Plasmonic Nanostructured Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alkhazraji, Emad; Ghalib, A.; Manzoor, K.; Alsunaidi, M. A.
2017-03-01
In this work, we have investigated the scattering plasmonic resonance characteristics of silver nanospheres with a geometrical distribution that is modelled by Cellular Automata using time-domain numerical analysis. Cellular Automata are discrete mathematical structures that model different natural phenomena. Two binary one-dimensional Cellular Automata rules are considered to model the nanostructure, namely rule 30 and rule 33. The analysis produces three-dimensional scattering profiles of the entire plasmonic nanostructure. For the Cellular Automaton rule 33, the introduction of more Cellular Automata generations resulted only in slight red and blue shifts in the plasmonic modes with respect to the first generation. On the other hand, while rule 30 introduced significant red shifts in the resonance peaks at early generations, at later generations however, a peculiar effect is witnessed in the scattering profile as new peaks emerge as a feature of the overall Cellular Automata structure rather than the sum of the smaller parts that compose it. We strongly believe that these features that emerge as a result adopting the different 256 Cellular Automata rules as configuration models of nanostructures in different applications and systems might possess a great potential in enhancing their capability, sensitivity, efficiency, and power utilization.
Probabilistic cellular automata.
Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius
2014-09-01
Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata.
Predictability in cellular automata.
Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Chira, Camelia; Giuclea, Marius
2014-01-01
Modelled as finite homogeneous Markov chains, probabilistic cellular automata with local transition probabilities in (0, 1) always posses a stationary distribution. This result alone is not very helpful when it comes to predicting the final configuration; one needs also a formula connecting the probabilities in the stationary distribution to some intrinsic feature of the lattice configuration. Previous results on the asynchronous cellular automata have showed that such feature really exists. It is the number of zero-one borders within the automaton's binary configuration. An exponential formula in the number of zero-one borders has been proved for the 1-D, 2-D and 3-D asynchronous automata with neighborhood three, five and seven, respectively. We perform computer experiments on a synchronous cellular automaton to check whether the empirical distribution obeys also that theoretical formula. The numerical results indicate a perfect fit for neighbourhood three and five, which opens the way for a rigorous proof of the formula in this new, synchronous case.
Cellular Automata and the Humanities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallo, Ernest
1994-01-01
The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…
Classifying cellular automata using grossone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Alotto, Louis
2016-10-01
This paper proposes an application of the Infinite Unit Axiom and grossone, introduced by Yaroslav Sergeyev (see [7] - [12]), to the development and classification of one and two-dimensional cellular automata. By the application of grossone, new and more precise nonarchimedean metrics on the space of definition for one and two-dimensional cellular automata are established. These new metrics allow us to do computations with infinitesimals. Hence configurations in the domain space of cellular automata can be infinitesimally close (but not equal). That is, they can agree at infinitely many places. Using the new metrics, open disks are defined and the number of points in each disk computed. The forward dynamics of a cellular automaton map are also studied by defined sets. It is also shown that using the Infinite Unit Axiom, the number of configurations that follow a given configuration, under the forward iterations of cellular automaton maps, can now be computed and hence a classification scheme developed based on this computation.
Xtoys: Cellular automata on xwindows
Creutz, M.
1995-08-15
Xtoys is a collection of xwindow programs for demonstrating simulations of various statistical models. Included are xising, for the two dimensional Ising model, xpotts, for the q-state Potts model, xautomalab, for a fairly general class of totalistic cellular automata, xsand, for the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfield model of self organized criticality, and xfires, a simple forest fire simulation. The programs should compile on any machine supporting xwindows.
Cellular automata for traffic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, Dietrich E.
1999-02-01
Traffic phenomena such as the transition from free to congested flow, lane inversion and platoon formation can be accurately reproduced using cellular automata. Being computationally extremely efficient, they simulate large traffic systems many times faster than real time so that predictions become feasible. A riview of recent results is given. The presence of metastable states at the jamming transition is discussed in detail. A simple new cellular automation is introduced, in which the interaction between cars is Galilei-invariant. It is shown that this type of interaction accounts for metastable states in a very natural way.
Irregular Cellular Learning Automata.
Esnaashari, Mehdi; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
2015-08-01
Cellular learning automaton (CLA) is a recently introduced model that combines cellular automaton (CA) and learning automaton (LA). The basic idea of CLA is to use LA to adjust the state transition probability of stochastic CA. This model has been used to solve problems in areas such as channel assignment in cellular networks, call admission control, image processing, and very large scale integration placement. In this paper, an extension of CLA called irregular CLA (ICLA) is introduced. This extension is obtained by removing the structure regularity assumption in CLA. Irregularity in the structure of ICLA is needed in some applications, such as computer networks, web mining, and grid computing. The concept of expediency has been introduced for ICLA and then, conditions under which an ICLA becomes expedient are analytically found.
Symmetry analysis of cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Morales, V.
2013-01-01
By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.
Reversibility of a Symmetric Linear Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez
The characterization of the size of the cellular space of a particular type of reversible symmetric linear cellular automata is introduced in this paper. Specifically, it is shown that those symmetric linear cellular with 2k + 1 cells, and whose transition matrix is a k-diagonal square band matrix with nonzero entries equal to 1 are reversible. Furthermore, in this case the inverse cellular automata are explicitly computed. Moreover, the reversibility condition is also studied for a general number of cells.
Quantum features of natural cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2016-03-01
Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.
Cellular Automata Simulation for Wealth Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Shih-Ching
2009-08-01
Wealth distribution of a country is a complicate system. A model, which is based on the Epstein & Axtell's "Sugars cape" model, is presented in Netlogo. The model considers the income, age, working opportunity and salary as control variables. There are still other variables should be considered while an artificial society is established. In this study, a more complicate cellular automata model for wealth distribution model is proposed. The effects of social welfare, tax, economical investment and inheritance are considered and simulated. According to the cellular automata simulation for wealth distribution, we will have a deep insight of financial policy of the government.
Fuzzy cellular automata models in immunology
Ahmed, E.
1996-10-01
The self-nonself character of antigens is considered to be fuzzy. The Chowdhury et al. cellular automata model is generalized accordingly. New steady states are found. The first corresponds to a below-normal help and suppression and is proposed to be related to autoimmune diseases. The second corresponds to a below-normal B-cell level.
Multipartite cellular automata and the superposition principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2016-05-01
Cellular automata (CA) can show well known features of quantum mechanics (QM), such as a linear updating rule that resembles a discretized form of the Schrödinger equation together with its conservation laws. Surprisingly, a whole class of “natural” Hamiltonian CA, which are based entirely on integer-valued variables and couplings and derived from an action principle, can be mapped reversibly to continuum models with the help of sampling theory. This results in “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l, which for l→0 reproduce the familiar continuum limit. Presently, we show, in particular, how such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of non-relativistic many-body QM, while maintaining the linearity of dynamics. Consequently, the superposition principle is fully operative already on the level of these primordial discrete deterministic automata, including the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.
GARDENS OF EDEN OF ELEMENTARY CELLULAR AUTOMATA.
Barrett, C. L.; Chen, W. Y. C.; Reidys, C. M.
2001-01-01
Using de Bruijn graphs, we give a characterization of elementary cellular automata on the linear lattice that do not have any Gardens of Eden. It turns out that one can easily recoginze a CA that does not have any Gardens of Eden by looking at its de Bruijn graph. We also present a sufficient condition for the set of words accepted by a CA not to constitute a finite-complement language.
Cellular automata in photonic cavity arrays.
Li, Jing; Liew, T C H
2016-10-31
We propose theoretically a photonic Turing machine based on cellular automata in arrays of nonlinear cavities coupled with artificial gauge fields. The state of the system is recorded making use of the bistability of driven cavities, in which losses are fully compensated by an external continuous drive. The sequential update of the automaton layers is achieved automatically, by the local switching of bistable states, without requiring any additional synchronization or temporal control.
Scalable asynchronous execution of cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Folino, Gianluigi; Giordano, Andrea; Mastroianni, Carlo
2016-10-01
The performance and scalability of cellular automata, when executed on parallel/distributed machines, are limited by the necessity of synchronizing all the nodes at each time step, i.e., a node can execute only after the execution of the previous step at all the other nodes. However, these synchronization requirements can be relaxed: a node can execute one step after synchronizing only with the adjacent nodes. In this fashion, different nodes can execute different time steps. This can be a notable advantageous in many novel and increasingly popular applications of cellular automata, such as smart city applications, simulation of natural phenomena, etc., in which the execution times can be different and variable, due to the heterogeneity of machines and/or data and/or executed functions. Indeed, a longer execution time at a node does not slow down the execution at all the other nodes but only at the neighboring nodes. This is particularly advantageous when the nodes that act as bottlenecks vary during the application execution. The goal of the paper is to analyze the benefits that can be achieved with the described asynchronous implementation of cellular automata, when compared to the classical all-to-all synchronization pattern. The performance and scalability have been evaluated through a Petri net model, as this model is very useful to represent the synchronization barrier among nodes. We examined the usual case in which the territory is partitioned into a number of regions, and the computation associated with a region is assigned to a computing node. We considered both the cases of mono-dimensional and two-dimensional partitioning. The results show that the advantage obtained through the asynchronous execution, when compared to the all-to-all synchronous approach is notable, and it can be as large as 90% in terms of speedup.
Scaling behavior in probabilistic neuronal cellular automata.
Manchanda, Kaustubh; Yadav, Avinash Chand; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna
2013-01-01
We study a neural network model of interacting stochastic discrete two-state cellular automata on a regular lattice. The system is externally tuned to a critical point which varies with the degree of stochasticity (or the effective temperature). There are avalanches of neuronal activity, namely, spatially and temporally contiguous sites of activity; a detailed numerical study of these activity avalanches is presented, and single, joint, and marginal probability distributions are computed. At the critical point, we find that the scaling exponents for the variables are in good agreement with a mean-field theory.
Astrobiological Complexity with Probabilistic Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukotić, Branislav; Ćirković, Milan M.
2012-08-01
The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.
Astrobiological complexity with probabilistic cellular automata.
Vukotić, Branislav; Ćirković, Milan M
2012-08-01
The search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence constitutes one of the major endeavors in science, but has yet been quantitatively modeled only rarely and in a cursory and superficial fashion. We argue that probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) represent the best quantitative framework for modeling the astrobiological history of the Milky Way and its Galactic Habitable Zone. The relevant astrobiological parameters are to be modeled as the elements of the input probability matrix for the PCA kernel. With the underlying simplicity of the cellular automata constructs, this approach enables a quick analysis of large and ambiguous space of the input parameters. We perform a simple clustering analysis of typical astrobiological histories with "Copernican" choice of input parameters and discuss the relevant boundary conditions of practical importance for planning and guiding empirical astrobiological and SETI projects. In addition to showing how the present framework is adaptable to more complex situations and updated observational databases from current and near-future space missions, we demonstrate how numerical results could offer a cautious rationale for continuation of practical SETI searches.
A cellular automata model of bone formation.
Van Scoy, Gabrielle K; George, Estee L; Opoku Asantewaa, Flora; Kerns, Lucy; Saunders, Marnie M; Prieto-Langarica, Alicia
2017-04-01
Bone remodeling is an elegantly orchestrated process by which osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts function as a syncytium to maintain or modify bone. On the microscopic level, bone consists of cells that create, destroy and monitor the bone matrix. These cells interact in a coordinated manner to maintain a tightly regulated homeostasis. It is this regulation that is responsible for the observed increase in bone gain in the dominant arm of a tennis player and the observed increase in bone loss associated with spaceflight and osteoporosis. The manner in which these cells interact to bring about a change in bone quality and quantity has yet to be fully elucidated. But efforts to understand the multicellular complexity can ultimately lead to eradication of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and improved implant longevity. Experimentally validated mathematical models that simulate functional activity and offer eventual predictive capabilities offer tremendous potential in understanding multicellular bone remodeling. Here we undertake the initial challenge to develop a mathematical model of bone formation validated with in vitro data obtained from osteoblastic bone cells induced to mineralize and quantified at 26 days of culture. A cellular automata model was constructed to simulate the in vitro characterization. Permutation tests were performed to compare the distribution of the mineralization in the cultures and the distribution of the mineralization in the mathematical models. The results of the permutation test show the distribution of mineralization from the characterization and mathematical model come from the same probability distribution, therefore validating the cellular automata model.
Nonsynchronous updating in the multiverse of cellular automata.
Reia, Sandro M; Kinouchi, Osame
2015-04-01
In this paper we study updating effects on cellular automata rule space. We consider a subset of 6144 order-3 automata from the space of 262144 bidimensional outer-totalistic rules. We compare synchronous to asynchronous and sequential updatings. Focusing on two automata, we discuss how update changes destroy typical structures of these rules. Besides, we show that the first-order phase transition in the multiverse of synchronous cellular automata, revealed with the use of a recently introduced control parameter, seems to be robust not only to changes in update schema but also to different initial densities.
Nonsynchronous updating in the multiverse of cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reia, Sandro M.; Kinouchi, Osame
2015-04-01
In this paper we study updating effects on cellular automata rule space. We consider a subset of 6144 order-3 automata from the space of 262144 bidimensional outer-totalistic rules. We compare synchronous to asynchronous and sequential updatings. Focusing on two automata, we discuss how update changes destroy typical structures of these rules. Besides, we show that the first-order phase transition in the multiverse of synchronous cellular automata, revealed with the use of a recently introduced control parameter, seems to be robust not only to changes in update schema but also to different initial densities.
SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA
CREUTZ,M.
2007-01-01
Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems based on very simple rules of evolution yet capable of displaying highly complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and the scales. This article begins with an overview of self-organized criticality. This is followed by a discussion of a few examples of simple cellular automaton systems, some of which may exhibit critical behavior. Finally, some of the fascinating exact mathematical properties of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sand-pile model [1] are discussed.
Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell Quantum Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro
2015-10-01
Recent advances on quantum foundations achieved the derivation of free quantum field theory from general principles, without referring to mechanical notions and relativistic invariance. From the aforementioned principles a quantum cellular automata (QCA) theory follows, whose relativistic limit of small wave-vector provides the free dynamics of quantum field theory. The QCA theory can be regarded as an extended quantum field theory that describes in a unified way all scales ranging from an hypothetical discrete Planck scale up to the usual Fermi scale. The present paper reviews the automaton theory for the Weyl field, and the composite automata for Dirac and Maxwell fields. We then give a simple analysis of the dynamics in the momentum space in terms of a dispersive differential equation for narrowband wave-packets. We then review the phenomenology of the free-field automaton and consider possible visible effects arising from the discreteness of the framework. We conclude introducing the consequences of the automaton dispersion relation, leading to a deformed Lorentz covariance and to possible effects on the thermodynamics of ideal gases.
Cellular Automata Methods in Mathematical Physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Mark Andrew
Cellular automata (CA) are fully discrete, spatially -distributed dynamical systems which can serve as an alternative framework for mathematical descriptions of physical systems. Furthermore, they constitute intrinsically parallel models of computation which can be efficiently realized with special-purpose cellular automata machines. The basic objective of this thesis is to determine techniques for using CA to model physical phenomena and to develop the associated mathematics. Results may take the form of simulations and calculations as well as proofs, and applications are suggested throughout. We begin by describing the structure, origins, and modeling categories of CA. A general method for incorporating dissipation in a reversible CA rule is suggested by a model of a lattice gas in the presence of an external potential well. Statistical forces are generated by coupling the gas to a low temperature heat bath. The equilibrium state of the coupled system is analyzed using the principle of maximum entropy. Continuous symmetries are important in field theory, whereas CA describe discrete fields. However, a novel CA rule for relativistic diffusion based on a random walk shows how Lorentz invariance can arise in a lattice model. Simple CA models based on the dynamics of abstract atoms are often capable of capturing the universal behaviors of complex systems. Consequently, parallel lattice Monte Carlo simulations of abstract polymers were devised to respect the steric constraints on polymer dynamics. The resulting double space algorithm is very efficient and correctly captures the static and dynamic scaling behavior characteristic of all polymers. Random numbers are important in stochastic computer simulations; for example, those that use the Metropolis algorithm. A technique for tuning random bits is presented to enable efficient utilization of randomness, especially in CA machines. Interesting areas for future CA research include network simulation, long-range forces
Particles and Patterns in Cellular Automata
Jen, E.; Das, R.; Beasley, C.E.
1999-06-03
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective has been to develop tools for studying particle interactions in a class of dynamical systems characterized by discreteness, determinism, local interaction, and an inherently parallel form of evolution. These systems can be described by cellular automata (CA) and the behavior we studied has improved our understanding of the nature of patterns generated by CAs, their ability to perform global computations, and their relationship to continuous dynamical systems. We have also developed a rule-table mathematics that enables one to custom-design CA rule tables to generate patterns of specified types, or to perform specified computational tasks.
Traffic jam dynamics in stochastic cellular automata
Nagel, K. |; Schreckenberg, M.
1995-09-01
Simple models for particles hopping on a grid (cellular automata) are used to simulate (single lane) traffic flow. Despite their simplicity, these models are astonishingly realistic in reproducing start-stop-waves and realistic fundamental diagrams. One can use these models to investigate traffic phenomena near maximum flow. A so-called phase transition at average maximum flow is visible in the life-times of jams. The resulting dynamic picture is consistent with recent fluid-dynamical results by Kuehne/Kerner/Konhaeuser, and with Treiterer`s hysteresis description. This places CA models between car-following models and fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. CA models are tested in projects in Los Alamos (USA) and in NRW (Germany) for large scale microsimulations of network traffic.
Using cellular automata to generate image representation for biological sequences.
Xiao, X; Shao, S; Ding, Y; Huang, Z; Chen, X; Chou, K-C
2005-02-01
A novel approach to visualize biological sequences is developed based on cellular automata (Wolfram, S. Nature 1984, 311, 419-424), a set of discrete dynamical systems in which space and time are discrete. By transforming the symbolic sequence codes into the digital codes, and using some optimal space-time evolvement rules of cellular automata, a biological sequence can be represented by a unique image, the so-called cellular automata image. Many important features, which are originally hidden in a long and complicated biological sequence, can be clearly revealed thru its cellular automata image. With biological sequences entering into databanks rapidly increasing in the post-genomic era, it is anticipated that the cellular automata image will become a very useful vehicle for investigation into their key features, identification of their function, as well as revelation of their "fingerprint". It is anticipated that by using the concept of the pseudo amino acid composition (Chou, K.C. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics, 2001, 43, 246-255), the cellular automata image approach can also be used to improve the quality of predicting protein attributes, such as structural class and subcellular location.
On the topological sensitivity of cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard
2011-06-01
Ever since the conceptualization of cellular automata (CA), much attention has been paid to the dynamical properties of these discrete dynamical systems, and, more in particular, to their sensitivity to the initial condition from which they are evolved. Yet, the sensitivity of CA to the topology upon which they are based has received only minor attention, such that a clear insight in this dependence is still lacking and, furthermore, a quantification of this so-called topological sensitivity has not yet been proposed. The lack of attention for this issue is rather surprising since CA are spatially explicit, which means that their dynamics is directly affected by their topology. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose topological Lyapunov exponents that measure the divergence of two close trajectories in phase space originating from a topological perturbation, and we relate them to a measure grasping the sensitivity of CA to their topology that relies on the concept of topological derivatives, which is introduced in this paper. The validity of the proposed methodology is illustrated for the 256 elementary CA and for a family of two-state irregular totalistic CA.
Quantum Features of Natural Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elze, Hans-Thomas
We review the properties of discrete and integer-valued, hence "natural", cellular automata (CA), a particular class of which comprises "Hamiltonian CA" with equations of motion that bear strong similarities to Hamilton's equations, despite presenting discrete updating rules. The resulting dynamics is linear in the same sense as unitary evolution described by the Schrödinger equation. Employing Shannon's Sampling Theorem, we construct an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models which incorporate a fundamental discreteness scale. This leads to one-to-one correspondence of quantum mechanical and CA conservation laws. In order to illuminate the all-important issue of linearity, we presently introduce an extension of the class of CA incorporating nonlinearities. We argue that these imply non-local effects in the continuous quantum mechanical description of intrinsically local discrete CA, enforcing locality entails linearity. We recall the construction of admissible CA observables and the existence of solutions of the modified dispersion relation for stationary states, besides discussing next steps of the deconstruction of quantum mechanical models in terms of deterministic CA.
On the topological sensitivity of cellular automata.
Baetens, Jan M; De Baets, Bernard
2011-06-01
Ever since the conceptualization of cellular automata (CA), much attention has been paid to the dynamical properties of these discrete dynamical systems, and, more in particular, to their sensitivity to the initial condition from which they are evolved. Yet, the sensitivity of CA to the topology upon which they are based has received only minor attention, such that a clear insight in this dependence is still lacking and, furthermore, a quantification of this so-called topological sensitivity has not yet been proposed. The lack of attention for this issue is rather surprising since CA are spatially explicit, which means that their dynamics is directly affected by their topology. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose topological Lyapunov exponents that measure the divergence of two close trajectories in phase space originating from a topological perturbation, and we relate them to a measure grasping the sensitivity of CA to their topology that relies on the concept of topological derivatives, which is introduced in this paper. The validity of the proposed methodology is illustrated for the 256 elementary CA and for a family of two-state irregular totalistic CA.
Cellular Automata Ideas in Digital Circuits and Switching Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siwak, Pawel P.
1985-01-01
Presents two examples which illustrate the usefulness of ideas from cellular automata. First, Lee's algorithm is recalled and its cellular nature shown. Then a problem from digraphs, which has arisen from analyzing predecessing configurations in the famous Conway's "game of life," is considered. (Author/JN)
Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis of one dimensional cellular automata.
Estevez-Rams, E; Lora-Serrano, R; Nunes, C A J; Aragón-Fernández, B
2015-12-01
Lempel-Ziv complexity measure has been used to estimate the entropy density of a string. It is defined as the number of factors in a production factorization of a string. In this contribution, we show that its use can be extended, by using the normalized information distance, to study the spatiotemporal evolution of random initial configurations under cellular automata rules. In particular, the transfer information from time consecutive configurations is studied, as well as the sensitivity to perturbed initial conditions. The behavior of the cellular automata rules can be grouped in different classes, but no single grouping captures the whole nature of the involved rules. The analysis carried out is particularly appropriate for studying the computational processing capabilities of cellular automata rules.
Simulation of interdiffusion and voids growth based on cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Boyan; Zhang, Nan; Du, Haishun; Zhang, Xinhong
2017-02-01
In the interdiffusion of two solid-state materials, if the diffusion coefficients of the two materials are not the same, the interface of the two materials will shift to the material with the lower diffusion coefficient. This effect is known as the Kirkendall effect. The Kirkendall effect leads to Kirkendall porosity. The pores act as sinks for vacancies and become voids. In this paper, the movement of the Kirkendall plane at interdiffusion is simulated based on cellular automata. The number of vacancies, the critical radius of voids nucleation and the nucleation rate are analysed. The vacancies diffusion, vacancies aggregation and voids growth are also simulated based on cellular automata.
The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei
2014-04-01
The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.
Boolean linear differential operators on elementary cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín Del Rey, Ángel
2014-12-01
In this paper, the notion of boolean linear differential operator (BLDO) on elementary cellular automata (ECA) is introduced and some of their more important properties are studied. Special attention is paid to those differential operators whose coefficients are the ECA with rule numbers 90 and 150.
Return of the Quantum Cellular Automata: Episode VI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Lincoln D.; Hillberry, Logan E.; Rall, Patrick; Halpern, Nicole Yunger; Bao, Ning; Montangero, Simone
2016-05-01
There are now over 150 quantum simulators or analog quantum computers worldwide. Although exploring quantum phase transitions, many-body localization, and the generalized Gibbs ensemble are exciting and worthwhile endeavors, there are totally untapped directions we have not yet pursued. One of these is quantum cellular automata. In the past a principal goal of quantum cellular automata was to reproduce continuum single particle quantum physics such as the Schrodinger or Dirac equation from simple rule sets. Now that we begin to really understand entanglement and many-body quantum physics at a deeper level, quantum cellular automata present new possibilities. We explore several time evolution schemes on simple spin chains leading to high degrees of quantum complexity and nontrivial quantum dynamics. We explain how the 256 known classical elementary cellular automata reduce to just a few exciting quantum cases. Our analysis tools include mutual information based complex networks as well as more familiar quantifiers like sound speed and diffusion rate. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.
Origin of complexity and conditional predictability in cellular automata.
García-Morales, Vladimir
2013-10-01
A simple mechanism for the emergence of complexity in cellular automata out of predictable dynamics is described. This leads to introduce the concept of conditional predictability for systems whose trajectory can only be piecewise known. The mechanism is used to construct a cellular automaton model for discrete chimeralike states, where synchrony and incoherence in an ensemble of identical oscillators coexist. The incoherent region is shown to have a periodicity that is three orders of magnitude longer than the period of the synchronous oscillation.
Cellular automata and its applications in protein bioinformatics.
Xiao, Xuan; Wang, Pu; Chou, Kuo-Chen
2011-09-01
With the explosion of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic era, it is highly desirable to develop high-throughput tools for rapidly and reliably identifying various attributes of uncharacterized proteins based on their sequence information alone. The knowledge thus obtained can help us timely utilize these newly found protein sequences for both basic research and drug discovery. Many bioinformatics tools have been developed by means of machine learning methods. This review is focused on the applications of a new kind of science (cellular automata) in protein bioinformatics. A cellular automaton (CA) is an open, flexible and discrete dynamic model that holds enormous potentials in modeling complex systems, in spite of the simplicity of the model itself. Researchers, scientists and practitioners from different fields have utilized cellular automata for visualizing protein sequences, investigating their evolution processes, and predicting their various attributes. Owing to its impressive power, intuitiveness and relative simplicity, the CA approach has great potential for use as a tool for bioinformatics.
Potential field cellular automata model for pedestrian flow.
Zhang, Peng; Jian, Xiao-Xia; Wong, S C; Choi, Keechoo
2012-02-01
This paper proposes a cellular automata model of pedestrian flow that defines a cost potential field, which takes into account the costs of travel time and discomfort, for a pedestrian to move to an empty neighboring cell. The formulation is based on a reconstruction of the density distribution and the underlying physics, including the rule for resolving conflicts, which is comparable to that in the floor field cellular automaton model. However, we assume that each pedestrian is familiar with the surroundings, thereby minimizing his or her instantaneous cost. This, in turn, helps reduce the randomness in selecting a target cell, which improves the existing cellular automata modelings, together with the computational efficiency. In the presence of two pedestrian groups, which are distinguished by their destinations, the cost distribution for each group is magnified due to the strong interaction between the two groups. As a typical phenomenon, the formation of lanes in the counter flow is reproduced.
Quantum cellular automata and free quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2017-02-01
In a series of recent papers [1-4] it has been shown how free quantum field theory can be derived without using mechanical primitives (including space-time, special relativity, quantization rules, etc.), but only considering the easiest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the simple principles of unitarity, homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. This has opened the route to extending the axiomatic information-theoretic derivation of the quantum theory of abstract systems [5, 6] to include quantum field theory. The inherent discrete nature of the informational axiomatization leads to an extension of quantum field theory to a quantum cellular automata theory, where the usual field theory is recovered in a regime where the discrete structure of the automata cannot be probed. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale of discreteness to the Planck scale, and the customary physical regime where discreteness is not visible is the relativistic one of small wavevectors. In this paper we provide a thorough derivation from principles that in the most general case the graph of the quantum cellular automaton is the Cayley graph of a finitely presented group, and showing how for the case corresponding to Euclidean emergent space (where the group resorts to an Abelian one) the automata leads to Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell field dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some perspectives towards the more general scenario of non-linear automata for interacting quantum field theory.
Construction of living cellular automata using the Physarum plasmodium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Shinji
2015-04-01
The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that has an amorphous cell body. To clearly observe how the plasmodium makes decisions in its motile and exploratory behaviours, we developed a new experimental system to pseudo-discretize the motility of the organism. In our experimental space that has agar surfaces arranged in a two-dimensional lattice, the continuous and omnidirectional movement of the plasmodium was limited to the stepwise one, and the direction of the locomotion was also limited to four neighbours. In such an experimental system, a cellular automata-like system was constructed using the living cell. We further analysed the exploratory behaviours of the plasmodium by duplicating the experimental results in the simulation models of cellular automata. As a result, it was revealed that the behaviours of the plasmodium are not reproduced by only local state transition rules; and for the reproduction, a kind of historical rule setting is needed.
The adaptive cruise control vehicles in the cellular automata model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song
2006-11-01
This Letter presented a cellular automata model where the adaptive cruise control vehicles are modelled. In this model, the constant time headway policy is adopted. The fundamental diagram is presented. The simulation results are in good agreement with the analytical ones. The mixture of ACC vehicles with manually driven vehicles is investigated. It is shown that with the introduction of ACC vehicles, the jam can be suppressed.
A class of cellular automata modeling winnerless competition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afraimovich, V.; Ordaz, F. C.; Urías, J.
2002-06-01
Neural units introduced by Rabinovich et al. ("Sensory coding with dynamically competitive networks," UCSD and CIT, February 1999) motivate a class of cellular automata (CA) where spatio-temporal encoding is feasible. The spatio-temporal information capacity of a CA is estimated by the information capacity of the attractor set, which happens to be finitely specified. Two-dimensional CA are studied in detail. An example is given for which the attractor is not a subshift.
Identifying patterns from one-rule-firing cellular automata.
Shin, Jae Kyun
2011-01-01
A new firing scheme for cellular automata in which only one rule is fired at a time produces myriad patterns. In addition to geometric patterns, natural patterns such as flowers and snow crystals were also generated. This study proposes an efficient method identifying the patterns using a minimal number of digits. Complexity of the generated patterns is discussed in terms of the shapes and colors of the patterns.
Massive Cellular Automata in Geosimulation: Antarctica Ice Melting as Example
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, H.; Torrens, P.; Lin, J.; Han, R.
2015-12-01
One of the essential features of the cellular automata (CA) model is its high scalability: CA lattices can be theoretically run at gargantuan size to represent intricacies of complex phenomena. However, one barrier in the use of cellular automata for scientific simulations is the issue of scalability in terms of the number of cells, to either model phenomena at finer granularities or at larger scales. Some researchers have developed parallel CA algorithms using MapReduce to eke out efficiency, but MapReduce may not provide the ideal scheme to address messy parallelism in large CA when they require complex rule-sets and broker a lot of state exchange across large solution-space lattices. In this research, we take advantage of the Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model of distributed computation, via the Giraph open-source implementation, to implement large-scale cellular automata simulations. Additionally, this study also describes a scientifically interesting example, in which ice dynamics in Antarctic is simulated using a melting model. Short-term and medium-term ice sheet dynamics are driven by a variety of forces. We do not fully understand what they might be and how they interplay, and simulation is an important medium for building the science to guide us in finding answers. In our experiments, using a voxel CA comprising 1 trillion cells—by far the largest scale voxel-based CA model reported in literature—which took only 2.48 minutes for per step for processing.
A full computation-relevant topological dynamics classification of elementary cellular automata.
Schüle, Martin; Stoop, Ruedi
2012-12-01
Cellular automata are both computational and dynamical systems. We give a complete classification of the dynamic behaviour of elementary cellular automata (ECA) in terms of fundamental dynamic system notions such as sensitivity and chaoticity. The "complex" ECA emerge to be sensitive, but not chaotic and not eventually weakly periodic. Based on this classification, we conjecture that elementary cellular automata capable of carrying out complex computations, such as needed for Turing-universality, are at the "edge of chaos."
Immune Responses: Getting Close to Experimental Results with Cellular Automata Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dos Santos, Rita Maria Zorzenon
Cellular automata approaches are powerful tools to model local and nonlocal interactions generating cooperative behavior. In the last decade, the question of whether cellular automata could embed realistic assumptions about the interactions among cells and molecules of the immune system was quite controversial. Recent results have shown that it is possible to use cellular automata approaches to describe realistically the interactions between the elements of the immune system. The first models using cellular automata approaches, boolean and threshold or window automata, were based on experimental evidence and were mainly used to understand the logic of global immune responses like immunization, tolerance, paralysis, etc. Recently, new classes of cellular automata models which include time delay, stochasticity or adaptation have lead to results that can be compared with in vivo experimental data.
Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela
2010-06-01
Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.
Noisy quantum cellular automata for quantum versus classical excitation transfer.
Avalle, Michele; Serafini, Alessio
2014-05-02
We introduce a class of noisy quantum cellular automata on a qubit lattice that includes all classical Markov chains, as well as maps where quantum coherence between sites is allowed to build up over time. We apply such a construction to the problem of excitation transfer through 1D lattices, and compare the performance of classical and quantum dynamics with equal local transition probabilities. Our discrete approach has the merits of stripping down the complications of the open system dynamics, of clearly isolating coherent effects, and of allowing for an exact treatment of conditional dynamics, all while capturing a rich variety of dynamical behaviors.
A Cellular Automata Model of Infection Control on Medical Implants.
Prieto-Langarica, Alicia; Kojouharov, Hristo; Chen-Charpentier, Benito; Tang, Liping
2011-06-01
S. epidermidis infections on medically implanted devices are a common problem in modern medicine due to the abundance of the bacteria. Once inside the body, S. epidermidis gather in communities called biofilms and can become extremely hard to eradicate, causing the patient serious complications. We simulate the complex S. epidermidis-Neutrophils interactions in order to determine the optimum conditions for the immune system to be able to contain the infection and avoid implant rejection. Our cellular automata model can also be used as a tool for determining the optimal amount of antibiotics for combating biofilm formation on medical implants.
Noisy Quantum Cellular Automata for Quantum versus Classical Excitation Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avalle, Michele; Serafini, Alessio
2014-05-01
We introduce a class of noisy quantum cellular automata on a qubit lattice that includes all classical Markov chains, as well as maps where quantum coherence between sites is allowed to build up over time. We apply such a construction to the problem of excitation transfer through 1D lattices, and compare the performance of classical and quantum dynamics with equal local transition probabilities. Our discrete approach has the merits of stripping down the complications of the open system dynamics, of clearly isolating coherent effects, and of allowing for an exact treatment of conditional dynamics, all while capturing a rich variety of dynamical behaviors.
Emergence of linguistic-like structures in one-dimensional cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertacchini, Francesca; Bilotta, Eleonora; Caldarola, Fabio; Pantano, Pietro; Bustamante, Leonardo Renteria
2016-10-01
In this paper we give a summary of some empirical investigations which show high analogies between Cellular Automata and linguistic structures. In particular we show as coupling regular domains of Cellular Automata we find complex emerging structures similar to combination of words, phonemes and morphemes in natural languages.
Cellular automata and complex dynamics of driven elastic media
Coppersmith, S.N.; Littlewodd, P.B.; Sibani, P.
1995-12-01
Several systems of importance in condensed matter physics can be modelled as an elastic medium in a disordered environment and driven by an external force. In the simplest cases, the equation of motion involves competition between a local non-linear potential (fluctuating in space) and elastic coupling, as well as relaxational (inertialess) dynamics. Despite a simple mathematical description, the interactions between many degrees of freedom lead to the emergence of time and length scales much longer than those set by the microscopic dynamics. Extensive computations have improved the understanding of the behavior of such models, but full solutions of the equations of motion for very large systems are time-consuming and may obscure important physical principles in a massive volume of output. The development of cellular automata models has been crucial, both in conceptual simplification and in allowing the collection of data on many replicas of very large systems. We will discuss how the marriage of cellular automata models and parallel computation on a MasPar MP-1216 computer has helped to elucidate the dynamical properties of these many-degree-of-freedom systems.
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
Winarno, Nanang Prima, Eka Cahya; Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu
2016-02-08
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled “A New Kind of Science” discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram’s investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.
Resolution scalable image coding with reversible cellular automata.
Cappellari, Lorenzo; Milani, Simone; Cruz-Reyes, Carlos; Calvagno, Giancarlo
2011-05-01
In a resolution scalable image coding algorithm, a multiresolution representation of the data is often obtained using a linear filter bank. Reversible cellular automata have been recently proposed as simpler, nonlinear filter banks that produce a similar representation. The original image is decomposed into four subbands, such that one of them retains most of the features of the original image at a reduced scale. In this paper, we discuss the utilization of reversible cellular automata and arithmetic coding for scalable compression of binary and grayscale images. In the binary case, the proposed algorithm that uses simple local rules compares well with the JBIG compression standard, in particular for images where the foreground is made of a simple connected region. For complex images, more efficient local rules based upon the lifting principle have been designed. They provide compression performances very close to or even better than JBIG, depending upon the image characteristics. In the grayscale case, and in particular for smooth images such as depth maps, the proposed algorithm outperforms both the JBIG and the JPEG2000 standards under most coding conditions.
Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winarno, Nanang; Prima, Eka Cahya; Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu
2016-02-01
This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled "A New Kind of Science" discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram's investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.
A novel cellular automata based approach to storm sewer design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Y.; Walters, G. A.; Khu, S. T.; Keedwell, E.
2007-04-01
Optimal storm sewer design aims at minimizing capital investment on infrastructure whilst ensuring good system performance under specified design criteria. An innovative sewer design approach based on cellular automata (CA) principles is introduced in this paper. Cellular automata have been applied as computational simulation devices in various scientific fields. However, some recent research has indicated that CA can also be a viable and efficient optimization engine. This engine is heuristic and largely relies on the key properties of CA: locality, homogeneity, and parallelism. In the proposed approach, the CA-based optimizer is combined with a sewer hydraulic simulator, the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). At each optimization step, according to a set of transition rules, the optimizer updates all decision variables simultaneously based on the hydraulic situation within each neighbourhood. Two sewer networks (one small artificial network and one large real network) have been tested in this study. The CA optimizer demonstrated its ability to obtain near-optimal solutions in a remarkably small number of computational steps in a comparison of its performance with that of a genetic algorithm.
Physical modeling of traffic with stochastic cellular automata
Schreckenberg, M.; Nagel, K. |
1995-09-01
A new type of probabilistic cellular automaton for the physical description of single and multilane traffic is presented. In this model space, time and the velocity of the cars are represented by integer numbers (as usual in cellular automata) with local update rules for the velocity. The model is very efficient for both numerical simulations and analytical investigations. The numerical results from extensive simulations reproduce very well data taken from real traffic (e.g. fundamental diagrams). Several analytical results for the model are presented as well as new approximation schemes for stationary traffic. In addition the relation to continuum hydrodynamic theory (Lighthill-Whitham) and the follow-the-leader models is discussed. The model is part of an interdisciplinary research program in Northrhine-Westfalia (``NRW Forschungsverbund Verkehrssimulation``) for the construction of a large scale microsimulation model for network traffic, supported by the government of NRW.
Simulations of Living Cell Origins Using a Cellular Automata Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishida, Takeshi
2014-04-01
Understanding the generalized mechanisms of cell self-assembly is fundamental for applications in various fields, such as mass producing molecular machines in nanotechnology. Thus, the details of real cellular reaction networks and the necessary conditions for self-organized cells must be elucidated. We constructed a 2-dimensional cellular automata model to investigate the emergence of biological cell formation, which incorporated a looped membrane and a membrane-bound information system (akin to a genetic code and gene expression system). In particular, with an artificial reaction system coupled with a thermal system, the simultaneous formation of a looped membrane and an inner reaction process resulted in a more stable structure. These double structures inspired the primitive biological cell formation process from chemical evolution stage. With a model to simulate cellular self-organization in a 2-dimensional cellular automata model, 3 phenomena could be realized: (1) an inner reaction system developed as an information carrier precursor (akin to DNA); (2) a cell border emerged (akin to a cell membrane); and (3) these cell structures could divide into 2. This double-structured cell was considered to be a primary biological cell. The outer loop evolved toward a lipid bilayer membrane, and inner polymeric particles evolved toward precursor information carriers (evolved toward DNA). This model did not completely clarify all the necessary and sufficient conditions for biological cell self-organization. Further, our virtual cells remained unstable and fragile. However, the "garbage bag model" of Dyson proposed that the first living cells were deficient; thus, it would be reasonable that the earliest cells were more unstable and fragile than the simplest current unicellular organisms.
Simulations of living cell origins using a cellular automata model.
Ishida, Takeshi
2014-04-01
Understanding the generalized mechanisms of cell self-assembly is fundamental for applications in various fields, such as mass producing molecular machines in nanotechnology. Thus, the details of real cellular reaction networks and the necessary conditions for self-organized cells must be elucidated. We constructed a 2-dimensional cellular automata model to investigate the emergence of biological cell formation, which incorporated a looped membrane and a membrane-bound information system (akin to a genetic code and gene expression system). In particular, with an artificial reaction system coupled with a thermal system, the simultaneous formation of a looped membrane and an inner reaction process resulted in a more stable structure. These double structures inspired the primitive biological cell formation process from chemical evolution stage. With a model to simulate cellular self-organization in a 2-dimensional cellular automata model, 3 phenomena could be realized: (1) an inner reaction system developed as an information carrier precursor (akin to DNA); (2) a cell border emerged (akin to a cell membrane); and (3) these cell structures could divide into 2. This double-structured cell was considered to be a primary biological cell. The outer loop evolved toward a lipid bilayer membrane, and inner polymeric particles evolved toward precursor information carriers (evolved toward DNA). This model did not completely clarify all the necessary and sufficient conditions for biological cell self-organization. Further, our virtual cells remained unstable and fragile. However, the "garbage bag model" of Dyson proposed that the first living cells were deficient; thus, it would be reasonable that the earliest cells were more unstable and fragile than the simplest current unicellular organisms.
Quantifying a cellular automata simulation of electric vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Graeme; Bell, Margaret; Blythe, Phil
2014-12-01
Within this work the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) cellular automata is used to simulate a basic cyclic road network. Results from SwitchEV, a real world Electric Vehicle trial which has collected more than two years of detailed electric vehicle data, are used to quantify the results of the NS automata, demonstrating similar power consumption behavior to that observed in the experimental results. In particular the efficiency of the electric vehicles reduces as the vehicle density increases, due in part to the reduced efficiency of EVs at low speeds, but also due to the energy consumption inherent in changing speeds. Further work shows the results from introducing spatially restricted speed restriction. In general it can be seen that induced congestion from spatially transient events propagates back through the road network and alters the energy and efficiency profile of the simulated vehicles, both before and after the speed restriction. Vehicles upstream from the restriction show a reduced energy usage and an increased efficiency, and vehicles downstream show an initial large increase in energy usage as they accelerate away from the speed restriction.
A cellular automata approach for modeling surface water runoff
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jozefik, Zoltan; Nanu Frechen, Tobias; Hinz, Christoph; Schmidt, Heiko
2015-04-01
This abstract reports the development and application of a two-dimensional cellular automata based model, which couples the dynamics of overland flow, infiltration processes and surface evolution through sediment transport. The natural hill slopes are represented by their topographic elevation and spatially varying soil properties infiltration rates and surface roughness coefficients. This model allows modeling of Hortonian overland flow and infiltration during complex rainfall events. An advantage of the cellular automata approach over the kinematic wave equations is that wet/dry interfaces that often appear with rainfall overland flows can be accurately captured and are not a source of numerical instabilities. An adaptive explicit time stepping scheme allows for rainfall events to be adequately resolved in time, while large time steps are taken during dry periods to provide for simulation run time efficiency. The time step is constrained by the CFL condition and mass conservation considerations. The spatial discretization is shown to be first-order accurate. For validation purposes, hydrographs for non-infiltrating and infiltrating plates are compared to the kinematic wave analytic solutions and data taken from literature [1,2]. Results show that our cellular automata model quantitatively accurately reproduces hydrograph patterns. However, recent works have showed that even through the hydrograph is satisfyingly reproduced, the flow field within the plot might be inaccurate [3]. For a more stringent validation, we compare steady state velocity, water flux, and water depth fields to rainfall simulation experiments conducted in Thies, Senegal [3]. Comparisons show that our model is able to accurately capture these flow properties. Currently, a sediment transport and deposition module is being implemented and tested. [1] M. Rousseau, O. Cerdan, O. Delestre, F. Dupros, F. James, S. Cordier. Overland flow modeling with the Shallow Water Equation using a well balanced
Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity
Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.
2003-01-01
We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.
Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning
2016-02-01
In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.
Are nonlinear discrete cellular automata compatible with quantum mechanics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2015-07-01
We consider discrete and integer-valued cellular automata (CA). A particular class of which comprises “Hamiltonian CA” with equations of motion that bear similarities to Hamilton's equations, while they present discrete updating rules. The dynamics is linear, quite similar to unitary evolution described by the Schrödinger equation. This has been essential in our construction of an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models, which incorporate a fundamental discreteness scale. Based on Shannon's sampling theory, it leads, for example, to a one-to-one relation between quantum mechanical and CA conservation laws. The important issue of linearity of the theory is examined here by incorporating higher-order nonlinearities into the underlying action. These produce inconsistent nonlocal (in time) effects when trying to describe continuously such nonlinear CA. Therefore, in the present framework, only linear CA and local quantum mechanical dynamics are compatible.
Robustness enhancement for image hiding algorithm in cellular automata domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaowei; Kim, Seok-Tae; Lee, In-Kwon
2015-12-01
In this paper, we present a cellular automata (CA)-domain image hiding scheme that embedding a secret image into a gray-level image, in which an effective image preprocessor technique is introduced to improve the robustness of the secret image. The image preprocessor works by transforming a secret image into many elemental images based on the lensless integral imaging technique. The properties of data redundancy and distributed memory of the elemental images reinforce the ability to resist some data loss attacks. Besides, we study an improved pixel-wise masking model to optimize the imperceptibility of the stego-image. Experiments verify that the imperceptibility and robustness requirements of the image hiding are both satisfied excellently in the proposed image hiding system.
Cellular automata simulation of medication-induced autoimmune diseases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauffer, Dietrich; Proykova, Ana
2004-01-01
We implement the cellular automata model proposed by Stauffer and Weisbuch in 1992 to describe the response of the immune system to antigens in the presence of medications. The model contains two thresholds, θ1 and θ2, suggested by de Boer, Segel, and Perelson to present the minimum field needed to stimulate the proliferation of the receptors and to suppress it, respectively. The influence of the drug is mimicked by increasing the second threshold, thus enhancing the immune response. If this increase is too strong, the immune response is triggered in the whole immune repertoire, causing it to attack the own body. This effect is seen in our simulations to depend both on the ratio of the thresholds and on their absolute values.
What can we hope for from cellular automata?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doolen, Gary
Although the idea of using discrete methods for modeling partial differential equations occured very early, the actual statement that cellular automata techniques can approximate the solutions of hydrodynamic partial differential equations was first discovered by Frisch, Hasslacher, and Pomeau. Their description of the derivation, which assumes the validity of the Boltzmann equation, appeared in the Physical Review Letters in April 1986. It is the intent of this article to provide a description of the simplest lattice gas model and to examine the successes and inadequacies of a lattice gas calculation of flow in a two-dimensional channel. Some comments will summarize a recent result of a lattice gas simulation of flow through porous media, a problem which is ideal for the lattice gas method. Finally, some remarks will be focused on the impressive speeds which could be obtained from a dedicated lattice gas computer.
Evolving Localizations in Reaction-Diffusion Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamatzky, Andrew; Bull, Larry; Collet, Pierre; Sapin, Emmanuel
We consider hexagonal cellular automata with immediate cell neighbourhood and three cell-states. Every cell calculates its next state depending on the integral representation of states in its neighbourhood, i.e., how many neighbours are in each one state. We employ evolutionary algorithms to breed local transition functions that support mobile localizations (gliders), and characterize sets of the functions selected in terms of quasi-chemical systems. Analysis of the set of functions evolved allows to speculate that mobile localizations are likely to emerge in the quasi-chemical systems with limited diffusion of one reagent, a small number of molecules are required for amplification of travelling localizations, and reactions leading to stationary localizations involve relatively equal amount of quasi-chemical species. Techniques developed can be applied in cascading signals in nature-inspired spatially extended computing devices, and phenomenological studies and classification of non-linear discrete systems.
Modeling Evacuation of Emergency Vehicles by Cellular Automata Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussa, Najem
An evacuation of the emergency vehicle (EV) from an origin point (e.g., accident location) to a destination point (e.g., hospital) in lower and higher congestions is simulated using city cellular automata models. We find that the mean speed of the EV and its arrival time all depend enormously on the cars density, the route length of the EV and the turn capability of the cars. Dangerous situations that occurred during the evacuation of the EV are also investigated. By allowing high turning capabilities to cars, considerable improvements are obtained. Indeed, the EV mean speed is enhanced and its arrival time is optimized. Moreover, at relatively high density, a significant reduction of the risk of accident is expected.
Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.
2012-04-01
As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.
Game level layout generation using evolved cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pech, Andrew; Masek, Martin; Lam, Chiou-Peng; Hingston, Philip
2016-01-01
Design of level layouts typically involves the production of a set of levels which are different, yet display a consistent style based on the purpose of a particular level. In this paper, a new approach to the generation of unique level layouts, based on a target set of attributes, is presented. These attributes, which are learned automatically from an example layout, are used for the off-line evolution of a set of cellular automata rules. These rules can then be used for the real-time generation of level layouts that meet the target parameters. The approach is demonstrated on a set of maze-like level layouts. Results are presented to show the effect of various CA parameters and rule representation.
Quantum state transfer through noisy quantum cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avalle, Michele; Genoni, Marco G.; Serafini, Alessio
2015-05-01
We model the transport of an unknown quantum state on one dimensional qubit lattices by means of a quantum cellular automata (QCA) evolution. We do this by first introducing a class of discrete noisy dynamics, in the first excitation sector, in which a wide group of classical stochastic dynamics is embedded within the more general formalism of quantum operations. We then extend the Hilbert space of the system to accommodate a global vacuum state, thus allowing for the transport of initial on-site coherences besides excitations, and determine the dynamical constraints that define the class of noisy QCA in this subspace. We then study the transport performance through numerical simulations, showing that for some instances of the dynamics perfect quantum state transfer is attainable. Our approach provides one with a natural description of both unitary and open quantum evolutions, where the homogeneity and locality of interactions allow one to take into account several forms of quantum noise in a plausible scenario.
Cellular Automata Model for Unsignalized T-Shaped Intersection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xin-Gang; Gao, Zi-You; Jia, Bin; Zhao, Xiao-Mei
In this paper, the unsignalized T-shaped intersection is modeled by a cellular automata model. The main street and the minor street join at the intersection. As to the traffic flow is not controlled by traffic lights, conflict happens between the vehicles from minor street and that from main street. Two different crash avoiding rules are used to dispose the conflicts. In the first rule, the priorities are given to the driving-ahead vehicle and the vehicle on the main street. In the second rule, the vehicle that reaches the conflicting point earlier enters into the intersection. The flux on each lane depending on the inflow rates is studied in detail. The capacity of the system is also investigated. Our simulation results suggest that the two rules do not take the same effect on the capacity under different traffic conditions.
A simple linearization of the self-shrinking generator by means of cellular automata.
Fúster-Sabater, Amparo; Pazo-Robles, M Eugenia; Caballero-Gil, Pino
2010-04-01
In this work, it is shown that the output sequence of a well-known cryptographic generator, the so-called self-shrinking generator, can be obtained from a simple linear model based on cellular automata. In fact, such a cellular model is a linear version of a nonlinear keystream generator currently used in stream ciphers. The linearization procedure is immediate and is based on the concatenation of a basic structure. The obtained cellular automata can be easily implemented with FPGA logic. Linearity and symmetry properties in such automata can be advantageously exploited for the analysis and/or cryptanalysis of this particular type of sequence generator.
Rule matrices, degree vectors, and preimages for cellular automata
Jen, E.
1989-01-01
Cellular automata are mathematical systems characterized by discreteness (in space, time, and state values), determinism, and local interaction. Few analytical techniques exist for such systems. The rule matrix and degree vectors of a cellular automaton -- both of which are determined a priori from the function defining the automaton, rather than a posteriori from simulations of its evolution -- are introduced here as tools for understanding certain qualitative features of automaton behavior. The rule matrix represents in convenient form the information contained in an automaton's rule table; the degree vectors are computed from the rule matrix, and reflect the extent to which the system is one-to-one'' versus many-to-one'' on restricted subspaces of the mapping. The rule matrix and degree vectors determine, for example, several aspects of the enumeration and prediction'' of preimages for spatial sequences evolving under the rule, where the preimages of a sequence S are defined to be the set of sequences mapped by the automaton rule onto S. 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Cellular automata model for traffic flow with safe driving conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
María, Elena Lárraga; Luis, Alvarez-Icaza
2014-05-01
In this paper, a recently introduced cellular automata (CA) model is used for a statistical analysis of the inner microscopic structure of synchronized traffic flow. The analysis focuses on the formation and dissolution of clusters or platoons of vehicles, as the mechanism that causes the presence of this synchronized traffic state with a high flow. This platoon formation is one of the most interesting phenomena observed in traffic flows and plays an important role both in manual and automated highway systems (AHS). Simulation results, obtained from a single-lane system under periodic boundary conditions indicate that in the density region where the synchronized state is observed, most vehicles travel together in platoons with approximately the same speed and small spatial distances. The examination of velocity variations and individual vehicle gaps shows that the flow corresponding to the synchronized state is stable, safe and highly correlated. Moreover, results indicate that the observed platoon formation in real traffic is reproduced in simulations by the relation between vehicle headway and velocity that is embedded in the dynamics definition of the CA model.
Critical Behavior in Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morley, P. D.; Chang, Julius
Using cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared in a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock in an infected premise (IP). Those farms in the neighboring of an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor interactions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The nonlocal disease transport probability can be as low as 0.01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fission cascade. Finally, we calculate that the percentage of culled animals that are actually healthy is ≈30%.
Using Cellular Automata for Parking Recommendations in Smart Environments
Horng, Gwo-Jiun
2014-01-01
In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space. PMID:25153671
Using cellular automata for parking recommendations in smart environments.
Horng, Gwo-Jiun
2014-01-01
In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space.
Stochastic cellular automata model for stock market dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartolozzi, M.; Thomas, A. W.
2004-04-01
In the present work we introduce a stochastic cellular automata model in order to simulate the dynamics of the stock market. A direct percolation method is used to create a hierarchy of clusters of active traders on a two-dimensional grid. Active traders are characterized by the decision to buy, σi (t)=+1 , or sell, σi (t)=-1 , a stock at a certain discrete time step. The remaining cells are inactive, σi (t)=0 . The trading dynamics is then determined by the stochastic interaction between traders belonging to the same cluster. Extreme, intermittent events, such as crashes or bubbles, are triggered by a phase transition in the state of the bigger clusters present on the grid, where almost all the active traders come to share the same spin orientation. Most of the stylized aspects of the financial market time series, including multifractal proprieties, are reproduced by the model. A direct comparison is made with the daily closures of the S&P500 index.
Mammogram segmentation using maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata.
Anitha, J; Peter, J Dinesh
2015-08-01
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer among women. Mammogram is one of the most effective tools for early detection of the breast cancer. Various computer-aided systems have been introduced to detect the breast cancer from mammogram images. In a computer-aided diagnosis system, detection and segmentation of breast masses from the background tissues is an important issue. In this paper, an automatic segmentation method is proposed to identify and segment the suspicious mass regions of mammogram using a modified transition rule named maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata (CA). In coarse-level segmentation, the proposed method performs an adaptive global thresholding based on the histogram peak analysis to obtain the rough region of interest. An automatic seed point selection is proposed using gray-level co-occurrence matrix-based sum average feature in the coarse segmented image. Finally, the method utilizes CA with the identified initial seed point and the modified transition rule to segment the mass region. The proposed approach is evaluated over the dataset of 70 mammograms with mass from mini-MIAS database. Experimental results show that the proposed approach yields promising results to segment the mass region in the mammograms with the sensitivity of 92.25% and accuracy of 93.48%.
Modeling Second-Order Chemical Reactions using Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunter, N. E.; Barton, C. C.; Seybold, P. G.; Rizki, M. M.
2012-12-01
Cellular automata (CA) are discrete, agent-based, dynamic, iterated, mathematical computational models used to describe complex physical, biological, and chemical systems. Unlike the more computationally demanding molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo approaches, which use "force fields" to model molecular interactions, CA models employ a set of local rules. The traditional approach for modeling chemical reactions is to solve a set of simultaneous differential rate equations to give deterministic outcomes. CA models yield statistical outcomes for a finite number of ingredients. The deterministic solutions appear as limiting cases for conditions such as a large number of ingredients or a finite number of ingredients and many trials. Here we present a 2-dimensional, probabilistic CA model of a second-order gas phase reaction A + B → C, using a MATLAB basis. Beginning with a random distribution of ingredients A and B, formation of C emerges as the system evolves. The reaction rate can be varied based on the probability of favorable collisions of the reagents A and B. The model permits visualization of the conversion of reagents to products, and allows one to plot concentration vs. time for A, B and C. We test hypothetical reaction conditions such as: limiting reagents, the effects of reaction probabilities, and reagent concentrations on the reaction kinetics. The deterministic solutions of the reactions emerge as statistical averages in the limit of the large number of cells in the array. Modeling results for dynamic processes in the atmosphere will be presented.
Stochastic cellular automata model for stock market dynamics.
Bartolozzi, M; Thomas, A W
2004-04-01
In the present work we introduce a stochastic cellular automata model in order to simulate the dynamics of the stock market. A direct percolation method is used to create a hierarchy of clusters of active traders on a two-dimensional grid. Active traders are characterized by the decision to buy, sigma(i) (t)=+1, or sell, sigma(i) (t)=-1, a stock at a certain discrete time step. The remaining cells are inactive, sigma(i) (t)=0. The trading dynamics is then determined by the stochastic interaction between traders belonging to the same cluster. Extreme, intermittent events, such as crashes or bubbles, are triggered by a phase transition in the state of the bigger clusters present on the grid, where almost all the active traders come to share the same spin orientation. Most of the stylized aspects of the financial market time series, including multifractal proprieties, are reproduced by the model. A direct comparison is made with the daily closures of the S&P 500 index.
A Cellular Automata-Based Mathematical Model for Thymocyte Development
Souza-e-Silva, Hallan; Savino, Wilson; Feijóo, Raúl A.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro
2009-01-01
Intrathymic T cell development is an important process necessary for the normal formation of cell-mediated immune responses. Importantly, such a process depends on interactions of developing thymocytes with cellular and extracellular elements of the thymic microenvironment. Additionally, it includes a series of oriented and tunely regulated migration events, ultimately allowing mature cells to cross endothelial barriers and leave the organ. Herein we built a cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte migration and development. The rules comprised in this model take into account the main stages of thymocyte development, two-dimensional sections of the normal thymic microenvironmental network, as well as the chemokines involved in intrathymic cell migration. Parameters of our computer simulations with further adjusted to results derived from previous experimental data using sub-lethally irradiated mice, in which thymus recovery can be evaluated. The model fitted with the increasing numbers of each CD4/CD8-defined thymocyte subset. It was further validated since it fitted with the times of permanence experimentally ascertained in each CD4/CD8-defined differentiation stage. Importantly, correlations using the whole mean volume of young normal adult mice revealed that the numbers of cells generated in silico with the mathematical model fall within the range of total thymocyte numbers seen in these animals. Furthermore, simulations made with a human thymic epithelial network using the same mathematical model generated similar profiles for temporal evolution of thymocyte developmental stages. Lastly, we provided in silico evidence that the thymus architecture is important in the thymocyte development, since changes in the epithelial network result in different theoretical profiles for T cell development/migration. This model likely can be used to predict thymocyte evolution following therapeutic strategies designed for recovery of the thymus in diseases
A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.
2012-12-01
Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in
Ripple Clock Schemes for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Purohit, Prafull
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an emerging technology for building digital circuits at nano-scale. It is considered as an alternative to widely used complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology because of its key features, which include low power operation, high density and high operating frequency. Unlike conventional logic circuits in which information is transferred by electrical current, QCA operates with the help of coulomb interaction between two adjacent QCA cells. A QCA cell is a set of four quantum-dots that are placed near the corners of a square. Due to the fact that clocking provides power and control of data flow in QCA, it is considered to be the backbone of QCA operation. This thesis presents the design and simulation of a ripple clock scheme and an enhanced ripple clock scheme for QCA circuits. In the past, different clock schemes were proposed and studied which were focused on data flow in particular direction or reducing delay. This proposed thesis will study the design and simulation of new clock schemes which are more realistic for implementation, give a freedom to propagate logic in all directions, suitable for both combinational and sequential circuits and has potential to support testing and reconfiguration up to some extent. A variety of digital circuits including a 2--to--1 multiplexer, a 1--bit memory, an RS latch, a full adder, a 4--bit adder and a 2--to--4 decoder are implemented and simulated using these clock schemes. A 2--to--4 decoder is used to demonstrate the testing capabilities of these clock schemes. All QCA layouts are drawn and simulated in QCADesigner.
Modeling pedestrian behaviors under attracting incidents using cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Ning; Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhenbao; Feng, Guochen
2015-08-01
Compared to vehicular flow, pedestrian flow is more complicated as it is free from the restriction of the lane and more flexible. Due to the lack of modeling pedestrian behaviors under attracting incidents (incidents which attract pedestrians around to gather), this paper proposes a new cellular automata model aiming to reproduce the behaviors induced by such attracting incidents. When attracting incidents occur, the proposed model will classify pedestrians around the incidents into three groups: the "unaffected" type, the "stopped" type and the "onlooking" type. The "unaffected" type represents the pedestrians who are not interested in the attracting incidents and its dynamics are the same as that under normal circumstances which are the main target in the previous works. The "stopped" type represents the pedestrians are somewhat interested in the attracting incidents, but unwilling to move close to the venues. Its dynamics are determined by "stopped" utility which can make the pedestrians stop for a while. The "onlooking" type represents the pedestrians who show strong interest in the attracting incidents and intend to move close to the venues to gain more information. The "onlooking" pedestrians will take a series of reactions to attracting incidents, such as approaching to the venues, stopping and watching the attracting incidents, leaving the venues, which have all been considered in the proposed model. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can capture the macro-characteristics of pedestrian traffic flow under normal circumstances and possesses the fundamental characteristics of the pedestrian behaviors under attracting incidents around which a torus-shaped crowd is typically formed.
Validating Cellular Automata Lava Flow Emplacement Algorithms with Standard Benchmarks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, J. A.; Connor, L.; Charbonnier, S. J.; Connor, C.; Gallant, E.
2015-12-01
A major existing need in assessing lava flow simulators is a common set of validation benchmark tests. We propose three levels of benchmarks which test model output against increasingly complex standards. First, imulated lava flows should be morphologically identical, given changes in parameter space that should be inconsequential, such as slope direction. Second, lava flows simulated in simple parameter spaces can be tested against analytical solutions or empirical relationships seen in Bingham fluids. For instance, a lava flow simulated on a flat surface should produce a circular outline. Third, lava flows simulated over real world topography can be compared to recent real world lava flows, such as those at Tolbachik, Russia, and Fogo, Cape Verde. Success or failure of emplacement algorithms in these validation benchmarks can be determined using a Bayesian approach, which directly tests the ability of an emplacement algorithm to correctly forecast lava inundation. Here we focus on two posterior metrics, P(A|B) and P(¬A|¬B), which describe the positive and negative predictive value of flow algorithms. This is an improvement on less direct statistics such as model sensitivity and the Jaccard fitness coefficient. We have performed these validation benchmarks on a new, modular lava flow emplacement simulator that we have developed. This simulator, which we call MOLASSES, follows a Cellular Automata (CA) method. The code is developed in several interchangeable modules, which enables quick modification of the distribution algorithm from cell locations to their neighbors. By assessing several different distribution schemes with the benchmark tests, we have improved the performance of MOLASSES to correctly match early stages of the 2012-3 Tolbachik Flow, Kamchakta Russia, to 80%. We also can evaluate model performance given uncertain input parameters using a Monte Carlo setup. This illuminates sensitivity to model uncertainty.
A novel image encryption algorithm using chaos and reversible cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xingyuan; Luan, Dapeng
2013-11-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on reversible cellular automata (RCA) combining chaos. In this algorithm, an intertwining logistic map with complex behavior and periodic boundary reversible cellular automata are used. We split each pixel of image into units of 4 bits, then adopt pseudorandom key stream generated by the intertwining logistic map to permute these units in confusion stage. And in diffusion stage, two-dimensional reversible cellular automata which are discrete dynamical systems are applied to iterate many rounds to achieve diffusion on bit-level, in which we only consider the higher 4 bits in a pixel because the higher 4 bits carry almost the information of an image. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm achieves a high security level and processes good performance against common attacks like differential attack and statistical attack. This algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric systems.
Generic framework for mining cellular automata models on protein-folding simulations.
Diaz, N; Tischer, I
2016-05-13
Cellular automata model identification is an important way of building simplified simulation models. In this study, we describe a generic architectural framework to ease the development process of new metaheuristic-based algorithms for cellular automata model identification in protein-folding trajectories. Our framework was developed by a methodology based on design patterns that allow an improved experience for new algorithms development. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated by the implementation of four algorithms, able to obtain extremely precise cellular automata models of the protein-folding process with a protein contact map representation. Dynamic rules obtained by the proposed approach are discussed, and future use for the new tool is outlined.
Cellular automata model of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozelov, B. V.; Kozelova, T. V.
2003-09-01
We propose a cellular automata model (CAM) to describe the substorm activity of the magnetospheric-ionospheric system. The state of each cell in the model is described by two numbers that correspond to the energy content in a region of the current sheet in the magnetospheric tail and to the conductivity of the ionospheric domain that is magnetically connected with this region. The driving force of the system is supposed to be provided by the solar wind that is convected along the two boundaries of the system. The energy flux inside is ensured by the penetration of the energy from the solar wind into the array of cells (magnetospheric tail) with a finite velocity. The third boundary (near to the Earth) is closed and the fourth boundary is opened, thereby modeling the flux far away from the tail. The energy dissipation in the system is quite similar to other CAM models, when the energy in a particular cell exceeds some pre-defined threshold, and the part of the energy excess is redistributed between the neighbouring cells. The second number attributed to each cell mimics ionospheric conductivity that can allow for a part of the energy to be shed on field-aligned currents. The feedback between ionosphere and magnetospheric tail is provided by the change in a part of the energy, which is redistributed in the tail when the threshold is surpassed. The control parameter of the model is the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz IMF), frozen into the solar wind. To study the internal dynamics of the system at the beginning, this control parameter is taken to be constant. The dynamics of the system undergoes several bifurcations, when the constant varies from - 0.6 to - 6.0. The Bz IMF input results in the periodic transients (activation regions) and the inter-transient period decreases with the decrease of Bz. At the same time the onset of activations in the array shifts towards the Earth . When the modulus of the Bz IMF exceeds some threshold value, the
Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro
2015-10-01
After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory (see D'Ariano et al. in Found Phys, 2015), the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles (linearity, unitarity, locality, homogeneity, isotropy, and minimality of dimension), the automata theory is quantum ab-initio, and does not assume Lorentz covariance and mechanical notions. Being discrete it can describe localized states and measurements (unmanageable by quantum field theory), solving all the issues plaguing field theory originated from the continuum. These features make the theory an ideal framework for quantum gravity, with relativistic covariance and space-time emergent solely from the interactions, and not assumed a priori. The paper presents a synthetic derivation of the automata theory, showing how the principles lead to a description in terms of a quantum automaton over a Cayley graph of a group. Restricting to Abelian groups we show how the automata recover the Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some new routes about the more general scenario of non-Abelian Cayley graphs. The phenomenology arising from the automata theory in the ultra-relativistic domain and the analysis of corresponding distorted Lorentz covariance is reviewed in Bisio et al. (Found Phys 2015, in this same issue).
Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings.
Bajec, Iztok Lebar; Pečar, Primož
2012-04-16
: Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay.
Modelling of the cellular automata space deformation within the RCAFE framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitko, Mateusz; Madej, Łukasz
2016-10-01
Development of the innovative approach to micro scale cellular automata (CA) space deformation during dynamic recrystallization process (DRX) is the main goal of the present paper. Major assumptions of the developed CA DRX model as well as novel space deformation algorithm, which is based on the random cellular automata concept and FE method, are described. Algorithms and methods to transfer input/output data between FE and CA are presented in detail. Visualization tool to analyze progress of deformation in the irregular CA space is also highlighted. Finally, initial results in the form of deformed and recrystallized microstructures are presented and discussed.
A comparative analysis of electronic and molecular quantum dot cellular automata
Umamahesvari, H. E-mail: ajithavijay1@gmail.com; Ajitha, D. E-mail: ajithavijay1@gmail.com
2015-06-24
This paper presents a comparative analysis of electronic quantum-dot cellular automata (EQCA) and Magnetic quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA). QCA is a computing paradigm that encodes and processes information by the position of individual electrons. To enhance the high dense and ultra-low power devices, various researches have been actively carried out to find an alternative way to continue and follow Moore’s law, so called “beyond CMOS technology”. There have been several proposals for physically implementing QCA, EQCA and MQCA are the two important QCAs reported so far. This paper provides a comparative study on these two QCAs.
Material representations: from the genetic code to the evolution of cellular automata.
Rocha, Luis Mateus; Hordijk, Wim
2005-01-01
We present a new definition of the concept of representation for cognitive science that is based on a study of the origin of structures that are used to store memory in evolving systems. This study consists of novel computer experiments in the evolution of cellular automata to perform nontrivial tasks as well as evidence from biology concerning genetic memory. Our key observation is that representations require inert structures to encode information used to construct appropriate dynamic configurations for the evolving system. We propose criteria to decide if a given structure is a representation by unpacking the idea of inert structures that can be used as memory for arbitrary dynamic configurations. Using a genetic algorithm, we evolved cellular automata rules that can perform nontrivial tasks related to the density task (or majority classification problem) commonly used in the literature. We present the particle catalogs of the new rules following the computational mechanics framework. We discuss if the evolved cellular automata particles may be seen as representations according to our criteria. We show that while they capture some of the essential characteristics of representations, they lack an essential one. Our goal is to show that artificial life can be used to shed new light on the computation-versus-dynamics debate in cognitive science, and indeed function as a constructive bridge between the two camps. Our definitions of representation and cellular automata experiments are proposed as a complementary approach, with both dynamics and informational modes of explanation.
Simulating invasion with cellular automata: connecting cell-scale and population-scale properties.
Simpson, Matthew J; Merrifield, Alistair; Landman, Kerry A; Hughes, Barry D
2007-08-01
Interpretive and predictive tools are needed to assist in the understanding of cell invasion processes. Cell invasion involves cell motility and proliferation, and is central to many biological processes including developmental morphogenesis and tumor invasion. Experimental data can be collected across a wide range of scales, from the population scale to the individual cell scale. Standard continuum or discrete models used in isolation are insufficient to capture this wide range of data. We develop a discrete cellular automata model of invasion with experimentally motivated rules. The cellular automata algorithm is applied to a narrow two-dimensional lattice and simulations reveal the formation of invasion waves moving with constant speed. The simulation results are averaged in one dimension-these data are used to identify the time history of the leading edge to characterize the population-scale wave speed. This allows the relationship between the population-scale wave speed and the cell-scale parameters to be determined. This relationship is analogous to well-known continuum results for Fisher's equation. The cellular automata algorithm also produces individual cell trajectories within the invasion wave that are analogous to cell trajectories obtained with new experimental techniques. Our approach allows both the cell-scale and population-scale properties of invasion to be predicted in a way that is consistent with multiscale experimental data. Furthermore we suggest that the cellular automata algorithm can be used in conjunction with individual data to overcome limitations associated with identifying cell motility mechanisms using continuum models alone.
Energy dissipation dataset for reversible logic gates in quantum dot-cellular automata.
Bahar, Ali Newaz; Rahman, Mohammad Maksudur; Nahid, Nur Mohammad; Hassan, Md Kamrul
2017-02-01
This paper presents an energy dissipation dataset of different reversible logic gates in quantum-dot cellular automata. The proposed circuits have been designed and verified using QCADesigner simulator. Besides, the energy dissipation has been calculated under three different tunneling energy level at temperature T=2 K. For estimating the energy dissipation of proposed gates; QCAPro tool has been employed.
A Cellular Automata-based Model for Simulating Restitution Property in a Single Heart Cell.
Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat; Pourhasanzade, Fateme
2011-01-01
Ventricular fibrillation is the cause of the most sudden mortalities. Restitution is one of the specific properties of ventricular cell. The recent findings have clearly proved the correlation between the slope of restitution curve with ventricular fibrillation. This; therefore, mandates the modeling of cellular restitution to gain high importance. A cellular automaton is a powerful tool for simulating complex phenomena in a simple language. A cellular automaton is a lattice of cells where the behavior of each cell is determined by the behavior of its neighboring cells as well as the automata rule. In this paper, a simple model is depicted for the simulation of the property of restitution in a single cardiac cell using cellular automata. At first, two state variables; action potential and recovery are introduced in the automata model. In second, automata rule is determined and then recovery variable is defined in such a way so that the restitution is developed. In order to evaluate the proposed model, the generated restitution curve in our study is compared with the restitution curves from the experimental findings of valid sources. Our findings indicate that the presented model is not only capable of simulating restitution in cardiac cell, but also possesses the capability of regulating the restitution curve.
The preservation of riparian zones and other environmentally sensitive areas has long been recognized as one of the most cost-effective methods of managing stormwater and providing a broad range of ecosystem services. In this research, a cellular automata (CA)—Markov chain model ...
Cellular automata with object-oriented features for parallel molecular network modeling.
Zhu, Hao; Wu, Yinghui; Huang, Sui; Sun, Yan; Dhar, Pawan
2005-06-01
Cellular automata are an important modeling paradigm for studying the dynamics of large, parallel systems composed of multiple, interacting components. However, to model biological systems, cellular automata need to be extended beyond the large-scale parallelism and intensive communication in order to capture two fundamental properties characteristic of complex biological systems: hierarchy and heterogeneity. This paper proposes extensions to a cellular automata language, Cellang, to meet this purpose. The extended language, with object-oriented features, can be used to describe the structure and activity of parallel molecular networks within cells. Capabilities of this new programming language include object structure to define molecular programs within a cell, floating-point data type and mathematical functions to perform quantitative computation, message passing capability to describe molecular interactions, as well as new operators, statements, and built-in functions. We discuss relevant programming issues of these features, including the object-oriented description of molecular interactions with molecule encapsulation, message passing, and the description of heterogeneity and anisotropy at the cell and molecule levels. By enabling the integration of modeling at the molecular level with system behavior at cell, tissue, organ, or even organism levels, the program will help improve our understanding of how complex and dynamic biological activities are generated and controlled by parallel functioning of molecular networks. Index Terms-Cellular automata, modeling, molecular network, object-oriented.
Color image encryption based on hybrid hyper-chaotic system and cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaghouti Niyat, Abolfazl; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein; Niazi Torshiz, Masood
2017-03-01
This paper proposes an image encryption scheme based on Cellular Automata (CA). CA is a self-organizing structure with a set of cells in which each cell is updated by certain rules that are dependent on a limited number of neighboring cells. The major disadvantages of cellular automata in cryptography include limited number of reversal rules and inability to produce long sequences of states by these rules. In this paper, a non-uniform cellular automata framework is proposed to solve this problem. This proposed scheme consists of confusion and diffusion steps. In confusion step, the positions of the original image pixels are replaced by chaos mapping. Key image is created using non-uniform cellular automata and then the hyper-chaotic mapping is used to select random numbers from the image key for encryption. The main contribution of the paper is the application of hyper chaotic functions and non-uniform CA for robust key image generation. Security analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method has a very large key space and is resistive against noise and attacks. The correlation between adjacent pixels in the encrypted image is reduced and the amount of entropy is equal to 7.9991 which is very close to 8 which is ideal.
Simulation of the 1992 Tessina landslide by a cellular automata model and future hazard scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avolio, MV; Di Gregorio, Salvatore; Mantovani, Franco; Pasuto, Alessandro; Rongo, Rocco; Silvano, Sandro; Spataro, William
Cellular Automata are a powerful tool for modelling natural and artificial systems, which can be described in terms of local interactions of their constituent parts. Some types of landslides, such as debris/mud flows, match these requirements. The 1992 Tessina landslide has characteristics (slow mud flows) which make it appropriate for modelling by means of Cellular Automata, except for the initial phase of detachment, which is caused by a rotational movement that has no effect on the mud flow path. This paper presents the Cellular Automata approach for modelling slow mud/debris flows, the results of simulation of the 1992 Tessina landslide and future hazard scenarios based on the volumes of masses that could be mobilised in the future. They were obtained by adapting the Cellular Automata Model called SCIDDICA, which has been validated for very fast landslides. SCIDDICA was applied by modifying the general model to the peculiarities of the Tessina landslide. The simulations obtained by this initial model were satisfactory for forecasting the surface covered by mud. Calibration of the model, which was obtained from simulation of the 1992 event, was used for forecasting flow expansion during possible future reactivation. For this purpose two simulations concerning the collapse of about 1 million m 3 of material were tested. In one of these, the presence of a containment wall built in 1992 for the protection of the Tarcogna hamlet was inserted. The results obtained identified the conditions of high risk affecting the villages of Funes and Lamosano and show that this Cellular Automata approach can have a wide range of applications for different types of mud/debris flows.
An authenticated image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps and memory cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakhshandeh, Atieh; Eslami, Ziba
2013-06-01
This paper introduces a new image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps, cellular automata and permutation-diffusion architecture. In the permutation phase, a piecewise linear chaotic map is utilized to confuse the plain-image and in the diffusion phase, we employ the Logistic map as well as a reversible memory cellular automata to obtain an efficient and secure cryptosystem. The proposed method admits advantages such as highly secure diffusion mechanism, computational efficiency and ease of implementation. A novel property of the proposed scheme is its authentication ability which can detect whether the image is tampered during the transmission or not. This is particularly important in applications where image data or part of it contains highly sensitive information. Results of various analyses manifest high security of this new method and its capability for practical image encryption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi-Lang; Wong, S. C.; Min, Jie; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Bing-Hong
2016-08-01
This study examines the cellular automata traffic flow model, which considers the heterogeneity of vehicle acceleration and the delay probability of vehicles. Computer simulations are used to identify three typical phases in the model: free-flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving traffic jam. In the synchronized flow region of the fundamental diagram, the low and high velocity vehicles compete with each other and play an important role in the evolution of the system. The analysis shows that there are two types of bistable phases. However, in the original Nagel and Schreckenberg cellular automata traffic model, there are only two kinds of traffic conditions, namely, free-flow and traffic jams. The synchronized flow phase and bistable phase have not been found.
Nishawala, Vinesh V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Leamy, Michael J.; Demmie, Paul N.
2015-09-10
Peridynamics is a non-local continuum mechanics formulation that can handle spatial discontinuities as the governing equations are integro-differential equations which do not involve gradients such as strains and deformation rates. This paper employs bond-based peridynamics. Cellular Automata is a local computational method which, in its rectangular variant on interior domains, is mathematically equivalent to the central difference finite difference method. However, cellular automata does not require the derivation of the governing partial differential equations and provides for common boundary conditions based on physical reasoning. Both methodologies are used to solve a half-space subjected to a normal load, known as Lamb’s Problem. The results are compared with theoretical solution from classical elasticity and experimental results. Furthermore, this paper is used to validate our implementation of these methods.
Modeling of urban growth using cellular automata (CA) optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalilnia, M. H.; Ghaemirad, T.; Abbaspour, R. A.
2013-09-01
In this paper, two satellite images of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, which were taken by TM and ETM+ for years 1988 and 2010 are used as the base information layers to study the changes in urban patterns of this metropolis. The patterns of urban growth for the city of Tehran are extracted in a period of twelve years using cellular automata setting the logistic regression functions as transition functions. Furthermore, the weighting coefficients of parameters affecting the urban growth, i.e. distance from urban centers, distance from rural centers, distance from agricultural centers, and neighborhood effects were selected using PSO. In order to evaluate the results of the prediction, the percent correct match index is calculated. According to the results, by combining optimization techniques with cellular automata model, the urban growth patterns can be predicted with accuracy up to 75 %.
Nishawala, Vinesh V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Leamy, Michael J.; ...
2015-09-10
Peridynamics is a non-local continuum mechanics formulation that can handle spatial discontinuities as the governing equations are integro-differential equations which do not involve gradients such as strains and deformation rates. This paper employs bond-based peridynamics. Cellular Automata is a local computational method which, in its rectangular variant on interior domains, is mathematically equivalent to the central difference finite difference method. However, cellular automata does not require the derivation of the governing partial differential equations and provides for common boundary conditions based on physical reasoning. Both methodologies are used to solve a half-space subjected to a normal load, known as Lamb’smore » Problem. The results are compared with theoretical solution from classical elasticity and experimental results. Furthermore, this paper is used to validate our implementation of these methods.« less
From QCA (Quantum Cellular Automata) to Organocatalytic Reactions with Stabilized Carbenium Ions.
Gualandi, Andrea; Mengozzi, Luca; Manoni, Elisabetta; Giorgio Cozzi, Pier
2016-06-01
What do quantum cellular automata (QCA), "on water" reactions, and SN 1-type organocatalytic transformations have in common? The link between these distant arguments is the practical access to useful intermediates and key products through the use of stabilized carbenium ions. Over 10 years, starting with a carbenium ion bearing a ferrocenyl group, to the 1,3-benzodithiolylium carbenium ion, our group has exploited the use of these intermediates in useful and practical synthetic transformations. In particular, we have applied the use of carbenium ions to stereoselective organocatalytic alkylation reactions, showing a possible solution for the "holy grail of organocatalysis". Examples of the use of these quite stabilized intermediates are now also considered in organometallic chemistry. On the other hand, the stable carbenium ions are also applied to tailored molecules adapted to quantum cellular automata, a new possible paradigm for computation. Carbenium ions are not a problem, they can be a/the solution!
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Sheng; Qu, Xiaobo; Xu, Cheng; Ma, Dongfang; Wang, Dianhai
2015-10-01
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model.
A cellular automata model of traffic flow with variable probability of randomization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Wei-Fan; Zhang, Ji-Ye
2015-05-01
Research on the stochastic behavior of traffic flow is important to understand the intrinsic evolution rules of a traffic system. By introducing an interactional potential of vehicles into the randomization step, an improved cellular automata traffic flow model with variable probability of randomization is proposed in this paper. In the proposed model, the driver is affected by the interactional potential of vehicles before him, and his decision-making process is related to the interactional potential. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the modeling is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process based on the vehicle and traffic situations in front of him in actual traffic. From the improved model, the fundamental diagram (flow-density relationship) is obtained, and the detailed high-density traffic phenomenon is reproduced through numerical simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172247, 61273021, 61373009, and 61100118).
CarboCAT: A cellular automata model of heterogeneous carbonate strata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, Peter M.
2013-04-01
CarboCAT is a new numerical model of carbonate deposystems that uses a cellular automata to calculate lithofacies spatial distributions and hence to calculate the accumulation of heterogeneous carbonate strata in three dimensions. CarboCAT includes various geological processes, including tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea-level oscillations, water depth-dependent carbonate production rates in multiple carbonate factories, lateral migration of carbonate lithofacies bodies, and a simple representation of sediment transport. Results from the model show stratigraphically interesting phenomena such as heterogeneous strata with complex stacking patterns, laterally discontinuous subaerial exposure surfaces, nonexponential lithofacies thickness distributions, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions whereby small changes in the model initial conditions have a large effect on the final model outcome. More work is required to fully assess CarboCAT, but these initial results suggest that a cellular automata approach to modeling carbonate strata is likely to be a useful tool for investigating the nature and origins of heterogeneity in carbonate strata.
Chaos of elementary cellular automata rule 42 of Wolfram's class II.
Chen, Fang-Yue; Jin, Wei-Feng; Chen, Guan-Rong; Chen, Fang-Fang; Chen, Lin
2009-03-01
In this paper, the dynamics of elementary cellular automata rule 42 is investigated in the bi-infinite symbolic sequence space. Rule 42, a member of Wolfram's class II which was said to be simply as periodic before, actually defines a chaotic global attractor; that is, rule 42 is topologically mixing on its global attractor and possesses the positive topological entropy. Therefore, rule 42 is chaotic in the sense of both Li-Yorke and Devaney. Meanwhile, the characteristic function and the basin tree diagram of rule 42 are explored for some finite length of binary strings, which reveal its Bernoulli characteristics. The method presented in this work is also applicable to studying the dynamics of other rules, especially the 112 Bernoulli-shift rules of the elementary cellular automata.
Efficient process development for bulk silicon etching using cellular automata simulation techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchetti, James; He, Yie; Than, Olaf; Akkaraju, Sandeep
1998-09-01
This paper describes cellular automata simulation techniques used to predict the anisotropic etching of single-crystal silicon. In particular, this paper will focus on the application of wet etching of silicon wafers using typical anisotropic etchants such as KOH, TMAH, and EDP. Achieving a desired final 3D geometry of etch silicon wafers often is difficult without requiring a number of fabrication design iterations. The result is wasted time and resources. AnisE, a tool to simulate anisotropic etching of silicon wafers using cellular automata simulation, was developed in order to efficiently prototype and manufacture MEMS devices. AnisE has been shown to effectively decrease device development time and costs by up to 50% and 60%, respectively.
Stability of Cellular Automata Trajectories Revisited: Branching Walks and Lyapunov Profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baetens, Jan M.; Gravner, Janko
2016-10-01
We study non-equilibrium defect accumulation dynamics on a cellular automaton trajectory: a branching walk process in which a defect creates a successor on any neighborhood site whose update it affects. On an infinite lattice, defects accumulate at different exponential rates in different directions, giving rise to the Lyapunov profile. This profile quantifies instability of a cellular automaton evolution and is connected to the theory of large deviations. We rigorously and empirically study Lyapunov profiles generated from random initial states. We also introduce explicit and computationally feasible variational methods to compute the Lyapunov profiles for periodic configurations, thus developing an analog of Floquet theory for cellular automata.
a Predator-Prey Model Based on the Fully Parallel Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Mingfeng; Ruan, Hongbo; Yu, Changliang
We presented a predator-prey lattice model containing moveable wolves and sheep, which are characterized by Penna double bit strings. Sexual reproduction and child-care strategies are considered. To implement this model in an efficient way, we build a fully parallel Cellular Automata based on a new definition of the neighborhood. We show the roles played by the initial densities of the populations, the mutation rate and the linear size of the lattice in the evolution of this model.
Characterization of one-dimensional cellular automata rules through topological network features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Alotto, Lou; Pizzuti, Clara
2016-10-01
The paper investigates the relationship between the classification schemes, defined by Wolfram and Gilman, of one-dimensional cellular automata through concepts coming from network theory. An automaton is represented with a network, generated from the elementary rule defining its behavior. Characteristic features of this graph are computed and machine learning classification models are built. Such models allow to classify automaton rules and to compare Wolfram's and Gilman's classes by comparing the classes predicted by these models.
Ship interaction in narrow water channels: A two-lane cellular automata approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhuo; Chen, Zhonglong; Hu, Hongtao; Zheng, Jianfeng
2015-08-01
In narrow waterways, closed ships might interact due to hydrodynamic forces. To avoid clashes, different lane-changing rules are required. In this paper, a two-lane cellular automata model is proposed to investigate the traffic flow patterns in narrow water channels. Numerical experiments show that ship interaction can form "lumps" in traffic flow which will significantly depress the flux. We suggest that the lane-changing frequency of fast ships should be limited.
An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez
2015-05-01
A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.
Excellent approach to modeling urban expansion by fuzzy cellular automata: agent base model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khajavigodellou, Yousef; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Mohammed, Abdulrazak A. S.; Chapi, Kamran
2014-09-01
Recently, the interaction between humans and their environment is the one of important challenges in the world. Landuse/ cover change (LUCC) is a complex process that includes actors and factors at different social and spatial levels. The complexity and dynamics of urban systems make the applicable practice of urban modeling very difficult. With the increased computational power and the greater availability of spatial data, micro-simulation such as the agent based and cellular automata simulation methods, has been developed by geographers, planners, and scholars, and it has shown great potential for representing and simulating the complexity of the dynamic processes involved in urban growth and land use change. This paper presents Fuzzy Cellular Automata in Geospatial Information System and remote Sensing to simulated and predicted urban expansion pattern. These FCA-based dynamic spatial urban models provide an improved ability to forecast and assess future urban growth and to create planning scenarios, allowing us to explore the potential impacts of simulations that correspond to urban planning and management policies. A fuzzy inference guided cellular automata approach. Semantic or linguistic knowledge on Land use change is expressed as fuzzy rules, based on which fuzzy inference is applied to determine the urban development potential for each pixel. The model integrates an ABM (agent-based model) and FCA (Fuzzy Cellular Automata) to investigate a complex decision-making process and future urban dynamic processes. Based on this model rapid development and green land protection under the influences of the behaviors and decision modes of regional authority agents, real estate developer agents, resident agents and non- resident agents and their interactions have been applied to predict the future development patterns of the Erbil metropolitan region.
A Conceptual Data Model for Flood Based on Cellular Automata Using Moving Object Data Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rachmatullah, R. S.; Azizah, F. N.
2017-01-01
Flood is considered as the costliest natural disaster in Indonesia due to its frequent occurrences as well as the extensive damage that it causes. Several studies provide different flood prediction models based on various hydrological factors. A lot of these models use grid-to-grid approach, making them suitable to be modelled as cellular automata. This paper presents a conceptual data model for flood based on cellular automata model using spatio-temporal data model, especially the moving object data model, as the modelling approach. The conceptual data model serves as the model of data structures within an environment for flood prediction simulation. We describe two conceptual data models as the alternatives to model the data structures of flood model. We create the data model based on the study to the factors that constitute the flood models. The first conceptual data model alternative focuses on the cell/grid as the main entity type. The changes of the states of the cells are stored as moving integer. The second alternative emphasizes on flood as the main entity type. The changes of the flood area are stored as moving region. Both alternatives introduce some advantages and disadvantages and the choice rely on the purpose of the use of the data model. We present a proposal of the architecture of a flood prediction system using cellular automata as the modelling approach. As the continuation of this work, further design and implementation details must be provided.
Vaca-González, J J; Gutiérrez, M L; Guevara, J M; Garzón-Alvarado, D A
2016-01-07
Articular cartilage is characterized by low cell density of only one cell type, chondrocytes, and has limited self-healing properties. When articular cartilage is affected by traumatic injuries, a therapeutic strategy such as autologous chondrocyte implantation is usually proposed for its treatment. This approach requires in vitro chondrocyte expansion to yield high cell number for cell transplantation. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, it is necessary to assess cell dynamics such as migration, proliferation and cell death during culture. Computational models such as cellular automata can be used to simulate cell dynamics in order to enhance the result of cell culture procedures. This methodology has been implemented for several cell types; however, an experimental validation is required for each one. For this reason, in this research a cellular automata model, based on random-walk theory, was devised in order to predict articular chondrocyte behavior in monolayer culture during cell expansion. Results demonstrated that the cellular automata model corresponded to cell dynamics and computed-accurate quantitative results. Moreover, it was possible to observe that cell dynamics depend on weighted probabilities derived from experimental data and cell behavior varies according to the cell culture period. Thus, depending on whether cells were just seeded or proliferated exponentially, culture time probabilities differed in percentages in the CA model. Furthermore, in the experimental assessment a decreased chondrocyte proliferation was observed along with increased passage number. This approach is expected to having other uses as in enhancing articular cartilage therapies based on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
On the derivation of approximations to cellular automata models and the assumption of independence.
Davies, K J; Green, J E F; Bean, N G; Binder, B J; Ross, J V
2014-07-01
Cellular automata are discrete agent-based models, generally used in cell-based applications. There is much interest in obtaining continuum models that describe the mean behaviour of the agents in these models. Previously, continuum models have been derived for agents undergoing motility and proliferation processes, however, these models only hold under restricted conditions. In order to narrow down the reason for these restrictions, we explore three possible sources of error in deriving the model. These sources are the choice of limiting arguments, the use of a discrete-time model as opposed to a continuous-time model and the assumption of independence between the state of sites. We present a rigorous analysis in order to gain a greater understanding of the significance of these three issues. By finding a limiting regime that accurately approximates the conservation equation for the cellular automata, we are able to conclude that the inaccuracy between our approximation and the cellular automata is completely based on the assumption of independence.
Synchronization, TIGoRS, and Information Flow in Complex Systems: Dispositional Cellular Automata.
Sulis, William H
2016-04-01
Synchronization has a long history in physics where it refers to the phase matching of two identical oscillators. This notion has been extensively studied in physics as well as in biology, where it has been applied to such widely varying phenomena as the flashing of fireflies and firing of neurons in the brain. Human behavior, however, may be recurrent but it is not oscillatory even though many physiological systems do exhibit oscillatory tendencies. Moreover, much of human behaviour is collaborative and cooperative, where the individual behaviours may be distinct yet contemporaneous (if not simultaneous) and taken collectively express some functionality. In the context of behaviour, the important aspect is the repeated co-occurrence in time of behaviours that facilitate the propagation of information or of functionality, regardless of whether or not these behaviours are similar or identical. An example of this weaker notion of synchronization is transient induced global response synchronization (TIGoRS). Previous work has shown that TIGoRS is a ubiquitous phenomenon among complex systems, enabling them to stably parse environmental transients into salient units to which they stably respond. This leads to the notion of Sulis machines, which emergently generate a primitive linguistic structure through their dynamics. This article reviews the notion of TIGoRS and its expression in several complex systems models including tempered neural networks, driven cellular automata and cocktail party automata. The emergent linguistics of Sulis machines are discussed. A new class of complex systems model, the dispositional cellular automaton is introduced. A new metric for TIGoRS, the excess synchronization, is introduced and applied to the study of TIGoRS in dispositional cellular automata. It is shown that these automata exhibit a nonlinear synchronization response to certain perturbing transients.
2014-01-01
Background The spread of an infectious disease is determined by biological and social factors. Models based on cellular automata are adequate to describe such natural systems consisting of a massive collection of simple interacting objects. They characterize the time evolution of the global system as the emergent behaviour resulting from the interaction of the objects, whose behaviour is defined through a set of simple rules that encode the individual behaviour and the transmission dynamic. Methods An epidemic is characterized trough an individual–based–model built upon cellular automata. In the proposed model, each individual of the population is represented by a cell of the automata. This way of modeling an epidemic situation allows to individually define the characteristic of each individual, establish different scenarios and implement control strategies. Results A cellular automata model to study the time evolution of a heterogeneous populations through the various stages of disease was proposed, allowing the inclusion of individual heterogeneity, geographical characteristics and social factors that determine the dynamic of the desease. Different assumptions made to built the classical model were evaluated, leading to following results: i) for low contact rate (like in quarantine process or low density population areas) the number of infective individuals is lower than other areas where the contact rate is higher, and ii) for different initial spacial distributions of infected individuals different epidemic dynamics are obtained due to its influence on the transition rate and the reproductive ratio of disease. Conclusions The contact rate and spatial distributions have a central role in the spread of a disease. For low density populations the spread is very low and the number of infected individuals is lower than in highly populated areas. The spacial distribution of the population and the disease focus as well as the geographical characteristic of the area
Image Segmentation Based on Learning Cellular Automata Using Soft Computing Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Debasis; Ray, Abhishek
2010-10-01
Image Segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. The goal of segmentation is to simplify and change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. A Cellular Automata (CA) is a computing model of complex system using simple rule. It divides the problem space into number of cells and each cell can be in one or several final states. Cells are affected by its neighbor's to the simple rule. Learning Cellular Automata (LCA) is a variant of automata that interact with random environment having as goal to improve its behavior. This paper proposes an image segmentation technique based on LCA using soft computing approach. This proposed method works in two steps, the first step is called as soft segmentation where the input image(s) is/are analyzed through LCA and the second step is called as soft computing approach where the analyzed image is segmented through fuzzy C-means algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javaheri Javid, Mohammad Ali; Blackwell, Tim; Zimmer, Robert; Majid al-Rifaie, Mohammad
2016-04-01
Shannon entropy fails to discriminate structurally different patterns in two-dimensional images. We have adapted information gain measure and Kolmogorov complexity to overcome the shortcomings of entropy as a measure of image structure. The measures are customised to robustly quantify the complexity of images resulting from multi-state cellular automata (CA). Experiments with a two-dimensional multi-state cellular automaton demonstrate that these measures are able to predict some of the structural characteristics, symmetry and orientation of CA generated patterns.
Cellular-automata model of oxygen plasma impact on porous low-K dielectric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezvanov, Askar; Matyushkin, Igor V.; Gutshin, Oleg P.; Gornev, Evgeny S.
2016-12-01
Cellular-automata model of oxygen plasma influence on the integral properties of porous low-K dielectric is studied. The present work investigates the imitative simulation of this process. In our model we consider one isolated pore, which is simulated by cylinder with length L=200 nm and radius 1 nm ignoring the curvature factor. The simulation was performed for 2 million automata steps that correspond to 2 seconds in the real process time. Extrapolating the data to the longer time shows that more and more •CH3 groups will be replaced by the •OH groups, and over time almost all methyl groups will leave the pore surface (there is not more than 20% of the initial methyl groups amount on the first low-K dielectric 40nm after 2 seconds simulation).
Limit measures for affine cellular automata on topological Markov subgroups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maass, Alejandro; Martínez, Servet; Sobottka, Marcelo
2006-09-01
Consider a topological Markov subgroup which is ps-torsion (with p prime) and an affine cellular automaton defined on it. We show that the Cesàro mean of the iterates, by the automaton of a probability measure with complete connections and summable memory decay that is compatible with the topological Markov subgroup, converges to the Haar measure.
Spectral representations and global maps of cellular automata dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raptis, Theophanes E.
2016-10-01
We present a spectral representation of any computation performed by a Cellular Automaton (CA) of arbitrary topology and dimensionality via an appropriate coding scheme in Fourier space that can be implemented in an analog machine ideally circumventing part of the overall waste heat production. We explore further consequences of this encoding and we provide a simple example based on the Game-of-Life where we find global maps for small lattices indicating an interesting underlying recursive structure.
A cellular automata model of Ebola virus dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhead, Emily; Hawkins, Jane
2015-11-01
We construct a stochastic cellular automaton (SCA) model for the spread of the Ebola virus (EBOV). We make substantial modifications to an existing SCA model used for HIV, introduced by others and studied by the authors. We give a rigorous analysis of the similarities between models due to the spread of virus and the typical immune response to it, and the differences which reflect the drastically different timing of the course of EBOV. We demonstrate output from the model and compare it with clinical data.
Classifying elementary cellular automata using compressibility, diversity and sensitivity measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ninagawa, Shigeru; Adamatzky, Andrew
2014-10-01
An elementary cellular automaton (ECA) is a one-dimensional, synchronous, binary automaton, where each cell update depends on its own state and states of its two closest neighbors. We attempt to uncover correlations between the following measures of ECA behavior: compressibility, sensitivity and diversity. The compressibility of ECA configurations is calculated using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) compression algorithm LZ78. The sensitivity of ECA rules to initial conditions and perturbations is evaluated using Derrida coefficients. The generative morphological diversity shows how many different neighborhood states are produced from a single nonquiescent cell. We found no significant correlation between sensitivity and compressibility. There is a substantial correlation between generative diversity and compressibility. Using sensitivity, compressibility and diversity, we uncover and characterize novel groupings of rules.
Cellular automata model based on GIS and urban sprawl dynamics simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Fengyun; Zhang, Zengxiang
2005-10-01
The simulation of land use change process needs the support of Geographical Information System (GIS) and other relative technologies. While the present commercial GIS lack capabilities of distribution, prediction, and simulation of spatial-temporal data. Cellular automata (CA) provide dynamically modeling "from bottom-to-top" framework and posses the capability of modeling spatial-temporal evolvement process of a complicated geographical system, which is composed of a fourfold: cells, states, neighbors and rules. The simplicity and flexibility make CA have the ability to simulate a variety of behaviors of complex systems. One of the most potentially useful applications of cellular automata from the point of view of spatial planning is their use in simulations of urban sprawl at local and regional level. The paper firstly introduces the principles and characters of the cellular automata, and then discusses three methods of the integration of CA and GIS. The paper analyses from a practical point of view the factors that effect urban activities in the science of spatial decision-making. The status of using CA to dynamic simulates of urban expansion at home and abroad is analyzed. Finally, the problems and tendencies that exist in the application of CA model are detailed discussed, such as the quality of the data that the CA needs, the self-organization of the CA roots in the mutual function among the elements of the system, the partition of the space scale, the time calibration of the CA and the integration of the CA with other modular such as artificial nerve net modular and population modular etc.
Symbolic Computation Using Cellular Automata-Based Hyperdimensional Computing.
Yilmaz, Ozgur
2015-12-01
This letter introduces a novel framework of reservoir computing that is capable of both connectionist machine intelligence and symbolic computation. A cellular automaton is used as the reservoir of dynamical systems. Input is randomly projected onto the initial conditions of automaton cells, and nonlinear computation is performed on the input via application of a rule in the automaton for a period of time. The evolution of the automaton creates a space-time volume of the automaton state space, and it is used as the reservoir. The proposed framework is shown to be capable of long-term memory, and it requires orders of magnitude less computation compared to echo state networks. As the focus of the letter, we suggest that binary reservoir feature vectors can be combined using Boolean operations as in hyperdimensional computing, paving a direct way for concept building and symbolic processing. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed system, we make analogies directly on image data by asking, What is the automobile of air?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitsa, Despoina; Vardakis, George; Danikas, Michael G.; Kozako, Masahiro
2010-03-01
In this paper the propagation of electrical treeing in nanodielectrics using the DIMET (Dielectric Inhomogeneity Model for Electrical Treeing) is studied. The DIMET is a model which simulates the growth of electrical treeing based on theory of Cellular Automata. Epoxy/glass nanocomposites are used as samples between a needle-plane electrode arrangement. The diameter of nanofillers is 100 nm. The electric treeing, which starts from the needle electrode, is examined. The treeing growth seems to be stopped by the nanofillers. The latter act as elementary barriers to the treeing propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enayatifar, Rasul; Sadaei, Hossein Javedani; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Lee, Malrey; Isnin, Ismail Fauzi
2015-08-01
Currently, there are many studies have conducted on developing security of the digital image in order to protect such data while they are sending on the internet. This work aims to propose a new approach based on a hybrid model of the Tinkerbell chaotic map, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellular automata (CA). DNA rules, DNA sequence XOR operator and CA rules are used simultaneously to encrypt the plain-image pixels. To determine rule number in DNA sequence and also CA, a 2-dimension Tinkerbell chaotic map is employed. Experimental results and computer simulations, both confirm that the proposed scheme not only demonstrates outstanding encryption, but also resists various typical attacks.
The Design of Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, C. Duane; Humphreys, William M.; Fijany, Amir
2002-01-01
As transistor geometries are reduced, quantum effects begin to dominate device performance. At some point, transistors cease to have the properties that make them useful computational components. New computing elements must be developed in order to keep pace with Moore s Law. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) represent an alternative paradigm to transistor-based logic. QCA architectures that are robust to manufacturing tolerances and defects must be developed. We are developing software that allows the exploration of fault tolerant QCA gate architectures by automating the specification, simulation, analysis and documentation processes.
The Development of Design Tools for Fault Tolerant Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, Curtis D.; Humphreys, William M.
2003-01-01
We are developing software to explore the fault tolerance of quantum dot cellular automata gate architectures in the presence of manufacturing variations and device defects. The Topology Optimization Methodology using Applied Statistics (TOMAS) framework extends the capabilities of the A Quantum Interconnected Network Array Simulator (AQUINAS) by adding front-end and back-end software and creating an environment that integrates all of these components. The front-end tools establish all simulation parameters, configure the simulation system, automate the Monte Carlo generation of simulation files, and execute the simulation of these files. The back-end tools perform automated data parsing, statistical analysis and report generation.
Cellular Automata as a Computational Model for Low-Level Vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broggi, Alberto; D'Andrea, Vincenzo; Destri, Giulio
In this paper we discuss the use of the Cellular Automata (CA) computational model in computer vision applications on massively parallel architectures. Motivations and guidelines of this approach to low-level vision in the frame of the PROMETHEUS project are discussed. The hard real-time requirement of actual application can be only satisfied using an ad hoc VLSI massively parallel architecture (PAPRICA). The hardware solutions and the specific algorithms can be efficiently verified and tested only using, as a simulator, a general purpose machine with a parent architecture (CM-2). An example of application related to feature extraction is discussed.
A New Cellular Automata Model Considering Finite Deceleration and Braking Distance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamg, Meng-Long; Liu, Yi-Guang; You, Zhi-Sheng
2007-10-01
We present a new cellular automata model for one-lane traffic flow. In this model, we consider the driver prejudgment according to the state of the leading car. We also consider that the vehicle deceleration capability is finite and the braking distance of the high-speed running cars cannot be ignored, which is not considered in most models. Furthermore, comfortable driving is considered, too. Using computer simulations we obtain some basic qualitative results and the fundamental diagram of the proposed model. In comparison with the known models, we find that the fundamental diagram of the proposed model is more realistic than that of the known models.
Stochastic modeling for dynamics of HIV-1 infection using cellular automata: A review.
Precharattana, Monamorn
2016-02-01
Recently, the description of immune response by discrete models has emerged to play an important role to study the problems in the area of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, leading to AIDS. As infection of target immune cells by HIV-1 mainly takes place in the lymphoid tissue, cellular automata (CA) models thus represent a significant step in understanding when the infected population is dispersed. Motivated by these, the studies of the dynamics of HIV-1 infection using CA in memory have been presented to recognize how CA have been developed for HIV-1 dynamics, which issues have been studied already and which issues still are objectives in future studies.
Hologram authentication based on a secure watermarking algorithm using cellular automata.
Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chan, Hao-Tang; Cheng, Chau-Jern
2014-09-20
A secure watermarking algorithm for hologram authentication is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the noise-like feature of holograms to randomly embed a watermark in the domain of the discrete cosine transform with marginal degradation in transparency. The pseudo random number (PRN) generators based on a cellular automata algorithm with asymmetrical and nonlocal connections are used for the random hiding. Each client has its own unique PRN generators for enhancing the watermark security. In the proposed algorithm, watermarks are also randomly generated to eliminate the requirements of prestoring watermarks in the clients and servers. An authentication scheme is then proposed for the algorithm with random watermark generation and hiding.
Open boundaries in a cellular automata model for synchronized flow: effects of nonmonotonicity.
Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song
2003-08-01
In this paper, we have discussed the traffic situations arising from the open boundary conditions (OBC) of a cellular automata model that can reproduce the synchronized flow. The model is different from the slow-to-start (STS) model in that the upper branch of the fundamental diagram in the periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is not monotonous but has an extremum. The phase diagram and the fundamental diagram of the model in the OBC are investigated. The results are compared with those of the STS model and those in the PBC. The current in the OBC as well as the density profiles in the different phases is also investigated.
Simple and Flexible Self-Reproducing Structures in Asynchronous Cellular Automata and Their Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xin; Lee, Jia; Yang, Rui-Long; Zhu, Qing-Sheng
2013-03-01
Self-reproduction on asynchronous cellular automata (ACAs) has attracted wide attention due to the evident artifacts induced by synchronous updating. Asynchronous updating, which allows cells to undergo transitions independently at random times, might be more compatible with the natural processes occurring at micro-scale, but the dark side of the coin is the increment in the complexity of an ACA in order to accomplish stable self-reproduction. This paper proposes a novel model of self-timed cellular automata (STCAs), a special type of ACAs, where unsheathed loops are able to duplicate themselves reliably in parallel. The removal of sheath cannot only allow various loops with more flexible and compact structures to replicate themselves, but also reduce the number of cell states of the STCA as compared to the previous model adopting sheathed loops [Y. Takada, T. Isokawa, F. Peper and N. Matsui, Physica D227, 26 (2007)]. The lack of sheath, on the other hand, often tends to cause much more complicated interactions among loops, when all of them struggle independently to stretch out their constructing arms at the same time. In particular, such intense collisions may even cause the emergence of a mess of twisted constructing arms in the cellular space. By using a simple and natural method, our self-reproducing loops (SRLs) are able to retract their arms successively, thereby disentangling from the mess successfully.
Nakajima, Kohei; Haruna, Taichi
2011-09-01
In this paper, we propose a new class of cellular automata based on the modification of its state space. It is introduced to model a computation which is exposed to an environment. We formalized the computation as extension and projection processes of its state space and resulting misidentifications of the state. This is motivated to embed the role of an environment into the system itself, which naturally induces self-organized internal perturbations rather than the usual external perturbations. Implementing this structure into the elementary cellular automata, we characterized its effect by means of input entropy and power spectral analysis. As a result, the cellular automata with this structure showed robust class IV behavior and a 1/f power spectrum in a wide range of rule space comparative to the notion of the edge of chaos.
Shim, Jae Wan; Gatignol, Renée
2010-04-01
We show that the heat exchange between fluid particles and boundary walls can be achieved by controlling the velocity change rate following the particles' collision with a wall in discrete kinetic theory, such as the lattice-gas cellular automata and the lattice Boltzmann method. We derive a relation between the velocity change rate and temperature so that we can control the velocity change rate according to a given temperature boundary condition. This relation enables us to deal with the thermal boundary whose temperature varies along a wall in contrast to the previous works of the lattice-gas cellular automata. In addition, we present simulation results to compare our method to the existing and give an example in a microchannel with a high temperature gradient boundary condition by the lattice-gas cellular automata.
Konovalenko, Igor S. Smolin, Alexey Yu. Konovalenko, Ivan S.; Promakhov, Vladimir V.; Psakhie, Sergey G.
2014-11-14
Movable cellular automaton method was used for investigating the mechanical behavior of ceramic composites under uniaxial compression. A 2D numerical model of ceramic composites based on oxides of zirconium and aluminum with different structural parameters was developed using the SEM images of micro-sections of a real composite. The influence of such structural parameters as the geometrical dimensions of layers, inclusions, and their spatial distribution in the sample, the volume content of the composite components and their mechanical properties (as well as the amount of zirconium dioxide that underwent the phase transformation) on the fracture, strength, deformation and dissipative properties was investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avolio, M. V.; Crisci, G. M.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Iovine, G.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.
Cellular Automata (CA) are able to capture the peculiar characteristics of systems, whose global evolution can be exclusively described on the basis of local interactions among their constituent parts ("a-centrism"). Such systems match the paradigm of parallelism with the a-centrism one. In modelling complex phenomena by means of classical CA, elementary automata characterised by few states and simple transition function have usually been involved. On the other hand, many complex macroscopic phenomena (even though characterised by properties of parallelism and a-centrism) can be very difficult to be modelled through classical CA, because of their hetero- geneous characteristics, which require a very large number of states. For such cases, which perfectly fit the general definition of CA, more complex transition rules (differ- ing from typical transition functions) would be, in fact, needed. Aiming at modelling these latter phenomena, an empirical method has been developed, based on the decom- position of the phenomenon into "elementary" components, whose behaviour can be described through local rules. Furthermore, criteria and conditions have been defined, in order to translate the local rules into a transition function, as needed for perform- ing cellular automata simulations. Applications of CA models to real cases of study have recently been attempted: landslides (earth flows, rock avalanches, debris flows), lava flows, soil erosion, soil contamination and bioremediation, forest fires have all been analysed through CA simulations, and encouraging results have been obtained. In the present paper, examples of application of the method for hazard evaluation are described, with particular reference to the Sarno 1998 debris flows and the Etna 2001 lava flows.
Awazu, Akinori
2008-07-01
Dynamical aspects of the asymmetric cellular automata were investigated to consider the signaling processes in biological systems. As a meta-model of the cascade of feed-forward loop type network motifs in biological reaction networks, we consider the one dimensional asymmetric cellular automata where the state of each cell is controlled by a trio of cells, the cell itself, the nearest upstream cell and the next nearest upstream cell. Through the systematic simulations, some novel input-dependent wave propagations were found in certain asymmetric CA, which may be useful for the signaling processes like the distinction, the filtering and the memory of external stimuli.
Calibrating Cellular Automata of Land Use/cover Change Models Using a Genetic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mas, J. F.; Soares-Filho, B.; Rodrigues, H.
2015-08-01
Spatially explicit land use / land cover (LUCC) models aim at simulating the patterns of change on the landscape. In order to simulate landscape structure, the simulation procedures of most computational LUCC models use a cellular automata to replicate the land use / cover patches. Generally, model evaluation is based on assessing the location of the simulated changes in comparison to the true locations but landscapes metrics can also be used to assess landscape structure. As model complexity increases, the need to improve calibration and assessment techniques also increases. In this study, we applied a genetic algorithm tool to optimize cellular automata's parameters to simulate deforestation in a region of the Brazilian Amazon. We found that the genetic algorithm was able to calibrate the model to simulate more realistic landscape in term of connectivity. Results show also that more realistic simulated landscapes are often obtained at the expense of the location coincidence. However, when considering processes such as the fragmentation impacts on biodiversity, the simulation of more realistic landscape structure should be preferred to spatial coincidence performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiao; Zheng, Wei-Fan; Jiang, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Ye
2016-10-01
With the development of traffic systems, some issues such as traffic jams become more and more serious. Efficient traffic flow theory is needed to guide the overall controlling, organizing and management of traffic systems. On the basis of the cellular automata model and the traffic flow model with look-ahead potential, a new cellular automata traffic flow model with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential is presented in this paper. By introducing the negative exponential weighting coefficient into the look-ahead potential and endowing the potential of vehicles closer to the driver with a greater coefficient, the modeling process is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process which is based on the traffic environment that the driver is facing. The fundamental diagrams for different weighting parameters are obtained by using numerical simulations which show that the negative exponential weighting coefficient has an obvious effect on high density traffic flux. The complex high density non-linear traffic behavior is also reproduced by numerical simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11572264, 11172247, 11402214, and 61373009).
Decentralized Cooperation Strategies in Two-Dimensional Traffic of Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xi-Qun; Leng, Biao; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Jiang, Zi-Neng
2012-12-01
We study the two-dimensional traffic of cellular automata using computer simulation. We propose two type of decentralized cooperation strategies, which are called stepping aside (CS-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CS-CAR) respectively. We introduce them into an existing two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model. CS-SA is designed to prohibit a kind of ping-pong jump when two objects standing together try to move in opposite directions. CS-CAR is designed to change the solution of conflict in parallel update. CS-CAR encourages the objects involved in parallel conflicts choose their alternative routes instead of waiting. We also combine the two cooperation strategies (CS-SA-CAR) to test their combined effects. It is found that the system keeps on a partial jam phase with nonzero velocity and flow until the density reaches one. The ratios of the ping-pong jump and the waiting objects involved in conflict are decreased obviously, especially at the free phase. And the average flow is improved by the three cooperation strategies. Although the average travel time is lengthened a bit by CS-CAR, it is shorten by CS-SA and CS-SA-CAR. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized cooperation modeling.
Stair evacuation simulation based on cellular automata considering evacuees’ walk preferences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao; Peter, B. Luh
2015-06-01
As a physical model, the cellular automata (CA) model is widely used in many areas, such as stair evacuation. However, existing CA models do not consider evacuees’ walk preferences nor psychological status, and the structure of the basic model is unapplicable for the stair structure. This paper is to improve the stair evacuation simulation by addressing these issues, and a new cellular automata model is established. Several evacuees’ walk preference and how evacuee’s psychology influences their behaviors are introduced into this model. Evacuees’ speeds will be influenced by these features. To validate this simulation, two fire drills held in two high-rise buildings are video-recorded. It is found that the simulation results are similar to the fire drill results. The structure of this model is simple, and it is easy to further develop and utilize in different buildings with various kinds of occupants. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB719705) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91224008, 91024032, and 71373139).
Simulation of Rock Mass Horizontal Displacements with Usage of Cellular Automata Theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikora, Paweł
2016-12-01
In the article there was presented two dimensional rock mass model as a deterministic finite cellular automata. Used to describe the distribution of subsidence of rock mass inside and on its surface the theory of automata makes it relatively simple way to get a subsidence trough profile consistent with the profile observed by geodetic measurements on the land surface. As a development of an existing concept of the rock mass model, as a finite cellular automaton, there was described distribution function that allows, simultaneously with the simulation of subsidence, to simulate horizontal displacements inside the rock mass model and on its surface in accordance with real observations. On the basis of the results of numerous computer simulations there was presented fundamental mathematical relationship that determines the ratio of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum subsidence, in case of full subsidence trough, in relation to the basic parameters of the rock mass model. The possibilities of presented model were shown on the example of simulation results of deformation distribution caused by extraction of abstract coal panel. Obtained results were consistent with results obtained by geometric-integral theory.
Computing cellular automata spectra under fixed boundary conditions via limit graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruivo, Eurico L. P.; de Oliveira, Pedro P. B.
2016-01-01
Cellular automata are fully discrete complex systems with parallel and homogeneous behavior studied both from the theoretical and modeling viewpoints. The limit behaviors of such systems are of particular interest, as they give insight into their emerging properties. One possible approach to investigate such limit behaviors is the analysis of the growth of graphs describing the finite time behavior of a rule in order to infer its limit behavior. Another possibility is to study the Fourier spectrum describing the average limit configurations obtained by a rule. While the former approach gives the characterization of the limit configurations of a rule, the latter yields a qualitative and quantitative characterisation of how often particular blocks of states are present in these limit configurations. Since both approaches are closely related, it is tempting to use one to obtain information about the other. Here, limit graphs are automatically adjusted by configurations directly generated by their respective rules, and use the graphs to compute the spectra of their rules. We rely on a set of elementary cellular automata rules, on lattices with fixed boundary condition, and show that our approach is a more reliable alternative to a previously described method from the literature.
Dynamic Simulation of 1D Cellular Automata in the Active aTAM.
Jonoska, Nataša; Karpenko, Daria; Seki, Shinnosuke
2015-07-01
The Active aTAM is a tile based model for self-assembly where tiles are able to transfer signals and change identities according to the signals received. We extend Active aTAM to include deactivation signals and thereby allow detachment of tiles. We show that the model allows a dynamic simulation of cellular automata with assemblies that do not record the entire computational history but only the current updates of the states, and thus provide a way for (a) algorithmic dynamical structural changes in the assembly and (b) reusable space in self-assembly. The simulation is such that at a given location the sequence of tiles that attach and detach corresponds precisely to the sequence of states the synchronous cellular automaton generates at that location.
Dynamic Simulation of 1D Cellular Automata in the Active aTAM
Jonoska, Nataša; Karpenko, Daria; Seki, Shinnosuke
2016-01-01
The Active aTAM is a tile based model for self-assembly where tiles are able to transfer signals and change identities according to the signals received. We extend Active aTAM to include deactivation signals and thereby allow detachment of tiles. We show that the model allows a dynamic simulation of cellular automata with assemblies that do not record the entire computational history but only the current updates of the states, and thus provide a way for (a) algorithmic dynamical structural changes in the assembly and (b) reusable space in self-assembly. The simulation is such that at a given location the sequence of tiles that attach and detach corresponds precisely to the sequence of states the synchronous cellular automaton generates at that location. PMID:27789918
Exploring Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Cellular Automata for Pattern Recognition in Networks.
Miranda, Gisele Helena Barboni; Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir Martinez
2016-11-22
Network science is an interdisciplinary field which provides an integrative approach for the study of complex systems. In recent years, network modeling has been used for the study of emergent phenomena in many real-world applications. Pattern recognition in networks has been drawing attention to the importance of network characterization, which may lead to understanding the topological properties that are related to the network model. In this paper, the Life-Like Network Automata (LLNA) method is introduced, which was designed for pattern recognition in networks. LLNA uses the network topology as a tessellation of Cellular Automata (CA), whose dynamics produces a spatio-temporal pattern used to extract the feature vector for network characterization. The method was evaluated using synthetic and real-world networks. In the latter, three pattern recognition applications were used: (i) identifying organisms from distinct domains of life through their metabolic networks, (ii) identifying online social networks and (iii) classifying stomata distribution patterns varying according to different lighting conditions. LLNA was compared to structural measurements and surpasses them in real-world applications, achieving improvement in the classification rate as high as 23%, 4% and 7% respectively. Therefore, the proposed method is a good choice for pattern recognition applications using networks and demonstrates potential for general applicability.
Exploring Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Cellular Automata for Pattern Recognition in Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miranda, Gisele Helena Barboni; Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir Martinez
2016-11-01
Network science is an interdisciplinary field which provides an integrative approach for the study of complex systems. In recent years, network modeling has been used for the study of emergent phenomena in many real-world applications. Pattern recognition in networks has been drawing attention to the importance of network characterization, which may lead to understanding the topological properties that are related to the network model. In this paper, the Life-Like Network Automata (LLNA) method is introduced, which was designed for pattern recognition in networks. LLNA uses the network topology as a tessellation of Cellular Automata (CA), whose dynamics produces a spatio-temporal pattern used to extract the feature vector for network characterization. The method was evaluated using synthetic and real-world networks. In the latter, three pattern recognition applications were used: (i) identifying organisms from distinct domains of life through their metabolic networks, (ii) identifying online social networks and (iii) classifying stomata distribution patterns varying according to different lighting conditions. LLNA was compared to structural measurements and surpasses them in real-world applications, achieving improvement in the classification rate as high as 23%, 4% and 7% respectively. Therefore, the proposed method is a good choice for pattern recognition applications using networks and demonstrates potential for general applicability.
Exploring Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Cellular Automata for Pattern Recognition in Networks
Miranda, Gisele Helena Barboni; Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir Martinez
2016-01-01
Network science is an interdisciplinary field which provides an integrative approach for the study of complex systems. In recent years, network modeling has been used for the study of emergent phenomena in many real-world applications. Pattern recognition in networks has been drawing attention to the importance of network characterization, which may lead to understanding the topological properties that are related to the network model. In this paper, the Life-Like Network Automata (LLNA) method is introduced, which was designed for pattern recognition in networks. LLNA uses the network topology as a tessellation of Cellular Automata (CA), whose dynamics produces a spatio-temporal pattern used to extract the feature vector for network characterization. The method was evaluated using synthetic and real-world networks. In the latter, three pattern recognition applications were used: (i) identifying organisms from distinct domains of life through their metabolic networks, (ii) identifying online social networks and (iii) classifying stomata distribution patterns varying according to different lighting conditions. LLNA was compared to structural measurements and surpasses them in real-world applications, achieving improvement in the classification rate as high as 23%, 4% and 7% respectively. Therefore, the proposed method is a good choice for pattern recognition applications using networks and demonstrates potential for general applicability. PMID:27874024
Garijo, N; Manzano, R; Osta, R; Perez, M A
2012-12-07
Cell migration and proliferation has been modelled in the literature as a process similar to diffusion. However, using diffusion models to simulate the proliferation and migration of cells tends to create a homogeneous distribution in the cell density that does not correlate to empirical observations. In fact, the mechanism of cell dispersal is not diffusion. Cells disperse by crawling or proliferation, or are transported in a moving ﬂuid. The use of cellular automata, particle models or cell-based models can overcome this limitation. This paper presents a stochastic cellular automata model to simulate the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells. These processes are considered as completely stochastic as well as discrete. The model developed was applied to predict the behaviour of in vitro cell cultures performed with adult muscle satellite cells. Moreover, non homogeneous distribution of cells has been observed inside the culture well and, using the above mentioned stochastic cellular automata model, we have been able to predict this heterogeneous cell distribution and compute accurate quantitative results. Differentiation was also incorporated into the computational simulation. The results predicted the myotube formation that typically occurs with adult muscle satellite cells. In conclusion, we have shown how a stochastic cellular automata model can be implemented and is capable of reproducing the in vitro behaviour of adult muscle satellite cells.
Electoral surveys’ influence on the voting processes: a cellular automata model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alves, S. G.; Oliveira Neto, N. M.; Martins, M. L.
2002-12-01
Nowadays, in societies threatened by atomization, selfishness, short-term thinking, and alienation from political life, there is a renewed debate about classical questions concerning the quality of democratic decision making. In this work a cellular automata model for the dynamics of free elections, based on the social impact theory is proposed. By using computer simulations, power-law distributions for the size of electoral clusters and decision time have been obtained. The major role of broadcasted electoral surveys in guiding opinion formation and stabilizing the “status quo” was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was shown that in societies where these surveys are manipulated within the universally accepted statistical error bars, even a majoritary opposition could be hindered from reaching power through the electoral path.
Modeling of the competition life cycle using the software complex of cellular automata PyCAlab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, D. B.; Beklemishev, K. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Medvedeva, M. A.
2015-11-01
The aim of the work is to develop a numerical model of the life cycle of competition on the basis of software complex cellular automata PyCAlab. The model is based on the general patterns of growth of various systems in resource-limited settings. At examples it is shown that the period of transition from an unlimited growth of the market agents to the stage of competitive growth takes quite a long time and may be characterized as monotonic. During this period two main strategies of competitive selection coexist: 1) capture of maximum market space with any reasonable costs; 2) saving by reducing costs. The obtained results allow concluding that the competitive strategies of companies must combine two mentioned types of behavior, and this issue needs to be given adequate attention in the academic literature on management. The created numerical model may be used for market research when developing of the strategies for promotion of new goods and services.
Traffic Cellular Automata Simulation of a Congested Round-About in Mauritius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fowdur, S. C.; Rughooputh, S. D. D. V.
In this paper a Traffic Cellular Automata (TCA) simulation of a highly congested round-about in Mauritius is performed. The simulations are performed using a multi-cell model that includes anticipation and probability randomization. The simulation model is first calibrated to match actual traffic count statistics taken at the round-about. The topology of the round-about is then modified and the TCA model is used to predict the impact on the congestion level of different changes made. The simulation results enable the assessment of the impact on the traffic density and travel time of the different modifications made. It has been found that the construction of a flyover bridge at the round-about will be the most convenient solution to alleviate congestion and improve the flux significantly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamatzky, Andrew
2012-11-01
Excitable cellular automata with dynamical excitation interval exhibit a wide range of space-time dynamics based on an interplay between propagating excitation patterns which modify excitability of the automaton cells. Such interactions leads to formation of standing domains of excitation, stationary waves and localized excitations. We analyzed morphological and generative diversities of the functions studied and characterized the functions with highest values of the diversities. Amongst other intriguing discoveries we found that upper boundary of excitation interval more significantly affects morphological diversity of configurations generated than lower boundary of the interval does and there is no match between functions which produce configurations of excitation with highest morphological diversity and configurations of interval boundaries with highest morphological diversity. Potential directions of future studies of excitable media with dynamically changing excitability may focus on relations of the automaton model with living excitable media, e.g. neural tissue and muscles, novel materials with memristive properties and networks of conductive polymers.
Simulation of abrasive water jet cutting process: Part 2. Cellular automata approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orbanic, Henri; Junkar, Mihael
2004-11-01
A new two-dimensional cellular automata (CA) model for the simulation of the abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting process is presented. The CA calculates the shape of the cutting front, which can be used as an estimation of the surface quality. The cutting front is formed based on material removal rules and AWJ propagation rules. The material removal rule calculates when a particular part of the material will be removed with regard to the energy of AWJ. The AWJ propagation rule calculates the distribution of AWJ energy through CA by using a weighted average. The modelling with CA also provides a visual narrative of the moving of the cutting front, which is hard to observe in real process. The algorithm is fast and has been successfully tested in comparison to cutting fronts obtained with cutting experiments of aluminium alloy.
Structural distortions in molecular-based quantum cellular automata: a minimal model based study.
Bonilla, Alejandro Santana; Gutierrez, Rafael; Sandonas, Leonardo Medrano; Nozaki, Daijiro; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2014-09-07
Molecular-based quantum cellular automata (m-QCA), as an extension of quantum-dot QCAs, offer a novel alternative in which binary information can be encoded in the molecular charge configuration of a cell and propagated via nearest-neighbor Coulombic cell-cell interactions. Appropriate functionality of m-QCAs involves a complex relationship between quantum mechanical effects, such as electron transfer processes within the molecular building blocks, and electrostatic interactions between cells. The influence of structural distortions of single m-QCA are addressed in this paper within a minimal model using an diabatic-to-adiabatic transformation. We show that even small changes of the classical square geometry between driver and target cells, such as those induced by distance variations or shape distortions, can make cells respond to interactions in a far less symmetric fashion, modifying and potentially impairing the expected computational behavior of the m-QCA.
Cellular automata traffic flow behavior at the intersection of two roads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzoug, R.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.
2014-06-01
The control of vehicles in urban traffic is a requirement to maximize the flow and to ensure the safety of traffic. Using the cellular automata Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model within a parallel dynamic update, we studied the effect of the intersection of two symmetrical roads, with typical periodic boundary conditions. It is found that the fundamental diagram depends strongly on the probability P of priority and the probability P1 of changing the road at the intersection. Beside the free flow, the platoon and the jamming phases, the fundamental diagram exhibits a fourth new phase occurring for any value of P ≠ 0.5, which disappears gradually as one increases the probability P, and disappears completely for P = 0.5. The effects of the braking probability Pb on the fundamental diagram and space time structures are also computed for different values of maximal velocities.
A testable parity conservative gate in quantum-dot cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karkaj, Ehsan Taher; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli
2017-01-01
There are important challenges in current VLSI technology such as feature size. New technologies are emerging to overcome these challenges. One of these technologies is quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) but it also has some disadvantages. One of the very important challenges in QCA is the occurrence of faults due to its very small area. There are different ways to overcome this challenge, one of which is the testable logic gate. There are two types of testable gate; reversible gate, and conservative gate. We propose a new testable parity conservative gate in this paper. This gate is simulated with QCADesigner and compared with previous structures. Power dissipation of proposed gate investigated using QCAPro simulator as an accurate power estimator tool.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argollo de Menezes, Marcio; Brigatti, Edgardo; Schwämmle, Veit
2013-08-01
Microbiological systems evolve to fulfil their tasks with maximal efficiency. The immune system is a remarkable example, where the distinction between self and non-self is made by means of molecular interaction between self-proteins and antigens, triggering affinity-dependent systemic actions. Specificity of this binding and the infinitude of potential antigenic patterns call for novel mechanisms to generate antibody diversity. Inspired by this problem, we develop a genetic algorithm where agents evolve their strings in the presence of random antigenic strings and reproduce with affinity-dependent rates. We ask what is the best strategy to generate diversity if agents can rearrange their strings a finite number of times. We find that endowing each agent with an inheritable cellular automaton rule for performing rearrangements makes the system more efficient in pattern-matching than if transformations are totally random. In the former implementation, the population evolves to a stationary state where agents with different automata rules coexist.
[Allelopathy of invasive weeds: a simulation study with cellular automata model].
Liu, Yinghu; Xie, Li; Luo, Shiming; Chen, Shi; Zeng, Rensen
2006-02-01
Cellular automata model is a simulation approach to describe the complicate behavior of a system, and suitable to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant community. In this paper, the model was used to simulate the different sensitivity toall invasion process of an allelochemicals-containing exotic species to the community of two native species with different sensitivity to allelochemicals, and the spatial and temporal dynamics of native and invasive species. The simulation was conducted by biological response and negative exponential distribution models, and the results showed that exotic species could successfully invade the community of two native species with different sensitivity to allelochemicals, but only coexist with one sensitive and one resistant species. The resistance of plant community to invasive weeds depended on its species function structure.
Performance of 1D quantum cellular automata in the presence of error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNally, Douglas M.; Clemens, James P.
2016-09-01
This work expands a previous block-partitioned quantum cellular automata (BQCA) model proposed by Brennen and Williams [Phys. Rev. A. 68, 042311 (2003)] to incorporate physically realistic error models. These include timing errors in the form of over- and under-rotations of quantum states during computational gate sequences, stochastic phase and bit flip errors, as well as undesired two-bit interactions occurring during single-bit gate portions of an update sequence. A compensation method to counteract the undesired pairwise interactions is proposed and investigated. Each of these error models is implemented using Monte Carlo simulations for stochastic errors and modifications to the prescribed gate sequences to account for coherent over-rotations. The impact of these various errors on the function of a QCA gate sequence is evaluated using the fidelity of the final state calculated for four quantum information processing protocols of interest: state transfer, state swap, GHZ state generation, and entangled pair generation.
Benzhai, Hai; Lei, Liu; Ge, Qin; Yuwan, Peng; Ping, Li; Qingxiang, Yang; Hailei, Wang
2014-10-01
In the present paper, aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using synthetic wastewater, and 81 % of granular rate was obtained after 15-day cultivation. Aerobic granules have a 96 % BOD removal to the wastewater, and the reactor harbors a mount of biomass including bacteria, fungi and protozoa. In view of the complexity of kinetic behaviors of sludge and biological mechanisms of the granular SBR, a cellular automata model was established to simulate the process of wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the model not only visualized the complex adsorption and degradation process of aerobic granules, but also well described the BOD removal of wastewater and microbial growth in the reactor. Thus, CA model is suitable for simulation of synthetic wastewater treatment. This is the first report about dynamical and visual simulation of treatment process of synthetic wastewater in a granular SBR.
A novel FPGA-programmable switch matrix interconnection element in quantum-dot cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi, Sara; Rahimi Azghadi, Mostafa; Zakerolhosseini, Ali; Navi, Keivan
2015-04-01
The Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a novel nanotechnology, promising extra low-power, extremely dense and very high-speed structure for the construction of logical circuits at a nanoscale. In this paper, initially previous works on QCA-based FPGA's routing elements are investigated, and then an efficient, symmetric and reliable QCA programmable switch matrix (PSM) interconnection element is introduced. This element has a simple structure and offers a complete routing capability. It is implemented using a bottom-up design approach that starts from a dense and high-speed 2:1 multiplexer and utilise it to build the target PSM interconnection element. In this study, simulations of the proposed circuits are carried out using QCAdesigner, a layout and simulation tool for QCA circuits. The results demonstrate high efficiency of the proposed designs in QCA-based FPGA routing.
New insights into discretization effects in cellular automata models for pedestrian evacuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ren-Yong
2014-04-01
We develop a cellular automata model with finer discretization of space and higher walking velocities more than one cell. The model is used to simulate the evacuation process of pedestrians from a room with an exit. By simulation experiments, we find subtle effects of the discretization degree and walking velocities on the shape of the crowd near the exit, the evacuation time of each individual at different locations, and the evacuation efficiency of pedestrians formulated by two time indicators. We also investigate the relations between the exit flow and the exit width, formulated by the model, and compare the flow-width relations with those obtained by laboratory experiments in the existing literatures. This study is helpful for the validation and calibration of microscopic pedestrian models with discrete space representation and further narrowing the gap between these models’ theory and their application to engineering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohring, G. A.; Stauffer, D.
Geometric parallelization was tested on the Intel Hypercube with 32 MIMD processors of 1860 type, each with 16 Mbytes of distributed memory. We applied it to Ising models in two and three dimensions as well as to neural networks and two-dimensional hydrodynamic cellular automata. For system sizes suited to this machine, up to 60960*60960 and 1410*1410*1408 Ising spins, we found nearly hundred percent parallel efficiency in spite of the needed inter-processor communications. For small systems, the observed deviations from full efficiency were compared with the scaling concepts of Heermann and Burkitt and of Jakobs and Gerling. For Ising models, we determined the Glauber kinetic exponent z≃2.18 in two dimensions and confirmed the stretched exponential relaxation of the magnetization towards the spontaneous magnetization below Tc. For three dimensions we found z≃2.09 and simple exponential relaxation.
Design of efficient full adder in quantum-dot cellular automata.
Sen, Bibhash; Rajoria, Ayush; Sikdar, Biplab K
2013-01-01
Further downscaling of CMOS technology becomes challenging as it faces limitation of feature size reduction. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA), a potential alternative to CMOS, promises efficient digital design at nanoscale. Investigations on the reduction of QCA primitives (majority gates and inverters) for various adders are limited, and very few designs exist for reference. As a result, design of adders under QCA framework is gaining its importance in recent research. This work targets developing multi-layered full adder architecture in QCA framework based on five-input majority gate proposed here. A minimum clock zone (2 clock) with high compaction (0.01 μ m(2)) for a full adder around QCA is achieved. Further, the usefulness of such design is established with the synthesis of high-level logic. Experimental results illustrate the significant improvements in design level in terms of circuit area, cell count, and clock compared to that of conventional design approaches.
Design of Efficient Full Adder in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Sen, Bibhash; Sikdar, Biplab K.
2013-01-01
Further downscaling of CMOS technology becomes challenging as it faces limitation of feature size reduction. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA), a potential alternative to CMOS, promises efficient digital design at nanoscale. Investigations on the reduction of QCA primitives (majority gates and inverters) for various adders are limited, and very few designs exist for reference. As a result, design of adders under QCA framework is gaining its importance in recent research. This work targets developing multi-layered full adder architecture in QCA framework based on five-input majority gate proposed here. A minimum clock zone (2 clock) with high compaction (0.01 μm2) for a full adder around QCA is achieved. Further, the usefulness of such design is established with the synthesis of high-level logic. Experimental results illustrate the significant improvements in design level in terms of circuit area, cell count, and clock compared to that of conventional design approaches. PMID:23844385
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, David L.
Emerging quantum simulator technologies provide a new challenge to quantum many body theory. Quantifying the emergent order in and predicting the dynamics of such complex quantum systems requires a new approach. We develop such an approach based on complex network analysis of quantum mutual information. First, we establish the usefulness of quantum mutual information complex networks by reproducing the phase diagrams of transverse Ising and Bose-Hubbard models. By quantifying the complexity of quantum cellular automata we then demonstrate the applicability of complex network theory to non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. We conclude with a study of student collaboration networks, correlating a student's role in a collaboration network with their grades. This work thus initiates a quantitative theory of quantum complexity and provides a new tool for physics education research. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore
FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.
Modeling Immune Network Through Cellular Automata:. a Unified Mechanism of Immunological Memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, Debashish; Deshpande, Varsha; Stauffer, Dietrich
The populations of the various types of immunocompetent cells in the immune system are described as cellular automata and the population dynamics of these cells are formulated in terms of dynamical maps in discrete time. Both intra-clonal interactions (i.e., interactions among the cell types belonging to the same clone) and inter-clonal interactions (i.e., interactions among the cell types belonging to different clones) are included in the models proposed here. While the intra-clonal interactions are shown to play a crucial role in the primary response of some clones and in the formation of the immunological memory, the inter-clonal interactions are responsible for retaining the memory through a dynamical process driven by the mutual stimulation of the clones. We present the results for two different types of connectivity, namely, a “necklace” network and a network in “shape space”.
Conflict game in evacuation process: A study combining Cellular Automata model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Xiaoping; Cheng, Yuan
2011-03-01
The game-theoretic approach is an essential tool in the research of conflicts of human behaviors. The aim of this study is to research crowd dynamic conflicts during evacuation processes. By combining a conflict game with a Cellular Automata model, the following factors such as rationality, herding effect and conflict cost are taken into the research on frequency of each strategy of evacuees, and evacuation time. Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that (i) in an emergency condition, rationality leads to “vying” behaviors and inhibited “polite” behavior; (ii) high herding causes a crowd of high rationality (especially in normal circumstances) to become more “vying” in behavior; (iii) the high-rationality crowd is shown to spend more evacuation time than a low-rationality crowd in emergency situations. This study provides a new perspective to understand conflicts in evacuation processes as well as the rationality of evacuees.
Khan, Muhammad Sadiq Ali; Yousuf, Sidrah
2016-03-01
Cardiac Electrical Activity is commonly distributed into three dimensions of Cardiac Tissue (Myocardium) and evolves with duration of time. The indicator of heart diseases can occur randomly at any time of a day. Heart rate, conduction and each electrical activity during cardiac cycle should be monitor non-invasively for the assessment of "Action Potential" (regular) and "Arrhythmia" (irregular) rhythms. Many heart diseases can easily be examined through Automata model like Cellular Automata concepts. This paper deals with the different states of cardiac rhythms using cellular automata with the comparison of neural network also provides fast and highly effective stimulation for the contraction of cardiac muscles on the Atria in the result of genesis of electrical spark or wave. The specific formulated model named as "States of automaton Proposed Model for CEA (Cardiac Electrical Activity)" by using Cellular Automata Methodology is commonly shows the three states of cardiac tissues conduction phenomena (i) Resting (Relax and Excitable state), (ii) ARP (Excited but Absolutely refractory Phase i.e. Excited but not able to excite neighboring cells) (iii) RRP (Excited but Relatively Refractory Phase i.e. Excited and able to excite neighboring cells). The result indicates most efficient modeling with few burden of computation and it is Action Potential during the pumping of blood in cardiac cycle.
Cellular automata and integrodifferential equation models for cell renewal in mosaic tissues.
Bloomfield, J M; Sherratt, J A; Painter, K J; Landini, G
2010-11-06
Mosaic tissues are composed of two or more genetically distinct cell types. They occur naturally, and are also a useful experimental method for exploring tissue growth and maintenance. By marking the different cell types, one can study the patterns formed by proliferation, renewal and migration. Here, we present mathematical modelling suggesting that small changes in the type of interaction that cells have with their local cellular environment can lead to very different outcomes for the composition of mosaics. In cell renewal, proliferation of each cell type may depend linearly or nonlinearly on the local proportion of cells of that type, and these two possibilities produce very different patterns. We study two variations of a cellular automaton model based on simple rules for renewal. We then propose an integrodifferential equation model, and again consider two different forms of cellular interaction. The results of the continuous and cellular automata models are qualitatively the same, and we observe that changes in local environment interaction affect the dynamics for both. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the models reproduce some of the patterns seen in actual mosaic tissues. In particular, our results suggest that the differing patterns seen in organ parenchymas may be driven purely by the process of cell replacement under different interaction scenarios.
Raines, G.L.; Zientek, M.L.; Causey, J.D.; Boleneus, D.E.
2002-01-01
For public land management in Idaho and western Montana, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) predict where mineral-related activity will occur in the next decade. Cellular automata provide an approach to simulation of this human activity. Cellular automata (CA) are defined by an array of cells, which evolve by a simple transition rule, the automaton. Based on exploration trends, we assume that future exploration will focus in areas of past exploration. Spatial-temporal information about mineral-related activity, that is permits issued by USFS and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the last decade, and spatial information about undiscovered resources, provide a basis to calibrate a CA. The CA implemented is a modified annealed voting rule that simulates mineral-related activity with spatial and temporal resolution of 1 mi2 and 1 year based on activity from 1989 to 1998. For this CA, the state of the economy and exploration technology is assumed constant for the next decade. The calibrated CA reproduces the 1989-1998-permit activity with an agreement of 94%, which increases to 98% within one year. Analysis of the confusion matrix and kappa correlation statistics indicates that the CA underestimates high activity and overestimates low activity. Spatially, the major differences between the actual and calculated activity are that the calculated activity occurs in a slightly larger number of small patches and is slightly more uneven than the actual activity. Using the calibrated CA in a Monte Carlo simulation projecting from 1998 to 2010, an estimate of the probability of mineral activity shows high levels of activity in Boise, Caribou, Elmore, Lincoln, and western Valley counties in Idaho and Beaverhead, Madison, and Stillwater counties in Montana, and generally low activity elsewhere. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.
Consequences of Landscape Fragmentation on Lyme Disease Risk: A Cellular Automata Approach
Li, Sen; Hartemink, Nienke; Speybroeck, Niko; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.
2012-01-01
The abundance of infected Ixodid ticks is an important component of human risk of Lyme disease, and various empirical studies have shown that this is associated, at least in part, to landscape fragmentation. In this study, we aimed at exploring how varying woodland fragmentation patterns affect the risk of Lyme disease, through infected tick abundance. A cellular automata model was developed, incorporating a heterogeneous landscape with three interactive components: an age-structured tick population, a classical disease transmission function, and hosts. A set of simplifying assumptions were adopted with respect to the study objective and field data limitations. In the model, the landscape influences both tick survival and host movement. The validation of the model was performed with an empirical study. Scenarios of various landscape configurations (focusing on woodland fragmentation) were simulated and compared. Lyme disease risk indices (density and infection prevalence of nymphs) differed considerably between scenarios: (i) the risk could be higher in highly fragmented woodlands, which is supported by a number of recently published empirical studies, and (ii) grassland could reduce the risk in adjacent woodland, which suggests landscape fragmentation studies of zoonotic diseases should not focus on the patch-level woodland patterns only, but also on landscape-level adjacent land cover patterns. Further analysis of the simulation results indicated strong correlations between Lyme disease risk indices and the density, shape and aggregation level of woodland patches. These findings highlight the strong effect of the spatial patterns of local host population and movement on the spatial dynamics of Lyme disease risks, which can be shaped by woodland fragmentation. In conclusion, using a cellular automata approach is beneficial for modelling complex zoonotic transmission systems as it can be combined with either real world landscapes for exploring direct spatial
Consequences of landscape fragmentation on Lyme disease risk: a cellular automata approach.
Li, Sen; Hartemink, Nienke; Speybroeck, Niko; Vanwambeke, Sophie O
2012-01-01
The abundance of infected Ixodid ticks is an important component of human risk of Lyme disease, and various empirical studies have shown that this is associated, at least in part, to landscape fragmentation. In this study, we aimed at exploring how varying woodland fragmentation patterns affect the risk of Lyme disease, through infected tick abundance. A cellular automata model was developed, incorporating a heterogeneous landscape with three interactive components: an age-structured tick population, a classical disease transmission function, and hosts. A set of simplifying assumptions were adopted with respect to the study objective and field data limitations. In the model, the landscape influences both tick survival and host movement. The validation of the model was performed with an empirical study. Scenarios of various landscape configurations (focusing on woodland fragmentation) were simulated and compared. Lyme disease risk indices (density and infection prevalence of nymphs) differed considerably between scenarios: (i) the risk could be higher in highly fragmented woodlands, which is supported by a number of recently published empirical studies, and (ii) grassland could reduce the risk in adjacent woodland, which suggests landscape fragmentation studies of zoonotic diseases should not focus on the patch-level woodland patterns only, but also on landscape-level adjacent land cover patterns. Further analysis of the simulation results indicated strong correlations between Lyme disease risk indices and the density, shape and aggregation level of woodland patches. These findings highlight the strong effect of the spatial patterns of local host population and movement on the spatial dynamics of Lyme disease risks, which can be shaped by woodland fragmentation. In conclusion, using a cellular automata approach is beneficial for modelling complex zoonotic transmission systems as it can be combined with either real world landscapes for exploring direct spatial
A Cellular Automata Based Model for Simulating Surface Hydrological Processes in Catchments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Qi; Baumgartl, Thomas; Huang, Longbin; Weatherley, Dion
2014-05-01
The Runoff Model Based on Cellular Automata (RunCA) has been developed to simulate the surface hydrological processes at the catchment scale by integrating basic cellular automata (CA) rules with fundamental measureable hydraulic properties. In this model, a two-dimensional lattice composed of a series of rectangular cells was employed to cover the study area. Runoff production within each cell was simulated by determining its water depth based on the rainfall, interception, infiltration and the balance between inflows and outflows. Particularly different infiltration equations were incorporated to make the model applicable for both single rainfall event (short term simulation) and multiple rainfall events (long term simulation). The distribution of water flow among cells was determined by applying CA transition rules based on the improved minimization-of-difference algorithm and the calculated spatially and temporally varied flow velocities according to the Manning's equation. RunCA was tested and validated at two catchments (Pine Glen Basin and Snow Shoe Basin, USA) with data taken from literature. The predicted hydrographs agreed well with the measured results. Simulated flow maps also demonstrated the model capability in capturing both the spatial and temporal variations in the runoff process. Model sensitivity analysis results showed that the simulated hydrographs were mostly influenced by the input parameters that represent the final steady infiltration rate, as well as the model settings of time step and cell size. Compared to some conventional distributed hydrologic models that calculate the runoff routing process by solving complex continuity equations, this model integrates a novel method and is expected to be more computationally efficient as it is based on simple CA transition rules when determining the flow distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Ras B.
1998-03-01
A stochastic cellular automata (SCA) approach is introduced to study the growth and decay of cellular population in an immune response model relevant to HIV. Four cell types are considered: macrophages (M), helper cells (H), cytotoxic cells (C), and viral infected cells (V). Mobility of the cells is introduced and viral mutation is considered probabilistically. In absence of mutation, the population of the host cells, helper (N_H) and cytotxic (N_C) cells in particular, dominates over the viral population (N_V), i.e., N_H, NC > N_V, the immune system wins over the viral infection. Variation of cellular population with time exhibits oscillations. The amplitude of oscillations in variation of N_H, NC and NV with time decreases at high mobility even at low viral mutation; the rate of viral growth is nonmonotonic with NV > N_H, NC in the long time regime. The viral population is much higher than that of the host cells at higher mutation rate, a possible cause of AIDS.
Kavianpour, Hamidreza; Vasighi, Mahdi
2017-02-01
Nowadays, having knowledge about cellular attributes of proteins has an important role in pharmacy, medical science and molecular biology. These attributes are closely correlated with the function and three-dimensional structure of proteins. Knowledge of protein structural class is used by various methods for better understanding the protein functionality and folding patterns. Computational methods and intelligence systems can have an important role in performing structural classification of proteins. Most of protein sequences are saved in databanks as characters and strings and a numerical representation is essential for applying machine learning methods. In this work, a binary representation of protein sequences is introduced based on reduced amino acids alphabets according to surrounding hydrophobicity index. Many important features which are hidden in these long binary sequences can be clearly displayed through their cellular automata images. The extracted features from these images are used to build a classification model by support vector machine. Comparing to previous studies on the several benchmark datasets, the promising classification rates obtained by tenfold cross-validation imply that the current approach can help in revealing some inherent features deeply hidden in protein sequences and improve the quality of predicting protein structural class.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acedo, L.; Villanueva-Oller, J.; Moraño, J. A.; Villanueva, R.-J.
2013-01-01
The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) has become the standard open source solution for grid computing in the Internet. Volunteers use their computers to complete an small part of the task assigned by a dedicated server. We have developed a BOINC project called Neurona@Home whose objective is to simulate a cellular automata random network with, at least, one million neurons. We consider a cellular automata version of the integrate-and-fire model in which excitatory and inhibitory nodes can activate or deactivate neighbor nodes according to a set of probabilistic rules. Our aim is to determine the phase diagram of the model and its behaviour and to compare it with the electroencephalographic signals measured in real brains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Ramón E. R.; de Figueirêdo, Pedro Hugo; Coutinho, Sérgio
2013-10-01
We study a cellular automata model to test the timing of antiretroviral therapy strategies for the dynamics of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We focus on the role of virus diffusion when its population is included in previous cellular automata model that describes the dynamics of the lymphocytes cells population during infection. This inclusion allows us to consider the spread of infection by the virus-cell interaction, beyond that which occurs by cell-cell contagion. The results show an acceleration of the infectious process in the absence of treatment, but show better efficiency in reducing the risk of the onset of AIDS when combined antiretroviral therapies are used even with drugs of low effectiveness. Comparison of results with clinical data supports the conclusions of this study.
Toward quantum-dot cellular automata units: thiolated-carbazole linked bisferrocenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arima, Valentina; Iurlo, Matteo; Zoli, Luca; Kumar, Susmit; Piacenza, Manuel; Della Sala, Fabio; Matino, Francesca; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Ross; Paolucci, Francesco; Marcaccio, Massimo; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo
2012-01-01
Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) exploit quantum confinement, tunneling and electrostatic interaction for transistorless digital computing. Implementation at the molecular scale requires carefully tailored units which must obey several structural and functional constraints, ranging from the capability to confine charge efficiently on different `quantum-dot centers'--in order to sharply encode the Boolean states--up to the possibility of having their state blanked out upon application of an external signal. In addition, the molecular units must preserve their geometry in the solid state, to interact electrostatically in a controlled way. Here, we present a novel class of organometallic molecules, 6-3,6-bis(1-ethylferrocen)-9H-carbazol-9-yl-6-hexan-1-thiols, which are engineered to satisfy all such crucial requirements at once, as confirmed by electrochemistry and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, and first principles density functional calculations.Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) exploit quantum confinement, tunneling and electrostatic interaction for transistorless digital computing. Implementation at the molecular scale requires carefully tailored units which must obey several structural and functional constraints, ranging from the capability to confine charge efficiently on different `quantum-dot centers'--in order to sharply encode the Boolean states--up to the possibility of having their state blanked out upon application of an external signal. In addition, the molecular units must preserve their geometry in the solid state, to interact electrostatically in a controlled way. Here, we present a novel class of organometallic molecules, 6-3,6-bis(1-ethylferrocen)-9H-carbazol-9-yl-6-hexan-1-thiols, which are engineered to satisfy all such crucial requirements at once, as confirmed by electrochemistry and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, and first principles density functional calculations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI
Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F
2015-01-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs.
Baradaran, Samaneh; Maleknasr, Niaz; Setayeshi, Saeed; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil
2014-01-01
Background Alpha particle irradiation from radon progeny is one of the major natural sources of effective dose in the public population. Oncogenic transformation is a biological effectiveness of radon progeny alpha particle hits. The biological effects which has caused by exposure to radon, were the main result of a complex series of physical, chemical, biological and physiological interactions. The cellular and molecular mechanisms for radon-induced carcinogenesis have not been clear yet. Methods Various biological models, including cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenesis effects of radon progeny alpha particles. In this paper, sugars cape cellular automata have been presented for computational study of complex biological effect of radon progeny alpha particles in lung bronchial airways. The model has included mechanism of DNA damage, which has been induced alpha particles hits, and then formation of transformation in the lung cells. Biomarkers were an objective measure or evaluation of normal or abnormal biological processes. In the model, the metabolism rate of infected cell has been induced alpha particles traversals, as a biomarker, has been followed to reach oncogenic transformation. Results The model results have successfully validated in comparison with “in vitro oncogenic transformation data” for C3H 10T1/2 cells. This model has provided an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular changes, at the various stages in radiation carcinogenesis, involving human cells. Conclusion It has become well known that simulation could be used to investigate complex biomedical systems, in situations where traditional methodologies were difficult or too costly to employ. PMID:25250147
Studying the role of lipid rafts on protein receptor bindings with cellular automata.
Haack, Fiete; Burrage, Kevin; Redmer, Ronald; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M
2013-01-01
It is widely accepted that lipid rafts promote receptor clustering and thereby facilitate signaling transduction. The role of lipid rafts in inducing and promoting receptor accumulation within the cell membrane has been explored by several computational and experimental studies. However, it remains unclear whether lipid rafts influence the recruitment and binding of proteins from the cytosol as well. To provide an answer to this question a spatial membrane model has been developed based on cellular automata. Our results indicate that lipid rafts indeed influence protein receptor bindings. In particular processes with slow dissociation and binding kinetics are promoted by lipid rafts, whereas fast binding processes are slightly hampered. However, the impact depends on a variety of parameters, such as the size and mobility of the lipid rafts, the induced slow down of receptors within rafts, and also the dissociation and binding kinetics of the cytosolic proteins. Thus, for any individual signaling pathway the influence of lipid rafts on protein binding might be different. To facilitate analyzing this influence given a specific pathway, our approach has been generalized into LiRaM, a modeling and simulation tool for lipid rafts models.
High Detailed Debris Flows Hazard Maps by a Cellular Automata Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupiano, V.; Lucà, F.; Robustelli, G.; Rongo, R.; D'Ambrosio, D.; Spataro, W.; Avolio, M. V.
2012-04-01
The individuation of areas that are more likely to be interested by new debris flows in regions that are particularly exposed to such kind of phenomena is of fundamental relevance for mitigating possible consequences, both in terms of loss of human lives and material properties. Here we show the adaption of a recent methodology, already successfully applied to lava flows, for defining flexible high-detailed and reliable hazard maps. The methodology relies on both an adequate knowledge of the study area, assessed by an accurate analysis of its past behavior, together with a reliable numerical model for simulating debris flows on present topographic data (the Cellular Automata model SCIDDICA, in the present case). Furthermore, High Performance Parallel Computing is employed for increasing computational efficiency, due to the great number of simulations of hypothetical events that are required for characterizing the susceptibility to flow invasion of the study area. The application of the presented methodology to the case of Gragnano (Italy) pointed out the goodness of the proposed approach, suggesting its appropriateness for land use planning and Civil Defense applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yaolong; Zhao, Junsan; Murayama, Yuji
2008-10-01
The period of high economic growth in Japan which began in the latter half of the 1950s led to a massive migration of population from rural regions to the Tokyo metropolitan area. This phenomenon brought about rapid urban growth and urban structure changes in this area. Purpose of this study is to establish a constrained CA (Cellular Automata) model with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to simulate urban growth pattern in the Tokyo metropolitan area towards predicting urban form and landscape for the near future. Urban land-use is classified into multi-categories for interpreting the effect of interaction among land-use categories in the spatial process of urban growth. Driving factors of urban growth pattern, such as land condition, railway network, land-use zoning, random perturbation, and neighborhood interaction and so forth, are explored and integrated into this model. These driving factors are calibrated based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), spatial statistics, logistic regression, and "trial and error" approach. The simulation is assessed at both macro and micro classification levels in three ways: visual approach; fractal dimension; and spatial metrics. Results indicate that this model provides an effective prototype to simulate and predict urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong
2016-10-01
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.
Cellular automata model for urban road traffic flow considering pedestrian crossing street
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Han-Tao; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Xiao-Xu
2016-11-01
In order to analyze the effect of pedestrians' crossing street on vehicle flows, we investigated traffic characteristics of vehicles and pedestrians. Based on that, rules of lane changing, acceleration, deceleration, randomization and update are modified. Then we established two urban two-lane cellular automata models of traffic flow, one of which is about sections with non-signalized crosswalk and the other is on uncontrolled sections with pedestrians crossing street at random. MATLAB is used for numerical simulation of the different traffic conditions; meanwhile space-time diagram and relational graphs of traffic flow parameters are generated and then comparatively analyzed. Simulation results indicate that when vehicle density is lower than around 25 vehs/(km lane), pedestrians have modest impact on traffic flow, whereas when vehicle density is higher than about 60 vehs/(km lane), traffic speed and volume will decrease significantly especially on sections with non-signal-controlled crosswalk. The results illustrate that the proposed models reconstruct the traffic flow's characteristic with the situation where there are pedestrians crossing and can provide some practical reference for urban traffic management.
Studies of vehicle lane-changing to avoid pedestrians with cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao
2015-11-01
This paper presents studies of interactions between vehicles and crossing pedestrians. A cellular automata system model of the traffic is developed, which includes a number of subsystem models such as the single-lane vehicle model, pedestrian model, interaction model and lane-changing model. The random street crossings of pedestrians are modeled as a Poisson process. The drivers of the passing vehicles are assumed to follow a safety-rule in order not to hit the pedestrians. The results of both single and multiple car simulations are presented. We have found that in general, the traffic can benefit from vehicle lane-changing to avoid road-crossing pedestrians. The traffic flow and average vehicle speed can be increased, which leads to higher traffic efficiency. The interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are reduced, which results in shorter vehicle decelerating time due to pedestrians and less switches of the driving mode, thus leads to the better energy economy. The traffic safety can be improved in the perspective of both vehicles and pedestrians. Finally, pedestrians can cross road faster. The negative effect of lane-changing is that pedestrians have to stay longer between the lanes in the crossing.
A cellular automata based FPGA realization of a new metaheuristic bat-inspired algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Progias, Pavlos; Amanatiadis, Angelos A.; Spataro, William; Trunfio, Giuseppe A.; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch.
2016-10-01
Optimization algorithms are often inspired by processes occuring in nature, such as animal behavioral patterns. The main concern with implementing such algorithms in software is the large amounts of processing power they require. In contrast to software code, that can only perform calculations in a serial manner, an implementation in hardware, exploiting the inherent parallelism of single-purpose processors, can prove to be much more efficient both in speed and energy consumption. Furthermore, the use of Cellular Automata (CA) in such an implementation would be efficient both as a model for natural processes, as well as a computational paradigm implemented well on hardware. In this paper, we propose a VHDL implementation of a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the echolocation behavior of bats. More specifically, the CA model is inspired by the metaheuristic algorithm proposed earlier in the literature, which could be considered at least as efficient than other existing optimization algorithms. The function of the FPGA implementation of our algorithm is explained in full detail and results of our simulations are also demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Fang; Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Huaguo
2016-11-01
The original cost potential field cellular automata describing normal pedestrian evacuation is extended to study more general evacuation scenarios. Based on the cost potential field function, through considering the psychological characteristics of crowd under emergencies, the quantitative formula of behavior variation is introduced to reflect behavioral changes caused by psychology tension. The numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the magnitude of behavior variation, the different pedestrian proportions with different behavior variation and other factors on the evacuation efficiency and process in a room. The spatiotemporal dynamic characteristic during the evacuation process is also discussed. The results show that compared with the normal evacuation, the behavior variation under an emergency does not necessarily lead to the decrease of the evacuation efficiency. At low density, the increase of the behavior variation can improve the evacuation efficiency, while at high density, the evacuation efficiency drops significantly with the increasing amplitude of the behavior variation. In addition, the larger proportion of pedestrian affected by the behavior variation will prolong the evacuation time.
Modelling land use/cover changes with markov-cellular automata in Komering Watershed, South Sumatera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusratmoko, E.; Albertus, S. D. Y.; Supriatna
2017-01-01
This research has a purpose to study and develop a model that can representing and simulating spatial distribution pattern of land use change in Komering watershed. The Komering watershed is one of nine sub Musi river basin and is located in the southern part of Sumatra island that has an area of 8060,62 km2. Land use change simulations, achieved through Markov-cellular automata (CA) methodologies. Slope, elevation, distance from road, distance from river, distance from capital sub-district, distance from settlement area area were driving factors that used in this research. Land use prediction result in 2030 also shows decrease of forest acreage up to -3.37%, agricultural land decreased up to -2.13%, and open land decreased up to -0.13%. On the other hand settlement area increased up to 0.07%, and plantation land increased up to 5.56%. Based on the predictive result, land use unconformity percentage to RTRW in Komering watershed is 18.62 % and land use conformity is 58.27%. Based on the results of the scenario, where forest in protected areas and agriculture land are maintained, shows increase the land use conformity amounted to 60.41 % and reduce unconformity that occur in Komering watershed to 17.23 %.
A cellular automata model for avascular solid tumor growth under the effect of therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reis, E. A.; Santos, L. B. L.; Pinho, S. T. R.
2009-04-01
Tumor growth has long been a target of investigation within the context of mathematical and computer modeling. The objective of this study is to propose and analyze a two-dimensional stochastic cellular automata model to describe avascular solid tumor growth, taking into account both the competition between cancer cells and normal cells for nutrients and/or space and a time-dependent proliferation of cancer cells. Gompertzian growth, characteristic of some tumors, is described and some of the features of the time-spatial pattern of solid tumors, such as compact morphology with irregular borders, are captured. The parameter space is studied in order to analyze the occurrence of necrosis and the response to therapy. Our findings suggest that transitions exist between necrotic and non-necrotic phases (no-therapy cases), and between the states of cure and non-cure (therapy cases). To analyze cure, the control and order parameters are, respectively, the highest probability of cancer cell proliferation and the probability of the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. With respect to patterns, it is possible to observe the inner necrotic core and the effect of the therapy destroying the tumor from its outer borders inwards.
Li, Xia; Lao, Chunhua; Liu, Yilun; Liu, Xiaoping; Chen, Yimin; Li, Shaoying; Ai, Bing; He, Zijian
2013-11-30
Ecological security has become a major issue under fast urbanization in China. As the first two cities in this country, Shenzhen and Dongguan issued the ordinance of Eco-designated Line of Control (ELC) to "wire" ecologically important areas for strict protection in 2005 and 2009 respectively. Early warning systems (EWS) are a useful tool for assisting the implementation ELC. In this study, a multi-model approach is proposed for the early warning of illegal development by integrating cellular automata (CA) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The objective is to prevent the ecological risks or catastrophe caused by such development at an early stage. The integrated model is calibrated by using the empirical information from both remote sensing and handheld GPS (global positioning systems). The MAR indicator which is the ratio of missing alarms to all the warnings is proposed for better assessment of the model performance. It is found that the fast urban development has caused significant threats to natural-area protection in the study area. The integration of CA, ANN and GPS provides a powerful tool for describing and predicting illegal development which is in highly non-linear and fragmented forms. The comparison shows that this multi-model approach has much better performances than the single-model approach for the early warning. Compared with the single models of CA and ANN, this integrated multi-model can improve the value of MAR by 65.48% and 5.17% respectively.
Cellular automata simulation of osteoblast growth on microfibrous-carbon-based scaffolds.
Czarnecki, Jarema S; Jolivet, Simon; Blackmore, Mary E; Lafdi, Khalid; Tsonis, Panagiotis A
2014-12-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the use of three fibrous carbon materials (T300, P25, and P120) for bone repair and develop and validate theoretical and computational methods in which bone tissue regeneration and repair could be accurately predicted. T300 was prepared from polyacrylonitrile precursor while P25 and P120 fibers were prepared from pitch, both common fiber precursors. Results showed that osteoblast growth on carbon scaffolds was enhanced with increased crystallinity, surface roughness, and material orientation. For unidirectional scaffolds at 120 h, there was 33% difference in cell growth between T300 and P25 fibers and 64% difference between P25 and P120 fibers. Moreover, for multidirectional fibers at 120 h, there was 35% difference in cell growth between T300 and P25 fibers and 43% difference between P25 and P120 fibers. Results showed that material alignment was integral to promoting cell growth with multidirectional scaffolds having the capacity for greater growth over unidirectional scaffolds. At 120 h there was 24% increase in cell growth between unidirectional alignment and multidirectional alignment on high-crystalline carbon fibers. Ultimately, data indicated that carbon scaffolds exhibited excellent bioactivity and may be tuned to stimulate unique reactions. Additionally, numerical and computational simulations provided evidence that corroborated experimental data with simulations. Results illustrated the capability of cellular automata models for assessing osteoblast cell response to biomaterials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tambunan, L.; Salamah, H.; Asriana, N.
2017-03-01
This study aims to determine the influence of architectural design on the risk of fire spread in densely urban settlement area. Cellular Automata (CA) is used to analyse the fire spread pattern, speed, and the extent of damage. Four cells represent buildings, streets, and fields characteristic in the simulated area, as well as their flammability level and fire spread capabilities. Two fire scenarios are used to model the spread of fire: (1) fire origin in a building with concrete and wood material majority, and (2) fire origin in building with wood material majority. Building shape, building distance, road width, and total area of wall openings are considered constant, while wind is ignored. The result shows that fire spread faster in the building area with wood majority than with concrete majority. Significant amount of combustible building material, absence of distance between buildings, narrow streets and limited fields are factors which influence fire spread speed and pattern as well as extent of damage when fire occurs in the densely urban settlement area.
Simulation of bi-direction pedestrian movement using a cellular automata model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weifeng, Fang; Lizhong, Yang; Weicheng, Fan
2003-04-01
A cellular automata model is presented to simulate the bi-direction pedestrian movement. The pedestrian movement is more complex than vehicular flow for the reason that people are more flexible than cars. Some special technique is introduced considering simple human judgment to make the rules more reasonable. Also the custom in the countries where the pedestrian prefer to walk on the right-hand side of the road are highlighted. By using the model to simulate the bi-direction pedestrian movement, the phase transition phenomena in pedestrian counter flow is presented. Furthermore, the introduction of back stepping breaks the deadlock at the relatively low pedestrian density. By studying the critical density of changing from freely moving state to jammed state with different system sizes and different probabilities of back stepping, we find the critical density increases as the probability of back stepping increases at the same system size. And with the increasing system size, the critical density decreases at the same probability of back stepping according to the scope of system size studied in this paper.
Quasi-classical modeling of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata multidriver gates
2012-01-01
Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (mQCA) has received considerable attention in nanoscience. Unlike the current-based molecular switches, where the digital data is represented by the on/off states of the switches, in mQCA devices, binary information is encoded in charge configuration within molecular redox centers. The mQCA paradigm allows high device density and ultra-low power consumption. Digital mQCA gates are the building blocks of circuits in this paradigm. Design and analysis of these gates require quantum chemical calculations, which are demanding in computer time and memory. Therefore, developing simple models to probe mQCA gates is of paramount importance. We derive a semi-classical model to study the steady-state output polarization of mQCA multidriver gates, directly from the two-state approximation in electron transfer theory. The accuracy and validity of this model are analyzed using full quantum chemistry calculations. A complete set of logic gates, including inverters and minority voters, are implemented to provide an appropriate test bench in the two-dot mQCA regime. We also briefly discuss how the QCADesigner tool could find its application in simulation of mQCA devices. PMID:22647345
Cellular automata for simulating land use changes based on support vector machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Qingsheng; Li, Xia; Shi, Xun
2008-06-01
Cellular automata (CA) have been increasingly used to simulate urban sprawl and land use dynamics. A major issue in CA is defining appropriate transition rules based on training data. Linear boundaries have been widely used to define the rules. However, urban land use dynamics and many other geographical phenomena are highly complex and require nonlinear boundaries for the rules. In this study, we tested the support vector machines (SVM) as a method for constructing nonlinear transition rules for CA. SVM is good at dealing with nonlinear complex relationships. Its basic idea is to project input vectors to a higher dimensional Hilbert feature space, in which an optimal classifying hyperplane can be constructed through structural risk minimization and margin maximization. The optimal hyperplane is unique and its optimality is global. The proposed SVM-CA model was implemented using Visual Basic, ArcObjects®, and OSU-SVM. A case study simulating the urban development in the Shenzhen City, China demonstrates that the proposed model can achieve high accuracy and overcome some limitations of existing CA models in simulating complex urban systems.
The cellular automata for modelling of spreading of lava flow on the earth surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarna, Alexandra; Cirbus, Juraj
2013-04-01
Volcanic risk assessment is a very important scientific, political and economic issue in densely populated areas close to active volcanoes. Development of effective tools for early prediction of a potential volcanic hazard and management of crises are paramount. However, to this date volcanic hazard maps represent the most appropriate way to illustrate the geographical area that can potentially be affected by a volcanic event. Volcanic hazard maps are usually produced by mapping out old volcanic deposits, however dynamic lava flow simulation gaining popularity and can give crucial information to corroborate other methodologies. The methodology which is used here for the generation of volcanic hazard maps is based on numerical simulation of eruptive processes by the principle of Cellular Automata (CA). The python script is integrated into ArcToolbox in ArcMap (ESRI) and the user can select several input and output parameters which influence surface morphology, size and shape of the flow, flow thickness, flow velocity and length of lava flows. Once the input parameters are selected, the software computes and generates hazard maps on the fly. The results can be exported to Google Maps (.klm format) to visualize the results of the computation. For validation of the simulation code are used data from a real lava flow.
The Cellular Automata for modelling of spreading of lava flow on the earth surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarna, A.
2012-12-01
Volcanic risk assessment is a very important scientific, political and economic issue in densely populated areas close to active volcanoes. Development of effective tools for early prediction of a potential volcanic hazard and management of crises are paramount. However, to this date volcanic hazard maps represent the most appropriate way to illustrate the geographical area that can potentially be affected by a volcanic event. Volcanic hazard maps are usually produced by mapping out old volcanic deposits, however dynamic lava flow simulation gaining popularity and can give crucial information to corroborate other methodologies. The methodology which is used here for the generation of volcanic hazard maps is based on numerical simulation of eruptive processes by the principle of Cellular Automata (CA). The python script is integrated into ArcToolbox in ArcMap (ESRI) and the user can select several input and output parameters which influence surface morphology, size and shape of the flow, flow thickness, flow velocity and length of lava flows. Once the input parameters are selected, the software computes and generates hazard maps on the fly. The results can be exported to Google Maps (.klm format) to visualize the results of the computation. For validation of the simulation code are used data from a real lava flow. Comparison of the simulation results with real lava flows mapped out from satellite images will be presented.
A solution to the biodiversity paradox by logical deterministic cellular automata.
Kalmykov, Lev V; Kalmykov, Vyacheslav L
2015-06-01
The paradox of biological diversity is the key problem of theoretical ecology. The paradox consists in the contradiction between the competitive exclusion principle and the observed biodiversity. The principle is important as the basis for ecological theory. On a relatively simple model we show a mechanism of indefinite coexistence of complete competitors which violates the known formulations of the competitive exclusion principle. This mechanism is based on timely recovery of limiting resources and their spatio-temporal allocation between competitors. Because of limitations of the black-box modeling there was a problem to formulate the exclusion principle correctly. Our white-box multiscale model of two-species competition is based on logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. This approach provides an automatic deductive inference on the basis of a system of axioms, and gives a direct insight into mechanisms of the studied system. It is one of the most promising methods of artificial intelligence. We reformulate and generalize the competitive exclusion principle and explain why this formulation provides a solution of the biodiversity paradox. In addition, we propose a principle of competitive coexistence.
A scale-invariant cellular-automata model for distributed seismicity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barriere, Benoit; Turcotte, Donald L.
1991-01-01
In the standard cellular-automata model for a fault an element of stress is randomly added to a grid of boxes until a box has four elements, these are then redistributed to the adjacent boxes on the grid. The redistribution can result in one or more of these boxes having four or more elements in which case further redistributions are required. On the average added elements are lost from the edges of the grid. The model is modified so that the boxes have a scale-invariant distribution of sizes. The objective is to model a scale-invariant distribution of fault sizes. When a redistribution from a box occurs it is equivalent to a characteristic earthquake on the fault. A redistribution from a small box (a foreshock) can trigger an instability in a large box (the main shock). A redistribution from a large box always triggers many instabilities in the smaller boxes (aftershocks). The frequency-size statistics for both main shocks and aftershocks satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter relation with b = 0.835 for main shocks and b = 0.635 for aftershocks. Model foreshocks occur 28 percent of the time.
Cellular automata-based modelling and simulation of biofilm structure on multi-core computers.
Skoneczny, Szymon
2015-01-01
The article presents a mathematical model of biofilm growth for aerobic biodegradation of a toxic carbonaceous substrate. Modelling of biofilm growth has fundamental significance in numerous processes of biotechnology and mathematical modelling of bioreactors. The process following double-substrate kinetics with substrate inhibition proceeding in a biofilm has not been modelled so far by means of cellular automata. Each process in the model proposed, i.e. diffusion of substrates, uptake of substrates, growth and decay of microorganisms and biofilm detachment, is simulated in a discrete manner. It was shown that for flat biofilm of constant thickness, the results of the presented model agree with those of a continuous model. The primary outcome of the study was to propose a mathematical model of biofilm growth; however a considerable amount of focus was also placed on the development of efficient algorithms for its solution. Two parallel algorithms were created, differing in the way computations are distributed. Computer programs were created using OpenMP Application Programming Interface for C++ programming language. Simulations of biofilm growth were performed on three high-performance computers. Speed-up coefficients of computer programs were compared. Both algorithms enabled a significant reduction of computation time. It is important, inter alia, in modelling and simulation of bioreactor dynamics.
Emergent protein folding modeled with evolved neural cellular automata using the 3D HP model.
Santos, José; Villot, Pablo; Diéguez, Martin
2014-11-01
We used cellular automata (CA) for the modeling of the temporal folding of proteins. Unlike the focus of the vast research already done on the direct prediction of the final folded conformations, we will model the temporal and dynamic folding process. To reduce the complexity of the interactions and the nature of the amino acid elements, lattice models like HP were used, a model that categorizes the amino acids regarding their hydrophobicity. Taking into account the restrictions of the lattice model, the CA model defines how the amino acids interact through time to obtain a folded conformation. We extended the classical CA models using artificial neural networks for their implementation (neural CA), and we used evolutionary computing to automatically obtain the models by means of Differential Evolution. As the iterative folding also provides the final folded conformation, we can compare the results with those from direct prediction methods of the final protein conformation. Finally, as the neural CA that provides the iterative folding process can be evolved using several protein sequences and used as operators in the folding of another protein with different length, this represents an advantage over the NP-hard complexity of the original problem of the direct prediction.
Palii, Andrew; Tsukerblat, Boris
2016-10-25
In this article we consider two coupled tetrameric mixed-valence (MV) units accommodating electron pairs, which play the role of cells in molecular quantum cellular automata. It is supposed that the Coulombic interaction between instantly localized electrons within the cell markedly inhibits the transfer processes between the redox centers. Under this condition, as well as due to the vibronic localization of the electron pair, the cell can encode binary information, which is controlled by neighboring cells. We show that under certain conditions the two low-lying vibronic spin levels of the cell (ground and first excited states) can be regarded as originating from an effective spin-spin interaction. This is shown to depend on the internal parameters of the cell as well as on the induced polarization. Within this simplified two-level picture we evaluate the quantum entanglement in the system represented by the two electrons in the cell and show how the entanglement within the cell and concurrence can be controlled via polarization of the neighboring cells and temperature.
[A Cellular Automata Model for a Community Comprising Two Plant Species of Different Growth Forms].
Frolov, P V; Zubkova, E V; Komarov, A S
2015-01-01
A cellular automata computer model for the interactions between two plant species of different growth forms--the lime hairgrass Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., a sod cereal, and the moneywort Lysimachia nummularia L., a ground creeping perennial herb--is considered. Computer experiments on the self-maintenance of the populations of each species against the background of a gradual increase in the share of randomly eliminated individuals, coexistence of the populations of two species, and the effect of the phytogenous field have been conducted. As has been shown, all the studied factors determine the number of individuals and self-sustainability of the simulated populations by the degree of their impact. The limits of action have been determined for individual factors; within these limits, the specific features in plant reproduction and dispersal provide sustainable coexistence of the simulated populations. It has been demonstrated that the constructed model allows for studying the long-term developmental dynamics of the plants belonging to the selected growth forms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tinghuan; Zhang, Meng; Wu, Jianhui; Yuen, Chau; Tong, You
2016-10-01
Because of simple encryption and compression procedure in single step, compressed sensing (CS) is utilized to encrypt and compress an image. Difference of sparsity levels among blocks of the sparsely transformed image degrades compression performance. In this paper, motivated by this difference of sparsity levels, we propose an encryption and compression approach combining Kronecker CS (KCS) with elementary cellular automata (ECA). In the first stage of encryption, ECA is adopted to scramble the sparsely transformed image in order to uniformize sparsity levels. A simple approximate evaluation method is introduced to test the sparsity uniformity. Due to low computational complexity and storage, in the second stage of encryption, KCS is adopted to encrypt and compress the scrambled and sparsely transformed image, where the measurement matrix with a small size is constructed from the piece-wise linear chaotic map. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our proposed scrambling method based on ECA has great performance in terms of scrambling and uniformity of sparsity levels. And the proposed encryption and compression method can achieve better secrecy, compression performance and flexibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egger, Jan; Nimsky, Christopher
2016-03-01
Due to the aging population, spinal diseases get more and more common nowadays; e.g., lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is 40% for white women and 13% for white men in the United States. Thus the numbers of surgical spinal procedures are also increasing with the aging population and precise diagnosis plays a vital role in reducing complication and recurrence of symptoms. Spinal imaging of vertebral column is a tedious process subjected to interpretation errors. In this contribution, we aim to reduce time and error for vertebral interpretation by applying and studying the GrowCut - algorithm for boundary segmentation between vertebral body compacta and surrounding structures. GrowCut is a competitive region growing algorithm using cellular automata. For our study, vertebral T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were first manually outlined by neurosurgeons. Then, the vertebral bodies were segmented in the medical images by a GrowCut-trained physician using the semi-automated GrowCut-algorithm. Afterwards, results of both segmentation processes were compared using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the Hausdorff Distance (HD) which yielded to a DSC of 82.99+/-5.03% and a HD of 18.91+/-7.2 voxel, respectively. In addition, the times have been measured during the manual and the GrowCut segmentations, showing that a GrowCutsegmentation - with an average time of less than six minutes (5.77+/-0.73) - is significantly shorter than a pure manual outlining.
Electrical substation service-area estimation using Cellular Automata: An initial report
Fenwick, J.W.; Dowell, L.J.
1998-07-01
The service areas for electric power substations can be estimated using a Cellular Automata (CA) model. The CA model is a discrete, iterative process whereby substations acquire service area by claiming neighboring cells. The service area expands from a substation until a neighboring substation service area is met or the substation`s total capacity or other constraints are reached. The CA-model output is dependent on the rule set that defines cell interactions. The rule set is based on a hierarchy of quantitative metrics that represent real-world factors such as land use and population density. Together, the metrics determine the rate of cell acquisition and the upper bound for service area size. Assessing the CA-model accuracy requires comparisons to actual service areas. These actual service areas can be extracted from distribution maps. Quantitative assessment of the CA-model accuracy can be accomplished by a number of methods. Some are as simple as finding the percentage of cells predicted correctly, while others assess a penalty based on the distance from an incorrectly predicted cell to its correct service area. This is an initial report of a work in progress.
Impact of time delay on the dynamics of SEIR epidemic model using cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Natasha; Gupta, Arvind Kumar
2017-04-01
The delay of an infectious disease is significant when aiming to predict its strength and spreading patterns. In this paper the SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered) epidemic spread with time delay is analyzed through a two-dimensional cellular automata model. The time delay corresponding to the infectious span, predominantly, includes death during the latency period in due course of infection. The advancement of whole system is described by SEIR transition function complemented with crucial factors like inhomogeneous population distribution, birth and disease independent mortality. Moreover, to reflect more realistic population dynamics some stochastic parameters like population movement and connections at local level are also considered. The existence and stability of disease free equilibrium is investigated. Two prime behavioral patterns of disease dynamics is found depending on delay. The critical value of delay, beyond which there are notable variations in spread patterns, is computed. The influence of important parameters affecting the disease dynamics on basic reproduction number is also examined. The results obtained show that delay plays an affirmative role to control disease progression in an infected host.
On Cesàro Limit Distribution of a Class of Permutative Cellular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maass, Alejandro; Martinez, Servet
1998-01-01
We study Cesàro means (time averages) of the evolution measures of the class of permutative cellular automata over {0, 1}ℕ defined by (\\varphi _B x)_n = x_{n{kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} + {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} R} + Pi _{j{kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} = {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} 0}^{R{kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} - {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} 1} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} (1 + b_j + x_{n{kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} + {kern 1pt} {kern 1pt} j} ) where B= b 0 ⋯ b R-1is an aperiodic block in {0, 1} R and operations are taken mod 2. If the initial measure is Bernoulli, we prove that the limit of the Cesàro mean of the first column distribution exists. When R = 1 and B = 1, φ B is the mod 2 sum automaton. For this automaton we show that the limit is the (1/2, 1/2(-Bernoulli measure, and if the initial measure is Markov, we show that the limit of Cesàro mean of the one-site distribution is equidistributed.
Computer simulation of a cellular automata model for the immune response in a retrovirus system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, R. B.
1989-02-01
Immune response in a retrovirus system is modeled by a network of three binary cell elements to take into account some of the main functional features of T4 cells, T8 cells, and viruses. Two different intercell interactions are introduced, one of which leads to three fixed points while the other yields bistable fixed points oscillating between a healthy state and a sick state in a mean field treatment. Evolution of these cells is studied for quenched and annealed random interactions on a simple cubic lattice with a nearest neighbor interaction using inhomogenous cellular automata. Populations of T4 cells and viral cells oscillate together with damping (with constant amplitude) for annealed (quenched) interaction on increasing the value of mixing probability B from zero to a characteristic value B ca ( B cq). For higher B, the average number of T4 cells increases while that of the viral infected cells decreases monotonically on increasing B, suggesting a phase transition at B ca ( B cq).
Computer simulation of a cellular automata model for the immune response in a retrovirus system
Pandey, R.B.
1989-02-01
Immune response in a retrovirus system is modeled by a network of three binary cell elements to take into account some of the main functional features of T4 cells, T8 cells, and viruses. Two different intercell interactions are introduced, one of which leads to three fixed points while the other yields bistable fixed points oscillating between a healthy state and a sick state in a mean field treatment. Evolution of these cells is studied for quenched and annealed random interactions on a simple cubic lattice with a nearest neighbor interaction using inhomogenous cellular automata. Populations of T4 cells and viral cells oscillate together with damping (with constant amplitude) for annealed (quenched) interaction on increasing the value of mixing probability B from zero to a characteristic value B/sub ca/ (B/sub cq/). For higher B, the average number of T4 cells increases while that of the viral infected cells decreases monotonically on increasing B, suggesting a phase transition at B/sub ca/ (B/sub cq/).
Dynamics of the HIV infection under antiretroviral therapy: A cellular automata approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Ramón E. R.; Coutinho, Sérgio; Zorzenon dos Santos, Rita Maria; de Figueirêdo, Pedro Hugo
2013-10-01
The dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus infection under antiretroviral therapy is investigated using a cellular automata model where the effectiveness of each drug is self-adjusted by the concentration of CD4+ T infected cells present at each time step. The effectiveness of the drugs and the infected cell concentration at the beginning of treatment are the control parameters of the cell population’s dynamics during therapy. The model allows describing processes of mono and combined therapies. The dynamics that emerges from this model when considering combined antiretroviral therapies reproduces with fair qualitative agreement the phases and different time scales of the process. As observed in clinical data, the results reproduce the significant decrease in the population of infected cells and a concomitant increase of the population of healthy cells in a short timescale (weeks) after the initiation of treatment. Over long time scales, early treatment with potent drugs may lead to undetectable levels of infection. For late treatment or treatments starting with a low density of CD4+ T healthy cells it was observed that the treatment may lead to a steady state in which the T cell counts are above the threshold associated with the onset of AIDS. The results obtained are validated through comparison to available clinical trial data.
Modelling the shrub encroachment in a grassland with a Cellular Automata Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caracciolo, D.; Noto, L. V.; Istanbulluoglu, E.
2014-09-01
Arid and semi-arid grasslands of southwestern North America have changed dramatically over the last 150 years as a result of shrub encroachment, i.e. the increase in density, cover and biomass of indigenous shrubby plants in grasslands. Numerous studies have documented the expansion of shrublands in the southwestern American grasslands; in particular shrub encroachment has occurred strongly in part of the northern Chihuahuan desert since 1860. This encroachment has been simulated using an ecohydrological Cellular Automata model, CATGraSS. It is a spatially distributed model driven by spatially explicit irradiance and runs on a fine-resolution gridded domain. Plant competition is modelled by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants; both are calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. For this study CATGraSS has been improved with a stochastic fire module and a grazing function. The model has been implemented in a small area in Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), characterized by two vegetation types (grass savanna and creosote bush shrub), considering as encroachment causes the fire return period increase, the grazing increase, the seed dispersal caused by animals, the role of wind direction and plant type competition. The model is able to reproduce the encroachment that has occurred in SNWR, simulating an increase of the shrub from 2% in 1860 to the current shrub percentage, 42%, and highlighting among the most influential factors the reduced fire frequency and the increased grazing intensity.
A probabilistic seismic hazard model based on cellular automata and information theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, A.; Posadas, A. M.; Marfil, J. M.
2005-03-01
We try to obtain a spatio-temporal model of earthquakes occurrence based on Information Theory and Cellular Automata (CA). The CA supply useful models for many investigations in natural sciences; here, it have been used to establish temporal relations between the seismic events occurring in neighbouring parts of the crust. The catalogue used is divided into time intervals and the region into cells, which are declared active or inactive by means of a certain energy release criterion (four criteria have been tested). A pattern of active and inactive cells which evolves over time is given. A stochastic CA is constructed with the patterns to simulate their spatio-temporal evolution. The interaction between the cells is represented by the neighbourhood (2-D and 3-D models have been tried). The best model is chosen by maximizing the mutual information between the past and the future states. Finally, a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Map is drawn up for the different energy releases. The method has been applied to the Iberian Peninsula catalogue from 1970 to 2001. For 2-D, the best neighbourhood has been the Moore's one of radius 1; the von Neumann's 3-D also gives hazard maps and takes into account the depth of the events. Gutenberg-Richter's law and Hurst's analysis have been obtained for the data as a test of the catalogue. Our results are consistent with previous studies both of seismic hazard and stress conditions in the zone, and with the seismicity occurred after 2001.
Alemani, Davide; Pappalardo, Francesco; Pennisi, Marzio; Motta, Santo; Brusic, Vladimir
2012-02-28
In the last decades the Lattice Boltzmann method (LB) has been successfully used to simulate a variety of processes. The LB model describes the microscopic processes occurring at the cellular level and the macroscopic processes occurring at the continuum level with a unique function, the probability distribution function. Recently, it has been tried to couple deterministic approaches with probabilistic cellular automata (probabilistic CA) methods with the aim to model temporal evolution of tumor growths and three dimensional spatial evolution, obtaining hybrid methodologies. Despite the good results attained by CA-PDE methods, there is one important issue which has not been completely solved: the intrinsic stochastic nature of the interactions at the interface between cellular (microscopic) and continuum (macroscopic) level. CA methods are able to cope with the stochastic phenomena because of their probabilistic nature, while PDE methods are fully deterministic. Even if the coupling is mathematically correct, there could be important statistical effects that could be missed by the PDE approach. For such a reason, to be able to develop and manage a model that takes into account all these three level of complexity (cellular, molecular and continuum), we believe that PDE should be replaced with a statistic and stochastic model based on the numerical discretization of the Boltzmann equation: The Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. In this work we introduce a new hybrid method to simulate tumor growth and immune system, by applying Cellular Automata Lattice Boltzmann (CA-LB) approach.
Causal architecture, complexity and self-organization in time series and cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla
2001-10-01
All self-respecting nonlinear scientists know self- organization when they see it: except when we disagree. For this reason, if no other, it is important to put some mathematical spine into our floppy intuitive notion of self-organization. Only a few measures of self- organization have been proposed; none can be adopted in good intellectual conscience. To find a decent formalization of self-organization, we need to pin down what we mean by organization. The best answer is that the organization of a process is its causal architecture-its internal, possibly hidden, causal states and their interconnections. Computational mechanics is a method for inferring causal architecture-represented by a mathematical object called the ɛ-machine-from observed behavior. The ɛ-machine captures all patterns in the process which have any predictive power, so computational mechanics is also a method for pattern discovery. In this work, I develop computational mechanics for four increasingly sophisticated types of process-memoryless transducers, time series, transducers with memory, and cellular automata. In each case I prove the optimality and uniqueness of the ɛ-machine's representation of the causal architecture, and give reliable algorithms for pattern discovery. The ɛ-machine is the organization of the process, or at least of the part of it which is relevant to our measurements. It leads to a natural measure of the statistical complexity of processes, namely the amount of information needed to specify the state of the E-machine. Self-organization is a self- generated increase in statistical complexity. This fulfills various hunches which have been advanced in the literature, seems to accord with people's intuitions, and is both mathematically precise and operational.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Juan Collados Lara, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, David
2016-04-01
The snow availability in Alpine catchments is essential for the economy of these areas. It plays an important role in tourist development but also in the management of the Water Resources Snow is an important water resource in many river basins with mountains in the catchment area. The determination of the snow water equivalent requires the estimation of the evolution of the snow pack (cover area, thickness and snow density) along the time. Although there are complex physical models of the dynamics of the snow pack, sometimes the data available are scarce and a stochastic model like the cellular automata (CA) can be of great practical interest. CA can be used to model the dynamics of growth and wane of the snow pack. The CA is calibrated with historical data. This requires the determination of transition rules that are capable of modeling the evolution of the spatial pattern of snow cover area. Furthermore, CA requires the definition of states and neighborhoods. We have included topographical variables and climatological variables in order to define the state of each pixel. The evolution of snow cover in a pixel depends on its state, the state of the neighboring pixels and the transition rules. The calibration of the CA is done using daily MODIS data, available for the period 24/02/2002 to present with a spatial resolution of 500 m, and the LANDSAT information available with a sixteen-day periodicity from 1984 to the present and with spatial resolution of 30 m. The methodology has been applied to estimation of the snow cover area of Sierra Nevada mountain range in the Southern of Spain to obtain snow cover area daily information with 500 m spatial resolution for the period 1980-2014. Acknowledgments: This research has been partially supported by the GESINHIMPADAPT project (CGL2013-48424-C2-2-R) with Spanish MINECO funds. We would also like to thank NASA DAAC and LANDSAT project for the data provided for this study.
Mixed-spin [2 × 2] Fe4 grid complex optimized for quantum cellular automata.
Schneider, Benjamin; Demeshko, Serhiy; Neudeck, Sven; Dechert, Sebastian; Meyer, Franc
2013-11-18
The new pyrazolate-bridged proligand 4-methyl-3,5-bis{6-(2,2'-bipyridyl)}pyrazole ((Me)LH) has been synthesized. Similar to its congener that lacks the backbone methyl substituent ((H)LH) it forms a robust Fe(II)4 grid complex, [(Me)L4Fe(II)4](BF4)4. The molecular structure of [(Me)L4Fe(II)4](BF4)4·2MeCN has been elucidated by X-ray diffraction, revealing two high-spin (HS) and two low-spin (LS) ferrous ions at opposite corners of the rhombic metal ion arrangement. SQUID and (57)Fe Mössbauer data for solid material showed that this [HS-LS-HS-LS] configuration persists over a wide temperature range, between 7 and 250 K, while spin-crossover sets in only above 250 K. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy a [1HS-3LS] configuration is present in solution at 80 K. Thus, the methyl substituent in [(Me)L](-) leads to a stronger ligand field compared to parent [(H)L](-) and hence to a higher LS fraction both in the solid state and in solution. Cyclic voltammetry of [(Me)L4Fe(II)4](BF4)4 reveals four sequential oxidations coming in two pairs with pronounced stability of the di-mixed-valence species [(Me)L4Fe(II)2Fe(III)2](6+) (K(C) = 3.35 × 10(8)). The particular [HS-LS-HS-LS] configuration as well as the di-mixed-valence configuration, both with identical spin or redox states at diagonally opposed vertices of the grid, make this system attractive as a molecular component for quantum cellular automata.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caracciolo, Domenico; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Noto, Leonardo V.
2014-05-01
Arid grasslands of southwestern North America have changed dramatically over the last 150 years as a result of the shrub encroachment, i.e. the increase in density and biomass of indigenous shrubby plants in grasslands. Numerous studies have documented the expansion of shrublands in the southwestern America Grasslands; in particular the encroachment of shrubs in american deserts has strongly occurred in the Chihuahuan deserts from 1860. The Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), located in the northern Chihuahuan desert shows a dramatic encroachment front of creosote bush (i.e., shrub) into native desert grassland. This encroachment has been here simulated using an Ecohydrological Cellular Automata Model, CATGraSS. CATGraSS is a spatially distributed model driven by spatially explicit irradiance and runs on a fine-resolution gridded domain. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or can represent bare soil. Plant competition is modeled by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. For this study, the model is improved with a stochastic fire and a grazing function, and its plant establishment algorithm is modified. CATGraSS is implemented in a small area (7.3 km2) in SNWR, characterized by two vegetation types: grass savanna and creosote bush. The causes that have been considered for the encroachment in this case study are: the fire return period increase, the grazing increase, the seed dispersal caused by animals, the role of wind direction and the shrub-grass inhibition effect. The model is able to reproduce the encroachment occurred in the SNWR basin, simulating an increasing of the shrub from 2% in 1860 to 42% (i.e., current shrub percentage) in 2010 highlighting as more influent factors the reduced fire frequency and the increased grazing intensity. For the future management and encroachment control, the reduction of the fire return period and the grazing removal
An enhanced high-speed multi-digit BCD adder using quantum-dot cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajitha, D.; Ramanaiah, K. V.; Sumalatha, V.
2017-02-01
The advent of development of high-performance, low-power digital circuits is achieved by a suitable emerging nanodevice called quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). Even though many efficient arithmetic circuits were designed using QCA, there is still a challenge to implement high-speed circuits in an optimized manner. Among these circuits, one of the essential structures is a parallel multi-digit decimal adder unit with significant speed which is very attractive for future environments. To achieve high speed, a new correction logic formulation method is proposed for single and multi-digit BCD adder. The proposed enhanced single-digit BCD adder (ESDBA) is 26% faster than the carry flow adder (CFA)-based BCD adder. The multi-digit operations are also performed using the proposed ESDBA, which is cascaded innovatively. The enhanced multi-digit BCD adder (EMDBA) performs two 4-digit and two 8-digit BCD addition 50% faster than the CFA-based BCD adder with the nominal overhead of the area. The EMDBA performs two 4-digit BCD addition 24% faster with 23% decrease in the area, similarly for 8-digit operation the EMDBA achieves 36% increase in speed with 21% less area compared to the existing carry look ahead (CLA)-based BCD adder design. The proposed multi-digit adder produces significantly less delay of (N –1) + 3.5 clock cycles compared to the N* One digit BCD adder delay required by the conventional BCD adder method. It is observed that as per our knowledge this is the first innovative proposal for multi-digit BCD addition using QCA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qingcai; Shi, Jianghong; Liu, Xiaowei; Wu, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hui
2013-03-01
A cellular automata model (CA model) was used to simulate the soil column leaching process of estrogens during the processes of migration and transformation. The results of the simulated leaching experiment showed that the first-order degradation rates of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were 0.131 h- 1 for E2, 0.099 h- 1 for E1 and 0.064 h- 1 for EE2 in the EE2 and E2 leaching process, and the first-order sorption rates were 5.94 h- 1 for E2, 5.63 h- 1 for EE2, 3.125 h- 1 for E1. Their sorption rates were positively correlated with the n-octanol/water partition coefficients. When the diffusion rate was low, its impact on the simulation results was insignificant. The increase in sorption and degradation rates caused the decrease in the total estrogens that leached. In addition, increasing the sorption rate could delay the emerging time of the maximum concentration of estrogen that leached, whereas increasing the degradation rate could shorten the emerging time of the maximum concentration of estrogen that leached. The comparison made between the experimental data and the simulation results of the CA model and the HYDRUS-1D software showed that the establishment of one-component and multi-component CA models could simulate EE2 and E2 soil column leaching processes, and the CA models achieve an intuitive, dynamic, and visual simulation.
Optimal design of variable-stiffness fiber-reinforced composites using cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setoodeh, Shahriar
The growing number of applications of composite materials in aerospace and naval structures along with advancements in manufacturing technologies demand continuous innovations in the design of composite structures. In the traditional design of composite laminates, fiber orientation angles are constant for each layer and are usually limited to 0, 90, and +/-45 degrees. To fully benefit from the directional properties of composite laminates, such limitations have to be removed. The concept of variable-stiffness laminates allows the stiffness properties to vary spatially over the laminate. Through tailoring of fiber orientations and laminate thickness spatially in an optimal fashion, mechanical properties of a part can be improved. In this thesis, the optimal design of variable-stiffness fiber-reinforced composite laminates is studied using an emerging numerical engineering optimization scheme based on the cellular automata paradigm. A cellular automaton (CA) based design scheme uses local update rule for both field variables (displacements) and design variables (lay-up configuration and laminate density measure) in an iterative fashion to convergence to an optimal design. In the present work, the displacements are updated based on the principle of local equilibrium and the design variables are updated according to the optimality criteria for minimum compliance design. A closed form displacement update rule for constant thickness isotropic continua is derived, while for the general anisotropic continua with variable thickness a numeric update rule is used. Combined lay-up and topology design of variable-stiffness flat laminates is performed under the action of in-plane loads and bending loads. An optimality criteria based formulation is used to obtain local design rules for minimum compliance design subject to a volume constraint. It is shown that the design rule splits into a two step application. In the first step an optimal lay-up configuration is computed and in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozumder, Chandan K.
The objective in crashworthiness design is to generate plastically deformable energy absorbing structures which can satisfy the prescribed force-displacement (FD) response. The FD behavior determines the reaction force, displacement and the internal energy that the structure should withstand. However, attempts to include this requirement in structural optimization problems remain scarce. The existing commercial optimization tools utilize models under static loading conditions because of the complexities associated with dynamic/impact loading. Due to the complexity of a crash event and the consequent time required to numerically analyze the dynamic response of the structure, classical methods (i.e., gradient-based and direct) are not well developed to solve this undertaking. This work presents an approach under the framework of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method to solve the above challenge. The HCA method has been successfully applied to nonlinear transient topology optimization for crashworthiness design. In this work, the HCA algorithm has been utilized to develop an efficient methodology for synthesizing shell-based sheet metal structures with optimal material thickness distribution under a dynamic loading event using topometry optimization. This method utilizes the cellular automata (CA) computing paradigm and nonlinear transient finite element analysis (FEA) via ls-dyna. In this method, a set field variables is driven to their target states by changing a convenient set of design variables (e.g., thickness). These rules operate locally in cells within a lattice that only know local conditions. The field variables associated with the cells are driven to a setpoint to obtain the desired structure. This methodology is used to design for structures with controlled energy absorption with specified buckling zones. The peak reaction force and the maximum displacement are also constrained to meet the desired safety level according to passenger safety
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imre, Alexandra
Nanomagnets that exhibit only two stable states of magnetization can represent digital bits. Magnetic random access memories store binary information in such nanomagnets, and currently, fabrication of dense arrays of nanomagnets is also under development for application in hard disk drives. The latter faces the challenge of avoiding magnetic dipole interactions between the individual elements in the arrays, which limits data storage density. On the contrary, these interactions are utilized in the magnetic quantum-dot cellular automata (MQCA) system, which is a network of closely-spaced, dipole-coupled, single-domain nanomagnets designed for digital computation. MQCA offers very low power dissipation together with high integration density of functional devices, as QCA implementations do in general. In addition, MQCA can operate over a wide temperature range from sub-Kelvin to the Curie temperature. Information propagation and inversion have previously been demonstrated in MQCA. In this dissertation, room temperature operation of the basic MQCA logic gate, i.e. the three-input majority gate, is demonstrated for the first time. The samples were fabricated on silicon wafers by using electron-beam lithography for patterning thermally evaporated ferromagnetic metals. The networks of nanomagnets were imaged by magnetic force microscopy (MFM), with which individual magnetization states were distinguished and mapped. Magnetic dipole-ordering in the networks was investigated in different samples. Average ordering lengths were calculated by statistical analysis of the MFM images taken after several independent demagnetization processes. The average ordering length was found to be dependent on the shape and size of the nanomagnets and limited by defects introduced during fabrication. Defect tolerant shape-design was investigated in samples of many different ring-shaped and elongated nanomagnets. The shape-effects were explained by means of micromagnetic simulations. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casey, Alex; Iannacchione, Germano; Georgiev, Georgi; Cebe, Peggy
2014-03-01
A computational algorithm has been developed to simulate the transport properties of oriented and un-oriented thin film nanocomposites of isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) with increasing CNT concentration. Our goal is to be able to design materials with optimal properties using simulations. We use cellular automata approach in Matlab simulation environment. The percolation threshold is reproduced in the simulations, matching experimental data. Upon percolation, the thermal transport in the films increases sharply, more so for the electrical than for the thermal conductivity, due to the larger difference in the electric conductivities of the CNTs and the polymer. To verify the simulation, the thin-film samples were sheared in the melt at 200 C at 1 Hz in a Linkan microscope shearing hot stage. The thermal and electrical conductivity measurements were performed on the same cell arrangement with the transport perpendicular to the thin-film plane using a DC method. The thermal and electrical conductivity are higher for the un-sheared as compared to the sheared samples with stronger temperature dependence for the latter as compared to the former. Our cellular automata simulations provide information about the microstructure-macroscopic property relation in the thin film nanocomposites and can be extended to simulations of other important materials.
Yang, Qing-Sheng; Qiao, Ji-Gang; Ai, Bin
2013-09-01
Taking the Dongguan City with rapid urbanization as a case, and selecting landscape ecological security level as evaluation criterion, the urbanization cellular number of 1 km x 1 km ecological security cells was obtained, and imbedded into the transition rules of cellular automata (CA) as the restraint term to control urban development, establish ecological security urban CA, and simulate ecological security urban development pattern. The results showed the integrated landscape ecological security index of the City decreased from 0.497 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2005, indicating that the ecological security at landscape scale was decreased. The CA-simulated integrated ecological security index of the City in 2005 was increased from the measured 0.395 to 0.479, showing that the simulated urban landscape ecological pressure from human became lesser, ecological security became better, and integrated landscape ecological security became higher. CA could be used as an effective tool in researching urban ecological security.
Simulation of debris flow events in Sicily by cellular automata model SCIDDICA_SS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cancelliere, A.; Lupiano, V.; Peres, D. J.; Stancanelli, L.; Avolio, M.; Foti, E.; Di Gregorio, S.
2013-12-01
Debris flow models are widely used for hazard mapping or for evaluating the effectiveness of risk mitigation measures. Several models analyze the dynamics of debris flow runout solving Partial Differential Equations. In use of such models, difficulties arise in estimating kinematic geotechnical soil parameters for real phenomena. In order to overcome such difficulties, alternative semi-empirical approaches can be employed, such as macroscopic Cellular Automata (CA). In particular, for CA simulation purposes, the runout of debris flows emerges from local interactions in a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves within a spatial and temporal discretum. The attributes of each cell (substates) describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is splitted into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the CA transition function. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. In this study, we present an application of the macroscopic CA semi-empirical model SCIDDICA_SS3 to the Peloritani Mountains area in Sicily island, Italy. The model was applied using detailed data from the 1 October 2009 debris flow event, which was triggered by a rainfall event of about 250 mm falling in 9 hours, that caused the death of 37 persons. This region is characterized by river valleys with large hillslope angles (30°-60°), catchment basins of small extensions (0.5-12 km2) and soil composed by metamorphic material, which is easy to be eroded. CA usage implies a calibration phase, that identifies an optimal set of parameters capable of adequately play back the considered case, and a validation phase, that tests the model on a sufficient (and different) number of cases similar in terms of physical and geomorphological properties. The performance of the model can be measured in terms of a fitness
Molina, Mario Martínez; Moreno-Armendáriz, Marco A; Carlos Seck Tuoh Mora, Juan
2013-11-07
A two-dimensional lattice model based on Cellular Automata theory and swarm intelligence is used to study the spatial and population dynamics of a theoretical ecosystem. It is found that the social interactions among predators provoke the formation of clusters, and that by increasing the mobility of predators the model enters into an oscillatory behavior.
Bahar, Ali Newaz; Waheed, Sajjad
2016-01-01
The fundamental logical element of a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuit is majority voter gate (MV). The efficiency of a QCA circuit is depends on the efficiency of the MV. This paper presents an efficient single layer five-input majority voter gate (MV5). The structure of proposed MV5 is very simple and easy to implement in any logical circuit. This proposed MV5 reduce number of cells and use conventional QCA cells. However, using MV5 a multilayer 1-bit full-adder (FA) is designed. The functional accuracy of the proposed MV5 and FA are confirmed by QCADesigner a well-known QCA layout design and verification tools. Furthermore, the power dissipation of proposed circuits are estimated, which shows that those circuits dissipate extremely small amount of energy and suitable for reversible computing. The simulation outcomes demonstrate the superiority of the proposed circuit.
Christie, John A; Forrest, Ryan P; Corcelli, Steven A; Wasio, Natalie A; Quardokus, Rebecca C; Brown, Ryan; Kandel, S Alex; Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig S; Henderson, Kenneth W
2015-12-14
The preparation of 7-Fc(+) -8-Fc-7,8-nido-[C2 B9 H10 ](-) (Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) ) demonstrates the successful incorporation of a carborane cage as an internal counteranion bridging between ferrocene and ferrocenium units. This neutral mixed-valence Fe(II) /Fe(III) complex overcomes the proximal electronic bias imposed by external counterions, a practical limitation in the use of molecular switches. A combination of UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopic and TD-DFT computational studies indicate that electron transfer within Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) is achieved through a bridge-mediated mechanism. This electronic framework therefore provides the possibility of an all-neutral null state, a key requirement for the implementation of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) molecular computing. The adhesion, ordering, and characterization of Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) on Au(111) has been observed by scanning tunneling microscopy.
Vafaee Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Mosafer, Sara; Moattar, Mohammad Hossein
2016-06-01
This paper proposes an approach for gene selection in microarray data. The proposed approach consists of a primary filter approach using Fisher criterion which reduces the initial genes and hence the search space and time complexity. Then, a wrapper approach which is based on cellular learning automata (CLA) optimized with ant colony method (ACO) is used to find the set of features which improve the classification accuracy. CLA is applied due to its capability to learn and model complicated relationships. The selected features from the last phase are evaluated using ROC curve and the most effective while smallest feature subset is determined. The classifiers which are evaluated in the proposed framework are K-nearest neighbor; support vector machine and naïve Bayes. The proposed approach is evaluated on 4 microarray datasets. The evaluations confirm that the proposed approach can find the smallest subset of genes while approaching the maximum accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Dong; Zhu, Jing Chuan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yong
The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of TA15 (Ti-6Al-2Zr-1Mo-1V) titanium alloy during the hot deformation process was studied by the Cellular Automata (CA) model which is base on the dislocation density theory. To build the CA model, the dislocation density model, dynamic recovery model, nucleation model and grain growth model were introduced and developed. The influences of strain rate on the microstructure evolution and flow stress character were investigated which shows that high strain rate leads to later DRX appearance, high flow stress peak value, small mean size of recrystallizing grains(R-grains) and low DRX percentage, but they have the similar Avrami curve. The characteristic of DRX process in a modeling non-uniform temperature filed (NTF) has been studied. All the simulation results show good agreement with the pioneer's work and experimental results.
Monteagudo, Ángel; Santos, José
2015-01-01
Cancer can be viewed as an emergent behavior in terms of complex system theory and artificial life, Cellular Automata (CA) being the tool most used for studying and characterizing the emergent behavior. Different approaches with CA models were used to model cancer growth. The use of the abstract model of acquired cancer hallmarks permits the direct modeling at cellular level, where a cellular automaton defines the mitotic and apoptotic behavior of cells, and allows for an analysis of different dynamics of the cellular system depending on the presence of the different hallmarks. A CA model based on the presence of hallmarks in the cells, which includes a simulation of the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) and their implications for the resultant growth behavior of the multicellular system, was employed. This modeling of cancer growth, in the avascular phase, was employed to analyze the effect of cancer treatments in a cancer stem cell context. The model clearly explains why, after treatment against non-stem cancer cells, the regrowth capability of CSCs generates a faster regrowth of tumor behavior, and also shows that a continuous low-intensity treatment does not favor CSC proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing an unproblematic control of future tumor regrowth. The analysis performed indicates that, contrary to the current attempts at CSC control, trying to make CSC proliferation more difficult is an important point to consider, especially in the immediate period after a standard treatment for controlling non-stem cancer cell proliferation.
Conway's Game of Life is a near-critical metastable state in the multiverse of cellular automata.
Reia, Sandro M; Kinouchi, Osame
2014-05-01
Conway's cellular automaton Game of Life has been conjectured to be a critical (or quasicritical) dynamical system. This criticality is generally seen as a continuous order-disorder transition in cellular automata (CA) rule space. Life's mean-field return map predicts an absorbing vacuum phase (ρ = 0) and an active phase density, with ρ = 0.37, which contrasts with Life's absorbing states in a square lattice, which have a stationary density of ρ(2D) ≈ 0.03. Here, we study and classify mean-field maps for 6144 outer-totalistic CA and compare them with the corresponding behavior found in the square lattice. We show that the single-site mean-field approach gives qualitative (and even quantitative) predictions for most of them. The transition region in rule space seems to correspond to a nonequilibrium discontinuous absorbing phase transition instead of a continuous order-disorder one. We claim that Life is a quasicritical nucleation process where vacuum phase domains invade the alive phase. Therefore, Life is not at the "border of chaos," but thrives on the "border of extinction."
Conway's game of life is a near-critical metastable state in the multiverse of cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reia, Sandro M.; Kinouchi, Osame
2014-05-01
Conway's cellular automaton Game of Life has been conjectured to be a critical (or quasicritical) dynamical system. This criticality is generally seen as a continuous order-disorder transition in cellular automata (CA) rule space. Life's mean-field return map predicts an absorbing vacuum phase (ρ =0) and an active phase density, with ρ =0.37, which contrasts with Life's absorbing states in a square lattice, which have a stationary density of ρ2D≈0.03. Here, we study and classify mean-field maps for 6144 outer-totalistic CA and compare them with the corresponding behavior found in the square lattice. We show that the single-site mean-field approach gives qualitative (and even quantitative) predictions for most of them. The transition region in rule space seems to correspond to a nonequilibrium discontinuous absorbing phase transition instead of a continuous order-disorder one. We claim that Life is a quasicritical nucleation process where vacuum phase domains invade the alive phase. Therefore, Life is not at the "border of chaos," but thrives on the "border of extinction."
Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun
2013-01-01
Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.
Gangadari, Bhoopal Rao; Ahamed, Shaik Rafi
2016-12-01
In this paper, we presented a novel approach of low energy consumption architecture of S-Box used in Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm using programmable second order reversible cellular automata (RCA (2)). The architecture entails a low power implementation with minimal delay overhead and the performance of proposed RCA (2) based S-Box in terms of security is evaluated using the cryptographic properties such as nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria, entropy and also found that the proposed architecture is secure enough for cryptographic applications. Moreover, the proposed AES algorithm architecture simulation studies show that energy consumption of 68.726 nJ, power dissipation of 3.856 mW for 0.18- μm at 13.69 MHz and energy consumption of 29.408 nJ, power dissipation of 1.65 mW for 0.13- μm at 13.69 MHz. The proposed AES algorithm with RCA (2) based S-Box shows a reduction power consumption by 50 % and energy consumption by 5 % compared to best classical S-Box and composite field arithmetic based AES algorithm. Apart from that, it is also shown that RCA (2) based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible, low power dissipation compared to that of LUT based S-Box and hence suitable for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications.
Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun
2013-01-01
Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans. PMID:24244472
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yingqing; Ai, Bin; Yao, Yao; Zhong, Fajun
2015-06-01
Cellular automata (CA) have proven to be very effective for simulating and predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of complex geographical phenomena. Traditional methods generally pose problems in determining the structure and parameters of CA for a large, complex region or a long-term simulation. This study presents a self-adaptive CA model integrated with an artificial immune system to discover dynamic transition rules automatically. The model's parameters are allowed to be self-modified with the application of multi-temporal remote sensing images: that is, the CA can adapt itself to the changed and complex environment. Therefore, urban dynamic evolution rules over time can be efficiently retrieved by using this integrated model. The proposed AIS-based CA model was then used to simulate the rural-urban land conversion of Guangzhou city, located in the core of China's Pearl River Delta. The initial urban land was directly classified from TM satellite image in the year 1990. Urban land in the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2009 and 2012 was correspondingly used as the observed data to calibrate the model's parameters. With the quantitative index figure of merit (FoM) and pattern similarity, the comparison was further performed between the AIS-based model and a Logistic CA model. The results indicate that the AIS-based CA model can perform better and with higher precision in simulating urban evolution, and the simulated spatial pattern is closer to the actual development situation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiihonen, Juha; Schramm, Andreas; Kylänpää, Ilkka; Rantala, Tapio T.
2016-02-01
A thorough simulation study is carried out on thermal and quantum delocalization effects on the feasibility of a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) cell. The occupation correlation of two electrons is modeled with a simple four-site array of harmonic quantum dots (QD). QD sizes range from 20 nm to 40 nm with site separations from 20 nm to 100 nm, relevant for state-of-the-art GaAs/InAs semiconductor technology. The choice of parameters introduces QD overlap, which is only simulated properly with exact treatment of strong Coulombic correlation and thermal equilibrium quantum statistics. These are taken into account with path integral Monte Carlo approach. Thus, we demonstrate novel joint effects of quantum delocalization and decoherence in QCA, but also highly sophisticated quantitative evidence supporting the traditional relations in pragmatic QCA design. Moreover, we show the effects of dimensionality and spin state, and point out the parameter space conditions, where the ‘classical’ treatment becomes invalid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan
2015-08-01
This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y.; Qin, R. S.; Chen, D. F.
2013-08-01
A three-dimensional (3D) cellular automata (CA) model has been developed for the simulation of microstructure evolution in alloy solidification. The governing rule for the CA model is associated with the phase transition driving force which is obtained via a thermodynamic database. This determines the migration rate of the non-equilibrium solid-liquid (SL) interface and is calculated according to the local temperature and chemical composition. The curvature of the interface and the anisotropic property of the surface energy are taken into consideration. A 3D finite element (FE) method is applied for the calculation of transient heat and mass transfer. Numerical calculations for the solidification of Fe-1.5 wt% C alloy have been performed. The morphological evolution of dendrites, carbon segregation and temperature distribution in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are studied. The parameters affecting the growth of equiaxed and columnar dendrites are discussed. The calculated results are verified using the analytical model and previous experiments. The method provides a sophisticated approach to the solidification of multi-phase and multi-component systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2016-06-01
In this article we present an improved version of the Cellular Automata floor field model making use of a sub-mesh system to increase the maximum density allowed during simulation and reproduce phenomena observed in dense crowds. In order to calibrate the model's parameters and to validate it we used data obtained from an empirical observation of bidirectional pedestrian flow. A good agreement was found between numerical simulation and experimental data and, in particular, the double outflow peak observed during the formation of deadlocks could be reproduced in numerical simulations, thus allowing the analysis of deadlock formation and dissolution. Finally, we used the developed high density model to compute the flow-ratio dependent fundamental diagram of bidirectional flow, demonstrating the instability of balanced flow and predicting the bidirectional flow behavior at very high densities. The model we presented here can be used to prevent dense crowd accidents in the future and to investigate the dynamics of the accidents which already occurred in the past. Additionally, fields such as granular and active matter physics may benefit from the developed framework to study different collective phenomena.
Shrestha, Sachin Man Bajimaya; Joldes, Grand Roman; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol
2013-04-01
We model complete growth of an avascular tumour by employing cellular automata for the growth of cells and steady-state equation to solve for nutrient concentrations. Our modelling and computer simulation results show that, in the case of a brain tumour, oxygen distribution in the tumour volume may be sufficiently described by a time-independent steady-state equation without losing the characteristics of a time-dependent diffusion equation. This makes the solution of oxygen concentration in the tumour volume computationally more efficient, thus enabling simulation of tumour growth on a large scale. We solve this steady-state equation using a central difference method. We take into account the composition of cells and intercellular adhesion in addition to processes involved in cell cycle--proliferation, quiescence, apoptosis, and necrosis--in the tumour model. More importantly, we consider cell mutation that gives rise to different phenotypes and therefore a tumour with heterogeneous population of cells. A new phenotype is probabilistically chosen and has the ability to survive at lower levels of nutrient concentration and reproduce faster. We show that heterogeneity of cells that compose a tumour leads to its irregular growth and that avascular growth is not supported for tumours of diameter above 18 mm. We compare results from our growth simulation with existing experimental data on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and tumour spheroid cultures and show that our results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.
Pokkuluri, Kiran Sree; Inampudi, Ramesh Babu; Nedunuri, S S S N Usha Devi
2014-01-01
Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000). The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata) and MCC (modified clonal classifier) to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992) datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006) dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000) and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002) datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively.
Chai, C; Wong, Y D
2014-02-01
At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aburas, Maher Milad; Ho, Yuek Ming; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ash'aari, Zulfa Hanan
2016-10-01
In recent years, several types of simulation and prediction models have been used within a GIS environment to determine a realistic future for urban growth patterns. These models include quantitative and spatio-temporal techniques that are implemented to monitor urban growth. The results derived through these techniques are used to create future policies that take into account sustainable development and the demands of future generations. The aim of this paper is to provide a basis for a literature review of urban Cellular Automata (CA) models to find the most suitable approach for a realistic simulation of land use changes. The general characteristics of simulation models of urban growth and urban CA models are described, and the different techniques used in the design of these models are classified. The strengths and weaknesses of the various models are identified based on the analysis and discussion of the characteristics of these models. The results of the review confirm that the CA model is one of the strongest models for simulating urban growth patterns owing to its structure, simplicity, and possibility of evolution. Limitations of the CA model, namely weaknesses in the quantitative aspect, and the inability to include the driving forces of urban growth in the simulation process, may be minimized by integrating it with other quantitative models, such as via the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Markov Chain and frequency ratio models. Realistic simulation can be achieved when socioeconomic factors and spatial and temporal dimensions are integrated in the simulation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohmori, Shousuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro
2016-01-01
Ultradiscrete equations are derived from a set of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, and cellular automaton rules are obtained on the basis of the ultradiscrete equations. Some rules reproduce the dynamical properties of the original reaction-diffusion equations, namely, bistability and pulse annihilation. Furthermore, other rules bring about soliton-like preservation and periodic pulse generation with a pacemaker, which are not obtained from the original reaction-diffusion equations.
Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Parimal; Barik, Jyotiskona; Chowdhury, S M; Ghosh, Tuhin; Hazra, Sugata
2015-06-01
The composition and assemblage of mangroves in the Bangladesh Sundarbans are changing systematically in response to several environmental factors. In order to understand the impact of the changing environmental conditions on the mangrove forest, species composition maps for the years 1985, 1995 and 2005 were studied. In the present study, 1985 and 1995 species zonation maps were considered as base data and the cellular automata-Markov chain model was run to predict the species zonation for the year 2005. The model output was validated against the actual dataset for 2005 and calibrated. Finally, using the model, mangrove species zonation maps for the years 2025, 2055 and 2105 have been prepared. The model was run with the assumption that the continuation of the current tempo and mode of drivers of environmental factors (temperature, rainfall, salinity change) of the last two decades will remain the same in the next few decades. Present findings show that the area distribution of the following species assemblages like Goran (Ceriops), Sundari (Heritiera), Passur (Xylocarpus), and Baen (Avicennia) would decrease in the descending order, whereas the area distribution of Gewa (Excoecaria), Keora (Sonneratia) and Kankra (Bruguiera) dominated assemblages would increase. The spatial distribution of projected mangrove species assemblages shows that more salt tolerant species will dominate in the future; which may be used as a proxy to predict the increase of salinity and its spatial variation in Sundarbans. Considering the present rate of loss of forest land, 17% of the total mangrove cover is predicted to be lost by the year 2105 with a significant loss of fresh water loving mangroves and related ecosystem services. This paper describes a unique approach to assess future changes in species composition and future forest zonation in mangroves under the 'business as usual' scenario of climate change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dottori, F.; Todini, E.
2011-01-01
Over the last decade, several flood inundation models based on a reduced complexity approach have been developed and successfully applied in a wide range of practical cases. In the present paper, a model based on the cellular automata approach is analyzed in detail and tested in several numerical cases, comparing the results both with analytical solutions and different hydraulic models. In order to improve the model’s performance, the original code based on the diffusive wave equations and a constant time step scheme is modified through the implementation of two techniques available in literature: an inertial formulation for the computation of discharges, originally developed for the LISFLOOD-FP model by Bates et al. (2010); and the incorporation of a local adaptive time step algorithm, based on a technique originally presented by Zhang et al. (1994). The analysis of the numerical cases showed that the proposed model can be a valuable tool for the simulation of flood inundation events. When applied to one-dimensional numerical cases, the model well reproduced the wave propagation, whereas it showed some limitations in reproducing two-dimensional flow dynamics in respect to a model based on the full shallow water equations. However, differences were found to be comparable with the uncertainty level related to available data for actual flood events. The use of the inertial formulation was very effective in all the cases, and reduced run time up to 97% as compared with the diffusive formulation, although it did not improve the overall accuracy of results. Finally, the incorporation of the local time step algorithm produced a speedup from 1.2 x to 4 x, depending on the simulation and the model version in use, with no loss of accuracy in the results.
Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S A
2006-09-01
The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc.--qualitative as well as quantitative--depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behera, Mukunda D.; Borate, Santosh N.; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Behera, Priti R.; Roy, Partha S.
2012-08-01
Improper practices of land use and land cover (LULC) including deforestation, expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development are deteriorating watershed conditions. Here, we have utilized remote sensing and GIS tools to study LULC dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model and predicted the future LULC scenario, in terms of magnitude and direction, based on past trend in a hydrological unit, Choudwar watershed, India. By analyzing the LULC pattern during 1972, 1990, 1999 and 2005 using satellite-derived maps, we observed that the biophysical and socio-economic drivers including residential/industrial development, road-rail and settlement proximity have influenced the spatial pattern of the watershed LULC, leading to an accretive linear growth of agricultural and settlement areas. The annual rate of increase from 1972 to 2004 in agriculture land, settlement was observed to be 181.96, 9.89 ha/year, respectively, while decrease in forest, wetland and marshy land were 91.22, 27.56 and 39.52 ha/year, respectively. Transition probability and transition area matrix derived using inputs of (i) residential/industrial development and (ii) proximity to transportation network as the major causes. The predicted LULC scenario for the year 2014, with reasonably good accuracy would provide useful inputs to the LULC planners for effective management of the watershed. The study is a maiden attempt that revealed agricultural expansion is the main driving force for loss of forest, wetland and marshy land in the Choudwar watershed and has the potential to continue in future. The forest in lower slopes has been converted to agricultural land and may soon take a call on forests occurring on higher slopes. Our study utilizes three time period changes to better account for the trend and the modelling exercise; thereby advocates for better agricultural practices with additional energy subsidy to arrest further forest loss and LULC alternations.
2016-01-01
Historical ecological datasets from a coastal marine community of crustose coralline algae (CCA) enabled the documentation of ecological changes in this community over 30 years in the Northeast Pacific. Data on competitive interactions obtained from field surveys showed concordance between the 1980s and 2013, yet also revealed a reduction in how strongly species interact. Here, we extend these empirical findings with a cellular automaton model to forecast ecological dynamics. Our model suggests the emergence of a new dominant competitor in a global change scenario, with a reduced role of herbivory pressure, or trophic control, in regulating competition among CCA. Ocean acidification, due to its energetic demands, may now instead play this role in mediating competitive interactions and thereby promote species diversity within this guild. PMID:26936244
Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach
Nagel, K. |; Wolf, D.E. |; Wagner, P. |; Simon, P.
1997-11-05
Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.
A New Binning Method for Metagenomics by One-Dimensional Cellular Automata.
Lin, Ying-Chih
2015-01-01
More and more developed and inexpensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow us to extract vast sequence data from a sample containing multiple species. Characterizing the taxonomic diversity for the planet-size data plays an important role in the metagenomic studies, while a crucial step for doing the study is the binning process to group sequence reads from similar species or taxonomic classes. The metagenomic binning remains a challenge work because of not only the various read noises but also the tremendous data volume. In this work, we propose an unsupervised binning method for NGS reads based on the one-dimensional cellular automaton (1D-CA). Our binning method facilities to reduce the memory usage because 1D-CA costs only linear space. Experiments on synthetic dataset exhibit that our method is helpful to identify species of lower abundance compared to the proposed tool.
McCoy, Sophie J; Allesina, Stefano; Pfister, Catherine A
2016-03-16
Historical ecological datasets from a coastal marine community of crustose coralline algae (CCA) enabled the documentation of ecological changes in this community over 30 years in the Northeast Pacific. Data on competitive interactions obtained from field surveys showed concordance between the 1980s and 2013, yet also revealed a reduction in how strongly species interact. Here, we extend these empirical findings with a cellular automaton model to forecast ecological dynamics. Our model suggests the emergence of a new dominant competitor in a global change scenario, with a reduced role of herbivory pressure, or trophic control, in regulating competition among CCA. Ocean acidification, due to its energetic demands, may now instead play this role in mediating competitive interactions and thereby promote species diversity within this guild.
Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.
2012-08-01
With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.
Using economy of means to evolve transition rules within 2D cellular automata.
Ripps, David L
2010-01-01
Running a cellular automaton (CA) on a rectangular lattice is a time-honored method for studying artificial life on a digital computer. Commonly, the researcher wishes to investigate some specific or general mode of behavior, say, the ability of a coherent pattern of points to glide within the lattice, or to generate copies of itself. This technique has a problem: how to design the transitions table-the set of distinct rules that specify the next content of a cell from its current content and that of its near neighbors. Often the table is painstakingly designed manually, rule by rule. The problem is exacerbated by the potentially vast number of individual rules that need be specified to cover all combinations of center and neighbors when there are several symbols in the alphabet of the CA. In this article a method is presented to have the set of rules evolve automatically while running the CA. The transition table is initially empty, with rules being added as the need arises. A novel principle drives the evolution: maximum economy of means-maximizing the reuse of rules introduced on previous cycles. This method may not be a panacea applicable to all CA studies. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently potent to evolve sets of rules and associated patterns of points that glide (periodically regenerate themselves at another location) and to generate gliding "children" that then "mate" by collision.
Wu, J J; Sun, H J; Gao, Z Y
2008-09-01
Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a useful tool to measure the long-range power-law correlations in 1f noise. In this paper, we investigate the power-law dynamics behavior of the density fluctuation time series generated by the famous Kerner-Klenov-Wolf cellular automata model in road traffic. Then the complexities of spatiotemporal, average speed, and the average density have been analyzed in detail. By introducing the DFA method, our main observation is that the free flow and wide moving jam phases correspond to the long-range anticorrelations. On the contrary, at the synchronized flow phase, the long-range correlated property is observed.
Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould.
Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I
2015-09-01
Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Benny N.
2000-01-01
There has been significant improvement in the performance of VLSI devices, in terms of size, power consumption, and speed, in recent years and this trend may also continue for some near future. However, it is a well known fact that there are major obstacles, i.e., physical limitation of feature size reduction and ever increasing cost of foundry, that would prevent the long term continuation of this trend. This has motivated the exploration of some fundamentally new technologies that are not dependent on the conventional feature size approach. Such technologies are expected to enable scaling to continue to the ultimate level, i.e., molecular and atomistic size. Quantum computing, quantum dot-based computing, DNA based computing, biologically inspired computing, etc., are examples of such new technologies. In particular, quantum-dots based computing by using Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has recently been intensely investigated as a promising new technology capable of offering significant improvement over conventional VLSI in terms of reduction of feature size (and hence increase in integration level), reduction of power consumption, and increase of switching speed. Quantum dot-based computing and memory in general and QCA specifically, are intriguing to NASA due to their high packing density (10(exp 11) - 10(exp 12) per square cm ) and low power consumption (no transfer of current) and potentially higher radiation tolerant. Under Revolutionary Computing Technology (RTC) Program at the NASA/JPL Center for Integrated Space Microelectronics (CISM), we have been investigating the potential applications of QCA for the space program. To this end, exploiting the intrinsic features of QCA, we have designed novel QCA-based circuits for co-planner (i.e., single layer) and compact implementation of a class of data permutation matrices, a class of interconnection networks, and a bit-serial processor. Building upon these circuits, we have developed novel algorithms and QCA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caracciolo, Domenico; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Collins, Scott L.
2016-05-01
Arid and semiarid grasslands of southwestern North America have changed dramatically over the last 150 years as a result of woody plant encroachment. Overgrazing, reduced fire frequency, and climate change are known drivers of woody plant encroachment into grasslands. In this study, relatively simple algorithms for encroachment factors (i.e., grazing, grassland fires, and seed dispersal by grazers) are proposed and implemented in the ecohydrological Cellular-Automata Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS). CATGraSS is used in a 7.3 km2 rectangular domain located in central New Mexico along a zone of grassland to shrubland transition, where shrub encroachment is currently active. CATGraSS is calibrated and used to investigate the relative contributions of grazing, fire frequency, seed dispersal by herbivores and climate change on shrub abundance over a 150-year period of historical shrub encroachment. The impact of future climate change is examined using a model output that realistically represents current vegetation cover as initial condition, in a series of stochastic CATGraSS future climate simulations. Model simulations are found to be highly sensitive to the initial distribution of shrub cover. Encroachment factors more actively lead to shrub propagation within the domain when the model starts with randomly distributed individual shrubs. However, when shrubs are naturally evolved into clusters, the model response to encroachment factors is muted unless the effect of seed dispersal by herbivores is amplified. The relative contribution of different drivers on modeled shrub encroachment varied based on the initial shrub cover condition used in the model. When historical weather data is used, CATGraSS predicted loss of shrub and grass cover during the 1950 s drought. While future climate change is found to amplify shrub encroachment (∼13% more shrub cover by 2100), grazing remains the dominant factor promoting shrub encroachment. When we modeled future climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marko, K.; Zulkarnain, F.; Kusratmoko, E.
2016-11-01
Land cover changes particular in urban catchment area has been rapidly occur. Land cover changes occur as a result of increasing demand for built-up area. Various kinds of environmental and hydrological problems e.g. floods and urban heat island can happen if the changes are uncontrolled. This study aims to predict land cover changes using coupling of Markov chains and cellular automata. One of the most rapid land cover changes is occurs at upper Ci Leungsi catchment area that located near Bekasi City and Jakarta Metropolitan Area. Markov chains has a good ability to predict the probability of change statistically while cellular automata believed as a powerful method in reading the spatial patterns of change. Temporal land cover data was obtained by remote sensing satellite imageries. In addition, this study also used multi-criteria analysis to determine which driving factor that could stimulate the changes such as proximity, elevation, and slope. Coupling of these two methods could give better prediction model rather than just using it separately. The prediction model was validated using existing 2015 land cover data and shown a satisfactory kappa coefficient. The most significant increasing land cover is built-up area from 24% to 53%.
Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, David; Doolen, Gary D.
1987-01-01
A generalization of the hexagonal lattice gas model of Frisch, Hasslacher and Pomeau is shown to lead to two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. The method relies on the ideal point-wise conservation law for vector potential.
Riccioli, Francesco; El Asmar, Toufic; El Asmar, Jean-Pierre; Fratini, Roberto
2013-07-01
The study of changes in land use has been included lately in territorial processes in order to optimize future management decisions. The different functions that the territory plays (production, aesthetic, and natural functions, etc.) make planning choices more difficult. This work focuses on the selection and combination of a set of indicators to analyze the variables through which the changes occur in the land used in viticulture for wine production. The proposed approach makes use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) in the development of a map of land use scenario. It is applied to a case study through a model involving cellular automata (CA) implemented with maps of suitability for viticulture and Markov chains. The use in this case of the CA is aimed at validating the scenario map in order to deduce the variables and the orientations of the farmers in the field of wine production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minkoff, Darío R.; Escapa, Mauricio; Ferramola, Félix E.; Maraschín, Silvio D.; Pierini, Jorge O.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Delrieux, Claudio
2006-09-01
The Bahía Blanca Estuary (38° 50' S, and 62° 30' W) presents salt marshes where interactions between the local flora ( Sarcocornia perennis) and fauna ( Chasmagnathus granulatus) generate some kind of salt pans that alter the normal water circulation and condition its flow and course towards tidal creeks. The crab-vegetation dynamics in the salt marsh presents variations that cannot be quantified in a reasonable period of time. The interaction between S. perennis plant and C. granulatus crab is based on simple laws, but its result is a complex biological mechanism that causes an erosive process on the salt marsh and favors the formation of tidal creeks. To study it, a Cellular Automata model is proposed, based on the laws deduced from the observation of these phenomena in the field, and then verified with measurable data within macroscale time units. Therefore, the objective of this article is to model how the interaction between C. granulatus and S. perennis modifies the landscape of the salt marsh and influences the path of tidal creeks. The model copies the basic laws that rule the problem based on purely biological factors. The Cellular Automata model proved capable of reproducing the effects of the interaction between plants and crabs in the salt marsh. A study of the water drainage of the basins showed that this interaction does indeed modify the development of tidal creeks. Model dynamics would likewise follow different laws, which would provide a different formula for the probability of patch dilation. The patch shape can be obtained changing the pattern that dilates.
2011-11-01
2 1.3 Hybrid Cellular Automata (HCA...1. Hybrid cellular automata based topology optimization example (3, 4). .........................1 Figure 2. Topometry optimization (6...3 Figure 4. Hybrid cellular automata -based topology optimization flowchart (3, 4, 9
Machineni, Lakshmi; Rajapantul, Anil; Nandamuri, Vandana; Pawar, Parag D
2017-03-01
The resistance of bacterial biofilms to antibiotic treatment has been attributed to the emergence of structurally heterogeneous microenvironments containing metabolically inactive cell populations. In this study, we use a three-dimensional individual-based cellular automata model to investigate the influence of nutrient availability and quorum sensing on microbial heterogeneity in growing biofilms. Mature biofilms exhibited at least three structurally distinct strata: a high-volume, homogeneous region sandwiched between two compact sections of high heterogeneity. Cell death occurred preferentially in layers in close proximity to the substratum, resulting in increased heterogeneity in this section of the biofilm; the thickness and heterogeneity of this lowermost layer increased with time, ultimately leading to sloughing. The model predicted the formation of metabolically dormant cellular microniches embedded within faster-growing cell clusters. Biofilms utilizing quorum sensing were more heterogeneous compared to their non-quorum sensing counterparts, and resisted sloughing, featuring a cell-devoid layer of EPS atop the substratum upon which the remainder of the biofilm developed. Overall, our study provides a computational framework to analyze metabolic diversity and heterogeneity of biofilm-associated microorganisms and may pave the way toward gaining further insights into the biophysical mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crisci, G. M.; Avolio, M. V.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, G. V.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.; Benhcke, B.; Neri, M.
2009-04-01
Forecasting the time, character and impact of future eruptions is difficult at volcanoes with complex eruptive behaviour, such as Mount Etna, where eruptions occur from the summit and on the flanks, affecting areas distant from each other. Modern efforts for hazard evaluation and contingency planning in volcanic areas draw heavily on hazard maps and numerical simulations. The computational model here applied belongs to the SCIARA family of lava flow simulation models. In the specific case this is the SCIARA-fv release, which is considered to give the most accurate and efficient performance, given the extent (567 km2) of the study area and the great number of simulations to be carried out. The model is based on the Cellular Automata computational paradigm and, specifically, on the Macroscopic Cellular Automata approach for the modelling of spatially extended dynamic systems2. This work addresses the problem of compiling high-detailed susceptibility maps with an elaborate approach in the numerical simulation of Etnean lava flows, based on the results of 39,300 simulations of flows erupted from a grid of 393 hypothetical vents in the eastern sector of Etna. This sector was chosen because it is densely populated and frequently affected by flank eruptions. Besides the definition of general susceptibility maps, the availability of a large number of lava flows of different eruption types, magnitudes and locations simulated for this study allows the instantaneous extraction of various scenarios on demand. For instance, in a Civil Defence oriented application, it is possible to identify all source areas of lava flows capable of affecting a given area of interest, such as a town or a major infrastructure. Indeed, this application is rapidly accomplished by querying the simulation database, by selecting the lava flows that affect the area of interest and by circumscribing their sources. Eventually, a specific category of simulation is dedicated to the assessment of protective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio
2015-10-01
Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between the
Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio
2015-10-07
Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between
Tsukerblat, Boris E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es; Palii, Andrew E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio
2015-10-07
Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(II) + 2Ru(III)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between
Qiu, Menglong; Wang, Qi; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Junjian; Yang, Guoyi; Liu, Liming
2016-01-01
A customized logistic-based cellular automata (CA) model was developed to simulate changes in heavy metal contamination (HMC) in farmland soils of Dongguan, a manufacturing center in Southern China, and to discover the relationship between HMC and related explanatory variables (continuous and categorical). The model was calibrated through the simulation and validation of HMC in 2012. Thereafter, the model was implemented for the scenario simulation of development alternatives for HMC in 2022. The HMC in 2002 and 2012 was determined through soil tests and cokriging. Continuous variables were divided into two groups by odds ratios. Positive variables (odds ratios >1) included the Nemerow synthetic pollution index in 2002, linear drainage density, distance from the city center, distance from the railway, slope, and secondary industrial output per unit of land. Negative variables (odds ratios <1) included elevation, distance from the road, distance from the key polluting enterprises, distance from the town center, soil pH, and distance from bodies of water. Categorical variables, including soil type, parent material type, organic content grade, and land use type, also significantly influenced HMC according to Wald statistics. The relative operating characteristic and kappa coefficients were 0.91 and 0.64, respectively, which proved the validity and accuracy of the model. The scenario simulation shows that the government should not only implement stricter environmental regulation but also strengthen the remediation of the current polluted area to effectively mitigate HMC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azevedo, R. M.; Montenegro-Filho, R. R.; Coutinho-Filho, M. D.
2013-09-01
We use a lattice gas cellular automata model in the presence of random dynamic scattering sites and quenched disorder in the two-phase immiscible model with the aim of producing an interface dynamics similar to that observed in Hele-Shaw cells. The dynamics of the interface is studied as one fluid displaces the other in a clean lattice and in a lattice with quenched disorder. For the clean system, if the fluid with a lower viscosity displaces the other, we show that the model exhibits the Saffman-Taylor instability phenomenon, whose features are in very good agreement with those observed in real (viscous) fluids. In the system with quenched disorder, we obtain estimates for the growth and roughening exponents of the interface width in two cases: viscosity-matched fluids and the case of unstable interface. The first case is shown to be in the same universality class of the random deposition model with surface relaxation. Moreover, while the early-time dynamics of the interface behaves similarly, viscous fingers develop in the second case with the subsequent production of bubbles in the context of a complex dynamics. We also identify the Hurst exponent of the subdiffusive fractional Brownian motion associated with the interface, from which we derive its fractal dimension and the universality classes related to a percolation process.
Azevedo, R M; Montenegro-Filho, R R; Coutinho-Filho, M D
2013-09-01
We use a lattice gas cellular automata model in the presence of random dynamic scattering sites and quenched disorder in the two-phase immiscible model with the aim of producing an interface dynamics similar to that observed in Hele-Shaw cells. The dynamics of the interface is studied as one fluid displaces the other in a clean lattice and in a lattice with quenched disorder. For the clean system, if the fluid with a lower viscosity displaces the other, we show that the model exhibits the Saffman-Taylor instability phenomenon, whose features are in very good agreement with those observed in real (viscous) fluids. In the system with quenched disorder, we obtain estimates for the growth and roughening exponents of the interface width in two cases: viscosity-matched fluids and the case of unstable interface. The first case is shown to be in the same universality class of the random deposition model with surface relaxation. Moreover, while the early-time dynamics of the interface behaves similarly, viscous fingers develop in the second case with the subsequent production of bubbles in the context of a complex dynamics. We also identify the Hurst exponent of the subdiffusive fractional Brownian motion associated with the interface, from which we derive its fractal dimension and the universality classes related to a percolation process.
Dakua, Sarada Prasad; Abinahed, Julien; Al-Ansari, Abdulla
2015-04-01
Liver segmentation continues to remain a major challenge, largely due to its intense complexity with surrounding anatomical structures (stomach, kidney, and heart), high noise level and lack of contrast in pathological computed tomography (CT) data. We present an approach to reconstructing the liver surface in low contrast CT. The main contributions are: (1) a stochastic resonance-based methodology in discrete cosine transform domain is developed to enhance the contrast of pathological liver images, (2) a new formulation is proposed to prevent the object boundary, resulting from the cellular automata method, from leaking into the surrounding areas of similar intensity, and (3) a level-set method is suggested to generate intermediate segmentation contours from two segmented slices distantly located in a subject sequence. We have tested the algorithm on real datasets obtained from two sources, Hamad General Hospital and medical image computing and computer-assisted interventions grand challenge workshop. Various parameters in the algorithm, such as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], play imperative roles, thus their values are precisely selected. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation performed on liver data show promising segmentation accuracy when compared with ground truth data reflecting the potential of the proposed method.
Gangadari, Bhoopal Rao; Rafi Ahamed, Shaik
2016-09-01
In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA(2)) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA(2) based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA(2) based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA(2) based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heng, Fong Wan; Siang, Gan Yee; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod
2014-06-01
Recently, the relation of automata and groups has been studied. It was shown that properties of groups can be studied using state diagrams of modified automata and modified Watson-Crick automata. In this work, we investigate the relation of subgroups with the modified finite and Watson-Crick automata. We also establish the conditions for the recognition of subgroups by using the modified automata.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bello, S.; de Rienzo, F.; Nardi, G.
2003-04-01
The Turin (Italy) subsoil is mainly made up by alluvial gravels and sands (Pleistocene), characterised by high cementation degree variability, covered by a thin thickness of loess. These alluvial sediments, of about 40 m deep, overlay lacustrine clays (Villafranchiano), locally heteropic with marine sandstones (Pliocene). The reconstruction of the areal distribution of cementation phenomena of the Turin urban subsoil is of fundamental importance within the context of planning and carrying out works in the city subsoil, as well as for preliminary evaluating the stability of such underground works. Moreover, analyses of spatial distribution of soil cementation could be usefully applied for estimating the propagation of waste-polluted fluids, and for reducing either the natural or human-induced risk, related to the overworking of urban area subsoils. The development of mathematical models commonly needs to deal with several interacting physical and chemical phenomena. A deterministic Cellular Automata (CA) model for the evaluation of cementation processes in the conglomerates of the Turin urban subsoil has recently been developed, by using a three-dimensional geological model of the city subsoil based on boreholes data. The model is able to simulate the spatial distribution of the cementation process in the studied area: it has been derived from two pre-existing CA models, i.e. SCAVATU and CABOTO. Geological, mineralogical-petrographic and sedimentological studies of the soil cementation, and a chemical-physical study of the carbonatic equilibria, have first been carried out. These studies pointed out the presence of meniscus cements (which suggest a meteoric diagenesis) and gave fundamental cues for the development of base hypothesis on the genesis of cementation in the considered area. A macroscopic Cellular Automata model has accordingly been developed, in order to simulate the principal phenomena which take place during the cementation process. The model has a
Naghibi, Fereydoun; Delavar, Mahmoud Reza; Pijanowski, Bryan
2016-01-01
Cellular Automata (CA) is one of the most common techniques used to simulate the urbanization process. CA-based urban models use transition rules to deliver spatial patterns of urban growth and urban dynamics over time. Determining the optimum transition rules of the CA is a critical step because of the heterogeneity and nonlinearities existing among urban growth driving forces. Recently, new CA models integrated with optimization methods based on swarm intelligence algorithms were proposed to overcome this drawback. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an advanced meta-heuristic swarm intelligence-based algorithm. Here, we propose a novel CA-based urban change model that uses the ABC algorithm to extract optimum transition rules. We applied the proposed ABC-CA model to simulate future urban growth in Urmia (Iran) with multi-temporal Landsat images from 1997, 2006 and 2015. Validation of the simulation results was made through statistical methods such as overall accuracy, the figure of merit and total operating characteristics (TOC). Additionally, we calibrated the CA model by ant colony optimization (ACO) to assess the performance of our proposed model versus similar swarm intelligence algorithm methods. We showed that the overall accuracy and the figure of merit of the ABC-CA model are 90.1% and 51.7%, which are 2.9% and 8.8% higher than those of the ACO-CA model, respectively. Moreover, the allocation disagreement of the simulation results for the ABC-CA model is 9.9%, which is 2.9% less than that of the ACO-CA model. Finally, the ABC-CA model also outperforms the ACO-CA model with fewer quantity and allocation errors and slightly more hits. PMID:27983633
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caracciolo, Domenico; Noto, Leonardo Valerio; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Fatichi, Simone; Zhou, Xiaochi
2014-11-01
Regions of vegetation transitions (ecotones) are known to be highly sensitive to climate fluctuations. In this study, the Cellular-Automata Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) has been modified, calibrated and used with downscaled future climate scenarios to examine the role of climate change on vegetation patterns in a steep mountainous catchment (1.3 km2) located in Sicily, Italy. In the catchment, north-facing slopes are mostly covered by trees and grass, and south-facing slopes by Indian Fig opuntia and grass, with grasses dominating as elevation grows. CATGraSS simulates solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture in space and time. Each model cell can hold a single plant type or can be bare soil. Plant competition is modeled explicitly through mortality and the establishment of individual plants in open spaces. In this study, CATGraSS is modified to account for heterogeneity in soil thickness and tested in the study catchment using the historical climate of the region. Predicted vegetation patterns are compared with those obtained from satellite images. Results of model under current climate underscore the importance of solar irradiance and soil thickness, especially in the uplands where soil is shallow, in determining vegetation composition over complex terrain. A stochastic weather generator is used to generate future climate change scenarios for the catchment by downscaling GCM realizations in space and time. Future increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration was considered through modifying the vegetation water use efficiency and stomatal resistance for our study site. Model results suggest that vegetation pattern is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall variations provided by climate scenarios (30% reduction of the annual precipitation and a 2.8 °C increase of the mean annual temperature). Future climate change is predicted to bring a considerable reorganization of the plant composition following topographic patterns, leading to a
Naghibi, Fereydoun; Delavar, Mahmoud Reza; Pijanowski, Bryan
2016-12-14
Cellular Automata (CA) is one of the most common techniques used to simulate the urbanization process. CA-based urban models use transition rules to deliver spatial patterns of urban growth and urban dynamics over time. Determining the optimum transition rules of the CA is a critical step because of the heterogeneity and nonlinearities existing among urban growth driving forces. Recently, new CA models integrated with optimization methods based on swarm intelligence algorithms were proposed to overcome this drawback. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an advanced meta-heuristic swarm intelligence-based algorithm. Here, we propose a novel CA-based urban change model that uses the ABC algorithm to extract optimum transition rules. We applied the proposed ABC-CA model to simulate future urban growth in Urmia (Iran) with multi-temporal Landsat images from 1997, 2006 and 2015. Validation of the simulation results was made through statistical methods such as overall accuracy, the figure of merit and total operating characteristics (TOC). Additionally, we calibrated the CA model by ant colony optimization (ACO) to assess the performance of our proposed model versus similar swarm intelligence algorithm methods. We showed that the overall accuracy and the figure of merit of the ABC-CA model are 90.1% and 51.7%, which are 2.9% and 8.8% higher than those of the ACO-CA model, respectively. Moreover, the allocation disagreement of the simulation results for the ABC-CA model is 9.9%, which is 2.9% less than that of the ACO-CA model. Finally, the ABC-CA model also outperforms the ACO-CA model with fewer quantity and allocation errors and slightly more hits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iovine, G.; di Gregorio, S.; D'Ambrosio, D.; Lupiano, V.; Merenda, L.; Nardi, G.
On winter 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region, triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated on the slopes, within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of detrital cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides soon turned into fast flow- ing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the detrital mantle and increasing its original volume. At the base of the slopes, flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction. Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the local Basin Authority, an evaluation of debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for n.8 selected areas ("red zones") of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such red zones would be char- acterised by the highest risk levels (within the administrative boundaries of the same villages). Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA-S3 - a Cellular Automata model, specifically developed, after the Sarno 1998 disaster, for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows. Detailed topographic data and a map of the detrital coverage had to be given to the model, as input matrixes. A digi- tal "world" of hexagonal cells was adopted; type and amount of detrital mantle were collected through detailed field surveying. Real cases, selected among the landslides triggered on winter 1999, have been utilised for validating SCIDDICA and defining the best values for parameters: the validation has been carried out in a GIS environ- ment, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the red-zones. Initial volume for these new cases has been estimated by considering the actual statistics of the 1999 disaster. Finally, by merging the results of simulations, a deterministic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Tanaka, Yasukaka
2010-12-01
An improved cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics was established, where both static floor field and collision effect derived from game theory were considered. Several model parameters were carefully determined by previous studies. Results obtained through model-based simulation and analytical approach (derived from mean field approximation) proved that outflow rate from an evacuation exit, which is usually estimated using outflow coefficient in building codes in Japan, can be improved by placing an appropriate obstacle in front of the exit. This can reduce collision probability at the exit by increasing collisions around the obstacles ahead of the exit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yang; Chen, Yan-Yan
2016-12-01
The signalized traffic is considerably complex due to the fact that various driving behaviors have emerged to respond to traffic signals. However, the existing cellular automaton models take the signal-vehicle interactions into account inadequately, resulting in a potential risk that vehicular traffic flow dynamics may not be completely explored. To remedy this defect, this paper proposes a more realistic cellular automaton model by incorporating a number of the driving behaviors typically observed when the vehicles are approaching a traffic light. In particular, the anticipatory behavior proposed in this paper is realized with a perception factor designed by considering the vehicle speed implicitly and the gap to its preceding vehicle explicitly. Numerical simulations have been performed based on a signal controlled road which is partitioned into three sections according to the different reactions of drivers. The effects of microscopic driving behaviors on Kerner's time-delayed traffic breakdown at signal (Kerner 2011, 2013) have been investigated with the assistance of spatiotemporal pattern and trajectory analysis. Furthermore, the contributions of the driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown have been statistically examined. Finally, with the activation of the anticipatory behavior, the influences of the other driving behaviors on the formation of platoon have been investigated in terms of the number of platoons, the averaged platoon size, and the averaged flow rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pazzona, Federico G.; Demontis, Pierfranco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B.
2009-12-01
In this second paper we exploit our thermodynamic partitioning cellular automaton (PCA) developed in Paper I [Pazzona et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234703 (2009)] to study interacting molecules adsorbed in microporous materials. We present a mean-field theory of the single cell model at equilibrium followed by a detailed description of the procedure we propose to calculate the chemical potential in the canonical ensemble. Finally we use our approach to simulate transport properties starting from the parameterization devised by Ayappa [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4736 (1999)] to reproduce the adsorption properties of xenon in zeolite NaA. We report how the correlations included in the PCA evolution rule affect the estimated self-diffusion coefficient.
Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N
2015-03-01
As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region.
Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Palii, Andrew; Coronado, Eugenio; Tsukerblat, Boris
2016-08-09
In this article, we focus on the electron-vibrational problem of the tetrameric mixed-valence (MV) complexes proposed for implementation as four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA).1 Although the adiabatic approximation explored in ref 2 is an appropriate tool for the qualitative analysis of the basic characteristics of mQCA, like vibronic trapping of the electrons encoding binary information and cell-cell response, it loses its accuracy providing moderate vibronic coupling and fails in the description of the discrete pattern of the vibronic levels. Therefore, a precise solution of the quantum-mechanical vibronic problem is of primary importance for the evaluation of the shapes of the electron transfer optical absorption bands and quantitative analysis of the main parameters of tetrameric quantum cells. Here, we go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer paradigm and present a solution of the quantum-mechanical pseudo Jahn-Teller (JT) vibronic problem in bielectronic MV species (exemplified by the tetra-ruthenium complexes) based on the recently developed symmetry-assisted approach.3,4 The mathematical approach to the vibronic eigenproblem takes into consideration the point symmetry basis, and therefore, the total matrix of the JT Hamiltonian is blocked to the maximum extent. The submatrices correspond to the irreducible representations (irreps) of the point group. With this tool, we also extend the theory of the mQCA cell beyond the limit of prevailing Coulomb repulsion in the electronic pair (adopted in ref 2), and therefore, the general pseudo-JT problems for spin-singlet ((1)B1g, 2(1)A1g, (1)B2g, (1)Eu) ⊗ (b1g + eu) and spin-triplet states ((3)A2g, (3)B1g, 2(3)Eu) ⊗ (b1g + eu) in a square-planar bielectronic system are solved. The obtained symmetry-adapted electron-vibrational functions are employed for the calculation of the profiles (shape functions) of the charge transfer absorption bands in the tetrameric MV complexes and for the discussion of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iovine, G.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, V.
On 15-16 December 1999, heavy rainfall severely stroke Campania region (southern Italy), triggering numerous debris flows on the slopes of the San Martino Valle Caudina-Cervinara area. Soil slips originated within the weathered volcaniclastic mantle of soil cover overlying the carbonate skeleton of the massif. Debris slides turned into fast flowing mixtures of matrix and large blocks, downslope eroding the soil cover and increasing their original volume. At the base of the slopes, debris flows impacted on the urban areas, causing victims and severe destruction (Vittori et al., 2000). Starting from a recent study on landslide risk conditions in Campania, carried out by the Regional Authority (PAI -Hydrogeological setting plan, in press), an evaluation of the debris-flow susceptibility has been performed for selected areas of the above mentioned villages. According to that study, such zones would be in fact characterised by the highest risk levels within the administrative boundaries of the same villages ("HR-zones"). Our susceptibility analysis has been performed by applying SCIDDICA S3-hex - a hexagonal Cellular Automata model (von Neumann, 1966), specifically developed for simulating the spatial evolution of debris flows (Iovine et al., 2002). In order to apply the model to a given study area, detailed topographic data and a map of the erodable soil cover overlying the bedrock of the massif must be provided (as input matrices); moreover, extent and location of landslide source must also be given. Real landslides, selected among those triggered on winter 1999, have first been utilised for calibrating SCIDDICA S3-hex and for defining "optimal" values for parameters. Calibration has been carried out with a GIS tool, by quantitatively comparing simulations with actual cases: optimal values correspond to best simulations. Through geological evaluations, source locations of new phenomena have then been hypothesised within the HR-zones. Initial volume for these new cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halder, Chandan; Karmakar, Anish; Hasan, Sk. Md.; Chakrabarti, Debalay; Pietrzyk, Maciej; Chakraborti, Nirupam
2016-12-01
The development of ferrite-martensite dual-phase microstructures by cold-rolling and intercritical annealing of 0.06 wt pct carbon steel was systematically studied using a dilatometer for two different heating rates (1 and 10 K/s). A step quenching treatment has been designed to develop dual-phase structures having a similar martensite fraction for two different heating rates. An increase in heating rate seemed to refine the ferrite grain size, but it increased the size and spacing of the martensitic regions. As a result, the strength of the steel increased with heating rate; however, the formability was affected. It has been concluded that the distribution of C during the annealing treatment of cold-rolled steel determines the size, distribution, and morphology of martensite, which ultimately influences the mechanical properties. Experimental detection of carbon distribution in austenite is difficult during annealing of the cold-rolled steel as the phase transformation occurs at a high temperature and C is an interstitial solute, which diffuses fast at that temperature. Therefore, a cellular automata (CA)-based phase transformation model is proposed in the present study for the prediction of C distribution in austenite during annealing of steel as the function of C content and heating rate. The CA model predicts that the carbon distribution in austenite becomes more inhomogeneous when the heating rate increases. In the CA model, the extent of carbon inhomogeneity is measured using a kernel averaging method for different orders of neighbors, which accounts for the different physical space during calculation. The obtained results reveal that the 10th order (covering 10- µm physical spaces around the cell of interest) is showing the maximum inhomogeneity of carbon and the same effect has been investigated and confirmed using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) for 0.06 wt pct carbon steel. Furthermore, the optimization of carbon homogeneity with respect to heating
Haptic search for movable parts.
Plaisier, Myrthe A; Overvliet, Krista E
2017-04-01
How do we know that we are touching 1 single object instead of 2 different ones? An important cue is movability: When different sources of input can move independently, it is likely that they belong to different objects or that the object consists of movable parts. We hypothesize that the haptic feature "movability" is used for making this differentiation and we expect movability to be detected efficiently. We investigated this hypothesis by using a haptic search task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to press down on piano-like keys and respond whether 1 key was movable while the rest were static or the other way around (detection only). Search strategy was determined by comparing performance of 4 response time models. This showed that the search slope for the target absent and present trials was the same (detection without localization model). In Experiment 2, we asked participants to localize the target, in order to investigate whether localization is an extra processing step. In this case our localization after detection model described the data best. This suggests that the target was detected independent of localization. To our knowledge this is the first time such a search strategy has been reported in haptic search, and it highlights the special role of the detection of movability. (PsycINFO Database Record
Forwardly movable assembly for a firearm
Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.
2007-06-05
A forwardly movable assembly for a firearm, the forwardly movable assembly adapted to be disposed in operative relationship relative to the other operative parts of a firearm, the firearm having in operative relationship each with one or more of the others: a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; the forwardly movable assembly comprising: the barrel and the receiver operatively connected with each other; a movable hand support structure to which at least one of the barrel and the receiver is connected, the barrel being movable therewith, the movable hand support structure being adapted to be gripped by an operator of the firearm; the forwardly movable assembly being adapted to be moved forward by an operator upon gripping the movable hand support structure and manually maneuvering the hand support structure forwardly; and, as the forwardly movable assembly is moved forwardly, the firing mechanism is completely disengaged therefrom and held substantially stationary relative thereto.
Automata representation for Abelian groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fong, Wan Heng; Gan, Yee Siang; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod
2013-04-01
A finite automaton is one of the classic models of recognition devices, which is used to determine the type of language a string belongs to. A string is said to be recognized by a finite automaton if the automaton "reads" the string from the left to the right starting from the initial state and finishing at a final state. Another type of automata which is a counterpart of sticker systems, namely Watson-Crick automata, is finite automata which can scan the double-stranded tapes of DNA strings using the complimentary relation. The properties of groups have been extended for the recognition of finite automata over groups. In this paper, two variants of automata, modified deterministic finite automata and modified deterministic Watson-Crick automata are used in the study of Abelian groups. Moreover, the relation between finite automata diagram over Abelian groups and the Cayley table is introduced. In addition, some properties of Abelian groups are presented in terms of automata.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Havelund, Klaus
2014-01-01
We present a form of automaton, referred to as data automata, suited for monitoring sequences of data-carrying events, for example emitted by an executing software system. This form of automata allows states to be parameterized with data, forming named records, which are stored in an efficiently indexed data structure, a form of database. This very explicit approach differs from other automaton-based monitoring approaches. Data automata are also characterized by allowing transition conditions to refer to other parameterized states, and by allowing transitions sequences. The presented automaton concept is inspired by rule-based systems, especially the Rete algorithm, which is one of the well-established algorithms for executing rule-based systems. We present an optimized external DSL for data automata, as well as a comparable unoptimized internal DSL (API) in the Scala programming language, in order to compare the two solutions. An evaluation compares these two solutions to several other monitoring systems.
Synchronization of Regular Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caucal, Didier
Functional graph grammars are finite devices which generate the class of regular automata. We recall the notion of synchronization by grammars, and for any given grammar we consider the class of languages recognized by automata generated by all its synchronized grammars. The synchronization is an automaton-related notion: all grammars generating the same automaton synchronize the same languages. When the synchronizing automaton is unambiguous, the class of its synchronized languages forms an effective boolean algebra lying between the classes of regular languages and unambiguous context-free languages. We additionally provide sufficient conditions for such classes to be closed under concatenation and its iteration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Havelund, Klaus
2014-01-01
The field of runtime verification has during the last decade seen a multitude of systems for monitoring event sequences (traces) emitted by a running system. The objective is to ensure correctness of a system by checking its execution traces against formal specifications representing requirements. A special challenge is data parameterized events, where monitors have to keep track of the combination of control states as well as data constraints, relating events and the data they carry across time points. This poses a challenge wrt. efficiency of monitors, as well as expressiveness of logics. Data automata is a form of automata where states are parameterized with data, supporting monitoring of data parameterized events. We describe the full details of a very simple API in the Scala programming language, an internal DSL (Domain-Specific Language), implementing data automata. The small implementation suggests a design pattern. Data automata allow transition conditions to refer to other states than the source state, and allow target states of transitions to be inlined, offering a temporal logic flavored notation. An embedding of a logic in a high-level language like Scala in addition allows monitors to be programmed using all of Scala's language constructs, offering the full flexibility of a programming language. The framework is demonstrated on an XML processing scenario previously addressed in related work.
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may be... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may be... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...
49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may be... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...
A Handbook for Using Movable Action Books.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohning, Gerry; Radencich, Marguerite
Prepared as a guide for teachers, parents, and librarians, this handbook presents guidelines for developing a collection of movable action books (also called pop-ups, movables, surprise books, lift-the-flap books, or novelty books) appropriate for use with children in the home or school setting. Following a brief description of action books, their…
Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul
In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrio-Parra, Fernando; Rodríguez-Santalla, Inmaculada
2016-08-01
Coastal dunes are sedimentary environments characterized by their high dynamism. Their evolution is determined by sedimentary exchanges between the beach-dune subsystems and the dune dynamics itself. Knowledge about these exchanges is important to prioritize management and conservation strategies of these environments. The aim of this work is the inclusion of the aeolian transport rates obtained using a calibrated cellular automaton to estimate the beach-dune sediment exchange rates in a real active dune field at El Fangar Spit (Ebro Delta, Spain). The dune dynamics model is able to estimate average aeolian sediment fluxes. These are used in combination with the observed net sediment budget to obtain a quantitative characterization of the sediment exchange interactions. The methods produce a substantial improvement in the understanding of coastal sedimentary systems that could have major implications in areas where the management and conservation of dune fields are of concern.
Modeling biological pathway dynamics with timed automata.
Schivo, Stefano; Scholma, Jetse; Wanders, Brend; Urquidi Camacho, Ricardo A; van der Vet, Paul E; Karperien, Marcel; Langerak, Rom; van de Pol, Jaco; Post, Janine N
2014-05-01
Living cells are constantly subjected to a plethora of environmental stimuli that require integration into an appropriate cellular response. This integration takes place through signal transduction events that form tightly interconnected networks. The understanding of these networks requires capturing their dynamics through computational support and models. ANIMO (analysis of Networks with Interactive Modeling) is a tool that enables the construction and exploration of executable models of biological networks, helping to derive hypotheses and to plan wet-lab experiments. The tool is based on the formalism of Timed Automata, which can be analyzed via the UPPAAL model checker. Thanks to Timed Automata, we can provide a formal semantics for the domain-specific language used to represent signaling networks. This enforces precision and uniformity in the definition of signaling pathways, contributing to the integration of isolated signaling events into complex network models. We propose an approach to discretization of reaction kinetics that allows us to efficiently use UPPAAL as the computational engine to explore the dynamic behavior of the network of interest. A user-friendly interface hides the use of Timed Automata from the user, while keeping the expressive power intact. Abstraction to single-parameter kinetics speeds up construction of models that remain faithful enough to provide meaningful insight. The resulting dynamic behavior of the network components is displayed graphically, allowing for an intuitive and interactive modeling experience.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caracciolo, Domenico; Fatichi, Simone; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Valerio Noto, Leonardo
2013-04-01
Predicting vegetation response in regions of ecotone transition under a changing climate is a among grand challenges in ecohydrology. In a small basin (1.3 sq km) in Sicily, Italy, where north-facing slopes are characterized by Quercus (tree), and south-facing slopes by Opuntia ficus-indaca (evergreen perennial species drought tolerant) and grasses we use an ecohydrological Cellular-Automaton model (CATGraSS) of vegetation coexistence driven by rainfall and solar radiation with downscaled future climate to examine the role of climate change on vegetation patterns. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or can be bare soil. Plant competition is modeled explicitly by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. Topographic influence on incoming shortwave radiation is treated explicitly, which leads to spatial variations in potential evapotranspiration and resulting soil moisture and plant distribution. The influence of the soil thickness on the vegetation distribution is also introduced. The model is calibrated first using a representation of the current climate as a forcing and comparing the vegetation obtained from the model with the actual vegetation through statistical techniques.. The calibrated model is then forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic downscaling technique based on the weather generator, AWE-GEN. This methodology allows for the downscaling of an ensemble of climate model outputs deriving the frequency distribution functions of factors of change for several statistics of temperature and precipitation from outputs of General Circulation Models. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of twelve General Circulation Models adopted in the IPCC 4AR, A1B emission scenario, for the future periods of 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. A high sensitivity of the vegetation distribution to variation of rainfall and temperature has been
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noto, L. V.; Caracciolo, D.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.
2013-12-01
Understanding and predicting vegetation change along ecosystem boundaries is among paramount challenges in ecohydrology. In this study, Cellular-Automaton Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) is implemented in a small upland catchment in Sicily, IT, where north-facing slopes are characterized by quercus (trees), and south-facing slopes exhibit plant coexistence, composed of Opuntia ficus-indaca (shrub) and grasses, to examine the control of solar radiation on plant development and predict potential trajectories of vegetation change under the stress of global warming. CATGraSS is driven by stochastic rainfall and variable solar radiation on topography, represented by a fine-scale gridded domain where vegetation type at each cell is represented individually. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or remain empty. Plant competition is modeled explicitly by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. Spatially explicit treatment of solar radiation, and a lower limit to soil moisture storage imposed by bedrock depth lead to spatial organization in evapotranspiration, soil moisture, runoff, and plant type. CATGraSS is first calibrated at the field site driven by stochastic climate that represent the current climate at the study site. Calibrated model results are examined against Google-Earth images. Implications of future climate change are examined using the advanced weather generator (AWE-GEN). AWE-GEN characterizes the statistical characteristics of selected climate variables and their change over time based on a multi-model ensemble of outputs from General Circulation Models (GCMs). Stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of twelve GCMs adopted in the IPCC 4AR, A1B emission scenario for the future scenarios 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. Future vegetation changed is predicted to bring a dramatic reorganization of the plant composition based mainly on the topography
Uniform and Multi-Grid Modeling of Acoustic Wave Propagation With Cellular Automaton Techniques
2013-03-01
J. Acoustique, vol. 43, no. 30, pp. 223–287, 1992. [8] B. A., “Von Neumann’s self-reproducing automata ,” In Essays on Cellular Automata , pp. 3–64...1970. [9] A. Ilachinski, “ Cellular automata ,” in Cellular Automata A Discrete Universe, New Jersey, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd...2001, p. 5. [10] L. Villar and A. Souza, “ Cellular automata models for general traffic conditions on a line,” Physica A, vol. 211, pp. 84–92, 1994
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku
2014-07-01
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.
Weighted Watson-Crick automata
Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku
2014-07-10
There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.
Cellular Automata Models of Ring Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gravner, Janko
This paper describes three models arising from the theory of excitable media, whose primary visual feature are expanding rings of excitation. Rigorous mathematical results and experimental/computational issues are both addressed. We start with the much-studied Greenberg-Hastings model (GHM) in which the rings are very short-lived, but they do have a transient percolation property. By contrast, in the model we call annihilating nested rings (ANR), excitation centers only gradually lose strength, i.e., each time they become inactive (and then stay so forever) with a fixed probability; we show how the long-term global connectivity properties of the set of excited sites undergo a phase transition. Second part of the paper is devoted to digital boiling (DB) in which new rings spontaneously appear at rested sites with a positive probability. We focus on such (related) issues as convergence to equilibrium, equilibrium excitation level and success of the basic coupling.
Cellular automata models of ring dynamics
Gravner, J.
1996-12-01
This paper describes three models arising from the theory of excitable media, whose primary visual feature are expanding rings of excitation. Rigorous mathematical results and experimental/computational issues are both addressed. We start with the much-studied Greenberg-Hastings model (GHM) in which the rings are very short-lived, but they do have a transient percolation property. By contrast, in the model we call annihilating nested rings (ANR), excitation centers only gradually lose strength, i.e., each time they become inactive (and then stay so forever) with a fixed probability; we show how the long-term global connectivity properties of the set of excited sites undergo a phase transition. Second part of the paper is devoted to digital boiling (DB) in which new rings spontaneously appear at rested sites with a positive probability. We focus on such (related) issues as convergence to equilibrium, equilibrium excitation level and success of the basic coupling.
Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard
We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].
Electric filter with movable belt electrode
Bergman, Werner
1983-01-01
A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.
Electric filter with movable belt electrode
Bergman, W.
1983-09-20
A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.
Management of excessive movable tissue: a modified impression technique.
Shum, Michael H C; Pow, Edmond H N
2014-08-01
Excessive movable tissue is a challenge in complete denture prosthetics. A modified impression technique is presented with polyvinyl siloxane impression material and a custom tray with relief areas and perforations in the area of the excessive movable tissue.
View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from ...
View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from navy land. Note that navigational channel exists only on north side of movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA
Guidelines for Movable Soccer Goal Safety.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.
This handbook presents guidelines for the installation, use, and storage of full-size or nearly full-size movable soccer goals to help prevent deaths and serious injuries from soccer goal tipover. The guide first reviews soccer goal injuries and deaths occurring in the United States and briefly examines the soccer rules associated with goals. It…
49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....
49 CFR 236.387 - Movable bridge locking.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge locking. 236.387 Section 236.387 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.387 Movable bridge locking. Movable bridge locking shall be tested at least once...
49 CFR 236.387 - Movable bridge locking.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge locking. 236.387 Section 236.387 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.387 Movable bridge locking. Movable bridge locking shall be tested at least once...
49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....
49 CFR 236.387 - Movable bridge locking.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movable bridge locking. 236.387 Section 236.387 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.387 Movable bridge locking. Movable bridge locking shall be tested at least once...
49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....
49 CFR 236.387 - Movable bridge locking.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movable bridge locking. 236.387 Section 236.387 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.387 Movable bridge locking. Movable bridge locking shall be tested at least once...
49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....
49 CFR 236.387 - Movable bridge locking.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge locking. 236.387 Section 236.387 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.387 Movable bridge locking. Movable bridge locking shall be tested at least once...
Efficient Algorithms for Handling Nondeterministic Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojnar, Tomáš
Finite (word, tree, or omega) automata play an important role in different areas of computer science, including, for instance, formal verification. Often, deterministic automata are used for which traditional algorithms for important operations such as minimisation and inclusion checking are available. However, the use of deterministic automata implies a need to determinise nondeterministic automata that often arise during various computations even when the computations start with deterministic automata. Unfortunately, determinisation is a very expensive step since deterministic automata may be exponentially bigger than the original nondeterministic automata. That is why, it appears advantageous to avoid determinisation and work directly with nondeterministic automata. This, however, brings a need to be able to implement operations traditionally done on deterministic automata on nondeterministic automata instead. In particular, this is the case of inclusion checking and minimisation (or rather reduction of the size of automata). In the talk, we review several recently proposed techniques for inclusion checking on nondeterministic finite word and tree automata as well as Büchi automata. These techniques are based on using the so called antichains, possibly combined with a use of suitable simulation relations (and, in the case of Büchi automata, the so called Ramsey-based or rank-based approaches). Further, we discuss techniques for reducing the size of nondeterministic word and tree automata using quotienting based on the recently proposed notion of mediated equivalences. The talk is based on several common works with Parosh Aziz Abdulla, Ahmed Bouajjani, Yu-Fang Chen, Peter Habermehl, Lisa Kaati, Richard Mayr, Tayssir Touili, Lorenzo Clemente, Lukáš Holík, and Chih-Duo Hong.
Practical path planning among movable obstacles
Chen, Pang C.; Hwang, Yong K.
1990-09-05
Path planning among movable obstacles is a practical problem that is in need of a solution. In this paper an efficient heuristic algorithm that uses a generate-and-test paradigm: a good'' candidate path is hypothesized by a global planner and subsequently verified by a local planner. In the process of formalizing the problem, we also present a technique for modeling object interactions through contact. Our algorithm has been tested on a variety of examples, and was able to generate solutions within 10 seconds. 5 figs., 27 refs.
Anticipating the Filtrons of Automata by Complex Discrete Systems Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siwak, Pawel
2002-09-01
Filtrons of automata are coherent structures (discrete solitons) supported by iterated automata maps (IAMs). They differ from signals of cellular automata. The signals emerge during parallel processing of strings, while IAMs transform strings in serial. We relate the filtron and its supporting automaton with a particular complex discrete system (CDS). This CDS has the form of a processing ring net. Its computation is characterized by four components: instructions of processing nodes (I), inter-processor communication constraints (C), initial data (D), and synchronization (S). We present an analysis of a computation performed within this CDS. It is useful in the problems of searching for any of the mentioned four components assuming that remaining three are known. We give a technique of anticipating the filtrons with a desired parameter C when I, S and D are given. We show how to decide the synchronization S when I, C and D are assumed, and how to determine instructions I when the desired filtron is described by known C, D and S.
Generalized information-lossless automata. I
Speranskii, D.V.
1995-01-01
Huffman and Even introduced classes of abstract automata, which they called respectively information-lossless automata (ILL) and information-lossless automata of finite order (ILLFO). The underlying property of these automata is the ability to reconstruct unknown input sequences from observations of the output response, assuming that the true initial state of the automaton is known. Similar classes of automata introduced in are called essentially information-lossless automata, and they are capable of reconstructing the unknown input word without knowledge of the initial state of the automaton. It is only assumed that the set of possible initial states of the automaton is the set of all automaton states. In this paper we analyze a structural analog of an abstract ILL-automaton whose set of initial states may be of arbitrary cardinality. This class of automata is thus a generalization of the classical ILL-automata, which allows not only for the structure of the input and output alphabets, but also for the configuration of the set of possible initial states.
23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...
23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...
23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...
23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...
23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...
View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from ...
View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from navy land. Note that navigational channel exists only on north side of movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA
Building a Stairway to Literacy with the Montessori Movable Alphabet.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woods, Carol S.
2002-01-01
Details evaluation of effectiveness of the Montessori Movable Alphabet in successive exercises to build preschoolers' knowledge about written English. Describes preliminary activities, movable alphabet introduction, dictation, expanded usage, object/picture use, vowel addition, vowel combination, blends, phonetic phrases, H-digraphs, long vowels,…
The PEP-II Movable Collimators
DeBarger, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Ng, C.; Porter, T.G.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC
2006-03-13
Three movable collimators have been manufactured for installation in the PEP-II LER and HER beamlines upstream of BaBar to improve backgrounds in BaBar by a factor of 2. Each collimator has a pair of horizontally opposed, water cooled jaws with RF finger seals all around the edge of the jaws, these seals are the only sliding parts inside the vacuum chamber. Each jaw travels independently through a distance of 16.5 mm (LER) or 21mm (HER) and is supported above the collimator from motorized slideways with position feedback. The larger HER collimator has a titanium sublimation pump incorporated into the underside of the collimator, pumping through RF screens in the bottom of the chamber. Water cooled fixed ramps protect the leading and trailing edges of the jaws.
Stochastic computing with biomolecular automata.
Adar, Rivka; Benenson, Yaakov; Linshiz, Gregory; Rosner, Amit; Tishby, Naftali; Shapiro, Ehud
2004-07-06
Stochastic computing has a broad range of applications, yet electronic computers realize its basic step, stochastic choice between alternative computation paths, in a cumbersome way. Biomolecular computers use a different computational paradigm and hence afford novel designs. We constructed a stochastic molecular automaton in which stochastic choice is realized by means of competition between alternative biochemical pathways, and choice probabilities are programmed by the relative molar concentrations of the software molecules coding for the alternatives. Programmable and autonomous stochastic molecular automata have been shown to perform direct analysis of disease-related molecular indicators in vitro and may have the potential to provide in situ medical diagnosis and cure.
Illumination system having a plurality of movable sources
Sweatt, William C.; Kubiak, Glenn D.
2002-01-01
An illumination system includes several discharge sources that are multiplexed together to reduce the amount of debris generated. The system includes: (a) a first electromagnetic radiation source array that includes a plurality of first activatable radiation source elements that are positioned on a first movable carriage; (b) a second electromagnetic radiation source array that includes a plurality of second activatable radiation source elements that are positioned on a second movable carriage; (c) means for directing electromagnetic radiation from the first electromagnetic radiation source array and electromagnetic radiation from the second electromagnetic radiation source array toward a common optical path; (d) means for synchronizing (i) the movements of the first movable carriage and of the second movable carriage and (ii) the activation of the first electromagnetic radiation source array and of the second electromagnetic radiation source array to provide an essentially continuous illumination of electromagnetic radiation along the common optical path.
25. DETAIL OF TIE ROD REINFORCING BELOW WESTERNMOST MOVABLE STAGE ...
25. DETAIL OF TIE ROD REINFORCING BELOW WESTERNMOST MOVABLE STAGE SECTION, LOWER LEVEL OF STAGE, LOOKING SOUTH. TAKEN FROM A POINT JUST SOUTH OF RAM IN IL-1007-24. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL
31. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN, UPPER TRUSS GUSSET PLATE, ...
31. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN, UPPER TRUSS GUSSET PLATE, CONNECTION OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL MEMBERS AT BRIDGE TENDER'S MOUSE (taken in December 1983) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD
20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...
20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL CONCRETE SUPPORT PEDESTAL, SHOWING DRIVE GEARS, ELECTRIC MOTOR AND STEEL BEAMS (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD
View of movable span and point truss (to right), from ...
View of movable span and point truss (to right), from navy land, looking west, showing bridge in context of navigational channel. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA
View of movable span and point truss (to right), from ...
View of movable span and point truss (to right), from navy land, looking west, showing bridge in context of navigational channel. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA
49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.766 Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric...
11. MOVABLE BED SEDIMENTATION MODELS. AUTOMATIC SEDIMENT FEEDER DESIGNED AND ...
11. MOVABLE BED SEDIMENTATION MODELS. AUTOMATIC SEDIMENT FEEDER DESIGNED AND BUILT BY WES. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS
A Decomposition Theorem for Finite Automata.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santa Coloma, Teresa L.; Tucci, Ralph P.
1990-01-01
Described is automata theory which is a branch of theoretical computer science. A decomposition theorem is presented that is easier than the Krohn-Rhodes theorem. Included are the definitions, the theorem, and a proof. (KR)
Fuzzy automata and pattern matching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Setzer, C. B.; Warsi, N. A.
1986-01-01
A wide-ranging search for articles and books concerned with fuzzy automata and syntactic pattern recognition is presented. A number of survey articles on image processing and feature detection were included. Hough's algorithm is presented to illustrate the way in which knowledge about an image can be used to interpret the details of the image. It was found that in hand generated pictures, the algorithm worked well on following the straight lines, but had great difficulty turning corners. An algorithm was developed which produces a minimal finite automaton recognizing a given finite set of strings. One difficulty of the construction is that, in some cases, this minimal automaton is not unique for a given set of strings and a given maximum length. This algorithm compares favorably with other inference algorithms. More importantly, the algorithm produces an automaton with a rigorously described relationship to the original set of strings that does not depend on the algorithm itself.
Bus Automata For Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rothstein, Jerome
1988-02-01
Bus automata (BA's) are arrays of automata, each controlling a module of a global interconnection network, an automaton and its module constituting a cell. Connecting modules permits cells to become effectively nearest neighbors even when widely separated. This facilitates parallelism in computation far in excess of that allowed by the "bucket-brigade" communication bottleneck of traditional cellular automata (CA's). Distributed information storage via local automaton states permits complex parallel data processing for rapid pattern recognition, language parsing and other distributed computation at systolic array rates. Global BA architecture can be entirely changed in the time to make one cell state transition. The BA is thus a neural model (cells correspond to neurons) with network plasticity attractive for brain models. Planar (chip) BA's admitting optical input (phototransistors) become powerful retinal models. The distributed input pattern is optically fed directly to distributed local memory, ready for distributed processing, both "retinally" and cooperatively with other BA chips ("brain"). This composite BA can compute control signals for output organs, and sensory inputs other than visual can be utilized similarly. In the BA retina is essentially brain, as in mammals (retina and brain are embryologically the same). The BA can also model opto-motor response (frogs, insects) or sonar response (dolphins, bats), and is proposed as the model of choice for the brains of future intelligent robots and for computer eyes with local parallel image processing capability. Multidimensional formal languages are introduced, corresponding to BA's and patterns the way generative grammars correspond to sequential machines, and applied to fractals and their recognition by BA's.
a Movable Charging Unit for Green Mobility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ElBanhawy, E. Y.; Nassar, K.
2013-05-01
Battery swapping of electric vehicles (EVs) matter appears to be the swiftest and most convenient to users. The existence of swapping stations increases the feasibility of distributed energy storage via the electric grid. However, it is a cost-prohibitive way of charging. Early adaptors' preferences of /perceptions about EV system in general, has its inflectional effects on potential users hence the market penetration level. Yet, the charging matter of electric batteries worries the users and puts more pressure on them with the more rigorous planning-ahead they have to make prior to any trip. This paper presents a distinctive way of charging. It aims at making the overall charging process at ease. From a closer look into the literature, most of EVs' populations depend on domestic charge. Domestic charging gives them more confidence and increases the usability factor of the EV system. Nevertheless, they still need to count on the publically available charging points to reach their destination(s). And when it comes to multifamily residences, it becomes a thorny problem as these apartments do not have a room for charging outlets. Having said the irritating charging time needed to fatten the batteries over the day and the minimal average mileage drove daily, hypothetically, home delivery charging (Movable Charging Unit-MCU) would be a stupendous solution. The paper discusses the integration of shortest path algorithm problem with the information about EV users within a metropolitan area, developing an optimal route for a charging unit. This MCU delivers charging till homes whether by swapping batteries or by fast charging facility. Information about users is to be provided by the service provider of the neighbourhood, which includes charging patterns (timing, power capacity). This problem lies under the shortest path algorithms problem. It provides optimal route of charging that in return shall add more reliability and usability values and alleviate the charging
Exploiting the features of the finite state automata for biomolecular computing.
Martínez-Pérez, Israel Marck; Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz
2009-01-01
Here, we review patents that have emerged in the field of DNA-based computing focusing thereby on the discoveries using the concept of molecular finite state automata. A finite state automaton, operating on a finite sequence of symbols and converting information from one to another, provides a basis for developing molecular-scale autonomous programmable models of biomolecular computation at cellular level. We also provide a brief overview on inventions which methodologically support the DNA-based computational approach.
Genetic learning automata for function optimization.
Howell, M N; Gordon, T J; Brandao, F V
2002-01-01
Stochastic learning automata and genetic algorithms (GAs) have previously been shown to have valuable global optimization properties. Learning automata have, however, been criticized for having a relatively slow rate of convergence. In this paper, these two techniques are combined to provide an increase in the rate of convergence for the learning automata and also to improve the chances of escaping local optima. The technique separates the genotype and phenotype properties of the GA and has the advantage that the degree of convergence can be quickly ascertained. It also provides the GA with a stopping rule. If the technique is applied to real-valued function optimization problems, then bounds on the range of the values within which the global optima is expected can be determined throughout the search process. The technique is demonstrated through a number of bit-based and real-valued function optimization examples.
10. MOVABLE BED SEDIMENTATION MODELS. DOGTOOTH BEND MODEL (MODEL SCALE: ...
10. MOVABLE BED SEDIMENTATION MODELS. DOGTOOTH BEND MODEL (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 400' HORIZONTAL, 1' = 100' VERTICAL), AND GREENVILLE BRIDGE MODEL (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 360' HORIZONTAL, 1' = 100' VERTICAL). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS
20. DETAIL VIEW OF A MOVABLE SHOE AT PIER 1, ...
20. DETAIL VIEW OF A MOVABLE SHOE AT PIER 1, SHOWING THE SOUTH MAIN GIRDER AND THE CONCRETE DETERIORATION AT THE TOP OF THE PIER, LOOKING NORTHWEST Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA
21. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MOVABLE SHOE AT THE SOUTHEAST ...
21. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MOVABLE SHOE AT THE SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT, SHOWING THE INTERSECTION OF THE FLOOR BEAM WITH A LATERAL BRACE AND THE SOUTH MAIN GIRDER, PANEL 1, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST Ryan & Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA
Movable RF probe eliminates need for calibration in plasma accelerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, D. B.
1967-01-01
Movable RF antenna probe in plasma accelerators continuously maps the RF field both within and beyond the accelerator. It eliminates the need for installing probes in the accelerator walls. The moving RF probe can be used to map the RF electrical field under various accelerator conditions.
17. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY, OUTER FIXED GEAR ...
17. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY, OUTER FIXED GEAR RING AND ROLLERS ON CENTER CONCRETE PEDESTAL; THE TWO DRIVE GEARS MESH INTO THIS RING TO TURN BASCULE (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD
18. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN UNDER GRID DECK, ONE ...
18. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN UNDER GRID DECK, ONE OF TWO DRIVE GEARS ON NORTH SIDE OF PEDESTAL THAT MESHES INTO FIXED GEAR RING, SET INTO TOP OF CENTER CONCRETE PEDESTAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (taken in March 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD
Application of Cellular Automata to Detection of Malicious Network Packets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Robert L.
2014-01-01
A problem in computer security is identification of attack signatures in network packets. An attack signature is a pattern of bits that characterizes a particular attack. Because there are many kinds of attacks, there are potentially many attack signatures. Furthermore, attackers may seek to avoid detection by altering the attack mechanism so that…
Disorder effects in cellular automata for two-lane traffic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knospe, Wolfgang; Santen, Ludger; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael
For single-lane traffic models it is well known that particle disorder leads to platoon formation at low densities. Here we discuss the effect of slow cars in two-lane systems. Surprisingly, even a small number of slow cars can initiate the formation of platoons at low densities. The robustness of this phenomenon is investigated for different variants of the lane-changing rules as well as for different variants on the single-lane dynamics. It is shown that anticipation of drivers reduces the influence of slow cars drastically.
A Cellular Automata Approach to Computer Vision and Image Processing.
1980-09-01
two sets of lines running more or less radially outward from C. The heavy 4crooked lines delimit the sectors. They represent divisions which define...quantization regions which group directions we wish to regard as similar. One solution I considered was to rotate the celular world by fifteen degrees...from any one subfield are neighbors. The three subfields are shown in figure 15 labelled "A", "B" and "C". The reason given for this division into
The Use of Cellular Automata in the Learning of Emergence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Faraco, G.; Pantano, P.; Servidio, R.
2006-01-01
In recent years, research efforts on complex systems have contributed to improve our ability in investigating, at different levels of complexity, the emergent behaviour shown by a system in the course of its evolution. The study of emergence, an intrinsic property of a large number of complex systems, can be tackled by making use of Cellular…
Memory-Augmented Cellular Automata for Image Analysis.
1978-11-01
case in which each cell has memory size proportional to the logarithm of the input size, showing the increased capabilities of these machines for executing a variety of basic image analysis and recognition tasks. (Author)
Application of cellular automata approach for cloud simulation and rendering
Christopher Immanuel, W.; Paul Mary Deborrah, S.; Samuel Selvaraj, R.
2014-03-15
Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time applications produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time applications, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces. Clouds are an essential part of any computer model of a landscape or an animation of an outdoor scene. A realistic animation of clouds is also important for creating scenes for flight simulators, movies, games, and other. Our goal was to create a realistic animation of clouds.
Evolution of cooperation in Axelrod tournament using cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schimit, P. H. T.; Santos, B. O.; Soares, C. A.
2015-11-01
Results of the Axelrod Tournament were published in 1981, and since then, evolutionary game theory emerged as an idea for understanding relations, like conflict and cooperation, between rational decision-makers. Robert Axelrod organized it as a round-robin tournament where strategies for iterated Prisoner's Dilemma were faced in a sequence of two players game. Here, we attempt to simulate the strategies submitted to the tournament in a multi-agent context, where individuals play a two-player game with their neighbors. Each individual has one of the strategies, and it plays the Prisoner's Dilemma with its neighbors. According to actions chosen (cooperate or defect), points of life are subtracted from their profiles. When an individual dies, some fitness functions are defined to choose the most successful strategy which the new individual will copy. Although tit-for-tat was the best strategy, on average, in the tournament, in our evolutionary multi-agent context, it has not been successful.
Synchronized traffic flow simulating with cellular automata model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Jun-fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-gang; Jiang, Rui; Zhao, Xiao-mei; Gao, Zi-you
2009-12-01
The synchronized flow traffic phase of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory can be well reproduced by the model proposed by Jiang and Wu [R. Jiang, Q.S. Wu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 (2003) 381]. But in the Jiang and Wu model, the rule for brake light-after switching on, the brake light will not set off until the vehicle accelerates-is obviously unrealistic. Thus we improved the model by considering the difference in accelerating and decelerating performance under different driving conditions. The fundamental diagram and spatial-temporal diagrams are analyzed. We confirmed that the new model could reproduce the synchronized flow by two methods, i.e. the traffic flow interruption effect and performing microscopic analysis of time series data. Simulation results show that the decelerating difference is an important factor to reproduce the synchronized flow. We expect that our work could make contributions to understanding the mechanism of the synchronized flow.
49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...
49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...
49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...
49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...
49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...
A Quantum Relativistic Prisoner's Dilemma Cellular Automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Carvalho, Márcio; Situ, Haozhen
2016-10-01
The effect of variable entangling on the dynamics of a spatial quantum relativistic formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests.
Selective networks and recognition automata.
Reeke, G N; Edelman, G M
1984-01-01
The results we have presented demonstrate that a network based on a selective principle can function in the absence of forced learning or an a priori program to give recognition, classification, generalization, and association. While Darwin II is not a model of any actual nervous system, it does set out to solve one of the same problems that evolution had to solve--the need to form categories in a bottom-up manner from information in the environment, without incorporating the assumptions of any particular observer. The key features of the model that make this possible are (1) Darwin II incorporates selective networks whose initial specificities enable them to respond without instruction to unfamiliar stimuli; (2) degeneracy provides multiple possibilities of response to any one stimulus, at the same time providing functional redundancy against component failure; (3) the output of Darwin II is a pattern of response, making use of the simultaneous responses of multiple degenerate groups to avoid the need for very high specificity and the combinatorial disaster that would imply; (4) reentry within individual networks vitiates the limitations described by Minsky and Papert for a class of perceptual automata lacking such connections; and (5) reentry between intercommunicating networks with different functions gives rise to new functions, such as association, that either one alone could not display. The two kinds of network are roughly analogous to the two kinds of category formation that people use: Darwin, corresponding to the exemplar description of categories, and Wallace, corresponding to the probabilistic matching description of categories. These principles lead to a new class of pattern-recognizing machine of which Darwin II is just an example. There are a number of obvious extensions to this work that we are pursuing. These include giving Darwin II the capability to deal with stimuli that are in motion, an ability that probably precedes the ability of biological
Canalization and Control in Automata Networks: Body Segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster
Marques-Pita, Manuel; Rocha, Luis M.
2013-01-01
We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level), which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level). This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics – a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks), identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought), the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized) control that orchestrates cellular activity – with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues ‘compute’. PMID:23520449
Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.
Marques-Pita, Manuel; Rocha, Luis M
2013-01-01
We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level), which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level). This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks), identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought), the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized) control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.
Computational open-channel hydraulics for movable-bed problems
Lai, Chintu; ,
1990-01-01
As a major branch of computational hydraulics, notable advances have been made in numerical modeling of unsteady open-channel flow since the beginning of the computer age. According to the broader definition and scope of 'computational hydraulics,' the basic concepts and technology of modeling unsteady open-channel flow have been systematically studied previously. As a natural extension, computational open-channel hydraulics for movable-bed problems are addressed in this paper. The introduction of the multimode method of characteristics (MMOC) has made the modeling of this class of unsteady flows both practical and effective. New modeling techniques are developed, thereby shedding light on several aspects of computational hydraulics. Some special features of movable-bed channel-flow simulation are discussed here in the same order as given by the author in the fixed-bed case.
Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes
Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.
1987-07-17
A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.
Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes
Johnson, Wayne F.; Burtis, Carl A.; Walker, William A.
1989-01-01
A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.
Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes
Johnson, Wayne F.; Burtis, Carl A.; Walker, William A.
1989-05-30
A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.
Chaos automata: iterated function systems with memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashlock, Dan; Golden, Jim
2003-07-01
Transforming biological sequences into fractals in order to visualize them is a long standing technique, in the form of the traditional four-cornered chaos game. In this paper we give a generalization of the standard chaos game visualization for DNA sequences. It incorporates iterated function systems that are called under the control of a finite state automaton, yielding a DNA to fractal transformation system with memory. We term these fractal visualizers chaos automata. The use of memory enables association of widely separated sequence events in the drawing of the fractal, finessing the “forgetfulness” of other fractal visualization methods. We use a genetic algorithm to train chaos automata to distinguish introns and exons in Zea mays (corn). A substantial issue treated here is the creation of a fitness function that leads to good visual separation of distinct data types.
Unambiguous Finite Automata over a Unary Alphabet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okhotin, Alexander
Nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) with at most one accepting computation on every input string are known as unambiguous finite automata (UFA). This paper considers UFAs over a unary alphabet, and determines the exact number of states in DFAs needed to represent unary languages recognized by n-state UFAs: the growth rate of this function is e^{Θ(sqrt[3]{n ln^2 n})}. The conversion of an n-state unary NFA to a UFA requires UFAs with g(n)+O(n^2)=e^{sqrt{n ln n}(1+o(1))} states, where g(n) is Landau's function. In addition, it is shown that the complement of n-state unary UFAs requires up to at least n 2 - o(1) states in an NFA, while the Kleene star requires up to exactly (n - 1)2 + 1 states.
Decentralized indirect methods for learning automata games.
Tilak, Omkar; Martin, Ryan; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis
2011-10-01
We discuss the application of indirect learning methods in zero-sum and identical payoff learning automata games. We propose a novel decentralized version of the well-known pursuit learning algorithm. Such a decentralized algorithm has significant computational advantages over its centralized counterpart. The theoretical study of such a decentralized algorithm requires the analysis to be carried out in a nonstationary environment. We use a novel bootstrapping argument to prove the convergence of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such analysis has been carried out for zero-sum and identical payoff games. Extensive simulation studies are reported, which demonstrate the proposed algorithm's fast and accurate convergence in a variety of game scenarios. We also introduce the framework of partial communication in the context of identical payoff games of learning automata. In such games, the automata may not communicate with each other or may communicate selectively. This comprehensive framework has the capability to model both centralized and decentralized games discussed in this paper.
Cellular automaton for chimera states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Morales, Vladimir
2016-04-01
A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.
113. Stage level floor structure. In addition to the movable ...
113. Stage level floor structure. In addition to the movable sections, there were hinged slots that could be opened in the stage floor (see sheet 4 of 9, note 4; sheet 5 of 9, note 2; and sheet 7 of 9, note 1). A remaining cast iron bracket is visible in the left foreground of the photograph. The actual structure for a hinged section is visible in the background, to the right of center. The hydraulic ram (type D) visible below the floor level is the south ram in the middle row; the view is facing north. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL
On demand polarimetry using a movable microgrid polarizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Page E.; Fest, Eric C.
2015-09-01
A movable pixelated filter array is proposed to provide low cost, on demand polarimetry and wavefront sensing. With this concept, an optical system can turn polarimetry on and off by using a shutter to move a microgrid polarizer array in and out of the optical path of the system. This allows an optical system to operate in two modes, a non-polarimetric mode in which sensor range is maintained, and a polarimetric mode in which it is reduced. In implementing this concept, adequate knowledge of the position of the filter in the optical path and calibration procedures become critical topics. This paper discusses simulated and hardware-tested results of this invention.
The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding
Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N.; Merz, Kenneth M.
2013-01-01
Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term “movable type”. Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the
A movable stop mechanism for the SIRE telescope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedt, R. E.; Poulsen, R. N.
1982-01-01
A movable stop mechanism (MSM) designed to activate flaps that change the size and shape of a telescope aperture stop on command is described. Operating at the cryogenic temperatures of the optical system, it consists primarily of a rotary solenoid that drives (activates) dual four-bar linkages in synchronism that in turn rotate the butterfly flaps into position. The design, performance characteristics, and testing of this mechanism are discussed. Specific problems that occurred during testing and the solutions that were adopted are also described.
In-pit movable crushing/conveying systems
Almond, R.M.
1982-01-01
Many mature open pit mines throughout the world can probably achieve a marked reduction in overall mining costs by installing movable gyratory crushing and conveying systems within the pit. Truck haulage would be limited to transporting material for the short distance between the working face and the nearest crusher module. The work of elevating the materials is handled by belt conveyors which have much greater efficiency than haul trucks. The technology for this more economical method of crushing and transporting hard rock materials is available today and several forward-looking mines can be expected to install some variation of this system in the near future.
On Binary-State Phyllosilicate Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamatzky, Andrew
Phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines, which mimics the structure of phyllosilicate. A node of a binary state phyllosilicate automaton takes states 0 and 1. A node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon nodes) or six (oxygen nodes) closest neighbors. We phenomenologically select the main types of patterns generated by phyllosilicate automata based on their shape: convex and concave hulls, almost circularly growing patterns, octagonal patterns, and those with dendritic growth; and, the patterns' interior: disordered, solid, labyrinthine. We also present the rules exhibiting traveling localizations.
Device for driving a movable member in vehicle
Chisaka, K.; Kushida, M.; Nagayama, Y.; Yamamoto, M.
1986-12-16
A device is described for driving a movable member in a vehicle having a driving motor provided to be rotated in a predetermined direction and a reduction gear train for decelerating the rotating motion of the driving motor. It also has transmitting means for transmitting the rotating motion to an output shaft to be coupled with the driven member, and a casing for enclosing the driving motor and the transmitting means. The device comprises: two adjacent gears in the reduction gear train being arranged rotatable with respect to the casing and coaxially with each other, first gear of the gears being coupled with a gear of front stage disposed at the driving motor side, second gear of the gears being coupled with a gear of next stage disposed at the output shaft side, the second gear arranged axially movably with respect to the first gear. A coupling means is arranged to integrally rotate the both gears for coupling the second gear with the first gear and a manual rotating means is arranged in relation the the second gear for axially moving the second gear with respect to the first gear to disengaged the coupling of the gears, and for providing a rotational force to the second gear.
Automata-Based Verification of Temporal Properties on Running Programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus; Lan, Sonie (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to Buchi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...
Entanglement of movable mirrors in a correlated-emission laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Wenchao; Al-Amri, Mohammad; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2013-08-01
We propose an experimental scheme for entangling two macroscopic mechanical resonators (movable mirrors) by their coupling to the two-mode fields of a correlated-emission laser inside a doubly resonant cavity. With this aim we investigate the quantum Langevin equations that describe the interaction of the field-mirror system in conjuction with the master equation of the correlated-emission laser. We show that the steady-state entanglement of two mirrors as well as that of two-mode fields can be obtained in the regime of strong field-mirror coupling when the input lasers are scattered at the anti-Stokes sidebands. Remarkably, the degree of entanglement for both the mirror pair and the field pair can be controlled by an external field driving the gain medium. Our scheme is able to entangle two macroscopic objects with current state-of-the-art experimental apparatus.
Component analyses for movable in-pit crushers
Utley, R.W.
1983-01-01
This paper discusses the current and projected requirement and basic technology developed for movable in-pit primary crushers to be used in hard-rock surface mines. The basis of the paper was a mine survey and equipment development study conducted in cooperation with the open-pit mining industry by GATX through its subsidiaries, Fuller Company (a crusher manufacturer), and GARD, Inc. (the research and development center for GATX), under contract to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The crusher selected for this application is a 60 by 89 inch (1.52 m by 2.26 m) gyratory. The 60 by 89 inch (1.52 m by 2.26 m) size can handle the typical throughout (3500 to 4000 TPH; 3175 to 3630 MTPH) desired by the mines and crush the normal R.O.M. top size.
Viewing hybrid systems as products of control systems and automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grossman, R. L.; Larson, R. G.
1992-01-01
The purpose of this note is to show how hybrid systems may be modeled as products of nonlinear control systems and finite state automata. By a hybrid system, we mean a network of consisting of continuous, nonlinear control system connected to discrete, finite state automata. Our point of view is that the automata switches between the control systems, and that this switching is a function of the discrete input symbols or letters that it receives. We show how a nonlinear control system may be viewed as a pair consisting of a bialgebra of operators coding the dynamics, and an algebra of observations coding the state space. We also show that a finite automata has a similar representation. A hybrid system is then modeled by taking suitable products of the bialgebras coding the dynamics and the observation algebras coding the state spaces.
KECSA-Movable Type Implicit Solvation Model (KMTISM).
Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Ting; Li, Pengfei; Merz, Kenneth M
2015-02-10
Computation of the solvation free energy for chemical and biological processes has long been of significant interest. The key challenges to effective solvation modeling center on the choice of potential function and configurational sampling. Herein, an energy sampling approach termed the “Movable Type” (MT) method, and a statistical energy function for solvation modeling, “Knowledge-based and Empirical Combined Scoring Algorithm” (KECSA) are developed and utilized to create an implicit solvation model: KECSA-Movable Type Implicit Solvation Model (KMTISM) suitable for the study of chemical and biological systems. KMTISM is an implicit solvation model, but the MT method performs energy sampling at the atom pairwise level. For a specific molecular system, the MT method collects energies from prebuilt databases for the requisite atom pairs at all relevant distance ranges, which by its very construction encodes all possible molecular configurations simultaneously. Unlike traditional statistical energy functions, KECSA converts structural statistical information into categorized atom pairwise interaction energies as a function of the radial distance instead of a mean force energy function. Within the implicit solvent model approximation, aqueous solvation free energies are then obtained from the NVT ensemble partition function generated by the MT method. Validation is performed against several subsets selected from the Minnesota Solvation Database v2012. Results are compared with several solvation free energy calculation methods, including a one-to-one comparison against two commonly used classical implicit solvation models: MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA. Comparison against a quantum mechanics based polarizable continuum model is also discussed (Cramer and Truhlar’s Solvation Model 12).
KECSA-Movable Type Implicit Solvation Model (KMTISM)
2015-01-01
Computation of the solvation free energy for chemical and biological processes has long been of significant interest. The key challenges to effective solvation modeling center on the choice of potential function and configurational sampling. Herein, an energy sampling approach termed the “Movable Type” (MT) method, and a statistical energy function for solvation modeling, “Knowledge-based and Empirical Combined Scoring Algorithm” (KECSA) are developed and utilized to create an implicit solvation model: KECSA-Movable Type Implicit Solvation Model (KMTISM) suitable for the study of chemical and biological systems. KMTISM is an implicit solvation model, but the MT method performs energy sampling at the atom pairwise level. For a specific molecular system, the MT method collects energies from prebuilt databases for the requisite atom pairs at all relevant distance ranges, which by its very construction encodes all possible molecular configurations simultaneously. Unlike traditional statistical energy functions, KECSA converts structural statistical information into categorized atom pairwise interaction energies as a function of the radial distance instead of a mean force energy function. Within the implicit solvent model approximation, aqueous solvation free energies are then obtained from the NVT ensemble partition function generated by the MT method. Validation is performed against several subsets selected from the Minnesota Solvation Database v2012. Results are compared with several solvation free energy calculation methods, including a one-to-one comparison against two commonly used classical implicit solvation models: MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA. Comparison against a quantum mechanics based polarizable continuum model is also discussed (Cramer and Truhlar’s Solvation Model 12). PMID:25691832
A simplified cellular automation model for city traffic
Simon, P.M.; Nagel, K. |
1997-12-31
The authors systematically investigate the effect of blockage sites in a cellular automata model for traffic flow. Different scheduling schemes for the blockage sites are considered. None of them returns a linear relationship between the fraction of green time and the throughput. The authors use this information for a fast implementation of traffic in Dallas.
Partially Ordered Two-Way Büchi Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kufleitner, Manfred; Lauser, Alexander
We introduce partially ordered two-way Büchi automata over infinite words. As for finite words, the nondeterministic variant recognizes the fragment Σ2 of first-order logic FO[<] and the deterministic version yields the Δ2-definable ω-languages. As a byproduct of our results, we show that deterministic partially ordered two-way Büchi automata are effectively closed under Boolean operations.
Multilevel programmable logic array schemes for microprogrammed automata
Barkalov, A.A.
1995-03-01
Programmable logic arrays (PLAs) provide an efficient tool for implementation of logic schemes of microprogrammed automata (MPA). The number of PLAs in the MPA logic scheme can be minimized by increasing the number of levels. In this paper, we analyze the structures of multilevel schemes of Mealy automata, propose a number of new structures, consider the corresponding correctness conditions, and examine some problems that must be solved in order to satisfy these conditions.
Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukotic, B.; Cirkovic, M. M.
2010-09-01
We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.
Cellular automaton formulation of passive scalar dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Hudong; Matthaeus, William H.
1987-01-01
Cellular automata modeling of the advection of a passive scalar in a two-dimensional flow is examined in the context of discrete lattice kinetic theory. It is shown that if the passive scalar is represented by tagging or 'coloring' automation particles a passive advection-diffusion equation emerges without use of perturbation expansions. For the specific case of the hydrodynamic lattice gas model of Frisch et al. (1986), the diffusion coefficient is calculated by perturbation.
On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin
Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.
Automata Learning with Automated Alphabet Abstraction Refinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howar, Falk; Steffen, Bernhard; Merten, Maik
on is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems, but also the cause of a major problem: the introduction of non-determinism. In this paper, we introduce a method for refining a given abstraction to automatically regain a deterministic behavior on-the-fly during the learning process. Thus the control over abstraction becomes part of the learning process, with the effect that detected non-determinism does not lead to failure, but to a dynamic alphabet abstraction refinement. Like automata learning itself, this method in general is neither sound nor complete, but it also enjoys similar convergence properties even for infinite systems as long as the concrete system itself behaves deterministically, as illustrated along a concrete example.
The Design and Performance Characteristics of a Cellular Logic 3-D Image Classification Processor.
1981-04-01
number) Pattern Recognition Cellular Automata " Cellular Logic Target Classificatio4 1Neighborhood Transformation Image Processing Laser Radar iASSTRACT...AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CELLULAR LOGIC 3-D IMAGE CLASSIFICATION PROCESSOR 1 &/. , DISSERTATION AFIT/DS/EE/81-1 Lawrence A. Ankeney... CELLULAR LOGIC 3-D IMAGE - -- A&I PRCSRDTIC T B CLASSIFICATION PROCESSOR Unannounced 0 Justificatio b yD t i u i n Lawrence A. Ankeney, B.S., M.S
Ito equations out of domino cellular automaton with efficiency parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czechowski, Zbigniew; Białecki, Mariusz
2012-06-01
Ito equations are derived for simple stochastic cellular automaton with parameters describing efficiencies for avalanche triggering and cell occupation. Analytical results are compared with the numerical one obtained from the histogram method. Good agreement for various parameters supports the wide applicability of the Ito equation as a macroscopic model of some cellular automata and complex natural phenomena which manifest random energy release. Also, the paper is an example of effectiveness of histogram procedure as an adequate method of nonlinear modeling of time series.
PAM: Particle automata model in simulation of Fusarium graminearum pathogen expansion.
Wcisło, Rafał; Miller, S Shea; Dzwinel, Witold
2016-01-21
The multi-scale nature and inherent complexity of biological systems are a great challenge for computer modeling and classical modeling paradigms. We present a novel particle automata modeling metaphor in the context of developing a 3D model of Fusarium graminearum infection in wheat. The system consisting of the host plant and Fusarium pathogen cells can be represented by an ensemble of discrete particles defined by a set of attributes. The cells-particles can interact with each other mimicking mechanical resistance of the cell walls and cell coalescence. The particles can move, while some of their attributes can be changed according to prescribed rules. The rules can represent cellular scales of a complex system, while the integrated particle automata model (PAM) simulates its overall multi-scale behavior. We show that due to the ability of mimicking mechanical interactions of Fusarium tip cells with the host tissue, the model is able to simulate realistic penetration properties of the colonization process reproducing both vertical and lateral Fusarium invasion scenarios. The comparison of simulation results with micrographs from laboratory experiments shows encouraging qualitative agreement between the two.
Design of an ion thruster movable grid thrust vectoring system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kural, Aleksander; Leveque, Nicolas; Welch, Chris; Wolanski, Piotr
2004-08-01
Several reasons justify the development of an ion propulsion system thrust vectoring system. Spacecraft launched to date have used ion thrusters mounted on gimbals to control the thrust vector within a range of about ±5°. Such devices have large mass and dimensions, hence the need exists for a more compact system, preferably mounted within the thruster itself. Since the 1970s several thrust vectoring systems have been developed, with the translatable accelerator grid electrode being considered the most promising. Laboratory models of this system have already been built and successfully tested, but there is still room for improvement in their mechanical design. This work aims to investigate possibilities of refining the design of such movable grid thrust vectoring systems. Two grid suspension designs and three types of actuators were evaluated. The actuators examined were a micro electromechanical system, a NanoMuscle shape memory alloy actuator and a piezoelectric driver. Criteria used for choosing the best system included mechanical simplicity (use of the fewest mechanical parts), accuracy, power consumption and behaviour in space conditions. Designs of systems using these actuators are proposed. In addition, a mission to Mercury using the system with piezoelectric drivers has been modelled and its performance presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Brian N.; Snead, Malcolm L.
2016-02-01
We argue in favor of representing living cells as automata and review demonstrations that autonomous cells can form patterns by responding to local variations in the strain fields that arise from their individual or collective motions. An autonomous cell's response to strain stimuli is assumed to be effected by internally-generated, internally-powered forces, which generally move the cell in directions other than those implied by external energy gradients. Evidence of cells acting as strain-cued automata have been inferred from patterns observed in nature and from experiments conducted in vitro. Simulations that mimic particular cases of pattern forming share the idealization that cells are assumed to pass information among themselves solely via mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., the tractions and displacements present at their membranes. This assumption opens three mechanisms for pattern formation in large cell populations: wavelike behavior, kinematic feedback in cell motility that can lead to sliding and rotational patterns, and directed migration during invasions. Wavelike behavior among ameloblast cells during amelogenesis (the formation of dental enamel) has been inferred from enamel microstructure, while strain waves in populations of epithelial cells have been observed in vitro. One hypothesized kinematic feedback mechanism, "enhanced shear motility", accounts successfully for the spontaneous formation of layered patterns during amelogenesis in the mouse incisor. Directed migration is exemplified by a theory of invader cells that sense and respond to the strains they themselves create in the host population as they invade it: analysis shows that the strain fields contain positional information that could aid the formation of cell network structures, stabilizing the slender geometry of branches and helping govern the frequency of branch bifurcation and branch coalescence (the formation of closed networks). In simulations of pattern formation in
Butterfly Dam, Cross section AA/South Elevation at Movable Leaf, Longitudinal ...
Butterfly Dam, Cross section A-A/South Elevation at Movable Leaf, Longitudinal Section B-B - Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Butterfly Dam, Illinois Waterway River Mile 293.1, Lockport, Will County, IL
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... members within one inch of their proper positions and with the track rail on the movable span within three-eighths inch of correct surface and alinement with rail seating device on bridge abutment or fixed...
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... members within one inch of their proper positions and with the track rail on the movable span within three-eighths inch of correct surface and alinement with rail seating device on bridge abutment or fixed...
49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... members within one inch of their proper positions and with the track rail on the movable span within three-eighths inch of correct surface and alinement with rail seating device on bridge abutment or fixed...
Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganesh, Natesh; Anderson, Neal G.
2013-12-01
Irreversibility and dissipation in finite-state automata (FSA) are considered from a physical-information-theoretic perspective. A quantitative measure for the computational irreversibility of finite automata is introduced, and a fundamental lower bound on the average energy dissipated per state transition is obtained and expressed in terms of FSA irreversibility. The irreversibility measure and energy bound are germane to any realization of a deterministic automaton that faithfully registers abstract FSA states in distinguishable states of a physical system coupled to a thermal environment, and that evolves via a sequence of interactions with an external system holding a physical instantiation of a random input string. The central result, which is shown to follow from quantum dynamics and entropic inequalities alone, can be regarded as a generalization of Landauer's Principle applicable to FSAs and tailorable to specified automata. Application to a simple FSA is illustrated.
Efficient Translation of LTL Formulae into Buchi Automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Lerda, Flavio
2001-01-01
Model checking is a fully automated technique for checking that a system satisfies a set of required properties. With explicit-state model checkers, properties are typically defined in linear-time temporal logic (LTL), and are translated into B chi automata in order to be checked. This report presents how we have combined and improved existing techniques to obtain an efficient LTL to B chi automata translator. In particular, we optimize the core of existing tableau-based approaches to generate significantly smaller automata. Our approach has been implemented and is being released as part of the Java PathFinder software (JPF), an explicit state model checker under development at the NASA Ames Research Center.
Drive characteristics of a fast movable limiter in the JT-60 tokamak.
Takashima, T; Ohta, M; Shimizu, M
1978-02-01
A pair of fast-acting movable limiters are to be installed in the vacuum chamber of the JT-60 tokamak being designed at JAERI. Their purpose is to suppress skin current in the plasma column. They should travel across the vacuum chamber over a stroke of about 1 m in 0.1 s during the build-up phase of the plasma current. Each movable limiter system consists of the drive system, a vacuum seal, a bearing usuable at high temperature in a vacuum, and a molybdenum rail limiter head. For the drive a hydraulic mechanism is used with servovalves to control the oil flow. To develop satisfactory movable limiters for JT-60, the full-scale model was constructed and tested. Overall tests with the model showed high reliability, reproducibility, controllability, and safety of the movable limiter. The drive pattern measured is in good agreement with that simulated. The movable limiters should prevent the skin effect of plasma current in the current rising phase and also provide information on particle diffusion during the flat-top phase of plasma current.
A SIMPLE CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR HIGH-LEVEL VEGETATION DYNAMICS
We have produced a simple two-dimensional (ground-plan) cellular automata model of vegetation dynamics specifically to investigate high-level community processes. The model is probabilistic, with individual plant behavior determined by physiologically-based rules derived from a w...
On a three-parameter quantum battle of the sexes cellular automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón
2013-05-01
The dynamics of a spatial quantum formulation of the iterated battle of the sexes game is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The effect of spatial structure is assessed when allowing the players to adopt quantum strategies that are no restricted to any particular subset of the possible strategies.
A cellular automaton implementation of a quantum battle of the sexes game with imperfect information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón
2015-10-01
The dynamics of a spatial quantum formulation of the iterated battle of the sexes game with imperfect information is studied in this work. The game is played with variable entangling in a cellular automata manner, i.e. with local and synchronous interaction. The effect of spatial structure is assessed in fair and unfair scenarios.
On the Effect of Quantum Noise in a Quantum-Relativistic Prisoner's Dilemma Cellular Automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2016-12-01
The disrupting effect of quantum noise on the dynamics of a spatial quantum relativistic formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game with variable entangling is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests.
Variable entangling in a quantum prisoner's dilemma cellular automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón
2015-01-01
The effect of variable entangling on the dynamics of a spatial quantum formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The effect of spatial structure is assessed when allowing the players to adopt quantum and classical strategies, both in the two- and three-parameter strategy spaces.
A quantum relativistic battle of the sexes cellular automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2017-02-01
The effect of variable entangling on the dynamics of a spatial quantum relativistic formulation of the iterated battle of the sexes game is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests. Despite the full range of quantum parameters initially accessible, they promptly converge into fairly stable configurations, that often show rich spatial structures in simulations with no negligible entanglement.
Checking Timed Büchi Automata Emptiness Using LU-Abstractions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guangyuan
This paper shows that the zone-based LU-extrapolation of Behrmann et al, that preserves reachability of timed automata, also preserves emptiness of timed Büchi automata. This improves the previous results by Tripakis et al who showed that the k-extrapolation preserves timed Büchi automata emptiness. The LU-extrapolation is coarser than k-extrapolation, allowing better state space reductions. A tool with LU-extrapolation for emptiness checking of timed Büchi automata has been implemented, and some experiments are reported.
On the secure obfuscation of deterministic finite automata.
Anderson, William Erik
2008-06-01
In this paper, we show how to construct secure obfuscation for Deterministic Finite Automata, assuming non-uniformly strong one-way functions exist. We revisit the software protection approaches originally proposed by [5, 10, 12, 17] and revise them to the current obfuscation setting of Barak et al. [2]. Under this model, we introduce an efficient oracle that retains some 'small' secret about the original program. Using this secret, we can construct an obfuscator and two-party protocol that securely obfuscates Deterministic Finite Automata against malicious adversaries. The security of this model retains the strong 'virtual black box' property originally proposed in [2] while incorporating the stronger condition of dependent auxiliary inputs in [15]. Additionally, we show that our techniques remain secure under concurrent self-composition with adaptive inputs and that Turing machines are obfuscatable under this model.
One-Dimensional Modeling of Dam-Break Flow over Movable Beds
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A 1-D finite-volume model has been developed to simulate sediment movement in flow over a movable bed following a dam-break. The effects of sediment concentration and bed change on the flow are considered by using the continuity and momentum equations. Sediment transport modules simulate the non-equ...
Analysis of Heat Stress and the Indoor Climate Control Requirements for Movable Refuge Chambers
Hao, Xiaoli; Guo, Chenxin; Lin, Yaolin; Wang, Haiqiao; Liu, Heqing
2016-01-01
Movable refuge chambers are a new kind of rescue device for underground mining, which is believed to have a potential positive impact on reducing the rate of fatalities. It is likely to be hot and humid inside a movable refuge chamber due to the metabolism of trapped miners, heat generated by equipment and heat transferred from outside. To investigate the heat stress experienced by miners trapped in a movable refuge chamber, the predicted heat strain (PHS) model was used to simulate the heat transfer process between the person and the thermal environment. The variations of heat stress with the temperature and humidity inside the refuge chamber were analyzed. The effects of air temperature outside the refuge chamber and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the refuge chamber shell on the heat stress inside the refuge chamber was also investigated. The relationship between the limit of exposure duration and the air temperature and humidity was numerically analyzed to determine the upper limits of temperature and humidity inside a refuge chamber. Air temperature of 32 °C and relative humidity of 70% are recommended as the design standard for internal thermal environment control of movable refuge chambers. PMID:27213422
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quinlisk, Meg
2009-01-01
The cultural heritage of library collections and individual items is of importance and interest outside the profession of librarianship. This paper gives an introduction to the concept of "movable heritage" from the heritage professional's perspective and provides suggestions as to how this concept can be applied to libraries.…
Parallel Magnetic Flow Electromagnet for Movable Coil Control-rod Driving Mechanism
Jige, Zhang
2006-07-01
The parallel magnetic flow electromagnet can effectively relax the saturation, which easily takes place in the single magnetic flow electromagnet, and accordingly can improve the drive capacity of the movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism for a mobile reactor control rod. (authors)
14 CFR 382.61 - What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests? 382.61 Section 382.61 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...
14 CFR 382.61 - What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests? 382.61 Section 382.61 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...
14 CFR 382.61 - What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests? 382.61 Section 382.61 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...
14 CFR 382.61 - What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests? 382.61 Section 382.61 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...
78 FR 13747 - Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-02-28
... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges... secured before permitting a train to pass a signal that is displaying a stop indication and protecting a..., it was normally left in an open position when not needed in order to allow pleasure craft to...
Adaptive Movable Neural Interfaces for Monitoring Single Neurons in the Brain
Muthuswamy, Jit; Anand, Sindhu; Sridharan, Arati
2011-01-01
Implantable microelectrodes that are currently used to monitor neuronal activity in the brain in vivo have serious limitations both in acute and chronic experiments. Movable microelectrodes that adapt their position in the brain to maximize the quality of neuronal recording have been suggested and tried as a potential solution to overcome the challenges with the current fixed implantable microelectrodes. While the results so far suggest that movable microelectrodes improve the quality and stability of neuronal recordings from the brain in vivo, the bulky nature of the technologies involved in making these movable microelectrodes limits the throughput (number of neurons that can be recorded from at any given time) of these implantable devices. Emerging technologies involving the use of microscale motors and electrodes promise to overcome this limitation. This review summarizes some of the most recent efforts in developing movable neural interfaces using microscale technologies that adapt their position in response to changes in the quality of the neuronal recordings. Key gaps in our understanding of the brain–electrode interface are highlighted. Emerging discoveries in these areas will lead to success in the development of a reliable and stable interface with single neurons that will impact basic neurophysiological studies and emerging cortical prosthetic technologies. PMID:21927593
IET. Snaptran reactor package inside movable building (TAN624). Camera facing ...
IET. Snaptran reactor package inside movable building (TAN-624). Camera facing southwest. Hoses at right of view lead to coupling station plug. Photographer: Page Comiskey. Date: August 11, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4027 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID
14 CFR 382.61 - What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the requirements for movable aisle armrests? 382.61 Section 382.61 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR...
Supervisory control of (max,+) automata: extensions towards applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahaye, Sébastien; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, Jean-Louis
2015-12-01
In this paper, supervisory control of (max,+) automata is studied. The synthesis of maximally permissive and just-in-time supervisor, as well as the synthesis of minimally permissive and just-after-time supervisor, are proposed. Results are also specialised to non-decreasing solutions, because only such supervisors can be realised in practice. The inherent issue of rationality raised recently is discussed. An illustration of concepts and results is presented through an example of a flexible manufacturing system.
An autonomous DNA model for finite state automata.
Martinez-Perez, Israel M; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz; Ignatova, Zoya
2009-01-01
In this paper we introduce an autonomous DNA model for finite state automata. This model called sticker automaton model is based on the hybridisation of single stranded DNA molecules (stickers) encoding transition rules and input data. The computation is carried out in an autonomous manner by one enzyme which allows us to determine whether a resulting double-stranded DNA molecule belongs to the automaton's language or not.
Efficient Deterministic Finite Automata Minimization Based on Backward Depth Information
Liu, Desheng; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng; Guo, Xiaojun; Su, Shaojing
2016-01-01
Obtaining a minimal automaton is a fundamental issue in the theory and practical implementation of deterministic finite automatons (DFAs). A minimization algorithm is presented in this paper that consists of two main phases. In the first phase, the backward depth information is built, and the state set of the DFA is partitioned into many blocks. In the second phase, the state set is refined using a hash table. The minimization algorithm has a lower time complexity O(n) than a naive comparison of transitions O(n2). Few states need to be refined by the hash table, because most states have been partitioned by the backward depth information in the coarse partition. This method achieves greater generality than previous methods because building the backward depth information is independent of the topological complexity of the DFA. The proposed algorithm can be applied not only to the minimization of acyclic automata or simple cyclic automata, but also to automata with high topological complexity. Overall, the proposal has three advantages: lower time complexity, greater generality, and scalability. A comparison to Hopcroft’s algorithm demonstrates experimentally that the algorithm runs faster than traditional algorithms. PMID:27806102
Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Dong-Yang; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2016-01-01
We propose a scheme for the creation of robust entanglement between a movable mirror and atomic ensemble at the macroscopic level in coupled optomechanical system. We numerically simulate the degree of entanglement of the bipartite macroscopic entanglement and show that it depends on the coupling strength between the cavities and is robust with respect to the certain environment temperature. Inspiringly and surprisingly, according to the reported relation between the mechanical damping rate and the mechanical frequency of the movable mirror, the numerical simulation result shows that such bipartite macroscopic entanglement persists for environment temperature up to 170 K, which breaks the liquid nitrogen cooling and liquid helium cooling and largely lowers down the experiment cost. We also investigate the entanglement transfer based on this coupled system. The scheme can be used for the realization of quantum memories for continuous variable quantum information processing and quantum-limited displacement measurements. PMID:27624534
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, Chaorun; Hu, Songtao; Cao, Xiaobao; Wu, Weichao
2017-01-01
Due to their ease of fabrication, facile use and low cost, ice valves have great potential for use in microfluidic platforms. For this to be possible, a rapid response speed is key and hence there is still much scope for improvement in current ice valve technology. Therefore, in this study, an ice valve with enhanced thermal conductivity and a movable refrigeration source has been developed. An embedded aluminium cylinder is used to dramatically enhance the heat conduction performance of the microfluidic platform and a movable thermoelectric unit eliminates the thermal inertia, resulting in a faster cooling process. The proposed ice valve achieves very short closing times (0.37 s at 10 μL/min) and also operates at high flow rates (1150 μL/min). Furthermore, the response time of the valve decreased by a factor of 8 when compared to current state of the art technology.
A movable-mass attitude stabilization system for cable-connected artificial-g space stations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, D. W.; Hardison, T. L.
1974-01-01
The development of an active, momentum-exchange system to be used for attitude stabilization of a class of cable-connected artificial-g space stations is studied. A system which employs a single movable control mass is examined for the control of a space station which has the physical appearance of two cylinders connected axially by cables. The dynamic model for the space station includes its aggregate rigid body rotation and relative torsional rotation between the bodies. A zero torsional stiffness design (one cable) and a maximum torsional stiffness design (eight cables) are examined in various stages of deployment, for selected spin velocities ranging from 4 rpm upwards. A linear, time-invariant, feed-back control system is employed, with gains calculated via a root-specification procedure. The movable mass controller provides critical wobble-damping capability for the crew quarters for all configurations and spin velocity.
Si, Chaorun; Hu, Songtao; Cao, Xiaobao; Wu, Weichao
2017-01-01
Due to their ease of fabrication, facile use and low cost, ice valves have great potential for use in microfluidic platforms. For this to be possible, a rapid response speed is key and hence there is still much scope for improvement in current ice valve technology. Therefore, in this study, an ice valve with enhanced thermal conductivity and a movable refrigeration source has been developed. An embedded aluminium cylinder is used to dramatically enhance the heat conduction performance of the microfluidic platform and a movable thermoelectric unit eliminates the thermal inertia, resulting in a faster cooling process. The proposed ice valve achieves very short closing times (0.37 s at 10 μL/min) and also operates at high flow rates (1150 μL/min). Furthermore, the response time of the valve decreased by a factor of 8 when compared to current state of the art technology. PMID:28084447
IET. Movable test cell building (TAN624). Plans, sections, and elevations ...
IET. Movable test cell building (TAN-624). Plans, sections, and elevations show trapezoidal shape of front/rear elevations, vertical sliding door panels, wheels, periscope and camera locations, fixed concrete wall, and relationship to coupling station (TAN-620) and rail track. Ralph M. Parson 902-4-ANP-624-A 329. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL Index code no. 035-0624-00-693-106911 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID
Jackson, Nathan; Muthuswamy, Jit
2009-01-01
We report here a novel approach called MEMS microflex interconnect (MMFI) technology for packaging a new generation of Bio-MEMS devices that involve movable microelectrodes implanted in brain tissue. MMFI addresses the need for (i) operating space for movable parts and (ii) flexible interconnects for mechanical isolation. We fabricated a thin polyimide substrate with embedded bond-pads, vias, and conducting traces for the interconnect with a backside dry etch, so that the flexible substrate can act as a thin-film cap for the MEMS package. A double gold stud bump rivet bonding mechanism was used to form electrical connections to the chip and also to provide a spacing of approximately 15–20 µm for the movable parts. The MMFI approach achieved a chip scale package (CSP) that is lightweight, biocompatible, having flexible interconnects, without an underfill. Reliability tests demonstrated minimal increases of 0.35 mΩ, 0.23 mΩ and 0.15 mΩ in mean contact resistances under high humidity, thermal cycling, and thermal shock conditions respectively. High temperature tests resulted in an increase in resistance of > 90 mΩ when aluminum bond pads were used, but an increase of ~ 4.2 mΩ with gold bond pads. The mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) was estimated to be at least one year under physiological conditions. We conclude that MMFI technology is a feasible and reliable approach for packaging and interconnecting Bio-MEMS devices. PMID:20160981
Movable shark scales act as a passive dynamic micro-roughness to control flow separation.
Lang, Amy W; Bradshaw, Michael T; Smith, Jonathon A; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Motta, Philip J; Habegger, Maria L; Hueter, Robert E
2014-09-01
Shark scales on fast-swimming sharks have been shown to be movable to angles in excess of 50°, and we hypothesize that this characteristic gives this shark skin a preferred flow direction. During the onset of separation, flow reversal is initiated close to the surface. However, the movable scales would be actuated by the reversed flow thereby causing a greater resistance to any further flow reversal and this mechanism would disrupt the process leading to eventual flow separation. Here we report for the first time experimental evidence of the separation control capability of real shark skin through water tunnel testing. Using skin samples from a shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, we tested a pectoral fin and flank skin attached to a NACA 4412 hydrofoil and separation control was observed in the presence of movable shark scales under certain conditions in both cases. We hypothesize that the scales provide a passive, flow-actuated mechanism acting as a dynamic micro-roughness to control flow separation.
Modelling of carbon erosion and re-deposition for the EAST movable limiter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hai, XIE; Rui, DING; Junling, CHEN; Jizhong, SUN
2017-04-01
The movable limiter at the mid-plane of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with carbon coatings on the surface was exposed to edge plasma to study the material erosion and re-deposition. After the experiments, the carbon erosion and re-deposition is modelled using the 3D Monte Carlo code ERO. The geometry of the movable limiter, 3D configuration of the plasma parameters and electromagnetic fields under both limiter and divertor configurations have been implemented into the code. In the simulations, the main uncertain parameters such as carbon concentration ρ c in the background plasma and cross-field transport coefficient D ⊥ in the vicinity of surface according to the ‘funneling model’, have been studied in comparison with experiments. The parameter ρ c mainly influences the net erosion and deposition profiles of the two sides of the movable limiter, while D ⊥ mostly changes the profiles on the top surface. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB107004 and 2013GB105003), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11375010, 11675218 and 11005125), and the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion under contract No GZ769.
The Complexity of Finding Reset Words in Finite Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olschewski, Jörg; Ummels, Michael
We study several problems related to finding reset words in deterministic finite automata. In particular, we establish that the problem of deciding whether a shortest reset word has length k is complete for the complexity class DP. This result answers a question posed by Volkov. For the search problems of finding a shortest reset word and the length of a shortest reset word, we establish membership in the complexity classes FPNP and FPNP[log], respectively. Moreover, we show that both these problems are hard for FPNP[log]. Finally, we observe that computing a reset word of a given length is FNP-complete.
Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems
Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.
1992-01-01
Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.
Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems
Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.
1992-05-01
Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.
All-DNA finite-state automata with finite memory.
Wang, Zhen-Gang; Elbaz, Johann; Remacle, F; Levine, R D; Willner, Itamar
2010-12-21
Biomolecular logic devices can be applied for sensing and nano-medicine. We built three DNA tweezers that are activated by the inputs H(+)/OH(-); ; nucleic acid linker/complementary antilinker to yield a 16-states finite-state automaton. The outputs of the automata are the configuration of the respective tweezers (opened or closed) determined by observing fluorescence from a fluorophore/quencher pair at the end of the arms of the tweezers. The system exhibits a memory because each current state and output depend not only on the source configuration but also on past states and inputs.
Development of a Bacteria Computer: From in silico Finite Automata to in vitro and in vivo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakakibara, Yasubumi
We overview a series of our research on implementing finite automata in vitro and in vivo in the framework of DNA-based computing [1,2]. First, we employ the length-encoding technique proposed and presented in [3,4] to implement finite automata in test tube. In the length-encoding method, the states and state transition functions of a target finite automaton are effectively encoded into DNA sequences, a computation (accepting) process of finite automata is accomplished by self-assembly of encoded complementary DNA strands, and the acceptance of an input string is determined by the detection of a completely hybridized double-strand DNA. Second, we report our intensive in vitro experiments in which we have implemented and executed several finite-state automata in test tube. We have designed and developed practical laboratory protocols which combine several in vitro operations such as annealing, ligation, PCR, and streptavidin-biotin bonding to execute in vitro finite automata based on the length-encoding technique. We have carried laboratory experiments on various finite automata with 2 up to 6 states for several input strings. Third, we present a novel framework to develop a programmable and autonomous in vivo computer using Escherichia coli (E. coli), and implement in vivo finite-state automata based on the framework by employing the protein-synthesis mechanism of E. coli. We show some successful experiments to run an in vivo finite-state automaton on E. coli.
2012-09-01
85 Figure 75. Schematic of Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding technique ( VARTM ) for plate manufacture. From...factor VARTM Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding technique xv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xvi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Comparison of maximum...that the initial observable damage mode was delamination occur- ring on the face of the plate opposite the impact site. 7 Figure 2. VARTM setup
2010-05-01
to Professor Chris Arney and LTC Donovan Phillips for providing valuable feedback on this project. vii MODELING OF DIFFUSION THROUGH A...only does the study of networks afford the U.S. Army greater information sharing abilities, it could also give a better understanding of enemy...These models are named for the conditions by which a node changes state. The first model gives each node its own threshold which must be reached before
Cellular automata with inertia: species competition, spatial patterns, and survival in ecotones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kramer, K.; Koehler, M.; da Luz, M. G. E.
2010-09-01
We consider a two-dimensional CA model with three possible states for the system individual cells, 0 and ±. As for the dynamical rules, only ± can exert pressure to change the cells actual states. In this way, the 0 state is neutral and in some sense competitively weaker than the other two states. We further assume an inner property, the inertia, which is an intrinsic resistance to changes in the system. We evolve an ensemble of initial configurations for the CA until reaching steady states. By calculating averages over some relevant quantities for the final stationary configurations, we discuss how certain features of the problem, namely, initial states population and degree of aggregation as well as the values of inertia, can determine the different characteristics of the spatio-temporal pattern created by the CA evolution. We finally discuss how our findings may be relevant in the understanding of structures formation due to species competition in biology, specially in the transition regions between different biomes, the so called ecotones.
2007-11-02
role in determining surface coverage at these high fluxes2. -4.8- -5.0- curves statistics (averaged over 10 runs) -5.2 - 0020 - -5.4 0.0401 eV -0,025 2c...imperfection in figure 12 for an 8% Ar flux at 90 K. The total perimeter does not approach zero for a perfect initial surface due to thermal fluctuation
Iris segmentation using an edge detector based on fuzzy sets theory and cellular learning automata.
Ghanizadeh, Afshin; Abarghouei, Amir Atapour; Sinaie, Saman; Saad, Puteh; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam
2011-07-01
Iris-based biometric systems identify individuals based on the characteristics of their iris, since they are proven to remain unique for a long time. An iris recognition system includes four phases, the most important of which is preprocessing in which the iris segmentation is performed. The accuracy of an iris biometric system critically depends on the segmentation system. In this paper, an iris segmentation system using edge detection techniques and Hough transforms is presented. The newly proposed edge detection system enhances the performance of the segmentation in a way that it performs much more efficiently than the other conventional iris segmentation methods.
Cellular automata model simulating traffic car accidents in the on-ramp system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.
2015-01-01
In this paper, using Nagel-Schreckenberg model we study the on-ramp system under the expanded open boundary condition. The phase diagram of the two-lane on-ramp system is computed. It is found that the expanded left boundary insertion strategy enhances the flow in the on-ramp lane. Furthermore, we have studied the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. We distinguish two types of car accidents: the accident at the on-ramp site (Prc) and the rear-end accident in the main road (Pac). It is shown that car accidents at the on-ramp site are more likely to occur when traffic is free on road A. However, the rear-end accidents begin to occur above a critical injecting rate αc1. The influence of the on-ramp length (LB) and position (xC0) on the car accidents probabilities is studied. We found that large LB or xC0 causes an important decrease of the probability Prc. However, only large xC0 provokes an increase of the probability Pac. The effect of the stochastic randomization is also computed.
Effects of quenched randomness induced by car accidents on traffic flow in a cellular automata model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xian-Qing; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Zhao, Yue-Min
2004-10-01
In this paper we numerically study the impact of quenched disorder induced by car accidents on traffic flow in the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model. Car accidents occur when the necessary conditions proposed by [Boccara J. Phys. A 30, 3329 (1997)] are satisfied. Two realistic situations of cars involved in car accidents have been considered. Model A is presented to consider that the accident cars become temporarily stuck. Our studies exhibit the “inverse- λ form” or the metastable state for traffic flow in the fundamental diagram and wide-moving waves of jams in the space-time pattern. Model B is proposed to take into account that the “wrecked” cars stay there forever and the cars behind will pass through the sites occupied by the “wrecked” cars with a transmission rate. Four-stage transitions from a maximum flow through a sharp decrease phase and a density-independent phase to a high-density jamming phase for traffic flow have been observed. The density profiles and the effects of transmission rate and probability of the occurrence of car accidents in model B are also discussed.
Car accidents in cellular automata models for one-lane traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussa, Najem
2003-09-01
Conditions for the occurrence of car accidents are introduced in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. These conditions are based on the thought that a real accident depends on several parameters: an unexpected action of the car ahead (sudden stop or abrupt deceleration), the gap between the two cars, the velocity of the successor car and its delayed reaction time. We discuss then the effect of this delayed reaction time on the probability of traffic accidents. We find that these conditions for the occurrence of car accidents are necessary for modeling realistic accidents.
Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas †
Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel
2016-01-01
This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces. PMID:27854282
Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas.
Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel
2016-11-15
This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.
Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Low-Temperature 2-d Ising Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Procacci, Aldo; Scoppola, Benedetto; Scoppola, Elisabetta
2016-12-01
We construct a parallel stochastic dynamics with invariant measure converging to the Gibbs measure of the 2-d low-temperature Ising model. The proof of such convergence requires a polymer expansion based on suitably defined Peierls-type contours.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chizhova, M.; Korovin, D.; Gurianov, A.; Brodovskii, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.; Luhmann, T.
2017-02-01
The point cloud interpretation and reconstruction of 3d-buildings from point clouds has already been treated for a few decades. There are many articles which consider the different methods and workows of the automatic detection and reconstruction of geometrical objects from point clouds. Each method is suitable for the special geometry type of object or sensor. General approaches are rare. In our work we present an algorithm which develops the optimal process sequence of the automatic search, detection and reconstruction of buildings and building components from a point cloud. It can be used for the detection of the set of geometric objects to be reconstructed, independent of its destruction. In a simulated example we reconstruct a complete Russian-orthodox church starting from the set of detected structural components and reconstruct missing components with high probability.
(The physics of cellular automata and coherence and chaos in classical many-body systems)
Not Available
1992-06-24
This report contains short discussions on the following topics: non-variational effects in a Ginzburg-Landau equation; algebraic correlations in conserved chaotic systems; chaotic interface models of turbulence; algebraic correlations in coupled order parameter systems; and dynamics of Josephson Junction arrays. (LSP)
Yang, Xian-Qing; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Zhao, Yue-Min
2004-10-01
In this paper we numerically study the impact of quenched disorder induced by car accidents on traffic flow in the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model. Car accidents occur when the necessary conditions proposed by [J. Phys. A 30, 3329 (1997)
A cellular automata model for social-learning processes in a classroom context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordogna, C. M.; Albano, E. V.
2002-02-01
A model for teaching-learning processes that take place in the classroom is proposed and simulated numerically. Recent ideas taken from the fields of sociology, educational psychology, statistical physics and computational science are key ingredients of the model. Results of simulations are consistent with well-established empirical results obtained in classrooms by means of different evaluation tools. It is shown that students engaged in collaborative groupwork reach higher achievements than those attending traditional lectures only. However, in many cases, this difference is subtle and consequently very difficult to be detected using tests. The influence of the number of students forming the collaborative groups on the average knowledge achieved is also studied and discussed.
A multi-layer cellular automata approach for algorithmic generation of virtual case studies: VIBe.
Sitzenfrei, R; Fach, S; Kinzel, H; Rauch, W
2010-01-01
Analyses of case studies are used to evaluate new or existing technologies, measures or strategies with regard to their impact on the overall process. However, data availability is limited and hence, new technologies, measures or strategies can only be tested on a limited number of case studies. Owing to the specific boundary conditions and system properties of each single case study, results can hardly be generalized or transferred to other boundary conditions. virtual infrastructure benchmarking (VIBe) is a software tool which algorithmically generates virtual case studies (VCSs) for urban water systems. System descriptions needed for evaluation are extracted from VIBe whose parameters are based on real world case studies and literature. As a result VIBe writes Input files for water simulation software as EPANET and EPA SWMM. With such input files numerous simulations can be performed and the results can be benchmarked and analysed stochastically at a city scale. In this work the approach of VIBe is applied with parameters according to a section of the Inn valley and therewith 1,000 VCSs are generated and evaluated. A comparison of the VCSs with data of real world case studies shows that the real world case studies fit within the parameter ranges of the VCSs. Consequently, VIBe tackles the problem of limited availability of case study data.
Solar mirror having contiguous reflecting panels mounted on a movable frame
Auger, H.; Acloque, J.P.
1983-08-16
A solar mirror is made up of a plurality of contiguous rectangular reflector panels. The panels are supported on their long sides by precambered sections. These sections are individually connected to spaced parallel extending members forming joists and comprise part of a rigid frame which includes single bearing girder movably mounted with respect to a fixed base. Distance adjustment means are provided for moving the members perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the girder and angular adjustment means are provided to rotate the members about the longitudinal axis.
Automatic inoculating apparatus. [includes movable carraige, drive motor, and swabbing motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)
1974-01-01
An automatic inoculating apparatus for agar trays is described and using a simple inoculating element, such as a cotton swab or inoculating loop. The apparatus includes a movable carriage for supporting the tray to be inoculated, a drive motor for moving the tray along a trackway, and a swabbing motor for automatically swabbing the tray during the movement. An actuator motor controls lowering of the inoculating element onto the tray and lifting of the inoculating element. An electrical control system, including limit microswitches, enables automatic control of the actuator motor and return of the carriage to the initial position after inoculating is completed.
Hydrophilic structure for condensation management on the movable mullion of a refrigerator
Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue
2015-01-06
A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment, a refrigeration compartment having two doors, and a mullion having an interior surface and an exterior surface. The mullion is movably coupled to, and configured to swing behind, at least one of the doors when the two doors are moved to a closed position. The exterior surface of the mullion directs condensation toward a transfer point. The exterior surface may be configured with a hydrophilic surface to direct and control the condensation. The condensation may also be directed into a receptacle or a wicking structure arranged to facilitate evaporation of the unwanted condensate.
LAHS: A novel harmony search algorithm based on learning automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enayatifar, Rasul; Yousefi, Moslem; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Darus, Amer Nordin
2013-12-01
This study presents a learning automata-based harmony search (LAHS) for unconstrained optimization of continuous problems. The harmony search (HS) algorithm performance strongly depends on the fine tuning of its parameters, including the harmony consideration rate (HMCR), pitch adjustment rate (PAR) and bandwidth (bw). Inspired by the spur-in-time responses in the musical improvisation process, learning capabilities are employed in the HS to select these parameters based on spontaneous reactions. An extensive numerical investigation is conducted on several well-known test functions, and the results are compared with the HS algorithm and its prominent variants, including the improved harmony search (IHS), global-best harmony search (GHS) and self-adaptive global-best harmony search (SGHS). The numerical results indicate that the LAHS is more efficient in finding optimum solutions and outperforms the existing HS algorithm variants.
Towards Time Automata and Multi-Agent Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hutzler, G.; Klaudel, H.; Wang, D. Y.
2004-01-01
The design of reactive systems must comply with logical correctness (the system does what it is supposed to do) and timeliness (the system has to satisfy a set of temporal constraints) criteria. In this paper, we propose a global approach for the design of adaptive reactive systems, i.e., systems that dynamically adapt their architecture depending on the context. We use the timed automata formalism for the design of the agents' behavior. This allows evaluating beforehand the properties of the system (regarding logical correctness and timeliness), thanks to model-checking and simulation techniques. This model is enhanced with tools that we developed for the automatic generation of code, allowing to produce very quickly a running multi-agent prototype satisfying the properties of the model.
History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata
Shakeel, Asif E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu Love, Peter J. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu; Meyer, David A. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu
2014-12-15
Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.
Kaneko, A.; Homma, Y.; Hibino, H.; Ogino, T.
2005-08-15
A surface analysis system has been newly developed with combination of ultrahigh vacuum scanning electron microscope (SEM) and wide-movable scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The basic performance is experimentally demonstrated. These SEM and STM images are clear enough to obtain details of surface structures. The STM unit moves horizontally over several millimeters by sliding motion of PZT actuators. The motion resolution is proved to be submicrometers. The STM tip mounted on another PZT scanner can be guided to a specific object on the sample surface during SEM observation. In the observation of a Si(111) surface rapidly cooled from high temperature, the STM tip was accurately guided to an isolated atomic step and slightly moved along it during SEM observation. The STM observation shows an asymmetry of the (7x7)-transformed region along the step between the upper and lower terraces. (7x7) bands continuously formed along the edge of terraces, while (7x7) domains distributed on the terraces slightly far from the step. These experiments show the wide-movable STM unit resolves a gap of observation area between SEM and STM and the system enables a specific object found in the SEM image to be observed easily by STM.
Spontaneous Movable Semifluxons - New Phenomenon arising in Nano-Electronic Superconducting System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhan-Hassan, Hanaa; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2010-11-01
Semifluxon is a very rare topological excitation. It is a spontaneous Josephson vortex carrying a half of the magnetic flux quantum phi0 created on the boundary between 0 and π junctions. Semifluxons play an important role as qubits for quantum computing. Typically they are static and arise in a variety of Josephson 0- π nano-junctions, in particular. The properties of semifluxons are very different from the properties of fluxon. Typically, semifluxons are pinned at the phase discontinuity point in 0- π long Josephson junctions (LJJ) and may have two polarities carrying the flux ± phi0/2, that was attracting to use them as qubits. In this paper, we report for a first time about a novel type of semifluxons arising in superconductors, which are movable, i.e. not pinned. We show that a spontaneous generation of movable semifluxons is created in conventional LJJ due to flux cloning in extended T-Josephson nano-junctions. We also show that there is a strong interaction between semifluxon and anti-semifluxon once they have been generated and that leads to their very short life time, i.e. to their fast annihilation and next recreation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diner, Daniel B. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
Real-time video presentations are provided in the field of operator-supervised automation and teleoperation, particularly in control stations having movable cameras for optimal viewing of a region of interest in robotics and teleoperations for performing different types of tasks. Movable monitors to match the corresponding camera orientations (pan, tilt, and roll) are provided in order to match the coordinate systems of all the monitors to the operator internal coordinate system. Automated control of the arrangement of cameras and monitors, and of the configuration of system parameters, is provided for optimal viewing and performance of each type of task for each operator since operators have different individual characteristics. The optimal viewing arrangement and system parameter configuration is determined and stored for each operator in performing each of many types of tasks in order to aid the automation of setting up optimal arrangements and configurations for successive tasks in real time. Factors in determining what is optimal include the operator's ability to use hand-controllers for each type of task. Robot joint locations, forces and torques are used, as well as the operator's identity, to identify the current type of task being performed in order to call up a stored optimal viewing arrangement and system parameter configuration.
Highly durable superhydrophobic coatings with gradient density by movable spray method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenjimbayashi, Mizuki; Shiratori, Seimei
2014-09-01
Superhydrophobic surface is expected to be applied in anti-fouling, anti-icing, and anti-bacterial. However, practical use is interrupted by low mechanical strength, time-consuming process, and limited coating substrate. Here highly durable superhydrophobic coatings were prepared by simple and novel spraying method, which sprays with changing the "spray distance between substrate and spray" (SD), named "movable spray method." We prepared the solution that changes wettability and durability with spraying distance by mixing SiO2 nanoparticles and ethyl alpha cyanoacrylate polymer (EAC). Then, we evaluated the chemical components and surface morphologies of each spraying distance coatings (0 ˜ 50 cm) by XPS, SEM, and laser scanning microscope. It revealed that surface roughness and SiO2/EAC ratio increased as the SD increases. Thus, durable superhydrophobic coatings were designed by spraying with increasing SD gradually. Glow discharge-optical emission spectrometry analysis revealed that designed coatings showed the gradual increase of SiO2/EAC ratio. As a result, coatings prepared on glass, wood, or aluminum substrates maintained their superhydrophobicity up to the abrasion at 40 kPa. This movable spray method is simple coating by the wet process and prepares robust hydrophobic coating on complex shape and large area substrates. The gradient functional surface was found to have mechanical durability and superhydrophobicity, and wide area applications will be expected.
Collective behaviour of a probabilistic cellular automaton with two absorbing phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Morales, F.; Luque, J. J.
1993-09-01
A cellular automaton, with two states per site and with a probabilistic behaviour for the transition, is studied. With the selected rule the automaton has two absorbing phases. A reanimation factor ɛ is introduced along with a factor p related to the probability of the transition. Results of a mean-field approximation are compared with numerical simulations of the automata showing the existence of collective behaviour for some values of p and ɛ.