenyl)picolinamide (H(2)Me(2)bpb) as a suitable ion carrier. Poly vinylchloride (PVC)-based membrane composed of H(2)Me(2)bpb with oleic acid (OA) as anionic additives, and o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as plasticized solvent mediator. The sensor exhibits a Nernstian slope of 20.1 ± 0.2 mV decade(-1) over the concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-6) to 1.0 × 1(-2) mol L(-1), and a detection limit of 5.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) of Ho(3+) ions. The potentiometric response of the sensor is independent of the solution pH in the range of 3.5-9.4. It has a very short response time, in the whole concentration range (<10s), and can be used for at least eight weeks. The proposed electrode shows a good selectivity towards Ho(3+) ions over a wide variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. To assess its analytical applicability the proposed Ho(3+) sensor was successfully applied as an indicator electrode in the titration of Ho(3+) ion solutions in certified reference materials, alloy samples and for the determination of the fluoride ion in two mouthwash preparations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Action of Calendula officinalis essence on bone preservation after the extraction].

    PubMed

    Uribe-Fentanes, Laura K; Soriano-Padilla, Fernando; Pérez-Frutos, Jorge Raúl; Veras-Hernández, Miriam Alejandra

    2018-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a phytodrug used as analgesic, antiseptic and wound-healing agent due to its collagenogenic effect, which is why it is a convenient and affordable treatment that promotes alveolar bone preservation after tooth extraction in vivo. The aim of this study was to use Calendula officinalis during and after tooth extraction to determine its ability to preserve bone after this procedure. We established two groups matched by age, gender and position of the third molar. We used with patients on the experimental group Calendula officinalis diluted 10% as an irrigant during surgical extraction of third molars. We performed the conventional way with the control group irrigating with saline solution. Subsequently, both groups continued to make mouthwash for a week with the irrigating agent. Every week for a month, each patient underwent periapical radiography, out of which we took measurements of alveolar ridges and depth of alveolar bone, which were compared. There is statistically significant evidence to state that Calendula officinalis favorably affects bone preservation after extraction.

  16. Inhibitory effects of antiseptic mouthrinses on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Evans, A; Leishman, S J; Walsh, L J; Seow, W K

    2015-06-01

    Oral antiseptics are valuable in controlling oral infections caused by cariogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mouthrinses and pure antiseptic compounds on Streptococcus mutans and non-mutans bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus). The agar diffusion assay was employed to determine bacterial growth inhibition. Commercial mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05%) and sodium fluoride (0.05%) produced statistically similar growth inhibition of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus (with zones of inhibition ranging from 7.56 ± 0.52 mm to 7.39 ± 0.53 mm, 17.44 ± 0.94 mm to 18.31 ± 0.62 mm and 8.61 ± 1.43 to 8.67 ± 1.43 mm respectively, p > 0.05). The chlorhexidine mouthwash produced the greatest mean growth inhibition of S. sanguinis and S. mutans compared to all other mouthrinses tested (p < 0.01). The minimum concentrations at which inhibition against S. mutans could be detected were chlorhexidine gluconate at 0.005% (wt/vol), cetylpyridinium chloride 0.01% (wt/ vol), povidone iodine 10% (wt/vol) and sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (vol/vol). Chlorhexidine (0.01%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.01%), povidone iodine (10%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) are effective at inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    SciT

    Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%]in this population. It was most frequent in patients treatedmore » with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.« less

  18. Preventive effects of an original combination of grape seed polyphenols with amine fluoride on dental biofilm formation and oxidative damage by oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Furiga, A; Roques, C; Badet, C

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of an original combination of a grape seed extract (GSE) with an amine fluoride (Fluorinol(®) ) on dental plaque formation and oxidative damage caused by oral bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was assessed using the broth macrodilution method, and their antiplaque activity was evaluated on a multispecies biofilm grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs. The effect on glucosyltransferases activity was analysed through reductions in the overall reaction and the quantity of insoluble glucan synthesized. The combination of 2000 μg ml(-1) of GSE with 10·2 mg ml(-1) of Fluorinol(®) significantly decreased the biofilm formation (up to 4·76 log10 of reduction) and inhibited by 97·4% the insoluble glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferases. The antioxidant activity of this combination, alone or incorporated into a formulated mouthwash (Eludril daily(®) ), was determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), and both showed significantly greater antioxidant capacity than vitamin C. The GSE/Fluorinol(®) combination showed both a significant antiplaque activity and an important antioxidant capacity in vitro, without any bactericidal effects. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on the properties of an original combination of a polyphenolic extract with amine fluoride that could be used for the prevention of oral diseases and oxidative damage associated. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. [The bacterial biofilm and the possibilities of chemical plaque control. Literature review].

    PubMed

    Gera, István

    2008-06-01

    Most microorganisms in the oral cavity attach to surfaces and form matrix-embedded biofilms. Biofilms are structured and spatially organized, composed of consortia of interacting microorganisms. The properties of the mass of biofilm are different from that of the simple sum of the component species. The older the plaque (biofilm) is the more structurally organized and become more resistant to environmental attacks. The bacterial community favors the growth of obligatory anaerobic microorganisms. The most effective means of the elimination of matured biofilm is the mechanical disruption of the interbacterial protective matrix and removal of bacterial colonies. The antiseptic agents are primarily effective in the prevention of biofilm formation and anticipation of the maturation of the bacterial plaque. Bacteria in matured biofilms are less susceptible to antimicrobial agents because several physical and biological factors protect the bacterial consortia. To kill bacteria in a matured, well organized biofilm, significantly higher concentration and longer exposition are required. Antiseptic mouthrinses in a conventional dose and time can only reach the superficial bacteria while the bacteria in the depth of the biofilm remains intact. Therefore, the efficacy of any antiseptic mouthwash depends not just on its microbicidal properties demonstrated in vitro, but also on its ability to penetrate the organized biofilm on the teeth. Recent studies have demonstrated that both bisbiguanid compounds and essential oils are capable of penetrating the biofilm, and reduce established plaque and gingivitis. The essential oils showed high penetrability and were more effective on organized biofilm than stannous fluorides or triclosan copolymer antiplaque agents.

  20. Effect of various rinsing protocols after use of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste on the bacterial composition of dental plaque.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, C; Gerardu, V A M; Sissons, C H; van Bekkum, M; ten Cate, J M

    2009-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effect of different oral hygiene protocols on the bacterial composition of dental plaque. After a 2-week period of using fluoride-free toothpaste, 30 participants followed three 1-week experimental protocols, each followed by 2-week fluoride-free washout periods in a randomized crossover examiner-blind controlled trial. The 1-week experimental protocols comprised the use of AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste twice daily, after which participants either (1) rinsed with tap water, (2) did not rinse but only spat out the toothpaste, or (3) rinsed with an AmF/SnF(2) mouthwash. In the fluoride-free washout periods, the participants brushed their teeth with fluoride-free toothpaste without further instructions. Six hours after the last brushing (+/- rinsing) of each period, buccal plaque samples in the upper molar region were taken. The microbiota composition of the plaque samples was analyzed by checkerboard DNA:DNA hybridization. A statistically significant reduction was found in the total amount of DNA of the 39 major plaque species measured, and in the proportions of some acid-producing bacterial strains after the period having used the AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste + AmF/SnF(2) mouthrinsing. The results indicate that using the AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste and rinse combination could result in plaque of lower cariogenicity. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Halitosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Halitosis can be caused by oral disease or by respiratory tract conditions such as sinusitis, tonsillitis, and bronchiectasis, but an estimated 40% of affected individuals have no underlying organic disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with physiological halitosis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2013 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: artificial saliva; cleaning, brushing, or scraping the tongue; regular use of mouthwash; sugar-free chewing gums; and zinc toothpastes. PMID:25234037

  2. Halitosis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Halitosis can be caused by oral disease, or by respiratory tract conditions such as sinusitis, tonsillitis, and bronchiectasis, but an estimated 40% of affected individuals have no underlying organic disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with physiological halitosis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2008 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: artificial saliva; cleaning, brushing, or scraping the tongue; diet modification; regular or single use of mouthwash; sugar-free chewing gums; and zinc toothpastes. PMID:19445739

  3. Fluoride toothpaste: a cause of acne-like eruptions

    SciT

    Saunders, M.A. Jr.

    1976-04-01

    The author described closed comedonal or papular acne in about 65 adult females, aged 20 to 40, in a slightly fan-like distribution on the corner of the mouth and the chin and the proximal area of the cheeks. All patients had had extensive dermatological treatment including dietary control, tetracycline special washing agents, etc. The localization of the lesions suggested to the author that some kind of chemical carried in the saliva might be draining in the areas and in the follicles of the skin and induce this process. In view of the fact that erythematous eruptions resembling acne have beenmore » described following application of fluoridated steroids and after exposure to industrial halogram fumes the author suggested that his patients switch to a nonfluoridated toothpaste. In approximately one half of the patients, the lesions cleared within two to four weeks. When the remaining patients were asked to switch from their dentrifice containing brightening and other unknown chemicals, to baking soda and a commercially available mouthwash, nearly all those treated improved considerably; in most of them the acne-like eruptions cleared up completely. Several patients were concerned about their dental health and resumed the use of fluoride toothpaste; they promptly developed the same distribution of the acne-like eruption that had previously been present.« less

  4. Antibacterial Efficacy of a Propolis Toothpaste and Mouthrinse Against a Supragingival Multispecies Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Rosmarie; Waldner-Tomic, Nadine Michèle; Belibasakis, Georgios N; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To determine in vitro the antibacterial properties of propolis toothpaste and mouthrinse against an in vitro multispecies biofilm model. Six-species biofilms grown anaerobically on pellicle-coated hydroxyapatite disks were fed with glucose/sucrose-supplemented medium 3 times daily for 45 min and incubated in 37°C saliva between feedings for up to 64.5 h. At each interval, biofilms were exposed to six different slurries and solutions, including: 1) toothpaste without propolis, 2) toothpaste with propolis, 3) toothpaste with chlorhexidine, 4) mouthrinse with propolis, 5) mouthrinse with chlorhexidine, 6) saline solution (control). Afterwards, biofilms were harvested and the number of colony forming units were determined (CFU). The results were analysed using ANOVA, followed by the Bonferroni test at a 5% significance level. The strongest CFU reduction was shown after treatment with 0.12% chlorhexidine (p<0.0004). When comparing the different toothpastes, there was no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in CFU reduction. However, they all showed a significant reduction in CFU of more than one log-step vs the saline control group. Nevertheless, the propolis-containing mouthrinse showed no significant reduction in CFU. All toothpastes under investigation displayed some growth inhibition in this supragingival biofilm model, which accounted for an approximately 80%-88% linear reduction. However, the propolis mouthwash had no effect.

  5. Self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students

    PubMed Central

    Bin Mubayrik, Azizah; Al Hamdan, Rana; Al Hadlaq, Emad M; AlBagieh, Hamad; AlAhmed, Dan; Jaddoh, Hend; Demyati, Mawadh; Abu Shryei, Rawan

    2017-01-01

    Background Halitosis or oral malodor is defined as an unpleasant breath odor. It can become a serious problem affecting individuals’ social communication and self-confidence. Furthermore, it is a discomforting issue for the people around the person affected, because they consider it embarrassing to inform the person of the problem. Aim This study was designed to measure self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was implemented with 392 volunteer participants who responded to a questionnaire on their self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis. Results The response rate was 89.1% (392/440). Self-perception of halitosis was low (21.4%), whereas a larger percentage (78.1%) indicated noticing people with bad breath. Most participants (80.4%) thought that the gastrointestinal tract is the primary source of halitosis. Seventy-seven percent preferred using personal methods such as mouthwash and chewing gum to treat oral malodor. According to 82.1% of respondents, a dentist is the most appropriate professional to treat halitosis. Conclusion The investigation revealed low self-perception and limited knowledge regarding halitosis. Therefore, the role of dentists in informing and educating their patients concerning oral malodor should be enhanced. Public education about the causes of and possible ways of managing bad breath should be increased. PMID:28603430

  6. Triclosan: its occurrence, fate and effects in the Australian environment.

    PubMed

    Kookana, R S; Ying, G-G; Waller, N J

    2011-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in household products such as soaps, household cleaners, cosmetics, sportswear, mouthwash and toothpaste. It is a bioaccumulative compound known for its high toxicity to algae, daphnids, fish and other aquatic organisms. We investigated its occurrence in effluents, biosolids and surface waters in Australia, as well as its fate in Australian soils and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including the effects on microbial processes in soils. The concentrations of TCS in 19 effluents ranged from 23 to 434 ng/L (median 108 ng/L) and in 17 biosolids from 0.09 to 16.79 mg/kg on dry weight basis (median 2.32 mg/kg). TCS at concentrations of up to 75 ng/L were detected in receiving waters from five creeks affected by effluent discharge from WWTPs. The removal rate of TCS in five selected WWTPs ranged from 72 and 93%, ascribed mainly to sorption onto sludge and biological degradation. Biodegradation in a clay loam soil was noted with a half life of 18 days. However the half-lives under field conditions are expected to be very different. The studies on the effect of TCS on soil microbiological processes showed that triclosan can disrupt the nitrogen cyclein sensitive soils at concentrations ≥5 mg/kg. In view of the recent risk assessment by the Australian regulatory agency NICNAS, there is an urgent need to assess exposure to TCS and its effect on ecosystem health.

  7. Oral health care in private and small long-term care facilities: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Ana Lúcia Schaefer Ferreira; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Elderly people who are institutionalised receive qualified care. Among the services supplied, oral health care has not always been a priority. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of oral health care provided to the elderly residents in long-term care facilities (LTC) in Porto Alegre/RS city. Twelve private and small-size LTCs (less than 20 residents) participated in this study. All supervisors and 36 carers were interviewed. The data obtained were organised according to the offer of oral health under the following categories: responsibility for oral care, oral care routines, difficulties carrying out oral care routines. The procedures used most often in order of frequency were tooth brushing, prostheses cleaning, use of mouthwashes, soaking of prostheses and cleaning of the tongue. Among the difficulties mentioned were the high cost of dental assistance, the lack of co-operation both by family members and by the elderly themselves, the oral and general health status of the elderly and the limited time available for carers to carry out the tasks. Oral care is conducted empirically, and the responsibility is left to the carers. Analysis of the statements given reveals that oral care does not follow any kind of protocol or standardisation. The persistence of this situation could lead to unsatisfactory oral health care in private and small LTC facilities.

  8. Screening for antibiofilm and antioxidant potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Sumreen; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-07-01

    The antibiofilm and antioxidant activities associated with turmeric were the main focus of the study. Antibacterial activity was explored against bacteria isolated from dental plaques and dental unit water lines exhibiting resistance against antibiotics and biocides respectively. This study provides a comparison of the natural plant extract against synthetic mouthwash, chemicals and commonly prescribed antibiotics. Methanol extract was more effective as compared to other extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 2.5-10mg/ml. Time based killing kinetic assay showed a significant reduction of bacterial load with increasing concentration of turmeric. Micro titer plate assay indicated significant inhibition of biofilm formation in cells treated with turmeric extract. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of vital secondary metabolites. Flavonoid content and total phenolic content varied among extracts, phenolic content for methanolic extract was 61.669 mg GAE/ gm dry extract and flavonoid content was 3.119mg quercitin/gm dry extract. The values of ferric reducing power were in the range of 5.55- 15.55 mmol of FeSO4 equivalent/ liter of the extract. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of the turmeric extracts had significant positive correlation. On the basis of these results turmeric may confidently be recommended as natural antibiofilm and antioxidant agent.

  9. Treatment-induced mucositis: an old problem with new remedies.

    PubMed

    Symonds, R P

    1998-05-01

    Mucositis may be a painful, debilitating, dose-limiting side-effect of both chemotherapy and radiotherapy for which there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. The basis of management is pain relief, prevention of dehydration and adequate nutrition. When tested vigorously, most antiseptic mouthwashes and anti-ulcer agents are ineffective. Simple mechanical cleansing by saline is the most effective traditional measure. A variety of new agents are effective. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) act outwith the haemopoeitic system and can reduce mucositis, but the best schedule, dosage and method of administration is not known or which is the best growth factor to prevent this side-effect. A placebo-controlled randomized trial of antibiotic pastilles has shown a significant reduction in mucositis and weight loss during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Another method to reduce radiation effects in normal tissue is to stimulate cells to divide before radiotherapy by silver nitrate or interleukin 1. These methods may be particularly effective when given along with hyperfractionated radiation treatment such as CHART.

  10. The effect of pomegranate mouthrinse on Streptococcus mutans count and salivary pH: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Umar, Dilshad; Dilshad, Bahija; Farhan, Mohammed; Ali, Arshiya; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Herbal mouthwashes have been considered to be a more advantageous option to their chemical counterparts, for a long-time. The use of pomegranate fruit dates from ancient times and reports of its therapeutic abilities have echoed throughout the ages. To evaluate the effect on the salivary pH and the Streptococcus mutans count in healthy subjects before and after pomegranate mouthrinse. Fifty healthy patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 subjects each. Group A was treated with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse; while Group B was treated with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) mouthrinse and the saliva samples were collected at three different intervals: Prerinse, after 10 min, and 60 min. The salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter and the S. mutans count was determined by the commercial system Dentocult SM. The statistical analyses used in this study are Mann-Whitney U-test and t-test. PPE mouthrinse had an inhibitory effect on S. mutans count in adults. There was also an increase in the salivary pH after 10 min of the mouthrinse. PPE mouthrinse may be considered as a potential anticariogenic mouthrinse.

  11. Efficacy of mometasone furoate microemulsion in the treatment of erosive-ulcerative oral lichen planus: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J M; Bagán, J V; Rodriguez, C; Jimenez, Y; Martínez-Conde, R; Díaz de Rojas, F; Ponte, A

    2004-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a frequent immunological chronic disease, having different clinical forms: asymptomatic and symptomatic. Symptomatic OLP has been palliated with topical corticosteroids with different levels of efficacy and safety. The purpose of this pilot phase II clinical trial was to determine the efficacy of mometasone furoate microemulsion upon the symptoms and signs of erosive-ulcerative OLP. Forty-nine patients with clinical and histologically confirmed erosive-ulcerative OLP were enrolled in this study (36 women and 13 men). Their average age was 56.4 years (from 28 to 78). The treatment consisted of 0.1% mometasone furoate microemulsion mouthwash three times a day over 30 days. Pain, erythema and ulceration were assessed after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The data was processed and statistically analysed by student's t-test for paired samples. Mometasone caused a statistically significant reduction in pain (3.58 vs. 0.65, P = 0.0000). Treatment significantly reduced the surface area of erythema (155.2 vs. 21.9 mm(2), P = 0.0001) and ulceration (30.7 vs. 7.3 mm(2), P = 0.0000). None of these patients suffered severe adverse effects. Mometasone furoate microemulsion is a safe and effective therapy in the treatment of symptomatic erosive-ulcerative OLP.

  12. [Effect of concomitant use of dental drug on the properties of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor formulation for periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Oba, Takuma; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    We have discussed the essential property for periodontal disease medication using protein, such as recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF). In our previous study, the criteria of thickener for the medication, viscosity, flowability etc., were set. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical effect of concomitant use of general dental drug or device on thickener properties for the clinical use of viscous rhbFGF formulation. Viscous formulation was prepared with six cellulose derivatives, two types hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC), three types hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) and methyl cellulose (MC). Antibiotic ointment, local anesthetic, bone graft substitute, agent for gargle and mouthwashes, were chosen as general dental drug and device. These drugs and device were mixed with the viscous formulations and the change of viscosity and flowability, the remaining ratio of rhbFGF were evaluated. When the various thickener solutions were mixed with the liquid drugs, viscosity and flowability did not changed much. However, in the case of MC solution, viscous property declined greatly when MC solution was mixed with cationic surfactant for gargle. The flowabilities of thickener solutions were declined with insoluble bone graft. The stabilities of rhbFGF in thickener solutions were no problem for 24 hours even in the case of mixing with dental drug or device. Our findings suggested that the viscous rhbFGF formulations prepared in this research were not substantially affected by the concomitant use of dental drug or device, especially the formulation with HPC or HEC was useful.

  13. Evaluation of Staining-Dependent Colour Changes in Resin Composites Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manojlovic, D.; Lenhardt, L.; Milićević, B.; Antonov, M.; Miletic, V.; Dramićanin, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Colour changes in Gradia Direct™ composite after immersion in tea, coffee, red wine, Coca-Cola, Colgate mouthwash, and distilled water were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and the CIELAB colour coordinates. The reflection spectra of the composites were used as input data for the PCA. The output data (scores and loadings) provided information about the magnitude and origin of the surface reflection changes after exposure to the staining solutions. The reflection spectra of the stained samples generally exhibited lower reflection in the blue spectral range, which was manifested in the lower content of the blue shade for the samples. Both analyses demonstrated the high staining abilities of tea, coffee, and red wine, which produced total colour changes of 4.31, 6.61, and 6.22, respectively, according to the CIELAB analysis. PCA revealed subtle changes in the reflection spectra of composites immersed in Coca-Cola, demonstrating Coca-Cola’s ability to stain the composite to a small degree. PMID:26450008

  14. Ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid emulsification microextraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis for the determination of parabens in personal care products.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Li, Zheng; Jia, Qiong; Zhou, Weihong

    2016-07-01

    We developed a CE and ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid emulsification microextraction method for the determination of four parabens (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, and butyl paraben) in personal care products including mouthwash and toning lotion. In the proposed extraction procedure, ionic liquid (IL, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was used as extraction solvent, moreover, no disperser solvent was needed. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including volume of IL, heating temperature, ultrasonic time, extraction time, sample pH, ionic strength, and centrifugation time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method was found to be linear over the range of 3-500 ng/mL with coefficient of determination (R(2) ) in the range of 0.9990-0.9998. The LODs and LOQs for the four parabens were 0.45-0.72 ng/mL and 1.50-2.40 ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precisions (RSDs, n = 5) were in the range of 5.4-6.8% and 7.0-8.7%, respectively. The recoveries of parabens at different spiked levels ranged from 71.9 to 119.2% with RSDs less than 9.5%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Human Salivary Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Purification, Kinetic Characterization and Effect of Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on the Activity of the Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Fazle; Laskar, Amaj Ahmed; Choudhary, Hadi Hasan; Younus, Hina

    2016-09-01

    Human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (hsALDH) enzyme appears to be the first line of defense in the body against exogenous toxic aldehydes. However till date much work has not been done on this important member of the ALDH family. In this study, we have purified hsALDH to homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DEAE-cellulose) ion-exchange chromatography in a single step. The molecular mass of the homodimeric enzyme was determined to be approximately 108 kDa. Four aromatic substrates; benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, 2-naphthaldehyde and 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde were used for determining the activity of pure hsALDH. K m values for these substrates were calculated to be 147.7, 5.31, 0.71 and 3.31 μM, respectively. The best substrates were found to be cinnamaldehyde and 2-naphthaldehyde since they exhibited high V max /K m values. 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde substrate was used for further kinetic characterization of pure hsALDH. The pH and temperature optima of hsALDH were measured to be pH 8 and 45 °C, respectively. The pure enzyme is highly unstable at high temperatures. Ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and SDS activate hsALDH, therefore it is safe and beneficial to include them in mouthwashes and toothpastes in low concentrations.

  16. Nystatin and lidocaine pastilles for the local treatment of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipa Cosme; Marto, Joana M; Salgado, Ana; Machado, Paula; Silva, Alexandra N; Almeida, António J

    2017-03-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common adverse reaction to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oncology. Its treatment requires oral formulations that enhance therapy compliance, improve administration and ensure drug effectiveness. Solid dosage forms that act by slow dissolution, such as pastilles, are an effective alternative to mouthwashes, for their versatility, ease of administration and extended residence time in the oral cavity. The present work describes the development and stability studies of an innovative formulation of nystatin and lidocaine pastilles for the treatment of oral mucositis. Full pharmaceutical quality testing was carried out, including disintegration and dissolution testing, texture profile analysis, grittiness and an antifungal activity testing. A soft pastille formulation containing 0.25% lidocaine and 78,000 IU nystatin was obtained, presenting suitable pharmaceutical characteristics, as a disintegration time of 17 ± 2 min, dissolution rate and microbiological and physicochemical for 30 days when stored at 2-8 °C under light protection. Palatability was also evaluated, being well accepted by a panel of 38 healthy volunteers. This formulation allows an accurate drug dosing by the prescriber, while enabling the patients to control the retention time of the drugs in the oral cavity and consequently manage their pain treatment.

  17. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F.; Roberto, Lia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Chiaviello, Angela; De Natale, Antonino; Roscetto, Emanuela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Ingenito, Aniello; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans. PMID:24302963

  18. Current Trend of Antimicrobial Prescription for Oral Implant Surgery Among Dentists in India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Rahul; Grewal, Yasmin; Batth, J S; Singh, Amandeep

    2014-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate antimicrobial prescription behaviour amongst dentists performing oral implant surgery in India. Dentists performing oral implant surgery from different parts of India were personally approached during various national events such as conferences and academic meetings and information regarding their prescription habits for antimicrobial agents in routine oral implant surgery was collected using a structured questionnaire. Out of a total sample of 332 dentists, 85.5 % prescribed 17 different groups or combinations of antibiotics routinely for oral implant surgery in the normal healthy patient. Majority preferred the peri-operative protocol of drug therapy (72.2 %) with variable and prolonged duration of therapy after surgery, ranging from 3 to 10 days. An antimicrobial mouthwash was routinely prescribed by all the doctors (14.5 %) not in favour of prescribing antimicrobials in a normal healthy patient. Our findings suggest that there is a trend of antimicrobial agent misuse by dentists performing oral implant surgery in India, both in terms of drugs used and the protocols prescribed. The majority of these dentists prescribed a variety of antimicrobial agents for prolonged durations routinely even in the normal, healthy patients.

  19. Late-life depression: its oral health significance.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Arthur H; Friedlander, Ida K; Gallas, Mercedes; Velasco, Eugenio

    2003-02-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) initially occurs after age 65 and is a major public health concern because elderly people who are at high risk constitute an ever-expanding segment of the population. LLD is a mental illness in which mood, thought content, and behavioural patterns are impaired, causing individual distress, compromising social function and impairing self-maintenance skills (e.g. bathing, dressing, hygiene). It is characterised by marked sadness, or a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and may be accompanied by weight change, sleep disturbance, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and high suicide rate. Individuals under treatment for LLD and those whose illness has not been diagnosed or treated often present to the dentist with significant oral disease. LLD is frequently associated with a disinterest in performing oral hygiene, a cariogenic diet, diminished salivary flow, rampant dental decay, advanced periodontal disease, and oral dysesthesias. Many medications used to treat the disease magnify the xerostomia and increase the incidence of dental disease. Appropriate dental management necessitates a vigorous preventive dental education programme, the use of artificial salivary products, antiseptic mouthwash, daily fluoride mouthrinse and special precautions when administering local anaesthetics with vasoconstrictors and prescribing analgesics.

  20. Evaluation of Staining-Dependent Colour Changes in Resin Composites Using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Manojlovic, D; Lenhardt, L; Milićević, B; Antonov, M; Miletic, V; Dramićanin, M D

    2015-10-09

    Colour changes in Gradia Direct™ composite after immersion in tea, coffee, red wine, Coca-Cola, Colgate mouthwash, and distilled water were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and the CIELAB colour coordinates. The reflection spectra of the composites were used as input data for the PCA. The output data (scores and loadings) provided information about the magnitude and origin of the surface reflection changes after exposure to the staining solutions. The reflection spectra of the stained samples generally exhibited lower reflection in the blue spectral range, which was manifested in the lower content of the blue shade for the samples. Both analyses demonstrated the high staining abilities of tea, coffee, and red wine, which produced total colour changes of 4.31, 6.61, and 6.22, respectively, according to the CIELAB analysis. PCA revealed subtle changes in the reflection spectra of composites immersed in Coca-Cola, demonstrating Coca-Cola's ability to stain the composite to a small degree.

  1. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  2. Evaluation of non-invasive treatment applied to occlusal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Flório, F M; Pereira, A C; Meneghim, M de C; Ramacciato, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive methods of treatment for active incipent occlusal caries. Anamnesis, professional prophylaxis, and visual inspection were used to classify 250 Brazilian pre-school-children. First permanent decayed molars (n=98) from thirty-one subjects (6 years+ 6 months) were selected and divided into three groups. Group 1: fissure sealants with resin-modified glass ionomer - Vitremer (n=29); Group 2: fluoride varnish -Duraphat (n=36) and control group: tooth brushing and 0.2 percent NaF weekly mouthwashes (n=33). Four clinical evaluations were carried out over three, six, nine, and twelve months. Caries activity and progression were observed through clinical and radiographic evaluation. The results were analyzed by Fisher=s Exact test. After twelve months, the results showed 100 percent of arrestment of caries activity for Group 1, 83.3 percent for group 2, and 72.7 percent for control group. At the same time, the results showed 0 percent of caries progression for group 1, 5.5 percent for Group 2, and 6.1 percent for control group. Group 1 showed a better inactivation property than the other groups (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in caries progression among these groups (p>0.05). It was concluded that this non-invasive methods were able to arrest the progression of occlusal caries, but fissure sealant showed better results in controlling caries activity.

  3. Predictors of mother and child DNA yields in buccal cell samples collected in pediatric cancer epidemiologic studies: a report from the Children’s Oncology group

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Collection of high-quality DNA is essential for molecular epidemiology studies. Methods have been evaluated for optimal DNA collection in studies of adults; however, DNA collection in young children poses additional challenges. Here, we have evaluated predictors of DNA quantity in buccal cells collected for population-based studies of infant leukemia (N = 489 mothers and 392 children) and hepatoblastoma (HB; N = 446 mothers and 412 children) conducted through the Children’s Oncology Group. DNA samples were collected by mail using mouthwash (for mothers and some children) and buccal brush (for children) collection kits and quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify predictors of DNA yield. Results Median DNA yield was higher for mothers in both studies compared with their children (14 μg vs. <1 μg). Significant predictors of DNA yield in children included case–control status (β = −0.69, 50% reduction, P = 0.01 for case vs. control children), brush collection type, and season of sample collection. Demographic factors were not strong predictors of DNA yield in mothers or children in this analysis. Conclusions The association with seasonality suggests that conditions during transport may influence DNA yield. The low yields observed in most children in these studies highlight the importance of developing alternative methods for DNA collection in younger age groups. PMID:23937514

  4. 'Naked-eye' detection of biologically important anions in aqueous media by colorimetric receptor and its real life applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Archana; Trivedi, Darshak R.

    2017-05-01

    A colorimetric receptor R 2-[(2-Hydroxy-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene)-hydrazonomethyl]-quinolin-8-ol has been designed and synthesized with good yield and characterized by the standard spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, UV-Visible, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-MS. The receptor R showed naked-eye detection and spectral change in the presence of F-, AcO- and H2PO4- over other anions. Interestingly, receptor R displaying high selective recognition towards F-, AcO- ion with a drastic color change from pale yellow to red in dry DMSO solvent and orange in mixed solvent DMSO/H2O (9:1, v/v). The behavior of receptor R towards F-, AcO- ion was investigated using UV-Vis and 1H NMR experiment. The detailed 1H NMR experiment result revealed that the receptor R is forming the hydrogen bonding between imine nitrogen and phenolic sbnd OH proton towards anions. The receptor R is able to detect sodium salts of flouride (NaF) and acetate (NaAcO) in aqueous medium and it exhibited dramatic color change from pale yellow to red. The receptor R demonstrated itself to be useful for real life application by detecting flouride and acetate ion in sea-water and commercially available product such as toothpaste, mouthwash and vinegar solution.

  5. Factors Associated with Dental Pain in Mexican Schoolchildren Aged 6 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Escoffié-Ramirez, Mauricio; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Baena-Santillan, Elena Saraí; Aguilar-Ayala, Fernando; Lara-Carrillo, Edith; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Márquez-Corona, María de Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify dental pain prevalence and associated factors in Mexican schoolchildren. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,404 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years from public schools in the city of Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo, Mexico. Data were collected through a questionnaire that addressed sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, eating and dental hygiene habits, and behavior variables. The dependent variable was self-reported dental pain in the 12 months prior to the survey. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics and a binary logistical regression model. Results Dental pain prevalence among the studied children was 49.9%. The variables associated in the final model (p < 0.05) were younger mother's age, higher socioeconomic level, absence of an automobile in the home, fried food, fruit intake, lower tooth brushing frequency, never having used mouthwash or not knowing about it, and parents/guardians with regular to high levels of knowledge about oral health and a regular or good/very good perception of their child's oral health. Conclusions One in two children in the study had experienced dental pain in the twelve months prior to the survey. The association of socioeconomic variables with dental pain suggested inequalities among the children in terms of oral health. PMID:28685149

  6. The benefits of the 3T3 NRU test in the safety assessment of cosmetics: long-term experience from pre-marketing testing in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Jírová, D; Kejlová, K; Brabec, M; Bendová, H; Kolárová, H

    2003-01-01

    We have introduced the 3T3 NRU cytotoxicity test for methodological, economical and ethical reasons as a regular part of tier pre-marketing testing to assess local tolerance of raw materials for cosmetics, household chemicals and final cosmetic products. Using the 3T3 cell line according to the standard INVITTOX protocol No.64 (NRU Assay) the borderline concentration, relevant to the highest tolerated dose, is determined for each material. The toxic effect is reached at different concentration levels specific for individual cosmetics categories, depending on their chemical characteristics. Typical ranges of cytotoxicity for specific categories of cosmetics were established after testing of hundreds of materials. The range lies between 1 microg/ml (anti-dandruff shampoos), up to 2000 microg/ml (toothpastes and mouthwashes). The 3T3 NRU cytotoxicity test is a sensitive tool able to identify more aggressive products, that are also more likely to evoke irritation in human skin. It was even possible to detect protective effects of one natural herbal ingredient. The comparative study of cytotoxicity test results and human patch test results from a group of essential oils is presented. Cytotoxicity tests represent a highly ethical approach for estimation of irritancy. On the basis of in vitro test results suggesting low risk we can proceed to confirmatory tests in human volunteers.

  7. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhães; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

  8. The plaque- and gingivitis-inhibiting capacity of a commercially available essential oil product. A parallel, split-mouth, single blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Preus, Hans Ragnar; Koldsland, Odd Carsten; Aass, Anne Merete; Sandvik, Leiv; Hansen, Bjørn Frode

    2013-11-01

    Studies have reported commercially available essential oils with convincing plaque and gingivitis preventing properties. However, no tests have compared these essential oils, i.e. Listerine(®), against their true vehicle controls. To compare the plaque and gingivitis inhibiting effect of a commercially-available essential oil (Listerine(®) Total Care) to a negative (22% hydro-alcohol solution) and a positive (0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX)) control in an experimental gingivitis model. In three groups of 15 healthy volunteers, experimental gingivitis was induced and monitored over 21 days, simultaneously treated with Listerine(®) Total Care (test), 22% hydro-alcohol solution (negative control) and 0.2% chlorhexidine solution (positive control), respectively. The upper right quadrant of each individual received mouthwash only, whereas the upper left quadrant was subject to both rinses and mechanical oral hygiene. Plaque, gingivitis and side-effects were assessed at day 7, 14 and 21. After 21 days, the chlorhexidine group showed significantly lower average plaque and gingivitis scores than the Listerine(®) and alcohol groups, whereas there was little difference between the two latter. Listerine(®) Total Care had no statistically significant effect on plaque formation as compared to its vehicle control.

  9. The oral microbiota in patients with pancreatic cancer, patients with IPMNs, and controls: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Olson, Sara H; Satagopan, Jaya; Xu, Youming; Ling, Lilan; Leong, Siok; Orlow, Irene; Saldia, Amethyst; Li, Peter; Nunes, Pamela; Madonia, Vincent; Allen, Peter J; O'Reilly, Eileen; Pamer, Eric; Kurtz, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Poor oral health appears to be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, possibly implicating the oral microbiota. In this pilot study, we evaluated the characteristics of the oral microbiota in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), and healthy controls. Forty newly diagnosed PDAC patients, 39 IPMN patients, and 58 controls, excluding current smokers and users of antibiotics, provided saliva samples. Common oral bacterial species were comprehensively surveyed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA microbial genes. We obtained measures of diversity and the mean relative proportions of individual taxa. We explored the degree to which these measures differed according to respondent characteristics based on individual interviews. PDAC cases did not differ in diversity measures from either controls or IPMN cases. PDAC cases had higher mean relative proportions of Firmicutes and related taxa, while controls had higher mean relative proportions of Proteobacteria and related taxa. Results were generally similar when comparing PDAC to IPMN cases. Among IPMNs and controls combined, younger individuals had higher levels of several taxa within the Proteobacteria. The only other variable consistently related to mean relative proportions was mouthwash use, with taxa within Firmicutes more common among users. While there were no differences in diversity of the oral microbiota among these groups, there were differences in the mean relative proportions of some taxa. Characteristics of the oral microbiota are not associated with most measures of oral health.

  10. Pre-clinical evaluation of novel mucoadhesive bilayer patches for local delivery of clobetasol-17-propionate to the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Colley, H E; Said, Z; Santocildes-Romero, M E; Baker, S R; D'Apice, K; Hansen, J; Madsen, L Siim; Thornhill, M H; Hatton, P V; Murdoch, C

    2018-06-14

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) are chronic inflammatory conditions often characterised by erosive and/or painful oral lesions that have a considerable impact on quality of life. Current treatment often necessitates the use of steroids in the form of mouthwashes, creams or ointments, but these are often ineffective due to inadequate drug contact times with the lesion. Here we evaluate the performance of novel mucoadhesive patches for targeted drug delivery. Electrospun polymeric mucoadhesive patches were produced and characterised for their physical properties and cytotoxicity before evaluation of residence time and acceptability in a human feasibility study. Clobetasol-17-propionate incorporated into the patches was released in a sustained manner in both tissue-engineered oral mucosa and ex vivo porcine mucosa. Clobetasol-17 propionate-loaded patches were further evaluated for residence time and drug release in an in vivo animal model and demonstrated prolonged adhesion and drug release at therapeutic-relevant doses and time points. These data show that electrospun patches are adherent to mucosal tissue without causing tissue damage, and can be successfully loaded with and release clinically active drugs. These patches hold great promise for the treatment of oral conditions such as OLP and RAS, and potentially many other oral lesions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions in Orthodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs), around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence. PMID:28566845

  12. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  13. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Amoh, Takashi; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  14. Oral Microbiome and Nitric Oxide: the Missing Link in the Management of Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nathan S; Tribble, Gena; Angelov, Nikola

    2017-04-01

    Having high blood pressure puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke, which are leading causes of death in the USA and worldwide. One out of every three Americans has hypertension, and it is estimated that despite aggressive treatment with medications, only about half of those medicated have managed blood pressure. Recent discoveries of the oral microbiome that reduces inorganic nitrate to nitrite and nitric oxide provide a new therapeutic target for the management of hypertension. The presence or absence of select and specific bacteria may determine steady-state blood pressure levels. Eradication of oral bacteria through antiseptic mouthwash or overuse of antibiotics causes blood pressure to increase. Allowing recolonization of nitrate- and nitrite-reducing bacteria can normalize blood pressure. This review will provide evidence of the link between oral microbiota and the production of nitric oxide and regulation of systemic blood pressure. Management of systemic hypertension through maintenance of the oral microbiome is a completely new paradigm in cardiovascular medicine.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of toothbrushing to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia pathogens and dental plaque in a critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian G; Hirsch, Nicholas P; Leemans, Michele; Moles, David R; Wilson, Michael; Ready, Derren R; Ismail, Salim; Ciric, Lena; Shaw, Michael J; Smith, Martin; Garner, Anne; Wilson, Sally

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effect of a powered toothbrush on colonization of dental plaque by ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-associated organisms and dental plaque removal. Parallel-arm, single-centre, examiner- and analyst-masked randomized controlled trial. Forty-six adults were recruited within 48 h of admission. Test intervention: powered toothbrush, control intervention: sponge toothette, both used four times per day for 2 min. Groups received 20 ml, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash at each time point. The results showed a low prevalence of respiratory pathogens throughout with no statistically significant differences between groups. A highly statistically significantly greater reduction in dental plaque was produced by the powered toothbrush compared with the control treatment; mean plaque index at day 5, powered toothbrush 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53, 1.00], sponge toothette 1.35 (95% CI 0.95, 1.74), p=0.006. Total bacterial viable count was also highly statistically significantly lower in the test group at day 5; Log(10) mean total bacterial counts: powered toothbrush 5.12 (95% CI 4.60, 5.63), sponge toothette 6.61 (95% CI 5.93, 7.28), p=0.002. Powered toothbrushes are highly effective for plaque removal in intubated patients in a critical unit and should be tested for their potential to reduce VAP incidence and health complications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1–100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic), which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS). Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems. PMID:25999717

  17. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1-100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic), which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS). Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems.

  18. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-06-01

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO2 NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance.

  19. Predictors of mother and child DNA yields in buccal cell samples collected in pediatric cancer epidemiologic studies: a report from the Children's Oncology group.

    PubMed

    Poynter, Jenny N; Ross, Julie A; Hooten, Anthony J; Langer, Erica; Blommer, Crystal; Spector, Logan G

    2013-08-12

    Collection of high-quality DNA is essential for molecular epidemiology studies. Methods have been evaluated for optimal DNA collection in studies of adults; however, DNA collection in young children poses additional challenges. Here, we have evaluated predictors of DNA quantity in buccal cells collected for population-based studies of infant leukemia (N = 489 mothers and 392 children) and hepatoblastoma (HB; N = 446 mothers and 412 children) conducted through the Children's Oncology Group. DNA samples were collected by mail using mouthwash (for mothers and some children) and buccal brush (for children) collection kits and quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify predictors of DNA yield. Median DNA yield was higher for mothers in both studies compared with their children (14 μg vs. <1 μg). Significant predictors of DNA yield in children included case-control status (β = -0.69, 50% reduction, P = 0.01 for case vs. control children), brush collection type, and season of sample collection. Demographic factors were not strong predictors of DNA yield in mothers or children in this analysis. The association with seasonality suggests that conditions during transport may influence DNA yield. The low yields observed in most children in these studies highlight the importance of developing alternative methods for DNA collection in younger age groups.

  20. Probabilistic exposure assessment to face and oral care cosmetic products by the French population.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Dornic, N; Roudot, Ac; Ficheux, As

    2018-01-01

    Cosmetic exposure data for face and mouth are limited in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to face cosmetics using recent French consumption data (Ficheux et al., 2016b, 2015). Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for thirty one face products from four lines of products: cleanser, care, make-up and make-up remover products and two oral care products. Probabilistic exposure was assessed for different subpopulation according to sex and age in adults and children. Pregnant women were also studied. The levels of exposure to moisturizing cream, lip balm, mascara, eyeliner, cream foundation, toothpaste and mouthwash were higher than the values currently used by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Exposure values found for eye shadow, lipstick, lotion and milk (make-up remover) were lower than SCCS values. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and the at risk populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Jack; Hirsh, Jack; Poller, Leon; Bussey, Henry; Jacobson, Alan; Hylek, Elaine

    2004-09-01

    allow the INR to return to normal, and beginning therapy with full-dose unfractionated heparin or full-dose low-molecular-weight heparin as the INR falls (Grade 2C). In patients undergoing dental procedures, we suggest the use of tranexamic acid mouthwash (Grade 2B) or epsilon amino caproic acid mouthwash without interrupting anticoagulant therapy (Grade 2B) if there is a concern for local bleeding. For most patients who have a lupus inhibitor, we suggest a therapeutic target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0 to 3.0) [Grade 2B]. In patients with recurrent thromboembolic events with a therapeutic INR or other additional risk factors, we suggest a target INR of 3.0 (range, 2.5 to 3.5) [Grade 2C]. As models of anticoagulation monitoring and management, we recommend that clinicians incorporate patient education, systematic INR testing, tracking, and follow-up, and good communication with patients concerning results and dosing decisions (Grade 1C+).

  2. Dental Procedures, Oral Practices, and Associated Anxiety: A Study on Late-teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Rahul; Malhotra, Reema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to determine the degree of anxiety pertaining to dental procedures and various oral hygiene practices among college teenagers. Methods Corah's Modified Dental Anxiety Scale was administered on a randomly chosen sample of 100 Indian college students (50 males and 50 females) of Delhi University, belonging to the age group of 17–20 years. Results Descriptive statistical computations revealed 12.14 years as the mean age of first dental visit, with moderately high levels of anxiety (60.75%) for various dental procedures among the Indian teenagers and 5% lying in the “phobic or extremely anxious” category. With merely 4.16% people going for regular consultations, general check-ups evoked 78.3% anxiety and having an injection or a tooth removed was perceived as the most threatening. The sample subgroup not using mouthwash and mouthspray, smokers, and alcohol drinkers with improper oral hygiene practices experienced much higher anxiety towards routine dental procedures. Conclusion The majority of the Indian youngsters had an evasive attitude of delaying dental treatment. The core problems lay in deficient health care knowledge, lack of patient-sensitive pedagogy to train dental professionals, inaccessibility of services, and a dismissive attitude towards medical help. The feelings of fear and anxiety prevalent among the Indian youth offer significant insights into causes and preventive measures for future research and practice. Methods of education and motivation could be developed to dissipate the anxiety amongst Indian teenagers that prevent routine dental visits and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene. PMID:25379373

  3. Maternal attitudes toward DNA collection for gene-environment studies: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mary M; Reed-Gross, Erika; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Barfield, Wanda D; Prue, Christine E; Gallagher, Margaret L; Honein, Margaret A

    2009-11-01

    To assess attitudes toward DNA collection in an epidemiological study, focus groups were assembled in September 2007 with mothers who had participated in a case-control study of birth defects. Each recruited mother previously had completed an interview and had received a mailed kit containing cytobrushes to collect buccal cells for DNA from herself, her infant, and her infant's father during the period July 2004 through July 2007. A total of 38 mothers attended six focus groups comprising: (1) non-Hispanic Black mothers of case infants who participated or (2) did not participate in DNA collection, (3) mothers of any race or ethnicity who had case infants of low birth weight who participated or (4) did not participate in DNA collection, and (5) non-Hispanic Black mothers of control infants who participated or (6) did not participate in DNA collection. Moderator-led discussions probed maternal attitudes toward providing specimens, factors that influenced decision making, and collection method preferences. Biologics participants reported that they provided DNA for altruistic reasons. Biologics nonparticipants voiced concerns about government involvement and how their DNA will be used. Information provided (or not provided) on DNA use, storage, and disposal influenced decision making. Biologics participants and nonparticipants reported that paternal skepticism was a barrier to participation. All mothers were asked to rank DNA collection methods in terms of preference (cytobrushes, saliva, mouthwash, newborn blood spots, and blood collection). Preferred methods were convenient and noninvasive. Better understanding attitudes toward DNA collection and preferred collection methods might allow more inclusive participation and benefit future studies. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Effect of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract on enamel demineralisation and dental biofilm composition in situ.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Danelon, Marcelle; Evangelista, Gustavo Vaz; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2012-08-01

    Previous evaluations of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract were not done in conditions similar to the oral environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. cattleianum leaf extract on enamel demineralisation, extracellular polysaccharide formation, and the microbial composition of dental biofilms formed in situ. Ten volunteers took part in this crossover study. They wore palatal appliances containing 4 enamel blocks for 14 days. Each volunteer dripped 20% sucrose 8 times per day on the enamel blocks. Twice a day, deionised water (negative control), extract, or a commercial mouthwash (active control) was dripped after sucrose application. On the 12th and 13th days of the experiment, plaque acidogenicity was measured with a microelectrode, and the pH drop was calculated. On the 14th day, biofilms were harvested and total anaerobic microorganisms (TM), total streptococci (TS), mutans streptococci (MS), and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were evaluated. Enamel demineralisation was evaluated by the percentage change of surface microhardness (%ΔSMH) and integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN). The researcher was blinded to the treatments during data collection. The extract group showed lower TM, TS, MS, EPS, %ΔSMH, and ΔKHN values than the negative control group. There were no differences between the active and negative control groups regarding MS and EPS levels. There were no differences in pH drop between the extract and active control groups, although they were significantly different from the negative control group. For all other parameters, the extract differed from the active control group. Psidium cattleianum leaf extract exhibits a potential anticariogenic effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of Periodontal Disease with an Octenidine-based Antiseptic in HIV-positive Patients.

    PubMed

    Gušić, I; Medić, D; Radovanović Kanjuh, M; Ðurić, M; Brkić, S; Turkulov, V; Predin, T; Mirnić, J

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of a periodontal therapy with subsequent application of an octenidine (OCT)-based antiseptic in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV-positive patients with a clinically diagnosed periodontal disease were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30/group). Both groups initially received a periodontal therapy. Patients in the OCT group additionally used an OCT-based mouthwash. Subgingival plaque samples and periodontal indices were analysed prior to treatment onset as well as one and 3 months post-treatment. Periodontal therapy has resulted in a significant decrease in the values of all periodontal indices one and 3 months following the therapy completion (P = 0.000). The effects of the two applied therapeutic protocols differed significantly in terms of the variation in the PBI (F = 4.617; P = 0.017) and the PD (F = 3.203; P = 0.044) value. In the patients in the OCT group, a more pronounced decrease in the PBI and PD was noted at 1-month follow-up as well as a greater increase in the PD value 3 months upon treatment completion. In the OCT group, no more atypical microorganisms were detectable 1 month post-treatment, while in the control group they were found in 34.5% of patients. The periodontal therapy bears good results in HIV-positive patients. Additional administration of OCT contributes to the significant decline in the PBI and DS values and eliminates atypical microorganisms within 1 month post-treatment. However, more favourable results were not noted in the OCT group at the 3-month assessment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cymbopogon citratus essential oil: effect on polymicrobial caries-related biofilm with low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Alcionéia Carvalho de; Borges, Aline Chiodi; Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Salvador, Marcos José; Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2017-11-06

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral) against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment) and positive controls (chlorhexidine) were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05). Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral). The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC) reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p < 0.05). The essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p < 0.01). Citral significantly reduced the number of viable cells of streptococci biofilm (p < 0.001). The essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.

  7. Testimony by otolaryngologists in defense of tobacco companies 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Jackler, Robert K

    2015-12-01

    To examine expert testimony offered by otolaryngologists in defense of the tobacco industry and to assess whether opinions rendered were congruent with evidence in the scientific literature. Data sources include publically available expert witness depositions and trial testimony of board-certified otolaryngologists employed by the tobacco industry in defense of lawsuits brought by smokers suffering from head and neck cancer. The cases, adjudicated in Florida between 2009 and 2014, focused on whether smoking caused the plaintiff's cancer. The study includes nine legal cases of upper aerodigestive tract cancer involving six otolaryngologists serving as expert witnesses for the tobacco industry. Cancer sites included larynx (5), esophagus (2), mouth (1), and lung (1). Five of the six otolaryngologists consistently, over multiple cases, offered opinions that smoking did not cause the plaintiff's cancer. By highlighting an exhaustive list of potential risk factors, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), alcohol, asbestos, diesel fumes, salted fish, mouthwash, and even urban living, they created doubt in the minds of the jurors as to the role of smoking in the plaintiff's cancer. Evidence shows that this testimony, which was remarkably similar across cases, was part of a defense strategy shaped by tobacco's law firms. A small group of otolaryngologists regularly serve as experts on behalf of the tobacco industry. Examination of their opinions in relation to the scientific literature reveals a systematic bias in interpreting the data relating to the role played by smoking in head and neck cancer causation. N/A. Laryngoscope published by Wiley on behalf of the American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc, “The Triological Society” and American Laryngological Association (the “Owner”).

  8. The UAE healthy future study: a pilot for a prospective cohort study of 20,000 United Arab Emirates nationals.

    PubMed

    Abdulle, Abdishakur; Alnaeemi, Abdullah; Aljunaibi, Abdullah; Al Ali, Abdulrahman; Al Saedi, Khaled; Al Zaabi, Eiman; Oumeziane, Naima; Al Bastaki, Marina; Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Al Maskari, Fatma; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha; Shah, Syed M; Loney, Tom; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Wareth, Leila Abdel; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Alsafar, Habiba; Hirsch, Benjamin; Al Anouti, Fatme; Yaaqoub, Jamila; Inman, Claire K; Al Hamiz, Aisha; Al Hosani, Ayesha; Haji, Muna; Alsharid, Teeb; Al Zaabi, Thekra; Al Maisary, Fatima; Galani, Divya; Sprosen, Tim; El Shahawy, Omar; Ahn, Jiyoung; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Hayes, Richard; Sherman, Scott; Ali, Raghib

    2018-01-05

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is faced with a rapidly increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The UAE Healthy Future study is a prospective cohort designed to identify associations between risk factors and these diseases amongst Emiratis. The study will enroll 20,000 UAE nationals aged ≥18 years. Environmental and genetic risk factors will be characterized and participants will be followed for future disease events. As this was the first time a prospective cohort study was being planned in the UAE, a pilot study was conducted in 2015 with the primary aim of establishing the feasibility of conducting the study. Other objectives were to evaluate the implementation of the main study protocols, and to build adequate capacity to conduct advanced clinical laboratory analyses. Seven hundred sixty nine UAE nationals aged ≥18 years were invited to participate voluntarily in the pilot study. Participants signed an informed consent, completed a detailed questionnaire, provided random blood, urine, and mouthwash samples and were assessed for a series of clinical measures. All specimens were transported to the New York University Abu Dhabi laboratories where samples were processed and analyzed for routine chemistry and hematology. Plasma, serum, and a small whole blood sample for DNA extraction were aliquoted and stored at -80 °C for future analyses. Overall, 517 Emirati men and women agreed to participate (68% response rate). Of the total participants, 495 (95.0%), 430 (82.2%), and 492 (94.4%), completed the questionnaire, physical measurements, and provided biological samples, respectively. The pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of recruitment and completion of the study protocols for the first large-scale cohort study designed to identify emerging risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases in the region.

  9. Randomized controlled trial to compare oral analgesic requirements and patient satisfaction in using oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus benzydamine hydrochloride oral rinses after mandibular third molar extraction: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Devalina; Jain, Gaurav; Mohod, Mangesh; Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Bhutia, Ongkila; Roychoudhury, Ajoy

    2018-02-01

    Third molar extraction is associated with considerable pain and discomfort, which is mostly managed with oral analgesic medication. We assessed the analgesic effect of benzydamine hydrochloride, a topical analgesic oral rinse, for controlling postoperative pain following third molar extraction. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 patients divided into two groups, for extraction of fully erupted third molar. Groups A received benzydamine hydrochloride mouthwash and group B received normal saline gargle with oral ibuprofen and paracetamol. Oral ibuprofen and paracetamol was the rescue analgesic drug in group A. Patients were evaluated on the 3 rd and 7 th post-operative days (POD) for pain using the visual analogue score (VAS), trismus, total number of analgesics consumed, and satisfaction level of patients. The VAS in groups A and B on POD3 and POD7 was 4.55 ± 2.54 and 3.95 ± 1.8, and 1.2 ± 1.64 and 0.95 ± 1.14, respectively and was statistically insignificant. The number of analgesics consumed in groups A and B on POD3 (5.25 ± 2.22 and 6.05 ± 2.43) was not statistically different from that consumed on POD7 (9.15 ± 5.93 and 10.65 ± 6.46). The p values for trismus on POD3 and POD7 were 0.609 and 0.490, respectively and those for patient satisfaction level on POD3 and POD7 were 0.283 and 0.217, respectively. Benzydamine hydrochloride oral rinses do not significantly reduce intake of oral analgesics and are inadequate for pain relief following mandibular third molar extraction.

  10. Study of sensing properties of SnO2 prepared by spray-pyrolysis deposition towards ethanol gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadaldin, Nasser M.; Hussain, Nabiha; AlZouabi, Abla

    2018-05-01

    Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, in this study, thin films of (SnO2) were deposited by using the thermal spray method (SPD) on quartz at 450°C substrate temperature using tin chloride SnCl2.2H2O, (1.0M). A gas sensor was constructed with the prepared SnO2, used to detect ethanol gas and some other gases. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grain size was calculated the results showed nanostructure polycrystalline and crystallize in a tetragonal, S.G:P42/m nm, reaching grain Size approximately 27nm. The sensing properties of the films were studied towards ethanol at different concentrations ranging within (1-200 ppm,) the results showed that the sensitivity of the film increases with the concentration of ethanol, the best operating temperature reached about 300 °C, We studied the sensing properties of the films towards Ethanol alcohol gas, The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, high selectivity and sensitivity of the film towards ethanol gas was found compared to other tested toxic gases such as methanol gas, acetone and methylbenzene. Yet an upto-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking.

  11. The effect of chlorhexidine on dental calculus formation: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Yuuki; Takenaka, Shoji; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Domon, Hisanori; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2018-03-27

    Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been proven to be effective in preventing and controlling biofilm formation. At the same time, an increase in calculus formation is known as one of considerable side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mineral deposition preceding a calculus formation would occur at an early stage after the use of CHG using an in vitro saliva-related biofilm model. Biofilms were developed on the MBEC™ device in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth containing 0.5% sucrose at 37 °C for 3 days under anaerobic conditions. Biofilms were periodically exposed to 1 min applications of 0.12% CHG every 12 h and incubated for up to 2 days in BHI containing a calcifying solution. Calcium and phosphate in the biofilm were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a phosphate assay kit, respectively. Morphological structure was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and chemical composition was analyzed with an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The concentrations of Ca and Pi following a single exposure to CHG increased significantly compared with the control. Repeatedly exposing biofilms to CHG dose-dependently increased Ca deposition, and the amount of Ca was five times as much as that of the control. Pi levels in CHG-treated biofilms were significantly higher than those from the control group (p < 0.05); however, the influence of the number of exposures was limited. Analyses using an SEM and EPMA showed many clusters containing calcium and phosphate complexes in CHG-treated biofilms. Upon composition analysis of the clusters, calcium was detected at a greater concentration than phosphate. Findings suggested that CHG may promote mineral uptake into the biofilm soon after its use. It is necessary to disrupt the biofilm prior to the start of a CHG mouthwash in order to reduce the side effects associated with this procedure. The management of patients is also important.

  12. Awareness of orthodontists regarding oral hygiene performance during active orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Berlin-Broner, Y; Levin, L; Ashkenazi, M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was orthodontist's awareness for maintenance of several home and professional prevention measures during active orthodontic treatment according to patients' report. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 122 patients undergoing active orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Patients were treated by 38 different orthodontists. The questionnaire accessed information regarding instructions patients received from their orthodontist concerning maintenance of their oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. Most of the patients (94%) reported that their orthodontists informed them at least once about the importance of tooth-brushing, and 74.5% received instructions for correct performance of tooth brushing or alternatively were referred to dental hygienist. However, only 24.5% of the patients reported that their orthodontist instructed them to use the correct fluoride concentration in their toothpaste, to use daily fluoride mouthwash (31.5%) and to brush their teeth once a week with high concentration of fluoride gel (Elmex gel; 10.2%). Only 13.8% received application of high concentration of fluoride gel or varnish at the dental office, and 52% of the patients reported that their orthodontist verified that they attend regular check-ups by their dentist. A significant positive correlation was found between explaining the patients the importance of tooth brushing and the following variables: instructing them on how to brush their teeth correctly (p<0.0001), explaining them which type of toothbrush is recommended for orthodontic patients (p=0.002), recommending to perform daily fluoride oral rinse (p=0.036) and referring them to periodic check-ups (p=0.024). Orthodontists should increase their awareness and commitment for instructing their patient on how to maintain good oral hygiene in order to prevent caries and periodontal disease during orthodontic treatment.

  13. Development of a Protocol for Predicting Bacterial Resistance to Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Laura; Amézquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Stewart, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Regulations dealing with microbicides in Europe and the United States are evolving and now require data on the risk of the development of resistance in organisms targeted by microbicidal products. There is no standard protocol to assess the risk of the development of resistance to microbicidal formulations. This study aimed to validate the use of changes in microbicide and antibiotic susceptibility as initial markers for predicting microbicide resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics. Three industrial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and 14028S) were exposed to a shampoo, a mouthwash, eye makeup remover, and the microbicides contained within these formulations (chlorhexidine digluconate [CHG] and benzalkonium chloride [BZC]) under realistic, in-use conditions. Baseline and postexposure data were compared. No significant increases in the MIC or the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were observed for any strain after exposure to the three formulations. Increases as high as 100-fold in the MICs and MBCs of CHG and BZC for SL1344 and 14028S were observed but were unstable. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility were not clinically significant. The use of MICs and MBCs combined with antibiotic susceptibility profiling and stability testing generated reproducible data that allowed for an initial prediction of the development of resistance to microbicides. These approaches measure characteristics that are directly relevant to the concern over resistance and cross-resistance development following the use of microbicides. These are low-cost, high-throughput techniques, allowing manufacturers to provide to regulatory bodies, promptly and efficiently, data supporting an early assessment of the risk of resistance development. PMID:25636848

  14. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  15. A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Oral Microbiome and Dental Health in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Polla, Daniel; Astafurov, Konstantin; Hawy, Eman; Hyman, Leslie; Hou, Wei; Danias, John

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate possible associations between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), dental health, and the oral microbiome. Case-control study was conducted at SUNY Downstate. Adult subjects (40 to 87 y) were recruited as POAG cases (n=119) and controls without glaucoma (n=78) based on visual field and optic nerve criteria. Overall 74.6% were African Americans (AA). Information on medical history and oral health was collected and ophthalmologic examinations were performed. Mouthwash specimens (28 AA cases and 17 controls) were analyzed for bacterial DNA amounts. Analyses were limited to AAs as the predominant racial group. Outcome measures included number of natural teeth, self-reported periodontal health parameters, and amounts and prevalence of oral bacterial species. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associated factors and potential interactions. Cases and controls had similar age (mean: 62.2 and 60.9 y, respectively, P>0.48), and frequency of hypertension, diabetes, but cases had a higher proportion of men (P<0.04). On average (±SD), cases had fewer natural teeth than controls [18.0 (±11.1) vs. 20.7 (±9.4)]. Having more natural teeth was inversely associated with POAG, in multivariable analyses, at older ages [eg, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) at age 55: 1.0 (0.95-1.06), P=0.98 vs. at age 85: 0.87 (0.79-0.96), P=0.007]. Amounts of Streptococci were higher in cases than controls (P<0.03) in samples from the subset of subjects analyzed. The number of teeth (an oral health indicator) and alterations in the amounts of oral bacteria may be associated with glaucoma pathology. Further investigation of the association between dental health and glaucoma is warranted.

  16. Solvent-assisted dispersive micro-SPE by using aminopropyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticle followed by GC-PID for quantification of parabens in aqueous matrices.

    PubMed

    Abbasghorbani, Maryam; Attaran, Abdolmohammad; Payehghadr, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    In this research, solvent-assisted dispersive micro-SPE was introduced as a simple modified technique for the determination of parabens in water and cosmetic samples. Aminopropyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were successfully synthesized and applied. GC with photoionization detector was used for the separation and detection of parabens. In this method, hexylacetate (15 μL) as a solvent and aminopropyl-functionalized MNPs (5 μg) as a sorbent were added to an aqueous sample (10 mL) and then the sample was sonicated. Dispersed magnetite was collected in the bottom of the conical tube by using a strong magnet and then ACN was added as a desorption solvent. Forty microliters of this solvent was transferred into a microvial and then acetic anhydride and pyridine were added, thus derivatization was performed by acetic anhydride. After evaporation, 1 μL of derivatized sample was injected into a gas chromatograph for analysis. Several important parameters, such as kind of organic solvent, desorption solvent and volume, amount of aminopropyl-functionalized MNPs and effect of salt addition were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection achieved were between 50 and 300 ng/L, with RSDs (n = 5) lower than 8%. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors ranged from 217 to 1253 and the extraction recoveries ranged from 10 to 62%. The recoveries were obtained for the analytes in river water and mouthwash solution and hand cream in the range of 87-103%. The advantages of proposed method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, high extraction yields, and environmental friendly character. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Comparative study of 0.2% and 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine mouth rinses on the level of dental staining and gingival indices.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mohammad Hassan; Taheri, Morteza; Mokhtari, Majid Reza; Forouzanfar, Ali; Farazi, Fateme; Mirzaee, Mona; Ebrahiminik, Zahra; Mehrara, Reza

    2012-05-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) as a gold standard chemical agent appears to be the most effective antimicrobial agent for reduction of both plaque and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two concentrations of digluconate chlorhexidine (CHX) solutions (0.12% and 0.20%) on gingival indices and the level of dental staining during 14 days. in this double-blind controlled clinical trial study 60 patients with moderate to severe gingivitis aged 17-56 years were randomly selected and divided to three groups: Group I (placebo) Group II (0.12% CHX), and Group III (0.2% CHX). Patients rinsed their mouthwashes twice a day after brushing. Before the examination and after 14 days plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index, and stain index were evaluated. The data were analyzed by "Mann-Whitney" test and P value was 0.05. the results showed that plaque index and gingival index significantly reduced in Groups II and III in comparison with the placebo group (P < 0.0001). However, the two concentrations did not differ significantly from each other (P = 0.552). Same results were observed in term of gingival bleeding index with this different that 0.2% CHX was significantly more efficient than 0.12% CHX (P < 0.0001). CHX mouthrinse, both concentrations, significantly increased the dental staining level (intensity and area) in comparison with the placebo group. Remarkable difference also was seen between 2 CHX concentrations so that the 0.2% CHX caused much more staining on the teeth than 0.12% CHX. based on the results of this study we can conclude that the lower concentrations of CHX should be prescribed, decreasing side effects, since higher concentrations do not seem to be more effective in controlling dental plaque and gingivitis.

  18. Nicotinamide pharmacokinetics in humans: effect of gastric acid inhibition, comparison of rectal vs oral administration and the use of saliva for drug monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Stratford, M. R.; Dennis, M. F.; Hoskin, P.; Phillips, H.; Hodgkiss, R. J.; Rojas, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of inhibiting gastric acid secretion on nicotinamide pharmacokinetics was studied in five volunteers with the intent of reducing the large variations observed previously in the time to and magnitude of peak plasma concentrations. Plasma levels were determined using a standard high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method after an oral dose of 3 g of nicotinamide either alone or preceded by pretreatment with omeprazole. Suppression of gastric acid production had no significant effect on the rate of uptake or on the peak levels achieved. To bypass gastric acidity, the rectal route was also assessed using a suppository in four volunteers and one patient undergoing radiotherapy. Absorption was slow and variable and much lower plasma levels were observed than after oral dosing. Thus, no improvement in the pharmacokinetics of nicotinamide was observed using either of these two approaches. Parallel estimations were made using a novel and non-invasive method for monitoring nicotinamide pharmacokinetics in saliva. A large and variable fraction of the total amount of nicotinamide-related material in saliva was found to be nicotinic acid, a metabolite not normally found in human plasma. This conversion was inhibited by the use of a chlorhexidine mouthwash, indicating that the oral flora was responsible for its production. The time to peak levels of nicotinamide or of nicotinamide plus nicotinic acid in saliva correlated well with that in plasma. However, peak concentrations for nicotinamide alone were significantly lower than in plasma, and very variable, whereas for nicotinamide plus nicotinic acid saliva levels were 20-30% higher, but more consistent. Although there are some practical difficulties in quantitatively handling saliva, the method is very useful for monitoring nicotinamide pharmacokinetics and for assessment of compliance with nicotinamide treatment. PMID:8679452

  19. Color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on a discolored composite resin.

    PubMed

    Gul, P; Harorlı, O T; Ocal, I B; Ergin, Z; Barutcigil, C

    2017-10-01

    Discoloration of resin-based composites is a commonly encountered problem, and bleaching agents may be used for the therapy of the existing discoloration. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on the heavily discolored composite resin. Fifty disk-shaped dental composite specimens were prepared using A2 shade nanohybrid universal composite resin (3M ESPE Filtek Z550, St. Paul, MN, USA). Composite samples were immersed in coffee and turnip juice for 1 week in each. One laser activated bleaching (LB) (Biolase Laserwhite*20) and three conventional bleaching systems (Ultradent Opalescence Boost 40% (OB), Ultradent Opalescence PF 15% home bleaching (HB), Crest 3D White [Whitening Mouthwash]) were tested in this study. Distilled water was used as control group. The color of the samples were measured using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easy shade Compact, VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Color changes (ΔE00) were calculated using the CIEDE2000 formula. Statistical analyses were conducted using paired samples test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). The staining beverages caused perceptible discoloration (ΔE00 > 2.25). The color recovery effect of all bleaching systems was statistically determined to be more effective than the control group (P < 0.05). Although OB group was found as the most effective bleaching system, there was no statistically significant difference among HB, OB, and LB groups (P > 0.05). Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the highest recovery effect was determined in office bleaching system among all bleaching systems. However, home and laser bleaching systems were determined as effective as office bleaching system.

  20. Genetic characterization of Spinocerebellar ataxia 1 in a South Indian cohort.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Dhanya; Balagopal, Krishnan; Tharmaraj, Reginald George Alex; Aaron, Sanjith; George, Kuryan; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sivadasan, Ajith; Danda, Sumita; Alexander, Mathew; Hasan, Gaiti

    2014-10-25

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a late onset autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, caused by CAG triplet repeat expansion in the ATXN1 gene. The frequency of SCA1 occurrence is more in Southern India than in other regions as observed from hospital-based studies. However there are no reports on variability of CAG repeat expansion, phenotype-genotype association and founder mutations in a homogenous population from India. Genomic DNA isolated from buccal mouthwash of the individuals in the cohort was used for PCR-based diagnosis of SCA1. Subsequently SNP's found within the ATXN1 loci were identified by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. Significance testing of the genotype-phenotype associations was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test with post-hoc Dunnett's test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. By genetic analysis of an affected population in Southern India we identified 21 pre-symptomatic individuals including four that were well past the average age of disease onset of 44 years, 16 symptomatic and 63 normal individuals. All pre-symptomatic cases harbor "pure" expansions of greater than 40 CAGs. Genotyping to test for the presence of two previously identified SNPs showed a founder effect of the same repeat carrying allele as in the general Indian population. We show that SCA1 disease onset is significantly delayed when transmission of the disease is maternal. Our finding of early disease onset in individuals with a paternally inherited allele could serve as valuable information for clinicians towards early detection of SCA1 in patients with affected fathers. Identification of older pre-symptomatic individuals (n = 4) in our cohort among individuals with a shared genetic and environmental background, suggests that second site genetic or epigenetic modifiers might significantly affect SCA1 disease progression. Moreover, such undetected SCA1 cases could underscore the true prevalence of SCA1 in India.

  1. Dental Health and Mortality in People With End-Stage Kidney Disease Treated With Hemodialysis: A Multinational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Ruospo, Marinella; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Petruzzi, Massimo; De Benedittis, Michele; Ford, Pauline; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Natale, Patrizia; Saglimbene, Valeria; Pellegrini, Fabio; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Leal, Miguel R; Torok, Marietta; Stroumza, Paul; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Frantzen, Luc; Ferrari, Juan Nin; Del Castillo, Domingo; Bernat, Amparo G; Hegbrant, Jorgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Gargano, Letizia; Bots, Casper P; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2015-10-01

    Dental disease is more extensive in adults with chronic kidney disease, but whether dental health and behaviors are associated with survival in the setting of hemodialysis is unknown. Prospective multinational cohort. 4,205 adults treated with long-term hemodialysis, 2010 to 2012 (Oral Diseases in Hemodialysis [ORAL-D] Study). Dental health as assessed by a standardized dental examination using World Health Organization guidelines and personal oral care, including edentulousness; decayed, missing, and filled teeth index; teeth brushing and flossing; and dental health consultation. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality at 12 months after dental assessment. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models fitted with shared frailty to account for clustering of mortality risk within countries. During a mean follow-up of 22.1 months, 942 deaths occurred, including 477 cardiovascular deaths. Edentulousness (adjusted HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.51) and decayed, missing, or filled teeth score ≥ 14 (adjusted HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.33-2.17) were associated with early all-cause mortality, while dental flossing, using mouthwash, brushing teeth daily, spending at least 2 minutes on oral hygiene daily, changing a toothbrush at least every 3 months, and visiting a dentist within the past 6 months (adjusted HRs of 0.52 [95% CI, 0.32-0.85], 0.79 [95% CI, 0.64-0.97], 0.76 [95% CI, 0.58-0.99], 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71-0.99], 0.79 [95% CI, 0.65-0.95], and 0.79 [95% CI, 0.65-0.96], respectively) were associated with better survival. Results for cardiovascular mortality were similar. Convenience sample of clinics. In adults treated with hemodialysis, poorer dental health was associated with early death, whereas preventive dental health practices were associated with longer survival. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral Microbiome Link to Neurodegeneration in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Astafurov, Konstantin; Elhawy, Eman; Ren, Lizhen; Dong, Cecilia Q.; Igboin, Christina; Hyman, Leslie; Griffen, Ann; Mittag, Thomas; Danias, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a progressive optic nerve degenerative disease that often leads to blindness. Local inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathology of glaucoma. Although inflammatory episodes outside the CNS, such as those due to acute systemic infections, have been linked to central neurodegeneration, they do not appear to be relevant to glaucoma. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that chronic subclinical peripheral inflammation contributes to neurodegeneration in glaucoma. Methods Mouthwash specimens from patients with glaucoma and control subjects were analyzed for the amount of bacteria. To determine a possible pathogenic mechanism, low-dose subcutaneous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered in two separate animal models of glaucoma. Glaucomatous neurodegeneration was assessed in the retina and optic nerve two months later. Changes in gene expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and complement as well as changes in microglial numbers and morphology were analyzed in the retina and optic nerve. The effect of pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 with naloxone was determined. Findings Patients with glaucoma had higher bacterial oral counts compared to control subjects (p<0.017). Low-dose LPS administration in glaucoma animal models resulted in enhancement of axonal degeneration and neuronal loss. Microglial activation in the optic nerve and retina as well as upregulation of TLR4 signaling and complement system were observed. Pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 partially ameliorated the enhanced damage. Conclusions The above findings suggest that the oral microbiome contributes to glaucoma pathophysiology. A plausible mechanism by which increased bacterial loads can lead to neurodegeneration is provided by experiments in animal models of the disease and involves activation of microglia in the retina and optic nerve, mediated through TLR4 signaling and complement upregulation. The finding that commensal bacteria may play a

  3. Fluoridated elastomers: effect on the microbiology of plaque.

    PubMed

    Benson, Philip E; Douglas, C W Ian; Martin, Michael V

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated elastomeric ligatures on the microbiology of local dental plaque in vivo. This randomized, prospective, longitudinal, clinical trial had a split-mouth crossover design. The subjects were 30 patients at the beginning of their treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances in the orthodontic departments of the Liverpool and the Sheffield dental hospitals in the United Kingdom. The study consisted of 2 experimental periods of 6 weeks with a washout period between. Fluoridated elastomers were randomly allocated at the first visit to be placed around brackets on tooth numbers 12, 11, 33 or 22, 21, 43. Nonfluoridated elastomers were placed on the contralateral teeth. Standard nonantibacterial fluoridated toothpaste and mouthwash were supplied. After 6 weeks (visit 2), the elastomers were removed, placed in transport media, and plated on agar within 2 hours. Nonfluoridated elastomers were placed on all brackets for 1 visit to allow for a washout period. At visit 3, fluoridated elastomers were placed on the teeth contralateral to those that received them at visit 1. At visit 4, the procedures at visit 2 were repeated. Samples were collected on visits 2 and 4. A logistic regression was performed, with the presence or absence of streptococcal or anaerobic growth as the dependent variable. A mixed-effects analysis of variance was carried out with the percentage of streptococcal or anaerobic bacterial count as the dependent variable. The only significant independent variables were the subject variable (P =<.001) for the percentage of streptococcal and anaerobic bacterial count and the visit variable for the percentage of streptococcal count (P =<.001). The use of fluoridated or nonfluoridated elastomers was not significant for percentage of either streptococcal (P =.288) or anaerobic count (P =.230). Fluoridated elastomers are not effective at reducing local streptococcal or anaerobic bacterial growth after

  4. Chronologic Trends in Studies on Fluoride Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Oh, H J; Oh, H W; Lee, D W; Kim, C H; Ahn, J Y; Kim, Y; Shin, H B; Kim, C Y; Park, S H; Jeon, J G

    2017-11-01

    Fluoride has been widely used for the prevention of dental caries since the mid-20th century. The aim of this study was to investigate the chronologic trends in studies on fluoride mechanisms of action against dental caries during the years 1950 to 2015. To this aim, queries such as "fluoride," "fluoride and demineralization," "fluoride and remineralization," "fluoride and (plaque or biofilms)," and "fluoride and (bacteria or microbials)" were submitted to PubMed to collect research article information, including titles, abstracts, publication dates, author affiliations, and publication journals. The article information that PubMed produced was then collected by an automatic web crawler and examined through informetrics and linguistic analyses. We found that the number of articles concerned with fluoride mechanisms of action against dental caries was 6,903 and gradually increased over time during the years 1950 to 2015. They were published by 1,136 journals-most notably, Caries Research and Journal of Dental Research. Of the articles published, those related to bacteria/microbials had a higher percentage (44%) than those dealing with plaque/biofilms, demineralization, and remineralization. With regard to the geographic distribution of authors, Europe and North America accounted for 65% of the articles during the years 1987 to 2015, although the number of authors in Asia sharply increased in recent years. Among the fluoride compounds, NaF was mentioned more frequently than SnF 2 , Na 2 PO 3 F, amine fluoride, and acidulated phosphate fluoride during the years 1986 to 2015. Water fluoridation received the most attention among the various fluoride application methods (toothpastes, mouthwashes, fluoride varnishes, and fluoride gels) during the same period. These results, obtained from employing informetrics and linguistic analyses, suggest that in studies on fluoride mechanisms of action, 1) the unbalanced geographic distribution of articles and 2) the heavy

  5. Sulfate, nitrate and blood pressure - An EPIC interaction between sulfur and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kuhnle, Gunter G; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Feelisch, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 - )-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines. It is therefore classified as 'probably carcinogenic to humans', although a beneficial effect on CVD risk might compensate for an increased cancer risk. Dietary nitrate requires reduction to nitrite (NO 2 - ) by oral commensal bacteria to contribute to the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The extensive crosstalk between NO and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) related metabolites may further affect nitrate's bioactivity. Using nitrate and nitrite concentrations of drinking water - the only dietary source continuously monitored for which detailed data exist - in conjunction with data of >14,000 participants of the EPIC-Norfolk study, we found no inverse associations with blood pressure or CVD risk. Instead, we found a strong interaction with sulfate (SO 4 2- ). At low sulfate concentrations, nitrate was inversely associated with BP (-4mmHg in top quintile) whereas this was reversed at higher concentrations (+3mmHg in top quintile). Our findings have a potentially significant impact for pharmacology, physiology and public health, redirecting our attention from the oral microbiome and mouthwash use to interaction with sulfur-containing dietary constituents. These results also indicate that nitrate bioactivation is more complex than hitherto assumed. The modulation of nitrate bioactivity by sulfate may render dietary lifestyle interventions aimed at increasing nitrate intake ineffective and even reverse potential antihypertensive effects, warranting further investigation

  6. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L.

    PubMed

    Ali, Intzar; Khan, Farrah G; Suri, Krishan A; Gupta, Bishan D; Satti, Naresh K; Dutt, Prabhu; Afrin, Farhat; Qazi, Ghulam N; Khan, Inshad A

    2010-02-03

    Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of hydroxychavicol were determined by using broth microdilution method following CLSI guidelines. Time kill curve studies, post-antifungal effects and mutation prevention concentrations were determined against Candida species and Aspergillus species "respectively". Hydroxychavicol was also tested for its potential to inhibit and reduce the formation of Candida albicans biofilms. The membrane permeability was measured by the uptake of propidium iodide. Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 microg/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 microg/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 microg/ml for dermatophytes where as the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 x MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 x MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 x to 8 x MIC concentration. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilm generated by C. albicans and reduced the preformed biofilms. There was increased uptake of propidium iodide by C. albicans cells when exposed to hydroxychavicol thus indicating that the membrane disruption could be the probable mode of action of hydroxychavicol. The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida

  8. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    mouthwash against oral Candida infections. PMID:20128889

  9. Association of coffee and tea intake with the oral microbiome: results from a large cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brandilyn A; McCullough, Marjorie L; Purdue, Mark P; Freedman, Neal D; Um, Caroline Y; Gapstur, Susan M; Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2018-04-27

    The oral microbiota play a central role in oral health, and possibly in carcinogenesis. Research suggests coffee and tea consumption may have beneficial health effects. We examined the associations of these common beverages with the oral ecosystem in a large cross-sectional study. We assessed oral microbiota in mouthwash samples from 938 participants in two U.S. cohorts using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Coffee and tea intake were assessed from food frequency questionnaires. We examined associations of coffee and tea intake with overall oral microbiota diversity and composition using linear regression and permutational MANOVA, respectively, and with taxon abundance using negative binomial generalized linear models; all models adjusted for age, sex, cohort, BMI, smoking, ethanol intake, and energy intake. Higher tea intake was associated with greater oral microbiota richness (P=0.05) and diversity (P=0.006), and shifts in overall community composition (P=0.002); coffee was not associated with these microbiome parameters. Tea intake was associated with altered abundance of several oral taxa; these included Fusobacteriales, Clostridiales, and Shuttleworthia satelles (higher with increasing tea) and Bifidobacteriaceae, Bergeyella, Lactobacillales, and Kingella oralis (lower with increasing tea). Higher coffee intake was only associated with greater abundance of Granulicatella and Synergistetes. In the largest study to date of tea and coffee consumption in relation to the oral microbiota, the microbiota of tea drinkers differed in several ways from non-drinkers. Tea-driven changes to the oral microbiome may contribute to previously observed associations between tea and oral and systemic diseases, including cancers. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation and electroanalytical determination of xylitol at a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Anabel S; Sanches, Fátima A C; Magalhães, Renata R; Costa, Daniel J E; Ribeiro, Williame F; Bichinho, Kátia M; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Araújo, Mário C U

    2014-02-01

    Xylitol is a reduced sugar with anticariogenic properties used by insulin-dependent diabetics, and which has attracted great attention of the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and dental industries. The detection of xylitol in different matrices is generally based on separation techniques. Alternatively, in this paper, the application of a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode allied to differing voltammetric techniques is presented to study the electrochemical behavior of xylitol, and to develop an analytical methodology for its determination in mouthwash. Xylitol undergoes two oxidation steps in an irreversible diffusion-controlled process (D=5.05 × 10(-5)cm(2)s(-1)). Differential pulse voltammetry studies revealed that the oxidation mechanism for peaks P1 (3.4 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0), and P2 (6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 9.0) involves transfer of 1H(+)/1e(-), and 1e(-) alone, respectively. The oxidation process P1 is mediated by the (•)OH generated at the BDD hydrogen-terminated surface. The maximum peak current was obtained at a pH of 7.0, and the electroanalytical method developed, (employing square wave voltammetry) yielded low detection (1.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)), and quantification (4.5 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)) limits, associated with good levels of repeatability (4.7%), and reproducibility (5.3%); thus demonstrating the viability of the methodology for detection of xylitol in biological samples containing low concentrations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium: a case-referent study of men and women of working age with sarcoidosis or other chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Nicola; Beach, Jeremy; Burstyn, Igor; Parboosingh, Jillian; Schouchen, Janine; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Svenson, Larry; Tamminga, Jan; Yiannakoulias, Niko

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether beryllium exposure was related to illness diagnosed as sarcoidosis. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and sarcoidosis are clinically and pathologically indistinguishable, with only the presence of beryllium-specific T-lymphocytes identifying CBD. Testing for such cells is not feasible in community studies of sarcoidosis but a second characteristic of CBD, its much greater incidence in those with a glutamic acid residue at position 69 of the HLA-DPB1 gene (Glu69), provides an alternative approach to answering this question. Cases of sarcoidosis aged 18-60 years diagnosed in Alberta, Canada, from 1999 to 2005 were approached through their specialist physician, together with age-matched and sex-matched referents with other chronic lung disease. Referents were grouped into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and other lung disease. Participants completed a telephone questionnaire, including industry-specific questionnaires. DNA was extracted from mailed-in mouthwash samples and genotyped for Glu69. Duration of employment in types of work with independently documented beryllium exposure was calculated. DNA was extracted for 655 cases (270 Glu69 positive) and 1382 referents (561 positive). No increase in sarcoidosis was seen with either Glu69 or beryllium exposure (none, <10, ≥10 years) as main effects: longer duration in possible beryllium jobs was related to COPD. In Glu69 positive men with exposure ≥10 years, the trend towards increasing rate of COPD was reversed, and a significant interaction of duration of exposure and Glu69 was detected (OR=4.51 95% CI 1.17 to 17.48). The gene-environment interaction supports the hypothesis that some cases diagnosed as sarcoidosis result from occupational beryllium exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Taste alteration in breast cancer patients treated with taxane chemotherapy: experience, effect, and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Speck, Rebecca M; DeMichele, Angela; Farrar, John T; Hennessy, Sean; Mao, Jun J; Stineman, Margaret G; Barg, Frances K

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the experience and coping strategies for taste alteration in female breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel or paclitaxel. A purposive sample of 25 patients currently receiving docetaxel or paclitaxel or within 6 months of having completed treatment was recruited. Semi-structured interviews and patient-level data were utilized for this exploratory descriptive study. Interview data were analyzed with the constant comparative method; patient-level data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Of all side effects reported from taxanes, the most common was taste alteration (8 of 10 docetaxel patients, 3 of 15 paclitaxel patients). Women that experience taste alteration chose not to eat as much, ate on an irregular schedule, and/or lost interest in preparing meals for themselves and/or their family. Women adopted a variety of new behaviors to deal with the taste alteration and its effects, including trying new recipes, eating strongly flavored foods, honoring specific food cravings, eating candy before meals, cutting food with lemon, drinking sweetened drinks, using plastic eating utensils, drinking from a straw, brushing their teeth and tongue before meals, and using baking soda and salt wash or antibacterial mouthwash. Taste alteration affects breast cancer patients' lives, and they develop management strategies to deal with the effect. While some self-management strategies can be seen as positively adaptive, the potential for increased caloric consumption and poor eating behaviors associated with some coping strategies may be a cause for concern given the observation of weight gain during breast cancer treatment and association of obesity with poor treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to determine the overall burden of this symptom and measurement of cancer and non-cancer-related consequences of these behavioral adaptations.

  13. Buccal DNA collection: comparison of buccal swabs with FTA cards.

    PubMed

    Milne, Elizabeth; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Robertson, Laila; Brisbane, Joanna M; Ashton, Lesley J; Scott, Rodney J; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2006-04-01

    Collection and analysis of DNA, most commonly from blood or buccal cells, is becoming more common in epidemiologic studies. Buccal samples, which are painless to take and relatively easily collected, are often the preferred source. There are several buccal cell collection methods: swabs, brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards, such as FTA or IsoCode cards. Few studies have systematically compared methods of buccal cell collection with respect to DNA yield and amplification success under similar conditions. We compared buccal DNA collection and amplification using buccal swabs and FTA cards in 122 control subjects from our Australian case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Buccal DNA was quantified using a real-time PCR for beta-actin and genotyped at the loci of three polymorphisms (MTHFR 677C>T, ACE I/D, and XPD 1012G>A). PCR was successful with DNA from buccal swabs for 62% to 89% of subjects and from FTA cards for 83% to 100% of subjects, depending on the locus. The matched pair odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing success of FTA cards with buccal swabs are as follows: MTHFR 677C>T using PCR-RFLP, 12.5 (11.6-13.5) and using real-time PCR, 130.0 (113.1-152.8); ACE I/D using PCR-amplified fragment length polymorphism, 3.36 (3.2-3.5); XPD 1012G>A using real-time PCR, 150.0 (132.7-172.3). FTA cards are a robust DNA collection method and generally produce DNA suitable for PCR more reliably than buccal swabs. There are, however, technical challenges in handling discs punched from FTA cards that intending users should be aware of.

  14. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in Russian endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Ahmetov, I I; Druzhevskaya, A M; Astratenkova, I V; Popov, D V; Vinogradova, O L; Rogozkin, V A

    2010-07-01

    The functional 577R allele of the alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene has been reported to be associated with elite power athlete status, while the nonfunctional 577XX genotype (predicts an alpha-actinin-3 deficient phenotype) has been hypothesised as providing some sort of advantage for endurance athletes. In the present study, the distribution of ACTN3 genotypes and alleles in Russian endurance-oriented athletes were examined and association between ACTN3 genotypes and the competition results of rowers were sought. 456 Russian endurance-oriented athletes of regional or national competitive standard were involved in the study. ACTN3 genotype and allele frequencies were compared with 1211 controls. The data from the Russian Cup Rowing Tournament were used to search for possible association between the ACTN3 genotype and the long-distance (approximately 6 km) rowing results of 54 athletes. DNA was extracted from mouthwash samples. Genotyping for the R577X variant was performed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. The frequencies of the ACTN3 577XX genotype (5.7% vs 14.5%; p<0.0001) and 577X allele (33.2% vs 39.0%; p = 0.0025) were significantly lower in endurance-oriented athletes compared with the controls, and none of the highly elite athletes had the 577XX genotype. Furthermore, male rowers with ACTN3 577RR genotype showed better results (1339 (11) s) in long-distance rowing than carriers of 577RX (1386 (12) s) or 577XX (1402 (10) s) genotypes (p = 0.016). Our data show that the ACTN3 577X allele is under-represented in Russian endurance athletes and is associated with the rowers' competition results.

  15. Polyomavirus BK and JC in individuals with chronic kidney failure, kidney transplantation, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Castro, Talita; Fink, Maria Cristina Domingues; Figueiredo, Marilia; Braz-Silva, Paulo Henrique; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Ortega, Karem Lopez; Gallottini, Marina

    2017-04-01

    New clinical approaches to diagnose and monitor individuals with systemic diseases have been employed through the use of oral fluids. Polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) infect asymptomatically around 80% of general population worldwide remaining latent in the body. In case of immunosuppression, a replication can occur, leading to diseases. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify BKPyV and JCPyV in oral fluids of individuals with chronic kidney failure (CKF), kidney transplantation (KT) and controls compared with their detection in blood and urine, traditionally used for this test. Forty six subjects were included and distributed into 3 groups: 14 with CKF (Group 1), 12 with KT (Group 2) and 20 healthy individuals (Group 3). In a total, 315 samples were collected and analyzed through RT-PCR, being 151 of gingival crevicular fluid, 46 of saliva, 46 of mouthwash, 43 of blood and 29 of urine. All subjects from group 1 were positive for BKPyV in at least one collected samples and 14% were positive for JCPyV. In Group 2, 91.7% were positive for BKPyV and 51.7% for JCPyV. Among subjects of Group 3, 80% were positive for BKPyV and 45% for JCPyV. Oral fluids exhibited high prevalence of BKPyV and JCPyV and were equally efficient compared to urine and blood. The use of oral fluids to detect these polyomaviruses enhances positivity in screening, even in cases of absence of viremia and especially in individuals who are not able to urinate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Association of ADRA2A rs553668 and ACE I/D Gene Polymorphisms with Obesity Traits in the Setapak Population, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shunmugam, Vicneswari; Say, Yee-How

    2016-02-01

    α-adrenergic receptor 2A (ADRA2A) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes have been variably associated with obesity and its related phenotypes in different populations worldwide. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the association of adrenergic receptor α2A (ADRA2A) rs553668 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity traits (body mass index-BMI; waist-hip ratio-WHR; total body fat percentage - TBF) in a Malaysian population. Demographic and clinical variables were initially collected from 230 subjects via convenience sampling among residents and workers in Setapak, Malaysia, but in the end only 214 multi-ethnic Malaysians (99 males; 45 Malays, 116 ethnic Chinese, and 53 ethnic Indians) were available for statistical analysis. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using DNA extracted from mouthwash samples. The overall minor allele frequencies (MAFs) for ADRA2A rs553668 and ACE I/D were 0.55 and 0.56, respectively. Allele distribution of ACE I/D was significantly associated with ethnicity and WHR class. Logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with the ACE II genotype and I allele were, respectively, 2.15 and 1.55 times more likely to be centrally obese, but when adjusted for age and ethnicity, this association was abolished. Covariate analysis controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity also showed similar results, where subjects carrying the II genotype or I allele did not have significantly higher WHR. Combinatory genotype and allele analysis for ADRA2A rs553668 and ACE I/D showed that subjects with both ADRA2A rs553668 GG and ACE I/D II genotypes had significant lowest WHR compared to other genotype combinations. The ACE II genotype might be a protective factor against central adiposity risk among the Malaysian population when in combination with the ADRA2A rs553668 GG genotype.

  17. A Current Approach to Halitosis and Oral Malodor- A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Bicak, Damla Aksit

    2018-01-01

    Halitosis, in other words, oral malodor is an important multifactorial health problem affecting the psychological and social life of individuals and is the most common reason for referral to dentists after dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this review was to present and discuss conventional and recently introduced information about the types, causes, detection and treatment methods of halitosis. An expanded literature review was conducted which targeted all articles published in peer-reviewed journals relating to the topic of halitosis. Only articles written in Turkish and English languages were considered. The review itself began with a search of relevant subject headings such as 'halitosis, oral malodor, volatile sulfur compounds in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar and Tubitak Ulakbim databases. A hand search of references was also performed. When search results are combined, the total number of relevant literature was found to be 4646 abstracts and 978 full-text articles. Abstracts, editorial letters were not included and about half of full-text articles were not related to dental practice. Among the remaining 124 full-text articles, duplicated articles and articles written other than Turkish and English languages were removed and 54 full-text articles were used for this review. According to the reviewed articles, both conventional and new methods were introduced in the management of halitosis. However, conventional methods seem to be more effective and widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of halitosis. As being first line professionals, dentists must analyze and treat oral problems which may be responsible for the patient's malodor, and should inform the patient about halitosis causes and oral hygiene procedures (tooth flossing, tongue cleaning, appropriate mouthwash and toothpaste selection and use) and if the problem persists, they should consult to a medical specialist.

  18. Behçet's syndrome and health-related quality of life: influence of symptoms, lifestyle and employment status.

    PubMed

    Senusi, Amal A; Ola, Dennis; Mather, Jan; Mather, John; Fortune, Farida

    2017-01-01

    Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a chronic multisystemic disorder. The complex pattern of BS symptoms can effect negatively on patients' quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of BS symptoms, oral health related lifestyles and employment status on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). A questionnaire was mailed to a cohort of 641 adult members of the Behçet's Syndrome Society (BSS) and patients attending a Behçet's syndrome centre in the UK. Respondents gave information on socio-demographic characteristics, disease duration, current symptoms, symptom control, health related lifestyle, diet, smoking and alcohol, employment status and quality of life (the EQ-5D index). 315 out of 426 BS participants (Males: Females=136:179) were recruited. BS symptoms and EQ-5D score model (R=0.67 and R2=0.45) and standardised coefficients for symptoms were; arthropathy (-0.336), headache (-0.227), neurological problems (-0.135), pathergy reaction (-0.119) and skin lesions (-0.107) in decreasing order. This finding was similar to a 2009 study of the same cohort. Regression analysis of tobacco consumption revealed that tobacco use was a risk factor for decreasing the EQ-5D score (beta value = - 0.72, p=0.001). Using an effective mouthwash has a positive impact on HRQoL (beta value= 0.149 and p=0.012). The mean EQ-5D in patients who continued in employment and who were not receiving benefits was better compared to other sub groups. BS symptoms, employment status, a healthy lifestyle combined with a good oral health have a significant impact on the HRQoL of BS patients.

  19. Comparing clinical effects of photodynamic therapy as a novel method with topical corticosteroid for treatment of Oral Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz; Mojahedi, Seyyed Masoud; Namdari, Mahshid; Rankohi, Zahra Elmi; Jafari, Soudeh

    2017-12-01

    Oral lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder with several challenges in treatment. Photodynamic therapy has been proposed as a new treatment option for the disease. The present study compared the clinical effects of photodynamic therapy to dexamethasone mouthwash in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions. In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with oral lichen planus were included.15 patients were treated with 5% methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy using Fotosan device for 30s (630nm wavelength and 7.2-14.4J/cm 2 dose) for 4 sessions in the days 1, 4, 7, 14. In another group, the treatment was done on 15 patients by 0.5mg tab dexamethasone solution in 5cc water, rinsed 4 times in a day within two weeks. The sign score, symptoms scores (pain), clinical severity and treatment efficacy were measured at the days 15, 30, 60, 90 after beginning of the treatment. The results were subjected to Mann-whitney U test in both groups. No significant difference existed between the two modalities regarding the treatment efficacy index, sign score, symptom score and clinical severity on the 15, 30, 60 and 90 post-treatment days. Decreases in patient's symptoms were statistically significant in both groups. Photodynamic therapy was as effective as the dexamethasone mouth wash in the treatment of oral lichen planus. It could be used as a safe modality in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions without identified side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) Taq1 polymorphisms with eating behaviors and obesity among Chinese and Indian Malaysian university students.

    PubMed

    Lek, Fang-Ying; Ong, Hing-Huat; Say, Yee-How

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the association of DRD2 Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D gene polymorphisms with eating behavior, the preference/intake frequency/craving of high-fat foods and obesity in 394 Malaysian adults (161 males, 233 females; 308 Chinese, 86 Indians; 67 obese, 327 non-obese). Eating behaviors namely Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating and Emotional Eating scores were assessed by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The preference/intake frequency/craving of 26 common high-fat Malaysian foods was assessed using a 7-point hedonic scale. Anthropometric measurements were taken and Taq1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using DNA extracted from mouthwash samples. The overall minor allele frequencies of Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D according to ethnicities (Chinese/Indian) were 0.37/0.29, 0.39/0.28, 0.06/0.30, respectively; genotype and allele distributions of Taq1B and Taq1D were significantly different between ethnicities. Eating behaviorscores were not significantly different between gender and ethnicities. Those with A1 or B1 allele had lower Cognitive Restraint score and higher Uncontrolled Eating score, while those with A1/A1 or B1/B1 genotype had higher fast food preference. D1 allele was associated with increased starchy food craving and mamak (Malaysian Indian-Muslim) food preference, but not eating behavior scores. All three gene variants were not associated with obesity and adiposity. Taken together, we posit that three DRD2 Taq1 gene polymorphisms influence the eating behavior and preference/intake frequency/craving of certain high-fat foods in Malaysian adults, but their role in obesity and adiposity is still inconclusive and needs further investigation.

  1. Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy in a child with developmental delay: clinicopathological features and exclusion of the M1S1 gene.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, S; Bron, A J; Qin, X; Creer, R C; Guggenheim, J A; Meek, K M

    2005-02-01

    Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) is an early-onset, autosomal recessive condition characterised by amyloid deposits within the cornea. We report the histopathological and molecular genetic findings in a Caucasian child with GDLD who also exhibited global developmental delay. Bilateral lamellar keratoplasty was carried out at age 6 and 7 years. Tissue was fixed for light and electron microscopy, including immunoelectronmicroscopy. The coding region of the M1S1 gene was screened for mutations in the affected proband and available relatives, using DNA extracted from mouthwashes. Nodular deposits, which were present subepithelially and in the central superficial stroma, stained typically for amyloid with PAS and Congo red. A nodular deposit of amyloid, together with large amounts of lactoferrin and sparse amounts of keratoepithelin (betaig-h3), was present in the central superficial stroma, causing destruction of Bowman's layer and elevation of the thinned, degenerate epithelium. Around the deposit zone, the stroma exhibited large numbers of thick filamentous proteoglycan deposits. While the affected child was homozygous for a novel A1133 C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that resulted in an aspartic acid to alanine substitution at position 173 of the M1S1 coding sequence, this polymorphism was also found at relatively high frequency in a sample of normal controls, enabling exclusion of the M1S1 gene as the disease locus. Increased epithelial permeability in GDLD may be explained in part by an altered membrane permeability of the superficial epithelial cells. An association with developmental delay has not been reported previously.

  2. Vitamin E and Lycopene Reduce Coal Burning Fluorosis-induced Spermatogenic Cell Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress-mediated JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Xiao, Yuehai; Wang, Bolin; Sun, Chao; Tang, Kaifa; Sun, Fa

    2017-12-22

    Although fluoride has been widely used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and drinking water to prevent dental caries, the excessive intake of fluoride can cause fluorosis which is associated with dental, skeletal, and soft tissue fluorosis. Recent evidences have drawn the attention to its adverse effects on male reproductive system that include spermatogenesis defect, sperm count loss, and sperm maturation impairment. Fluoride induces oxidative stress through the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade which can lead to cell apoptosis. Vitamin E (VE) and lycopene are two common anti-oxidants, being protective to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced toxic effects. However, whether and how these two anti-oxidants prevent fluoride-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis are largely unknown. In the present study, a male rat model for coal burning fluorosis was established and the histological lesions and spermatogenic cell apoptosis in rat testes were observed. The decreased expression of clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein reported to regulate spermatogenic cell apoptosis, is detected in fluoride-treated rat testes. Interestingly, the co-administration with VE or lycopene reduced fluorosis-mediated testicular toxicity and rescued clusterin expression. Further, fluoride caused the enhanced Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was reduced by VE or lycopene. Thus, VE and lycopene prevent coal burning fluorosis-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis through the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated JNK and ERK signaling pathway, which could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of fluorosis. ©2017 The Author(s).

  3. ent-Kaurenoic acid-rich extract from Mikania glomerata: In vitro activity against bacteria responsible for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Monique Rodrigues; Souza, Ariana Borges; Soares, Sandra; Bianchi, Thamires Chiquini; de Souza Eugênio, Daniele; Lemes, Danieli Cristina; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; da Silva Moraes, Thaís; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Ferreira, Natália Helen; Ambrósio, Sergio Ricardo; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that medicinal plant extracts can inhibit oral pathogen growth or adhesion to surfaces and therefore reduce dental caries formation. The addition of these extracts to oral products like mouthwashes and dentifrices is considered an important strategy in caries control. In this sense, we have developed a Mikania glomerata extract with high ent-kaurenoic acid content (KAMg). So, this work describes the preparation of such extract and the development of a validated HPLC-DAD method to determine its ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) content. Herein it is also described the KAMg in vitro antibacterial evaluation against several cariogenic bacteria in comparison with KA and the investigation of further aspects of the KAMg activity. Toxicological aspects of the developed extract were evaluated by assessing its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. KA and a KA-rich extract like KAMg showed to inhibit the growth of microorganisms responsible for dental caries at relatively low MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) values, albeit not as low as the MIC value obtained for chlorhexidine digluconate (CHD), the golden anticariogenic standard approved by the American Dental Association Council on Dental Therapeutics. However, KAMg was more effective to inhibit the formation of a Streptococcus mutans biofilm with four times lower MICB50 (minimum inhibitory concentration that reduces 50% of the biofilm) value as compared with CHD. Taking into account all these data and considering the absence of genotoxic and cytotoxic activity under the tested conditions, it is suggested that KAMg is a natural product to be considered as active ingredient in oral care products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: do we know what patients are using to treat the ulcers?

    PubMed

    Sawair, Faleh A

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence and types of treatments used by patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), and to study the sources of information about treatments used. The study was a cross-sectional survey. The participants were 530 students who had a history of RAS and were studying at the University of Jordan, Amman. Of the 530 patients, 267 (50.4%) have attempted treatment of RAS. Of those who treated RAS, 86 (32.2%) have used alternative treatments (ATs). Topical anaesthetics/analgesics, antiseptic mouthwashes, and topical steroids represented 84.5% of the conventional medicines used. Of those who used ATs, 34 (39.5%) used tahini, 21 (24.4%) used salt/salt and warm water mouthrinse, and 7 (8.1%) used lemon/lemon salt. The tendency to treat RAS or not was not significantly affected by sociodemographic variables, but ATs were more significantly used by students living in rural areas. Relatives were the most frequently cited source of information about treatment (44.6%), followed by medical practitioners (22.9%), and only 9.4% sought treatment advice from dentists. Interestingly, 7% of the ATs were recommended by health care providers and 38.7% of the conventional treatments were recommended by non-health-care providers including 15 cases of topical steroids. This survey revealed a high prevalence of ATs use among Jordanian patients with RAS. There is a need to educate patients with RAS on the treatment options available to reduce their distress and to improve their quality of life. Health care providers such as medical practitioners and pharmacists are frequently consulted by patients with oral lesions, so they should provide patients with better education in the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases. Randomized clinical trials are needed to examine the potential usefulness of the commonly used ATs in this study such as tahini/sesame oil in the treatment of RAS.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of chemomechanical gingival retraction products.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Belinda; Lee, Stephanie; Schwass, Donald; Tompkins, Geoffrey

    2017-07-01

    Application of astringent hemostatic agents is the most widely used technique for gingival retraction, and a variety of products are offered commercially. However, these products may have additional unintended yet clinically beneficial properties. The authors assessed the antimicrobial activities of marketed retraction products against plaque-associated bacteria in both planktonic and biofilm assays, in vitro. The authors assessed hemostatic solutions, gels, pellets, retraction cords, pastes, and their listed active agents against a collection of microorganisms by means of conventional agar diffusion and minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentration determinations. The authors then tested the most active products against monospecies biofilms grown on hydroxyapatite disks. All of the tested retraction products exhibited some antimicrobial activity. The results of the most active products were comparable with those of a marketed mouthwash. The listed retraction-active agents displayed relatively little activity when tested in pure form. At 10% dilution, some products evidenced inhibitory activity against most tested bacteria within 3 minutes of exposure, whereas others displayed variable effects after 10 minutes. The most active agents reduced, but did not completely prevent, the metabolic activity of a monospecies biofilm. Commercial gingival retraction products exhibit antimicrobial effects to various degrees in vitro. Some products display rapid bactericidal activity. The antimicrobial activity is not owing to the retraction-active agents. Biofilm bacteria are less sensitive to the antimicrobial effects of the agents. The rapidity of killing by some hemostatic agents suggests an antimicrobial effect that may be efficacious during clinical placement. The results of this in vitro study suggest that clinicians should be aware of the potential antimicrobial effects of some hemostatic agents, but more research is needed to confirm these observations in

  6. Effect of vegetable oils applied over acquired enamel pellicle on initial erosion.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Franciny Querobim; Alencar, Catarina Ribeiro Barros de; Val, Poliana Pacifico; Boteon, Ana Paula; Jordão, Maisa Camillo; Honório, Heitor Marques; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Rios, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of dental erosion has been recently increasing, requiring new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Vegetable oils have been studied in preventive dentistry because they come from a natural, edible, low-cost, and worldwide accessible source. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of different vegetable oils, applied in two concentrations, on initial enamel erosion. Initially, the acquired pellicle was formed in situ for 2 hours. Subsequently, the enamel blocks were treated in vitro according to the study group (n=12/per group): GP5 and GP100 - 5% and pure palm oil, respectively; GC5 and GC100 - 5% and pure coconut oil; GSa5 and GSa100 - 5% and pure safflower oil; GSu5 and GSu100 - 5% and pure sunflower oil; GO5 and GO100 - 5% and pure olive oil; CON- - Deionized Water (negative control) and CON+ - Commercial Mouthwash (Elmex® Erosion Protection Dental Rinse, GABA/positive control). Then, the enamel blocks were immersed in artificial saliva for 2 minutes and subjected to short-term acid exposure in 0.5% citric acid, pH 2.4, for 30 seconds, to promote enamel surface softening. The response variable was the percentage of surface hardness loss [((SHi - SHf) / SHf )×100]. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Enamel blocks of GP100 presented similar hardness loss to GSu100 (p>0.05) and less than the other groups (p<0.05). There was no difference between GP5, GC5, GC100, GSa5, GSu100, GSa100, GSu5, GO5, GO100, CON- and CON+. Palm oil seems to be a promising alternative for preventing enamel erosion. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate a long-term erosive cycling.

  7. Effect of vegetable oils applied over acquired enamel pellicle on initial erosion

    PubMed Central

    IONTA, Franciny Querobim; de ALENCAR, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; VAL, Poliana Pacifico; BOTEON, Ana Paula; JORDÃO, Maisa Camillo; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; RIOS, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The prevalence of dental erosion has been recently increasing, requiring new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Vegetable oils have been studied in preventive dentistry because they come from a natural, edible, low-cost, and worldwide accessible source. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of different vegetable oils, applied in two concentrations, on initial enamel erosion. Material and Methods Initially, the acquired pellicle was formed in situ for 2 hours. Subsequently, the enamel blocks were treated in vitro according to the study group (n=12/per group): GP5 and GP100 – 5% and pure palm oil, respectively; GC5 and GC100 – 5% and pure coconut oil; GSa5 and GSa100 – 5% and pure safflower oil; GSu5 and GSu100 – 5% and pure sunflower oil; GO5 and GO100 – 5% and pure olive oil; CON− – Deionized Water (negative control) and CON+ – Commercial Mouthwash (Elmex® Erosion Protection Dental Rinse, GABA/positive control). Then, the enamel blocks were immersed in artificial saliva for 2 minutes and subjected to short-term acid exposure in 0.5% citric acid, pH 2.4, for 30 seconds, to promote enamel surface softening. The response variable was the percentage of surface hardness loss [((SHi - SHf) / SHf )×100]. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p<0.05). Results Enamel blocks of GP100 presented similar hardness loss to GSu100 (p>0.05) and less than the other groups (p<0.05). There was no difference between GP5, GC5, GC100, GSa5, GSu100, GSa100, GSu5, GO5, GO100, CON− and CON+. Conclusion Palm oil seems to be a promising alternative for preventing enamel erosion. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate a long-term erosive cycling. PMID:28877281

  8. BDNF Met66 modulates the cumulative effect of psychosocial childhood adversities on major depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos S; Benjet, Corina; Martínez-Levy, Gabriela A; Pérez-Molina, Amado; Briones-Velasco, Magdalena; Suárez-González, Jesús

    2014-03-01

    The interplay among lifetime adversities and the genetic background has been previously examined on a variety of measures of depression; however, only few studies have focused on major depression disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Using clinical data and DNA samples from mouthwash gathered from an epidemiological study on the prevalence of mental disorders in youths between 12 and 17 years old, we tested the statistical interaction between a set of psychosocial adversities experienced during childhood (CAs) with two common polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (Val66Met) and SLC6A4 (L/S) genes on the probability of suffering MDD in adolescence. Genotype or allele frequencies for both polymorphisms were similar between groups of comparison (MDD N = 246; controls N = 270). The CAs factors: Abuse, neglect, and family dysfunctions; parental maladjustment, parental death, and to have experienced a life-threatening physical illness were predictors of clinical depression in adolescents. Remarkably, the cumulative number of psychosocial adversities was distinctly associated with an increase in the prevalence of depression but only in those Val/Val BDNF individuals; while the possession of at least a copy of the BDNF Met allele (i.e., Met +) was statistically linked with a "refractory" or resilient phenotype to the noticeable influence of CAs. Liability or resilience to develop MDD in adolescence is dependent of a complex interplay between particular environmental exposures and a set of plasticity genes including BDNF. A better understanding of these factors is important for developing better prevention and early intervention measures.

  9. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study)

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Zahedi Bialvaei, Abed; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kabiri, Fahimeh; Saliani, Negar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Eslami, Hosein; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candidiasis is one of the most prevalent and important opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity caused by Candida yeast species like Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. In addition, several bacteria can cause oral infections. The inhibition of microbial biofilm is the best way to prevent oral infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against Candida species and some bacterial pathogens and the extract’s effects on biofilm formation. Materials and Methods: Ginger ethanolic extract as a potential mouthwash was used to evaluate its effect against fungi and bacteria using the microdilution method, and biofilm was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method and dead/alive staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity effects of the extract. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively. Ginger extract successfully inhibited biofilm formation by A. baumannii, B. cereus, C. krusei, and C. albicans. MTT assay revealed no significant reduction in cell viability after 24 hours. The minimum inhibitory biofilm concentrations (MIBCs) of ginger extract for fungi strains (C. krusei and C. albicans) were greater than those of fluconazole and nystatin (P = 0.000). Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei. Concentrations between 0.625 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL had the highest antibiofilm and antifungal effects. Perhaps, the use of herbal extracts such as ginger represents a new era for antimicrobial therapy after

  10. Associations Between Periodontitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Tae Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether oral hygiene and self-care, particularly in periodontal health, are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Korean population. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were used to assess the community periodontal index (CPI) of 5,878 participants (normal lung function: n = 5,181; obstructive spirometric pattern: n = 697) aged ≥40 years, who underwent spirometry. Participants with COPD brushed their teeth less frequently and used the following less frequently: 1) dental floss and/or interdental brush; 2) mouthwash; and 3) electric toothbrush (P <0.001). Prevalence of periodontitis in patients with COPD (58.1%) was significantly higher than in those without COPD (34.0%, P <0.001). Number of teeth was significantly lower in patients with COPD compared with controls. Decayed-missing-filled tooth index was significantly lower in patients with COPD. This study shows risk of COPD by periodontal severity. Periodontitis (CPI 3 and 4) was associated in males with COPD after adjustment for: 1) age; 2) income; 3) education; 4) smoking; 5) alcohol consumption; 6) exercise; 7) body mass index; 8) toothbrushing frequency; 9) diabetes mellitus; and 10) number of teeth (CPI 3: relative risk [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 2.05; CPI 4: RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.56). Findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that COPD in males may be associated with severe periodontitis and indicates the importance of promoting dental care in patients with COPD.

  11. Influence of noble metals alloying additions on the corrosion behaviour of titanium in a fluoride-containing environment.

    PubMed

    Rosalbino, F; Delsante, S; Borzone, G; Scavino, G

    2012-05-01

    Titanium alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in most aqueous media due to the formation of a stable oxide film, and some of these alloys (particularly Ti-6Al-7Nb) have been chosen for surgical and odontological implants for their resistance and biocompatibility. Treatment with fluorides (F(-)) is known to be the main method for preventing plaque formation and dental caries. Toothpastes, mouthwashes, and prophylactic gels can contain from 200 to 20,000 ppm F(-) and can affect the corrosion behaviour of titanium alloy devices present in the oral cavity. In this work, the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Ti-1M alloys (M = Ag, Au, Pd, Pt) was assessed in artificial saliva of pH = 3.0 containing 910 ppm F(-) (0.05 M NaF) through open circuit potential, E(OC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The corrosion behaviour of the Ti-6Al-7Nb commercial alloy was also evaluated for comparison. E (OC) measurements show an active behaviour for all the titanium alloys in fluoridated acidified saliva due to the presence of significant concentrations of HF and HF(2) (-) species that dissolve the spontaneous air-formed oxide film giving rise to surface activation. However, an increase in stability of the passive oxide layer and consequently a decrease in surface activation is observed for the Ti-1M alloys. This behaviour is confirmed by EIS measurements. In fact, the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy exhibits lower impedance values as compared with Ti-1M alloys, the highest values being measured for the Ti-1Au alloy. The experimental results show that the corrosion resistance of the studied Ti-1M alloys is similar to or better than that of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy currently used as biomaterial, suggesting their potential for dental applications.

  12. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  13. The postantifungal effect and phospholipase production of oral Candida albicans from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics, denture wearers and healthy individuals following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate.

    PubMed

    Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Joseph, Bobby K; Khan, Z U

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is the major aetiological agent of oral candidosis and one of its important virulent factors is the production of extracellular phospholipases, which can be modulated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antifungal agents thus decreasing their pathogenicity. Hence, considering that chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) is a common antimicrobial mouthwash used in dentistry and that its concentration in the mouth reaches subtherapeutic levels during dosage intervals due to the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature, the postantifungal effect (PAFE) and the phospholipase production of oral C. albicans following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG was studied. Fifty C. albicans planktonic oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to three subtherapeutic concentrations of CG (0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125%) for 1 h. Isolates unexposed to CG was the control group. Thereafter the antiseptic was removed and the PAFE and phospholipase production was determined by a turbidometric method and a plate assay using an egg yolk agar medium respectively. Mean PAFE (hours) of 50 oral isolates of C. albicans following 1-h exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG was 6.97, 1.85 and 0.62 respectively. The phospholipase production of these isolates was significantly suppressed with a percentage reduction of 21.68, 18.20 and 14.04% following exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG respectively. Brief exposure of C. albicans isolates to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG would wield an antifungal effect by suppressing growth and phospholipase production, thereby quelling its pathogenicity. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function and Estrogen Signaling in Cell Lines Exposed to the Antiseptic Cetylpyridinium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sandipan; He, Guochun; Tomilov, Alexey; Sahdeo, Sunil; Denison, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Quaternary ammonium salts (QUATS), such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK), are frequently used in antiseptic formulations, including toothpastes, mouthwashes, lozenges, throat and nasal sprays, and as biocides. Although in a recent ruling, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned CPC from certain products and requested more data on BAK’s efficacy and safety profile, QUATS, in general, and CPC and BAK, in particular, continue to be used in personal health care, food, and pharmaceutical and cleaning industries. Objectives: We aimed to assess CPC's effects on mitochondrial toxicity and endocrine disruption in vitro. Method: Mitochondrial O2 consumption and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates of osteosarcoma cybrid cells were measured before and after CPC and BAK treatment. Antiestrogenic effects of the compounds were measured by a luciferase-based assay using recombinant human breast carcinoma cells (VM7Luc4E2, ERalpha-positive). Results: CPC inhibited both mitochondrial O2 consumption [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 3.8μM] and ATP synthesis (IC50: 0.9μM), and additional findings supported inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 as the underlying mechanism for these effects. In addition, CPC showed concentration-dependent antiestrogenic activity half maximal effective concentration [(EC50): 4.5μM)]. BAK, another antimicrobial QUATS that is structurally similar to CPC, and the pesticide rotenone, a known complex 1 inhibitor, also showed mitochondrial inhibitory and antiestrogenic effects. In all three cases, there was overlap of the antiestrogenic activity with the mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Conclusions: Mitochondrial inhibition in vitro occurred at a CPC concentration that may be relevant to human exposures. The antiestrogenic activity of CPC, BAK, rotenone, and triclosan may be related to their mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Our findings support the need for

  15. Uptake of cystic fibrosis testing in primary care: supply push or demand pull?

    PubMed Central

    Bekker, H; Modell, M; Denniss, G; Silver, A; Mathew, C; Bobrow, M; Marteau, T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the acceptability and feasibility of screening for carriers of cystic fibrosis in a primary care setting. DESIGN--Follow up study over 15 months of patients offered carrier testing by mouthwash. SETTING--A general practice in inner London. SUBJECTS--5529 patients aged 18-45 invited by various methods and combinations of methods (letter, booklet, personal approach) for testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Uptake of screening, anxiety, and knowledge of test. RESULTS--957 (17%) invitees were screened over the 15 months. 28 carriers and no carrier couples were detected. Uptake rates were 12% (59/502 patients) among patients invited by letter and tested by appointment; 9% (47/496) among patients invited by letter, with leaflet, and tested by appointment; 4% (128/2953) among patients invited by letter six weeks before the end of the study and tested by appointment; 17% (81/471) among patients offered passive opportunistic testing; 70% (453/649) among patients offered active opportunistic testing; and 25% (22/88) among patients offered active opportunistic testing by appointment. A short term rise in anxiety among those given a positive test result had dissipated by three months. At three months about one fifth and one third of those given positive and negative results respectively did not understand their results correctly. CONCLUSION--These results suggest that the strongest variable in determining uptake of screening is the active approach by a health professional offering immediate testing. It remains to be resolved whether the high uptake rates achieved by active recruitment indicate a supply push for this new test rather than a demand from the population. PMID:8329922

  16. Immune-Stimulatory Effects of Althaea rosea Flower Extracts through the MAPK Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Nawarathna, Weligala Pahalagedara Amila Srilal; Dong, Xin; Shin, Woen-Bin; Park, Jin-Su; Moon, Sang-Ho; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2017-04-25

    Althaea rosea (Linn.) is a medicinal plant from China and Korea that has been traditionally used to control inflammation, to stop bedwetting and as a mouthwash in cases of bleeding gums. Its flowers are employed medicinally for their emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties, which make them useful in chest complaints. Furthermore, a flower extract decoction is used to improve blood circulation, for the treatment of constipation, dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhages, etc. However, the possible mechanisms of the immune-stimulatory effect remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of Althaea rosea flower (ARF) extracts in the immune-stimulatory effect of macrophages and the underlying mechanisms of action. ARF water extract (ARFW) could dose-dependently increase NO production and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). We also found that ARFW significantly increased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins in RAW264.7 cells. Consistent with these results, MAPK protein (JNK, ERK, p38) expression levels were induced after treatment with ARFW. Additionally, ARFW showed a marked increase in the phosphorylation level of IκBα and subsequent IκBα degradation allowing NF-κB nuclear translocation. These results suggest that the immune-stimulatory effect of A. rosea flower extracts is mediated through the translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus from the cytoplasm and subsequent activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and other mediators (iNOS and COX-2), which occurs mainly through MAPK signalling pathway. Thus, we suggest that ARFW could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent useful in the development of immune-stimulatory compounds.

  17. Exposure to Triclosan Augments the Allergic Response to Ovalbumin in a Mouse Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Kashon, Michael L.; Anderson, Katie L.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a remarkable and unexplained increase in the prevalence of asthma. These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to triclosan, an endocrine-disrupting compound, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. Triclosan has had widespread use in the general population as an antibacterial and antifungal agent and is commonly found in consumer products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouthwashes, and cleaning supplies. For these studies, BALB/c mice were exposed dermally to concentrations of triclosan ranging from 0.75 to 3% (0.375–1.5 mg/mouse/day) for 28 consecutive days. Concordantly, mice were ip injected with OVA (0.9 μg) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5 mg) on days 1 and 10 and challenged with OVA (125 μg) by pharyngeal aspiration on days 19 and 27. Compared with the animals exposed to OVA alone, increased spleen weights, OVA-specific IgE, interleukin-13 cytokine levels, and numbers of lung eosinophils were demonstrated when mice were coexposed to OVA and triclosan. Statistically significant increases in OVA-specific and nonspecific airway hyperreactivity were observed for all triclosan coexposed groups compared with the vehicle and OVA controls. In these studies, exposure to triclosan alone was not demonstrated to be allergenic; however, coexposure with a known allergen resulted in enhancement of the hypersensitivity response to that allergen, suggesting that triclosan exposure may augment the allergic responses to other environmental allergens. PMID:23192912

  18. No effect of acute beetroot juice ingestion on oxygen consumption, glucose kinetics, or skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in males.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Scott; Bescós, Raúl; Martorell, Miquel; Pons, Antoni; Garnham, Andrew P; Stathis, Christos C; McConell, Glenn K

    2016-02-15

    Beetroot juice, which is rich in nitrate (NO3 (-)), has been shown in some studies to decrease oxygen consumption (V̇o2) for a given exercise workload, i.e., increasing efficiency and exercise tolerance. Few studies have examined the effect of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on exercise metabolism. Eight healthy recreationally active males participated in three trials involving ingestion of either beetroot juice (Beet; ∼8 mmol NO3 (-)), Placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet), or Beet + mouthwash (Beet+MW), all of which were performed in a randomized single-blind crossover design. Two-and-a-half hours later, participants cycled for 60 min on an ergometer at 65% of V̇o2 peak. [6,6-(2)H]glucose was infused to determine glucose kinetics, blood samples obtained throughout exercise, and skeletal muscle biopsies that were obtained pre- and postexercise. Plasma nitrite [NO2 (-)] increased significantly (∼130%) with Beet, and this was attenuated in MW+Beet. Beet and Beet+MW had no significant effect on oxygen consumption, blood glucose, blood lactate, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, or plasma insulin during exercise. Beet and Beet+MW also had no significant effect on the increase in glucose disposal during exercise. In addition, Beet and Beet+MW had no significant effect on the decrease in muscle glycogen and phosphocreatine and the increase in muscle creatine, lactate, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase during exercise. In conclusion, at the dose used, acute ingestion of beetroot juice had little effect on skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Effects of chlorhexidine preprocedural rinse on bacteremia in periodontal patients: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Balejo, Rodrigo Dalla Pria; Cortelli, José Roberto; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Cyrino, Renata Magalhães; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Miranda, Taís Browne; Moura, Sara Porto; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Single dose of systemic antibiotics and short-term use of mouthwashes reduce bacteremia. However, the effects of a single dose of preprocedural rinse are still controversial. This study evaluated, in periodontally diseased patients, the effects of a pre-procedural mouth rinse on induced bacteremia. Material and Methods: Systemically healthy individuals with gingivitis (n=27) or periodontitis (n = 27) were randomly allocated through a sealed envelope system to: 0.12% chlorhexidine pre-procedural rinse (13 gingivitis and 13 periodontitis patients) or no rinse before dental scaling (14 gingivitis and 15 periodontitis patients). Periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque, and gingival indices were measured and subgingival samples were collected. Blood samples were collected before dental scaling, 2 and 6 minutes after scaling. Total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis were determined in oral and blood samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, while aerobic and anaerobic counts were determined by culture in blood samples. The primary outcome was the antimicrobial effect of the pre-procedural rinse. Data was compared by Mann-Whitney and Signal tests (p<0.05). Results: In all sampling times, polymerase chain reaction revealed higher blood bacterial levels than culture (p<0.0001), while gingivitis patients presented lower bacterial levels in blood than periodontitis patients (p<0.0001). Individuals who experienced bacteremia showed worse mean clinical attachment level (3.4 mm vs. 1.1 mm) and more subgingival bacteria (p<0.005). The pre-procedural rinse did not reduce induced bacteremia. Conclusions: Bacteremia was influenced by periodontal parameters. In periodontally diseased patients, pre-procedural rinsing showed a discrete effect on bacteremia control. PMID:29211279

  20. Synergistic interaction and mode of action of Citrus hystrix essential oil against bacteria causing periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wongsariya, Karn; Phanthong, Phanida; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Srisukh, Vimol; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej

    2014-03-01

    Citrus hystrix de Candolle (Rutaceae), an edible plant regularly used as a food ingredient, possesses antibacterial activity, but there is no current data on the activity against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. C. hystrix essential oil from leaves and peel were investigated for antibiofilm formation and mode of action against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. In vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm formation activities were determined by broth microdilution and time kill assay. Mode of action of essential oil was observed by SEM and the active component was identified by bioautography and GC/MS. C. hystrix leaves oil exhibited antibacterial activity at the MICs of 1.06 mg/mL for P. gingivalis and S. mutans and 2.12 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. Leaf oil at 4.25 mg/mL showed antibiofilm formation activity with 99% inhibition. The lethal effects on P. gingivalis were observed within 2 and 4 h after treated with 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC, respectively. S. sanguinis and S. mutans were completely killed within 4 and 8 h after exposed to 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC of oil. MICs of tested strains showed 4 times reduction suggesting synergistic interaction of oil and chlorhexidine. Bacterial outer membrane was disrupted after treatment with leaves oil. Additionally, citronellal was identified as the major active compound of C. hystrix oil. C. hystrix leaf oil could be used as a natural active compound or in combination with chlorhexidine in mouthwash preparations to prevent the growth of bacteria associated with periodontal diseases and biofilm formation.

  1. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of a two-year fluoride decay protection protocol on titanium brackets.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Elie S; Abboud, Maher; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla; Bouserhal, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Fluoride ion can attack titanium, causing its corrosion. Orthodontic patients being high-risk caries developers and in need of fluoride protection, the Center for Disease Control has developed a Fluoride Decay Prevention (FDP) protocol, consisting of a 6-minute tooth-brushing, followed by a 1-minute daily mouthwash, in addition to an in-clinic trimestrial topical fluoride gel application. This study aimed at evaluating gravimetrically, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by sliding mechanics analysis, the consequences of FDP at 6, 12, 18, and 24months on titanium brackets corrosion. One hundred and fifty titanium brackets were randomly divided into five groups of 30. Group 1 was the control group. Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 each received an equivalent of 6, 12, 18, and 24months of FDP treatment respectively. All groups were placed in artificial saliva for 2months and then rinsed. Subsequently, the brackets were dried, for 48hours, using Silica gel in a desiccator maintained at 37°C before testing. SEM analysis showed that numbers and dimensions of pits gradually increased due to corrosion as we moved from group 1 to group 5. Gravimetrical and sliding mechanics results revealed no statistical difference between groups 2 and 3, and a significant difference between groups 4 and 5 upon comparison with the control group. Surface changes due to corrosion were detected at 6 and 12months of FDP but had no clinical effects. However, the increase in sliding resistance and bracket weight loss became significant at 18 and 24months of FDP. Copyright © 2011 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study).

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Zahedi Bialvaei, Abed; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kabiri, Fahimeh; Saliani, Negar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Eslami, Hosein; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most prevalent and important opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity caused by Candida yeast species like Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. In addition, several bacteria can cause oral infections. The inhibition of microbial biofilm is the best way to prevent oral infections. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against Candida species and some bacterial pathogens and the extract's effects on biofilm formation. Ginger ethanolic extract as a potential mouthwash was used to evaluate its effect against fungi and bacteria using the microdilution method, and biofilm was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method and dead/alive staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity effects of the extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively. Ginger extract successfully inhibited biofilm formation by A. baumannii, B. cereus, C. krusei, and C. albicans. MTT assay revealed no significant reduction in cell viability after 24 hours. The minimum inhibitory biofilm concentrations (MIBCs) of ginger extract for fungi strains (C. krusei and C. albicans) were greater than those of fluconazole and nystatin (P = 0.000). The findings of the present study indicate that ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei. Concentrations between 0.625 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL had the highest antibiofilm and antifungal effects. Perhaps, the use of herbal extracts such as ginger represents a new era for antimicrobial therapy after developing antibiotic resistance in microbes.

  4. Potential of photodynamic therapy in treatment of fungal infections of the mouth. Design and characterisation of a mucoadhesive patch containing toluidine blue O.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ryan F; McCarron, Paul A; Tunney, Michael M; David Woolfson, A

    2007-01-03

    Mucocutaneous oropharyngeal candidiasis is predominately caused by Candida albicans. The overall incidence of oral candidiasis in young adults has increased dramatically with the spread of HIV/AIDS. Conventional treatments have been shown to have a fungistatic rather than a fungicidal effect, resulting in an inadequate treatment outcome for patients. In addition, increasing resistance of C. albicans to antifungal agents has made effective treatment more difficult. Accordingly, interest has arisen in development of new prophylaxis/treatment regimens. One such alternative treatment is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT), in which a combination of a photosensitising drug and visible light cause selective destruction of microbial cells. Due to the highly coloured nature of photosensitisers and the potential for staining of teeth, lips and buccal mucosa, administration of photosensitisers to humans as a liquid mouthwash is undesirable. Targeted delivery of the photosensitiser directly to the site of infection should be the aim. The current study, therefore, reports on a mucoadhesive patch containing toluidine blue O (TBO), as a potential delivery system for use in PACT of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Patches prepared from aqueous blends of poly(methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride) and tripropyleneglycol methyl ether possessed suitable properties for use as mucoadhesive drug delivery systems and were capable of resisting dissolution when immersed in artificial saliva. When releasing directly into an aqueous sink, patches containing 50 and 100mg TBO cm(-2) both generated receiver compartment concentrations exceeding the concentration (2.0-5.0 mg ml(-1)) required to produce high levels of kill (>90%) of both planktonic and biofilm-grown C. albicans upon illumination. However, the concentrations of TBO in the receiver compartments separated from patches by membranes intended to mimic biofilm structures were an order of magnitude below those inducing high levels of

  5. Oral health practices and prevalence of dental plaque and gingivitis among Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, K.V.V.; Javali, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross‐sectional survey study evaluated oral hygiene habits in conjunction with whole mouth examinations for dental plaque and gingivitis among adults in India. Subjects across several age groups who provided informed consent [220 male and 158 female (mean age 30.9 years)] were enrolled. All enrolled subjects were interviewed for oral hygiene practices and evaluated by the Turesky modification of the Quigley‐Hein and the Löe‐Silness methods for dental plaque and gingivitis, respectively. Evaluations included oral hygiene parameters, prevalence of dental plaque and gingivitis, and regional differences within the dentition for dental plaque and gingivitis. Results from this study indicate that most subjects (97%) utilized a toothbrush and toothpaste for oral hygiene with a majority (92%) using their right hand to brush their teeth. While 29% reported two or more episodes of daily oral hygiene, a majority (53%) brushed their teeth once daily. Utilization of dental floss and mouthwashes were reported by approximately 1% of this population, and most (73%) reported no dental visits in the preceding 5 years. Whole mouth plaque and gingival scores (average ± standard deviation) for this population were 2.47 ± 0.55 and 1.19 ± 0.31, respectively, with no significant differences between either gender (P > 0.05). Significant correlations (r > 0.44) were observed between plaque and gingival scores for the entire sample, either gender or between age groups (P < 0.001). Analyses indicate that anterior teeth demonstrated lower average scores for dental plaque and gingivitis than posterior and molar regions (P < 0.05). Education was associated with higher plaque and gingival scores: plaque scores [odds ratios; 95% confidence interval; 1.23; 1.01–1.50 and gingival scores odds ratios 1.25; 1.02–1.54]. In summary, results from this study demonstrate the prevalence of dental plaque and gingivitis in the general population and their relationships with

  6. Effectiveness of varnish with CPP-ACP in prevention of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus M; Dos Santos, Mariana J; Andrade, Camilla S S; Leão Filho, Jorge César B; Braz, Ana Karla S; de Araujo, Renato E; Tanaka, Orlando M; Fidalgo, Tatiana K S; Dos Santos, Adrielle M; Maia, Lucianne C

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the in vitro efficiency of applying varnish containing casein phosphopeptide (CPP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in prevention of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets. For this purpose, brackets were bonded to the vestibular surface of bovine incisors, and eight groups were formed (n = 15) according to exposure of oral hygiene substances and enamel varnish: 1 (control) brushing only performed, 2 (control) brushing + use of mouth wash with fluoride, 3 Duraphat varnish application only (Colgate-Palmolive Ind. E Com. Ltda, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), 4 Duraphat + brushing, 5 Duraphat + brushing + mouth wash, 6 MI Varnish application (GC America, USA), 7 MI + brushing, and 8 MI + brushing + mouth wash. The experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described and were kept in an oven at temperature of 37°C. Both brushing and immersion in solutions was performed in a time interval of 1 minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days of experimentation. Afterwards, evaluation by optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the special type (Ganymede OCT/Thorlabs, Newton, USA) was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the region where brackets were bonded) and depth measurement of caries lesions were performed. Groups 1 and 3 were shown to differ statistically from groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 (p = 0.000). MI Varnish was shown to be more effective in diminishing caries lesion depth, compared with Duraphat, irrespective of being associated with brushing and mouth wash, or not. The major limitation of this study is that it is a study in which demineralization was obtained with the use of chemical products, and did not occur due to the presence of Streptococcus mutans and its acid byproducts. Application CPP-ACP-containing varnish irrespective of being associated with brushing and mouthwash, or not, reduced depth of caries lesions around orthodontic brackets. © The

  7. A systematic study of the release of bisphenol A by orthodontic materials and its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Halimi, Abdelali; Benyahia, Hicham; Bahije, Loubna; Adli, Hanane; Azeroual, Mohamed-Faouzi; Zaoui, Fatima

    2016-12-01

    designed to reduce the amount of BPA released by materials used in orthodontics: keep the tip of the light-curing lamp as close as possible to the composite and perform indirect rather than direct light-curing; Pumice-polish the composite after bonding so as to reduce the potential amount of BPA released; reduce exposure by brushing or rinsing with a mouthwash during the first hour after bonding; follow a standardized, reproducible and expert-validated research protocol aimed at better understanding of BPA release. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength

    PubMed Central

    DERCELI, Juliana dos Reis; FAIS, Laiza Maria Grassi; PINELLI, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength. PMID:25591018

  9. Assessing oral health-related quality of life in general dental practice in Scotland: validation of the OHIP-14.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marcelo José; Ruta, Danny Adolph; Ogden, Graham Richard; Pitts, Nigel Berry; Ogston, Simon Alexander

    2006-02-01

    To validate the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 in a sample of patients attending general dental practice. Patients with pathology-free impacted wisdom teeth were recruited from six general dental practices in Tayside, Scotland, and followed for a year to assess the development of problems related to impaction. The OHIP-14 was completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up, and analysed using three different scoring methods: a summary score, a weighted and standardized score and the total number of problems reported. Instrument reliability was measured by assessing internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a number of variables. Linear regression was then used to model the relationship between OHIP-14 and all significantly correlated variables. Responsiveness was measured using the standardized response mean (SRM). Adjusted R(2)s and SRMs were calculated for each of the three scoring methods. Estimates for the differences between adjusted R(2)s and the differences between SRMs were obtained with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 278 and 169 patients completed the questionnaire at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Reliability - Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.30 to 0.75. Alpha coefficients for all 14 items were 0.88 and 0.87 for baseline and follow-up, respectively. Test-retest coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.78. Validity - OHIP-14 scores were significantly correlated with number of teeth, education, main activity, the use of mouthwash, frequency of seeing a dentist, the reason for the last dental appointment, smoking, alcohol intake, pain and symptoms. Adjusted R(2)s ranged from 0.123 to 0.202 and there were no statistically significant differences between those for the three different scoring methods. Responsiveness - The SRMs ranged from 0.37 to 0.56 and there was a statistically significant difference between the summary scores method and the total number of problems method for symptomatic

  10. Comparison of essential drug list in a rural secondary care hospital in south India with Indian & World Health Organization list 2011.

    PubMed

    Rao, Seetharama G; Thomas, Dixon; Zachariah, Seeba; Kannan, M S; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Fixed drug combinations are a major marketing strategy in India but it can compromise the rational use of medicines. In this study we compared the fixed drug combinations and dosage forms in the hospital pharmacy before and after introducing the essential drug list. We also compared the Hospital Essential Drug List (HEDL) 2011 with the World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Drug List (EDL) 2011 and the National Essential Drug List of India (NEDL) 2011. The study was done in a secondary level care charity hospital at Anantapur, AP with a bed size of 315 and an average OP per day of 1200-1700 visits. We compared the three essential drug lists (HEDL, WHOEDL and NEDL) and the hospital drug list before introducing EDL. Drugs which were present in NEDL and not present in the HEDL were also screened. Microsoft excel was used to tabulate the results and for graphs. The number of medicines used in the hospital before and after the introduction of the HEDL was 1627 and 424 respectively. On comparison, WHOEDL 2011 have 350 and NEDL of India have 348 medicines. While preparing the HEDL, 46 double drug combinations decreased to 15 and 9 triple drug combinations decreased to 1. In the case of injections, 20 double drug combinations decreased to 6 and 1 triple drug combination increased to 2. The number of tablets, capsules, injections, syrups, powders and inhalers was reduced to almost half. The great reductions were in 51 ointments to 9, 69 drops to 5, 11 paste to 0, 21 solutions to 3 and 14 creams to 1. The dosage forms removed included elixirs, insulin pens, gums, paste, paints, gargles and mouthwashes. There was drastic reduction in the number of medicines and dosage forms when the HEDL was implemented. Many of the fixed drug combinations were also removed for improving the rational use of medicines. The WHO essential drug list 2011, national essential drug list of India 2011 and the hospital essential drug list 2011 were comparable with few exceptions.

  11. Distribution of FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIb Genotypes in Patients With Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rodrigo C; Colombo, Ana Paula V

    2006-07-01

    Polymorphisms in FcγR have been associated with different forms of periodontitis. This study determined the frequency of FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIb alleles/genotypes in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Thirty-one GAgP and 49 periodontally healthy Brazilian subjects participated in the study. Full-mouth periodontal examinations were carried out, and mouthwash samples were collected for human DNA isolation. FcγR genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Significant differences between groups were sought by Mann-Whitney, χ 2 , and Fisher exact tests and configural frequency analysis. FcγRIIa-H131 (53.8%) and FcγRIIIb-NA1 (75%) were the most prevalent alleles in this sample population. A significant overrepresentation of FcγRIIIb-NA2 was observed in the GAgP group, whereas FcγRIIIb-NA1 was detected more often in healthy individuals (odds ratio, 32.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.6 to 99.8; P <0.001). No significant differences in the distribution of the FcγRIIa genotypes were observed between the groups. The prevalence of FcγRIIIb-NA2/NA2 was higher in GAgP patients, whereas FcγRIIIb-NA1/NA1 was predominant in the healthy group (χ 2 = 45.1; P <0.001). The combination of the genotypes FcγRIIIb-NA2/NA2 plus FcγRIIa-H/H131 was observed more frequently in GAgP subjects than expected from marginal frequencies (χ 2 = 12.5; P <0.001). The data suggest that the FcγRIIIb-NA2 allele and/or FcγRIIIb-NA2/NA2 genotype and the composite genotype FcγRIIIb-NA2/NA2 plus FcγRIIa-H/H131 may be associated with GAgP, whereas FcγRIIIb-NA1 and/or FcγRIIIb-NA1/NA1 may be related to periodontal health in this sample of the Brazilian population. © 2006 American Academy of Periodontology.

  12. Distribution of FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIIb genotypes in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rodrigo C; Colombo, Ana Paula V

    2006-07-01

    Polymorphisms in FcgammaR have been associated with different forms of periodontitis. This study determined the frequency of FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIIb alleles/genotypes in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Thirty-one GAgP and 49 periodontally healthy Brazilian subjects participated in the study. Full-mouth periodontal examinations were carried out, and mouthwash samples were collected for human DNA isolation. FcgammaR genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Significant differences between groups were sought by Mann-Whitney, chi2, and Fisher exact tests and configural frequency analysis. FcgammaRIIa-H131 (53.8%) and FcgammaRIIIb-NA1 (75%) were the most prevalent alleles in this sample population. A significant overrepresentation of FcgammaRIIIb-NA2 was observed in the GAgP group, whereas FcgammaRIIIb-NA1 was detected more often in healthy individuals (odds ratio, 32.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.6 to 99.8; P<0.001). No significant differences in the distribution of the FcgammaRIIa genotypes were observed between the groups. The prevalence of FcgammaRIIIb-NA2/NA2 was higher in GAgP patients, whereas FcgammaRIIIb-NA1/NA1 was predominant in the healthy group (chi2=45.1; P<0.001). The combination of the genotypes FcgammaRIIIb-NA2/NA2 plus FcgammaRIIa-H/H131 was observed more frequently in GAgP subjects than expected from marginal frequencies (chi2=12.5; P<0.001). The data suggest that the FcgammaRIIIb-NA2 allele and/or FcgammaRIIIb-NA2/NA2 genotype and the composite genotype FcgammaRIIIb-NA2/NA2 plus FcgammaRIIa-H/H131 may be associated with GAgP, whereas FcgammaRIIIb-NA1 and/or FcgammaRIIIb-NA1/NA1 may be related to periodontal health in this sample of the Brazilian population.

  13. The effectiveness of triclosan-incorporated plastic against bacteria on beef surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cutter, C N

    1999-05-01

    Triclosan is a nonionic, broad-spectrum, antimicrobial agent that has been incorporated into a variety of personal hygiene products, including hand soaps, deodorants, shower gels, mouthwashes, and toothpastes. In this study, plastic containing 1,500 ppm of triclosan was evaluated in plate overlay assays and meat experiments as a means of reducing populations of bacteria. Plate overlay assays indicated that the triclosan-incorporated plastic (TIP) inhibited the following organisms: Brochothrix thermosphacta ATCC 11509, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and several strains of E. coli O157:H7. In meat experiment 1, irradiated, lean beef surfaces inoculated with B. thermosphacta, Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, or B. subtilis were covered with TIP, vacuum packaged, and stored for 24 h at 4 degrees C. Of the organisms tested, only populations of B. thermosphacta were slightly reduced. In meat experiment 2, prerigor beef surfaces were inoculated with E. coli O157: H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or B. thermosphacta incubated at 4 degrees C for 24 h, wrapped in TIP or control plastic, vacuum packaged, and stored at 4 degrees C for up to 14 days. There was a slight reduction in the population of the organisms after initial application with TIP. However, bacterial populations following long-term, refrigerated (4 degrees C), vacuum-packaged storage up to 14 days were not statistically (P< or =0.05) or numerically different than controls. In meat experiment 3, even TIP-wrapped, vacuum-packaged beef samples that were temperature abused at 12 degrees C did not exhibit significant (P< or =0.05) or sustainable reductions after 14 days of 4 degrees C storage. Another study indicated that populations of E. coli O157:H7 or B. thermosphacta added directly to TIP were not affected after 2 h of refrigerated storage or that the antimicrobial activity could be

  14. Oral Hygiene Practices and Teeth Cleaning Techniques Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Syeda H; Ghazanfar, Haider; Haq, Sana; Khan, Najeeb A; Mehmood, Moeez; Ghazanfar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Oral health is essential for general health and quality of life. It is a state of being free from mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral infections and sores, periodontal disease, tooth decay, tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that limit an individual’s capacity to bite, chew, smile, and speak; it affects psychosocial well-being too. The objective of our study was to assess teeth cleaning techniques and oral hygiene practices among medical students. Methods The data of the study were collected in two stages. The first stage involved the administration of a self-constructed questionnaire among medical students. In the second step, the students were asked to demonstrate their teeth cleaning techniques on a model. A standard teeth cleaning checklist was used to evaluate the students. The students were then given the checklist and a video on teeth cleaning techniques was shown to them. The data obtained was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21.  Results Out of a total of 444 students, 256 (57.7 percent) were males while 188 (42.3 percent) were females. About 254 (57.2 percent) participants were preclinical medical students while 190 (42.8 percent) were clinical year medical students. A majority of medical students used medium consistency toothbrushes (177; 39.9 percent) and soft consistency toothbrushes (137; 30.9 percent). Most medical students (248; 55.9 percent) brushed two times a day while 163 (36.7 percent) brushed only one time. About 212 (47.7 percent) of the medical students used mouthwash along with a toothbrush while only 36 (8.1 percent) used floss along with a toothbrush. About 157 participants (35.4 percent) changed their toothbrush once in two months while 132 (26.7 percent) changed their toothbrush once in three months. The mean duration that participants brushed their teeth was 134.99 ± 69.01 seconds. Conclusion Medical students were found to have a faulty teeth

  15. Oral Health Practices Among Pakistani Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Syeda H; Naseem, Sajida; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ali, Zainab; Khan, Najeeb A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted. Participants were interviewed through a self-designed questionnaire. Later, each participant demonstrated their teeth brushing technique on a standard model of the oral cavity, which was assessed against a checklist conforming to the modified bass technique. A video clip showing the aforementioned brushing technique was shown at the end of the interview. The collected data was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21.  Results Toothpaste was the top choice (97.2%) of teeth cleaning tool with 69% participants brushing their teeth two times a day and 56.9% using toothbrushes with bristles of medium texture. The use of mouthwash (32.6%) and dental floss (11.1%) was considerably low. Dental caries and teeth discoloration were seen in 46.5% and 43.8% physicians, respectively. An alarmingly low number of physicians (31.9%) claimed to have read guidelines regarding oral health. This translated into most participants (78.5%) visiting a dentist only when needed. Only 4.9% participants performed all components of the modified bass technique to clean teeth on the oral cavity model, with up to 22.9% unable to perform a single step accurately.  Conclusion The oral health knowledge and practices of physicians were found to be suboptimal and

  16. Occupational Exposure to Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers: The Diagnostic Role of Alcohol Biomarkers in Hair.

    PubMed

    Salomone, A; Bozzo, A; Di Corcia, D; Gerace, E; Vincenti, M

    2018-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc.) who frequently wash their hands with antiseptic sanitizer. Two types of hand disinfectants with 62% w/w of ethanol content were daily applied to the hands of a teetotaler for 20 times a day, for 4 consecutive weeks, thus simulating a typical workplace situation and a cumulative dermal exposure to ethanol of ~1,100 g. Different matrices (head, chest and beard hair, urine) were regularly sampled and analyzed using a ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem massspectrometry validated method for EtG and a (HS)SPME-GC-MS validated technique for FAEEs. The data obtained showed that a significant dermal absorption and/or inhalation of ethanol occurred, and that the use of detergents produce urinary EtG concentrations both higher than the cut-offs normally used for clinical and forensic analyses (either 100 and 500 ng/mL, depending on the context). The concentrations of the ethanol metabolites in the keratin matrices were, respectively, below the cut-off of 7 pg/mg for EtG and below 0.5 ng/mg for FAAEs (0.35 ng/mg for ethyl palmitate). In conclusion, the regular use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers can affect the concentration of urinary EtG and lead to positive analytical results, particularly when specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanol-containing hand sanitizer. On the

  17. Self-reported oral hygiene habits, dental attendance and attitudes to dentistry during pregnancy in a sample of immigrant women in North London.

    PubMed

    Hullah, Esther; Turok, Yaroslava; Nauta, Maud; Yoong, Wai

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits, frequency of visits to a dentist and factors associated with dental attendance among pregnant women at a North London Hospital, the majority of whom are immigrants. Peridontal disease is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits, frequency of visits to a dentist and factors associated with dental attendance among pregnant women at a North London Hospital, the majority of whom are immigrants. A questionnaire designed by the authors was completed by postnatal women within 3 days of delivery. Data collected included past dental attendance, reasons for attendance and information about age, parity and socio-economic group. In total, 206 women completed the questionnaires within 3 days of delivery; 74.2% of the mothers were not born in the UK and 38.3% were Black African. The mean age of was 28.19 +/- 6.07 years. The majority reported good oral hygiene habits such as brushing their teeth twice a day (73.7%) and using mouthwash (51%). However, their dental attendance was poor and the average time since their last visit to a dentist was 1.8 +/- 1.61 years. Over a third of the women questioned did not know about the availability of free dental care during pregnancy and for 12 months after; 33% visited a dentist in pregnancy and half of them needed and received treatment; 15% of mothers had more than one pregnancy and yet were still unaware of free dental care provided during pregnancy and 12 months after birth. Only 36% of questioned women regularly visited a dentist. Pregnancy did little to change their attitudes to dental care. There appears no difference in attitudes to dental care between immigrant and British born pregnant women. Efforts to improve the uptake of dental care should be directed towards immigrant groups in order to promote better maternal health. Further research is

  18. Management of a Recurrent Pyogenic Granuloma of the Hard Palate with Diode Laser: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hasanoglu Erbasar, Güzin Neda; Senguven, Burcu; Gultekin, Sibel Elif; Cetiner, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a prevalent inflammatory hyperplasia of skin and oral mucosa which is often caused by constant low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury or hormonal factors. In many cases, gingival irritation and inflammation due to poor oral hygiene are precipitating factors. Oral PG occurs predominantly on the gingiva, but it is also encountered on the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa and rarely on the hard palate. Although surgical excision is the first choice of treatment, many other treatment modalities could be counted such as cryosurgery, sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy, intralesional steroids, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers and diode laser have been suggested. After surgical excision recurrence occurs up to 16% of these lesions. It is believed that recurrence ensues as a result of incomplete excision, failure to eliminate etiologic factors or repeated trauma. A 50-year-old female was referred to the Department of Oral Surgery, Gazi University, School of Dentistry, complaining of a swelling and growth on the right side of the hard palate for four months. Patient reported a similar growth in the same area about two years earlier, which had turned out to be a PG by histopathology. The treatment plan included surgical excision of the lesion using diode laser. The patient reported no pain after the surgery. She was discharged with a prescription of chlorhexidine mouthwash and necessary post-operative instructions. At 7 days follow up visit, immediate recurrence of the lesion was observed, and it was excised by diode laser with 2 mm margins at its clinical periphery, to a depth up to the periosteum, by the same operator. No recurrence or scarring was observed in 14 months follow-up. Although diode laser is a secure and efficient technique for the treatment of intraoral PG, in order to minimize its recurrence, the

  19. [The significance of the contamination of dental care articles. The results of a field study].

    PubMed

    Hingst, V

    1989-04-01

    Permissible conclusions both from recent available literature and our own field-study results concerning the problematic nature of microbial contamination of dental hygiene articles and the resulting possible health hazard for the consumer can be summarized as follows: Manufacturing practices as are given in the basic instructions for production sites of the cosmetic industry, render a possible degree of microbial contamination. This largely rules out the danger of infection of the consumer upon acquisition of the dental hygiene product. Secondary contamination of these products, as inevitably is the case during use of dental hygiene articles, leads to microbial colonization especially of toothbrush bristles. The extent of this colonization depends at least partially upon the utilization age of the toothbrush. Also for this reason a toothbrush should be replaced by a new one after period of three months, six months at the latest and in all cases of inflammatory changes of the mouth and throat region. The contamination of both the glass or plastic container used for rinsing the teeth after brushing or for gargling can be held within certain limits by dry storage. Only in exceptional cases do mouthwashes show a small degree of contamination. Provided they contain antimicrobial substances, no therapeutically serviceable possibilities worth mentioning follow for the reduction of oropharyngeal flora. Microbial colonization of toothpastes as a result of secondary contamination following use is observed only in exceptional cases due to their preservative content. Significant germination of stagnated residual water in waterpicks often occurs, achieving germ counts up to more than 10(7) cfu per ml. Moreover, waterpicks can represent a biotope for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and should be used neither by patients with open wounds or mucous membrane lesions in the oropharyngeal area, nor by patients with reduced immune resistance. Manufacturers of waterpicks are urged to impede

  20. Oral and intestinal mucositis - causes and possible treatments.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M; Grant, G

    2003-11-01

    early events in the onset of mucositis. Prophylactic administration of scavengers or anti-inflammatories can partially counteract or limit some of these therapy-mediated effects, as can the use of cryotherapy. The regular use of mouthwashes, mouth coatings, antibiotics and analgesics is essential, prior to and during loss and ablation of the epithelial layer. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or the use of laser light therapy may aid restitution and repair. Glutamine supplements may be beneficial in the repair/recovery phase.

  1. The use of hormones indicators in human saliva in diagnosing parodontitis in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Dolomatov, S. I.; Zukow, W.; Atmazhov, I. D.; Muszkieta, R.; Skaliy, A.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this work– was to study the dynamics of biochemical parameters of human saliva and analyze the features of the chemical composition of the saliva of women with abnormal pregnancy and in periodontitis against pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included four groups of women: a control group of nonpregnant women of childbearing age (10), pregnant women with physiological pregnancy (24-28 weeks) without any signs of periodontal disease (10), pregnant with a generalized periodontitis I--II degrees in remission (10), women with pathological pregnancy with no signs of periodontal inflammation (10). In each of the groups over two samples of saliva were collected, the first collection of saliva in the morning on an empty stomach. Then mouthwash 0.9% sodium chloride solution was assigned and after 30 minutes the second portion of saliva. By enzyme immunoassay in samples of saliva of control groups of nonpregnant and pregnant women, as well as women with signs of a pathological course of pregnancy, the content of estriol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was determined. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical data analysis was performed by the standard technique using Student's t-test. RESULTS: The results of biochemical analysis of saliva samples collected before rinsing the mouth with saline in groups of healthy nonpregnant and pregnant women were compared. It was established that during pregnancy the concentration of salivary estriol increases, but in pregnant women with periodontitis, the amount of this hormone in the saliva was significantly reduced. The highest content of testosterone in saliva samples, observed in healthy pregnant women, was significantly higher than nonpregnant women. In pregnant women with periodontitis concentration of testosterone in saliva is reduced, while remaining significantly higher than its level in the saliva of nonpregnant women. The highest concentration of testosterone is observed in the

  2. [Psychology of nursing personnel in home care nursing].

    PubMed

    Bergler, R

    1995-04-01

    personal hygiene products (deodorants, mouthwash, perfume, etc.): personal hygiene providing mental stimulation. (8) Doctors are not integrated sufficiently into the social network of nursing home-care patients. The required quality of cooperation with the nursing staff only exists in part. (9) Contact to the overworked relatives is generally positive. Cooperation can be optimized by imparting basic nursing knowledge, by getting the relatives to participate in one's own work, by enlisting the home-care centre early on and through psychological support by third parties (e.g. discussion courses).

  3. The effect of denture cleansing solutions on the retention of pink locator attachments after multiple pulls: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    You, Wenguang; Masri, Radi; Romberg, Elaine; Driscoll, Carl F; You, Tao

    2011-08-01

    The effect of denture cleansing solutions and multiple pulls on the retention of pink Locator patrices was studied. Five groups of pink Locator attachments (3.0 lb. Light Retention replacement patrix attachments; five in each group) were soaked for the equivalent of 6 months of clinical use in the following solutions: water (control), Efferdent, Polident Overnight, 6.15% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL, 1:10 dilution), and Listerine mouthwash. A universal testing machine set at a 2 in/min crosshead speed was used to perform 548 pulls (548 cycles of insertion and removal). The reduction in load to dislodgement (retention) after the initial pull and the final pull and the percent reduction in retention after 6 months were compared between the groups using a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) Test (α= 0.05). Denture cleansing solutions significantly reduced the retentive values of pink Locator attachments after the initial pull (F = 17.435, p < 0.0001). The retentive values of Efferdent, Listerine, Polident Overnight, and water were significantly higher than the retentive value of the attachments soaked in NaOCl. After 6 months of simulated use (548 pulls), the four denture cleansing solutions had significant effects on the retentive values of pink Locator attachments (F = 5.855, p = 0.003). The retentive values for attachments soaked in NaOCl (7.29 ± 1.0 N) were significantly lower than those of attachments soaked in Listerine (15.82 ± 4.7 N) and in Polident Overnight (14.41 ± 3.6 N). These cleansing solutions also had a significant effect on the percentage of retention lost (F = 3.271, p = 0.032). The loss of retention in attachments soaked in Listerine (29 ± 9%) was significantly lower than attachments soaked in water (53 ± 12%). The loss of retention in attachments soaked in Efferdent was 49 ± 9%; in Polident Overnight, 34 ± 18%; and in NaOCl, 42 ± 11%. There was no significant difference in the percentage of retention loss

  4. Inhibition of Tongue Coat and Dental Plaque Formation by Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Vs Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse: A Randomized, Triple Blinded Study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Seema Roodmal; Kini, Vineet Vaman; Padhye, Ashvini

    2015-09-01

    used for the comparison between mouthrinse A groups & mouthrinse B group. The plaque scores and Winkels tongue coat scores, wet tongue coat weight recorded on the fifth day after the use of the two mouthrinse didn't show a statistically significant difference. The CFU per sample from tooth and mucosa after four hours revealed low bacteria count with respect to mouthrinse B however the CFU obtained on the fifth day did not show a statistically significant difference between the two mouthrinse. The clinical antiplaque efficacy of CHX and ClO2 mouthwash is comparable and so is the efficacy in reducing the oral bacterial load.

  5. Inhibition of Tongue Coat and Dental Plaque Formation by Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Vs Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse: A Randomized, Triple Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Kini, Vineet Vaman; Padhye, Ashvini

    2015-01-01

    16.00 and presented using descriptive statistics. Independent t-test was used for the comparison between mouthrinse A groups & mouthrinse B group. Results The plaque scores and Winkels tongue coat scores, wet tongue coat weight recorded on the fifth day after the use of the two mouthrinse didn’t show a statistically significant difference. The CFU per sample from tooth and mucosa after four hours revealed low bacteria count with respect to mouthrinse B however the CFU obtained on the fifth day did not show a statistically significant difference between the two mouthrinse. Conclusion The clinical antiplaque efficacy of CHX and ClO2 mouthwash is comparable and so is the efficacy in reducing the oral bacterial load. PMID:26501017

  6. Fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters as cosmetic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Petter, P J

    1984-10-01

    negligible effect of isethionate on the water-binding capacity of stratum corneum. Other cosmetic applications besides toilet bars include shampoos (excellent cleaning, mild to scalp, some hair conditioning effects), liquid soaps (mild for all-over body use), bubble baths (copious stable foam, efficient lime soap dispersal, low irritancy), skin creams and lotions (emulsification, alleviation of 'dry skin'), baby care products (ultra-mild cleansing bars and milks, impregnated baby wipes) and oral products (foaming agents with low toxicity for toothpastes and mouthwashes).

  7. Prevention and treatment of dry socket.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Tom

    2013-03-01

    preventing dry socket. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effects of the other 10 preventative interventions each evaluated in single studies. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effects of any of the interventions to treat dry socket. The present review found some evidence for the association of minor adverse reactions with use of 0.12%, 0.2% and 2% chlorhexidine mouthrinses, though most studies were not designed to detect the presence of hypersensitivity reactions to mouthwash as part of the study protocol. No adverse events were reported in relation to the use of 0.2% chlorhexidine gel placed directly into a socket (though previous allergy to chlorhexidine was an exclusion criterion in these trials). In view of recent reports in the UK of two cases of serious adverse events associated with irrigation of dry socket with chlorhexidine mouthrinse, it is recommended that all members of the dental team prescribing chlorhexidine products are aware of the potential for both minor and serious adverse side effects. It is beyond the scope of this review to describe and detail The Cochrane Collaboration. The reader can seek out more information at http://www.cochrane.org/. In brief, a systematic review supported and published by the Cochrane group represents the gold standard to support clinical decision-making.

  8. "Nature cures:" An alternative herbal formulation as a denture cleanser.

    PubMed

    Sushma, R; Sathe, Tanuja Tanaji; Farias, Anand; Sanyal, Pronob Kumar; Kiran, Shashi

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the microorganisms which harbor the oral cavity, especially in elderly. However, the incidence of existence of this increases in patients using removable dental prosthesis. There is therefore a need to test the anticandidal efficacy of these cost-effective, easily available products to be used as routine denture cleansers. (1) To evaluate antifungal properties of triphala churna on the heat cure denture base material. (2) To evaluate the antifungal effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on the heat cure denture base material. (3) To compare the antifungal effect of triphala churna and chlorhexidine gluconate with a control. (4) To evaluate which among triphala churna and chlorhexidine gluconate has a better antifungal property on the heat cure denture base material. Study population consisted of sixty dentures wearers from those attending the Outpatient Department of Prosthodontics of the School of Dentistry, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of triphala and chlorhexidine. The swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total Candida counts were determined. Triphala as an antifungal is shown to have more efficacy than the conventional chlorhexidine mouthwash. Résumé Arrière-plan: Candida albicans est l'un des micro-organismes qui abritent la cavité buccale surtout chez les personnes âgées. Cependant, l'incidence de l'existence de cette augmentation chez les patients utilisant des prothèses dentaires amovibles. Il est donc nécessaire de tester l'efficacité anticancédique de ces produits rentables et faciles à utiliser pour être utilisés comme nettoyants de routine pour prothèses dentaires. Buts et Objectifs: (1) Évaluer les propriétés antifongiques de Triphala churna sur le matériau de base de la prothèse thermo-durcissable. (2) Évaluer l'effet antifongique du gluconate de chlorhexidine sur le matériau de base de la

  9. Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Daiane; Figueira, Leandro Wagner; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Pacheco Soares, Cristina; Camargo, Samira Estves Afonso; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-01-01

    ≤ 50 mg/mL), showed anti-inflammatory effect, and was not genotoxic. Impact statement Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract effectively contributed to in vitro control of important species of microorganisms such as Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mono- and polymicrobial biofilms that are responsible for several infections in oral cavity as in other regions of the body. Furthermore, this extract promoted also cell viability above 50% at concentrations ≤ 50 mg/mL, excellent anti-inflammatory effect, showing inhibition or reduction of the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, being also non-genotoxic to cell lines studied. Thus, this extract may be a promising therapeutic agent that can be added in some medical and dental formulations such as toothpastes, mouthwashes, irrigating root canals, ointments, soaps, in order to control pathogenic microorganisms and biofilms, with anti-inflammatory effect and absence of cytotoxic and genotoxic. PMID:28093936

  10. [Clozapine-induced parotitis: a case study].

    PubMed

    Gouzien, C; Valiamé, A; Misdrahi, D

    2014-02-01

    Clozapine is the drug of choice for patients with an unsatisfactory response to routine antipsychotic treatment. Side effects such as sedation, weight gain, hypotension and hypersialorrhea are frequently reported whereas clozapine-induced parotitis is a less known complication. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a refractory schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. The failure to respond to at least two well-conducted antipsychotic trials with flupentixol and risperidone, led clinicians to prescribe clozapine, which was started three years earlier. Since its introduction, clozapine induced sialorrhea, which has been managed until now with anticholinergic medication. Recently, Mrs B. was hospitalized for a new relapse. Once treatment compliance checked (good level of plasmatic dosage), we decided to increase the dose of clozapine from 350 mg/d to 500 mg/d. Twenty days later, Mrs B. exhibited improvement of symptoms but complained of acute bilateral auricular pain and odynophagia. The bilateral and comparative clinical exam displayed a bilateral filling of the retromandibular depression, the painful swelling of the parotid gland, along with ptyalism and a slight inflammatory oedema of the Stenon duct orifice. Mrs B. was apyretic, with physiological constants within the limits of normal values. The biological analyses displayed a discrete inflammatory syndrome (mild hyperleucocytosis and anemia), a negative mumps IgM test and positive mumps IgG test, and a 1050 ng/mL clozapine blood level. Once viral parotitis was ruled out, the involvement of clozapine was evoked. Symptomatic medication was prescribed with per os analgesic (paracetamol) and antiseptic mouthwash (Éludril). Clozapine dosage was lowered to 400 mg/d. A week later, clinical examination confirmed improvement of the medical and psychiatric conditions. We report the case of a patient who developed a parotitis following clozapine dose adjustment. Clozapine induced parotitis was retained once the

  11. Micropollutants in closed life-support systems: the case of triclosan, a biocide excreted via urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Pycke, Benny; Boon, Nico; de Wever, Heleen; Hendrickx, Larissa; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of triclosan on the growth and physiology of the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in the frame of the regenerative life-support system, Micro- Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA). A wide range of compounds, such as steroid hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, might enter the life support system via the excrements that are to be treated and recycled. Triclosan was chosen as the first compound to be tested because MELiSSA is a closed system, which is consequently particularly sensitive to compounds inhibiting the microbial metabolism. Because triclosan is increasingly used as an antimicrobial biocide in hygienic formulations (such as toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants, etc.) and due to its chemical stability, it is considered an emerging pollutant in terrestrial ecosystems. METHODS: In a first phase, the triclosan concentration expected in the life-support system was estimated, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined via plating, and the effect on growth kinetics was assessed by comparing growth parameters in the Gompertz model. In a second phase, the secondary effects of triclosan on cell physiology and gene expression were studied through flow-cytometry and microarray analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the pharmacokinetic data from literature, the predicted concentration range is estimated to be 6-25µg/L triclosan in the Rhodospirillum rubrum compartment of the MELiSSA. The minimal inhibitory concentration of triclosan was determined to be 71 µg/L after 7 days of exposure on Sistrom medium. Upon exposure to 50-200µg/L triclosan, triclosan-resistant mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum arose spontaneously at high frequency (3.1 ∗ 10 - 4). Analysis of the growth kinetics of the wild-type revealed that triclosan causes an important elongation of the lag-phase and a decrease in growth rate. At concentrations higher than 75mg/L(LD = 500mg/L), triclosan is bactericidal to wild

  12. Fragrance ingredient labelling in products on sale in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Buckley, D A

    2007-08-01

    products for men (e.g. aftershave). Limonene (n = 29; 51%) predominated in 57 household products (washing-up liquid, detergent). Limonene (n = 43; 98%) and linalool (n = 42; 95%) were the most frequent fragrances in 44 perfumes for women. Alpha-isomethyl ionone (n = 28; 72%) was the most frequent in 39 cosmetics (foundation, lipstick, etc). Citronellol predominated (n = 15; 88%) in 17 deodorants and limonene (n = 9; 64%) was the commonest in 14 dental products (toothpaste and mouthwash). Thirty-four products (11%) contained none of the listed fragrances but were labelled as containing 'parfum' or 'aroma'. There is ongoing consumer exposure to the most frequent sensitizers in FM I: E. prunastri, isoeugenol and the cinnamon fragrances cinnamal and cinnamic alcohol. Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral(trade mark)) is present at significant concentrations in almost one-third of products. Linalool and limonene, fragrance terpenes which are significant allergens in their oxidized state, are the most frequent fragrances encountered by individuals living in the U.K. The current exposure pattern of the U.K. consumer suggests that we should add oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool to the test series for patients suspected to have fragrance allergy.

  13. Prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases in primary care.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Debora C

    2014-09-01

    and the current standard of oral hygiene. Record the diagnosis, suggested treatment plan and details of costs. Document any discussions you have with the patient, for example, treatment options, risks and benefits of treatment, oral hygiene advice, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption and/or other lifestyle factors. There is a need for high-quality research carried out within an appropriate governance framework to improve the evidence base in the following areas: barriers and facilitators to the delivery of oral hygiene interventions in primary care;behaviour change interventions to improve inadequate oral hygiene;optimal timescales for provision of routine supra-gingival debridement (dental prophylaxis) and supportive periodontal therapy;effectiveness of supportive periodontal therapy regimens;effectiveness of supportive therapy regimens to maintain peri-implant tissues;effectiveness of interventions to treat peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.Consensus is urgently required on the importance and validity of surrogate periodontal outcomes (eg bleeding on probing, changes in clinical probing depth and clinical attachment level and bone levels) and their relationship to true outcomes (eg tooth loss and patient-centred outcomes) so that consistency can be achieved across studies. There is also a need for independent research into the effectiveness of oral hygiene tools such as toothbrushes, interdental aids, toothpastes and mouthwashes and gels containing antibacterial agents.

  14. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zongdao; Xie, Huixu; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Yan; Chen, E; Ng, Linda; Worthington, Helen V; Needleman, Ian; Furness, Susan

    2013-08-13

    antibiotics, plaque index, microbiological cultures or adverse effects, in children.Based on four RCTs (828 participants, low quality evidence) there is no evidence of a difference between OHC including toothbrushing (± CHX) compared to OHC without toothbrushing (± CHX) for the outcome of VAP (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.29, P = 0.24 , I(2) = 64%) and no evidence of a difference for mortality (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.16, P = 0.31, I(2) = 0%, four RCTs, moderate quality evidence). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether there is a difference due to toothbrushing for the outcomes of duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, use of systemic antibiotics, oral health indices, microbiological cultures, adverse effects, caregivers preferences or cost.Only one trial compared use of a powered toothbrush with a manual toothbrush providing insufficient evidence to determine the effect on any of the outcomes of this review.A range of other oral care solutions were compared. There is some weak evidence that povidone iodine mouthrinse is more effective than saline in reducing VAP (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.65, P = 0.0009, I(2) = 53%) (two studies, 206 participants, high risk of bias). Due to the variation in comparisons and outcomes among the trials in this group there is insufficient evidence concerning the effects of other oral care solutions on the outcomes of this review. Effective OHC is important for ventilated patients in intensive care. OHC that includes either chlorhexidine mouthwash or gel is associated with a 40% reduction in the odds of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adults. However, there is no evidence of a difference in the outcomes of mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or duration of ICU stay. There is no evidence that OHC including both CHX and toothbrushing is different from OHC with CHX alone, and some weak evidence to suggest that povidone iodine mouthrinse is more effective than saline in reducing

  15. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hua, Fang; Xie, Huixu; Worthington, Helen V; Furness, Susan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Chunjie

    2016-10-25

    groups.We are uncertain as to the effects of toothbrushing (± antiseptics) on the outcomes of VAP (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.09, P = 0.11, I 2 = 64%, five RCTs, 889 participants, very low quality evidence) and mortality (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.09, P = 0.24, I 2 = 0%, five RCTs, 889 participants, low quality evidence) compared to OHC without toothbrushing (± antiseptics). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether toothbrushing affects duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, use of systemic antibiotics, oral health indices, adverse effects, caregivers' preferences or cost.Only one trial (78 participants) compared use of a powered toothbrush with a manual toothbrush, providing insufficient evidence to determine the effect on any of the outcomes of this review.Fifteen trials compared various other oral care solutions. There is very weak evidence that povidone iodine mouthrinse is more effective than saline/placebo (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.95, P = 0.02, I 2 = 74%, three studies, 356 participants, high risk of bias), and that saline rinse is more effective than saline swab (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.62, P < 0.001, I 2 = 84%, four studies, 488 participants, high risk of bias) in reducing VAP. Due to variation in comparisons and outcomes among trials, there is insufficient evidence concerning the effects of other oral care solutions. OHC including chlorhexidine mouthwash or gel reduces the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients from 25% to about 19%. However, there is no evidence of a difference in the outcomes of mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or duration of ICU stay. There is no evidence that OHC including both antiseptics and toothbrushing is different from OHC with antiseptics alone, and some weak evidence to suggest that povidone iodine mouthrinse is more effective than saline/placebo, and saline rinse is more effective than saline swab in reducing VAP. There is insufficient evidence to

  16. INGN 201: Ad-p53, Ad5CMV-p53, adenoviral p53, p53 gene therapy--introgen, RPR/INGN 201.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    former trial) followed by a combination of chemo- and radiotherapy. In September 2003, INGN 201 was granted designation as a Fast Track Drug Product development programme by the FDA for prolonging survival and delaying time to disease progression in patients with recurrent, unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Previously, in February 2003, INGN 201 received orphan drug designation from the FDA for head and neck cancer. Phase I trials in the US for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer have been completed. Sanofi-aventis (formerly Rhône-Poulenc Rorer Gencell) initiated phase II trials in the US, Europe and Canada for non-small-cell lung cancer. Intratumoral injection of RPR/INGN 201 in patients with recurrent glioblastomas was safe and resulted in expression of the p53 protein. Direct administration of RPR/INGN 201 to the lower airways of patients with bronchioalveolar cell lung carcinoma resulted in symptomatic improvement and improved lung function in some patients. In November 2003, according to a Clinical Trials Agreement between the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Introgen, a 6-month phase I/II study with p53 gene therapy administered in the form of an oral rinse or mouthwash for patients with oral premalignancies has been initiated. This is the first trial to investigate the effect of this treatment on oral lesions that are at high risk for developing into full blown cancers. In September 2006, the EMEA granted orphan drug status to INGN 201 for the treatment of LFS, following Gendux's application for the designation. The company intends to provide the therapy on a compassionate use basis to qualifying patients in Europe.INGN 201 has been successfully used in the treatment of a LFS patient on a compassionate use basis under a protocol authorised by the FDA. Based on these interim findings, Introgen has decided to continue making the therapy available through a compassionate use