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Sample records for movie sound effects

  1. Towards parameter-free classification of sound effects in movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Selina; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2005-08-01

    The problem of identifying intense events via multimedia data mining in films is investigated in this work. Movies are mainly characterized by dialog, music, and sound effects. We begin our investigation with detecting interesting events through sound effects. Sound effects are neither speech nor music, but are closely associated with interesting events such as car chases and gun shots. In this work, we utilize low-level audio features including MFCC and energy to identify sound effects. It was shown in previous work that the Hidden Markov model (HMM) works well for speech/audio signals. However, this technique requires a careful choice in designing the model and choosing correct parameters. In this work, we introduce a framework that will avoid such necessity and works well with semi- and non-parametric learning algorithms.

  2. The Effects of Multimodality through Storytelling Using Various Movie Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, SoHee

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the salient multimodal approaches for communicative competence and learners' reactions through storytelling tasks with three different modes: a silent movie clip, a movie clip with only sound effects, and a movie clip with sound effects and dialogue. In order to measure different multimodal effects and to define better delivery…

  3. The effect of positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward the movie.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effects of alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward a movie. In addition, we examined whether positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals affect transportation into and attitude toward the movie. A within-subject design was used in which participants were exposed to 8 different movie clips containing alcohol (positive or negative context) or no alcohol portrayals in a controlled laboratory setting. A total of 159 college students (84 males and 75 females) ages 18 to 30 participated in the experiment. Transportation and attitude toward the movie were measured after each movie clip. Participants were more transported into and had a more positive attitude toward movie clips with alcohol portrayals compared to the same movie clips with no alcohol portrayal. In addition, participants were more transported into movie clips with negative alcohol (NA) portrayals compared to clips with positive alcohol (PA) portrayals. For attitude toward the movie, opposite results were found. Participants had a more positive attitudes toward clips with PA portrayals compared to clips with NA portrayals. The way alcohol is portrayed in movies may contribute to how people evaluate and get transported in movies. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    PubMed

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  5. The effect of humorous movies on inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc; Gonen, Bruria; Kurs, Rena; Melamed, Yuval; Bleich, Avi

    2006-11-01

    We assessed the impact of humorous movies on psychopathology, anxiety, depression, anger, social functioning, insight, and therapeutic alliance in schizophrenia inpatients. Twenty-nine psychiatric inpatients in open wards participated in the study. The study group viewed humorous and the control group viewed neutral movies daily for 3 months. Participants were assessed before and after viewing movies with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, Calgary Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Multinomah Community Ability Scale, the Insight and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire, and the Working Alliance Inventory. Reduced levels of psychopathology, anger, anxiety, and depression symptoms and an improvement in social competence were revealed in the study group. No changes were observed in treatment insight or working alliance. Video films are a practical and cost-efficient means of entertainment that seem to have a positive effect on patient morale, mood, and mental status.

  6. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed.

  7. The effect of a movie soundtrack on auditory event-related potentials in children, adolescents, and adults.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Yatin; McArthur, Genevieve

    2011-05-01

    To determine if an audible movie soundtrack has a degrading effect on the auditory P1, N1, P2, N2, or mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERPs) in children, adolescents, or adults. The auditory ERPs of 36 children, 32 young adolescents, 19 older adolescents, and 10 adults were measured while they watched a movie in two conditions: with an audible soundtrack and with a silent soundtrack. In children and adolescents, the audible movie soundtrack had a significant impact on amplitude, latency or split-half reliability of the N1, P2, N2, and MMN ERPs. The audible soundtrack had minimal impact on the auditory ERPs of adults. These findings challenge previous claims that an audible soundtrack does not degrade the auditory ERPs of children. Further, the reliability of the MMN is poorer than P1, N1, P2, and N2 peaks in both sound-off and sound-on conditions. Researchers should be cautious about using an audible movie soundtrack when measuring auditory ERPs in younger listeners. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-03-01

    This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. A two (sex) × two (movie: alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) between-subject design was used. Participants watched a contemporary movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. A total of 122 same-sex, young adult dyads (ages 18-29 years) participated in the experiment. Their actual alcohol consumption while watching was examined. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of the movie condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to movie alcohol increased alcohol consumption during the movie for men but not women. Identification and weekly alcohol consumption did not moderate the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayal can lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching the movie. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Delayed Effects of Practiced Versus Unpracticed Responses after Observation of Movie Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buvinic, Mayra L.; Berkowitz, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    This experiment asks whether filmed violence will have an aggression enhancing effect an hour after the movie is viewed as well as immediately afterwards. It also inquires whether a preliminary attack upon an available target right after the film is seen helps maintain the heightened aggressive tendency initially produced by the movie. (Author/RK)

  10. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents’ exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Effect of Smoking in Movies on New Zealand Youth Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents’ likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand’s smokefree 2025 goal. PMID:26960189

  11. R-rated movie viewing, growth in sensation seeking and alcohol initiation: reciprocal and moderation effects.

    PubMed

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Worth, Keilah A; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-03-01

    The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N = 6255) of adolescents, ages 10-14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use.

  12. Effect of animated movie in combating child sleep health problems.

    PubMed

    Surani, Salim R; Surani, Saherish S; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Khimani, Amina; Surani, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation among teens is a major health issue. Only 15% of teens get 8.5 h of sleep on school nights. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness and moodiness. We undertook a study to assess the prevalence of sleep habit disturbance among elementary school students in South Texas with Hispanic ethnicity predominance. We also found how much a video based on sleep education had an impact on these children. Once the Corpus Christi Independent School District (CCISD) approved the collection of baseline sleep data, questionnaires were administered using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ.) These questionnaires were distributed prior to the viewing of the educational and animated movie KNIGHTS (Keep Nurturing and Inspiring Good Habits in Teen Sleep). Four months later, a random follow-up was performed and the children were requested to respond to the same CSHQ. 264 children from two elementary schools participated in this educational program. At baseline, 55.56% of the children had trouble sleeping. When the questionnaire was administered four months later, only 23.26% (p < 0.05) had trouble sleeping. Additionally, at baseline, approximately 60-70% children had some baseline bedtime resistance, anxiety dealing with sleep, issues with sleep duration and/or awakenings in the middle of the night. In the follow up questionnaire, results showed significant improvements in overall sleep habits, bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety and night awakenings amongst students (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were seen in sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Sleep deprivation and good sleep habits remain as a pervasive challenge among elementary school students. Administering an animated video about sleep education along with a provider-based education may be an effective tool for educating elementary school students and decreasing the prevalence of these sleep-related issues. Future prospective randomized studies are suggested.

  13. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children.

  14. The Auditory Kuleshov Effect: Multisensory Integration in Movie Editing.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Andreas M; Hecht, H

    2017-05-01

    Almost a hundred years ago, the Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov conducted his now famous editing experiment in which different objects were added to a given film scene featuring a neutral face. It is said that the audience interpreted the unchanged facial expression as a function of the added object (e.g., an added soup made the face express hunger). This interaction effect has been dubbed "Kuleshov effect." In the current study, we explored the role of sound in the evaluation of facial expressions in films. Thirty participants watched different clips of faces that were intercut with neutral scenes, featuring either happy music, sad music, or no music at all. This was crossed with the facial expressions of happy, sad, or neutral. We found that the music significantly influenced participants' emotional judgments of facial expression. Thus, the intersensory effects of music are more specific than previously thought. They alter the evaluation of film scenes and can give meaning to ambiguous situations.

  15. Are there side effects to watching 3D movies? A prospective crossover observational study on visually induced motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Solimini, Angelo G

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views) on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15) were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie). Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators.

  16. Are There Side Effects to Watching 3D Movies? A Prospective Crossover Observational Study on Visually Induced Motion Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Solimini, Angelo G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. Methods and Findings A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views) on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15) were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie). Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. Conclusions Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators. PMID:23418530

  17. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  18. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  19. Effect of movie violence on mood, stress, appetite perception and food preferences in a random population.

    PubMed

    Mattar, L; Zeeni, N; Bassil, M

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about media violence and its effect on appetite and eating behavior. The present study aims at investigating the immediate acute effect of violence in movies on mood, stress, appetite perception and food preferences in a real-life setting. A total of 447 subjects (F = 202; M = 239) completed a validated visual analog scale to record their subjective feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat immediately at their way out of any of the three types of movies (horror, romance/comedy and drama/action). There was a significant difference between the three movie categories for the tensed feeling (P = 0.003), anxiety (P = 0.021), the sleepy feeling (P = 0.000) and a preference to eat something sweet (P = 0.019). Horror/violence movie types affected the subject by making him feel more stressed and anxious; however, romance made him feel sleepier and less tensed. Movie types did not seem to affect hunger or appetite directly, but rather triggered some food preferences.

  20. Holographic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palais, Joseph C.; Miller, Mark E.

    1996-09-01

    A unique method for the construction and display of a 3D holographic movie is developed. An animated film is produced by rotating a 3D object in steps between successive holographic exposures. Strip holograms were made on 70-mm AGFA 8E75 Holotest roll film. Each hologram was about 11-mm high and 55-mm high and 55-mm wide. The object was rotated 2 deg between successive exposures. A complete cycle of the object motion was recorded on 180 holograms using the lensless Fourier transform construction. The ends of the developed film were spliced together to produce a continuous loop. Although the film moves continuously on playback and there is not shutter, there is no flicker or image displacement because of the Fourier transform hologram construction, as predicted by the theoretical analysis. The movie can be viewed for an unlimited time because the object motion is cyclical and the film is continuous. The film is wide enough such that comfortable viewing with both eyes is possible, enhancing the 3D effect. Viewers can stand comfortably away from the film since no viewing slit or aperture is necessary. Several people can simultaneously view the movie.

  1. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant’s MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18–21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents’ decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  2. Effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking initiation: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Ernstoff, Linda Titus; Gibson, Jennifer J; Tickle, Jennifer J; Heatherton, Todd F

    2004-07-01

    To determine if young adolescents who report that their parents restrict viewing R-rated movies have a lower risk of trying smoking in the future. Prospective observational study. Students from 15 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, randomly selected from all middle schools with >150 students, were surveyed in 1999. Baseline never-smokers were surveyed again by telephone 13 to 26 months later to determine smoking status. Trying smoking during the follow-up period. The majority of the 2596 students were white, with ages ranging from 10 to 14 years. Nineteen percent reported that their parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, 29% were allowed once in a while, and 52% were allowed sometimes or all the time. Ten percent of students tried smoking during the follow-up period. Smoking-initiation rates increased as parental restriction of R-rated movies decreased (2.9% for adolescents reporting that their parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, 7.0% for those allowed to view them once in a while, and 14.3% for those allowed to view them sometimes or all the time). There was a strong and statistically significant effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking even after controlling for sociodemographics, social influences (friend smoking, receptivity to tobacco promotions), parenting style (maternal support and control, parental disapproval of smoking), and characteristics of the adolescent (school performance, sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem). Compared with adolescents whose parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, the adjusted relative risk for trying smoking was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 3.1) for those allowed to watch them once in a while and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.6, 4.7) for those allowed to watch them sometimes or all the time. The effect was especially strong among adolescents not exposed to family (parent or sibling) smoking, among whom the adjusted relative risk for smoking was 4.3 (95% CI

  3. Learning Science via Animated Movies: Its Effect on Students' Thinking and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Ashkar, Tamar; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2011-01-01

    Some researchers claim that animations may hinder students' meaningful learning or evoke misunderstandings. In order to examine these assertions, our study investigated the effect of animated movies on students' learning outcomes and motivation to learn. Applying the quantitative methodology, two pre- and post-questionnaires were administered:…

  4. Learning Science via Animated Movies: Its Effect on Students' Thinking and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Ashkar, Tamar; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2011-01-01

    Some researchers claim that animations may hinder students' meaningful learning or evoke misunderstandings. In order to examine these assertions, our study investigated the effect of animated movies on students' learning outcomes and motivation to learn. Applying the quantitative methodology, two pre- and post-questionnaires were administered:…

  5. Effects of Watching Captioned Movie Clip on Vocabulary Development of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Dogan; Tanriverdi, Belgin

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of watching a closed-captioned movie clip on incidental vocabulary learning in a pre-test post-test experimental design. 120 college students from a college preparatory class, who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL), participated in the study. Two weeks before the treatment, all of the…

  6. Ceiling effect of online user interests for the movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Hu, Zhao-Long; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Online users' collective interests play an important role for analyzing the online social networks and personalized recommendations. In this paper, we introduce the information entropy to measure the diversity of the user interests. We empirically analyze the information entropy of the objects selected by the users with the same degree in both the MovieLens and Netflix datasets. The results show that as the user degree increases, the entropy increases from the lowest value at first to the highest value and then begins to fall, which indicates that the interests of the small-degree and large-degree users are more centralized, while the interests of normal users are more diverse. Furthermore, a null model is proposed to compare with the empirical results. In a null model, we keep the number of users and objects as well as the user degrees unchangeable, but the selection behaviors are totally random in both datasets. Results show that the diversity of the majority of users in the real datasets is higher than that the random case, with the exception of the diversity of only a fraction of small-degree users. That may because new users just like popular objects, while with the increase of the user experiences, they quickly become users of broad interests. Therefore, small-degree users' interests are much easier to predict than the other users', which may shed some light for the cold-start problem.

  7. Memory effect of the online rating for movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Lu; Guo, Qiang; Ni, Jing; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Online rating can directly reflect users' collective behavioral patterns which is of great concern in online social systems. In this paper, we investigate the correlations between the users' rating behaviors and the real-time updated average ratings of objects given from other users' previous ratings. We average all the ratings rated after the real-time displayed average ratings at a given interval after dividing the data into five groups according to the user degrees. By analyzing two real systems, the results show that in general there is a linear correlation with slope one between them when the displayed average ratings are between 2.0 and 4.5, but users rate higher scores if the displayed average ratings are lower than 2.0, and give lower ratings if the average ratings are higher than 4.5. Besides, small-degree users would rate higher than the real-time displayed average ratings, while large-degree users are stricter with their ratings than the others so that they usually give lower ratings whatever the movies are. Furthermore, the distributions of the users' rating bias in all the five groups show that the rating biases of the large-degree users are small, yet those of the small-degree users are relatively large. Our findings could be helpful to analyze online users' collective behaviors as well as abnormal behaviors in the networks.

  8. R-rated Movie Viewing, Growth in Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Initiation: Reciprocal and Moderation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Worth, Keilah A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N=6255) of adolescents, ages 10–14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use. PMID:19655251

  9. Top-down modulation of auditory processing: effects of sound context, musical expertise and attentional focus.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, M; Kruck, S; De Baene, W; Schröger, E; Alter, K; Friederici, A D

    2009-10-01

    By recording auditory electrical brain potentials, we investigated whether the basic sound parameters (frequency, duration and intensity) are differentially encoded among speech vs. music sounds by musicians and non-musicians during different attentional demands. To this end, a pseudoword and an instrumental sound of comparable frequency and duration were presented. The accuracy of neural discrimination was tested by manipulations of frequency, duration and intensity. Additionally, the subjects' attentional focus was manipulated by instructions to ignore the sounds while watching a silent movie or to attentively discriminate the different sounds. In both musicians and non-musicians, the pre-attentively evoked mismatch negativity (MMN) component was larger to slight changes in music than in speech sounds. The MMN was also larger to intensity changes in music sounds and to duration changes in speech sounds. During attentional listening, all subjects more readily discriminated changes among speech sounds than among music sounds as indexed by the N2b response strength. Furthermore, during attentional listening, musicians displayed larger MMN and N2b than non-musicians for both music and speech sounds. Taken together, the data indicate that the discriminative abilities in human audition differ between music and speech sounds as a function of the sound-change context and the subjective familiarity of the sound parameters. These findings provide clear evidence for top-down modulatory effects in audition. In other words, the processing of sounds is realized by a dynamically adapting network considering type of sound, expertise and attentional demands, rather than by a strictly modularly organized stimulus-driven system.

  10. Tobacco and the movie industry.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's voluntary restrictions and its agreement with the state attorneys general prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. Extensive research provides strong and consistent evidence that smoking in the movies promotes smoking. This article summarizes the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others) and proposes several solutions to reduce adolescent exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking.

  11. Do we act upon what we see? Direct effects of alcohol cues in movies on young adults' alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    Ample survey research has shown that alcohol portrayals in movies affect the development of alcohol consumption in youth. Hence, there is preliminary evidence that alcohol portrayals in movies also directly influence viewers' drinking of alcohol while watching movies. One process that might account for these direct effects is imitation. The present study therefore examined whether young people imitate actors sipping alcohol on screen. We observed sipping behaviours of 79 young adults (ages 18-25) watching a 60-min movie clip, 'What Happens in Vegas', in a semi-naturalistic home setting. Each of the 79 participants was exposed to 25 alcohol cues. Two-level logistic regression analyses were used to analyse whether participants in general imitated actors' sipping during this clip. In addition, we applied proportional hazard models in a survival analysis framework (Cox regression) to test whether there was a difference in imitation of the cues between male and female participants, and to test whether the timing of the actors' sipping throughout the movie played a role. The findings showed that participants were more likely to sip in accordance with the actors' sipping than without such a cue. Further, we found that men were more likely to imitate actors' sipping than females and that participants tended to respond to actors' sipping at the beginning of the movie rather than at the end. Exposure to actors sipping alcohol in a movie seems to have an immediate impact on the drinking behaviour of viewers, via the mechanism of imitation.

  12. Effect of accommodation training by stereoscopic movie presentation on myopic youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, A.; Takada, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Miyao, M.

    2010-02-01

    The abnormal contraction of ciliary muscles due to the performance of a near visual task for several hours causes various vision problems such as asthenopia and visual loss. However, these problems can be resolved by activating the muscles by alternately repeating negative and positive accommodation. In this study, we have verified the effect of accommodation training that uses the strategy of presenting a stereoscopic movie to myopic youth and measuring the uncorrected distant visual acuity, spherical diopter (SPH), and subjective index of asthenopia obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS). Stereoscopic movies are prepared by using the POWER 3D method (Olympus Visual Communications Co., Ltd.), which reduces the inconsistency between the experienced and the actual senses. Thirty two myopic students aged 20 +/- 1 years (16 males and 16 females) were chosen as the subjects. One group performed the accommodation training for 6 min, and the other group underwent a near visual task during the same period as the control group. We concluded the following from each item of verification: (a) The accommodation training using a stereoscopic movie had temporarily improved visual acuity. (b) This training led to a decrease in asthenopia. (c) The training improved the near-point accommodation function.

  13. The effects of age and sex on interest toward movies of conspecifics in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Izumi, Akihiro

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that images of conspecifics are useful for environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates, but whether the age and sex of the animals alter the effectiveness of such images is unclear. We investigated preferences to movies in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata; male and female; age, 2 to 19 y). Each monkey was housed individually in a cage outfitted with a touch-sensitive computer display. A subject monkey that touched the display was shown 1 of 30 movies that were recorded at an open enclosure containing their conspecifics. During the experimental sessions, 25 of 38 subjects touched the display at least once. The response duration was longer when monkeys appeared in the movies. The response duration decreased with age in male monkeys but not female monkeys. The results suggested the movies of conspecifics are useful for environmental enrichment, but further consideration seems appropriate for various subpopulations, particularly aged monkeys.

  14. Making Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Making Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Comparing the effect of a leaflet and a movie in preventing tick bites and Lyme disease in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, Desirée Jacqueline Mathieu Angélique; Crutzen, Rik; Gassner, Fedor; Ameling, Caroline; Wong, Albert; van Steenbergen, James Everard; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2016-06-10

    Lyme disease (LD) has become the most common vector borne illness in the Northern hemisphere. Prevention relies predominantly on fostering protective behaviors (e.g., avoiding tick areas, using protective clothing and repellent, and doing routine tick checks post-exposure). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness (in terms of knowledge, perceived severity and susceptibility, self-efficacy, response efficacy, intention, and behavior over time) and appreciation of a leaflet and a movie as tools for informing the public in the Netherlands about ticks and LD protective behaviors. Participants (1,677 at t1 and 361 extra at t2) were members of a representative Internet panel (adults aged 18 years and above). A four group randomized controlled design was used to test the effect of an information leaflet and a movie (two intervention groups), compared to a control group and a follow-up only control group. Data were collected over two periods: July 15-29, 2013 (t1) and at follow-up 4 weeks later, August 16-31, 2013 (t2). Post-intervention results show all respondents in all groups possess good general basic knowledge of ticks and LD. Respondents in both the leaflet and movie groups knew more than respondents in the control group, and had greater awareness of best practices after a tick bite. Intention to perform protective behavior in future was stronger among respondents in the intervention groups. While respondents generally appreciated both the movie and the leaflet, they found the movie ran too long. Follow-up revealed no lasting positive effects from either the leaflet or the movie. Our results suggest that both the movie and the leaflet are valued and effective intervention tools for improving knowledge about tick bites and strengthening self-efficacy and intentions to perform protective behavior against ticks and LD . Achieving lasting effects, however, calls for more action.

  17. Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tabata, Yuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2016-04-01

    Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues has been examined in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies by characterizing pulsatile intensities with different regions of interest (ROIs). The pulsatile tissue, which is a key point in pediatric diagnosis of brain tissue, was detected from a heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a time-variation of 64 samples of echo intensity at each pixel in a movie fragment. The averages of pulsatile intensity and power were evaluated in two ROIs: common fan-shape and individual cranial-shape. The area of pulsatile region was also evaluated as the number of pixels where the pulsatile intensity exceeds a proper threshold. The extracranial pulsatile region was found mainly in the sections where mirror image was dominant echo artifact. There was significant difference of pulsatile area between two ROIs especially in the specific sections where mirror image was included, suggesting the suitability of cranial-shape ROI for statistical study on pulsatile tissues in brain. The normalized average of pulsatile power in the cranial-shape ROI exhibited most similar tendency to the normalized pulsatile area which was treated as a conventional measure in spite of its requirement of thresholding. It suggests the potential of pulsatile power as an alternative measure for pulsatile area in further statistical study of pulsatile tissues because it was neither affected by echo artifacts nor threshold.

  18. Who is Most Susceptible to Movie Smoking Effects? Exploring the Impacts of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Design Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socioeconomic status, the interactions of these variables, and family and background characteristics. Setting National sample of US adolescents. Participants 3653 respondents aged 13–18 years. Measurements Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents’ reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. Findings The proportion having tried smoking was lower for Blacks (0.32) compared to Hispanics (0.41) and Whites (0.38). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among Whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on Blacks. SES further modified the relation among Whites; high SES white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low SES white adolescents. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is not uniformly experienced as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among U.S. adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socioeconomic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among Whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. PMID:22724674

  19. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  20. Computer-Generated Movies for Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. H., Jr.; vanDillen, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    Computer-generated movies help the viewer to understand mission dynamics and get quantitative details. Sample movie frames demonstrate the uses and effectiveness of movies in mission planning. Tools needed for movie-making include computer programs to generate images on film and film processing to give the desired result. Planning scenes to make an effective product requires some thought and experience. Viewpoints and timing are particularly important. Lessons learned so far and problems still encountered are discussed.

  1. Computer-Generated Movies for Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. H., Jr.; vanDillen, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    Computer-generated movies help the viewer to understand mission dynamics and get quantitative details. Sample movie frames demonstrate the uses and effectiveness of movies in mission planning. Tools needed for movie-making include computer programs to generate images on film and film processing to give the desired result. Planning scenes to make an effective product requires some thought and experience. Viewpoints and timing are particularly important. Lessons learned so far and problems still encountered are discussed.

  2. Tvashtar Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for QuickTime movie of Tvashtar Movie

    Using its Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), the New Horizons spacecraft captured the two frames in this 'movie' of the 330-kilometer (200-mile) high Tvashtar volcanic eruption plume on Jupiter's moon Io on February 28, 2007, from a range of 2.7 million kilometers (1.7 million miles). The two images were taken 50 minutes apart, at 03:50 and 04:40 Universal Time, and because particles in the plume take an estimated 30 minutes to fall back to the surface after being ejected by the central volcano, each image likely shows an entirely different set of particles. The details of the plume structure look quite different in each frame, though the overall brightness and size of the plume remain constant.

    Surface details on the nightside of Io, faintly illuminated by Jupiter, show the 5-degree change in Io's central longitude, from 22 to 27 degrees west, between the two frames.

  3. The Effect of School and Teacher Themed Movies on Pre-Service Teachers' Professional Attitudes and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaskaya, Alper; Unlu, Ihsan; Akar, M. Said; Ozturan Sagirli, Meryem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of school and teacher themed movies on pre-service teachers' attitudes towards their profession and their perceived self-efficacy. As qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed during data collection procedure, mixed methodology was adopted in this study. In the study, one of…

  4. Movie Smoking, Movie Horror, and Urge to Smoke

    PubMed Central

    SARGENT, James D.; MARUSKA, Karin; MORGENSTERN, Matthis; ISENSEE, Barbara; HANEWINKEL, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horror films, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31–0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  5. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting.

  6. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  7. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  8. Sound's effects on marine mammals need investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David M.

    Protecting marine mammals and conducting certain types of marine research, in particular, those that use sound in the ocean, have categorically come into conflict because of our lack of knowledge of the effects of low-frequency sound on marine mammals. Despite its intentions to improve Earth's overall environment, the proposed Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) project, and by implication, other uses of sound in the ocean by oceanographers, are now under fire because of the dearth of data on this very issue.By passing the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act, the United States acknowledged that marine mammals are indeed a valuable national resource. Since World War II, the United States has developed and maintained a high-quality marine science research effort.

  9. It's Only a Movie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKowen, Clark; Sparke, William

    A montage of thought and comment on motion pictures is presented, from short articles to cartoons, quotes, poems, drawings and pictures. Included are descriptions of how movies are possible, techniques of filming and editing, criticisms, history, the effects of films on the people who watch them, and personalities of the people involved in films.…

  10. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man,…

  11. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man,…

  12. [The Effect of a Movie-Based Nursing Intervention Program on Rehabilitation Motivation and Depression in Stroke Patients].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye Kyung; Lee, Sook Ja

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and measure the effect of a movie-based-nursing intervention program designed to enhance motivation for rehabilitation and reduce depression levels in stroke patients. The study used a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design. The 60 research subjects were assigned to the experimental (n=30) or control group (n=30). The moviebased nursing intervention program was provided for the experimental group during 60-minute sessions held once per week for 10 weeks. The program consisted of patient education to strengthen motivation for rehabilitation and reduce depression, watching movies to identify role models, and group discussion to facilitate therapeutic interaction. After 10 weeks of participation in the movie-based nursing intervention program, the experimental group's rehabilitation motivation score was significantly higher, F=1161.54 (within groups df=49, between groups df=1), p<.001, relative to that observed in the control group. In addition, the experimental group's depression score was significantly lower relative to that observed in the control group, F=258.97 (within groups df=49, between groups df=1), p<.001. The movie-based nursing intervention program could be used for stroke patients experiencing psychological difficulties including reduced motivation for rehabilitation and increased depression during the rehabilitation process.

  13. Effects of spectral complexity and sound duration on automatic complex-sound pitch processing in humans - a mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, M; Schröger, E; Saher, M; Näätänen, R

    2000-08-18

    The pitch of a spectrally rich sound is known to be more easily perceived than that of a sinusoidal tone. The present study compared the importance of spectral complexity and sound duration in facilitated pitch discrimination. The mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflects automatic neural discrimination, was recorded to a 2. 5% pitch change in pure tones with only one sinusoidal frequency component (500 Hz) and in spectrally rich tones with three (500-1500 Hz) and five (500-2500 Hz) harmonic partials. During the recordings, subjects concentrated on watching a silent movie. In separate blocks, stimuli were of 100 and 250 ms in duration. The MMN amplitude was enhanced with both spectrally rich sounds when compared with pure tones. The prolonged sound duration did not significantly enhance the MMN. This suggests that increased spectral rather than temporal information facilitates pitch processing of spectrally rich sounds.

  14. Movie Books: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Top of the News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 22-item annotated bibliography lists books dealing with various aspects of children's films: monsters, television production, filmmaking, kids of the movies, animation, movie stunts, magic, movie animals, and photography. Publisher, publication date, and intended grade level are included. (EJS)

  15. Movie Books: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Top of the News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 22-item annotated bibliography lists books dealing with various aspects of children's films: monsters, television production, filmmaking, kids of the movies, animation, movie stunts, magic, movie animals, and photography. Publisher, publication date, and intended grade level are included. (EJS)

  16. Effects of Exposure to Gun Violence in Movies on Children's Interest in Real Guns.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Kelly P; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-09-25

    More US children die by accidental gun use than children in other developed countries. One factor that can influence children's interest in guns is exposure to media containing guns. To test whether children who see a movie containing guns will handle a real gun longer and will pull the trigger more times than children who see the same movie not containing guns. One hundred four children aged 8 to 12 years recruited through advertisements were randomly assigned in pairs to watch a 20-minute PG-rated movie containing or not containing guns in a university laboratory. Children then played with toys and games in a room for 20 minutes while being video recorded. A cabinet in the room contained a real (disabled) gun with a sensor counting trigger pulls. Recordings were coded for the time spent holding the gun and in aggressive play. Data were collected from July 15, 2015, through January 1, 2016, and analyzed using generalized estimating equations (Tweedie log-link for time spent holding the gun; Poisson log-link for pulling the trigger). The 2 main outcomes were time spent holding the gun and the number of trigger pulls. Control variables included sex, age, trait aggressiveness, exposure to violent media, interest in guns, and number of guns at home. Among the 104 study participants (62 boys [59.6%] and 42 girls [40.4%]; mean (SD) age, 9.9 [1.5] years), the adjusted median number of trigger pulls among children who saw the movie containing guns was 2.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.2-2.8) compared with 0.01 (IQR, 0.01-0.2) among children who saw the movie not containing guns (adjusted odds ratio, 22.3; 95% CI, 6.0-83.4; P < .001). The adjusted median number of seconds spent holding the gun among children who saw a movie containing guns was 53.1 (IQR, 35.5-53.1) compared with 11.1 (IQR, 10.7-16.7) among children who saw the movie not containing guns (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.9-9.9; P = .07). Qualitative analyses on 4 pairs from each condition found

  17. Millikan Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xueli; Dietz, Eric; McGuire, Trevor; Fox, Louise; Norris, Tiara; Diamond, Brendan; Chavez, Ricardo; Cheng, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Since Robert Millikan discovered the quantization of electric charge and measured its fundamental value over 90 years ago, his oil-drop experiment has become essential in physics laboratory classes at both the high school and college level. As physics instructors, however, many of us have used the traditional setup and experienced the tedium of collecting data and the frustration of students who obtain disappointing results for the charges on individual oil drops after two or three hours of hard work. Some novel approaches have been developed to make the data collection easier and more accurate. One method is to attach a CCD (charge coupled device) camera to the microscope of the traditional setup.1,2 Through the CCD camera, the motion of an oil drop can be displayed on a TV monitor and/or on a computer.2 This allows several students to view the image of a droplet simultaneously instead of taking turns squinting through the tiny microscope eyepiece on the traditional setup. Furthermore, the motion of an oil drop can be captured and analyzed using software such as VideoPoint,3 which enhances the accuracy of the measurement of the charge on each oil drop.2 While these innovative methods improve the convenience and efficiency with which data can be collected, an instructor has to invest a considerable amount of money and time so as to adapt the new techniques to his or her own classroom. In this paper, we will report on the QuickTime movies we made, which can be used to analyze the motions of 16 selected oil drops. These digital videos are available on the web4 for teachers to download and use with their own students. We will also share the procedure for analyzing the videos using Logger Pro,5 as well as our results for the charges on the oil drops and some pedagogical aspects of using the movies with students.

  18. Visual Presentation Effects on Identification of Multiple Environmental Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Masakura, Yuko; Ichikawa, Makoto; Shimono, Koichi; Nakatsuka, Reio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the contents and timing of a visual stimulus affect the identification of mixed sounds recorded in a daily life environment. For experiments, we presented four environment sounds as auditory stimuli for 5 s along with a picture or a written word as a visual stimulus that might or might not denote the source of one of the four sounds. Three conditions of temporal relations between the visual stimuli and sounds were used. The visual stimulus was presented either: (a) for 5 s simultaneously with the sound; (b) for 5 s, 1 s before the sound (SOA between the audio and visual stimuli was 6 s); or (c) for 33 ms, 1 s before the sound (SOA was 1033 ms). Participants reported all identifiable sounds for those audio–visual stimuli. To characterize the effects of visual stimuli on sound identification, the following were used: the identification rates of sounds for which the visual stimulus denoted its sound source, the rates of other sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source, and the frequency of false hearing of a sound that was not presented for each sound set. Results of the four experiments demonstrated that a picture or a written word promoted identification of the sound when it was related to the sound, particularly when the visual stimulus was presented for 5 s simultaneously with the sounds. However, a visual stimulus preceding the sounds had a benefit only for the picture, not for the written word. Furthermore, presentation with a picture denoting a sound simultaneously with the sound reduced the frequency of false hearing. These results suggest three ways that presenting a visual stimulus affects identification of the auditory stimulus. First, activation of the visual representation extracted directly from the picture promotes identification of the denoted sound and suppresses the processing of sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source. Second, effects based on processing of the

  19. A recency effect in sound localization?

    PubMed

    Stecker, G Christopher; Hafter, Ervin R

    2009-06-01

    In a free-field pointing task, listeners localized trains of 4-32 spatially distributed Gabor clicks (narrowband impulses) centered at 4-kHz carrier frequency and repeating at an interval of 5 ms. Multiple regression coefficients estimated the perceptual "weight" applied to each click in a train during location judgments. Temporal weighting functions obtained in this way exhibited two key features: onset dominance, as evidenced by high weight on the initial click, and "upweighting" of late-arriving sound, as evidenced by weights that gradually increased over the duration of each click-train. Across all tested click-train durations, and despite randomly varying the durations from trial to trial, the greatest post-onset weights were consistently found for clicks at or near the offset. The results imply a special importance of late-arriving sound rather than feedforward recovery from onset dominance, and are broadly consistent with recency effects resulting from temporal integration.

  20. Smoking in movies: impact on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D

    2005-06-01

    This article examines the evidence that supports an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often is modeled by stars, who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies that assess audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The two published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Pediatricians should support public health campaigns to pressure the movie industry to voluntarily reduce smoking in movies and encourage parents to adhere to the Motion Picture Ratings System to reduce adolescent exposure to this powerful social influence to smoke.

  1. Meteorological effects on long-range outdoor sound propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klug, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of sound propagation over distances up to 1000 m were carried out with an impulse sound source offering reproducible, short time signals. Temperature and wind speed at several heights were monitored simultaneously; the meteorological data are used to determine the sound speed gradients according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The sound speed profile is compared to a corresponding prediction, gained through the measured travel time difference between direct and ground reflected pulse (which depends on the sound speed gradient). Positive sound speed gradients cause bending of the sound rays towards the ground yielding enhanced sound pressure levels. The measured meteorological effects on sound propagation are discussed and illustrated by ray tracing methods.

  2. Movie Effects on EFL Learners at Iraqi School in Kuala Lumpur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaseen, Bilal Huri; Shakir, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Previously, one of the vital tasks of English learning is to find new methods and resources to make the EFL students more stimulating and productive. Recently, the usage of movies (in DVD format) in courses became popular or supplementary resources to learn English among EFL learners. Many researchers stated that authentic video is an advantage…

  3. Focused sound from three-dimensional sound propagation effects over a submarine canyon.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Linus Y S; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Fang; Duda, Timothy F; Calder, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Ship noise data reveal an intensification of the near-surface sound field over a submarine canyon. Numerical modeling of sound propagation is used to study the effect. The noise data were collected during an ocean acoustic and physical oceanography experiment northeast of Taiwan in 2009. In situ measurements of water sound-speed profiles and a database of high-resolution bathymetry are used in the modeling study. The model results suggest that the intensification is caused by three-dimensional sound focusing by the concave canyon seafloor. Uncertainties in the model results from unsampled aspects of the environment are discussed. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Movie-Based VR Therapy System for Treatment of Anthropophobia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Yawning Listening Bored Bored Yawning Irrelevant act Table 1. The motions of the virtual audiences The movies in DV File format were filmed by the...from real movies . The virtual audience has some motions and voices, and the therapist can control the their motions , sounds, and voices. The...digital camcorder when the actors performed the determined motions in table 1, and this DV movie files were converted to the non-compressed AVI files

  5. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps.

    PubMed

    Sertlek, Hüseyin Özkan; Binnerts, Bas; Ainslie, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of this assumption is investigated for ship generated sound in the Dutch North Sea, for realistic ship and wind distributions. Sound maps are generated for zero, negative and positive gradients for selected frequency bands (56 Hz to 3.6 kHz). The effect of sound speed profile for the decidecade centred at 125 Hz is less than 1.7 dB.

  6. A recency effect in sound localization?

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, G. Christopher; Hafter, Ervin R.

    2009-01-01

    In a free-field pointing task, listeners localized trains of 4–32 spatially distributed Gabor clicks (narrowband impulses) centered at 4-kHz carrier frequency and repeating at an interval of 5 ms. Multiple regression coefficients estimated the perceptual “weight” applied to each click in a train during location judgments. Temporal weighting functions obtained in this way exhibited two key features: onset dominance, as evidenced by high weight on the initial click, and “upweighting” of late-arriving sound, as evidenced by weights that gradually increased over the duration of each click-train. Across all tested click-train durations, and despite randomly varying the durations from trial to trial, the greatest post-onset weights were consistently found for clicks at or near the offset. The results imply a special importance of late-arriving sound rather than feedforward recovery from onset dominance, and are broadly consistent with recency effects resulting from temporal integration. PMID:19507974

  7. Atmospheric effects assessment program: Ionospheric sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    This document reports efforts on two main goals: to study the short-term ionospheric variability and to study the effects of this variability on high frequency (HF) skywave field strength. To achieve the first goal, ionospheric soundings are being done at 5-minute intervals at San Diego, CA, and at Logan, UT. This time interval was chosen to adequately resolve variations produced by locally generated gravity waves. To study the effects of short-term ionospheric variability on high frequency communications, a circuit is being established to measure the variability of the received HF signal strength. The chosen circuit will have the transmitter located in Forsyth, MT, and the receiver in Imperial Beach, CA (approximately 20 miles south of NRaD).

  8. Effect of Flanking Sounds on the Auditory Continuity Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maori; Kashino, Makio

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory continuity illusion or the perceptual restoration of a target sound briefly interrupted by an extraneous sound has been shown to depend on masking. However, little is known about factors other than masking. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined whether a sequence of flanking transient sounds affects the apparent continuity of a target tone alternated with a bandpass noise at regular intervals. The flanking sounds significantly increased the limit of perceiving apparent continuity in terms of the maximum target level at a fixed noise level, irrespective of the frequency separation between the target and flanking sounds: the flanking sounds enhanced the continuity illusion. This effect was dependent on the temporal relationship between the flanking sounds and noise bursts. Conclusions/Significance The spectrotemporal characteristics of the enhancement effect suggest that a mechanism to compensate for exogenous attentional distraction may contribute to the continuity illusion. PMID:23251666

  9. Electromagnetism in the Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Lori R.; Patterson, Evelyn T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the authors used portions of popular movies to help students review concepts related to electromagnetism. Movies used and concepts covered in the review are listed, and a sample activity is described. (WRM)

  10. Electromagnetism in the Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Lori R.; Patterson, Evelyn T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the authors used portions of popular movies to help students review concepts related to electromagnetism. Movies used and concepts covered in the review are listed, and a sample activity is described. (WRM)

  11. Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capstick, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    1. The nature of sound; 2. Elasticity and vibrations; 3. Transverse waves; 4. Longitudinal waves; 5. Velocity of longitudinal waves; 6. Reflection and refraction. Doppler's principle; 7. Interference. Beats. Combination tones; 8. Resonance and forced vibrations; 9. Quality of musical notes; 10. Organ pipes; 11. Rods. Plates. Bells; 12. Acoustical measurements; 13. The phonograph, microphone and telephone; 14. Consonance; 15. Definition of intervals. Scales. Temperament; 16. Musical instruments; 17. Application of acoustical principles to military purposes; Questions; Answers to questions; Index.

  12. Movies in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    Two main themes of motion picture development in America are presented in this comprehensive historical guide to movies. The sophistication and broadening of the movies as an art form and the complex relationships between a period and the movies of that period are fully explored. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the director.…

  13. The Effect of Spectral Variation on Sound Localisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    broadband stimulus [Hebrank and Wright 1974; Butler & Musicant 1993; Burlinghame & Butler 1998] or when sound levels in the narrow frequency bands...of sound . Perception and Psychophysics, 60, 1374-1383. Butler, R.A., & Musicant , A.D. (1993). Binaural localization: Influence of stimulus...The Effect of Spectral Variation on Sound Localisation Russell Martin, Ken McAnally, Tavis Watt and Patrick Flanagan Air Operations

  14. Choice and Effects of Instrument Sound in Aural Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Christian Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    A musical note produced through the vibration of a single string is psychoacoustically simpler/purer than that produced via multiple-strings vibration. Does the psychoacoustics of instrument sound have any effect on learning outcomes in music instruction? This study investigated the effect of two psychoacoustically distinct instrument sounds on…

  15. Choice and Effects of Instrument Sound in Aural Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Christian Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    A musical note produced through the vibration of a single string is psychoacoustically simpler/purer than that produced via multiple-strings vibration. Does the psychoacoustics of instrument sound have any effect on learning outcomes in music instruction? This study investigated the effect of two psychoacoustically distinct instrument sounds on…

  16. Determining the Speed of Sound Using the Doppler Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Richard.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a simple but effective experiment that uses ultrasonic transducers and some basic electronics to study the speed of sound using the Doppler effect. Eliminates the noise problems associated with most sound experiments. Discusses the theory, and describes the apparatus and procedure. (JRH)

  17. Determining the Speed of Sound Using the Doppler Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Richard.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a simple but effective experiment that uses ultrasonic transducers and some basic electronics to study the speed of sound using the Doppler effect. Eliminates the noise problems associated with most sound experiments. Discusses the theory, and describes the apparatus and procedure. (JRH)

  18. Cloning goes to the movies.

    PubMed

    Cormick, Craig

    2006-10-01

    Public attitude research conducted by Biotechnology Australia shows that one of the major sources of information on human reproductive cloning is movies. Traditionally, understanding of new and emerging technologies has come through the mass media but human cloning, being so widely addressed through the popular culture of movies, is more effectively defined by Hollywood than the news media or science media. But how well are the science and social issues of cloning portrayed in box office hits such as The Island, Multiplicity, Star Wars: Attack of the Clones and Jurassic Park? These movies have enormous reach and undoubted influence, and are therefore worth analyzing in some detail. This study looks at 33 movies made between 1971 and 2005 that address human reproductive cloning, and it categorizes the films based on their genre and potential influence. Yet rather than simply rating the quality of the science portrayed, the study compares the key messages in these movies with public attitudes towards cloning, to examine the correlations.

  19. Effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jian; Wang, Ruiqian; Wang, Di; Guan, Qinghua; Zhang, Yumei; Xiao, Xinbiao; Jin, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    The current researches of wheel vibration and sound radiation mainly focus on the low noise damped wheel. Compared with the traditional research, the relationship between the sound and wheel/rail contact is difficulty and worth studying. However, there are few studies on the effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation. In this paper, laboratory test carried out in a semi-anechoic room investigates the effect of wheel load on wheel natural frequencies, damping ratios, wheel vibration and its sound radiation. The laboratory test results show that the vibration of the wheel and total sound radiation decrease significantly with the increase of the wheel load from 0 t to 1 t. The sound energy level of the wheel decreases by 3.7 dB. When the wheel load exceeds 1 t, the attenuation trend of the vibration and sound radiation of the wheel becomes slow. And the increase of the wheel load causes the growth of the wheel natural frequencies and the mode damping ratios. Based on the finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM), a rolling noise prediction model is developed to calculate the influence of wheel load on the wheel vibration and sound radiation. In the calculation, the used wheel/rail excitation is the measured wheel/rail roughness. The calculated results show that the sound power level of the wheel decreases by about 0.4 dB when the wheel load increases by 0.5 t. The sound radiation of the wheel decreases slowly with wheel load increase, and this conclusion is verified by the field test. This research systematically studies the effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation, gives the relationship between the sound and wheel/rail contact and analyzes the reasons, therefore, it provides a reference for further research.

  20. A Look at the Movies by Baldwin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogle, Donald

    1976-01-01

    Notes that James Baldwin's new book--The Devil Finds Work--is a look by Baldwin at the movies, and that it is also a look by Baldwin at Baldwin, and the conflicting and contradictory effects the movies have had on his life and all of ours. (Author/AM)

  1. A Look at the Movies by Baldwin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogle, Donald

    1976-01-01

    Notes that James Baldwin's new book--The Devil Finds Work--is a look by Baldwin at the movies, and that it is also a look by Baldwin at Baldwin, and the conflicting and contradictory effects the movies have had on his life and all of ours. (Author/AM)

  2. Scattering effect on the sound focused personal audio system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ji-Ho; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2009-05-01

    Recently, a personal audio system has been studied that uses an array of loudspeakers to localize sound to only the area around a user. To realize this system, beamforming or acoustic contrast control has been applied on the assumption that sources radiate sound in a free-field. This means that not only reflection by walls, but also the scattering effect by the user's head is neglected. Reflection by walls is negligible because personal devices are usually used in a short distance so that direct sound is dominant over reverberant sound. However, the scattering effect by the user's head has a considerable effect on the focused sound field. For example, the region where sound energy is not focused becomes louder when a user is actually in the focused region due to the scattered sound by the user's head in the focused region. In this paper, the scattering effect is shown computationally on the simple assumption that the user's head is a rigid sphere. Then, an improving control method, which overcomes this effect, is proposed. The method is shown to outperform the previous method in terms of lowering the sound level in the side regions when a user is in the bright zone.

  3. Who is most susceptible to movie smoking effects? Exploring the impacts of race and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie A; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D

    2012-12-01

    This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socio-economic status modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socio-economic status, the interactions of these variables and family and background characteristics. National sample of US adolescents. A total of 3653 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents' reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. The proportion having tried smoking was lower for blacks (32%) compared to Hispanics (41%) and whites (38%). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on blacks. Socio-economic status further modified the relation among whites; high socio-economic status white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low socio-economic status white adolescents. Exposure to movie smoking is not experienced uniformly as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among US adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socio-economic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Movies and the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    motion picture history- movies (with two exceptions discussed below) were not made about the war. Anti-war films , and films with...of this aberration. Motion pictures are made to make money, and producers of films about the military make movies which reflect the anti-military...screen. Much of our culture is defined and transmitted by movies .2 The images implanted in the mind by motion pictures are vivid and lasting.

  5. Some consonants sound curvy: effects of sound symbolism on object recognition.

    PubMed

    Aveyard, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored the influence of consonant sound symbolism on object recognition. In Experiment 1, participants heard a word ostensibly from a foreign language (in reality, a pseudoword) followed by two objects on screen: a rectilinear object and a curvilinear object. The task involved judging which of the two objects was properly described by the unknown pseudoword. The results showed that congruent sound-symbolic pseudoword-object pairs produced higher task accuracy over three rounds of testing than did incongruent pairs, despite the fact that "hard" pseudowords (with three plosives) and "soft" pseudowords (with three nonplosives) were paired equally with rectilinear and curvilinear objects. Experiment 2 reduced awareness of the manipulation by including similar-shaped, target-related distractors. Sound symbolism effects still emerged, though the time course of these effects over three rounds differed from that in Experiment 1.

  6. Effects of Context on the Classification of Everyday Sounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    U AD-A214 943I I Effects of Context on the Classification of Everyday * Sounds I I I James A. Ballas and R. Timothy Mullins Center for Behavioral and...RR 04209 0420901 4424205 1 -ITLE (Include Security Classification) (U) Effects of context on the classification of everyday sounds :’SPE:SONXAL ai 7...34’ Classification’ Pattern Perception3 Complex Sound ,"Context " * A S C" ’Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by blOck -umber) I The effects of

  7. Effects of Sound on the Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    includes acoustic sources, propagation and the interaction of sound with animal behavior models. Determining the necessary environmental information...between human intuition and detailed propagation models. The development of a model combining simple predictions of transmission loss could provide a... human intuition and more rigorous computer models; making marine mammal exposure calculations faster and more accurate. Since these models are

  8. Effects of Sound on the Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    includes acoustic sources, propagation and the interaction of sound with animal behavior models. Determining the necessary environmental information...to bridge the gap between human intuition and detailed propagation models. The development of a model combining simple predictions of transmission...model would fill a gap between human intuition and more rigorous computer models; making marine mammal exposure calculations faster and more accurate

  9. Effects of Sound on the Vestibular System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    differs significantly for the two types of vestibular receptors . Displacement of the statolith mass stimulates the sensory hair cells of the utricle... receptors and directly affects central nervous system nuclei. Visual, olfactory, and gustatory responses would be expected if sound directly affected the...are responses that result from activation of vestibular system receptors . PURPOSE We are interested in describing the biomechanical and physiological

  10. The Effect of an Education-Themed Movie on the Academic Motivation of Teacher Candidates and Their Attitude Towards Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontas, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of an education-themed movie on the academic motivation of teacher candidates and their attitude towards teaching profession. The study was carried out in the fall term in 2014-2015 academic year with the participation of 89 teacher candidates (53 in experimental group and 36 for control group).…

  11. Vulnerability to the Irrelevant Sound Effect in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Marie-France; Hodgetts, Helen M; Lafleur, Martin F; Vincent, Annick; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    An ecologically valid adaptation of the irrelevant sound effect paradigm was employed to examine the relative roles of short-term memory, selective attention, and sustained attention in ADHD. In all, 32 adults with ADHD and 32 control participants completed a serial recall task in silence or while ignoring irrelevant background sound. Serial recall performance in adults with ADHD was reduced relative to controls in both conditions. The degree of interference due to irrelevant sound was greater for adults with ADHD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between task performance under conditions of irrelevant sound and the extent of attentional problems reported by patients on a clinical symptom scale. The results demonstrate that adults with ADHD exhibit impaired short-term memory and a low resistance to distraction; however, their capacity for sustained attention is preserved as the impact of irrelevant sound diminished over the course of the task. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Impulsivity Moderates the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Adolescents’ Willingness to Drink

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Kingsbury, John H.; Wills, Thomas A.; Finneran, Stephanie D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents’ reactions to positive vs. negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that reaction times to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; i.e., the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. PMID:27099959

  13. "Life" in Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    As biology teachers, we should embrace the ever-increasing appearance of biology in movies and other media as an opportunity to engage students in active learning and to facilitate critical-thinking and investigative skills in the classroom. In this article, the author provides examples and strategies from his experience using popular movies in…

  14. "Life" in Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    As biology teachers, we should embrace the ever-increasing appearance of biology in movies and other media as an opportunity to engage students in active learning and to facilitate critical-thinking and investigative skills in the classroom. In this article, the author provides examples and strategies from his experience using popular movies in…

  15. SteroMoviePlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, Steve; Pugmire, Dave

    2005-03-14

    StereoMoviePlayer StereoMoviePlayer (SMP) is a software package for creating and displaying stereo movies on a variety of computer architectures and display configuations. SMP is capable of running in serial, or in parallel to facilitate multiple computers driving a collection of display surfaces. SMP utilizes the standatd openGL gaphics library for display of both monoscopic and stereoscopic images and MPI for parallel communication and sychronization between multiple computers. SMP uses standard IO methods for loading movie files into memory and, when compressed movies are being displayed uses zLIB (which is standard in most Linux/Unix;/IRIX distributions) for decompression. A movie file is simply a concatenation of each frame. Each frame is a raw red/green/blue encoding. For stereoscopic movies, concatenation is left followed by right, as follows; Frame0-Left, Frame0-Right, Frame1-Left, Frame1-Right .... FrameN-Left, FrameN-Right To enhance performance, this concatenation of frames can be compressed using the aforementioned zLib compression/decompression library. ConvertMovie is a utility that converts between compressed and uncompressed movie formats. ConvertMovie uses zLib, which is included in most standard Linux/Unix/IRIX distributions for compression and decompression. StereoMoviePlayer consists of 3 main parts: 1-Initialization. Information is parsed from a configuration script that specifies machines on which to run, the movie file and the parameters for each graphics display. MPI is then used to instantiate a movie player on each specified computer. 2-Per-node initialization. Each parallel node creates 2 threads of execution, an IO thread and a display and communication thread. 3-Execution: The IO thread reads movie frames from disk, decompresses if necessary and places the frames in main memory. The display thread copies fromes from main memory to the graphics card for display. The display thread also handles synchronization among the other nodes

  16. Impulsivity moderates the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on adolescents' willingness to drink.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Kingsbury, John H; Wills, Thomas A; Finneran, Stephanie D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-05-01

    This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents' reactions to positive versus negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: (a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and (b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that RTs to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; that is, the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Watching and drinking: Expectancies, prototypes, and peer affiliations mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychological processes that underlie the relation between exposure to alcohol use in media with adolescent alcohol use. Design Structural equation modeling analysis of data from four waves of a longitudinal, nationally-representative, random-digit dial telephone survey of adolescents in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol consumption and willingness to use alcohol. Tested mediators were alcohol-related norms, prototypes, expectancies, and friends' use. Results Alcohol prototypes, expectancies, willingness, and friends' use of alcohol (but not perceived prevalence of alcohol use among peers) were significant mediators of the relation between movie alcohol exposure and alcohol consumption, even after controlling for demographic, child, and family factors associated with both movie exposure and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Established psychological and interpersonal predictors of alcohol use mediate the effects of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that exposure movie portrayals may operate through similar processes as other social influences, highlighting the importance of considering these exposures in research on adolescent risk behavior. PMID:19594272

  18. Watching and drinking: expectancies, prototypes, and friends' alcohol use mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the psychological processes that underlie the relation between exposure to alcohol use in media and adolescent alcohol use. The design consisted of a structural equation modeling analysis of data from four waves of a longitudinal, nationally representative, random-digit dial telephone survey of adolescents in the United States. The main outcome measures were adolescent alcohol consumption and willingness to use alcohol. Tested mediators were alcohol-related norms, prototypes, expectancies, and friends' use. Alcohol prototypes, expectancies, willingness, and friends' use of alcohol (but not perceived prevalence of alcohol use among peers) were significant mediators of the relation between movie alcohol exposure and alcohol consumption, even after controlling for demographic, child, and family factors associated with both movie exposure and alcohol consumption. Established psychological and interpersonal predictors of alcohol use mediate the effects of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that exposure to movie portrayals may operate through similar processes as other social influences, highlighting the importance of considering these exposures in research on adolescent risk behavior.

  19. Tunneling effect in sound transmission loss determination: Theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Jae-Seung; Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Sang-Ryul

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study is to numerically evaluate a tunneling effect in the laboratory measurement of sound transmission loss. The tunneling effect arises from the depth of an aperture in the common wall between the source and receiving rooms. Variations of the sound transmission loss with the parameters of panel location, tunnel depth, and panel size are investigated. The difference in sound transmission loss is quite evident below the coincidence frequency and it greatly depends on the panel location in the tunnel. In comparison with the transmission loss of a finite plate in an infinite rigid baffle (with no tunnel) the maximum difference occurs in the laboratory measurement when the panel is placed at the center of the tunnel, while a better estimation of true transmission loss is obtained when the panel is located at either end. The results provide an added guideline for the standard laboratory test method for sound transmission loss.

  20. Effects of spatial fMRI resolution on the classification of naturalistic movies.

    PubMed

    Mandelkow, H; de Zwart, J A; Duyn, J H

    2017-08-24

    Studies involving multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of BOLD fMRI data generally attribute the success of the information-theoretic approach to BOLD signal contrast on the fine spatial scale of millimeters facilitating the classification or decoding of perceptual stimuli. However, to date MVPA studies that have actually explored fMRI resolutions at less than 2 mm voxel size are rare and limited to small sets of unnatural stimuli (like visual gratings) as well as specific sub-regions of the brain, notably the primary somatosensory cortices. To investigate what spatial scale best supports high information extraction under more general conditions this study combined naturalistic movie stimuli with high-resolution fMRI at 7 T and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of global and local BOLD signal patterns. Contrary to predictions, LDA and similar classifiers reached a maximum in classification accuracy (CA) at a smoothed resolution close to 3 mm, well above the 1.2 mm voxel size of the fMRI acquisition. Maximal CAs around 90% were contingent upon global fMRI signal patterns comprising 4 k-16 k of the most reactive voxels distributed sparsely throughout the occipital and ventro-temporal cortices. A Searchlight analysis of local fMRI patterns largely confirmed the global results, but also revealed a small subset of brain regions in early visual cortex showing limited increases in CA with higher resolution. Principal component analysis of the global and local fMRI signal patterns suggested that reproducible neuronal contributions were spatially auto-correlated and smooth, while other components of higher spatial frequency were likely related to physiological noise and responsible for the reduced CA at higher resolution. Systematic differences between experiments and subjects suggested that higher CA was significantly correlated with more consistent behavior revealed by eye tracking. Thus, the optimal resolution of fMRI data for MVPA was mainly limited by

  1. Malocclusion and its relationship to speech sound production: Redefining the effect of malocclusal traits on sound production.

    PubMed

    Leavy, Karen Marie; Cisneros, George J; LeBlanc, Etoile M

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify variables of dental malocclusion with the greatest effect on sound production that can be easily identified during an orthodontic assessment. One hundred fifteen patients (8.2-36 years of age) seeking orthodontic evaluation were assessed for speech sound production abnormalities. An orthodontic clinical examination assessed Angle classification, overjet, overbite, crowding, spacing, and crossbites. A standard speech sample was elicited from each subject. The results indicated that 71 (62%) of the subjects made a production error, particularly with the /s/ and /t/ sounds. However, auditory distortions occurred in 12 subjects (20%), and 56 (80%) subjects had visual distortions of the sound. An open bite (>2 mm) was the key malocclusal factor underlying speech sound errors. There was statistical significance between the Orthodontic Treatment Priority Index and the sound errors of /s / and /t/ (mean score of 9.54 vs 6.29 for subjects without sound errors). Predictive malocclusal traits are associated with speech sound production errors. The more severe or handicapping the malocclusion, the more likely that a speech sound error will occur. Open bites of 2 mm are associated with sound production errors. Visual inaccuracy of the sound occurs with more frequency than auditory inaccuracy and is the most common articulation error noted with occlusal irregularities. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Displaying Data As Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Judith G.

    1992-01-01

    NMSB Movie computer program displays large sets of data (more than million individual values). Presentation dynamic, rapidly displaying sequential image "frames" in main "movie" window. Any sequence of two-dimensional sets of data scaled between 0 and 255 (1-byte resolution) displayed as movie. Time- or slice-wise progression of data illustrated. Originally written to present data from three-dimensional ultrasonic scans of damaged aerospace composite materials, illustrates data acquired by thermal-analysis systems measuring rates of heating and cooling of various materials. Developed on Macintosh IIx computer with 8-bit color display adapter and 8 megabytes of memory using Symantec Corporation's Think C, version 4.0.

  3. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    pleasant than the same sound lacking an HFC. These results suggest the existence of a previously unrecognized response to complex sound containing particular types of high frequencies above the audible range. We term this phenomenon the "hypersonic effect."

  4. Temporal ventriloquism: sound modulates the flash-lag effect.

    PubMed

    Vroomen, Jean; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vroomen, Jean

    2004-06-01

    A sound presented in close temporal proximity to a visual stimulus can alter the perceived temporal dimensions of the visual stimulus (temporal ventriloquism). In this article, the authors demonstrate temporal ventriloquism in the flash-lag effect (FLE), a visual illusion in which a flash appears to lag relative to a moving object. In Experiment 1, the magnitude and the variability of the FLE were reduced, relative to a silent condition, when a noise burst was synchronized with the flash. In Experiment 2, the sound was presented before, at, or after the flash (+/- approximately 100 ms), and the size of the FLE varied linearly with the delay of the sound. These findings demonstrate that an isolated sound can sharpen the temporal boundaries of a flash and attract its temporal occurrence. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  5. The Lexical Coverage of Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    The scripts of 318 movies were analyzed in this study to determine the vocabulary size necessary to understand 95% and 98% of the words in movies. The movies consisted of 2,841,887 running words and had a total running time of 601 hours and 33 minutes. The movies were classified as either American or British, and then put into the following…

  6. The Lexical Coverage of Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    The scripts of 318 movies were analyzed in this study to determine the vocabulary size necessary to understand 95% and 98% of the words in movies. The movies consisted of 2,841,887 running words and had a total running time of 601 hours and 33 minutes. The movies were classified as either American or British, and then put into the following…

  7. Still from Planetwide Movie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-27

    This single frame from a color movie of Jupiter from NASA Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to unpeel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form of a rectangular map.

  8. You can't take it with you? Effects of handheld portable media consoles on physiological and psychological responses to video game and movie content.

    PubMed

    Ivory, James D; Magee, Robert G

    2009-06-01

    Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content's effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2 x 2 (console: portable or television-based x medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience.

  9. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trávníček, Z.; Fedorchenko, A. I.; Pavelka, M.; Hrubý, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present an experimental and a theoretical analysis of the hot chocolate effect. The sound effect is evaluated using time-frequency signal processing, resulting in a quantitative visualization by spectrograms. This method allows us to capture the whole phenomenon, namely to quantify the dynamics of the rising pitch. A general form of the time dependence volume fraction of the bubbles is proposed. We show that the effect occurs due to the nonlinear dependence of the speed of sound in the gas/liquid mixture on the volume fraction of the bubbles and the nonlinear time dependence of the volume fraction of the bubbles.

  10. Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, William S. (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Shelly Anne

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-travelling, sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2(lambda)(sub TS)/pi, of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D-T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modelling are observed.

  11. Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.

  12. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsner, Karl

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it

  13. Co-articulation effects on sound /r/ in cluster words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, S. S.; Dhiman, Deepak

    2004-05-01

    In this study the coarticulatory effects on the formant frequencies of sound /r/, one of the most context dependent sounds of Hindi, have been investigated, by taking combinations of the cluster sounds of the forms C1r, rC2 and C3C4r. In these cluster combinations C1 is one of the con- sonants from (/k/,/p/,/g/,/t/,/d/,/m/,/n/,/h/,/bh/,/w/,/b/,/ph/), C2 is one of the consonants from (/y/,/n~/,/th/,/t/,/squflg/,/m/,/dh/,/k/,/w/,/n/,/g/,/j/,/bh/,/tsquflg/, /dz/,/ph/,/d/,/s/) and C3C4 is one of the combination from (/squflgt/,/st/,/nd/,/n:r/, /ndh/). A database of 438 cluster words spoken by three male speakers has been prepared. The sound /r/ has been perceptually segmented from these utterances and the first three formants and their corresponding bandwidths have been measured. For C1r combination, the deviations of the formant frequencies become larger with the order of the formants. The deviations in the formants for rC2 case are also large and it is nasalized if C2 is some nasal sound like /n~/ and /m/. For the third case (C1C2r), the formant frequencies do not deviate much as in the earlier two cases but the effect of the frication of the combination /squflgt/ makes it fricative. These results are being used in improving the quality of Hindi Klatt Synthesizer.

  14. Co-articulation effects on sound /r/ in cluster words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, S. S.; Dhiman, Deepak

    2001-05-01

    In this study the coarticulatory effects on the formant frequencies of sound /r/, one of the most context dependent sounds of Hindi, have been investigated, by taking combinations of the cluster sounds of the forms C1r, rC2 and C3C4r. In these cluster combinations C1 is one of the con- sonants from (/k/,/p/,/g/,/t/,/d/,/m/,/n/,/h/,/bh/,/w/,/b/,/ph/), C2 is one of the consonants from (/y/,/n~/,/th/,/t/,/squflg/,/m/,/dh/,/k/,/w/,/n/,/g/,/j/,/bh/,/tsquflg/, /dz/,/ph/,/d/,/s/) and C3C4 is one of the combination from (/squflgt/,/st/,/nd/,/n:r/, /ndh/). A database of 438 cluster words spoken by three male speakers has been prepared. The sound /r/ has been perceptually segmented from these utterances and the first three formants and their corresponding bandwidths have been measured. For C1r combination, the deviations of the formant frequencies become larger with the order of the formants. The deviations in the formants for rC2 case are also large and it is nasalized if C2 is some nasal sound like /n~/ and /m/. For the third case (C1C2r), the formant frequencies do not deviate much as in the earlier two cases but the effect of the frication of the combination /squflgt/ makes it fricative. These results are being used in improving the quality of Hindi Klatt Synthesizer.

  15. Source Separation of Heartbeat Sounds for Effective E-Auscultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethu, R. S.; Krishnakumar, M.; Pramod, K. V.; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a cost effective solution for improving the effectiveness of e-auscultation. Auscultation is the most difficult skill for a doctor, since it can be acquired only through experience. The heart sound mixtures are captured by placing the four numbers of sensors at appropriate auscultation area in the body. These sound mixtures are separated to its relevant components by a statistical method independent component analysis. The separated heartbeat sounds can be further processed or can be stored for future reference. This idea can be used for making a low cost, easy to use portable instrument which will be beneficial to people living in remote areas and are unable to take the advantage of advanced diagnosis methods.

  16. Comprehensive measures of sound exposures in cinemas using smart phones.

    PubMed

    Huth, Markus E; Popelka, Gerald R; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss from sound overexposure has a considerable prevalence. Identification of sound hazards is crucial, as prevention, due to a lack of definitive therapies, is the sole alternative to hearing aids. One subjectively loud, yet little studied, potential sound hazard is movie theaters. This study uses smart phones to evaluate their applicability as a widely available, validated sound pressure level (SPL) meter. Therefore, this study measures sound levels in movie theaters to determine whether sound levels exceed safe occupational noise exposure limits and whether sound levels in movie theaters differ as a function of movie, movie theater, presentation time, and seat location within the theater. Six smart phones with an SPL meter software application were calibrated with a precision SPL meter and validated as an SPL meter. Additionally, three different smart phone generations were measured in comparison to an integrating SPL meter. Two different movies, an action movie and a children's movie, were measured six times each in 10 different venues (n = 117). To maximize representativeness, movies were selected focusing on large release productions with probable high attendance. Movie theaters were selected in the San Francisco, CA, area based on whether they screened both chosen movies and to represent the largest variety of theater proprietors. Measurements were analyzed in regard to differences between theaters, location within the theater, movie, as well as presentation time and day as indirect indicator of film attendance. The smart phone measurements demonstrated high accuracy and reliability. Overall, sound levels in movie theaters do not exceed safe exposure limits by occupational standards. Sound levels vary significantly across theaters and demonstrated statistically significant higher sound levels and exposures in the action movie compared to the children's movie. Sound levels decrease with distance from the screen. However, no influence on

  17. The stream of experience when watching artistic movies. Dynamic aesthetic effects revealed by the Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP)

    PubMed Central

    Muth, Claudia; Raab, Marius H.; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Research in perception and appreciation is often focused on snapshots, stills of experience. Static approaches allow for multidimensional assessment, but are unable to catch the crucial dynamics of affective and perceptual processes; for instance, aesthetic phenomena such as the “Aesthetic-Aha” (the increase in liking after the sudden detection of Gestalt), effects of expectation, or Berlyne's idea that “disorientation” with a “promise of success” elicits interest. We conducted empirical studies on indeterminate artistic movies depicting the evolution and metamorphosis of Gestalt and investigated (i) the effects of sudden perceptual insights on liking; that is, “Aesthetic Aha”-effects, (ii) the dynamics of interest before moments of insight, and (iii) the dynamics of complexity before and after moments of insight. Via the so-called Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP) enabling analogous evaluation in a continuous way, participants assessed the material on two aesthetic dimensions blockwise either in a gallery or a laboratory. The material's inherent dynamics were described via assessments of liking, interest, determinacy, and surprise along with a computational analysis on the variable complexity. We identified moments of insight as peaks in determinacy and surprise. Statistically significant changes in liking and interest demonstrated that: (i) insights increase liking, (ii) interest already increases 1500 ms before such moments of insight, supporting the idea that it is evoked by an expectation of understanding, and (iii) insights occur during increasing complexity. We propose a preliminary model of dynamics in liking and interest with regard to complexity and perceptual insight and discuss descriptions of participants' experiences of insight. Our results point to the importance of systematic analyses of dynamics in art perception and appreciation. PMID:25873907

  18. Effect of mental challenge induced by movie clips on action potential duration in normal human subjects independent of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Child, Nicholas; Hanson, Ben; Bishop, Martin; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Bostock, Julian; Western, David; Cooklin, Michael; O'Neil, Mark; Wright, Matthew; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Mental stress and emotion have long been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in animal models and humans. The effect of mental challenge on ventricular action potential duration (APD) in conscious healthy humans has not been reported. Activation recovery intervals measured from unipolar electrograms as a surrogate for APD (n=19) were recorded from right and left ventricular endocardium during steady-state pacing, whilst subjects watched an emotionally charged film clip. To assess the possible modulating role of altered respiration on APD, the subjects then repeated the same breathing pattern they had during the stress, but without the movie clip. Hemodynamic parameters (mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, and rate of pressure increase) and respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (P=0.001). APD decreased during the stressful parts of the film clip, for example, for global right ventricular activation recovery interval at end of film clip 193.8 ms (SD, 14) versus 198.0 ms (SD, 13) during the matched breathing control (end film left ventricle 199.8 ms [SD, 16] versus control 201.6 ms [SD, 15]; P=0.004). Respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (by 2 breaths per minute) and was well matched in the respective control period without any hemodynamic or activation recovery interval changes. Our results document for the first time direct recordings of the effect of a mental challenge protocol on ventricular APD in conscious humans. The effect of mental challenge on APD was not secondary to emotionally induced altered respiration or heart rate. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Effect of mental challenge induced by movie clips on action potential duration in normal human subjects independent of heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Child, Nicholas; Hanson, Ben; Bishop, Martin; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Bostock, Julian; Western, David; Cooklin, Michael; O’Neil, Mark; Wright, Matthew; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental stress and emotion have long been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in animal models and humans. The effect of mental challenge on ventricular action potential duration (APD) in conscious healthy humans has not been reported. Methods and Results Activation recovery intervals (ARI) measured from unipolar electrograms as a surrogate for APD (n=19) were recorded from right and left ventricular endocardium during steady state pacing while subjects watched an emotionally charged film clip. To assess the possible modulating role of altered respiration on APD, the subjects then repeated the same breathing pattern they had during the stress, but without the movie clip. Haemodynamic parameters (mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, and rate of pressure increase) and respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (p=0.001). APD decreased during the stressful parts of the film clip, eg for global RV ARI at end of film clip 193.8ms (SD 14) vs 198.0ms (SD13) during the matched breathing control (end film LV 199.8ms (SD16) vs control 201.6ms (SD15), p=0.004. Respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (by 2 breaths/minute), and was well matched in the respective control period without any haemodynamic or ARI changes. Conclusions Our results document for the first time direct recordings of the effect of a mental challenge protocol on ventricular action potential duration in conscious humans. The effect of mental challenge on APD was not secondary to emotionally-induced altered respiration or heart rate. PMID:24833641

  20. [Temporal Analysis of Body Sway during Reciprocator Motion Movie Viewing].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Wakatabe, Shun; Matsumoto, Chika; Miyao, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of stereoscopic viewing and the degree of awareness of motion sickness on posture by measuring body sway during motion movie viewing. Nineteen students (12 men and 7 women; age range, 21-24 years) participated in this study. The movie, which showed several balls randomly positioned, was projected on a white wall 2 m in front of the subjects through a two-dimensional (2-D)/three-dimensional (3-D) convertible projector. To measure body sway during movie viewing, the subjects stood statically erect on a Wii balance board, with the toe opening at 18 degrees. The study protocol was as follows: The subjects watched (1) a nonmoving movie for 1 minute as the pretest and then (2) a round-trip sinusoidally moving-in-depth-direction movie for 3 minutes. (3) The initial static movie was shown again for 1 minute. Steps (2) and (3) were treated as one trial, after which two trials (2-D and 3-D movies) were performed in a random sequence. In this study, we found that posture changed according to the motion in the movie and that the longer the viewing time, the higher the synchronization accuracy. These tendencies depended on the level of awareness of motion sickness or the 3-D movie viewed. The mechanism of postural change in movie viewing was not vection but self-defense to resolve sensory conflict between visual information (spatial swing) and equilibrium sense (motionlessness).

  1. Thermal and viscous effects on sound waves: revised classical theory.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anthony M J; Brenner, Howard

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the recently developed, bi-velocity model of fluid mechanics based on the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics (LIT) is applied to sound propagation in gases taking account of first-order thermal and viscous dissipation effects. The results are compared and contrasted with the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier results of Pierce for this same situation cited in his textbook. Comparisons are also made with the recent analyses of Dadzie and Reese, whose molecularly based sound propagation calculations furnish results virtually identical with the purely macroscopic LIT-based bi-velocity results below, as well as being well-supported by experimental data. Illustrative dissipative sound propagation examples involving application of the bi-velocity model to several elementary situations are also provided, showing the disjoint entropy mode and the additional, evanescent viscous mode.

  2. Temporal Ventriloquism: Sound Modulates the Flash-Lag Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    A sound presented in close temporal proximity to a visual stimulus can alter the perceived temporal dimensions of the visual stimulus (temporal ventriloquism). In this article, the authors demonstrate temporal ventriloquism in the flash-lag effect (FLE), a visual illusion in which a flash appears to lag relative to a moving object. In Experiment…

  3. Unified modeling of turbulence effects on sound propagation.

    PubMed

    Cheinet, Sylvain; Ehrhardt, Loic; Juvé, Daniel; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Many aspects of outdoor sound propagation depend on the scattering effects induced by atmospheric turbulence. Standard analytical and numerical assessments of these effects make an a priori distinction between the scattering effects at large versus small angles. The present study evaluates the ability of a numerical model in overcoming this distinction. The model solves a set of two coupled equations for the sound pressure and vector acoustic velocity, with the finite-difference time domain approach. It is first introduced and evaluated. The numerical predictions are compared to well-known analytical solutions in the case of two-dimensional plane wave propagation through turbulence. They are found to agree in the investigated scenarios. Hence, the finite-difference, time domain solution of the two coupled equations provides a unified, versatile numerical approach to investigating the effects of atmospheric turbulence on sound propagation. The comparison also provides original insights on the applicability and limitations of various methods used to investigate sound propagation through turbulence.

  4. Math Sense: The Look, Sound, and Feel of Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    How is that you can walk into a classroom and gain an overall sense of the quality of math instruction taking place there? What contributes to getting that sense? In "Math Sense," Chris Moynihan explores some of the components that comprise the look, sound, and feel of effective teaching and learning. Does the landscape of the classroom feature…

  5. Temporal Ventriloquism: Sound Modulates the Flash-Lag Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    A sound presented in close temporal proximity to a visual stimulus can alter the perceived temporal dimensions of the visual stimulus (temporal ventriloquism). In this article, the authors demonstrate temporal ventriloquism in the flash-lag effect (FLE), a visual illusion in which a flash appears to lag relative to a moving object. In Experiment…

  6. Exposure of US Adolescents to Extremely Violent Movies

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Keilah A.; Chambers, Jennifer Gibson; Nassau, Daniel H.; Rakhra, Balvinder K.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Despite concerns about exposure to violent media, there are few data on youth exposure to violent movies. In this study we examined such exposure among young US adolescents. Methods We used a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years fielded in 2003. Using previously validated methods, we determined the percentage and number of US adolescents who had seen each of 534 recently released movies. We report results for the 40 that were rated R for violence by the Motion Picture Association of America, UK 18 by the British Board of Film Classification and coded for extreme violence by trained content coders. Results The 40 violent movies were seen by a median of 12.5% of an estimated 22 million US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. The most popular violent movie, Scary Movie, was seen by >10 million (48.1%) children, 1 million of whom were 10 years of age. Watching extremely violent movies was associated with being male, older, nonwhite, having less-educated parents, and doing poorly in school. Black male adolescents were at particularly high risk for seeing these movies; for example Blade, Training Day, and Scary Movie were seen, respectively, by 37.4%, 27.3%, and 48.1% of the sample overall versus 82.0%, 81.0%, and 80.8% of black male adolescents. Violent movie exposure was also associated with measures of media parenting, with high-exposure adolescents being significantly more likely to have a television in their bedroom and to report that their parents allowed them to watch R-rated movies. Conclusions This study documents widespread exposure of young US adolescents to movies with extreme graphic violence from movies rated R for violence and raises important questions about the effectiveness of the current movie-rating system. PMID:18676548

  7. Exposure of US adolescents to extremely violent movies.

    PubMed

    Worth, Keilah A; Gibson Chambers, Jennifer; Nassau, Daniel H; Rakhra, Balvinder K; Sargent, James D

    2008-08-01

    Despite concerns about exposure to violent media, there are few data on youth exposure to violent movies. In this study we examined such exposure among young US adolescents. We used a random-digit-dial survey of 6522 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years fielded in 2003. Using previously validated methods, we determined the percentage and number of US adolescents who had seen each of 534 recently released movies. We report results for the 40 that were rated R for violence by the Motion Picture Association of America, UK 18 by the British Board of Film Classification and coded for extreme violence by trained content coders. The 40 violent movies were seen by a median of 12.5% of an estimated 22 million US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. The most popular violent movie, Scary Movie, was seen by >10 million (48.1%) children, 1 million of whom were 10 years of age. Watching extremely violent movies was associated with being male, older, nonwhite, having less-educated parents, and doing poorly in school. Black male adolescents were at particularly high risk for seeing these movies; for example Blade, Training Day, and Scary Movie were seen, respectively, by 37.4%, 27.3%, and 48.1% of the sample overall versus 82.0%, 81.0%, and 80.8% of black male adolescents. Violent movie exposure was also associated with measures of media parenting, with high-exposure adolescents being significantly more likely to have a television in their bedroom and to report that their parents allowed them to watch R-rated movies. This study documents widespread exposure of young US adolescents to movies with extreme graphic violence from movies rated R for violence and raises important questions about the effectiveness of the current movie-rating system.

  8. Galileo and the Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivotto, Cristina; Testa, Antonella

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the character of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), one of the most famous scientists of all time, as portrayed in three significant movies: Luigi Maggi's Galileo Galilei (1909), Liliana Cavani's Galileo (1968), and Joseph Losey's Galileo (1975), the last one of which was based upon Bertolt Brecht's drama, Das Leben des Galilei (1947). We investigate the relationships between the main characteristics of these fictional Galileos and the most important twentieth-century Galilean historiographic models. We also analyze the veracity of the plots of these three movies and the role that historical and scientific consultants played in producing them. We conclude that connections between these three movies and Galilean historiographic models are far from evident, that other factors deeply influenced the representation of Galileo on the screen.

  9. Satellite Rings Movie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-30

    This brief movie clip (of which the release image is a still frame), taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it approached Jupiter, shows the motions, over a 16 hour-period, of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies. The movie was made from images taken during a 40-hour sequence of the Jovian ring on December 11, 2000. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02872

  10. Successful measurement of the mismatch negativity despite a concurrent movie soundtrack: reduced amplitude but normal component morphology.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Patricia; Jolicœur, Pierre; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    To examine the mechanisms responsible for the reduction of the mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component observed in response to pitch changes when the soundtrack of a movie is presented while recording the MMN. In three experiments we measured the MMN to tones that differed in pitch from a repeated standard tone presented with a silent subtitled movie, with the soundtrack played forward or backward, or with soundtracks set at different intensity levels. MMN amplitude was reduced when the soundtrack was presented either forward or backward compared to the silent subtitled movie. With the soundtrack, MMN amplitude increased proportionally to the increments in the sound-to-noise intensity ratio. MMN was reduced in amplitude but had normal morphology with a concurrent soundtrack, most likely because of basic acoustical interference from the soundtrack with MMN-critical tones rather than from attentional effects. A normal MMN can be recorded with a concurrent movie soundtrack, but signal amplitudes need to be set with caution to ensure a sufficiently high sound-to-noise ratio between MMN stimuli and the soundtrack. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of sound-field frequency modulation amplification on reducing teachers' sound pressure level in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, C M; Crandell, C C; Curtis, B

    1999-09-01

    Voice problems are a frequent difficulty that teachers experience. Common complaints by teachers include vocal fatigue and hoarseness. One possible explanation for these symptoms is prolonged elevations in vocal loudness within the classroom. This investigation examined the effectiveness of sound-field frequency modulation (FM) amplification on reducing the sound pressure level (SPL) of the teacher's voice during classroom instruction. Specifically, SPL was examined during speech produced in a classroom lecture by 10 teachers with and without the use of sound-field amplification. Results indicated a significant 2.42-dB decrease in SPL with the use of sound-field FM amplification. These data support the use of sound-field amplification in the vocal hygiene regimen recommended to teachers by speech-language pathologists.

  12. Size and scale effects as constraints in insect sound communication

    PubMed Central

    Bennet-Clark, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    For optimal transfer of power to the surrounding medium, a sound source should have a radius of 1/6 to 1/4 of the sound wavelength. Sound-waves propagate from the source as compressions and rarefactions of the fluid medium, which decay by spreading and viscous losses. Higher frequencies are more easily refracted and reflected by objects in the environment, causing degradation of signal structure. In open air or water, the sound spreads spherically and decays by the inverse square law. If the sound is restricted to two dimensions rather than three, it decays as the inverse of range, whereas waves within a rod decay largely due to viscous losses; such calls are usually rather simple pulses and rely on the initial time of arrival because of multiple pathlengths or different propagation velocities in the environment. Because of the relationship between calling success and reproductive success, singing insects are under selective pressure to optimize the range, and to maintain the specificity, of their calls. Smaller insects have less muscle power; because of their small sound sources, higher frequencies will be radiated more efficiently than lower frequencies, but in order to produce brief loud pulses from a long-duration muscle contraction they may use both a frequency multiplier mechanism and a mechanical power amplifier. Airborne insect sounds in the range from 1 to 5 kHz tend to have sustained puretone components and a specific pattern of pulses which propagate accurately. Where the song frequency is higher, the pulses tend to become briefer, with a rapid initial build-up that gives a reliable time of onset through obstructed transmission pathways. These scale effects may be related both to the sound-producing mechanism and the auditory system of the receiver. Tiny insects have the special acoustic problem of communicating with only a small amount of available power. Some, such as fruit flies, communicate at low frequencies, at close range, by generating air

  13. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Coxon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet fully understood. Here, the role of supplementary auditory information was explored owing to its particular ecological relevance. Healthy adult participants took part in a series of cold-pressor trials submerging their hand in cold water for as long as possible. Individual pain tolerances were measured according to the time (in seconds) before the participant withdrew their hand. The concurrent use of a VR game and the inclusion of sound was varied systematically within participants. In keeping with previous literature, the use of a VR game increased pain tolerance across conditions. Highest pain tolerance was recorded when participants were simultaneously exposed to both the VR game and supplementary sound. The simultaneous inclusion of sound may therefore play an important role when designing VR to manage pain.

  14. Movie subtitles reading skills of elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Minucci, Michele Viana; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2010-01-01

    the abilities of school children for reading static texts have been widely discussed, however little is known about how well they can read dynamic texts and what skills are required for this kind of reading. to evaluate the skills involved in reading movie subtitles of 2nd and 4th graders of students at the a public school. analysis of the level and skills needed for movie subtitles reading, through the retelling of a section of a movie watched individually by 60 students, 30 2nd graders and 30 4th graders matched for age and gender, with no sound and with subtitles. there were no significant differences in the level of school literacy between students of the different school grades. Considering the skills and the subtitles reading level, 4th graders presented a significant better performance when compared to the 2nd graders. Fourth graders presented skills related to the levels of literal comprehension and independent comprehension, whereas 2nd graders where mostly at the decoding level. 2nd graders are at the textual decoding level of movie subtitles, while 4th graders are at the literal comprehension level of movie subtitles. This indicates that schooling has an influence on the reading of movie subtitles. However, the school literacy literacy was not a significant factor for movie subtitles reading.

  15. Mozart Effect: Sound Beginnings? Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Notes that outcomes of the "Mozart Effect" on early brain development are not thoroughly proven and presents challenges for future research. Points out that it is still unknown at what age exposure to musical concepts should begin, and that parents should allow children to pursue musical interests at their own pace to avoid burnout at a…

  16. Mozart Effect: Sound Beginnings? Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Notes that outcomes of the "Mozart Effect" on early brain development are not thoroughly proven and presents challenges for future research. Points out that it is still unknown at what age exposure to musical concepts should begin, and that parents should allow children to pursue musical interests at their own pace to avoid burnout at a…

  17. Crew Movie Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-19

    ISS045e019776 (09/19/2015) --- International Space Station Expedition 45 crewmembers watch an advance screening of "The Martian" movie in the Unity Node 1. Clockwise from left, are Russian cosmonauts flight engineers Oleg Kononenko and Sergei Volkov, NASA astronaut Commander Scott Kelly, and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko. This image was released on social media.

  18. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  19. The effects of distractor sounds presented through bone conduction headphones on the localization of critical environmental sounds.

    PubMed

    May, Keenan R; Walker, Bruce N

    2017-05-01

    Bone conduction headphones are devices that transmit sound through the bones of a listener's head rather than through the air in their outer ear. They have been marketed as a safer way to enjoy audio content while walking, jogging, or cycling. However, listening to distracting sounds over bone conduction may still disrupt a listener's awareness of their auditory environment. The present study investigated the nature of this interference with the faculty of sound source localization-a key prerequisite for generating situation awareness through audio. Participants sat in the middle of a circle of loudspeakers and listened for target sounds played from different directions. Each time they heard a sound, they responded by indicating what direction they judged the sound to have come from. Meanwhile, participants listened to distractor sounds played through bone conduction headphones. Participants heard (1) no distractor sounds, (2) a spoken story that they were instructed to ignore, and (3) the same spoken story that they were instructed to attend to. For conditions (2) and (3), some participants heard a version of the story with background music, while others heard the spoken story without the music. Participants had greater localization error in the distractor-present conditions. Additionally, participants who heard the spoken story with music exhibited greater localization error. However, there was no effect of whether participants ignored or attended to distractors. This pattern was attributed to masking effects, and was more pronounced for narrow-band targets compared to broadband targets. Post-hoc analyses found evidence of a 'pulling' effect, in which localization judgments were systematically biased toward the apparent direction of the bone conducted distractors. These results indicate that using bone conduction headphones can be expected to cause a decline in a person's awareness of their environment, in a subtle way that a jogger or cyclist might not be

  20. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Design Crossover trial. Setting Main meeting room of Leiden University’s Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. Participants 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were markers, or “fear factors” of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. Results All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Conclusion Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. PMID:26673787

  1. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2015-12-16

    To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Crossover trial. Main meeting room of Leiden University's Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. The primary outcome measures were markers, or "fear factors" of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Movie smoking and urge to smoke among adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have assessed the association between exposure to movie smoking and urge to smoke under real-world conditions. We conducted exit interviews with 4,073 movie patrons, of whom 2,817 were aged 18 years or older. Some 536 were smokers and had complete data. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking. We used least squares regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking and urge to smoke (scale range 0-10), controlling for movie rating, age, sex, heaviness of smoking index (HSI, range 0-6), and time since last cigarette smoked. Median age was 27 years and 52% were female. Median urge to smoke level at movie exit was 7. The dose-response between higher categories of movie smoking and median urge to smoke was one point for two lower categories (1-11 and 11-54 s) and two for the highest category (>or=55 s), but these differences were not statistically significant. In the multivariate analysis, attendance of a movie with smoking was associated with a 0.81-point increase (95% CI = 0.46-1.16) in urge to smoke. For comparison, an HSI score of 3 (vs. 0) was associated with a 2-point increase in urge to smoke. In this sample of adult smokers, exposure to movie smoking was associated with higher urge to smoke after the movie, independent of movie rating. The effect size was consistent with responses seen in cue reactivity experiments. Exposure to movie smoking may affect urge to smoke among adult smokers.

  3. Movie smoking and urge to smoke among adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have assessed the association between exposure to movie smoking and urge to smoke under real-world conditions. Methods We conducted exit interviews with 4,073 movie patrons, of whom 2,817 were aged 18 years or older. Some 536 were smokers and had complete data. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking. We used least squares regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking and urge to smoke (scale range 0–10), controlling for movie rating, age, sex, heaviness of smoking index (HSI, range 0–6), and time since last cigarette smoked. Results Median age was 27 years and 52% were female. Median urge to smoke level at movie exit was 7. The dose–response between higher categories of movie smoking and median urge to smoke was one point for two lower categories (1–11 and 11–54 s) and two for the highest category (≥55 s), but these differences were not statistically significant. In the multivariate analysis, attendance of a movie with smoking was associated with a 0.81-point increase (95% CI = 0.46–1.16) in urge to smoke. For comparison, an HSI score of 3 (vs. 0) was associated with a 2-point increase in urge to smoke. Discussion In this sample of adult smokers, exposure to movie smoking was associated with higher urge to smoke after the movie, independent of movie rating. The effect size was consistent with responses seen in cue reactivity experiments. Exposure to movie smoking may affect urge to smoke among adult smokers. PMID:19542516

  4. A Collection of The Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video contains computer-generated animation made from still data sets processed by computer to give the illusion of flying around the objects. 'Earth - The Movie' uses cloud data from satellites and geographical data from maps. 'L.A. - The Movie' was taken from Landsat data of the Los Angeles area. This was the first experimental demonstration of the technology. 'Mars - The Movie' was taken from Viking orbiter data. 'Miranda - The Movie' was made from a mosaic of 9 frames taken by Voyager of the Uranium moon, Miranda. The last movie is 'Monterey - The Bay.'

  5. A Collection of The Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video contains computer-generated animation made from still data sets processed by computer to give the illusion of flying around the objects. 'Earth - The Movie' uses cloud data from satellites and geographical data from maps. 'L.A. - The Movie' was taken from Landsat data of the Los Angeles area. This was the first experimental demonstration of the technology. 'Mars - The Movie' was taken from Viking orbiter data. 'Miranda - The Movie' was made from a mosaic of 9 frames taken by Voyager of the Uranium moon, Miranda. The last movie is 'Monterey - The Bay.'

  6. Oral Blending in Young Children: Effects of Sound Pauses, Initial Sound, and Word Familiarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Paul; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Results of two experiments involving kindergarten and first grade students indicate that oral blending of dictated sounds into consonant-vowel-consonant words was markedly and significantly better when no pauses intervened between sounds than when pauses of one or three seconds intervened. Interactions between pause interval and word familiarity…

  7. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  8. Rationale and methods of a randomised cross-over cluster trial to assess the effectiveness of MOVI-KIDS on preventing obesity in pre-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Mota, Jorge; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; González-García, Alberto; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2015-02-22

    Childhood obesity has become an alarming worldwide increasing public health problem. The earlier adiposity rebound occurs, the greater the risk of becoming obese during puberty and adolescence. It has been speculated about the potential influence of vigorous physical activity on modifying the age of onset of adiposity rebound. Moreover, studies aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of physical activity interventions programs on reducing adiposity and other cardiovascular risk factors in children younger than 6 years are scarce. This paper describes the rationale and methods of a study aimed to test the effectiveness of a two-years multidimensional pre-school intervention on preventing obesity and improving physical fitness during the adiposity rebound period. Twenty-one schools from the provinces of Cuenca and Ciudad Real, Spain, were randomised to an intervention and a control arm. In the first academic year, children in third grade of pre-school and first grade of primary school in the intervention group received the physical activity intervention (MOVI-KIDS). After an academic year schools were crossed over to the alternative arm. According to the socio-ecological model, the intervention included children, their parents and teachers, and the school environment where MOVI-KIDS was conducted. MOVI-KIDS consisted of: i) three-h/week sessions of recreational non-competitive physical activity in after-school time; ii) educational materials to parents and teachers about physical activity benefits and sedentary lifestyle risks; and iii) modifications in the playground to promote physical activity during recess. Baseline and post-intervention outcomes are going to be measured in both arms three times, at the beginning and at the end of first academic year, and at the end of the second academic year. Primary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, percentage of both body fat and fat-free mass, and blood pressure. Secondary end

  9. Effect of occlusion on joint sounds in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Zuim, Paulo R Junqueira; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Paulo H; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Flacón-Antenucci, Rosse M

    2008-01-01

    Occlusion is a predisposing factor for Temporomandibular Dysfunctions (TMD) of the joint, whose first sign and/or symptom is usually joint sound. To verify the effect of occlusion on joint sounds, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were analyzed in 78 asymptomatic individuals with various dental conditions. Electrosonography was used to determine the intensity of the vibration in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on opening and closing the mouth. Transducers (piezoelectric accelerometer) were placed on the right and left joints. Results were tabled and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (a=0.05). It was concluded that TMJ vibration in partly edentulous individuals from Kennedy classes I, II and III is statistically higher than in dentate and fully edentulous subjects.

  10. Satellite Rings Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie clip (of which the release image is a still frame), taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it approached Jupiter, shows the motions, over a 16 hour-period, of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.

    The movie was made from images taken during a 40-hour sequence of the Jovian ring on December 11, 2000.

    Cassini is a cooperative mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  11. Satellite Rings Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie clip (of which the release image is a still frame), taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it approached Jupiter, shows the motions, over a 16 hour-period, of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.

    The movie was made from images taken during a 40-hour sequence of the Jovian ring on December 11, 2000.

    Cassini is a cooperative mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  12. Psychiatry and movies.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions.

  13. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  14. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Pulsed finite amplitude sound beams, nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer, nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams, effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams, and parametric receiving arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses five projects all of which involve basic theoretical research in nonlinear acoustics: (1) pulsed finite amplitude sound beams are studied with a recently developed time domain computer algorithm that solves the KZK nonlinear parabolic wave equation; (2) nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer is a study of harmonic generation and acoustic soliton information in a liquid between a rigid and a free surface; (3) nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams is a study of source asymmetries and scattering of sound by sound at high intensity; (4) effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams is a completed study of the role of absorption in second harmonic generation and scattering of sound by sound; and (5) parametric receiving arrays is a completed study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment.

  15. Prevalence of Smoking in Movies As Perceived by Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Southwell, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in movies is prevalent. However, use of content analysis to describe trends in smoking in movies has provided mixed results and has not tapped what adolescents actually perceive. Purpose To assess the prospective trends in the prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers, and identify predictors associated with these trends. Methods Using data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected during 2000–2006 when participants were aged between 12 and 18 years (N=4735), latent variable growth models were employed to describe the longitudinal trends in the perceived prevalence of smoking in movies using a 4-level scale (never to most of the time) measured every 6 months, and examined associations between these trends and demographic, smoking-related attitudinal and socio-environmental predictors. Analysis was conducted in 2009. Results At baseline, about 50% of participants reported seeing smoking in movies “some of the time”, and another 36% reported “most of the time”. The prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers declined over time, and the decline was steeper in those who were aged 14–16 years than those who were younger at baseline (p≤0.05). Despite the decline, teenagers still reported seeing smoking in movies some of the time. Teenagers who reported more close friends who smoked also reported a higher prevalence of smoking in movies at baseline (regression coefficients: 0.04–0.18, p<0.01). Conclusions Teenagers' perception of the prevalence of smoking in movies declined over time, which may be attributable to changes made by the movie industry. Despite the decline, teenagers were still exposed to a moderate amount of smoking imagery. Interventions that further reduce teenage exposure to smoking in movies may be needed to have an effect on adolescent smoking. PMID:21767724

  16. Speed of sound in nuclear matter and Skyrme effective interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Su, R.K.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1987-02-01

    Using a nuclear equation of state derived from a finite-temperature Green's function method and the Skyrme effective interactions SkI, SkIII and SkM*, the authors have calculated the speed of sound in symmetric nuclear matter. For certain densities and temperatures, this speed is found to become super-luminous. Causal boundaries in the density-temperature plane are determined, and they indicate that SkM* is a more desirable effective interaction than SkI and SkIII. Comparison with a similar calculation by Osnes and Strottman is made.

  17. Effects of two types of ambient sound during sleep.

    PubMed

    Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E; Insana, Salvatore P; Miller, Elizabeth A

    2010-01-01

    This field study investigated whether either of two ambient sounds would improve objective sleep (via actigraphy), subjective sleep report, or morning psychomotor performance among 28 adults with self-described disturbed sleep. Nights 1 and 4 were soundless baseline and washout, respectively. On Nights 2 and 3 and 5 and 6, participants listened to double-blind counterbalanced paired nights of novel Sound A and a commercially available Sound B. Compared to baseline and washout, participants reported fewer awakenings during both Sound A and Sound B; actigraphically measured sleep was affected by Sound B but not Sound A. "Improvements" in sleep during the second exposure night probably reflect an increase in homeostatic sleep drive from sleep disturbance on the first exposure night. Differences between sounds were accounted for by user volume settings. Neither sound led to differences in psychomotor performance.

  18. Viewing movie smoking undermines antismoking parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that viewing depictions of smoking in movies makes adolescents less responsive to parenting factors that prevent smoking. Cross-sectional survey of 4807 students (grades 5-8) through which we ascertained exposure to smoking in movies, parent smoking, and adolescents' perception of parental responsiveness (support), and parental demandingness (behavioral control). Adolescents attending randomly selected middle schools in the Northeastern U.S. ever tried smoking a cigarette. Exposure to movie smoking was ascertained by counting occurrences of tobacco use in 601 recent popular motion pictures; surveying students to identify films they had seen from a random subset of 50 films; and summing tobacco use occurrences for the films each adolescent reported seeing. We also measured adolescents' perceptions of parent smoking, parental responsiveness and demandingness. The overall prevalence of adolescent smoking was 17.4 percent. The prevalence of smoking increased with exposure to movie smoking (low vs. high exposure 8.8 vs. 25.8%, p < 0.0001). Parenting factors associated with lower rates of adolescent smoking were parent non smoking status (11.0% vs. 27.7% for parents who smoke, p < 0.0001), higher levels of demandingness (13.7% vs. 20.7% for low demandingness, p < 0.0001) and higher levels of parental responsiveness (12.4% vs. 23.1% for low parental responsiveness, p < 0.0001). Parenting factors were not strongly associated with exposure to movie smoking. For adolescents with low exposure to movie smoking the adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of smoking were 0.31 (0.23, 0.42) if parents did not smoke, 0.57 (0.42, 0.78) if parents exerted high demandingness, and 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) if parents were highly responsive. Parents had significantly less influence for adolescents with high exposure to movie smoking, for whom the adjusted odds of smoking were only 0.50 if parents did not smoke (p = 0.014 for the interaction effect), 0.97 if parents

  19. Using movies in pastoral counseling.

    PubMed

    Gelo, Florence

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a case study of a bereaved woman to illustrate the potential benefits of using movies as an adjunctive therapy in pastoral counseling. The article also references the literature on bibliotherapy and cinematherapy while summarizing relevant findings from studies for the use of movies in clinical practice. This article offers both suggestions and cautions for practitioners. At this time, research suggests that a considered therapeutic use of movies can be beneficial for personal growth.

  20. Modifying exposure to smoking depicted in movies: a novel approach to preventing adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Dalton, Madeline A; Heatherton, Todd; Beach, Mike

    2003-07-01

    Most behavioral approaches to adolescent smoking address the behavior directly. We explore an indirect approach: modifying exposure to portrayals of smoking in movies. To describe adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies and to examine factors that could modify such exposure. Occurrences of smoking were counted in each of 601 popular movies. Four thousand nine hundred ten northern New England junior high school students were asked to report which movies they had seen from a randomly generated subsample of 50 films, and responses were used to estimate exposure to the entire sample. Analysis The outcome variable was exposure to movie smoking, defined as the number of smoking occurrences seen. Risk factors for exposure included access to movies (movie channels, videotape use, and movie theater); parenting (R [restricted]-rated movie restrictions, television restrictions, parenting style); and characteristics of the child (age, sex, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, rebelliousness, and self-esteem). We used multiple regression to assess the association between risk factors and exposure to movie smoking. Subjects had seen an average of 30% of the movie sample (interquartile range, 20%-44%), from which they were exposed to 1160 (interquartile range, 640-1970) occurrences of smoking. In a multivariate model, exposure to movie smoking increased (all P values <.001) by about 10% for each additional movie channel and for every 2 videos watched per week. Exposure increased by 30% for those going to the movie theater more than once per month compared with those who did not go at all. Parent restriction on viewing R-rated movies resulted in a 50% reduction in exposure to movie smoking. There was no association between parenting style and exposure to movie smoking. Much of the protective effect of parent R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking was mediated through lower exposure to movie smoking. Adolescents see thousands of smoking depictions in movies

  1. The Influence on Humans of Long Hours of Viewing 3D Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yuta; Horie, Yusuke; Sano, Keisuke; Kodama, Hiroya; Tsunoda, Naoki; Shibuta, Yuki; Kawachi, Yuki; Yamada, Mitsuho

    Three-dimensional (3D) movies have become very popular in movie theaters and for home viewing, To date, there has been no report of the effects of the continual vergence eye movement that occurs when viewing 3D movies from the beginning to the end. First, we analyzed the influence of viewing a 3D movie for several hours on vergence eye movement. At the same time, we investigated the influence of long viewing on the human body, using the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and critical fusion frequency (CFF). It was suggested that the vergence stable time after saccade when viewing a long movie was influenced by the viewing time and that the vergence stable time after saccade depended on the content of the movie. Also the differences were seen in the SSQ and CFF between the movie's beginning and its ending when viewing a 3D movie.

  2. Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Federal Government, as the nation's largest energy consumer, has a tremendous opportunity and acknowledged responsibility to lead by example. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) plays a critical role in this effort. FEMP facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. FEMP does this by focusing on the needs of its Federal customers, delivering an array of services across a variety of program areas.

  3. Effects of seawater temperature on sound characteristics in Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae).

    PubMed

    Kéver, L; Boyle, K S; Parmentier, E

    2015-08-01

    Although the sound production mechanisms of male and female Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae) differ significantly, temperature affects them in the same manner. In both sexes, temperature correlated negatively with pulse period and positively with sound frequencies but had no, or weak effects on other sound characteristics.

  4. 77 FR 20817 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund... determine the justness and reasonableness of the proposed rate reduction by Puget Sound Energy, Inc. Puget Sound Energy, Inc., 138 FERC ] 61,236 (2012). The refund effective date in Docket No....

  5. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Bands of eastward and westward winds on Jupiter appear as concentric rotating circles in this movie composed of Cassini spacecraft images that have been re-projected as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    What is surprising in this view is the coherent nature of the high-latitude flows, despite the very chaotic, mottled and non-banded appearance of the planet's polar regions. This is the first extended movie sequence to show the coherence and longevity of winds near the pole and the features blown around the planet by them.

    There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar to the size to the largest of storms on Earth. Large terrestrial storms usually last only a week before they dissolve and are replaced by other storms. But many of the Jovian storms seen here, while occasionally changing latitude or merging with each other, persist for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of the high-latitude features was unknown. Their longevity is a mystery of Jovian weather.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six or more images of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. The images covering each rotation were mosaiced together to form a cylindrical map extending from 75 degrees north to 75 degrees south in

  6. Effects of Internal Waves on Sound Propagation in the Shallow Waters of the Continental Shelves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    internal waves resulted in higher sound energy loss , as internal waves tend to cause sound waves to strike the seabed at steeper angles and over...the effects of internal waves resulted in higher sound energy loss , as internal waves tend to cause sound waves to strike the seabed at steeper angles...7    Transmission Loss Plots for a Rocky Seabed (top), a Sandy Seabed Figure 5. (center

  7. Who Dunnit? Language Activities for Mystery Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    Use of English-language mystery movies is recommended to teach English-as-a-Second-Language listening and speech skills outside an English-language environment. A variety of issues are discussed, including the following: presenting the film in segments for more effectiveness; presenting students with activities that develop specific aspects of the…

  8. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  9. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  10. Cross-form conceptual relations between sounds and words: effects on the novelty P3.

    PubMed

    Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M; Dziobek, Isabel

    2003-12-01

    In order for cross-form conceptual priming to occur, the brain must extract an amodal representation of the presented concept. To determine whether the novelty P3 would show such cross-form effects, novel, environmental sounds or their verbal equivalents were repeated two blocks after their first presentation in two cross-form conditions, word-sound (e.g., the word "pig" followed by the sound "oink") or sound-word. Conceptual repetition engendered an asymmetric reduction in novelty P3 amplitude, i.e., amplitude was reduced in the sound-word but not in the word-sound condition. The data suggest that the novelty P3 reflects an evaluative stage of processing in which some semantic information is extracted. However, the lack of amplitude reduction for the word-sound condition implies that, at least at the delays used here, repetition as a conceptually equivalent sound may have failed to make contact with the initial verbal concept.

  11. Food marketing with movie character toys: Effects on young children's preferences for unhealthy and healthier fast food meals.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to test whether movie tie-in premiums (MTIPs) accompanying unhealthy and healthier fast food meals influenced children's meal preferences and their perceptions of these meals. Nine hundred and four Grade 1 and 2 students (aged 5-9 years) from Melbourne, Australia participated in a between-subjects online experiment comprising the following conditions: (A) unhealthy and healthier meals with no MTIP (control); (B) unhealthy and healthier meals with MTIP (current situation in Australia); (C) unhealthy meals with MTIP and healthier meals without MTIP; (D) unhealthy meals without MTIP and healthier meals with MTIP. The latter condition tested a potential regulatory model restricting premiums to healthier meals. Participants were shown a trailer for a current children's movie followed by an advertisement for an associated McDonald's Happy Meal(®) (conditions B-D) or an advertisement for a children's leisure activity (condition A). They were then shown four McDonald's Happy Meal(®) options on screen and asked to select their preferred meal before completing detailed meal ratings. Overall, children showed a preference for unhealthy meals over healthier ones. Children were significantly more likely to select a healthier meal over an unhealthy meal when only the healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP (condition D) compared to the other three conditions. When healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP, children reported the meal looked better, would taste better, they would be more likely to ask their parents for this meal, and they would feel happier if their parents bought them this meal, compared to when the healthier meal was not accompanied by a MTIP. Results suggest that modifying the food marketing environment to restrict MTIPs to healthier meals should encourage healthier fast food meal choices by children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of emotionally charged sounds in schizophrenia patients using exploratory eye movements: comparison with healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Youhei; Morita, Kiichiro; Shouji, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Youko; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2010-02-01

    Emotion-associated sounds have been suggested to exert important effects upon human personal relationships. The present study was aimed to characterize the effects of the sounds of crying or laughing on visual cognitive function in schizophrenia patients. We recorded exploratory eye movements in 24 schizophrenia patients (mean age, 27.0 +/- 6.1 years; 14 male, 10 female) and age-matched controls. The total eye scanning length (TESL) and total number of gaze points in the left (left TNGP) and right (right TNGP) visual fields of the screen and the number of researching areas (NRA) were determined using eye-mark recording in the presence/absence of emotionally charged sounds. Controls' TESL for smiling pictures was longer than that for crying pictures irrespective of sounds. Patients' TESL for smiling pictures, however, was shorter than for crying pictures irrespective of the sounds. The left TNGP for smiling pictures was lower in patients than controls independent of sound. Importantly, the right TNGP was significantly larger with laughing sounds than in the absence of sound. In controls, the NRA for smiling pictures was significantly greater than for crying pictures irrespective of sound. Patient NRA did not significantly differ between smiling and crying pictures irrespective of sound. Eye movements in schizophrenia patients' left field for smiling pictures associated with laughing sounds particularly differed from those in controls, suggesting impaired visual cognitive function associated with positive emotion, also involving pleasure-related sounds, in schizophrenia.

  13. Europa Tide Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Europa Tide Movie

    In this movie Europa is seen in a cutaway view through two cycles of its 3.5 day orbit about the giant planet Jupiter. Like Earth, Europa is thought to have an iron core, a rocky mantle and a surface ocean of salty water. Unlike on Earth, however, this ocean is deep enough to cover the whole moon, and being far from the sun, the ocean surface is globally frozen over. Europa's orbit is eccentric, which means as it travels around Jupiter, large tides, raised by Jupiter, rise and fall. Jupiter's position relative to Europa is also seen to librate, or wobble, with the same period. This tidal kneading causes frictional heating within Europa, much in the same way a paper clip bent back and forth can get hot to the touch, as illustrated by the red glow in the interior of Europa's rocky mantle and in the lower, warmer part of its ice shell. This tidal heating is what keeps Europa's ocean liquid and could prove critical to the survival of simple organisms within the ocean, if they exist.

  14. Europa Tide Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Europa Tide Movie

    In this movie Europa is seen in a cutaway view through two cycles of its 3.5 day orbit about the giant planet Jupiter. Like Earth, Europa is thought to have an iron core, a rocky mantle and a surface ocean of salty water. Unlike on Earth, however, this ocean is deep enough to cover the whole moon, and being far from the sun, the ocean surface is globally frozen over. Europa's orbit is eccentric, which means as it travels around Jupiter, large tides, raised by Jupiter, rise and fall. Jupiter's position relative to Europa is also seen to librate, or wobble, with the same period. This tidal kneading causes frictional heating within Europa, much in the same way a paper clip bent back and forth can get hot to the touch, as illustrated by the red glow in the interior of Europa's rocky mantle and in the lower, warmer part of its ice shell. This tidal heating is what keeps Europa's ocean liquid and could prove critical to the survival of simple organisms within the ocean, if they exist.

  15. When sound affects vision: effects of auditory grouping on visual motion perception.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Shimojo, S

    2001-03-01

    Two identical visual targets moving across each other can be perceived either to bounce off or to stream through each other. A brief sound at the moment the targets coincide biases perception toward bouncing. We found that this bounce-inducing effect was attenuated when other identical sounds (auditory flankers) were presented 300 ms before and after the simultaneous sound. The attenuation occurred only when the simultaneous sound and auditory flankers had similar acoustic characteristics and the simultaneous sound was not salient. These results suggest that there is an aspect of auditory-grouping (saliency-assigning) processes that is context-sensitive and can be utilized by the visual system for solving ambiguity. Furthermore, control experiments revealed that such auditory context did not affect the perceptual qualities of the simultaneous sound. Because the attenuation effect is not manifest in the perception of acoustic characteristics of individual sound elements, we conclude that it is a genuine cross-modal effect.

  16. Effects of multiple congruent cues on concurrent sound segregation during passive and active listening: an event-related potential (ERP) study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Winkler, István; Szalárdy, Orsolya; Bendixen, Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    In two experiments, we assessed the effects of combining different cues of concurrent sound segregation on the object-related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potential components. Participants were presented with sequences of complex tones, half of which contained some manipulation: one or two harmonic partials were mistuned, delayed, or presented from a different location than the rest. In separate conditions, one, two, or three of these manipulations were combined. Participants watched a silent movie (passive listening) or reported after each tone whether they perceived one or two concurrent sounds (active listening). ORN was found in almost all conditions except for location difference alone during passive listening. Combining several cues or manipulating more than one partial consistently led to sub-additive effects on the ORN amplitude. These results support the view that ORN reflects a combined, feature-unspecific assessment of the auditory system regarding the contribution of two sources to the incoming sound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Movie Palaces: Renaissance and Reuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Joseph M.; Friedman, Daniel

    This book explores the potential of U.S. movie theaters as an important national asset. Each of the 4,000 movie palaces constructed during Hollywood's Golden Age, as well as the countless smaller theaters modeled after the grander showcases, has a role to play in the life of today's cities. The first section of the book explores the social and…

  18. Movie Palaces: Renaissance and Reuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerio, Joseph M.; Friedman, Daniel

    This book explores the potential of U.S. movie theaters as an important national asset. Each of the 4,000 movie palaces constructed during Hollywood's Golden Age, as well as the countless smaller theaters modeled after the grander showcases, has a role to play in the life of today's cities. The first section of the book explores the social and…

  19. Familiarity affects environmental sound processing outside the focus of attention: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Kirmse, Ursula; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of the familiarity of an environmental sound on sound processing outside the focus of attention. By comparing ERPs elicited by a familiar, animal sound and an acoustically matched, but unfamiliar, complex sound, three issues were addressed: (a) general differences in the processing of the familiar and the unfamiliar sound, (b) influences of sound familiarity on the processing of deviants unrelated to familiarity and (c) familiarity-specific processing depending on the sound context. Participants watched a silent, subtitled movie. The familiar sound elicited a centro-parietal enhancement of the N1, a frontocentrally enhanced P2 and an additional P250. Auditory deviance processing elicited by deviants in sound location was not influenced by the familiarity of the sounds. However, after an involuntary switch of attention to the deviant, an N400-like deflection indicated enhanced semantic analysis of the familiar deviant. Familiarity-specific ERP effects as a consequence of the sound context occurred between 300 and 500 ms after stimulus onset. Whereas familiarity of an environmental sound elicited enhanced stimulus processing before 300 ms, influences of the sound context were observed subsequent to 300 ms. Familiarity of a complex environmental sound influences several stages of auditory processing outside the focus of attention.

  20. The irrelevant sound effect under articulatory suppression: is it a suffix effect?

    PubMed

    Hanley, J Richard; Hayes, Annabel

    2012-03-01

    An experiment is reported that investigates the relation between the suffix effect and the effect of irrelevant sound on the serial recall of short sequences of spoken material. The main issue was whether there is an effect of irrelevant sound under articulatory suppression in the presence of a spoken suffix. As in Hanley and Bakopoulou (2003), the irrelevant sound comprised speech that was presented during the retention interval. When a spoken suffix appeared at the end of the list, a significant effect of irrelevant sound remained when participants were able to rehearse list items. However, it disappeared under articulatory suppression. The effects of irrelevant sound remained significant under suppression when the suffix was an auditory tone but was confined to the final position of the serial position curve. These results parallel those reported by Jones, Macken, and Nicholls (2004) and Jones, Hughes, and Macken (2006) when they examined the effect of articulatory suppression on the phonological similarity effect. The results are consistent with Jones et al.'s (2006, 2004) view that an acoustic-perceptual representation of the terminal list items is the source of the effects of irrelevant sound and phonological similarity when they occur in the presence of articulatory suppression.

  1. Subsurface Sounding of Mars: The Effects of Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, J. J.; Jordan, R.; Safaeinili, A.; Safaenelli, A.; Seu, R.; Orosei, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) will conduct a global survey of Mars from the Mars Express Orbiter starting in 2004. The primary objective of the subsurface observations is to detect material interfaces in the upper several kilometers of the crust of Mars, with a particular emphasis on mapping the 3D distribution of water and ice in that portion of the crust. In order to detect subsurface interfaces, the returned echo from the subsurface must be distinguished from noise and clutter, which can arise from a variety of sources. One source of clutter is surface topography that generates backscattered energy at the same time delay as the subsurface region of interest. Surface topography can affect the detectability of subsurface features in several other ways. Surface roughness at scales comparable or somewhat smaller than the radar wavelength reduces the coherency of the wave as it passes the upper interface. Also, surface slope (tilt) at scales of the radar footprint and larger (> 5 km) affects the apparent Doppler signature of the echoes, and effectively disperses the wave transmitted into the subsurface, making processing and interpretation difficult. In this paper, we report on the roughness characteristics of Mars at these various scales as measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and consider the implications for achieving the subsurface sounding goals of MARSIS. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Thermodynamic effect of the ion sound instability in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gombosi, T. I.; Gorbachev, O. A.; Trukhan, A. A.; Miller, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    During geomagnetic disturbances when the ring current interacts intensely with the plasmasphere, the plasma of this region undergoes a strong heating due to an ion cyclotron instability. This is followed by the transfer of heat along geomagnetic field lines from the heating region to the ionosphere. One of the results of this process is the formation of non-isothermal region (in which T(sub e) greater than 3.4 T(sub i) at ionospheric heights) caused by a rapid cooling the H(+) ions due to their resonant charge exchange with neutral hydrogen. Heat transfer from the top of the flux tube to the ionosphere is investigated using a hydrodynamic model for the ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling. Field-aligned currents, present in the topside ionosphere, are often accompanied by ion sound turbulence. The turbulence scatters electrons, increasing the total electron collision frequency through wave-particle effects. The influence of wave-particle interactions introduces an anomalous component to the total collision frequency, which modifies substantially the heat conduction coefficient of the plasma. As a result, the plasma is heated more intensely above than below this region of ion sound turbulence.

  3. Thermodynamic effect of the ion sound instability in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Khazanov, G.V.; Gombosi, T.I.; Gorbachev, O.A.

    1994-04-01

    During geomagnetic disturbances when the ring current interacts intensely with the plasmasphere, the plasma of this region undergoes a strong heating due to an ion cyclotron instability. This is followed by the transfer of heat along geomagnetic field lines from the heating region to the ionosphere. One of the results of this process is the formation of a non isothermal region (in which T{sub e}>3.4 T{sub i} at ionospheric heights) caused by a rapid cooling the H{sup +} ions due to their resonant charge exchange with neutral hydrogen. Heat transfer from the top of the flux tube to the ionosphere is investigated using a hydrodynamic model for the ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling. Field-aligned currents, present in the topside ionosphere, are often accompanied by ion sound turbulence. The turbulence scatters electrons, increasing the total electron collision frequency through wave-particle effects. The influence of wave-particle interactions introduces an anomalous component to the total collision frequency, which modifies substantially the heat conduction coefficient of the plasma. As a result, the plasma is heated more intensely above than below this region of ion sound turbulence. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Effects of sound amplification on teachers' speech while teaching.

    PubMed

    Jónsdottir, V; Rantala, L; Laukkanen, A M; Vilkman, E

    2001-01-01

    Voice problems are common among teachers. This is most likely due to the heavy vocal load of their profession. The present study investigated one possible method to decrease the vocal load. The effects of amplification on classroom speech were studied on five Icelandic teachers (three females, two males, mean age 51 years). Classroom speech was recorded with a portable DAT recorder and a head-mounted microphone, first under ordinary conditions and in the next week while using electrical sound amplification. The average fundamental frequency (F0), sound pressure level (SPL) and phonation time were measured. According to the results, amplification significantly lowered both F0 (average 8.6 Hz for the females and 11.3 Hz for the males, p = 0.002 and 0.0001, respectively) and SPL (about 1 dB for both genders, p < 0.05), while phonation time was not significantly affected. The results suggest that electric amplification is likely to reduce vocal load.

  5. The effect of sound intensity on velopharyngeal function in normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meng; Yang, Zhenyu; Feng, Bin; You, Meng; Wang, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Velopharyngeal closure is an important physiological process contributing to the normal function of speech and swallowing. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of sound intensity on velopharyngeal function in normal individuals. Lateral cephalograms of 38 volunteers obtained at rest and during phonation of vowel /i:/ at both high and low sound intensity were carefully analyzed. The digital sound level meter was used to evaluate and record the sound intensity of the phonation process. The angular and linear parameters on the lateral cephalograms were then measured to reveal the correlation between sound intensity and velopharyngeal closure. All the angular parameter values measured in the study were significantly greater in high sound intensity condition. As for linear parameters, all values were found to be significantly larger at high sound intensity, except for the effective velopharyngeal length and the vertical velopharyngeal length. A multiple linear regression model was set up to describe the correlation between the sound intensity, the effective velopharyngeal length, and velopharyngeal closure. With the increase of sound intensity and the decrease of the effective velopharyngeal length, the width of velopharyngeal closure is enlarged. As one of the characteristic features of sound wave, the sound intensity was found to affect the objectively measured parameters of velopharyngeal closure on lateral cephalograms. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Planetwide Color Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The first color movie of Jupiter from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to peel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form of a rectangular map, and watch its atmosphere evolve with time.

    The brief movie clip spans 24 Jupiter rotations between Oct. 31 and Nov. 9, 2000.

    Various patterns of motion are apparent all across Jupiter at the cloudtop level seen here. The Great Red Spot shows its counterclockwise rotation, and the uneven distribution of its high haze is obvious. To the east (right) of the Red Spot, oval storms, like ball bearings, roll over and pass each other. Horizontal bands adjacent to each other move at different rates. Strings of small storms rotate around northern-hemisphere ovals. The large grayish-blue 'hot spots' at the northern edge of the white Equatorial Zone change over the course of time as they march eastward across the planet. Ovals in the north rotate counter to those in the south. Small, very bright features appear quickly and randomly in turbulent regions, candidates for lightning storms.

    The clip consists of 14 unevenly spaced timesteps, each a true color cylindrical projection of the complete circumference of Jupiter, from 60 degrees south to 60 degrees north. The maps are made by first assembling mosaics of six images taken by Cassini's narrow-angle camera in the same spectral filter over the course of one Jupiter rotation and, consequently, covering the whole planet. Three such global maps -- in red, green and blue filters -- are combined to make one color map showing Jupiter during one Jovian rotation. Fourteen such maps, spanning 24 Jovian rotations at uneven time intervals comprise the movie. The maps were reduced in scale by a factor of two to make them accessible on the Internet at reasonable rates. Occasional appearances of Io, Europa, and their shadows have not been removed.

    The smallest visible features at the equator are about 600 kilometers (about 370 miles

  7. The effect of spatial distribution on the annoyance caused by simultaneous sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Joos; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.; Fedtke, Thomas

    2004-05-01

    A considerable part of the population is exposed to simultaneous and/or successive environmental sounds from different sources. In many cases, these sources are different with respect to their locations also. In a laboratory study, it was investigated whether the annoyance caused by the multiple sounds is affected by the spatial distribution of the sources. There were four independent variables: (1) sound category (stationary or moving), (2) sound type (stationary: lawn-mower, leaf-blower, and chain saw; moving: road traffic, railway, and motorbike), (3) spatial location (left, right, and combinations), and (4) A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL of single sources equal to 50, 60, or 70 dB). In addition to the individual sounds in isolation, various combinations of two or three different sources within each sound category and sound level were presented for rating. The annoyance was mainly determined by sound level and sound source type. In most cases there were neither significant main effects of spatial distribution nor significant interaction effects between spatial distribution and the other variables. It was concluded that for rating the spatially distrib- uted sounds investigated, the noise dose can simply be determined by a summation of the levels for the left and right channels. [Work supported by CEU.

  8. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Matz; Ekström, Seth Reino; Ranjbar, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel) and the target sound (speech) were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal (“just follow conversation” or JFC level) when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA)]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps. PMID:26168953

  9. Smoking in Movies and Increased Smoking Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed whether smoking in the movies was associated with smoking in young adults. Methods A national web-enabled cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults, aged 18–25, was performed between September and November 2005. Logistic regression and path analysis using probit regression were used to assess relationships between exposure to smoking in the movies and smoking behavior. Analysis was completed in December 2006. Results Exposure to smoking in the movies predicted current smoking. The adjusted odds of current smoking increased by a factor of 1.21 for each quartile increase in exposure to smoking (p<0.01) in the movies, reaching 1.77 for the top exposure quartile. The unadjusted odds of established smoking (100+ cigarettes with current smoking) increased by 1.23 per quartile (p<0.001) of exposure, reaching 1.86 for the top quartile. This effect on established smoking was mediated by two factors related to smoking in the movies: positive expectations about smoking and exposure to friends and relatives who smoked, with positive expectations accounting for about two thirds of the effect. Conclusions The association between smoking in the movies and young adult smoking behavior exhibited a dose–response relationship; the more a young adult was exposed to smoking in the movies, the more likely he or she would have smoked in the past 30 days or have become an established smoker. PMID:17950405

  10. Disturbing effects of low frequency sound immissions and vibrations in residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Findeis, H; Peters, E

    2004-01-01

    Noise immissions with predominant low frequency sound components may exert considerably disturbing effects in dwellings. This applies in particular to sounds which are excitated by transmission of structure-borne noise, and to low frequency sounds emitted by ventilators. Exposed persons usually declare such immissions as being "intolerable" even at very low A-weighted sound levels. If mechanical vibrations in the frequency range below 20 Hz (ground-borne vibrations) affect dwelling rooms, the annoying effects are perceived only by a small portion of exposed individuals as a physical effect. For the most part the immissions are observed as vibratory effects on the building and on objects inside the dwelling. The disturbing effects of vibration frequencies above 20 Hz (structure-borne sound) are determined by the airborne sound field generated inside a particular room and its given surface and extension.

  11. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  12. IO Rotation Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During its 1979 flyby, Voyager 2 observed Io only from a distance. However, the volcanic activity discovered by Voyager 1 months earlier was readily visible. This sequence of nine color images was collected using the Blue, Green and Orange filters from about 1.2 million kilometers. A 2.5 hour period is covered during which Io rotates 7 degrees.

    Rotating into view over the limb of Io are the plumes of the volcanoes Amirani (top) and Maui (lower). These plumes are very distinct against the black sky because they are being illuminated from behind. Notice that as Io rotates, the proportion of Io which is sunlit decreases greatly. This changing phase angle is because Io is moving between the spacecraft and the Sun.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1985.

  13. DNA movies and panspermia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Victor; Grondin, Yohann

    2011-10-20

    There are several ways that our species might try to send a message to another species separated from us by space and/or time. Synthetic biology might be used to write an epitaph to our species, or simply "Kilroy was here", in the genome of a bacterium via the patterns of either (1) the codons to exploit Life's non-equilibrium character or (2) the bases themselves to exploit Life's quasi-equilibrium character. We suggest here how DNA movies might be designed using such patterns. We also suggest that a search for mechanisms to create and preserve such patterns might lead to a better understanding of modern cells. Finally, we argue that the cutting-edge microbiology and synthetic biology needed for the Kilroy project would put origin-of-life studies in the vanguard of research.

  14. DNA Movies and Panspermia

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Victor; Grondin, Yohann

    2011-01-01

    There are several ways that our species might try to send a message to another species separated from us by space and/or time. Synthetic biology might be used to write an epitaph to our species, or simply “Kilroy was here”, in the genome of a bacterium via the patterns of either (1) the codons to exploit Life's non-equilibrium character or (2) the bases themselves to exploit Life's quasi-equilibrium character. We suggest here how DNA movies might be designed using such patterns. We also suggest that a search for mechanisms to create and preserve such patterns might lead to a better understanding of modern cells. Finally, we argue that the cutting-edge microbiology and synthetic biology needed for the Kilroy project would put origin-of-life studies in the vanguard of research. PMID:25382053

  15. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  16. Tracking word frequency effects through 130 years of sound change.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer B; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Walker, Abby J; LaShell, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary New Zealand English has distinctive pronunciations of three characteristic vowels. Did the evolution of these distinctive pronunciations occur in all words at the same time or were different words affected differently? We analyze the changing pronunciation of New Zealand English in a large set of recordings of speakers born over a 130 year period. We show that low frequency words were at the forefront of these changes and higher frequency words lagged behind. A long-standing debate exists between authors claiming that high frequency words lead regular sound change and others claiming that there are no frequency effects. The leading role of low frequency words is surprising in this context. It can be elucidated in models of lexical processing that include detailed word-specific memories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20097352

  18. Learning letter names and sounds: effects of instruction, letter type, and phonological processing skill.

    PubMed

    Piasta, Shayne B; Wagner, Richard K

    2010-04-01

    Preschool-age children (N=58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children's phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed.

  19. Effect of temperature on acoustic communication: sound production in the croaking gourami (labyrinth fishes).

    PubMed

    Ladich, Friedrich; Schleinzer, Günter

    2015-04-01

    Sound communication comprising the production and detection of acoustic signals is affected by ambient temperature in ectothermic animals. In the present study we investigated the effects of temperature on sound production and characteristics in the croaking gourami Trichopsis vittata, a freshwater fish from Southeast Asia possessing a highly specialized sound-generating mechanism found only in a single genus. The croaking gourami produces pulsed sounds by stretching and plucking two enhanced pectoral fin tendons during rapid pectoral fin beating. Croaking sounds typically consist of a series of double-pulsed bursts with main energies between 1 and 1.5 kHz. Sounds were recorded during dyadic contests between two males at three different temperatures (25°, 30° and 35°C). The mean dominant frequency increased with rising temperature from 1.18 to 1.33 kHz, whereas temporal characteristics decreased. The sound interval dropped from 492 to 259 ms, the burst period from 51 to 35 ms and the pulse period from 5.8 to 5.1 ms. In contrast, the number of sounds and number of bursts within a sound were not affected by temperature. The current study shows that spectral and temporal characteristics of sounds are affected in different ways by temperature in the croaking gourami, whereas the numbers of sounds and bursts remain unaffected. We conclude that acoustic communication in gouramis is affected by changes in ambient temperature.

  20. Narrative theory and the dynamics of popular movies.

    PubMed

    Cutting, James E

    2016-12-01

    Popular movies grab and hold our attention. One reason for this is that storytelling is culturally important to us, but another is that general narrative formulae have been honed over millennia and that a derived but specific filmic form has developed and has been perfected over the last century. The result is a highly effective format that allows rapid processing of complex narratives. Using a corpus analysis I explore a physical narratology of popular movies-narrational structure and how it impacts us-to promote a theory of popular movie form. I show that movies can be divided into 4 acts-setup, complication, development, and climax-with two optional subunits of prolog and epilog, and a few turning points and plot points. In 12 studies I show that normative aspects in patterns of shot durations, shot transitions, shot scale, shot motion, shot luminance, character introduction, and distributions of conversations, music, action shots, and scene transitions reduce to 5 correlated stylistic dimensions of movies and can litigate among theories of movie structure. In general, movie narratives have roughly the same structure as narratives in any other domain-plays, novels, manga, folktales, even oral histories-but with particular runtime constraints, cadences, and constructions that are unique to the medium.

  1. Easy Projection of Stereo Movies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    stereo films . This apparatus is easily portable and has been tsted over the past few years with a large variety of commercial movie projectors. It C...transparency of even black frames of film in the infrared, the unit remains synchronized throughout the movie . P. The voltage required for the PI.ZT wafer is...7D-W6 99 EASY PROJECTION OF STEREO MOVIES (U) CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN Il1 DIEGO LA JOLLA DEPT OF CHEMISTRY N BARTLETT ET AL. S1 NAY 86 N99914-?8-C-1325

  2. The Effects of Sound on the Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    Porter Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc. 3366 N. Torrey Pines Court, Suite 310 La Jolla, CA 92037 phone: (858) 457-0800 fax: (858) 228...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc.,3366 N. Torrey Pines Court, Suite 310,La Jolla,CA,92037 8. PERFORMING

  3. Intersensory Function in Newborns: Effect of Sound on Visual Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Katharine Rieke; Turkewitz, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    Newborn infants' fixation of a graduated series of visual stimuli significantly differed in the absence and presence of white-noise bursts. Relative to the no-sound condition, sound resulted in the infants' tendency to look more at the low-intensity visual stimulus and less at the high- intensity visual stimulus. (Author/DB)

  4. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown. ...

  5. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown. ...

  6. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown. ...

  7. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown. ...

  8. 28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial... Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure that X-rated movies are not shown. ...

  9. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-21

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers about 300 miles across.

  10. Enceladus Plume Movie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-06

    Jets of icy particles burst from Saturn’s moon Enceladus in this brief movie sequence of four images taken on Nov. 27, 2005. The sensational discovery of active eruptions on a third outer solar system body (Io and Triton are the others) is surely one of the great highlights of the Cassini mission. Imaging scientists, as reported in the journal Science on March 10, 2006, believe that the jets are geysers erupting from pressurized subsurface reservoirs of liquid water above 273 degrees Kelvin (0 degrees Celsius). Images taken in January 2005 appeared to show the plume emanating from the fractured south polar region of Enceladus, but the visible plume was only slightly brighter than the background noise in the image, because the lighting geometry was not suitable to reveal the true details of the feature. This potential sighting, in addition to the detection of the icy particles in the plume by other Cassini instruments, prompted imaging scientists to target Enceladus again with exposures designed to confirm the validity of the earlier plume sighting. The new views show individual jets, or plume sources, that contribute to the plume with much greater visibility than the earlier images. The full plume towers over the 505-kilometer-wide (314-mile) moon and is at least as tall as the moon's diameter. The four 10-second exposures were taken over the course of about 36 minutes at approximately 12 minute intervals. Enceladus rotates about 7.5 degrees in longitude over the course of the frames, and most of the observed changes in the appearances of the jets is likely attributable to changes in the viewing geometry. However, some of the changes may be due to actual variation in the flow from the jets on a time scale of tens of minutes. Additionally, the shift of the sources seen here should provide information about their location in front of and behind the visible limb (edge) of Enceladus. These images were obtained using the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera at

  11. Effect of Ultrasound Frequency on Sonochemical Luminescence under Well-Determined Sound Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Hirotaka; Masubuchi, Yuichi; Minagawa, Keiji; Takimoto, Jun-ichi; Koyama, Kiyohito

    1999-05-01

    By determining sound pressure using the Ramann-Nath parameterand confirming sound form based on schlieren images, weinvestigated the effects of ultrasound frequency on the sonochemicalluminescence of a luminol solution. Separating the effect into theluminescence threshold of sound energy and the rate of luminescenceincrease with respect to the sound energy, we found that the lowerthe frequency is the lower the threshold and the higher the rate ofincrease, and that only the standing-wave induces luminescence underthe conditions where the running-wave does not induce luminescenceat all.

  12. A numerical study of a method for measuring the effective in situ sound absorption coefficient.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Erwin R; Wijnant, Ysbrand H; de Boer, André

    2012-09-01

    The accuracy of a method [Wijnant et al., Proc. of ISMA 31, Leuven, Belgium (2010), Vol. 31] for measurement of the effective area-averaged in situ sound absorption coefficient is investigated. Based on a local plane wave assumption, this method can be applied to sound fields for which a model is not available. Investigations were carried out by means of finite element simulations for a typical case. The results show that the method is a promising method for determining the effective area-averaged in situ sound absorption coefficient in complex sound fields.

  13. Effects of head movement and proprioceptive feedback in training of sound localization

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Akio; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hidaka, Souta; Gyoba, Jiro; Iwaya, Yukio; Suzuki, Yôiti

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of listeners' head movements and proprioceptive feedback during sound localization practice on the subsequent accuracy of sound localization performance. The effects were examined under both restricted and unrestricted head movement conditions in the practice stage. In both cases, the participants were divided into two groups: a feedback group performed a sound localization drill with accurate proprioceptive feedback; a control group conducted it without the feedback. Results showed that (1) sound localization practice, while allowing for free head movement, led to improvement in sound localization performance and decreased actual angular errors along the horizontal plane, and that (2) proprioceptive feedback during practice decreased actual angular errors in the vertical plane. Our findings suggest that unrestricted head movement and proprioceptive feedback during sound localization training enhance perceptual motor learning by enabling listeners to use variable auditory cues and proprioceptive information. PMID:24349686

  14. Categorizing Sounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    Classification) CatemorizinR Sounds 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dr. Gremory R. Lockhead 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month,Day) S...variability in judgments of univariate sounds depends on what stimuli occurred recently (sequence effects), what stimuli might occur (set and range effects...CLASSIFICATION OF TH IS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED CATEGORIZING SOUNDS =- Gregory R. Lockhead Department of Psychology 3 Duke University -4 Durham, North Carolina 27706

  15. Algorithmic modeling of the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) by the hearing sensation fluctuation strength.

    PubMed

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weissgerber, Tobias; Kerber, Stefan; Fastl, Hugo; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background sounds, such as narration, music with prominent staccato passages, and office noise impair verbal short-term memory even when these sounds are irrelevant. This irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is evoked by so-called changing-state sounds that are characterized by a distinct temporal structure with varying successive auditory-perceptive tokens. However, because of the absence of an appropriate psychoacoustically based instrumental measure, the disturbing impact of a given speech or nonspeech sound could not be predicted until now, but necessitated behavioral testing. Our database for parametric modeling of the ISE included approximately 40 background sounds (e.g., speech, music, tone sequences, office noise, traffic noise) and corresponding performance data that was collected from 70 behavioral measurements of verbal short-term memory. The hearing sensation fluctuation strength was chosen to model the ISE and describes the percept of fluctuations when listening to slowly modulated sounds (f(mod) < 20 Hz). On the basis of the fluctuation strength of background sounds, the algorithm estimated behavioral performance data in 63 of 70 cases within the interquartile ranges. In particular, all real-world sounds were modeled adequately, whereas the algorithm overestimated the (non-)disturbance impact of synthetic steady-state sounds that were constituted by a repeated vowel or tone. Implications of the algorithm's strengths and prediction errors are discussed.

  16. The Influence of Electronic Sound Effects on Learning from Televised and Live Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Wyss, Nancy; Somanader, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Infants rapidly accrue information via imitation from multiple sources, including television and electronic toys. In two experiments, we examined whether adding sound effects to video or live demonstrations would influence imitation by 6-, 12-, and 18-month-olds. In Experiment 1, we added matching and mismatching sound effects to target actions…

  17. Still from Planetwide Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This single frame from a color movie of Jupiter from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to unpeel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form of a rectangular map.

    The image is a color cylindrical projection of the complete circumference of Jupiter, from 60 degrees south to 60 degrees north. It was produced from six images taken by Cassini's narrow-band camera on Oct. 31, 2000, in each of three filters: red, green and blue.

    The smallest visible features at the equator are about 600 kilometers (about 370 miles) across. In a map of this type, the most extreme northern and southern latitudes are unnaturally stretched out.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  18. [Smoking in movies -- a new way of promotion].

    PubMed

    Mihălţan, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Smoking in movies is a neglected aspect, even in Romania. The tobacco industry find out earlier what could be the impact of smoking on the initiation on smoking in teenagers. Later, we had reactions. In this article I am reviewing, from a epidemiological point of view, the effect of smoking in movies and I am analyzing the modalities of fighting and the actions for winning, also for teenagers, this battle in tobacco control.

  19. Competing Sound Sources Reveal Spatial Effects in Cortical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Ross K.; Billimoria, Cyrus P.; Perrone, Ben P.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Sen, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Why is spatial tuning in auditory cortex weak, even though location is important to object recognition in natural settings? This question continues to vex neuroscientists focused on linking physiological results to auditory perception. Here we show that the spatial locations of simultaneous, competing sound sources dramatically influence how well neural spike trains recorded from the zebra finch field L (an analog of mammalian primary auditory cortex) encode source identity. We find that the location of a birdsong played in quiet has little effect on the fidelity of the neural encoding of the song. However, when the song is presented along with a masker, spatial effects are pronounced. For each spatial configuration, a subset of neurons encodes song identity more robustly than others. As a result, competing sources from different locations dominate responses of different neural subpopulations, helping to separate neural responses into independent representations. These results help elucidate how cortical processing exploits spatial information to provide a substrate for selective spatial auditory attention. PMID:22563301

  20. The Effect of Sound Spatialization on Responses to Overlapping Messages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    cognitive level, frequency and intensity are perceived as loudness, pitch and timbre . For example, listeners are generally sensitive to intensity on a...variations of the stimulus. (Shilling and Shinn-Cunningham, 2002, p. 3.4) Timbre is even more difficult to define. It includes the qualities of...sound, particularly in situations where speaker configurations are used. The primary purpose of stereo surround sound is to enhance music by making

  1. The Effects of Sound on the Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    B. Porter Heat, Light, and Sound Research, Inc. 3366 N. Torrey Pines Court, Suite 310 La Jolla, CA 92037 phone: (858) 457-0800 fax: (858) 228...ES) Heat, Light, and Sound Research, Inc,3366 N. Torrey Pines Court, Suite 310,La Jolla,CA,92037 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...exercise. Task II: Nonlinear Explosives Model ( John Peterson, Laurel Henderson, Ahmad Abawi) We have investigated two options: 1) A nonlinear

  2. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF DIVERSE SOUNDS ON HEART RATE VARIABILITY.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Haruka; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    With the goal of facilitating the creation of relaxing sound environments in stressful places, such as offices, we examined differences in the heart rate fluctuations of men and women induced by different sounds. Twenty-three healthy students (13 males and 10 females) aged between 18 and 23 listened to seven different sounds while we collected electrocardiogram data. We extracted the high frequency component (HF) and low frequency component (LF) of the signals using the wavelet method, and calculated LF/HF. We found no statistically significant differences between males and females in the frequency distribution of a no change group, increased group, and decreased group for any sound. However, certain sounds had somewhat similar patterns for men and women for all three groups. Additionally, the pairs of experimental sounds with highly similar effects on individuals were different for men and women.

  3. Effect of ocean sound speed uncertainty on matched-field geoacoustic inversion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Fen; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S

    2008-06-01

    The effect of ocean sound speed uncertainty on matched-field geoacoustic inversion is investigated using data from the SW06 experiment along a nearly range-independent bathymetric track. Significant sound speed differences were observed at the source and receiving array and several environmental parameterizations were investigated for the inversion including representing the ocean sound speed at both source and receivers with empirical orthogonal function (EOF) coefficients. A genetic algorithm-based global optimization method was applied to the candidate environmental models. Then, a Bayesian inversion technique was used to quantify uncertainty in the environmental parameters for the best environmental model, which included an EOF description of the ocean sound speed.

  4. Behavioral and modeling studies of sound localization in cats: effects of stimulus level and duration.

    PubMed

    Gai, Yan; Ruhland, Janet L; Yin, Tom C T; Tollin, Daniel J

    2013-08-01

    Sound localization accuracy in elevation can be affected by sound spectrum alteration. Correspondingly, any stimulus manipulation that causes a change in the peripheral representation of the spectrum may degrade localization ability in elevation. The present study examined the influence of sound duration and level on localization performance in cats with the head unrestrained. Two cats were trained using operant conditioning to indicate the apparent location of a sound via gaze shift, which was measured with a search-coil technique. Overall, neither sound level nor duration had a notable effect on localization accuracy in azimuth, except at near-threshold levels. In contrast, localization accuracy in elevation improved as sound duration increased, and sound level also had a large effect on localization in elevation. For short-duration noise, the performance peaked at intermediate levels and deteriorated at low and high levels; for long-duration noise, this "negative level effect" at high levels was not observed. Simulations based on an auditory nerve model were used to explain the above observations and to test several hypotheses. Our results indicated that neither the flatness of sound spectrum (before the sound reaches the inner ear) nor the peripheral adaptation influences spectral coding at the periphery for localization in elevation, whereas neural computation that relies on "multiple looks" of the spectral analysis is critical in explaining the effect of sound duration, but not level. The release of negative level effect observed for long-duration sound could not be explained at the periphery and, therefore, is likely a result of processing at higher centers.

  5. Biological effect of audible sound control on mung bean (Vigna radiate) sprout.

    PubMed

    Cai, W; He, H; Zhu, S; Wang, N

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20-20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000-1500 Hz, 1500-2000 Hz, and 2000-2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean.

  6. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  7. A pilot study of the effect of audible sound on the growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shaobin, Gu; Wu, Ying; Li, Kewei; Li, Shichang; Ma, Shengyun; Wang, Qiannan; Wang, Rong

    2010-07-01

    Audible sound, one of the environmental factors, widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and biological materials is usually neglected in the field of biological research. Very little efforts have been put forth in studying the relation of organisms and audible sound. Here we investigated the response of Escherichia coli cells to the stimulation by audible sound under the normal condition and environmental stresses. The results showed that the audible sound treatment significantly increases the colony forming of E. coli under the normal growth condition. However, under osmotic stress induced by the sugar, audible sound stimulation may enhance the inhibitory effect of osmotic stress on E. coli growth. More interestingly, audible sound treatment seems to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on E. coli growth when the concentration of sodium chloride was increased to 30 g/l, although the action of sound waves of audible frequency is likely to evoke an inhibition of the growth of E. coli in the medium containing 20 g/l of sodium chloride. Some potential mechanisms may be involved in the responses of bacterial cells to audible sound stimulation.

  8. Sill effects on physical dynamics in eastern Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Jia, Yan; McManus, Pearse M.; Kunz, Christopher J.

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates how Mattituck Sill influences circulation patterns and physical dynamics in eastern Long Island Sound, a major estuary on the U.S. east coast. Observations show there is pronounced across-estuary transport in the area and suggest there may be subtidal anticyclonic flow around the sill. Model runs, with and without sill bathymetry, exhibit this across-estuary transport and anticyclonic circulation. Comparison between these runs indicates that the sill intensifies the anticyclonic circulation. This study finds the sill does not exert internal hydraulic control during neap, mean, or spring tidal conditions. Nevertheless, along-estuary exchange is reduced over the sill and across-estuary fluxes are increased. The Connecticut River plume enters close to the estuary mouth. The sill deflects more of the plume waters towards the mouth, causing less freshwater to take the long looping route through the estuary. The subtidal circulation balance around the sill indicates a barotropic balance between the tidal advection of tidal vorticity and friction. The subtidal vorticity balance indicates the net effect of tidal advection of relative vorticity is balanced with frictional curl associated with lateral speed gradients and vorticity dissipation. Previously developed scalings based on the circulation balance (Nature 290:549-555, 1981), frictional vorticity generation mechanisms (Deep-Sea Res 28:195-212, 1981), and tidal diffusion of potential vorticity (J Phys Oceanogr 29:821-827, 1999) are applicable to Mattituck Sill and predict circulation with a similar magnitudes to model results.

  9. Effect of lining anisotropy on sound attenuation in lined ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Woo; Bolton, J. Stuart; Alexander, Jonathan H.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of duct-lining anisotropy, with respect to flow resistivity, in particular, is considered. The duct lining is modeled by using a fully poroelastic theory derived from the Biot theory. The lining is considered to occupy only a part of the duct cross section, and is imagined to be infinite in length. When the appropriate solutions for the sound fields within the airway and the anisotropic porous material are substituted into the boundary conditions of the problem, a homogeneous system of equations results. The propagation characteristics of the duct modes can then be found by identifying the conditions under which the determinant of that system of equations is zero. Corresponding experiments have been conducted using samples of aviation-grade glass fiber partially lining a square-section, four-microphone standing wave tube. Excellent agreement between measured attenuations and predictions was found. It will be shown that the modal attenuation is primarily sensitive to the flow resistivity of the lining in the axial direction.

  10. Sound complexity and 'speechness' effects on pre-attentive auditory discrimination in children.

    PubMed

    Ceponiene, Rita; Yaguchi, Kiyoshi; Shestakova, Anna; Alku, Paavo; Suominen, Kalervo; Näätänen, Risto

    2002-03-01

    The evidence in adults suggests that at a cortical level simple and complex sounds are processed by partly divergent subsystems. In children, central processing of sounds differing in complexity has not been investigated. Therefore, the present study examined preconscious discrimination of the differences in sound frequency and duration as a function of sound complexity in 8-10-year-old children. A mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory event-related potentials was elicited in a paradigm where 'deviant' (rare) stimuli were either shorter in duration or higher in frequency than the 'standard' (repetitive) sounds. Vowels and vowel-matched complex and simple tones were presented in separate sequences. The stimulus complexity effects were sizable and appeared as larger areas and shorter and more consistent latencies of the MMNs, elicited by more complex stimuli. In addition, the vowel frequency MMN showed left hemisphere preponderance compared to the complex tone frequency MMN. No such effect was found for the duration decrement MMNs. In addition, the complex tone duration decrement MMN was distributed posteriorly to either the vowel or sinusoidal tone MMNs. A late discriminative negativity, LDN, did not show consistent effects of sound complexity. In conclusion, acoustically rich sound content facilitates auditory sensory discrimination in 8-10-year-old children. The sound 'speechness' effects were not as robust though present. Unlike adults, children demonstrated high intersubject variability in discriminating spectrally poor, but not rich, sounds. The discrimination of the sound duration appears to differ from that of the sound frequency in nature and, consequently, in the neural substrates.

  11. Narrow Angle movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  12. Pass the popcorn: "obesogenic" behaviors and stigma in children's movies.

    PubMed

    Throop, Elizabeth M; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Perrin, Andrew J; Steiner, Michael J; Odulana, Adebowale; Perrin, Eliana M

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity-related behaviors and attitudes in children's movies. A mixed-methods study of the top-grossing G- and PG-rated movies, 2006-2010 (4 per year) was performed. For each 10-min movie segment, the following were assessed: 1) prevalence of key nutrition and physical activity behaviors corresponding to the American Academy of Pediatrics obesity prevention recommendations for families; 2) prevalence of weight stigma; 3) assessment as healthy, unhealthy, or neutral; 3) free-text interpretations of stigma. Agreement between coders was >85% (Cohen's kappa = 0.7), good for binary responses. Segments with food depicted: exaggerated portion size (26%); unhealthy snacks (51%); sugar-sweetened beverages (19%). Screen time was also prevalent (40% of movies showed television; 35% computer; 20% video games). Unhealthy segments outnumbered healthy segments 2:1. Most (70%) of the movies included weight-related stigmatizing content (e.g., "That fat butt! Flabby arms! And this ridiculous belly!"). These popular children's movies had significant "obesogenic" content, and most contained weight-based stigma. They present a mixed message to children, promoting unhealthy behaviors while stigmatizing the behaviors' possible effects. Further research is needed to determine the effects of such messages on children. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Aftereffects of Intense Low-Frequency Sound on Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions: Effect of Frequency and Level.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Lena; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2017-02-01

    The presentation of intense, low-frequency (LF) sound to the human ear can cause very slow, sinusoidal oscillations of cochlear sensitivity after LF sound offset, coined the "Bounce" phenomenon. Changes in level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are a sensitive measure of the Bounce. Here, we investigated the effect of LF sound level and frequency on the Bounce. Specifically, the level of SOAEs was tracked for minutes before and after a 90-s LF sound exposure. Trials were carried out with several LF sound levels (93 to 108 dB SPL corresponding to 47 to 75 phons at a fixed frequency of 30 Hz) and different LF sound frequencies (30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 Hz at a fixed loudness level of 80 phons). At an LF sound frequency of 30 Hz, a minimal sound level of 102 dB SPL (64 phons) was sufficient to elicit a significant Bounce. In some subjects, however, 93 dB SPL (47 phons), the lowest level used, was sufficient to elicit the Bounce phenomenon and actual thresholds could have been even lower. Measurements with different LF sound frequencies showed a mild reduction of the Bounce phenomenon with increasing LF sound frequency. This indicates that the strength of the Bounce not only is a simple function of the spectral separation between SOAE and LF sound frequency but also depends on absolute LF sound frequency, possibly related to the magnitude of the AC component of the outer hair cell receptor potential.

  14. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  15. Effects of sounding temperature assimilation on weather forecasting - Model dependence studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Halem, M.; Atlas, R.

    1979-01-01

    In comparing various methods for the assimilation of remote sounding information into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the problem of model dependence for the different results obtained becomes important. The paper investigates two aspects of the model dependence question: (1) the effect of increasing horizontal resolution within a given model on the assimilation of sounding data, and (2) the effect of using two entirely different models with the same assimilation method and sounding data. Tentative conclusions reached are: first, that model improvement as exemplified by increased resolution, can act in the same direction as judicious 4-D assimilation of remote sounding information, to improve 2-3 day numerical weather forecasts. Second, that the time continuous 4-D methods developed at GLAS have similar beneficial effects when used in the assimilation of remote sounding information into NWP models with very different numerical and physical characteristics.

  16. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deymier, P. A.; Swinteck, N.; Runge, K.; Deymier-Black, A.; Hoying, J. B.

    2015-11-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  17. Effects of sounding temperature assimilation on weather forecasting - Model dependence studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Halem, M.; Atlas, R.

    1979-01-01

    In comparing various methods for the assimilation of remote sounding information into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the problem of model dependence for the different results obtained becomes important. The paper investigates two aspects of the model dependence question: (1) the effect of increasing horizontal resolution within a given model on the assimilation of sounding data, and (2) the effect of using two entirely different models with the same assimilation method and sounding data. Tentative conclusions reached are: first, that model improvement as exemplified by increased resolution, can act in the same direction as judicious 4-D assimilation of remote sounding information, to improve 2-3 day numerical weather forecasts. Second, that the time continuous 4-D methods developed at GLAS have similar beneficial effects when used in the assimilation of remote sounding information into NWP models with very different numerical and physical characteristics.

  18. When movies matter: exposure to smoking in movies and changes in smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between exposure to smoking in movies and the initiation and progression of adolescent smoking over time among 6,522 U.S. adolescents (between the ages of 10 and 14 years, at baseline) in a nationally representative, 4-wave random-digit-dial telephone survey. They conducted a hazard (survival) analysis testing whether exposure to movie smoking and demographic, personality, social, and structural factors predict (a) earlier smoking onset and (b) faster transition to experimental (1-99 cigarettes/lifetime) and established smoking (>100 cigarettes/lifetime). Results suggest that higher exposure to movie smoking is associated with less time to trying cigarettes for the first time (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI [1.37, 2.01]) but not with faster escalation of smoking behavior following initiation (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI [0.84, 2.79]). In contrast, age, peer smoking, parenting style, and availability of cigarettes in the home were predictors of earlier onset and faster transition to established smoking. Thus, the authors concluded that the effect of exposure to mass-mediated images of smoking in movies may decline once adolescents have started to smoke, whereas peers and access to tobacco remain influential.

  19. When Movies Matter: Exposure to Smoking in Movies and Changes in Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between exposure to smoking in movies and the initiation and progression of adolescent smoking over time among 6,522 U.S. adolescents (between the ages of 10 and 14 years, at baseline) in a nationally representative, 4-wave random-digit-dial telephone survey. They conducted a hazard (survival) analysis testing whether exposure to movie smoking and demographic, personality, social, and structural factors predict (a) earlier smoking onset and (b) faster transition to experimental (1–99 cigarettes/lifetime) and established smoking (>100 cigarettes/lifetime). Results suggest that higher exposure to movie smoking is associated with less time to trying cigarettes for the first time (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI [1.37, 2.01]) but not with faster escalation of smoking behavior following initiation (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI [0.84, 2.79]). In contrast, age, peer smoking, parenting style, and availability of cigarettes in the home were predictors of earlier onset and faster transition to established smoking. Thus, the authors concluded that the effect of exposure to mass-mediated images of smoking in movies may decline once adolescents have started to smoke, whereas peers and access to tobacco remain influential. PMID:22085232

  20. Effects of tympanomeatal blunting on sound transfer function.

    PubMed

    Mullin, David P; Ge, Xianxi; Jackson, Ron L; Liu, Jianzhong; Pfannenstiel, Travis J; Balough, Ben J

    2011-06-01

    (1) To measure the peak-to-peak displacement of the round window membrane (RWM) prior to blunting procedure. (2) To evaluate the impact of blunting the anterior tympanomeatal angle (ATA) on middle ear sound transfer function. Basic science study. Setting. Cadaveric temporal bone research laboratory. Six fresh human temporal bones were prepared using a mastoidectomy and facial recess approach. Baseline RWM peak-to-peak displacements were obtained by single-point laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) at 90-dB sound pressure level over a spectrum of 250 to 8000 Hz. Temporalis muscle was harvested and then fashioned into a graft for each temporal bone, mimicking ATA blunting. RWM displacement responses with the blunted ATA were measured using the LDV to judge the impact on middle ear transfer function. For each of the 6 temporal bones, the average displacement decreased across all sound frequencies with the ATA blunting when compared with baseline (no blunting). Baseline velocity measurements for all sound signals averaged 4.5 × 10(-3) ± 1.892 × 10(-3) (mean ± SEM) mm/s, while measurements averaged 2.2 ± 6.62 × 10(-4) mm/s with blunting of the ATA (P < .001). This amounted to a 52% decrease in velocity of the RWM following blunting of the ATA. Blunting of the ATA decreases the sound transfer function of the tympanic membrane and middle ear. Prevention of blunting at the ATA during tympanoplasty should be emphasized.

  1. Long Island Sound: Distributions, trends, and effects of chemical contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, D.D.; O'Connor, T.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Trace metals and organic contaminants concentrations are monitored annually in surface sediments, blue mussel tissue, and winter flounder livers at multiple sites in Long Island Sound by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends (NS and T) program for Marine Environmental Quality. The NS and T program is also conducting various studies on the bioeffects of contaminants in the sound. Three years of monitoring results indicate organic and elemental contaminants concentrations in sediments and biota at sites in the western portion of the sound are high on a national scale. Possible decreasing trends in cadmium and chlordane in the second are suggested by the 1986-1988 data for their concentrations in mussels. A comparison between NS and T Mussel Watch results and those of the Environmental Protection Agency's Mussel Watch, conducted from 1976 through 1978, indicated a decadal increase in copper concentrations and a decrease in lead in the sound. Bioeffects studies in the sound have revealed responses in contamination only in localized zones where contaminant levels are very high.

  2. Evaluating Ecosystem effects of oyster restoration in the Mississippi Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klutse, C. K.; Milroy, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    Oyster reefs along the northern Gulf of Mexico are primarily formed by the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and are among the few biogenic natural habitats in the region. The increasing awareness of ecosystem services that habitat-forming bivalves provide, and the decline of the native species' population has led to a myriad of restoration efforts which have yielded varying results. Successful reef restoration efforts requires a deeper understanding of how variations in the timing and scales of environmental stressors control the survival, growth, and recruitment of reef associated species like oysters, shrimps, pelagic and benthic fish species. A modeling approach has been designed for exploring optimal growth conditions for oysters, studying the effect of seasonal trends in environmental stressors on the growth and survival of reef-associated species, and performing scenario testing for alternative restoration plans in the Mississippi Sound. The model uses a carbon budget approach, accounts for different functional groups within the trophic network on the reef, and operates on daily temporal resolution. Preliminary results indicate that restoration efforts may maximize benefits from the interactions between different salinity regimes and growth as well as mortality of oysters at three different class sizes of sacks, seeds, and spats. The study also seeks to evaluate the effects of different restoration efforts on promotion and recruitments in oyster populations as well as other reef-associated fishes and invertebrates. The current capabilities of the model can be scaled up to include evaluating changes in ecosystem goods and assessing their contributions to human well-being, the results of which will inform management decisions. Keywords: ecosystem modeling, oyster ecology, ecosystem-based management.

  3. Using Science Fiction Movies in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark, Marta L.

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the use of science fiction movies in introductory physics courses at Spelman College. There are several reasons to use these movies in the classroom environment. Movies are a visual learning aid. Introductory physics students show a strong interest in participating in movie-related activities compared to standard group problem-solving sessions. Finally, these activities encourage creative thinking and can be used to develop writing skills. The students involved with these movie-based activities have included biology and pre-medical majors taking general physics. In the introductory level courses, physics, chemistry, and engineering majors worked on movie-based activities.

  4. Dichoptic movie viewing treats childhood amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Li, Simone L; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Jost, Reed M; Morale, Sarah E; De La Cruz, Angie; Dao, Lori; Stager, David; Birch, Eileen E

    2015-10-01

    Contrast-balanced dichoptic experience with perceptual-learning tasks or simple games has been shown to improve visual acuity significantly in amblyopia. However, these tasks are intensive and repetitive, and up to 40% of unsupervised patients are noncompliant. We investigated the efficacy of a potentially more engaging movie method to provide contrast-balanced binocular experience via complementary dichoptic stimulation. Eight amblyopic children 4-10 years of age were enrolled in a prospective cohort study to watch 3 dichoptic movies per week for 2 weeks on a passive 3D display. Dichoptic versions of 18 popular animated feature films were created. A patterned image mask of irregularly shaped blobs was multiplied with the movie images seen by the amblyopic eye and an inverse mask was multiplied with the images seen by the fellow eye. Fellow-eye contrast was initially set at a reduced level that allowed binocular vision and was then incremented by 10% at each visit. Best-corrected visual acuity, random dot stereoacuity, and interocular suppression were measured at baseline and 2 weeks. Mean amblyopic eye visual acuity (with standard error of the mean) improved from a logarithm of minimum angle of resolution of 0.72 ± 0.08 at baseline to 0.52 ± 0.09 (P = 0.003); that is, 2.0 lines of improvement at the 2-week outcome visit. No significant change in interocular suppression or stereoacuity was found. Passive viewing of dichoptic feature films is feasible and could be a promising new treatment for childhood amblyopia. The maximum improvement that may be achieved by watching dichoptic movies remains to be determined. No known side effects are associated with this new treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of social, demographical and behavioral factors on the sound level evaluation in urban open spaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Kang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of social, demographical and behavioral factors as well as long-term sound experience on the subjective evaluation of sound level in urban open public spaces. This is based on a series of large scale surveys in 19 urban open spaces in Europe and China. The results suggest that the effects of social/demographical factors, including age, gender, occupation, education and residential status, on the sound level evaluation are generally insignificant, although occupation and education are two related factors and both correlate to the sound level evaluation more than other factors. The effects of some behavioral factors, including wearing earphones, reading/writing and moving activities, are also insignificant on the sound level evaluation, but the watching behavior is highly related to the sound level evaluation. Compared to the social, demographical and behavioral factors, the long-term sound experience, i.e. the acoustic environment at home, significantly affect the sound level evaluation in urban open spaces. It is important to note that between the social/demographical factors, there are generally significant correlations, although the correlation coefficients may not be high. It is also noted that there are considerable variations between different urban open spaces.

  6. Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Morten; Schliewe, Sanna; Thomsen, Rasmus R

    2005-01-01

    Background Tools for training professionals in rating personality disorders are few. We present one such tool: rating of fictional persons. However, before ratings of fictional persons can be useful, we need to know whether raters get the same results, when rating fictional characters. Method Psychology students at the University of Copenhagen (N = 8) rated four different movie characters from four movies based on three systems: Global rating scales representing each of the 10 personality disorders in the DSM-IV, a criterion list of all criteria for all DSM-IV personality disorders in random order, and the Ten Item Personality Inventory for rating the five-factor model. Agreement was estimated based on intraclass-correlation. Results Agreement for rating scales for personality disorders ranged from 0.04 to 0.54. For personality disorder features based on DSM-IV criteria, agreement ranged from 0.24 to 0.89, and agreement for the five-factor model ranged from 0.05 to 0.88. The largest multivariate effect was observed for criteria count followed by the TIPI, followed by rating scales. Raters experienced personality disorder criteria as the easiest, and global personality disorder scales as the most difficult, but with significant variation between movies. Conclusion Psychology students with limited or no clinical experience can agree well on the personality traits of movie characters based on watching the movie. Rating movie characters may be a way to practice assessment of personality. PMID:16336663

  7. Propagation of Sound Through the Atmosphere: Effects of Ground Cover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-19

    was measured with a geophone giving a value of lvi. The ratio of lvi to IpI was referred to asj the seismic/^ coustic or acoustic to soimtic coupling...AnDRESS RK I A1 U. S. Army Research Office Post Office Box 1221J MON. 0 IN A N &,dAM A fE Cawl8 Ofc)I. SECURITY CLASS. (of thwis mpoft) I". EC ICATION...Sound Propagation; t o~piqric Acoustics; Ground Impedance IW :Lq-,bn;RWee-.F J-7 ~X MearuJrements of sound amplitude in the vicinity of a ground plane

  8. Effects of exposure to pile driving sounds on fish inner ear tissues.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Smith, Michael E; Halvorsen, Michele B; Sun, Huifang; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2013-10-01

    Impulsive pile driving sound can cause injury to fishes, but no studies to date have examined whether such injuries include damage to sensory hair cells in the ear. Possible effects on hair cells were tested using a specially designed wave tube to expose two species, hybrid striped bass (white bass Morone chrysops × striped bass Morone saxatilis) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), to pile driving sounds. Fish were exposed to 960 pile driving strikes at one of three treatment levels: 216, 213, or 210dB re 1 μPa(2)·s cumulative Sound Exposure Level. Both hybrid striped bass and tilapia exhibited barotraumas such as swim bladder ruptures, herniations, and hematomas to several organs. Hybrid striped bass exposed to the highest sound level had significant numbers of damaged hair cells, while no damage was found when fish were exposed at lower sound levels. Considerable hair cell damage was found in only one out of 11 tilapia specimens exposed at the highest sound level. Results suggest that impulsive sounds such as from pile driving may have a more significant effect on the swim bladders and surrounding organs than on the inner ears of fishes, at least at the sound exposure levels used in this study. © 2013.

  9. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  10. 76 FR 42136 - In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain motion-sensitive sound effects... sale within the United States after importation of certain motion- sensitive sound effects devices...

  11. 76 FR 29006 - In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Inv. No. 337-TA-773 In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image... of certain motion-sensitive sound effects devices and image display devices and components and... importation of certain motion- sensitive sound effects devices and image display devices and components...

  12. The effect of a crunchy pseudo-chewing sound on perceived texture of softened foods.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hiroshi; Ino, Shuichi; Fujisaki, Waka

    2016-12-01

    Elderly individuals whose ability to chew and swallow has declined are often restricted to unpleasant diets of very soft food, leading to a poor appetite. To address this problem, we aimed to investigate the influence of altered auditory input of chewing sounds on the perception of food texture. The modified chewing sound was reported to influence the perception of food texture in normal foods. We investigated whether the perceived sensations of nursing care foods could be altered by providing altered auditory feedback of chewing sounds, even if the actual food texture is dull. Chewing sounds were generated using electromyogram (EMG) of the masseter. When the frequency properties of the EMG signal are modified and it is heard as a sound, it resembles a "crunchy" sound, much like that emitted by chewing, for example, root vegetables (EMG chewing sound). Thirty healthy adults took part in the experiment. In two conditions (with/without the EMG chewing sound), participants rated the taste, texture and evoked feelings of five kinds of nursing care foods using two questionnaires. When the "crunchy" EMG chewing sound was present, participants were more likely to evaluate food as having the property of stiffness. Moreover, foods were perceived as rougher and to have a greater number of ingredients in the condition with the EMG chewing sound, and satisfaction and pleasantness were also greater. In conclusion, the "crunchy" pseudo-chewing sound could influence the perception of food texture, even if the actual "crunchy" oral sensation is lacking. Considering the effect of altered auditory feedback while chewing, we can suppose that such a tool would be a useful technique to help people on texture-modified diets to enjoy their food. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Sound Duration on Newborns' Head Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Marsha G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the importance of sound duration for eliciting head orientation responses from newborn infants. Results suggest that newborns' head orientation response may reflect a motor program that is initiated by auditory input and then executed in a similar fashion regardless of further stimulation. (Author/AS)

  14. Contextual effects on preattentive processing of sound motion as revealed by spatial MMN.

    PubMed

    Shestopalova, L B; Petropavlovskaia, E A; Vaitulevich, S Ph; Nikitin, N I

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude of spatial distance between sound stimuli is critically important for their preattentive discrimination, yet the effect of stimulus context on auditory motion processing is not clear. This study investigated the effects of acoustical change and stimulus context on preattentive spatial change detection. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for stationary midline noises and two patterns of sound motion produced by linear or abrupt changes of interaural time differences. Each of the three types of stimuli was used as standard or deviant in different blocks. Context effects on mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by stationary and moving sound stimuli were investigated by reversing the role of standard and deviant stimuli, while the acoustical stimulus parameters were kept the same. That is, MMN amplitudes were calculated by subtracting ERPs to identical stimuli presented as standard in one block and deviant in another block. In contrast, effects of acoustical change on MMN amplitudes were calculated by subtracting ERPs of standards and deviants presented within the same block. Preattentive discrimination of moving and stationary sounds indexed by MMN was strongly dependent on the stimulus context. Higher MMNs were produced in oddball configurations where deviance represented increments of the sound velocity, as compared to configurations with velocity decrements. The effect of standard-deviant reversal was more pronounced with the abrupt sound displacement than with gradual sound motion.

  15. Effect of transverse velocity and temperature gradients on sound attenuation in two-dimensional ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Sun, J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation is described of the effect of transverse mean-velocity and temperature gradients on sound attenuation in acoustically treated two-dimensional ducts. The results show that cooling the duct walls leads to channeling the sound toward the walls for both downstream and upstream propagation. The effect of mean-temperature gradients on the attenuation rates of the lowest three modes can be as important as the effect of mean-velocity gradients.

  16. Effect of additional warning sounds on pedestrians' detection of electric vehicles: An ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sylvain; Jamet, Éric; Roussarie, Vincent; Bosc, Laure; Chamard, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Virtually silent electric vehicles (EVs) may pose a risk for pedestrians. This paper describes two studies that were conducted to assess the influence of different types of external sounds on EV detectability. In the first study, blindfolded participants had to detect an approaching EV with either no warning sounds at all or one of three types of sound we tested. In the second study, designed to replicate the results of the first one in an ecological setting, the EV was driven along a road and the experimenters counted the number of people who turned their heads in its direction. Results of the first study showed that adding external sounds improve EV detection, and modulating the frequency and increasing the pitch of these sounds makes them more effective. This improvement was confirmed in the ecological context. Consequently, pitch variation and frequency modulation should both be taken into account in future AVAS design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of environmental sounds on the guessability of animated graphic symbols.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Ashley C; Schlosser, Ralf W; Gygi, Brian; Shane, Howard C; Kong, Ying-Yee; Book, Lorraine; Macduff, Kelly; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    Graphic symbols are a necessity for pre-literate children who use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems (including non-electronic communication boards and speech generating devices), as well as for mobile technologies using AAC applications. Recently, developers of the Autism Language Program (ALP) Animated Graphics Set have added environmental sounds to animated symbols representing verbs in an attempt to enhance their iconicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental sounds (added to animated graphic symbols representing verbs) in terms of naming. Participants included 46 children with typical development between the ages of 3;0 to 3;11 (years;months). The participants were randomly allocated to a condition of symbols with environmental sounds or a condition without environmental sounds. Results indicated that environmental sounds significantly enhanced the naming accuracy of animated symbols for verbs. Implications in terms of symbol selection, symbol refinement, and future symbol development will be discussed.

  18. Investigation on Sound Field Model of Propeller AIRCRAFT—THE Effect of Rigid Fuselage Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. Q.; Zhou, S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved sound field model with multiple propeller noise sources and finite fuselage boundary has been developed for the prediction of propeller aircraft noise by using the acoustic analogy method. It involves the effects of fuselage boundary with arbitrary shape and coupling of multiple propeller sources. It is also applicable to solving the interaction between any known boundary and harmonic sound source. The model has been used to calculate the sound field of propeller aircraft Y12 with rigid fuselage boundary and the sound field of rigid sphere in planar harmonic sound wave. The latter has an analytical solution which could be used to check the present method. The calculation results show that the model is reasonable and valuable.

  19. Effect of sound-related activities on human behaviours and acoustic comfort in urban open spaces.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Kang, Jian

    2016-12-15

    Human activities are important to landscape design and urban planning; however, the effect of sound-related activities on human behaviours and acoustic comfort has not been considered. The objective of this study is to explore how human behaviours and acoustic comfort in urban open spaces can be changed by sound-related activities. On-site measurements were performed at a case study site in Harbin, China, and an acoustic comfort survey was simultaneously conducted. In terms of effect of sound activities on human behaviours, music-related activities caused 5.1-21.5% of persons who pass by the area to stand and watch the activity, while there was a little effect on the number of persons who performed excises during the activity. Human activities generally have little effect on the behaviour of pedestrians when only 1 to 3 persons are involved in the activities, while a deep effect on the behaviour of pedestrians is noted when >6 persons are involved in the activities. In terms of effect of activities on acoustic comfort, music-related activities can increase the sound level from 10.8 to 16.4dBA, while human activities such RS and PC can increase the sound level from 9.6 to 12.8dBA; however, they lead to very different acoustic comfort. The acoustic comfort of persons can differ with activities, for example the acoustic comfort of persons who stand watch can increase by music-related activities, while the acoustic comfort of persons who sit and watch can decrease by human sound-related activities. Some sound-related activities can show opposite trend of acoustic comfort between visitors and citizens. Persons with higher income prefer music sound-related activities, while those with lower income prefer human sound-related activities.

  20. Exploring the effect of sound and music on health in hospital settings: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Iyendo, Timothy Onosahwo

    2016-11-01

    Sound in hospital space has traditionally been considered in negative terms as both intrusive and unwanted, and based mainly on sound levels. However, sound level is only one aspect of the soundscape. There is strong evidence that exploring the positive aspect of sound in a hospital context can evoke positive feelings in both patients and nurses. Music psychology studies have also shown that music intervention in health care can have a positive effect on patient's emotions and recuperating processes. In this way, hospital spaces have the potential to reduce anxiety and stress, and make patients feel comfortable and secure. This paper describes a review of the literature exploring sound perception and its effect on health care. This review sorted the literature and main issues into themes concerning sound in health care spaces; sound, stress and health; positive soundscape; psychological perspective of music and emotion; music as a complementary medicine for improving health care; contradicting arguments concerning the use of music in health care; and implications for clinical practice. Using Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest Central, MEDLINE, and Google, a literature search on sound levels, sound sources and the impression of a soundscape was conducted. The review focused on the role and use of music on health care in clinical environments. In addition, other pertinent related materials in shaping the understanding of the field were retrieved, scanned and added into this review. The result indicated that not all noises give a negative impression within healthcare soundscapes. Listening to soothing music was shown to reduce stress, blood pressure and post-operative trauma when compared to silence. Much of the sound conveys meaningful information that is positive for both patients and nurses, in terms of soft wind, bird twitter, and ocean sounds. Music perception was demonstrated to bring about positive change in patient-reported outcomes such as eliciting

  1. Effects of indoor rattle sounds on annoyance caused by sonic booms.

    PubMed

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Loubeau, Alexandra; Klos, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    To expand national air transportation capabilities, NASA's Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is working to make supersonic flight practical for commercial passengers. As an aid in designing and certifying quiet supersonic aircraft, a noise metric is sought that will correspond to indoor annoyance caused by sonic booms, including the effects of indoor rattle sounds. This study examines how well several common aircraft noise metrics predict indoor annoyance based on the indoor and outdoor sound fields. The results suggest notional community annoyance models that include the effects of indoor rattle sounds.

  2. Sound and vibration: effects on infants' heart rate and heart rate variability during neonatal transport.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Björn-Markus; Lindkvist, Marie; Lindkvist, Markus; Karlsson, Marcus; Lundström, Ronnie; Håkansson, Stellan; Wiklund, Urban; van den Berg, Johannes

    2012-02-01

    To measure the effect of sound and whole-body vibration on infants' heart rate and heart rate variability during ground and air ambulance transport. Sixteen infants were transported by air ambulance with ground ambulance transport to and from the airports. Whole-body vibration and sound levels were recorded and heart parameters were obtained by ECG signal. Sound and whole-body vibration levels exceeded the recommended limits. Mean whole-body vibration and sound levels were 0.19 m/s(2) and 73 dBA, respectively. Higher whole-body vibration was associated with a lower heart rate (p < 0.05), and higher sound level was linked to a higher heart rate (p = 0.05). The heart rate variability was significantly higher at the end of the transport than at the beginning (p < 0.01). Poorer physiological status was associated with lower heart rate variability (p < 0.001) and a lower heart rate (p < 0.01). Infants wearing earmuffs had a lower heart rate (p < 0.05). Sound and whole-body vibration during neonatal transport exceed recommended levels for adults, and sound seem to have a more stressful effect on the infant than vibrations. Infants should wear earmuffs during neonatal transport because of the stress-reducing effect. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Beyond the Movie Screen: An Antarctic Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajigal, Aris Reynold V.; Chamrat, Suthida; Tippins, Deborah; Mueller, Mike; Thomson, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Movies depicting science-related issues often capture the attention of today's youth. As an instructional tool, movies can take us beyond the drama and action and thrilling scenes. In this article we share our experiences of using the movie "Eight Below" as a centerpiece for developing high school students' understanding of basic…

  4. Beyond the Movie Screen: An Antarctic Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajigal, Aris Reynold V.; Chamrat, Suthida; Tippins, Deborah; Mueller, Mike; Thomson, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Movies depicting science-related issues often capture the attention of today's youth. As an instructional tool, movies can take us beyond the drama and action and thrilling scenes. In this article we share our experiences of using the movie "Eight Below" as a centerpiece for developing high school students' understanding of basic…

  5. The effectiveness of the motion picture association of America's rating system in screening explicit violence and sex in top-ranked movies from 1950 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Nalkur, Priya G; Jamieson, Patrick E; Romer, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Youth exposure to explicit film violence and sex is linked to adverse health outcomes and is a serious public health concern. The Motion Picture Association of America's (MPAA's) rating system's effectiveness in reducing youth exposure to harmful content has been questioned. To determine the MPAA's rating system's effectiveness in screening explicit violence and sex since the system's initiation (1968) and the introduction of the PG-13 category (1984). Also, to examine evidence of less restrictive ratings over time ("ratings creep"). Top-grossing movies from 1950 to 2006 (N = 855) were coded for explicitness of violent and sexual content. Trends in rating assignments and in the content of different rating categories since 1968 were assessed. The explicitness of violent and sexual content significantly increased following the rating system's initiation. The system did not differentiate violent content as well as sexual content, and ratings creep was only evident for violent films. Explicit violence in R-rated films increased, while films that would previously have been rated R were increasingly assigned to PG-13. This pattern was not evident for sex; only R-rated films exhibited higher levels of explicit sex compared to preratings period. While relatively effective for screening explicit sex, the rating system has allowed increasingly violent content into PG-13 films, thereby increasing youth access to more harmful content. Assignment of films in the current rating system should be more sensitive to the link between violent media exposure and youth violence. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Intense Sound Waves on a Stationary Gas Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahnemann, H; Ehret, L

    1950-01-01

    Intense sound waves with a resonant frequency of 5000 cycles per second were imposed on a stationary propane-air flame issuing from a nozzle. In addition to a slight increase of the flame velocity, a fundamental change both in the shape of the burning zone and in the flow pattern could be observed. An attempt is made to explain the origin of the variations in the flame configuration on the basis of transition at the nozzle from jet flow to potential flow.

  7. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROPHYLAXIS METHODS ON SOUND AND DEMINERALIZED ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela; Abdo, Ruy César Camargo; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2006-01-01

    Considering the importance of professional plaque control for caries prevention, this study comprised an in vitro evaluation of wear by two prophylaxis methods (sodium bicarbonate jet – Profident and pumice and brush) on sound bovine enamel and with artificial carious lesions. Sixty enamel fragments were employed (4x4mm), which were divided into 4 groups: GI – 15 sound blocks treated with pumice and brush; GII – 15 sound blocks treated with Profident; GIII – 15 demineralized blocks treated with pumice and brush, and GIV – 15 demineralized blocks treated with Profident. In the fragments of Groups III and IV, artificial carious lesions were simulated by immersion in 0.05M acetic acid solution 50% saturated with bovine enamel powder at 37oC for 16h. The specimens were submitted to the prophylactic treatments for 10 seconds. Wear analysis was performed by profilometer and revealed the following results: 0.91μm – GI; 0.42μm – GII; 1.6μm – GIII, and 0.94μm – GIV. The two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05) revealed significant difference between all groups. Scanning electron microscopy images were employed to illustrate the wear pattern, with observation of larger alteration on the demineralized enamel surface (GIII; GIV), round-shaped wear on GI and GIII and blasted aspect on GII and GIV. The study indicated that the demineralized enamel presented more wear than the sound enamel, and the brush led to larger wear when compared to Profident. PMID:19089042

  8. Grasping the Social through Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Nilgun Fehim; Senses, Nazli; Ayan, Pelin

    2011-01-01

    In Turkey, one of the major challenges that university education faces is the indifference of young people towards social issues. The aim of this article is to contribute to the "practice" of critical pedagogy by proposing that showing movies is an important critical teaching method with the power both to give pleasure to the students…

  9. Grasping the Social through Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Nilgun Fehim; Senses, Nazli; Ayan, Pelin

    2011-01-01

    In Turkey, one of the major challenges that university education faces is the indifference of young people towards social issues. The aim of this article is to contribute to the "practice" of critical pedagogy by proposing that showing movies is an important critical teaching method with the power both to give pleasure to the students…

  10. VHS Movies: Perturbations for Morphogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Danny L.

    This paper discusses the concept of a family system in terms of an interactive system of interrelated, interdependent parts and suggests that VHS movies can act as perturbations, i.e., change promoting agents, for certain dysfunctional family systems. Several distinct characteristics of a family system are defined with particular emphasis on…

  11. Sound levels and their effects on children in a German primary school.

    PubMed

    Eysel-Gosepath, Katrin; Daut, Tobias; Pinger, Andreas; Lehmacher, Walter; Erren, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Considerable sound levels are produced in primary schools by voices of children and resonance effects. As a consequence, hearing loss and mental impairment may occur. In a Cologne primary school, sound levels were measured in three different classrooms, each with 24 children, 8-10 years old, and one teacher. Sound dosimeters were positioned in the room and near the teacher's ear. Additional measurements were done in one classroom fully equipped with sound-absorbing materials. A questionnaire containing 12 questions about noise at school was distributed to 100 children, 8-10 years old. Measurements were repeated after children had been taught about noise damage and while "noise lights" were used. Mean sound levels of 5-h per day measuring period were 78 dB (A) near the teacher's ear and 70 dB (A) in the room. The average of all measured maximal sound levels for 1 s was 105 dB (A) for teachers, and 100 dB (A) for rooms. In the soundproofed classroom, Leq was 66 dB (A). The questionnaire revealed certain judgment of the children concerning situations with high sound levels and their ability to develop ideas for noise reduction. However, no clear sound level reduction was identified after noise education and using "noise lights" during lessons. Children and their teachers are equally exposed to high sound levels at school. Early sensitization to noise and the possible installation of sound-absorbing materials can be important means to prevent noise-associated hearing loss and mental impairment.

  12. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    ARL-TR-7602 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound... Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures by Sarah Wagner Science and Engineering Apprentice...AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-CIE-S 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  13. Effects of sound exposure on the growth and intracellular macromolecular synthesis of E. coli k-12.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shaobin; Zhang, Yongzhu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Microbes, as one of the primary producers of the biosphere, play an important role in ecosystems. Exploring the mechanism of adaptation and resistance of microbial population to various environmental factors has come into focus in the fields of modern microbial ecology and molecular ecology. However, facing the increasingly serious problem of acoustic pollution, very few efforts have been put forth into studying the relation of single cell organisms and sound field exposure. Herein, we studied the biological effects of sound exposure on the growth of E. coli K-12 with different acoustic parameters. The effects of sound exposure on the intracellular macromolecular synthesis and cellular morphology of E. coli K-12 were also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that E. coli K-12 exposed to sound waves owned a higher biomass and a faster specific growth rate compared to the control group. Also, the average length of E. coli K-12 cells increased more than 27.26%. The maximum biomass and maximum specific growth rate of the stimulation group by 8000 Hz, 80dB sound wave was about 1.7 times and 2.5 times that of the control group, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that E. coli K-12 can respond rapidly to sound stress at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by promoting the synthesis of intracellular RNA and total protein. Some potential mechanisms may be involved in the responses of bacterial cells to sound stress.

  14. Effects of sound exposure on the growth and intracellular macromolecular synthesis of E. coli k-12

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Microbes, as one of the primary producers of the biosphere, play an important role in ecosystems. Exploring the mechanism of adaptation and resistance of microbial population to various environmental factors has come into focus in the fields of modern microbial ecology and molecular ecology. However, facing the increasingly serious problem of acoustic pollution, very few efforts have been put forth into studying the relation of single cell organisms and sound field exposure. Herein, we studied the biological effects of sound exposure on the growth of E. coli K-12 with different acoustic parameters. The effects of sound exposure on the intracellular macromolecular synthesis and cellular morphology of E. coli K-12 were also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that E. coli K-12 exposed to sound waves owned a higher biomass and a faster specific growth rate compared to the control group. Also, the average length of E. coli K-12 cells increased more than 27.26%. The maximum biomass and maximum specific growth rate of the stimulation group by 8000 Hz, 80dB sound wave was about 1.7 times and 2.5 times that of the control group, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that E. coli K-12 can respond rapidly to sound stress at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by promoting the synthesis of intracellular RNA and total protein. Some potential mechanisms may be involved in the responses of bacterial cells to sound stress. PMID:27077011

  15. Effect of temporal decay on perception of heavy-weight floor impact sounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ho; Ryu, Jong Kwan; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of temporal decay on perception of heavy-weight floor impact sounds through auditory experiments. Heavy-weight impact sounds were recorded in apartment buildings with a box-framed type reinforced concrete structure using a rubber ball. Temporal decay was quantified by using the decay rate (DR), defined as the sound pressure level (SPL) decrease per second [dB/s], and the distribution of DR for heavy-weight impact sounds was calculated. An auditory experiment was conducted in order to examine the just noticeable difference (JND) of DR, which was determined by the criteria of 75% correct answers by subjects. It was found that the JND of DR is around 11 dB/s. Based on the distribution and JND of DR, another experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of DR on annoyance perception of heavy-weight floor impact sounds in relation to the level differences. The results indicate that SPL and DR significantly influence annoyance perception; the scale value of annoyance increases with decreasing DR and increasing SPL. It was also found that the degree of satisfaction with regards to impact sounds can be improved by increasing DR, by controlling the sound field of the receiving room.

  16. Modal sound transmission loss of a single leaf panel: Effects of inter-modal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong

    2015-06-01

    Sound transmission through a single leaf panel has mostly been discussed and explained by using the approaching wave concept, from which the well-known mass law can be derived. In this paper, the modal behavior in sound transmission coefficients is explored, and it is shown that the mutual modal radiation impedances in modal sound transmission coefficients may not be ignored even for a panel immersed in a light fluid. By introducing the equivalent modal impedance which incorporates the inter-modal coupling effect, an analytical expression for the modal sound transmission coefficient is derived, and the overall sound transmission coefficient is simply a modal superposition of modal sound transmission coefficients. A good correlation is obtained between analytical calculation and boundary element method. In addition, it is found that inter-modal coupling has noticeable effects in modal sound transmission coefficients in the subsonic region but may be ignored as modes become supersonic. It is also shown that the well-known mass law performance is attributed to all the supersonic modes.

  17. Is 1/f sound more effective than simple resting in reducing stress response?

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun-Joo; Cho, Il-Young; Park, Soon-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that listening to 1/f sound effectively reduces stress. However, these findings have been inconsistent and further study on the relationship between 1/f sound and the stress response is consequently necessary. The present study examined whether sound with 1/f properties (1/f sound) affects stress-induced electroencephalogram (EEG) changes. Twenty-six subjects who voluntarily participated in the study were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. Data from four participants were excluded because of EEG artifacts. A mental arithmetic task was used as a stressor. Participants in the experiment group listened to 1/f sound for 5 minutes and 33 seconds, while participants in the control group sat quietly for the same duration. EEG recordings were obtained at various points throughout the experiment. After the experiment, participants completed a questionnaire on the affective impact of the 1/f sound. The results indicated that the mental arithmetic task effectively induced a stress response measurable by EEG. Relative theta power at all electrode sites was significantly lower than baseline in both the control and experimental group. Relative alpha power was significantly lower, and relative beta power was significantly higher in the T3 and T4 areas. Secondly, 1/f sound and simple resting affected task-associated EEG changes in a similar manner. Finally, participants reported in the questionnaire that they experienced a positive feeling in response to the 1/f sound. Our results suggest that a commercialized 1/f sound product is not more effective than simple resting in alleviating the physiological stress response.

  18. Lights, Camera, Action Research: The Effects of Didactic Digital Movie Making on Students' Twenty-First Century Learning Skills and Science Content in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochsner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and…

  19. Lights, Camera, Action Research: The Effects of Didactic Digital Movie Making on Students' Twenty-First Century Learning Skills and Science Content in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochsner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and…

  20. The influence of electronic sound effects on learning from televised and live models

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rachel; Wyss, Nancy; Somanader, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Infants rapidly accrue information via imitation from multiple sources, including television and electronic toys. In two experiments, we examined whether adding sound effects to video or live demonstrations would influence imitation by 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants. In Experiment 1, we added matching and mismatching sound effects to target actions presented by a televised model. We found that 6-month-olds reproduced the target actions regardless of whether the sound effects were matched or mismatched, but 12- and 18-month-olds reproduced the actions only when the sound effects were matched. In Experiment 2, we added matching sound effects to target actions presented by a live model. The addition of sound effects disrupted imitation performance by 6-, 12-, and 18-month-olds. Overall, imitation provides a clear behavioral measure of rapid changes in learning from television and electronic toys during infancy. These findings have practical implications for producers and parents regarding learning in the digital age and theoretical implications regarding the development of integrated action-perception representational systems. PMID:19345954

  1. Perceptual significance of seat-dip effect related direct sound coloration in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Henna; Haapaniemi, Aki; Lokki, Tapio

    2017-03-01

    In concert halls, the spectrum of direct sound (here 0 to 15 ms) is influenced by the seat-dip effect that causes selective low frequency attenuation. The seat-dip effect has been considered to be detrimental to the acoustic quality of halls, yet there is little evidence about the perceptual significance of the effect. This paper studies the discrimination and preference of seat-dip effect related changes in the direct sound, with realistic auralization of multichannel anechoic orchestra recordings in halls measured with the loudspeaker orchestra. Comparisons are made with a free-field direct sound and direct sound magnitude changes typically associated with the seat-dip effect. Overall, the differences were not significantly audible, except with a subgroup of participants in one out of four halls, and two out of three comparisons. Furthermore, participants' preference for the uncolored direct sound was significant in the halls with less reflected energy, but non-significant in the halls with more reflected energy. The results imply that for most seats in adequately reverberant halls, typical seat-dip effect related coloration in the direct sound can be perceptually negligible.

  2. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  3. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  4. Effect of the acoustic environment on adjoint sound speed inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Edward

    The recent prevalence of low cost robotic platforms such as oceanographic gliders has increased the availability of long-term measurements of the ocean environment. Gliders can take direct measurements of the ocean sound speed environment, which is of interest in many ocean acoustic problems, including source localization and tomography. These measurements, however, have a low spatial-temporal resolution that makes them difficult to use directly. These measurements have the potential to provide an accurate environmental parameterization for acoustic inversions, which could in turn be used to measure the sound speed field at a much higher spatial-temporal resolution. This study uses glider measurements to provide the environmental parameterization used in the adjoint inversion method. The adjoint method calculates the gradient of a cost function describing the mismatch between observed data and acoustic model predictions with respect to the ocean sound speed. This gradient is a measure of how changing the sound speed at any point in the acoustic environment would affect this misfit. This cost function and its gradient information is then used as inputs to a numerical optimization routine, which efficiently finds a local minimum. There are two challenges of this method addressed in this study; the first is restricting the search space of this inversion. Proper parameterization of the inversion will ensure that the local minimum found in the numerical optimization routine is the correct result of the inversion. This parameterization allows for the combination of the relative strengths of both methods of measuring the sound speed field, the robust direct measurement of the glider and the near instantaneous result of an acoustic inversion. A covariance matrix is created from glider measurements of the range dependent sound speed field, which is then decomposed into an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) base. The mean profile and the significant EOF bases then form the

  5. A pilot study on pupillary and cardiovascular changes induced by stereoscopic video movies

    PubMed Central

    Oyamada, Hiroshi; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Tanaka, Akira; Ukai, Kazuhiko; Toda, Haruo; Sugita, Norihiro; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Bando, Takehiko

    2007-01-01

    Background Taking advantage of developed image technology, it is expected that image presentation would be utilized to promote health in the field of medical care and public health. To accumulate knowledge on biomedical effects induced by image presentation, an essential prerequisite for these purposes, studies on autonomic responses in more than one physiological system would be necessary. In this study, changes in parameters of the pupillary light reflex and cardiovascular reflex evoked by motion pictures were examined, which would be utilized to evaluate the effects of images, and to avoid side effects. Methods Three stereoscopic video movies with different properties were field-sequentially rear-projected through two LCD projectors on an 80-inch screen. Seven healthy young subjects watched movies in a dark room. Pupillary parameters were measured before and after presentation of movies by an infrared pupillometer. ECG and radial blood pressure were continuously monitored. The maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and blood pressure, ρmax, was used as an index to evaluate changes in the cardiovascular reflex. Results Parameters of pupillary and cardiovascular reflexes changed differently after subjects watched three different video movies. Amplitudes of the pupillary light reflex, CR, increased when subjects watched two CG movies (movies A and D), while they did not change after watching a movie with the real scenery (movie R). The ρmax was significantly larger after presentation of the movie D. Scores of the questionnaire for subjective evaluation of physical condition increased after presentation of all movies, but their relationship with changes in CR and ρmax was different in three movies. Possible causes of these biomedical differences are discussed. Conclusion The autonomic responses were effective to monitor biomedical effects induced by image presentation. Further accumulation of data on multiple autonomic functions would contribute

  6. Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Polagye; Jim Thomson; Chris Bassett; Jason Wood; Dom Tollit; Robert Cavagnaro; Andrea Copping

    2012-03-30

    Hydrokinetic turbines will be a source of noise in the marine environment - both during operation and during installation/removal. High intensity sound can cause injury or behavioral changes in marine mammals and may also affect fish and invertebrates. These noise effects are, however, highly dependent on the individual marine animals; the intensity, frequency, and duration of the sound; and context in which the sound is received. In other words, production of sound is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for an environmental impact. At a workshop on the environmental effects of tidal energy development, experts identified sound produced by turbines as an area of potentially significant impact, but also high uncertainty. The overall objectives of this project are to improve our understanding of the potential acoustic effects of tidal turbines by: (1) Characterizing sources of existing underwater noise; (2) Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring technologies to characterize underwater noise and marine mammal responsiveness to noise; (3) Evaluating the sound profile of an operating tidal turbine; and (4) Studying the effect of turbine sound on surrogate species in a laboratory environment. This study focuses on a specific case study for tidal energy development in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA), but the methodologies and results are applicable to other turbine technologies and geographic locations. The project succeeded in achieving the above objectives and, in doing so, substantially contributed to the body of knowledge around the acoustic effects of tidal energy development in several ways: (1) Through collection of data from Admiralty Inlet, established the sources of sound generated by strong currents (mobilizations of sediment and gravel) and determined that low-frequency sound recorded during periods of strong currents is non-propagating pseudo-sound. This helped to advance the debate within the marine and hydrokinetics acoustic

  7. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method.

  8. Multimode acoustic transparency and slow sound effects in hybrid subwavelength resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yu-Qiang; Qi, Dong-Xiang; Tuo, Ming-Jun; Liu, Lian-Zi; Zhang, Rui-Li; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a series of hybrid Helmholtz resonators, which introduce “acoustic transparent atoms”, “acoustic nontransparent atoms”, and “acoustic quasitransparent atoms” simultaneously, can generate multimode acoustic transparency and the slow sound effect. Dual-mode acoustic transparency can be achieved by employing a waveguide incorporating three different Helmholtz resonators. Additional modes are introduced by adding further acoustic quasitransparent atoms. This can be explained by the destructive interference among different resonators. Furthermore, slow sound propagation is demonstrated in our multimode acoustic transparency systems by employing time-domain simulations. Our results may have potential applications for sound control in one-dimensional waveguides.

  9. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving.

    PubMed

    Kostermans, Evelien; Stoolmiller, Mike; de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Sargent, James D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes. Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey-controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking. Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive) driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving. In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents' reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving, with lower self-regulation associated

  10. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving

    PubMed Central

    Kostermans, Evelien; Stoolmiller, Mike; de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes. Methods Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey–controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking. Results Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive) driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving. Discussion In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents’ reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving

  11. The effects of alterations in the osseous external auditory canal on perceived sound quality.

    PubMed

    van Spronsen, Erik; Brienesse, Patrick; Ebbens, Fenna A; Waterval, Jerome J; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the perceptual effect of the altered shape of the osseous external auditory canal (OEAC) on sound quality. Prospective study. Twenty subjects with normal hearing were presented with six simulated sound conditions representing the acoustic properties of six different ear canals (three normal ears and three cavities). The six different real ear unaided responses of these ear canals were used to filter Dutch sentences, resulting in six simulated sound conditions. A seventh unfiltered reference condition was used for comparison. Sound quality was evaluated using paired comparison ratings and a visual analog scale (VAS). Significant differences in sound quality were found between the normal and cavity conditions (all P < .001) using both the seven-point paired comparison rating and the VAS. No significant differences were found between the reference and normal conditions. Sound quality deteriorates when the OEAC is altered into a cavity. This proof of concept study shows that the altered acoustic quality of the OEAC after radical cavity surgery may lead to a clearly perceived deterioration in sound quality. Nevertheless, some questions remain about the extent to which these changes are affected by habituation and by other changes in middle ear anatomy and functionality. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Nonlinear frequency compression: effects on sound quality ratings of speech and music.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Vijay; Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality.

  13. A linearized Eulerian sound propagation model for studies of complex meteorological effects.

    PubMed

    Blumrich, Reinhard; Heimann, Dietrich

    2002-08-01

    Outdoor sound propagation is significantly affected by the topography (including ground characteristics) and the state of the atmosphere. The atmosphere on its part is also influenced by the topography. A sound propagation model and a flow model based on a numerical integration of the linearized Euler equations have been developed to take these interactions into account. The output of the flow model enables the calculation of the sound propagation in a three-dimensionally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Rigid, partly reflective, or fully absorptive ground can be considered. The linearized Eulerian (LE) sound propagation model has been validated by means of four different scenarios. Calculations of sound fields above rigid and grass-covered ground including a homogeneous atmosphere deviate from analytic solutions by < or = 1 dB in most parts of the computed domain. Calculations of sound propagation including wind and temperature gradients above rigid ground agree well with measured scale model data. Calculations of sound propagation over a screen including ground of finite impedance show little deviations to measured scale model data which are probably caused by an insufficient representation of the complex ground impedance. Further calculations included the effect of wind on shading by a screen. The results agree well with the measured scale model data.

  14. New considerations for the cognitive locus of impairment in the irrelevant-sound effect.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Kirk A; Arnell, Karen M

    2012-08-01

    The finding that serial recall performance for visually presented items is impaired by concurrently presented task-irrelevant speech or sounds is referred to as the irrelevant-speech/-sound effect (ISE). Substantial evidence has indicated that the impairment of serial rehearsal can result in an ISE, and this may be explained by several models. The present series of experiments has demonstrated an ISE in surprise nonserial recognition tasks in which participants were unaware of the need to maintain a large number of visual items for a later memory test, suggesting that neither the rehearsal nor maintenance of order information is necessary for observing the ISE. This effect was observed for both steady-state and changing-state irrelevant sounds, suggesting that the present results do not derive from a confusion of order information, but instead provide evidence that identity representations can also be impaired by irrelevant sound.

  15. Effects of Ultrasonic Bonding Materials on Velocity and Attenuation of Sound in Red Lauan Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, Hiroaki

    1988-02-01

    The effects of ultrasonic bonding materials between an acoustic transducer and a specimen surface on the velocity and attenuation of sound in red lauan wood were studied by using the ultrasonic pulse transmission method, since it was important to determine the acoustic coupling between the transducer and the specimen for measuring the sound velocity and attenuation in highly dissipative materials such as wood. Vaseline, grease, various kinds of machine oils, etc., were employed as an ultrasonic bonding material. The energy dissipation of sound was smallest in the case of grease. By combining the data of attenuation with that of the sound velocity, the effects of ultrasonic bonding materials on the ultrasonic behavior in red lauan wood are reported and discussed.

  16. Sound effects: Multimodal input helps infants find displaced objects.

    PubMed

    Shinskey, Jeanne L

    2017-09-01

    Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion, suggesting auditory input is more salient in the absence of visual input. This article addresses how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for displaced objects. In AB tasks, infants who previously retrieved an object at A subsequently fail to find it after it is displaced to B, especially following a delay between hiding and retrieval. Experiment 1 manipulated auditory input by keeping the hidden object audible versus silent, and visual input by presenting the delay in the light versus dark. Infants succeeded more at B with audible than silent objects and, unexpectedly, more after delays in the light than dark. Experiment 2 presented both the delay and search phases in darkness. The unexpected light-dark difference disappeared. Across experiments, the presence of auditory input helped infants find displaced objects, whereas the absence of visual input did not. Sound might help by strengthening object representation, reducing memory load, or focusing attention. This work provides new evidence on when bimodal input aids object processing, corroborates claims that audiovisual processing improves over the first year of life, and contributes to multisensory approaches to studying cognition. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Before 9 months, infants use sound to retrieve a stationary object hidden by darkness but not one hidden by occlusion. This suggests they find auditory input more salient in the absence of visual input in simple search tasks. After 9 months, infants' object processing appears more sensitive to multimodal (e.g., audiovisual) input. What does this study add? This study tested how audiovisual input affects 10-month-olds' search for an object displaced in an AB task. Sound helped infants find displaced objects in both the presence and absence of visual input. Object processing becomes more

  17. The Effects of Viewing R-Rated Movie Scenes That Objectify Women on Perceptions of Date Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Michael A.; Mather, Roxanne; Conrad, Sheree D.

    2000-01-01

    Tested the effects of viewing R-rated films on perceptions of female responsibility for and enjoyment of date or stranger rape. Participants viewed nonviolent scenes objectifying and degrading women sexually or animated film scenes. They read a fictitious magazine account of a date or stranger rape. The study showed that males who viewed the…

  18. Objective evaluation of the knocking sound of a diesel engine considering the temporal and frequency masking effect simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dong-Un; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for an objective evaluation of knocking noise emitted by diesel engines based on the temporal and frequency masking theory. The knocking sound of a diesel engine is a vibro-acoustic sound correlated with the high-frequency resonances of the engine structure and a periodic impulsive sound with amplitude modulation. Its period is related to the engine speed and includes specific frequency bands related to the resonances of the engine structure. A knocking sound with the characteristics of a high-frequency impulsive wave can be masked by low-frequency sounds correlated with the harmonics of the firing frequency and broadband noise. The degree of modulation of the knocking sound signal was used for such objective evaluations in previous studies, without considering the masking effect. However, the frequency masking effect must be considered for the objective evaluation of the knocking sound. In addition to the frequency masking effect, the temporal masking effect occurs because the period of the knocking sound changes according to the engine speed. Therefore, an evaluation method considering the temporal and frequency masking effect is required to analyze the knocking sound objectively. In this study, an objective evaluation method considering the masking effect was developed based on the masking theory of sound and signal processing techniques. The method was applied successfully for the objective evaluation of the knocking sound of a diesel engine.

  19. Effect of ultrasonic cavitation on measurement of sound pressure using hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Nguyen, Tam; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Nagaya; Koda, Shinobu; Yasuda, Keiji

    2017-07-01

    Effect of ultrasonic cavitation on sound pressure at the fundamental, second harmonic, and first ultraharmonic frequencies was investigated from low to high ultrasonic intensities. The driving frequencies were 22, 304, and 488 kHz. Sound pressure was measured using a needle-type hydrophone and ultrasonic cavitation was estimated from the broadband integrated pressure (BIP). With increasing square root of electric power applied to a transducer, the sound pressure at the fundamental frequency linearly increased initially, dropped at approximately the electric power of cavitation inception, and afterward increased again. The sound pressure at the second harmonic frequency was detected just below the electric power of cavitation inception. The first ultraharmonic component appeared at around the electric power of cavitation inception at 304 and 488 kHz. However, at 22 kHz, the first ultraharmonic component appeared at a higher electric power than that of cavitation inception.

  20. Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.

    As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  1. Yaw and spin effects on high intensity sound generation and on drag of training projectiles with ring cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cho, Y. I.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    Projectiles containing axisymmetric ring cavities constitute aeroacoustic sources. These produce high intensity tones which are used for coding in the SAWE (Simulation of Area Weapons Effects) system. Experimental data obtained in a free jet facility are presented describing the effects of yaw, spin and geometric projectile parameters on sound pressure and drag. In general, the sound pressure decreases with increasing yaw angle whereas the drag increases. Spin tends to increase sound pressure levels because of a reduction in asymmetry of flow. Drag increases at zero yaw approximately as the 1.5 power of sound wavelength. A significant part of the drag increase appears to be due to energy loss by sound radiation.

  2. Yaw and spin effects on high intensity sound generation and on drag of training projectiles with ring cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cho, Y. I.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    Projectiles containing axisymmetric ring cavities constitute aeroacoustic sources. These produce high intensity tones which are used for coding in the SAWE (Simulation of Area Weapons Effects) system. Experimental data obtained in a free jet facility are presented describing the effects of yaw, spin and geometric projectile parameters on sound pressure and drag. In general, the sound pressure decreases with increasing yaw angle whereas the drag increases. Spin tends to increase sound pressure levels because of a reduction in asymmetry of flow. Drag increases at zero yaw approximately as the 1.5 power of sound wavelength. A significant part of the drag increase appears to be due to energy loss by sound radiation.

  3. Effects of irrelevant sounds on phonological coding in reading comprehension and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Boyle, R; Coltheart, V

    1996-05-01

    The effects of irrelevant sounds on reading comprehension and short-term memory were studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adults judged the acceptability of written sentences during irrelevant speech, accompanied and unaccompanied singing, instrumental music, and in silence. Sentences varied in syntactic complexity: Simple sentences contained a right-branching relative clause (The applause pleased the woman that gave the speech) and syntactically complex sentences included a centre-embedded relative clause (The hay that the farmer stored fed the hungry animals). Unacceptable sentences either sounded acceptable (The dog chased the cat that eight up all his food) or did not (The man praised the child that sight up his spinach). Decision accuracy was impaired by syntactic complexity but not by irrelevant sounds. Phonological coding was indicated by increased errors on unacceptable sentences that sounded correct. These errors rates were unaffected by irrelevant sounds. Experiment 2 examined effects of irrelevant sounds on ordered recall of phonologically similar and dissimilar word lists. Phonological similarity impaired recall. Irrelevant speech reduced recall but did not interact with phonological similarity. The results of these experiments question assumptions about the relationship between speech input and phonological coding in reading and the short-term store.

  4. Exposure to smoking in internationally distributed American movies and youth smoking in Germany: a cross-cultural cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D

    2008-01-01

    Studies of US adolescents have linked exposure to movie smoking with smoking behavior. It is unclear whether European adolescents are also responsive to movie tobacco imagery. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess exposure to movie smoking in 2711 German never-smokers (aged 10 to 16 years). Movie smoking exposure was estimated by asking adolescents if they had seen movies from a list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected for each adolescent from 398 internationally distributed movies released between 1994 and 2004 that became box-office hits in Germany. These films were reviewed for smoking content. Adolescents were resurveyed 12 to 13 months later to determine smoking status, and results were compared with a similarly designed survey of 2603 white US adolescents. We hypothesized replication of the main effect of the exposure on trying smoking, and an interaction, with a significantly larger response among adolescents whose parents did not smoke. The 398 internationally distributed movies represented 80% of the German box-office hits within this time frame, with the majority (388) produced and/or distributed internationally by US companies. Smoking was present in 74% of the movies. Overall, 503 (19%) of the students tried smoking during the follow-up period. The incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to movie smoking. The form of the dose-response was similar to the US sample, with the strongest response to movies seen in the lower 2 quartiles of exposure. After controlling for baseline covariates, exposure to movie smoking remained a significant predictor of trying smoking in German adolescents, and the effect was significantly stronger in adolescents whose parents did not smoke. Smoking in internationally distributed US movies predicts trying smoking among German adolescents, closely replicating findings from a longitudinal study of white US adolescents. Smoking in these movies could have important worldwide public health

  5. Use of spectroscopic technique to develop a reagent for Mo(VI) utilizing micellar effects on complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşcioğlu, Sülin; Kaki, E.; Taşcioğlu, Senay

    2012-09-01

    Ultraviolet and visible spectral properties of aqueous solutions of molybdenum(VI) (Mo), gallic acid (GA), Lalanine (Ala), and L-Phenylalanine (Phe), and of their binary and ternary solutions were investigated in the absence and presence of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactant micelles. Evaluation of the spectra in a comparative way revealed that both Ala and Phe form ternary complexes with Mo and GA. The formation of a quaternary complex between Mo, GA, Phe, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at pH 4.5 provided a reagent system with a strikingly high sensitivity (1.2•106 l/(mol•cm)) for use in the spectrophotometric determination of Mo. A mechanism of micellar effects was discussed in terms of the substrate molecular charge and hydrophobicity, and rationalized on the basis of the spectral data obtained above and below the isoelectric pH of the amino acids.

  6. Enhancing Soundtracks From Old Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system enhances soundtracks of old movies. Signal on optical soundtrack of film digitized and processed to reduce noise and improve quality; timing signals added, and signal recorded on compact disk. Digital comparator and voltage-controlled oscillator synchronizes speed of film-drive motor and compact disk motor. Frame-coded detector reads binary frame-identifying marks on film. Digital comparator generates error signal if marks on film do not match those on compact disk.

  7. Enhancing Soundtracks From Old Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system enhances soundtracks of old movies. Signal on optical soundtrack of film digitized and processed to reduce noise and improve quality; timing signals added, and signal recorded on compact disk. Digital comparator and voltage-controlled oscillator synchronizes speed of film-drive motor and compact disk motor. Frame-coded detector reads binary frame-identifying marks on film. Digital comparator generates error signal if marks on film do not match those on compact disk.

  8. Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty: Developing a Course on Disney and Fairytale Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    I developed and taught a course titled The Psychology of Disney and Fairytale Movies. This course examined the psychological effects of mass communication on behavior and thought, specifically the stereotyping of women and men and the concept of true love as portrayed in Disney and Fairytale movies. This paper describes the (a) development of the…

  9. Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty: Developing a Course on Disney and Fairytale Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    I developed and taught a course titled The Psychology of Disney and Fairytale Movies. This course examined the psychological effects of mass communication on behavior and thought, specifically the stereotyping of women and men and the concept of true love as portrayed in Disney and Fairytale movies. This paper describes the (a) development of the…

  10. Perfect 3-D movies and stereoscopic movies on TV and projection screens: an appraisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Susanne; Dultz, Wolfgang

    1990-09-01

    Since the invention of stereoscopy (WHEATSTONE 1838) reasons for and against 3-dimensional images have occupied the literature, but there has never been much doubt about the preference of autostereoscopic systems showing a scene which is 3-dimensional and true to life from all sides (perfect 3-dimensional image, HESSE 1939), especially since most stereoscopic movies of the past show serious imperfections with respect to image quality and technical operation. Leave aside that no convincing perfect 3D-TV-system is in sight, there are properties f the stereoscopic movie which are advantageous to certain representations on TV and important for the 3-dimensional motion picture. In this paper we investigate the influence of apparent motions of 3-dimensional images and classify the different projection systems with respect to presence and absence of these spectacular illusions. Apparent motions bring dramatic effects into stereoscopic movies which cannot be created with perfect 3-dimensional systems. In this study we describe their applications and limits for television.

  11. The current landscape of television and movies in medical education.

    PubMed

    Law, Marcus; Kwong, Wilson; Friesen, Farah; Veinot, Paula; Ng, Stella L

    2015-10-01

    Using commercially available television and movies is a potentially effective tool to foster humanistic, compassionate and person-centred orientations in medical students. We reviewed pedagogical applications of television and movies in medical education to explore whether and why this innovation holds promise. We performed a literature review to provide a narrative summary on this topic. Further studies are needed with richer descriptions of innovations and more rigorous research designs. As we move toward evidence-informed education, we need an evidence- based examination of this topic that will move it beyond a 'show and tell' discussion toward meaningful implementation and evaluation. Further exploration regarding the theoretical basis for using television and movies in medical education will help substantiate continued efforts to use these media as teaching tools.

  12. On Categorizing Sounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-07

    PAasmum 200vwimW Context is important when people judge sounds , or attributes of sounds , or other stimuli. It is shown how judgments depend on what... sounds recently occurred (sequence effects), on how those sounds differ from one another (range effects), on the dis- tribution of those differences (set...results are consistent with a model havin two simple assumptions: Successive sounds (not just their attributes) assimilate toward one another in memory

  13. Effects of lateral osteotomy on nasal sound intensity levels in patients who underwent rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Acar, Mustafa; Ulusoy, Seçkin; Seren, Erdal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal; Hanci, Deniz

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the effects of lateral osteotomy on nasal sound intensity levels in 34 patients who underwent rhinoplasty. Four groups were evaluated: group 1, preoperative rhinoplasty with lateral osteotomy (Preop-RPwithLO); group 2, postoperative rhinoplasty with lateral osteotomy (Postop-RPwithLO); group 3, preoperative rhinoplasty without lateral osteotomy (Preop-RPwithoutLO); and group 4, postoperative rhinoplasty without lateral osteotomy (Postop-RPwithoutLO). By sound analysis, low-frequency (Lf; 500-1000 Hz), medium-frequency (Mf; 1-2 kHz), and high-frequency (Hf; 2-4 and 4-6 kHz) nasal sound intensities were defined. Mf-left values of Postop-RPwithLO were significantly lower than those of Preop-RPwithLO, and Mf-left values of Postop-RPwithoutLO were significantly higher than those of Postop-RPwithLO and Preop-RPwithoutLO. Hf-right values of Preop-RPwithoutLO were significantly higher than those of Postop-RPwithLO and Postop-RPwithoutLO. Hf-total values of Postop-RPwithoutLO were significantly lower than those of Preop-RPwithoutLO. Nasal airway width decreased and nasal sounds, especially Mf sound intensities, increased in the nonlateral osteotomy group (group 4). When lateral osteotomy is performed, the nasal air passage may be adjusted as required by the surgeon, the air passage in the nasal valve region may not be narrowed, and nasal sound intensities may decrease. During postoperative follow-ups, increased Mf and Lf nasal sound intensities should be considered for the narrowness of the nasal passage and lower patency of the nasal cavities. Nasal sound analysis is a noninvasive technique and can also be used to evaluate nasal patency in septoplasty and rhinoplasty patients and children and for cases in which official reports are needed in addition to acoustic rhinometry measurements.

  14. Mitigation of Sri Lanka Island Effects in Colombo Sounding Data during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Yoneyama, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, upper-air soundings were launched at Colombo, Sri Lanka as part of the enhanced northern sounding array (NSA) of the experiment. The Colombo soundings were affected at low-levels by diurnal heating of this large island and by flow blocking due to elevated terrain to the east of the Colombo site. Because of the large spacing between sounding sites, these small-scale effects are aliased onto the larger scale impacting analyses and atmospheric budgets over the DYNAMO NSA. To mitigate these local island effects on the large-scale budgets, a procedure was designed which uses ECMWF-analyzed fields in the vicinity of Sri Lanka to estimate open-ocean conditions (i.e, as if this island were not present). These 'unperturbed' ECMWF fields at low-levels are then merged with observed Colombo soundings. This procedure effectively mutes the blocking effects and large diurnal cycle observed in the low-level Colombo fields. In westerly flow regimes, adjusted Colombo winds increase the low-level westerlies by 2-3 m/s with a similar increase of the low-level easterlies in easterly flow regimes. In general, over the NSA the impact of the adjusted Colombo winds results in more low-level divergence (convergence), more mid-level subsidence (rising motion) and reduced (increased) rainfall during the westerly (easterly) wind regimes. In comparison to independent TRMM rainfall estimates, both the mean budget-derived rainfall and its temporal correlation are improved by using the adjusted Colombo soundings. In addition, use of the 'unperturbed' fields result in a more realistic moisture budget analyses, both in its diurnal cycle and during the build-up phase of the November MJO when a gradual deepening of apparent drying was observed. Overall, use of the adjusted Colombo soundings appears to have a beneficial impact on the NSA analyses and budgets.

  15. The effect of brain lesions on sound localization in complex acoustic environments.

    PubMed

    Zündorf, Ida C; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Lewald, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Localizing sound sources of interest in cluttered acoustic environments--as in the 'cocktail-party' situation--is one of the most demanding challenges to the human auditory system in everyday life. In this study, stroke patients' ability to localize acoustic targets in a single-source and in a multi-source setup in the free sound field were directly compared. Subsequent voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping analyses were computed to uncover the brain areas associated with a deficit in localization in the presence of multiple distracter sound sources rather than localization of individually presented sound sources. Analyses revealed a fundamental role of the right planum temporale in this task. The results from the left hemisphere were less straightforward, but suggested an involvement of inferior frontal and pre- and postcentral areas. These areas appear to be particularly involved in the spectrotemporal analyses crucial for effective segregation of multiple sound streams from various locations, beyond the currently known network for localization of isolated sound sources in otherwise silent surroundings.

  16. The effects of visual material and temporal synchrony on the processing of letters and speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Maria; Takegata, Rika; Kujala, Teija

    2011-06-01

    Associating letters with speech sounds is essential for reading skill acquisition. In the current study, we aimed at determining the effects of different types of visual material and temporal synchrony on the integration of letters and speech sounds. To this end, we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN), an index of automatic change detection in the brain, from literate adults. Subjects were presented with auditory consonant-vowel syllable stimuli together with visual stimuli, which were either written syllables or scrambled pictures of the written syllables. The visual stimuli were presented in half of the blocks synchronously with the auditory stimuli and in the other half 200 ms before the auditory stimuli. The auditory stimuli were consonant, vowel or vowel length changes, or changes in syllable frequency or intensity presented by using the multi-feature paradigm. Changes in the auditory stimuli elicited MMNs in all conditions. MMN amplitudes for the consonant and frequency changes were generally larger for the sounds presented with written syllables than with scrambled syllables. Time delay diminished the MMN amplitude for all deviants. The results suggest that speech sound processing is modulated when the sounds are presented with letters versus non-linguistic visual stimuli, and further, that the integration of letters and speech sounds seems to be dependent on precise temporal alignment. Moreover, the results indicate that with our paradigm, a variety of parameters relevant and irrelevant for reading can be tested within one experiment.

  17. Prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers longitudinal trends and predictors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L; Erickson, Darin J; Lazovich, Deann; Southwell, Brian G

    2011-08-01

    Smoking in movies is prevalent. However, use of content analysis to describe trends in smoking in movies has provided mixed results and has not tapped what adolescents actually perceive. To assess the prospective trends in the prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers and identify predictors associated with these trends. Using data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected during 2000-2006 when participants were aged between 12 and 18 years (N=4735), latent variable growth models were employed to describe the longitudinal trends in the perceived prevalence of smoking in movies using a four-level scale (never to most of the time) measured every 6 months, and examined associations between these trends and demographic, smoking-related attitudinal and socio-environmental predictors. Analysis was conducted in 2009. At baseline, about 50% of participants reported seeing smoking in movies some of the time, and another 36% reported most of the time. The prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers declined over time, and the decline was steeper in those who were aged 14-16 years than those who were younger at baseline (p≤0.05). Despite the decline, teenagers still reported seeing smoking in movies some of the time. Teenagers who reported more close friends who smoked also reported a higher prevalence of smoking in movies at baseline (regression coefficients=0.04-0.18, p<0.01). Teenagers' perception of the prevalence of smoking in movies declined over time, which may be attributable to changes made by the movie industry. Despite the decline, teenagers were still exposed to a moderate amount of smoking imagery. Interventions that further reduce teenage exposure to smoking in movies may be needed to have an effect on adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A three-dimensional integrated nanogenerator for effectively harvesting sound energy from the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong

    2016-02-01

    An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry.An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a

  19. Influence of scattering, atmospheric refraction, and ground effect on sound propagation through a pine forest.

    PubMed

    Swearingen, Michelle E; White, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Sound propagation through a forest is affected by the microclimate in the canopy, scattering by trunks and stems, and ground reflection. Each of these effects is such a strong contributor to the attenuation of sound that mutual interactions between the phenomena could become important. A sound propagation model for use in a forest has been developed that incorporates scattering from trunks and branches and atmospheric refraction by modifying the effective wave number in the Green's function parabolic equation model. The ground effect for a hard-backed pine straw layer is approximated as a local reaction impedance condition. Comparisons to experimental data are made for frequencies up to 4,200 Hz. Cumulative influences of the separate phenomena are examined. The method developed in this paper is compared to previously published methods. The overall comparison with spectral transmission data is good, suggesting that the model captures the necessary details.

  20. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Attardo, Lapo; Cozzi, Matteo; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume, and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise). The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition, and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm, and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch) the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise) and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced), thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity. PMID:25883580

  1. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Attardo, Lapo; Cozzi, Matteo; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume, and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise). The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition, and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm, and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch) the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise) and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced), thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity.

  2. Fetus Sound Stimulation: Cilia Memristor Effect of Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic-Raznatovic, Svetlana; Dragojevic-Dikic, Svetlana; Rakic, Snezana; Nikolic, Branka; Plesinac, Snezana; Tasic, Lidija; Perisic, Zivko; Sovilj, Mirjana; Adamovic, Tatjana; Koruga, Djuro

    2014-01-01

    Background. This experimental study evaluates fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) circulation after the defined prenatal acoustical stimulation (PAS) and the role of cilia in hearing and memory and could explain signal transduction and memory according to cilia optical-acoustical properties. Methods. PAS was performed twice on 119 no-risk term pregnancies. We analyzed fetal MCA circulation before, after first and second PAS. Results. Analysis of the Pulsatility index basic (PIB) and before PAS and Pulsatility index reactive after the first PAS (PIR 1) shows high statistical difference, representing high influence on the brain circulation. Analysis of PIB and Pulsatility index reactive after the second PAS (PIR 2) shows no statistical difference. Cilia as nanoscale structure possess magnetic flux linkage that depends on the amount of charge that has passed between two-terminal variable resistors of cilia. Microtubule resistance, as a function of the current through and voltage across the structure, leads to appearance of cilia memory with the “memristor” property. Conclusion. Acoustical and optical cilia properties play crucial role in hearing and memory processes. We suggest that fetuses are getting used to sound, developing a kind of memory patterns, considering acoustical and electromagnetically waves and involving cilia and microtubules and try to explain signal transduction. PMID:24719851

  3. Fetus sound stimulation: cilia memristor effect of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Jankovic-Raznatovic, Svetlana; Dragojevic-Dikic, Svetlana; Rakic, Snezana; Nikolic, Branka; Plesinac, Snezana; Tasic, Lidija; Perisic, Zivko; Sovilj, Mirjana; Adamovic, Tatjana; Koruga, Djuro

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study evaluates fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) circulation after the defined prenatal acoustical stimulation (PAS) and the role of cilia in hearing and memory and could explain signal transduction and memory according to cilia optical-acoustical properties. PAS was performed twice on 119 no-risk term pregnancies. We analyzed fetal MCA circulation before, after first and second PAS. Analysis of the Pulsatility index basic (PIB) and before PAS and Pulsatility index reactive after the first PAS (PIR 1) shows high statistical difference, representing high influence on the brain circulation. Analysis of PIB and Pulsatility index reactive after the second PAS (PIR 2) shows no statistical difference. Cilia as nanoscale structure possess magnetic flux linkage that depends on the amount of charge that has passed between two-terminal variable resistors of cilia. Microtubule resistance, as a function of the current through and voltage across the structure, leads to appearance of cilia memory with the "memristor" property. Acoustical and optical cilia properties play crucial role in hearing and memory processes. We suggest that fetuses are getting used to sound, developing a kind of memory patterns, considering acoustical and electromagnetically waves and involving cilia and microtubules and try to explain signal transduction.

  4. A movie of RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Alan C M; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-06-22

    We provide here a molecular movie that captures key aspects of RNA polymerase II initiation and elongation. To create the movie, we combined structural snapshots of the initiation-elongation transition and of elongation, including nucleotide addition, translocation, pausing, proofreading, backtracking, arrest, reactivation, and inhibition. The movie reveals open questions about the mechanism of transcription and provides a useful teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of sound level fluctuations on annoyance caused by aircraft-flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effects of variations in the rate and magnitude of sound level fluctuations on the annoyance caused by aircraft-flyover noise. The effects of tonal content, noise duration, and sound pressure level on annoyance were also studied. An aircraft-noise synthesis system was used to synthesize 32 aircraft-flyover noise stimuli representing the factorial combinations of 2 tone conditions, 2 noise durations, 2 sound pressure levels, 2 level fluctuation rates, and 2 level fluctuation magnitudes. Thirty-two test subjects made annoyance judgements on a total of 64 stimuli in a subjective listening test facility simulating an outdoor acoustic environment. Variations in the rate and magnitude of level fluctuations were found to have little, if any, effect on annoyance. Tonal content, noise duration, sound pressure level, and the interaction of tonal content with sound pressure level were found to affect the judged annoyance significantly. The addition of tone corrections and/or duration corrections significantly improved the annoyance prediction ability of noise rating scales.

  6. Movies with smoking make less money.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Stanton A; Polansky, Jonathan R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the relationship between presence of smoking in films and total box office receipts. Regression analysis of box office receipts as a function of film rating, production budget, year of release and presence of smoking for 1232 films released in the USA between 2002 and 2010. R-rated films made, on average, 87% (95% CI 83% to 90%) of what PG-13 films of similar smoking status made and smoking films made 87% (95% CI 79% to 96%) of what comparably rated smoke-free films made. Larger budget films made more money. There was no significant effect of release year or G/PG rating compared with PG-13-rated movies. Because PG-13 films without smoking (median $48.6 million) already make 41% more money at the box office than R-rated movies with smoking (median $34.4 million), implementing an R rating for smoking to remove it from youth-rated films will not conflict with the economic self-interest of producer-distributors.

  7. Effect of Disorder on Bulk Sound Wave Speed : A Multiscale Spectral Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rohit; Luding, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Disorder in the form of size (polydispersity) and mass of discrete elements/particles in a disordered media (a granular matter like soil) have numerous effects on it's sound propagation characteristics [1,2]. The influence of disorder on the sound wave speed and it's frequency filtering characteristics is the subject of investigation. The study will assist in understanding the connection between particle-scale dynamics and system-scale behavior of wave propagation which can be further used for modeling during non-destructive testing, seismic exploration of buried objects (oil, mineral, etc.) or to study the internal structure of the Earth. Studying the wave propagation characteristics through Discrete Element Models with varying polydispersity and mass of discrete elements in real-time, frequency space as well as through dispersion curves (ω (frequency) v/s k (wavenumber)) can shed light on this aspect by providing better microscopic understanding. To isolate the P-wave from shear and rotational modes, a one-dimensional system of elements/particles is used to study the effect of mass disorder on bulk sound wave speed through ensemble averaging of signals. Increasing polydispersity/disorder decreases the sound wave speed because of decrease in the number of contacts between particles [2] but, in contrast, increasing mass disorder increases the sound wave speed (in 1 D chains). Thus we conclude that a competition exists between these two kinds of disorder for their influence on the bulk sound wave speed. References [1] Brian P. Lawney and Stefan Luding. Frequency filtering in disordered granular chains. Acta Mechanica, 225(8):2385-2407, 2014. [2] O. Mouraille and S. Luding. Sound wave propagation in weakly polydisperse granular materials. Ultrasonics, 48(6-7):498 - 505, 2008. Selected Papers from ICU 2007.

  8. Computerised lung sound monitoring to assess effectiveness of chest physiotherapy and secretion removal: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ntoumenopoulos, G; Glickman, Y

    2012-09-01

    the group of 'loud' lungs following chest physiotherapy. Due to the small sample size and large SDs with high variability in the lung sound amplitude measurements, significance testing was not reported. Further investigation is needed in a larger sample of patients with more accurate measurement of sputum wet weight in order to distinguish between secretion-related effects and changes due to other factors such as airflow rate and pattern. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Drift and geodesic effects on the ion sound eigenmode in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Elfimov, A. G.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Melnikov, A. V.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2016-05-15

    A kinetic treatment of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), taking into account ion parallel dynamics, drift and the second poloidal harmonic effects is presented. It is shown that first and second harmonics of the ion sound modes, which have respectively positive and negative radial dispersion, can be coupled due to the geodesic and drift effects. This coupling results in the drift geodesic ion sound eigenmode with a frequency below the standard GAM continuum frequency. Such eigenmode may be able to explain the split modes observed in some experiments.

  10. Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Seok; Chang, Won-du; Park, Jinsick; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects' visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie.

  11. Correlation between Inter-Blink Interval and Episodic Encoding during Movie Watching

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young Seok; Chang, Won-du; Park, Jinsick; Im, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Human eye blinking is cognitively suppressed to minimize loss of visual information for important real-world events. Despite the relationship between eye blinking and cognitive state, the effect of eye blinks on cognition in real-world environments has received limited research attention. In this study, we focused on the temporal pattern of inter-eye blink interval (IEBI) during movie watching and investigated its relationship with episodic memory. As a control condition, 24 healthy subjects watched a nature documentary that lacked a specific story line while electroencephalography was performed. Immediately after viewing the movie, the subjects were asked to report its most memorable scene. Four weeks later, subjects were asked to score 32 randomly selected scenes from the movie, based on how much they were able to remember and describe. The results showed that the average IEBI was significantly longer during the movie than in the control condition. In addition, the significant increase in IEBI when watching a movie coincided with the most memorable scenes of the movie. The results suggested that the interesting episodic narrative of the movie attracted the subjects’ visual attention relative to the documentary clip that did not have a story line. In the episodic memory test executed four weeks later, memory performance was significantly positively correlated with IEBI (p<0.001). In summary, IEBI may be a reliable bio-marker of the degree of concentration on naturalistic content that requires visual attention, such as a movie. PMID:26529091

  12. Effects of changing in the neck circumference during sleep on snoring sound characteristics.

    PubMed

    Saha, Shumit; Taheri, Mahsa; Mossuavi, Zahra; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Rostral fluid shift during sleep from the lower body part into the neck can increase neck circumference (NC) and narrow the upper airway. Such narrowing in the upper airway may increase turbulence of airflow passing through the upper airway; thus, induce snoring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changes in NC during sleep on snoring sound characteristics. Fifteen non-obese men slept supine, and their sleep was monitored by a regular polysomnography. Snoring sounds were recorded with a microphone attached to the neck. NC was measured before and after sleep with a measuring tape. Snoring sounds' average power was calculated in different frequency ranges of 100 - 4000 Hz, 100 - 150 Hz, 150 - 450 Hz, 450 - 600 Hz, 600 - 1200 Hz, 1200 - 1800 Hz, 1800 - 2500 Hz and 2500 - 4000 Hz. Statistical analysis showed that increases in NC after sleep were strongly correlated with higher average power of the snoring sounds in the frequency ranges of 100-4000 Hz (r=0.74, P=0.004), 100-150 Hz (r=0.70, P=0.008), 150-450 Hz (r=0.73, P=0.005), and 450 - 600 Hz (r= 0.65, P=0.025). These results encourage the use of snoring sound analysis for monitoring the effects of fluid accumulation in the neck in relation to sleep apnea.

  13. Effective isolation of primo vessels in lymph using sound- and ultrasonic-wave stimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Do-Young; Lee, Hye-Rie; Rho, Min-Suk; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2014-12-01

    The effects of stimulation with sound and ultrasonic waves of a specific bandwidth on the microdissection of primo vessels in lymphatic vessels of rabbit were investigated. The primo vessels stained with alcian-blue dye injected in the lymph nodes were definitely visualized and more easily isolated by sound-wave vibration and ultrasonic stimulation applied to rabbits at various frequencies and intensities. With sound wave at 7 Hz and ultrasonic waves at 2 MHz, the probability of detecting the primo vessels was improved to 90%; however, without wave stimulation the probability of discovering primo vessels was about 50% only. Sound and ultrasonic waves at specific frequency bands should be effective for microdissection of the primo vessels in the abdominal lymph of rabbit. We suggest that oscillation of the primo vessels by sound and ultrasonic waves may be useful to visualize specific primo structure, and wave vibration can be a very supportive process for observation and isolation of the primo vessels of rabbits.

  14. Effects of locally resonant modes on underwater sound absorption in viscoelastic materials.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jihong; Zhao, Honggang; Lv, Linmei; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Gang; Wen, Xisen

    2011-09-01

    Recently, by introducing locally resonant scatterers with spherical shape proposed in phononic crystals into design of underwater sound absorption materials, the low-frequency underwater sound absorption phenomenon induced by the localized resonances is observed. To reveal this absorption mechanism, the effect of the locally resonant mode on underwater sound absorption should be studied. In this paper, the finite element method, which is testified efficiently by comparing the calculation results with those of the layer multiple scattering method, is introduced to investigate the dynamic modes and the corresponding sound absorption of localized resonance. The relationship between the resonance modes described with the displacement contours of one unit cell and the corresponding absorption spectra is discussed in detail, which shows that the localized resonance leads to the absorption peak, and the mode conversion from longitudinal to transverse waves at the second absorption peak is more efficient than that at the first one. Finally, to show the modeling capability of FEM and investigate shape effects of locally resonant scatterers on underwater sound absorption, the absorption properties of viscoelastic materials containing locally resonant scatterers with ellipsoidal shape are discussed.

  15. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  16. High Speed Holographic Movie Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, W.; Lauterborn, W.

    1985-08-01

    A high speed holographic movie camera system has been developed to investigate the dynamic behavior of cavitation bubbles in liquids. As a light source for holography, a high power multiply cavity-dumped argonion laser is used to record very long hologram series with framing rates up to 300 kHz. For separating successively recorded holograms, two spatial multiplexing techniques are applied simultaneously: rotation of the holographic plate or film and acousto-optic beam deflection. With the combination of these two techniques we achieve up to 4000 single holograms in one series.

  17. High Speed Holographic Movie Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, W.; Lauterborn, W.

    1985-02-01

    A high speed holographic movie camera system has been developed in our laboratories at the Third Physical Institute of the University of Gdttingen. As a light source for holography a high power multiply cavity-dumped argonion laser is used to record very long hologram series with framing rates up to 300 kHz. For separating successively recorded holograms two spatial multiplexing techniques are applied simultaneously: rotating of the holographic plate or film and acousto-optic beam deflection. With the combination of these two techniques we achieve up to 4000 single holograms in one series.

  18. Evaluating a linearized Euler equations model for strong turbulence effects on sound propagation.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Loïc; Cheinet, Sylvain; Juvé, Daniel; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Sound propagation outdoors is strongly affected by atmospheric turbulence. Under strongly perturbed conditions or long propagation paths, the sound fluctuations reach their asymptotic behavior, e.g., the intensity variance progressively saturates. The present study evaluates the ability of a numerical propagation model based on the finite-difference time-domain solving of the linearized Euler equations in quantitatively reproducing the wave statistics under strong and saturated intensity fluctuations. It is the continuation of a previous study where weak intensity fluctuations were considered. The numerical propagation model is presented and tested with two-dimensional harmonic sound propagation over long paths and strong atmospheric perturbations. The results are compared to quantitative theoretical or numerical predictions available on the wave statistics, including the log-amplitude variance and the probability density functions of the complex acoustic pressure. The match is excellent for the evaluated source frequencies and all sound fluctuations strengths. Hence, this model captures these many aspects of strong atmospheric turbulence effects on sound propagation. Finally, the model results for the intensity probability density function are compared with a standard fit by a generalized gamma function.

  19. A three-dimensional integrated nanogenerator for effectively harvesting sound energy from the environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong

    2016-03-07

    An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s(-1) for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry.

  20. The effects of a canalplasty and a canal wall reconstruction on perceived sound quality: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    van Spronsen, E; Brienesse, P; Ebbens, F A; Dreschler, W A

    2016-10-01

    Objective of this work was to evaluate the perceptual effect of the acoustic properties before and after canalplasty and a reconstruction of the posterior canal wall in revision modified radical cavity surgery. This is a prospective study. Twenty normal hearing subjects were presented six simulated sound conditions representing the acoustic properties of six different ear canals (two normal ears, and two pre- and postoperative conditions). The six different real ear unaided responses of these ear canals were used to filter Dutch sentences, resulting in six simulated sound conditions. A seventh unfiltered 'reference' condition was used for comparison. Sound quality was evaluated using a seven-point paired comparison rating and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Significant differences in sound quality were found between all conditions and the pre-operative cavity condition (all p < 0.001) using both the paired comparison rating and VAS. No significant differences in VAS were found comparing the other conditions with each other. But when using the paired comparison rating, the post-operative canalplasty condition and both the pre and post-operative cavity conditions differed significantly from the other conditions. This explorative study shows that altering the acoustics of the OEAC after a canalplasty and a reconstruction of the ear canal in revision modified radical cavity surgery results in perceivable changes in sound quality. It is likely that these changes are primarily due to volume changes. To which extent these changes are of clinical importance remains to be determined.

  1. 3-D Localization of Virtual Sound Sources: Effects of Visual Environment, Pointing Method, and Training

    PubMed Central

    Majdak, Piotr; Goupell, Matthew J.; Laback, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The ability to localize sound sources in three-dimensional space was tested in humans. In experiment 1, naive subjects listened to noises filtered with subject-specific head-related transfer functions. The tested conditions included the pointing method (head or manual pointing) and the visual environment (VE) (darkness or virtual VE). The localization performance was not significantly different between the pointing methods. The virtual VE significantly improved the horizontal precision and reduced the number of front-back confusions. These results show the benefit of using a virtual VE in sound localization tasks. In experiment 2, subjects were provided sound localization training. Over the course of training, the performance improved for all subjects, with the largest improvements occurring during the first 400 trials. The improvements beyond the first 400 trials were smaller. After the training, there was still no significant effect of pointing method, showing that the choice of either head- or manual-pointing method plays a minor role in sound localization performance. The results of experiment 2 reinforce the importance of perceptual training for at least 400 trials in sound localization studies. PMID:20139459

  2. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  3. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  4. Effects of Previous Acoustic Experience on Behavioral Responses to Experimental Sound Stimuli and Implications for Research.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Irene K; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Ambient noise differs considerably between habitats. Increased ambient noise can affect the physiology and behavior in a variety of taxa. Previous acoustic experience can modify behavior and potentially affect research conclusions in natural and laboratory environments. Acoustic conditions should thus be accounted for, especially in experiments involving experimental sound stimuli. Methods sections should contain acoustic specifications, and a consensus should be achieved over which measurements to include for comparability between researchers. Further investigation of how previous and repeated exposure to sound affects behavior and research conclusions is needed to improve our knowledge of acoustic long-term effects in animal welfare and conservation.

  5. The effect of two different rooms on acoustical and perceptual measures of SATB choir sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hom, Kathryn S.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two different rooms (choir rehearsal room, performance hall) on acoustical (LTAS, one-third octave bands) and perceptual (singer [N = 11] survey, listener [N = 33] survey, Pitch Analyzer 2.1) measures of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass (SATB) choir sound. Primary findings of this investigation indicated: (a) significant differences in spectral energy comparisons of choir sound between rooms, (b) choristers' perceptions of hearing and monitoring their own voices differed significantly depending on room, (c) most choristers (82%) perceived that the choir performed best within the Performance Hall, (d) perceived pitch of selected sung vowels within recordings differed significantly based on room conditions, (e) 97% of listeners perceived a difference in choir sound between room recordings, and (f) most listeners (91%) indicated preference for the Rehearsal Room recording.

  6. Reconnaissance survey of chemical contamination and biological effects in southern Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The report describes the results of a field survey south of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in southern Puget Sound. Environmental conditions were evaluated in two urban embayments, eight nonurban embayments and three areas of the main channel in the southern Sound. Stations were located in depositional areas where chemical contaminants would be expected to accumulate in the sediments. All stations were located away from known contaminant sources in order to provide integrative assessments of contamination over relatively large areas. Chemical contamination of the south Sound was evaluated by measuring chemical concentrations in subtidal bottom sediments. Bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants was evaluated by measuring chemical concentrations in flatfish muscle tissues and littleneck clam meats. Chemical-related biological effects were evaluated by conducting amphipod sediment bioassays and histopathological analyses on livers of English sole.

  7. Does cartoon movie distraction decrease burned children's pain behavior?

    PubMed

    Landolt, M A; Marti, D; Widmer, J; Meuli, M

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cartoon movie viewing as a practical and low-cost intervention to decrease burned children's pain behavior during dressing changes. Thirteen children, 4 to 12 years of age, with a mean TBSA burn of 7.9% were assessed using a reversal, single-subject experimental design. The experimental condition consisted of the presentation of a cartoon movie as a nonpharmacologic intervention in conjunction with a standardized analgesic medication. In the control condition children's pain was treated with the standardized analgesic medication only. Behavioral distress was measured during the first six dressing changes postburn with the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress. No significant effect of cartoon movie distraction on observed behavioral distress in patients was found. Interrater reliability of the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress was good (kappa =.87-.98). Wound debridement was found to be the most painful part of the dressing change. A simple, easily applicable, and low-cost distraction intervention such as presenting cartoon movies does not seem to be sufficiently powerful to measurably reduce burned children's distress during dressing changes. Findings are based on purely observational data. Inclusion of self-report measures in future studies might reveal intervention effects on anxiety and subjective pain perception.

  8. Inscapes: A movie paradigm to improve compliance in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Vanderwal, Tamara; Kelly, Clare; Eilbott, Jeffrey; Mayes, Linda C; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-11-15

    The examination of functional connectivity in fMRI data collected during task-free "rest" has provided a powerful tool for studying functional brain organization. Limitations of this approach include susceptibility to head motion artifacts and participant drowsiness or sleep. These issues are especially relevant when studying young children or clinical populations. Here we introduce a movie paradigm, Inscapes, that features abstract shapes without a narrative or scene-cuts. The movie was designed to provide enough stimulation to improve compliance related to motion and wakefulness while minimizing cognitive load during the collection of functional imaging data. We compare Inscapes to eyes-open rest and to age-appropriate movie clips in healthy adults (Ocean's Eleven, n=22) and a pilot sample of typically developing children ages 3-7 (Fantasia, n=13). Head motion was significantly lower during both movies relative to rest for both groups. In adults, movies decreased the number of participants who self-reported sleep. Intersubject correlations, used to quantify synchronized, task-evoked activity across movie and rest conditions in adults, involved less cortex during Inscapes than Ocean's Eleven. To evaluate the effect of movie-watching on intrinsic functional connectivity networks, we examined mean functional connectivity using both whole-brain functional parcellation and network-based approaches. Both inter- and intra-network metrics were more similar between Inscapes and Rest than between Ocean's Eleven and Rest, particularly in comparisons involving the default network. When comparing movies to Rest, the mean functional connectivity of somatomotor, visual and ventral attention networks differed significantly across various analyses. We conclude that low-demand movies like Inscapes may represent a useful intermediate condition between task-free rest and typical narrative movies while still improving participant compliance. Inscapes is publicly available for

  9. Machines and Human Beings in the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Laan, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, many movies have presented on-screen a struggle between machines and human beings. Typically, the machines have come to rule and threaten the existence of humanity. They must be conquered to ensure the survival of and to secure the freedom of the human race. Although these movies appear to expose the dangers of an autonomous and…

  10. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  11. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  12. Movie and TV Nostalgia. Factfile No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    This guide to movie and TV nostalgia lists organizations and events, both with descriptive information. Sources include U.S. stores and outlets which carry publications, stills, posters, and other memorabilia related to movies and TV, as well as a selected list of sources of 8mm and 16mm films in the public domain. The annotated bibliography lists…

  13. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  14. Machines and Human Beings in the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Laan, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, many movies have presented on-screen a struggle between machines and human beings. Typically, the machines have come to rule and threaten the existence of humanity. They must be conquered to ensure the survival of and to secure the freedom of the human race. Although these movies appear to expose the dangers of an autonomous and…

  15. Making Movies Active: Lessons from Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Sheri; Rothermel, Jonathan C.; Lusk, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Movies have a long and distinguished history in the political science and international relations classrooms; they provide connections between abstract theories and concepts and concrete everyday practices. However, traditional approaches to teaching movies in the political science and international relations classrooms allow for passive student…

  16. Beyond Film: Exploring the Content of Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scacco, John

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the use of movies in the language-learning classroom. The author promotes the use of the movie "To Kill a Mockingbird" due to its content, which involves poverty, racial inequality and mental illness, and to the availability of websites related to its use in English classrooms. The author highlights six scenes for…

  17. Using Movies to Teach Family Systems Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudock, Anthony M., Jr.; Warden, Sherry A. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    This article reflects a review of research relevant to family systems training and the use of films in the teaching of family systems theory. Advantages and disadvantages of using movies in an introductory-level graduate family therapy course are discussed. An outline of family therapy training objectives, as well as examples of a movie-based…

  18. Making Movies Active: Lessons from Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Sheri; Rothermel, Jonathan C.; Lusk, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Movies have a long and distinguished history in the political science and international relations classrooms; they provide connections between abstract theories and concepts and concrete everyday practices. However, traditional approaches to teaching movies in the political science and international relations classrooms allow for passive student…

  19. Using Movies To Teach Students about Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses using movies to teach students about disabilities. It addresses considerations in choosing movies, gauging the accuracy of the portrayal, and identifying positive images and negative stereotypes. A checklist for evaluating positive and negative representations is provided, along with a format to assess disability portrayal…

  20. Experimental study of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on sound propagation over the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewy, S.; Canard-Caruana, S.

    Studies on long range sound propagation over the ground were initiated at ONERA several years ago, with the final scope of detecting military helicopters and artillery batteries. They can also lead to some applications on lateral attenuation of aircraft noise. Two basic series of tests over about 1 km, using a pulsed electroacoustic source, were performed. The effects of atmospheric turbulence are discussed.

  1. A Variable Syntax of Speech, Gesture, and Sound Effect: Direct Quotations in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Variationist account of how direct quotations are framed in spoken Spanish requires definition of variable and envelope of variation followed by investigation of linguistic, stylistic, and social constraints. Variable is defined as set of three strategies for directly quoting speech, gestures, and sound effects of people, animals, or things in…

  2. Analyzing Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Effects on Preferences for Speech Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carp, Charlotte L.; Matthies, Derek W.; Esch, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated effects of stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) on children's vocalizations, but numerous treatment failures have also been reported. The present study attempted to isolate procedural variables related to failures of SSP to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. Three boys diagnosed with autism-spectrum disorders…

  3. Effect of initial condition on the sound generation by flow past a rotary-oscillating circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    Effects of forced rotary oscillation on the generation of the sound from a circular cylinder in a uniform flow are investigated by direct solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results show that the effect on the sound generation of rotary oscillation with frequency f is equivalent to that of periodic blowing and suction with frequency 2f; the sound field is determined by the interaction between the monopole generated by rotary oscillation and the dipole generated by vortex shedding from the cylinder. Results also show that, depending on initial conditions, different sound fields as well as flow fields can be generated for same flow parameters.

  4. The perception of shared medical decision making of expert and lay people: effects of observing a movie clip depicting a medical consultation.

    PubMed

    Arcuri, Luciano; Montagnini, Barbara; Calvi, Gabriella; Goss, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    To test for differences between experts and lay people in assessment of the degree to which a doctor engaged in a shared decision making (SDM) with a patient using the OPTION scale and a movie clip as stimulus material. A segment of the movie 'Wit', depicting the communication of the diagnosis and the therapy proposed of a cancer, was shown to (a) university students with no knowledge about doctor-patient communication; (b) nurses working in medicine departments; (c) advanced medical students; (d) hospital physicians. The participants were asked to complete the OPTION scale which measures the extent to which physicians involve patients in medical decisions. An analysis of variance was used to compare OPTION scores across the four groups and to compare males and females. Being female [F(1,190)=11.9; p<.001] and being familiar with medical issues [F(3,190)=11.09; p<.001] were both significantly associated with a negative evaluations of the doctor's ability to involve the patient in the SDM. Lay people and males (including male experts), are less demanding regarding SDM abilities. A more systematic use of videos and the OPTION scale as validated outcome measure could be helpful educational strategy for the teaching of SDM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Movies in education of psychiatry residents.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Vlado; Brecić, Petrana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2010-06-01

    Movies are a complex entity representing simultaneously an art form, a powerful industry, and a social phenomenon. The movie industry has always shown keen interest in physicians and medicine in general, and psychiatry in particular has often been in the spotlight. While there can be positive aspects of interaction of the movies and the psychiatry, stigmatization and negative public perception are also the results we often have to consider. Movies exploit psychiatric topics, at the same time portrayal of mental conditions, psychiatrists, and psychiatry on big screen could be used in different kinds of education in psychiatry. We present our initial experience with introducing movies in education of psychiatry residents in Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce.

  6. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  8. Effects of temporal shapes of sound markers on the perception of interonset time intervals.

    PubMed

    Hasuo, Emi; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Osawa, Satoshi; Fujishima, Hiroyuki

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated how the temporal characteristics, particularly durations, of sounds affect the perceived duration of very short interonset time intervals (120-360 ms), which is important for rhythm perception in speech and music. In four experiments, the subjective duration of single time intervals marked by two sounds was measured utilizing the method of adjustment, while the markers' durations, amplitude difference (which accompanied the duration change), and sound energy distribution in time were varied. Lengthening the duration of the second marker in the range of 20-100 ms increased the subjective duration of the time interval in a stable manner. Lengthening the first marker tended to increase the subjective duration, but unstably; an opposite effect sometimes appeared for the shortest time interval of 120 ms. The effects of varying the amplitude and the sound energy distribution in time of either marker were very small in the present experimental conditions, thus proving the effects of marker durations per se.

  9. 77 FR 3002 - Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and Components and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and Components and... motion-sensitive sound effects devices and image display devices and components and products containing...

  10. Effects of later-occurring nonlinguistic sounds on speech categorization.

    PubMed

    Wade, Travis; Holt, Lori L

    2005-09-01

    Nonspeech stimuli influence phonetic categorization, but effects observed so far have been limited to precursors' influence on perception of following speech. However, both preceding and following speech affect phonetic categorization. This asymmetry raises questions about whether general auditory processes play a role in context-dependent speech perception. This study tested whether the asymmetry stems from methodological issues or genuine mechanistic limitations. To determine whether and how backward effects of nonspeech context on speech may occur, one experiment examined perception of CVC words with [ga]-[da] series onsets followed by one of two possible embedded tones and one of two possible final consonants. When the tone was separated from the target onset by 100 ms, contrastive effects of tone frequency similar to those of previous studies were observed; however, when the tone was moved closer to the target segment assimilative effects were observed. In another experiment, contrastive effects of a following tone were observed in both CVC words and CV nonwords, although the size of the effects depended on syllable structure. Results are discussed with respect to contrastive mechanisms not speech-specific but operating at a relatively high level, taking into account spectrotemporal patterns occurring over extended periods before and after target events.

  11. The effects of behavioral speech therapy on speech sound production with adults who have cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Pomaville, Frances M; Kladopoulos, Chris N

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors examined the treatment efficacy of a behavioral speech therapy protocol for adult cochlear implant recipients. The authors used a multiple-baseline, across-behaviors and -participants design to examine the effectiveness of a therapy program based on behavioral principles and methods to improve the production of target speech sounds in 3 adults with cochlear implants. The authors included probe items in a baseline protocol to assess generalization of target speech sounds to untrained exemplars. Pretest and posttest scores from the Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, Third Revision (Arizona-3; Fudala, 2000) and measurement of speech errors during spontaneous speech were compared, providing additional measures of target behavior generalization. The results of this study provided preliminary evidence supporting the overall effectiveness and efficiency of a behavioral speech therapy program in increasing percent correct speech sound production in adult cochlear implant recipients. The generalization of newly trained speech skills to untrained words and to spontaneous speech was demonstrated. These preliminary findings support the application of behavioral speech therapy techniques for training speech sound production in adults with cochlear implants. Implications for future research and the development of aural rehabilitation programs for adult cochlear implant recipients are discussed.

  12. Nonlinear effects on sound propagation through high subsonic Mach number flows in variable area ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callegari, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    A nonlinear theory for sound propagation in variable area ducts carrying a nearly sonic flow is presented. Linear acoustic theory is shown to be singular and the detailed nature of the singularity is used to develop the correct nonlinear theory. The theory is based on a quasi-one dimensional model. It is derived by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. In a nearly chocked flow, the theory indicates the following processes to be acting: a transonic trapping of upstream propagating sound causing an intensification of this sound in the throat region of the duct; generation of superharmonics and an acoustic streaming effect; development of shocks in the acoustic quantities near the throat. Several specific problems are solved analytically and numerical parameter studies are carried out. Results indicate that appreciable acoustic power is shifted to higher harmonics as shocked conditions are approached. The effect of the throat Mach number on the attenuation of upstream propagating sound excited by a fixed source is also determined.

  13. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of nocturnally occurring jet aircraft sounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Bartus, R. T.; Hart, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present research presents data relative to the objective evaluation of the effects of a specific complex auditory stimulus presented during sleep. The auditory stimulus was a jet aircraft flyover of approximately 20-sec duration and a peak intensity level of approximately 80 dB (A). Our specific interests were in terms of how this stimulus would interact with the frequency pattern of the sleeping EEG and whether there would be any carry-over effects of the nocturnally presented stimuli to the waking state. The results indicated that the physiological effects (changes in electroencephalographic activity) produced by the jet aircraft stimuli outlasted the physical presence of the auditory stimuli by a considerable degree. Further, it was possible to note both behavioral and electroencephalographic changes during waking performances subsequent to nights disturbed by the jet aircraft flyovers which were not apparent during performances subsequent to undisturbed nights.

  14. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie Blowup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Persistent polar storms and zonal winds on Jupiter can be seen in this magnified quadrant from a movie projecting images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    Like the accompanying full-circle movie of polar winds, this zoomed-inversion shows that the polar region has coherent flows, despite its chaotic, mottled appearance. There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar in size to the largest storms on Earth. The spots occasionally change latitude or merge with each other, but usually they last for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of those storms was unknown.

    The mystery of Jupiter's weather is why the storms last so long. Storms on Earth last for a week before they break up and are replaced by other storms. This movie heightens the mystery because it shows long-lived storms at the highest latitudes, where the weather patterns are more disorganized than at low latitudes.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six images or more of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. Images from each rotation were assembled first into a cylindrical map. The 84 resulting cylindrical maps, spanning 70 Earth days or 168 Jupiter rotations, were transformed to polar stereographic

  15. Effect of transmitter turn-off time on transient soundings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.; Anderson, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the effect of non-zero turn-off time on the transient electromagnetic response is presented which can be applied to forward and inverse calculation methods for any transmitter-receiver configuration. We consider in detail the case of a large transmitter loop which has a receiver coil located at the center of the loop (central induction or in-loop array). For a linear turn-off ramp of width t0, the voltage response is shown to be the voltage due to an ideal step turn-off averaged over windows of width t0. Thus the effect is similar to that obtained by using averaging windows in the receiver. In general when time zero is taken to be the end of the ramp, the apparent resistivity increases for a homogeneous half-space over a limited time range. For time zero taken to be the start of the ramp the apparent resistivity is affected in the opposite direction. The effect of the ramp increases with increasing t0 and first-layer resistivity, is largest during the intermediate stage, and decreases with increasing time. It is shown that for a ramp turn-off, there is no effect in the early and late stages. For two-layered models with a resistive first layer (??1>??2), the apparent resistivity is increased in the intermediate stage. When the first layer is more conductive than the second layer (??1effect. Neglecting the turn-off ramp will affect data interpretation as shown by field examples; the influence is the greatest on near-surface layer parameters. ?? 1987.

  16. Tidal Residual Eddies and their Effect on Water Exchange in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2013-08-30

    Tidal residual eddies are one of the important hydrodynamic features in tidally dominant estuaries and coastal bays, and they could have significant effects on water exchange in a tidal system. This paper presents a modeling study of tides and tidal residual eddies in Puget Sound, a tidally dominant fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast, using a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model. Mechanisms of vorticity generation and asymmetric distribution patterns around an island/headland were analyzed using the dynamic vorticity transfer approach and numerical experiments. Model results of Puget Sound show that a number of large twin tidal residual eddies exist in the Admiralty Inlet because of the presence of major headlands in the inlet. Simulated residual vorticities near the major headlands indicate that the clockwise tidal residual eddy (negative vorticity) is generally stronger than the anticlockwise eddy (positive vorticity) because of the effect of Coriolis force. The effect of tidal residual eddies on water exchange in Puget Sound and its sub-basins were evaluated by simulations of dye transport. It was found that the strong transverse variability of residual currents in the Admiralty Inlet results in a dominant seaward transport along the eastern shore and a dominant landward transport along the western shore of the Inlet. A similar transport pattern in Hood Canal is caused by the presence of tidal residual eddies near the entrance of the canal. Model results show that tidal residual currents in Whidbey Basin are small in comparison to other sub-basins. A large clockwise residual circulation is formed around Vashon Island near entrance of South Sound, which can potentially constrain the water exchange between the Central Basin and South Sound.

  17. Uncertain enthusiasm: the American Cancer Society, public education, and the problems of the movie, 1921-1960.

    PubMed

    Cantor, David

    2007-01-01

    Historians have highlighted a growing medical enthusiasm for public health education movies in the early twentieth century. This essay suggests that there is another historiographic tale to tell, of concerns that films might undermine the public health messages they were designed to promote--concerns that threatened continued interest in movies during the Depression of the 1930s. First, focusing on cancer-education movies aimed at the general public released by the American Society for the Control of Cancer (ASCC, founded 1913), the paper argues that the organization's initial enthusiasm for movies was tempered from the late 1920s by a combination of high production costs, uncertainty as to the effectiveness of movies as public-education tools, and the hard economic situation. It was only after 1944 that motion pictures became a stable part of the propaganda efforts of the renamed American Cancer Society. This transformation followed the takeover of the Society by advertisers and businesspeople, led by Mary Lasker, who introduced business models of fund-raising and education, and made expensive communication technologies, such as movies, central to cancer control. Second, the article also traces the persistence of anxieties that movies might undermine cancer control by encouraging emotional responses that led audiences to ignore the lessons the movies were intended to encourage. But whereas such anxieties dampened ASCC enthusiasm for cancer-education movies during the hard economic times of the 1930s, they had no such effect after 1944, and attention shifted to developing techniques of controlling unwanted audience responses.

  18. A survey of visually induced symptoms and associated factors in spectators of three dimensional stereoscopic movies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) computer generated images has raised concern about image safety and possible side effects on population health. This study aims to (1) quantify the occurrence of visually induced symptoms suffered by the spectators during and after viewing a commercial 3D movie and (2) to assess individual and environmental factors associated to those symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a paper based, self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire includes individual and movie characteristics and selected visually induced symptoms (tired eyes, double vision, headache, dizziness, nausea and palpitations). Symptoms were queried at 3 different times: during, right after and after 2 hours from the movie. Results We collected 953 questionnaires. In our sample, 539 (60.4%) individuals reported 1 or more symptoms during the movie, 392 (43.2%) right after and 139 (15.3%) at 2 hours from the movie. The most frequently reported symptoms were tired eyes (during the movie by 34.8%, right after by 24.0%, after 2 hours by 5.7% of individuals) and headache (during the movie by 13.7%, right after by 16.8%, after 2 hours by 8.3% of individuals). Individual history for frequent headache was associated with tired eyes (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.01-1.79), double vision (OR = 1.96; 95%CI = 1.13-3.41), headache (OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.41-3.10) during the movie and of headache after the movie (OR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.16-2.32). Individual susceptibility to car sickness, dizziness, anxiety level, movie show time, animation 3D movie were also associated to several other symptoms. Conclusions The high occurrence of visually induced symptoms resulting from this survey suggests the need of raising public awareness on possible discomfort that susceptible individuals may suffer during and after the vision of 3D movies. PMID:22974235

  19. Effects of sounds generated by a dental turbine and a stream on regional cerebral blood flow and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Riho; Kudo, Takumu; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Yamamura, Chie; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    2004-09-01

    Effects of sound generated by a dental turbine and a small stream (murmur) and the effects of no sound (null, control) on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hemodynamic changes (oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations) in the frontal cortex were measured in 18 young volunteers. Questionnaires completed by the volunteers were also evaluated. Near-infrared spectroscopy and the Finapres technique were employed to measure hemodynamic and vascular responses, respectively. The subjects assessed the murmur, null, and turbine sounds as "pleasant," "natural," and "unpleasant," respectively. Blood pressures changed in response to the murmur, null, and turbine sound stimuli as expected: lower than the control level, unchanged, and higher than the control level, respectively. Mean blood pressure values tended to increase gradually over the recording time even during the null sound stimulation, possibly because of the recording environment. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations decreased drastically in response to the dental turbine sound, while deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations remained unchanged and thus total hemoglobin concentrations decreased (due to the decreased oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations). Hemodynamic responses to the murmuring sound and the null sound were slight or unchanged, respectively. Surprisingly, heart rate measurements remained fairly stable in response to the stimulatory noises. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that sound generated by a dental turbine may affect cerebral blood flow and metabolism as well as autonomic responses.

  20. Rough and Tumble Hyperion Movie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-02-03

    The tumbling and irregularly shaped moon Hyperion rotates away from the Cassini spacecraft in this movie taken during a distant encounter in Dec. 2005. A shadow closes over the large crater at bottom as the movie progresses. Hyperion (280 kilometers, or 174 miles across) is covered with closely packed and deeply etched pits. The warming action of the Sun on water ice lying beneath a darkened layer of surface material apparently has deepened and exaggerated the depressions already created by impacts. Cassini scientists now think that Hyperion’s unusual appearance can be attributed to the fact that it has an unusually low density for such a large object, giving it weak surface gravity and high porosity. These characteristics help preserve the original shapes of Hyperion’s craters by limiting the amount of impact ejecta coating the moon’s surface. Impactors tend to make craters by compressing the surface material, rather than blasting it out. Further, Hyperion’s weak gravity, and correspondingly low escape velocity, means that what little ejecta is produced has a good chance of escaping the moon altogether. The images were taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Dec. 23, 2005 at distances ranging from 228,000 kilometers (142,000 miles) to 238,000 kilometers (148,000 miles) from Hyperion and at a Sun-Hyperion-spacecraft, or phase, angle ranging from 77 to 86 degrees. Resolution in the original images was about 1.4 kilometers (0.9 mile) per pixel. The images have been magnified by a factor of two and contrast-enhanced to aid visibility. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07683

  1. Compressibility, zero sound, and effective mass of a fermionic dipolar gas at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.

    2010-09-15

    The compressibility, zero-sound dispersion, and effective mass of a gas of fermionic dipolar molecules is calculated at finite temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional uniform systems, and in a multilayer quasi-two-dimensional system. The compressibility is nonmonotonic in the reduced temperature, T/T{sub F}, exhibiting a maximum at finite temperature. This effect might be visible in a quasi-low-dimensional experiment, providing a clear signature of the onset of many-body quantum degeneracy effects. The collective mode dispersion and effective mass show similar nontrivial temperature and density dependence. In a quasi-low-dimensional system, the zero-sound mode may propagate at experimentally attainable temperatures.

  2. Sediment Acoustics: LF Sound Speed, HF Scattering and Bubble Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    the boundary between frame and fluid, and (d) the relaxation mechanisms, also known as squirt flow, at the grain-grain contacts (Chotiros, Isakson...modeling techniques (EVA) sea trials, including the measurement of seafloor small scale topography, and (2) the modeling of the effect of seafloor...Stoll with contact squirt flow and shear drag. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116(4), 2011-2022. 9. Chotiros, N. P., Isakson, M. J., Piper, J. N., and Zampolli

  3. Analysis and correction of ground reflection effects in measured narrowband sound spectra using cepstral techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.; Stevens, G. H.; Leininger, G. G.

    1975-01-01

    Ground reflections generate undesirable effects on acoustic measurements such as those conducted outdoors for jet noise research, aircraft certification, and motor vehicle regulation. Cepstral techniques developed in speech processing are adapted to identify echo delay time and to correct for ground reflection effects. A sample result is presented using an actual narrowband sound pressure level spectrum. The technique can readily be adapted to existing fast Fourier transform type spectrum measurement instrumentation to provide field measurements/of echo time delays.

  4. Effects of instructed timing and tempo on snare drum sound in drum kit performance.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Anne; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Sundt, Henrik G; Witek, Maria A G

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports on an experiment investigating the expressive means with which performers of groove-based musics signal the intended timing of a rhythmic event. Ten expert drummers were instructed to perform a rock pattern in three different tempi and three different timing styles: "laid-back," "on-the-beat," and "pushed." The results show that there were systematic differences in the intensity and timbre (i.e., sound-pressure level, temporal centroid, and spectral centroid) of series of snare strokes played with these different timing styles at the individual level. A common pattern was found across subjects concerning the effect of instructed timing on sound-pressure level: a majority of the drummers played laid-back strokes louder than on-the-beat strokes. Furthermore, when the tempo increased, there was a general increase in sound-pressure level and a decrease in spectral centroid across subjects. The results show that both temporal and sound-related features are important in order to indicate that a rhythmic event has been played intentionally early, late, or on-the-beat, and provide insight into the ways in which musicians communicate at the microrhythmic level in groove-based musics.

  5. [Effect of early scream sound stress on learning and memory in female rats].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Huang, Chen

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of early scream sound stress on the ability of spatial learning and memory, the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and corticosterone (CORT) in serum, and the morphology of adrenal gland.
 Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated daily with scream sound from postnatal day 1(P1) for 21 d. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial learning and memory ability. The levels of serum NE and CORT were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adrenal gland of SD rats was collected and fixed in formalin, and then embedded with paraffin. The morphology of adrenal gland was observed by HE staining.
 Exposure to early scream sound decreased latency of escape and increased times to cross the platform in Morris water maze test (P<0.05). The levels of serum NE was significantly elevated, with an obvious tendency in the increase of CORT level (P<0.05). The morphology of adrenal gland was also influenced. 
 Newborn female rats subjected to scream sound stress can enhance spatial learning and memory ability in adulthood, which is related to activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system.

  6. Bidirectional Shifting Effects of the Sound Intensity on the Best Frequency in the Rat Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Can; Zhang, Guangwei; Zhou, Chang; Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Sumei; Zhou, Yi; Xiong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Frequency and intensity are two independent attributes of sound stimuli. Psychoacoustic studies have found that the sound intensity can affect the perception of frequency; however, the underlying neuronal mechanism remains largely unknown. To investigate if and how the sound level affects the frequency coding for auditory cortical neurons, we recorded the activities of neuronal ensembles and single neurons, as well as the synaptic input evoked by pure tones of different frequency and intensity combinations, in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex. We found that the best frequency (BF) shifted bidirectionally with the increases in intensity. Specifically, the BF of neurons with a low characteristic frequency (CF) shifted lower, whereas the BF of neurons with a higher CF shifted higher. Meanwhile, we found that these shifts in the BF can lead to the expansion of high- and low-frequency areas in the tonotopic map, increasing the evenness of the BF distribution at high intensities. Our results revealed that the frequency tuning can bidirectionally shift with an increase in the sound intensity at both the cellular and population level. This finding is consistent with the perceptual illusions observed in humans and could provide a potential mechanism for this psychoacoustic effect. PMID:28290533

  7. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Gross, Jackson A; Carlson, Thomas J; Skalski, John; Young, John V; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined.

  8. Hearing mouth shapes: Sound symbolism and the reverse McGurk effect.

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2012-01-01

    In their recent article, Sweeny, Guzman-Martinez, Ortega, Grabowecky, and Suzuki (2012) demonstrate that heard speech sounds modulate the perceived shape of briefly presented visual stimuli. Ovals, whose aspect ratio (relating width to height) varied on a trial-by-trial basis, were rated as looking wider when a /woo/ sound was presented, and as taller when a /wee/ sound was presented instead. On the one hand, these findings add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that audiovisual correspondences can have perceptual (as well as decisional) effects. On the other hand, they prompt a question concerning their origin. Although the currently popular view is that crossmodal correspondences are based on the internalization of the natural multisensory statistics of the environment (see Spence, 2011), these new results suggest instead that certain correspondences may actually be based on the sensorimotor responses associated with human vocalizations. As such, the findings of Sweeny et al. help to breathe new life into Sapir's (1929) once-popular "embodied" explanation of sound symbolism. Furthermore, they pose a challenge for those psychologists wanting to determine which among a number of plausible accounts best explains the available data on crossmodal correspondences.

  9. Hearing mouth shapes: Sound symbolism and the reverse McGurk effect

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2012-01-01

    In their recent article, Sweeny, Guzman-Martinez, Ortega, Grabowecky, and Suzuki (2012) demonstrate that heard speech sounds modulate the perceived shape of briefly presented visual stimuli. Ovals, whose aspect ratio (relating width to height) varied on a trial-by-trial basis, were rated as looking wider when a /woo/ sound was presented, and as taller when a /wee/ sound was presented instead. On the one hand, these findings add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that audiovisual correspondences can have perceptual (as well as decisional) effects. On the other hand, they prompt a question concerning their origin. Although the currently popular view is that crossmodal correspondences are based on the internalization of the natural multisensory statistics of the environment (see Spence, 2011), these new results suggest instead that certain correspondences may actually be based on the sensorimotor responses associated with human vocalizations. As such, the findings of Sweeny et al. help to breathe new life into Sapir's (1929) once-popular “embodied” explanation of sound symbolism. Furthermore, they pose a challenge for those psychologists wanting to determine which among a number of plausible accounts best explains the available data on crossmodal correspondences. PMID:23145309

  10. Marking emergency exits and evacuation routes with sound beacons utilizing the precedence effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.; Boer, Louis C.

    2004-05-01

    Sound beacons can be extremely useful during emergency evacuations, especially when vision is obscured by smoke. When exits are marked with suitable sound sources, people can find these using only their capacity for directional hearing. Unfortunately, unless very explicit instructions were given, sound beacons currently commercially available (based on modulated noise) led to disappointing results during an evacuation experiment in a traffic tunnel. Only 19% out of 65 subjects were able to find an exit by ear. A signal designed to be more self-explanatory and less hostile-sounding (alternating chime signal and spoken message ``exit here'') increased the success rate to 86%. In a more complex environment-a mock-up of a ship's interior-routes to the exit were marked using multiple beacons. By applying carefully designed time delays between successive beacons, the direction of the route was marked, utilizing the precedence effect. Out of 34 subjects, 71% correctly followed the evacuation route by ear (compared to 24% for a noise signal as used in commercially available beacons). Even when subjects were forced to make a worst-case left-right decision at a T-junction, between two beacons differing only in arrival of the first wave front, 77% made the right decision.

  11. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jackson A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John; Young, John V.; Hawkins, Anthony D.; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  12. Effects of small variations of speed of sound in optoacoustic tomographic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Speed of sound difference in the imaged object and surrounding coupling medium may reduce the resolution and overall quality of optoacoustic tomographic reconstructions obtained by assuming a uniform acoustic medium. In this work, the authors investigate the effects of acoustic heterogeneities and discuss potential benefits of accounting for those during the reconstruction procedure. Methods: The time shift of optoacoustic signals in an acoustically heterogeneous medium is studied theoretically by comparing different continuous and discrete wave propagation models. A modification of filtered back-projection reconstruction is subsequently implemented by considering a straight acoustic rays model for ultrasound propagation. The results obtained with this reconstruction procedure are compared numerically and experimentally to those obtained assuming a heuristically fitted uniform speed of sound in both full-view and limited-view optoacoustic tomography scenarios. Results: The theoretical analysis showcases that the errors in the time-of-flight of the signals predicted by considering the straight acoustic rays model tend to be generally small. When using this model for reconstructing simulated data, the resulting images accurately represent the theoretical ones. On the other hand, significant deviations in the location of the absorbing structures are found when using a uniform speed of sound assumption. The experimental results obtained with tissue-mimicking phantoms and a mouse postmortem are found to be consistent with the numerical simulations. Conclusions: Accurate analysis of effects of small speed of sound variations demonstrates that accounting for differences in the speed of sound allows improving optoacoustic reconstruction results in realistic imaging scenarios involving acoustic heterogeneities in tissues and surrounding media.

  13. Effects of small variations of speed of sound in optoacoustic tomographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Deán-Ben, X Luís; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Speed of sound difference in the imaged object and surrounding coupling medium may reduce the resolution and overall quality of optoacoustic tomographic reconstructions obtained by assuming a uniform acoustic medium. In this work, the authors investigate the effects of acoustic heterogeneities and discuss potential benefits of accounting for those during the reconstruction procedure. The time shift of optoacoustic signals in an acoustically heterogeneous medium is studied theoretically by comparing different continuous and discrete wave propagation models. A modification of filtered back-projection reconstruction is subsequently implemented by considering a straight acoustic rays model for ultrasound propagation. The results obtained with this reconstruction procedure are compared numerically and experimentally to those obtained assuming a heuristically fitted uniform speed of sound in both full-view and limited-view optoacoustic tomography scenarios. The theoretical analysis showcases that the errors in the time-of-flight of the signals predicted by considering the straight acoustic rays model tend to be generally small. When using this model for reconstructing simulated data, the resulting images accurately represent the theoretical ones. On the other hand, significant deviations in the location of the absorbing structures are found when using a uniform speed of sound assumption. The experimental results obtained with tissue-mimicking phantoms and a mouse postmortem are found to be consistent with the numerical simulations. Accurate analysis of effects of small speed of sound variations demonstrates that accounting for differences in the speed of sound allows improving optoacoustic reconstruction results in realistic imaging scenarios involving acoustic heterogeneities in tissues and surrounding media.

  14. The effects of increased fluid viscosity on swallowing sounds in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Jestrović, Iva; Dudik, Joshua M; Luan, Bo; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2013-09-10

    Cervical auscultation (CA) is an affordable, non-invasive technique used to observe sounds occurring during swallowing. CA involves swallowing characterization via stethoscopes or microphones, while accelerometers can detect other vibratory signals. While the effects of fluid viscosity on swallowing accelerometry signals is well understood, there are still open questions about these effects on swallowing sounds. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of fluids with increasing thickness on swallowing sound characteristics. We collected swallowing sounds and swallowing accelerometry signals from 56 healthy participants. Each participant completed five water swallows, five swallows of nectar-thick apple juice, and five swallows of honey-thick apple juice. These swallows were completed in neutral head and chin-tuck head positions. After pre-processing of collected signals, a number of features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were extracted. Our numerical analysis demonstrated that significant influence of viscosity was found in most of the features. In general, features extracted from swallows in the neutral head position were affected more than swallows from the chin-tuck position. Furthermore, most of the differences were found between water and fluids with higher viscosity. Almost no significant differences were found between swallows involving nectar-thick and honey-thick apple juices. Our results also showed that thicker fluids had higher acoustic regularity and predictability as demonstrated by the information-theoretic features, and a lower frequency content as demonstrated by features in the frequency domain. According to these results, we can conclude that viscosity of fluids should be considered in future investigations involving swallowing sounds.

  15. Influence of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation on established smoking.

    PubMed

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Primack, Brian A; Beach, Michael L; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Longacre, Meghan R; Weiss, Julia E; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-07-01

    To examine the joint effects of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation on established smoking. Longitudinal study. School- and telephone-based surveys in New Hampshire and Vermont between September 1999 through November 1999 and February 2006 through February 2007. A total of 2048 youths aged 16 to 21 years at follow-up. Main Exposures Baseline movie smoking exposure categorized in quartiles assessed when respondents were aged 9 to 14 years and team sports participation assessed when respondents were aged 16 to 21 years. Main Outcome Measure Established smoking (having smoked > or =100 cigarettes in one's lifetime) at follow-up. At follow-up, 353 respondents (17.2%) were established smokers. Exposure to the highest quartile of movie smoking compared with the lowest increased the likelihood of established smoking (odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.57), and team sports nonparticipants compared with participants were twice as likely to be established smokers (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.74). The joint effects of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation revealed that at each quartile of movie smoking exposure, the odds of established smoking were greater for team sports nonparticipants than for participants. We saw a dose-response relationship of movie smoking exposure for established smoking only among team sports participants. Team sports participation clearly plays a protective role against established smoking, even in the face of exposure to movie smoking. However, movie smoking exposure increases the risk of established smoking among both team sports participants and nonparticipants. Parents, teachers, coaches, and clinicians should be aware that encouraging team sports participation in tandem with minimizing early exposure to movie smoking may offer the greatest likelihood of preventing youth smoking.

  16. Influence of Movie Smoking Exposure and Team Sports Participation on Established Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Primack, Brian A.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Longacre, Meghan R.; Weiss, Julia E.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the joint effects of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation on established smoking. Design Longitudinal study. Setting School- and telephone-based surveys in New Hampshire and Vermont between September 1999 through November 1999 and February 2006 through February 2007. Participants A total of 2048 youths aged 16 to 21 years at follow-up. Main Exposures Baseline movie smoking exposure categorized in quartiles assessed when respondents were aged 9 to 14 years and team sports participation assessed when respondents were aged 16 to 21 years. Main Outcome Measure Established smoking (having smoked ≥100 cigarettes in one’s lifetime) at follow-up. Results At follow-up, 353 respondents (17.2%) were established smokers. Exposure to the highest quartile of movie smoking compared with the lowest increased the likelihood of established smoking (odds ratio=1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–2.57), and team sports nonparticipants compared with participants were twice as likely to be established smokers (odds ratio=2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.47–2.74). The joint effects of movie smoking exposure and team sports participation revealed that at each quartile of movie smoking exposure, the odds of established smoking were greater for team sports nonparticipants than for participants. We saw a dose-response relationship of movie smoking exposure for established smoking only among team sports participants. Conclusions Team sports participation clearly plays a protective role against established smoking, even in the face of exposure to movie smoking. However, movie smoking exposure increases the risk of established smoking among both team sports participants and nonparticipants. Parents, teachers, coaches, and clinicians should be aware that encouraging team sports participation in tandem with minimizing early exposure to movie smoking may offer the greatest likelihood of preventing youth smoking. PMID:19581547

  17. Effects of Sound Frequency on Behavioral and Cardiac Orienting in Newborn and Five-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Clifton, Rachel K.

    1984-01-01

    Examines alert newborn and five-month-old infants' responsivity to variations in spectral composition of a rattle sound. Head orientation and cardiac responses to sound were recorded. Heart rate change did not vary as a function of frequency at either age, suggesting that all stimuli were equally effective in eliciting the infant's attention.…

  18. Effects of Sound Frequency on Behavioral and Cardiac Orienting in Newborn and Five-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Clifton, Rachel K.

    1984-01-01

    Examines alert newborn and five-month-old infants' responsivity to variations in spectral composition of a rattle sound. Head orientation and cardiac responses to sound were recorded. Heart rate change did not vary as a function of frequency at either age, suggesting that all stimuli were equally effective in eliciting the infant's attention.…

  19. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    . Neutron scattering is used in soil science to assess the moisture content of soil. The technique relies on observing the effects of collisions between source neutrons and the H atoms in the material under test. Such a system maybe useful in assessing ice content-from within a borehole. Sounding of a several-kilometer-deep ice cap presents some considerable obstacles. There are, however, several methods that could be used to sound the upper meters of the ice cap in considerable detail.

  20. The Sound Parameter Effect in Metal-Rich Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. K

    1998-01-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations have found that the horizontal branches (HBs) in the metal-rich globular clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 slope upward with decreasing B - V. Such a slope is not predicted by canonical HB models and cannot be produced by either a greater cluster age or enhanced mass loss along the red giant branch (RGB). The peculiar HB morphology in these clusters may provide an important clue for understanding the second-parameter effect. We have carried out extensive evolutionary calculations and numerical simulations in order to explore three noncanonical scenarios for explaining the sloped HBs in NGC 6388 and NGC 6441: (1) a high cluster helium abundance scenario, in which the HB evolution is characterized by long blue loops; (2) a rotation scenario, in which internal rotation during the RGB phase increases the HB core mass; and (3) a helium-mixing scenario, in which deep mixing on the RGB enhances the envelope helium abundance. All of these scenarios predict sloped HBs with anomalously bright RR Lyrae variables. We compare this prediction with the properties of the two known RR Lyrae variables in NGC 6388. Additional observational tests of these scenarios are suggested.

  1. Physically sound Hamiltonian formulati on of the dynamical Casimir effect

    SciTech Connect

    Haro, Jaume; Elizalde, Emilio

    2007-09-15

    Recently [J. Haro and E. Elizalde, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130401 (2006)], a Hamiltonian formulation has been introduced in order to address some long-standing severe problems associated with the physical description of the dynamical Casimir effect at all times while the mirrors are moving. Here we present the complete calculation providing precise details, in particular, of the regularization procedure, which is decisive for the correct derivation of physically meaningful quantities. A basic difference when comparing with the results previously obtained by other authors is the fact that the motion force derived in our approach contains a reactive term--proportional to the mirrors' acceleration. This is of the essence in order to obtain particles with a positive energy at all times during the oscillation of the mirrors--while always satisfying the energy conservation law. A careful analysis of the interrelations among the different results previously obtained in the literature is then carried out. For simplicity, the specific case of a neutral scalar field in one dimension, with one or two partially transmitting mirrors (a fundamental proviso for the regularization issue), is considered in more detail, but our general method is shown to be generalizable, without essential problems (Sec. II of this paper), to fields of any kind in two and higher dimensions.

  2. Comparing mechanical effects and sound production of KTP, thulium, and CO2 laser in stapedotomy.

    PubMed

    Kamalski, Digna M A; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M; de Boorder, Tjeerd; Vincent, Robert; Versnel, Huib; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-08-01

    The mechanical and acoustic effects that occur during laser-assisted stapedotomy differ among KTP, CO2, and thulium lasers. Making a fenestration in stapedotomy with a laser minimizes the risk of a floating footplate caused by mechanical forces. Theoretically, the lasers used in stapedotomy could inflict mechanical trauma because of absorption in the perilymph, causing vaporization bubbles. These bubbles can generate a shock wave, when imploding. In an inner ear model, we made a fenestration in a fresh human stapes with KTP, CO2, and thulium laser. During the fenestration, we performed high-speed imaging from different angles to capture mechanical effects. The sounds produced by the fenestration were recorded simultaneously with a hydrophone; these recordings were compared with acoustics produced by a conventional microburr fenestration. KTP laser fenestration showed little mechanical effects, with minimal sound production. With CO2 laser, miniscule bubbles arose in the vestibule; imploding of these bubbles corresponded to the acoustics. Thulium laser fenestration showed large bubbles in the vestibule, with a larger sound production than the other two lasers. Each type of laser generated significantly less noise than the microburr. The microburr maximally reached 95 ± 7 dB(A), compared with 49 ± 8 dB(A) for KTP, 68 ± 4 dB(A) for CO2, and 83 ± 6 dB(A) for thulium. Mechanical and acoustic effects differ among lasers used for stapedotomy. Based on their relatively small effects, KTP and CO2 lasers are preferable to thulium laser.

  3. Effects of bronchodilators on regional lung sound distribution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mineshita, Masamichi; Matsuoka, Shin; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    2014-01-01

    Bronchodilators have been reported to influence regional lung ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which may change regional lung sound distribution. Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a lung imaging system for the assessment of breath sounds. To evaluate the effects of a short-acting β2-agonist (SABA) on the regional distribution of lung sounds in COPD patients. A double-blind crossover trial was performed to compare the treatment of COPD patients with an SABA (20 µg of inhaled procaterol) versus a placebo. The percentage of regional lung sound energy [quantitative lung data (QLD)] was evaluated with VRI. VRI, spirometry, and impulse oscillometry (IOS) were performed immediately before and 30 min after SABA administration. Ten male patients (69.6 ± 14.2 years of age, percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 43.8 ± 16.9%) were evaluated. The use of an SABA produced significant functional improvements in the spirometric and IOS measurements. Among the homogeneous emphysema patients (n = 7), the upper-lung QLD decreased (from 24.2 ± 5.8 to 18.8 ± 6.1%, p < 0.05) and the lower-lung QLD increased (from 37.9 ± 12.7 to 46.1 ± 14.3%, p < 0.05) following SABA inhalation. However, the significant redistribution of the regional lung QLD to the lower-lung field was not observed in 2 of the 3 inhomogeneous emphysema patients. The additional use of an SABA by COPD patients improved their pulmonary function, which was accompanied by changes in regional lung air flow. The distribution of emphysematous lesions and the bronchial reactivity to SABA appeared to affect the redistribution of the lung sounds following bronchodilator administration. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The effects of pressure and temperature on sound velocity and density of Ni-S liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, H. G.; Nishida, K.; Urakawa, S.; Uesugi, K.; Kuwabara, S.; Takubo, Y.; Shimoyama, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Kono, Y.; Higo, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2013-12-01

    Sound velocity and density of the core material are indispensable properties to estimate a composition in the terrestrial core comparing with the observed seismic data. Here, we report these properties of Ni-S, which corresponds to the end-member of possible core composition Fe-Ni-S, at high pressure and temperature. These properties were measured based on simultaneous measurement of sound velocity and density combined with X-ray tomography technique. The experiments were carried out at X-ray computed micro-tomography (CT) beamlines (BL20XU, BL20B2), SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. Monochromatized X-ray of 51 keV passed through the sample cell and detected as a radiography image using CCD camera. X-ray radiography images from 0 to 180o were measured for CT measurement by rotating the press. An 80-ton uni-axial press was used to generate high pressure with using opposed-type cupped anvils (Urakawa et al. 2010). Density was determined by using X-ray absorption method obtained from the X-ray radiograph image. The sample thickness for the X-ray path can be directly obtained from the CT data. The sample density was also determined from the volume of the sample at high pressure and temperature. P-wave sound velocity was measured using pulse-echo overlapping ultrasonic method using LiNbO3 transducer attached backside of the anvil. We have successfully measured the sound velocity and density of Ni-S up to 1.5 GPa. Comparing with the previous results of liquid Fe-S, the effect of Ni on the sound velocity is minor but that on the density can not be negligible.

  5. Trends in explicit portrayal of suicidal behavior in popular U.S. movies, 1950-2006.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Patrick Edwin; Romer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Trends in suicidal behavior portrayal in movies may reflect greater societal acceptance of suicide with potential adverse effects on adolescents. To assess the potential for such adverse effects, explicit portrayals of suicidal behavior and the ratings of films were coded in top-grossing U.S. movies from 1950-2006 (N = 855). Suicidal behavior portrayal in films increased linearly from 1950 to 2006. From 1968-1984, movies rated R by the Motion Picture Association of America had 5 times more highly explicit suicide behavior portrayals than did G/PG films. After the adoption of the PG-13 category in 1985, PG-13 and R films were indistinguishable on this measure. The results indicate the need for further study of the effects of suicidal behavior portrayals on adolescent movie audiences.

  6. Longitudinal study of parental movie restriction on teen smoking and drinking in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis; Tanski, Susanne E; Sargent, James D

    2008-10-01

    To determine if adolescents who report that their parents restrict viewing movies based on rating have a lower risk of trying smoking and drinking alcohol in the future. Prospective observational study. A cohort of 2110 German adolescents younger than 15 years who had never smoked or drunk alcohol at baseline were surveyed 12-13 months later to determine smoking and binge drinking initiation. Risk of substance use was assessed as a function of parental restriction on viewing FSK-16 movies (movies that only those aged 16 years and over would be allowed to see in theaters). The percentage of students who tried smoking was 16.3%, 10.9% initiated binge drinking and 5.0% used both substances during the follow-up period. There was a significant effect of parental movie restriction on each substance use outcome measure after controlling for covariates. Compared with adolescents whose parents never allowed them to view FSK-16 movies, the adjusted relative risk [(RR) (95% confidence interval (CI)] for use of both substances were 1.64 (1.05-2.58) for adolescents allowed to view them once in a while, 2.30 (1.53-3.45) for sometimes and 2.92 (1.83-4.67) for all the time. FSK-16 restrictions were associated with lower viewership of all classes of movies, but especially FSK-16/18 movies; in addition, FSK-16 restrictions were associated with substantially lower exposure to movie depiction of tobacco and alcohol use, suggesting a mediational mechanism for the association. Among young adolescents, parental restriction from viewing movies rated for older adolescents/adults decreases the risk of substance use in the future.

  7. Influence of motion picture rating on adolescent response to movie smoking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category. A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinal survey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at 8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months. MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A survival model evaluated time to smoking onset. Median MSE in PG-13-rated movies was ∼3 times higher than median MSE from R-rated movies, but their relation with smoking was essentially the same, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-1.81) and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23-1.81) for each additional 500 occurrences of MSE respectively. MSE from G/PG-rated movies was small and had no significant relationship with adolescent smoking. Attributable risk estimates showed that adolescent smoking would be reduced by 18% (95% CI: 14-21) if smoking in PG-13-rated movies was reduced to the fifth percentile. In comparison, making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting would reduce adolescent smoking by 16% (95% CI: 12-19). The equivalent effect of PG-13-rated and R-rated MSE suggests it is the movie smoking that prompts adolescents to smoke, not other characteristics of R-rated movies or adolescents drawn to them. An R rating for movie smoking could substantially reduce adolescent smoking by eliminating smoking from PG-13 movies.

  8. Longitudinal study of parental movie restriction on teen smoking and drinking in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis; Tanski, Susanne E.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To determine if adolescents who report that their parents restrict viewing movies based on rating have a lower risk of trying smoking and drinking alcohol in the future. Design Prospective observational study. A cohort of 2110 German adolescents younger than 15 years who had never smoked or drunk alcohol at baseline were surveyed 12–13 months later to determine smoking and binge drinking initiation. Risk of substance use was assessed as a function of parental restriction on viewing FSK-16 movies (movies that only those aged 16 years and over would be allowed to see in theaters). Findings The percentage of students who tried smoking was 16.3%, 10.9% initiated binge drinking and 5.0% used both substances during the follow-up period. There was a significant effect of parental movie restriction on each substance use outcome measure after controlling for covariates. Compared with adolescents whose parents never allowed them to view FSK-16 movies, the adjusted relative risk [(RR) (95% confidence interval (CI)] for use of both substances were 1.64 (1.05–2.58) for adolescents allowed to view them once in a while, 2.30 (1.53–3.45) for sometimes and 2.92 (1.83–4.67) for all the time. FSK-16 restrictions were associated with lower viewership of all classes of movies, but especially FSK-16/18 movies; in addition, FSK-16 restrictions were associated with substantially lower exposure to movie depiction of tobacco and alcohol use, suggesting a mediational mechanism for the association. Conclusions Among young adolescents, parental restriction from viewing movies rated for older adolescents/adults decreases the risk of substance use in the future. PMID:18821879

  9. Influence of Motion Picture Rating on Adolescent Response to Movie Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category. METHODS: A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinal survey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at 8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months. MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A survival model evaluated time to smoking onset. RESULTS: Median MSE in PG-13–rated movies was ∼3 times higher than median MSE from R-rated movies, but their relation with smoking was essentially the same, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–1.81) and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23–1.81) for each additional 500 occurrences of MSE respectively. MSE from G/PG-rated movies was small and had no significant relationship with adolescent smoking. Attributable risk estimates showed that adolescent smoking would be reduced by 18% (95% CI: 14–21) if smoking in PG-13–rated movies was reduced to the fifth percentile. In comparison, making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting would reduce adolescent smoking by 16% (95% CI: 12–19). CONCLUSIONS: The equivalent effect of PG-13-rated and R-rated MSE suggests it is the movie smoking that prompts adolescents to smoke, not other characteristics of R-rated movies or adolescents drawn to them. An R rating for movie smoking could substantially reduce adolescent smoking by eliminating smoking from PG-13 movies. PMID:22778305

  10. The Effect of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence on Intracochlear Sound Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Pisano, Dominic V.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a pathological opening in the bony wall of the inner ear that can result in conductive hearing loss. The hearing loss is variable across patients, and the precise mechanism and source of variability is not fully understood. We use intracochlear sound pressure measurements in cadaveric preparations to study the effects of SCD size. Simultaneous measurement of basal intracochlear sound pressures in scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) quantifies the complex differential pressure across the cochlear partition, the stimulus that excites the partition. Sound-induced pressures in SV and ST, as well as stapes velocity and ear-canal pressure are measured simultaneously for various sizes of SCD followed by SCD patching. At low frequencies (<600 Hz) our results show that SCD decreases the pressure in both SV and ST, as well as differential pressure, and these effects become more pronounced as dehiscence size is increased. For frequencies above 1 kHz, the smallest pinpoint dehiscence can have the larger effect on the differential pressure in some ears. These effects due to SCD are reversible by patching the dehiscence.

  11. Preparation of digital movie clips for online journal publication.

    PubMed

    Yam, Chun-Shan

    2006-07-01

    This article presents general guidelines for preparing movie clips for online journal publication. As more and more radiology journals establish an online presence, radiologists wishing to submit journal articles with movie clips need to understand the electronic submission process. Viewing a movie clip via an online journal is different from viewing one with PowerPoint using a local desktop computer because the movie file must first be downloaded onto the client computer before it can be displayed. Users thus should be cautious in selecting movie format and compression when creating movie clips for online journals. This article provides step-by-step demonstrations and general guidelines for movie format and compression selections.

  12. Effect of a fluid layer on the sound radiation of a plate and its active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Pan, Jie; Yang, Tiejun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a baffled plate facing a layer of fluid is used to investigate the effects of the radiating environment on the plate's sound radiation and its active control. By varying the thickness of the fluid layer, different radiation environments are presented to the plate, resulting in a variation in the efficiencies and shapes of the radiation modes of the plate. As the design of feed-forward control of the radiated sound power and of feedback control of the vibration velocity or volume velocity is limited by the properties of the secondary control path (an open-loop frequency response function), the performance of the control system may be deteriorated if a controller optimally designed for one radiation environment is used for a different environment. The effects of radiation environment on the properties of the secondary control path and performance of active control are investigated.

  13. Effect of acid rain on calcium carbonate saturation in the Albemarle sound of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, K.A.; Burgess, S.K.; Willey, J.D.; Kieber, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of acidic rainwater additions on calcium carbonate solubility and alkalinity in the poorly buffered, biologically active and commercially important waters of the Albemarle Sound, NC are reported. Samples collected monthly at four sites were analyzed for salinity, pK total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations. Five percent and 10% dilutions of sulfuric acid at pH 4, mimicking acid rain additions, were added and total alkalinity and calcium concentrations again determined. The addition of acid decreased the alkalinity in the Albemarle samples by as much as 15%, although the magnitude of the impact depended both on site and season. The effects of acid additions on dissolved calcium concentrations were more variable,. and also displayed a site and season dependency. Calcium concentrations, alkalinity, and pH values were also determined during controlled laboratory experiments, where 25 mg/L Callinectes sapidus shells were added to Albemarle Sound water. All three analytes increased significantly upon acid additions relative to controls.

  14. Effect of sealants of the sound absorption coefficients of acoustical friable insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayman, J. L.; Lory, M. K.

    1984-10-01

    Acoustical friable insulating materials (AFIM), which often in the past contained asbestos, have been used for sound control since the mid 1930's. Because of their widespread use and the ease of fiber dissemination, friable asbestos materials are considered to be the major source of asbestos fiber contamination in the indoor environment. Encapsulation of asbestos materials with a commercial sealant product is one of several methods used to control potential asbestos exposure in rooms. A sealant product that preserves most of the acoustical properties of the material is preferred in this usage. AFIM sample materials were treated with 6 types of sealants and the effects on normally incident absorption coefficients from 100 to 2500 Hz were measured using a fixed, dual-microphone technique. Penetrating type sealants were found to have a less detrimental effect on sound absorption than those of a bridging type.

  15. On the attenuating effect of permeability on the low frequency sound of an airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenfeld, M.; Manela, A.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of structure permeability on the far-field radiation of a thin airfoil is studied. Assuming low-Mach and high-Reynolds number flow, the near- and far-field descriptions are investigated at flapping-flight and unsteady flow conditions. Analysis is carried out using thin-airfoil theory and compact-body-based calculations for the hydrodynamic and acoustic fields, respectively. Airfoil porosity is modeled via Darcy's law, governed by prescribed distribution of surface intrinsic permeability. Discrete vortex model is applied to describe airfoil wake evolution. To assess the impact of penetrability, results are compared to counterpart predictions for the sound of an impermeable airfoil. Considering the finite-chord airfoil as "acoustically transparent", the leading-order contribution of surface porosity is obtained in terms of an acoustic dipole. It is shown that, at all flow conditions considered, porosity causes attenuation in outcome sound level. This is accompanied by a time-delay in the pressure signal, reflecting the mediating effect of permeability on the interaction of fluid flow with airfoil edge points. To the extent that thin-airfoil theory holds (requiring small normal-to-airfoil flow velocities), the results indicate on a decrease of ~ 10 percent and more in the total energy radiated by a permeable versus an impermeable airfoil. This amounts to a reduction in system sound pressure level of 3 dB and above at pitching flight conditions, where the sound-reducing effect of the seepage dipole pressure becomes dominant. The applicability of Darcy's law to model the effect of material porosity is discussed in light of existing literature.

  16. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people’s preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database), a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics. PMID:26322899

  17. Dark Hill on Asteroid Vesta Movie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-06

    This still from a movie shows an image taken by NASA Dawn spacecraft layered on a digital terrain model of an unusual hill containing a dark-rayed impact crater and nearby dark deposit on asteroid Vesta.

  18. Movie of Enceladus Footprint on Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-20

    NASA Cassini spacecraft has spotted a glowing patch of ultraviolet light near Saturn north pole that marks the presence of an electrical circuit that connects Saturn with its moon Enceladus. Movie available at the Photojournal.

  19. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Marlon; Calvão, Angelo M; Anteneodo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people's preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database), a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics.

  20. Sound Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2013-01-01

    Linguist Rosina Lippi-Green concludes in her book, "English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States," "Accent discrimination can be found everywhere in our daily lives. In fact, such behavior is so commonly accepted, so widely perceived as appropriate, that it must be seen as the last back door to…

  1. Sound Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    2013-01-01

    Linguist Rosina Lippi-Green concludes in her book, "English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States," "Accent discrimination can be found everywhere in our daily lives. In fact, such behavior is so commonly accepted, so widely perceived as appropriate, that it must be seen as the last back door to…

  2. Visual Categorization of Natural Movies by Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. PMID:25100598

  3. [Preventive effects of sound insulation windows on the indoor noise levels in a street residential building in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Huang, Jing; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    To evaluate the preventive effects of sound insulation windows on traffic noise. Indoor noise levels of the residential rooms (on both the North 4th ring road side and the campus side) with closed sound insulation windows were measured using the sound level meter, and comparisons with the simultaneously measured outdoor noise levels were made. In addition, differences of indoor noise levels between rooms with closed sound insulation windows and open sound insulation windows were also compared. The average outdoor noise levels of the North 4th ring road was higher than 70 dB(A), which exceeded the limitation stated in the "Environmental Quality Standard for Noise" (GB 3096-2008) in our country. However, with the sound insulation windows closed, the indoor noise levels reduced significantly to the level under 35 dB(A) (P<0.05), which complied with the indoor noise level standards in our country. The closed or open states of the sound insulation windows had significant influence on the indoor noise levels (P<0.05). Compared with the open state of the sound insulation window, when the sound insulation windows were closed, the indoor noise levels reduced 18.8 dB(A) and 8.3 dB(A) in residential rooms facing North 4th ring road side and campus side, respectively. The results indicated that installation of insulation windows had significant noise reduction effects on street residential buildings especially on the rooms facing major traffic roads. Installation of the sound insulation windows has significant preventive effects on indoor noise in the street residential building.

  4. A post-alignment method for stereoscopic movie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xin; Chen, Xiao-yu; Bhaskaran, Vasudev; Ling, Fan; Zhu, Yun-fang; Shen, Hui-liang

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel post-alignment method. The method is both simple and effective for stereo video postproduction. A low-distortion algorithm for rectifying the epipolar lines is first introduced. Unlike traditional methods, which map the epipoles to (1,0,0) T directly, our method conducts it in two steps: 1) mapping the epipoles to points at infinity; 2) aligning the epipolar lines with x-axis. More specifically, by taking advantage of that commonly available stereoscopic movies are nearly aligned, our method keeps one of the stereo images unchanged, and the rectification is only applied to the other image. Besides epipolar non-parallel distortions, disparity distortion is also an important issue to consider for the stereoscopic movie. We propose a new constraint for stereoscopic video alignment such that the variations of disparities is also minimized. Experimental results have demonstrated that our method obtains better visual effect than the state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Cosmic origins: experiences making a stereoscopic 3D movie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliman, Nick

    2010-02-01

    Context: Stereoscopic 3D movies are gaining rapid acceptance commercially. In addition our previous experience with the short 3D movie "Cosmic Cookery" showed that there is great public interest in the presentation of cosmology research using this medium. Objective: The objective of the work reported in this paper was to create a three-dimensional stereoscopic movie describing the life of the Milky way galaxy. This was a technical and artistic exercise to take observed and simulated data from leading scientists and produce a short (six minute) movie that describes how the Milky Way was created and what happens in its future. The initial target audience was the visitors to the Royal Society's 2009 Summer Science Exhibition in central London, UK. The movie is also intended to become a presentation tool for scientists and educators following the exhibition. Apparatus: The presentation and playback systems used consisted of off-the shelf devices and software. The display platform for the Royal Society presentation was a RealD LP Pro switch used with a DLP projector to rear project a 4 metre diagonal image. The LP Pro enables the use of cheap disposable linearly polarising glasses so that the high turnover rate of the audience (every ten minutes at peak times) could be sustained without needing delays to clean the glasses. The playback system was a high speed PC with an external 8Tb RAID driving the projectors at 30Hz per eye, the Lightspeed DepthQ software was used to decode and generate the video stream. Results: A wide range of tools were used to render the image sequences, ranging from commercial to custom software. Each tool was able to produce a stream of 1080p images in stereo at 30fps. None of the rendering tools used allowed precise calibration of the stereo effect at render time and therefore all sequences were tuned extensively in a trial and error process until the stereo effect was acceptable and supported a comfortable viewing experience. Conclusion: We

  6. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  7. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  8. Approaches for evaluating the effects of bivalve filter feeding on nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Marine bivalves such as clams, mussels, and oysters are an important component of the food web, which influence nutrient dynamics and water quality in many estuaries. The role of bivalves in nutrient dynamics and, particularly, the contribution of commercial shellfish activities, are not well understood in Puget Sound, Washington. Numerous approaches have been used in other estuaries to quantify the effects of bivalves on nutrient dynamics, ranging from simple nutrient budgeting to sophisticated numerical models that account for tidal circulation, bioenergetic fluxes through food webs, and biochemical transformations in the water column and sediment. For nutrient management in Puget Sound, it might be possible to integrate basic biophysical indicators (residence time, phytoplankton growth rates, and clearance rates of filter feeders) as a screening tool to identify places where nutrient dynamics and water quality are likely to be sensitive to shellfish density and, then, apply more sophisticated methods involving in-situ measurements and simulation models to quantify those dynamics.

  9. Effects of Singing Bowl Sound Meditation on Mood, Tension, and Well-being: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Goldsby, Tamara L; Goldsby, Michael E; McWalters, Mary; Mills, Paul J

    2016-09-30

    Poor mood and elevated anxiety are linked to increased incidence of disease. This study examined the effects of sound meditation, specifically Tibetan singing bowl meditation, on mood, anxiety, pain, and spiritual well-being. Sixty-two women and men (mean age 49.7 years) participated. As compared with pre-meditation, following the sound meditation participants reported significantly less tension, anger, fatigue, and depressed mood (all Ps <.001). Additionally, participants who were previously naïve to this type of meditation experienced a significantly greater reduction in tension compared with participants experienced in this meditation (P < .001). Feeling of spiritual well-being significantly increased across all participants (P < .001). Tibetan singing bowl meditation may be a feasible low-cost low technology intervention for reducing feelings of tension, anxiety, and depression, and increasing spiritual well-being. This meditation type may be especially useful in decreasing tension in individuals who have not previously practiced this form of meditation.

  10. NEW APPROACHES: The Doppler effect: a unified approach for sound and light waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, O. P.

    1996-11-01

    A derivation of the Doppler effect is presented where the analysis of the Doppler shift for sound is the same as for electromagnetic waves (in vacuum). Furthermore, for sound waves the treatment is the same no matter whether only the sounce (S) is moving (with respect to the medium), or only the observer (O), or both S and O. The analysis shows clearly that the basic cause of the Doppler shift is the relative velocity between S and O in all cases, and not just for electromagnetic waves (where individual velocities of S and O are not even definable). The difference in the expressions for the Doppler shift in different cases is due to other factors which are easy to understand.

  11. The effect of shift rotation on variations of cortisol, fatigue and sleep in sound engineers.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to study the effect of rotation direction on the time-of-day variations of cortisol, fatigue and sleep in sound engineers broadcasting in a life show. The salivary cortisol and ratings of stress, sleepiness and fatigue were followed at three hour intervals in 25 sound engineers: 13 working very fast forward-rotating shifts and 12 working very fast backward-rotating shifts. Cortisol was assessed with radioimmunological kits. The participants reported for stress symptoms and filled sleep diary. Cortisol retained the typical diurnal pattern. The rotation direction interacted with the shift significantly and as a result higher cortisol values during the morning and night shifts in the backward rotating group were found as well as worse quality of sleep. Higher salivary cortisol during morning and night shifts and worse quality of sleep in engineers working very fast backward-rotating shifts may be an indication for insufficient recovery.

  12. The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2012-11-07

    Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs), emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.

  13. The effect of vocal fold vertical stiffness gradient on sound production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Biao; Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    It is observed in some experimental studies on canine vocal folds (VFs) that the inferior aspect of the vocal fold (VF) is much stiffer than the superior aspect under relatively large strain. Such vertical difference is supposed to promote the convergent-divergent shape during VF vibration and consequently facilitate the production of sound. In this study, we investigate the effect of vertical variation of VF stiffness on sound production using a numerical model. The vertical variation of stiffness is produced by linearly increasing the Young's modulus and shear modulus from the superior to inferior aspects in the cover layer, and its effect on phonation is examined in terms of aerodynamic and acoustic quantities such as flow rate, open quotient, skewness of flow wave form, sound intensity and vocal efficiency. The flow-induced vibration of the VF is solved with a finite element solver coupled with 1D Bernoulli equation, which is further coupled with a digital waveguide model. This study is designed to find out whether it's beneficial to artificially induce the vertical stiffness gradient by certain implanting material in VF restoring surgery, and if it is beneficial, what gradient is the most favorable.

  14. Effect of disorder on bulk sound wave speed: a multiscale spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Disorder of size (polydispersity) and mass of discrete elements or particles in randomly structured media (e.g., granular matter such as soil) has numerous effects on the materials' sound propagation characteristics. The influence of disorder on energy and momentum transport, the sound wave speed and its low-pass frequency-filtering characteristics is the subject of this study. The goal is understanding the connection between the particle-microscale disorder and dynamics and the system-macroscale wave propagation, which can be applied to nondestructive testing, seismic exploration of buried objects (oil, mineral, etc.) or to study the internal structure of the Earth. To isolate the longitudinal P-wave mode from shear and rotational modes, a one-dimensional system of equally sized elements or particles is used to study the effect of mass disorder alone via (direct and/or ensemble averaged) real time signals, signals in Fourier space, energy and dispersion curves. Increase in mass disorder (where disorder has been defined such that it is independent of the shape of the probability distribution of masses) decreases the sound wave speed along a granular chain. Energies associated with the eigenmodes can be used to obtain better quality dispersion relations for disordered chains; these dispersion relations confirm the decrease in pass frequency and wave speed with increasing disorder acting opposite to the wave acceleration close to the source.

  15. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    PubMed

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  16. Healing sounds.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J F

    1998-02-01

    This article explores Guzzetta's (1988) notion that musical vibrations that are in tune with our human vibratory pattern could have a profound healing effect on the entire body. The question of why music therapy works for some and not others is addressed in the paper and solutions are offered. Central to utilizing therapeutic music and healing sounds with positive effects is an understanding of the principles and theories of sound and harmonics, in order to comprehend its capacity to achieve therapeutic, psychological and physical change. Some of these principles and theories are explored in this article. There is a focus on strategies for the holistic nurse who wishes to use this knowledge to facilitate communication and balance between the mind and body of the patient.

  17. Effects of Hurricane Floyd Inland Flooding, September-October 1999, on Tributaries to Pamlico Sound, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Hurricane Floyd in September 1999 caused disastrous flooding from South Carolina to Massachusetts in the United States, with particularly severe and prolonged flooding in eastern North Carolina resulting in record flood-flow loadings of freshwater and contaminants to Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. The inland flooding, water quality, and loadings to Pamlico Sound were determined as part of a multi-agency response to the floods and in an effort to understand the effects of the floods on the greater Pamlico Sound Basin. All major river basins draining to Pamlico Sound experienced floods at the 500-yr recurrence level. The volume of flood waters entering Pamlico Sound during September-October 1999 was estimated to be equivalent to about 95% of the volume of Pamlico Sound, meaning that flood waters could have essentially displaced most of the water present in Pamlico Sound. Nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the Pamlico River estuary and Neuse River estuary, the two principal estuaries draining to Pamlico Sound, in a 36-d period during the flooding were between 50-90% of the long term average annual loads. Pesticide concentrations in flood waters were surprisingly high, given the amount of dilution produced by the floodwaters.

  18. Difference in precedence effect between children and adults signifies development of sound localization abilities in complex listening tasks.

    PubMed

    Litovsky, Ruth Y; Godar, Shelly P

    2010-10-01

    The precedence effect refers to the fact that humans are able to localize sound in reverberant environments, because the auditory system assigns greater weight to the direct sound (lead) than the later-arriving sound (lag). In this study, absolute sound localization was studied for single source stimuli and for dual source lead-lag stimuli in 4-5 year old children and adults. Lead-lag delays ranged from 5-100 ms. Testing was conducted in free field, with pink noise bursts emitted from loudspeakers positioned on a horizontal arc in the frontal field. Listeners indicated how many sounds were heard and the perceived location of the first- and second-heard sounds. Results suggest that at short delays (up to 10 ms), the lead dominates sound localization strongly at both ages, and localization errors are similar to those with single-source stimuli. At longer delays errors can be large, stemming from over-integration of the lead and lag, interchanging of perceived locations of the first-heard and second-heard sounds due to temporal order confusion, and dominance of the lead over the lag. The errors are greater for children than adults. Results are discussed in the context of maturation of auditory and non-auditory factors.

  19. Effects of coordination and pressure on sound attenuation, boson peak and elasticity in amorphous solids.

    PubMed

    DeGiuli, Eric; Laversanne-Finot, Adrien; Düring, Gustavo; Lerner, Edan; Wyart, Matthieu

    2014-08-14

    Connectedness and applied stress strongly affect elasticity in solids. In various amorphous materials, mechanical stability can be lost either by reducing connectedness or by increasing pressure. We present an effective medium theory of elasticity that extends previous approaches by incorporating the effect of compression, of amplitude e, allowing one to describe quantitative features of sound propagation, transport, the boson peak, and elastic moduli near the elastic instability occurring at a compression ec. The theory disentangles several frequencies characterizing the vibrational spectrum: the onset frequency where strongly-scattered modes appear in the vibrational spectrum, the pressure-independent frequency ω* where the density of states displays a plateau, the boson peak frequency ωBP found to scale as , and the Ioffe-Regel frequency ωIR where scattering length and wavelength become equal. We predict that sound attenuation crosses over from ω(4) to ω(2) behaviour at ω0, consistent with observations in glasses. We predict that a frequency-dependent length scale ls(ω) and speed of sound ν(ω) characterize vibrational modes, and could be extracted from scattering data. One key result is the prediction of a flat diffusivity above ω0, in agreement with previously unexplained observations. We find that the shear modulus does not vanish at the elastic instability, but drops by a factor of 2. We check our predictions in packings of soft particles and study the case of covalent networks and silica, for which we predict ωIR ≈ ωBP. Overall, our approach unifies sound attenuation, transport and length scales entering elasticity in a single framework where disorder is not the main parameter controlling the boson peak, in agreement with observations. This framework leads to a phase diagram where various glasses can be placed, connecting microscopic structure to vibrational properties.

  20. Assessing the effects of anthropogenic stressors on Puget Sound flatfish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lyndal L.; Landahl, John T.; Kubin, Leslie A.; Horness, Beth H.; Myers, Mark S.; Collier, Tracy K.; Stein, John E.

    1998-03-01

    Puget Sound is an estuary in the northwestern United States which serves as the habitat for a number of recreationally and commercially important species of flatfish. Over the past 100 years, there has been substantial urban and industrial development within this region, resulting in heavy inputs of chemical contaminants at selected sites, as well as significant loss or alteration of marine habitat. Studies show that feral flatfish in Puget Sound are experiencing a range of biological effects due to chemical contaminant exposure, including reproductive dysfunction, altered immune competence, and development of toxicopathic diseases, and there is some evidence of reduced survival in fish from urban areas of Puget Sound from increased infectious and toxicopathic disease. Puget Sound sole are also subject to other anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing pressure or alteration of nearshore nursery habitats. The cumulative impact of these stressors on flatfish abundance in Puget Sound, however, is poorly understood. In a series of field and laboratory studies, we determined vital rates and other life history parameters in English sole ( Pleuronectes vetulus) subpopulations from urban and non-urban sites in Puget Sound, and are using this information to estimate potential population level impacts of anthropogenic stressors, with age and stage-based Leslie-matrix models. Initial results suggest that declines in the fecundity component of the model, as observed in field studies of fish from contaminated sites, could reduce the size of sub-populations in these areas if the loss of recruits is not offset by density-dependent changes in recruitment, immigration, or other compensating mechanisms. Studies on flatfish species from a variety of sites in Europe and North America suggest that contaminant-related disease and reproductive impairment are widespread in this group of fish, although substantial differences in sensitivity have been observed, even among closely related

  1. Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Zeena; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vohs, Kathleen; van Baaren, Rick B; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial breaks and afterwards completed a questionnaire. Smoking during the session was allowed and observed. Results Exposure to the movie with smoking had no effect on smoking intensity. Those who viewed two antismoking ads had significantly lower smoking intensity compared with those who viewed two prosocial ads. There was no interaction between movie smoking and antismoking ads. Baseline CO (carbon monoxide) level had the largest effect on smoking intensity. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence to support antismoking ads placed with movies because of their possible effect on young adult smoking behaviour. However, caution is warranted, because nicotine dependence appears to be the primary predictor of smoking intensity among young adult smokers in this study. PMID:20008155

  2. Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Zeena; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vohs, Kathleen; van Baaren, Rick B; Sargent, James

    2010-06-01

    This study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults. We conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial breaks and afterwards completed a questionnaire. Smoking during the session was allowed and observed. Exposure to the movie with smoking had no effect on smoking intensity. Those who viewed two antismoking ads had significantly lower smoking intensity compared with those who viewed two prosocial ads. There was no interaction between movie smoking and antismoking ads. Baseline CO (carbon monoxide) level had the largest effect on smoking intensity. These findings provide further evidence to support antismoking ads placed with movies because of their possible effect on young adult smoking behaviour. However, caution is warranted, because nicotine dependence appears to be the primary predictor of smoking intensity among young adult smokers in this study.

  3. Representation of Sound Objects within Early-Stage Auditory Areas: A Repetition Effect Study Using 7T fMRI.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Sandra; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Knebel, Jean-François; Saenz, Melissa; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sounds are highly complex stimuli whose recognition depends on the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes in the brain. Their semantic representations were shown to yield repetition suppression effects, i. e. a decrease in activity during exposure to a sound that is perceived as belonging to the same source as a preceding sound. Making use of the high spatial resolution of 7T fMRI we have investigated the representations of sound objects within early-stage auditory areas on the supratemporal plane. The primary auditory cortex was identified by means of tonotopic mapping and the non-primary areas by comparison with previous histological studies. Repeated presentations of different exemplars of the same sound source, as compared to the presentation of different sound sources, yielded significant repetition suppression effects within a subset of early-stage areas. This effect was found within the right hemisphere in primary areas A1 and R as well as two non-primary areas on the antero-medial part of the planum temporale, and within the left hemisphere in A1 and a non-primary area on the medial part of Heschl's gyrus. Thus, several, but not all early-stage auditory areas encode the meaning of environmental sounds.

  4. Representation of Sound Objects within Early-Stage Auditory Areas: A Repetition Effect Study Using 7T fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Sandra; Bourquin, Nathalie M.-P.; Knebel, Jean-François; Saenz, Melissa; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sounds are highly complex stimuli whose recognition depends on the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes in the brain. Their semantic representations were shown to yield repetition suppression effects, i. e. a decrease in activity during exposure to a sound that is perceived as belonging to the same source as a preceding sound. Making use of the high spatial resolution of 7T fMRI we have investigated the representations of sound objects within early-stage auditory areas on the supratemporal plane. The primary auditory cortex was identified by means of tonotopic mapping and the non-primary areas by comparison with previous histological studies. Repeated presentations of different exemplars of the same sound source, as compared to the presentation of different sound sources, yielded significant repetition suppression effects within a subset of early-stage areas. This effect was found within the right hemisphere in primary areas A1 and R as well as two non-primary areas on the antero-medial part of the planum temporale, and within the left hemisphere in A1 and a non-primary area on the medial part of Heschl’s gyrus. Thus, several, but not all early-stage auditory areas encode the meaning of environmental sounds. PMID:25938430

  5. Sexual dimorphism in the effect of sound stress on neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrienne S; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2008-12-15

    It has been hypothesized that stress contributes to the severity of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are incompletely understood. In this study we investigated the effects of sound stress on function of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil-immune cells that play key roles in both the acute and chronic inflammatory response. Specifically, we examined the effect of stress on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phagocytosis by rat neutrophils, and the role of sympathoadrenal stress axis in these effects. Since many inflammatory diseases exhibit sexual dimorphism, we also investigated the contribution of sex and gonadal hormones to the effects of stress on neutrophil function. Peripheral blood neutrophils were harvested from male and female rats exposed to intermittent sound stress (over 4 days). Stress suppressed ROS production in males (but not females) an effect that was eliminated in adrenal medullectomized males. Stress also suppressed neutrophil phagocytosis in males and females. Again, this effect was absent following adrenal medullectomy. To investigate the role of sex hormones in these sexual dimorphic responses to stress, rats were gonadectomized prepubertally and exposed to stress as adults. In gonadectomized males, stress produced an even larger decrease in ROS production, but had no effect on the stress-induced inhibition of phagocytosis. Gonadectomy prevented the stress-induced inhibition of neutrophil phagocytosis in females. These data indicate that the adrenal medulla, perhaps via release of epinephrine, suppresses neutrophil ROS production in males and phagocytosis in males and females.

  6. 78 FR 78822 - Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals-Acoustic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Marine Fisheries Service... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)), announces the availability of draft guidance for assessing the effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammal species under NOAA's jurisdiction. The...

  7. Microbiological safety of glasses dispensed at 3D movie theatres.

    PubMed

    De Giusti, Maria; Marinelli, Lucia; Ursillo, Paolo; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Cottarelli, Alessia; Palazzo, Caterina; Marzuillo, Carolina; Solimini, Angelo Giuseppe; Boccia, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Recent popularity of three-dimensional movies raised some concern about microbiological safety of glasses dispensed into movie theatres. In this study, we analysed the level of microbiological contamination on them before and after use and between theatres adopting manual and automatic sanitation systems. The manual sanitation system was more effective in reducing the total mesophilic count levels compared with the automatic system (P < 0.05), but no differences were found for coagulase-positive staphylococci levels (P = 0.22). No differences were found for mould and yeast between before and after levels (P = 0.21) and between sanitation systems (P = 0.44). We conclude that more evidences are needed to support microbiological risk evaluation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. A Sieving ANN for Emotion-Based Movie Clip Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanapa, Saowaluk C.; Thipakorn, Bundit; Charoenkitkarn, Nipon

    Effective classification and analysis of semantic contents are very important for the content-based indexing and retrieval of video database. Our research attempts to classify movie clips into three groups of commonly elicited emotions, namely excitement, joy and sadness, based on a set of abstract-level semantic features extracted from the film sequence. In particular, these features consist of six visual and audio measures grounded on the artistic film theories. A unique sieving-structured neural network is proposed to be the classifying model due to its robustness. The performance of the proposed model is tested with 101 movie clips excerpted from 24 award-winning and well-known Hollywood feature films. The experimental result of 97.8% correct classification rate, measured against the collected human-judges, indicates the great potential of using abstract-level semantic features as an engineered tool for the application of video-content retrieval/indexing.

  9. Effect of source spectrum on sound localization in an everyday reverberant room.

    PubMed

    Ihlefeld, Antje; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2011-07-01

    Two experiments explored how frequency content impacts sound localization for sounds containing reverberant energy. Virtual sound sources from thirteen lateral angles and four distances were simulated in the frontal horizontal plane using binaural room impulse responses measured in an everyday office. Experiment 1 compared localization judgments for one-octave-wide noise centered at either 750 Hz (low) or 6000 Hz (high). For both band-limited noises, perceived lateral angle varied monotonically with source angle. For frontal sources, perceived locations were similar for low- and high-frequency noise; however, for lateral sources, localization was less accurate for low-frequency noise than for high-frequency noise. With increasing source distance, judgments of both noises became more biased toward the median plane, an effect that was greater for low-frequency noise than for high-frequency noise. In Experiment 2, simultaneous presentation of low- and high-frequency noises yielded performance that was less accurate than that for high-frequency noise, but equal to or better than for low-frequency noise. Results suggest that listeners perceptually weight low-frequency information heavily, even in reverberant conditions where high-frequency stimuli are localized more accurately. These findings show that listeners do not always optimally adjust how localization cues are integrated over frequency in reverberant settings. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  10. Effect of source spectrum on sound localization in an everyday reverberant room

    PubMed Central

    Ihlefeld, Antje; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments explored how frequency content impacts sound localization for sounds containing reverberant energy. Virtual sound sources from thirteen lateral angles and four distances were simulated in the frontal horizontal plane using binaural room impulse responses measured in an everyday office. Experiment 1 compared localization judgments for one-octave-wide noise centered at either 750 Hz (low) or 6000 Hz (high). For both band-limited noises, perceived lateral angle varied monotonically with source angle. For frontal sources, perceived locations were similar for low- and high-frequency noise; however, for lateral sources, localization was less accurate for low-frequency noise than for high-frequency noise. With increasing source distance, judgments of both noises became more biased toward the median plane, an effect that was greater for low-frequency noise than for high-frequency noise. In Experiment 2, simultaneous presentation of low- and high-frequency noises yielded performance that was less accurate than that for high-frequency noise, but equal to or better than for low-frequency noise. Results suggest that listeners perceptually weight low-frequency information heavily, even in reverberant conditions where high-frequency stimuli are localized more accurately. These findings show that listeners do not always optimally adjust how localization cues are integrated over frequency in reverberant settings. PMID:21786902

  11. A Filmography of Films About Movies and Movie-Making. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, David L.

    More than 230 titles of films on the subject of movie-making are listed. The listed films illustrate many aspects of motion picture production, the history of cinema, general facts about movie film, and the nature of the film medium. The range of films included is wide. Selections deal with, among other subjects, the aesthetics of film, the…

  12. Effect of sound intensity on tonotopic fMRI maps in the unanesthetized monkey

    PubMed Central

    Tanji, Kazuyo; Leopold, David; Ye, Frank; Zhu, Charles; Malloy, Megan; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    The monkey’s auditory cortex includes a core region on the supratemporal plane (STP) made up of the tonotopically organized areas A1, R, and RT, together with a surrounding belt and a lateral parabelt region. The functional studies that yielded the tonotopic maps and corroborated the anatomical division into core, belt, and parabelt typically used low-amplitude pure tones that were often restricted to threshold-level intensities. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake rhesus monkeys to determine whether, and if so how, the tonotopic maps and the pattern of activation in core, belt, and parabelt are affected by systematic changes in sound intensity. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to groups of low- and high-frequency pure tones 3-4 octaves apart were measured at multiple sound intensity levels. The results revealed tonotopic maps in the auditory core that reversed at the putative areal boundaries between A1 and R and between R and RT. Although these reversals of the tonotopic representations were present at all intensity levels, the lateral spread of activation depended on sound amplitude, with increasing recruitment of the adjacent belt areas as the intensities increased. Tonotopic organization along the STP was also evident in frequency-specific deactivation (i.e. “negative BOLD”), an effect that was intensity-specific as well. Regions of positive and negative BOLD were spatially interleaved, possibly reflecting lateral inhibition of high frequency areas during activation of adjacent low frequency areas, and vice versa. These results, which demonstrate the strong influence of tonal amplitude on activation levels, identify sound intensity as an important adjunct parameter for mapping the functional architecture of auditory cortex. PMID:19631273

  13. Effect of sound intensity on tonotopic fMRI maps in the unanesthetized monkey.

    PubMed

    Tanji, Kazuyo; Leopold, David A; Ye, Frank Q; Zhu, Charles; Malloy, Megan; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-01-01

    The monkey's auditory cortex includes a core region on the supratemporal plane (STP) made up of the tonotopically organized areas A1, R, and RT, together with a surrounding belt and a lateral parabelt region. The functional studies that yielded the tonotopic maps and corroborated the anatomical division into core, belt, and parabelt typically used low-amplitude pure tones that were often restricted to threshold-level intensities. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake rhesus monkeys to determine whether, and if so how, the tonotopic maps and the pattern of activation in core, belt, and parabelt are affected by systematic changes in sound intensity. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses to groups of low- and high-frequency pure tones 3-4 octaves apart were measured at multiple sound intensity levels. The results revealed tonotopic maps in the auditory core that reversed at the putative areal boundaries between A1 and R and between R and RT. Although these reversals of the tonotopic representations were present at all intensity levels, the lateral spread of activation depended on sound amplitude, with increasing recruitment of the adjacent belt areas as the intensities increased. Tonotopic organization along the STP was also evident in frequency-specific deactivation (i.e. "negative BOLD"), an effect that was intensity-specific as well. Regions of positive and negative BOLD were spatially interleaved, possibly reflecting lateral inhibition of high-frequency areas during activation of adjacent low-frequency areas, and vice versa. These results, which demonstrate the strong influence of tonal amplitude on activation levels, identify sound intensity as an important adjunct parameter for mapping the functional architecture of auditory cortex.

  14. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  15. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  16. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna…

  17. Sound Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne, Ed.; And Others

    Sound symbolism is the study of the relationship between the sound of an utterance and its meaning. In this interdisciplinary collection of new studies, 24 leading scholars discuss the role of sound symbolism in a theory of language. Contributions and authors include the following: "Sound-Symbolic Processes" (Leanne Hinton, Johanna…

  18. Effects of hydrokinetic turbine sound on the behavior of four species of fish within an experimental mesocosm

    DOE PAGES

    Schramm, Michael P.; Bevelhimer, Mark; Scherelis, Constantin

    2017-02-04

    The development of hydrokinetic energy technologies (e.g., tidal turbines) has raised concern over the potential impacts of underwater sound produced by hydrokinetic turbines on fish species likely to encounter these turbines. To assess the potential for behavioral impacts, we exposed four species of fish to varying intensities of recorded hydrokinetic turbine sound in a semi-natural environment. Although we tested freshwater species (redhorse suckers [Moxostoma spp], freshwater drum [Aplondinotus grunniens], largemouth bass [Micropterus salmoides], and rainbow trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss]), these species are also representative of the hearing physiology and sensitivity of estuarine species that would be affected at tidal energy sites.more » Here, we evaluated changes in fish position relative to different intensities of turbine sound as well as trends in location over time with linear mixed-effects and generalized additive mixed models. We also evaluated changes in the proportion of near-source detections relative to sound intensity and exposure time with generalized linear mixed models and generalized additive models. Models indicated that redhorse suckers may respond to sustained turbine sound by increasing distance from the sound source. Freshwater drum models suggested a mixed response to turbine sound, and largemouth bass and rainbow trout models did not indicate any likely responses to turbine sound. Lastly, findings highlight the importance for future research to utilize accurate localization systems, different species, validated sound transmission distances, and to consider different types of behavioral responses to different turbine designs and to the cumulative sound of arrays of multiple turbines.« less

  19. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  20. Frequencies of Inaudible High-Frequency Sounds Differentially Affect Brain Activity: Positive and Negative Hypersonic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10–13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141

  1. Exposure to smoking imagery in the movies and experimenting with cigarettes among Mexican heritage youth.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Spitz, Margaret R; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Bondy, Melissa L; Shete, Sanjay; Sargent, James D

    2009-12-01

    There is growing evidence that an adolescent's decision to try cigarettes is influenced by level of exposure to movies in which smoking is portrayed. Less is known about how ethnicity affects this process. We examined whether acculturation and/or country of birth influence the relationship between exposure to smoking imagery in the movies and experimenting with cigarettes among Mexican origin youth. We prospectively followed 1,328 Mexican origin adolescents ages 11 to 13 years at baseline. We assessed which of 50 movies (randomly selected from a pool of 250 popular contemporary movies released from 1999 to 2004 and content analyzed for smoking) adolescents had seen. Smoking behavior was assessed at baseline and at 6-month intervals over 24 months. Ten percent of the adolescents had experimented at baseline; 17% tried subsequently. Multivariate analyses revealed, as exposure to smoking imagery in the movies increased, the chances of having ever experimented [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.48] and of being a new experimenter (AOR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.40) increased, equivalent to a 4.2% increased risk of ever and a 3.0% increased risk of new experimenting for each additional quartile of movie exposure. This effect was moderated by country of birth. For Mexican-born youth, exposure to smoking imagery in the movies was the strongest independent predictor of new experimentation (AOR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.14-2.05). For U.S.-born youth, we observed a ceiling effect: the percent of experimenters increased with increasing exposure, and then flattened. Among Mexican-born youth, exposure to smoking imagery in the movies may be an important part of the acculturation process associated with smoking initiation.

  2. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in the Movies and Experimenting with Cigarettes among Mexican Heritage Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Spitz, Margaret R.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Shete, Sanjay; Sargent, James D

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that an adolescent’s decision to try cigarettes is influenced by level of exposure to movies in which smoking is portrayed. Less is known about how ethnicity affects this process. We examined whether acculturation and/or country of birth influence the relationship between exposure to smoking imagery in the movies and experimenting with cigarettes among Mexican origin youth. We prospectively followed 1,328 Mexican origin adolescents aged 11–13 at baseline. We assessed which of 50 movies (randomly selected from a pool of 250 popular contemporary movies released from 1999–2004 and content analyzed for smoking) adolescents had seen. Smoking behavior was assessed at baseline and at 6-month intervals over 24 months. 10% of the adolescents had experimented at baseline; 17% tried subsequently. Multivariate analyses revealed, as exposure to smoking imagery in the movies increased, the chances of having ever experimented (AOR=1.27; 95% CI: 1.10–1.48) and of being a new experimenter (AOR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.01–1.40) increased, equivalent to a 4.2% increased risk of ever and a 3.0% increased risk of new experimenting for each additional quartile of movie exposure. This effect was moderated by country of birth. For Mexican-born youth, exposure to smoking imagery in the movies was the strongest independent predictor of new experimentation (AOR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.14–2.05). For US-born youth, we observed a ceiling effect: the percent of experimenters increased with increasing exposure, and then flattened. Among Mexican-born youth exposure to smoking imagery in the movies may be an important part of the acculturation process associated with smoking initiation. PMID:19959693

  3. Sound waves induce Volkov-like states, band structure and collimation effect in graphene.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Leyva, M; Naumis, Gerardo G

    2016-01-20

    We find exact states of graphene quasiparticles under a time-dependent deformation (sound wave), whose propagation velocity is smaller than the Fermi velocity. To solve the corresponding effective Dirac equation, we adapt the Volkov-like solutions for relativistic fermions in a medium under a plane electromagnetic wave. The corresponding electron-deformation quasiparticle spectrum is determined by the solutions of a Mathieu equation resulting in band tongues warped in the surface of the Dirac cones. This leads to a collimation effect of electron conduction due to strain waves.

  4. Aperiodicity effects on sound transmission through arrays of identical cylinders perpendicular to the ground.

    PubMed

    Taherzadeh, Shahram; Bashir, Imran; Attenborough, Keith

    2012-10-01

    Results of laboratory measurements of sound transmission through 5 × 10 arrays of meter long polyvinyl chloride pipes with lattice constants of 5 and 10 cm with filling fractions of 13% and 50% located either on medium density fibreboard or a layer of felt are reported. Ground effects and sonic crystal effects are found to be additive. Measurements and predictions show that, while there is little broadband advantage in a periodic configuration compared with a random one, a quasi-periodic arrangement in which the perturbation has a standard deviation equal to the scatterer diameter gives the best overall attenuation.

  5. Pass the Popcorn: “Obesogenic” Behaviors and Stigma in Children’s Movies

    PubMed Central

    Throop, Elizabeth M.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Perrin, Andrew J.; Steiner, Michael J.; Odulana, Adebowale; Perrin, Eliana M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of obesity-related behaviors and attitudes in children’s movies. Design and Methods We performed a mixed-methods study of the top-grossing G- and PG-rated movies, 2006–2010 (4 per year). For each 10-minute movie segment the following were assessed: 1) prevalence of key nutrition and physical activity behaviors corresponding to the American Academy of Pediatrics obesity prevention recommendations for families; 2) prevalence of weight stigma; 3) assessment as healthy, unhealthy, or neutral; 3) free-text interpretations of stigma. Results Agreement between coders was greater than 85% (Cohen’s kappa=0.7), good for binary responses. Segments with food depicted: exaggerated portion size (26%); unhealthy snacks (51%); sugar-sweetened beverages (19%). Screen time was also prevalent (40% of movies showed television; 35% computer; 20% video games). Unhealthy segments outnumbered healthy segments 2:1. Most (70%) of the movies included weight-related stigmatizing content (e.g. “That fat butt! Flabby arms! And this ridiculous belly!”). Conclusions These popular children’s movies had significant “obesogenic” content, and most contained weight-based stigma. They present a mixed message to children: promoting unhealthy behaviors while stigmatizing the behaviors’ possible effects. Further research is needed to determine the effects of such messages on children. PMID:24311390

  6. Smoking in top-grossing movies --- United States, 1991-2009.

    PubMed

    2010-08-20

    Exposure to onscreen smoking in movies increases the probability that youths will start smoking. Youths who are heavily exposed to onscreen smoking are approximately two to three times more likely to begin smoking than youths who are lightly exposed; a similar, but smaller effect exists for young adults. To monitor the extent to which tobacco use is shown in popular movies, Thumbs Up! Thumbs Down! (TUTD), a project of Breathe California of Sacramento-Emigrant Trails, counted the occurrences of tobacco use (termed "incidents") shown in U.S. top-grossing movies during 1991-2009. This report summarizes the results of that study, which found that the number of tobacco incidents depicted in the movies during this period peaked in 2005 and then progressively declined. Top-grossing movies released in 2009 contained 49% of the number of onscreen smoking incidents as observed in 2005 (1,935 incidents in 2009 versus 3,967 incidents in 2005). Further reduction of tobacco use depicted in popular movies could lead to less initiation of smoking among adolescents. Effective methods to reduce the potential harmful influence of onscreen tobacco use should be implemented.

  7. Laboratory measurements of the effect of internal waves on sound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry L.; Lin, Ying-Tsong

    2016-11-01

    The fidelity of acoustic signals used in communication and imaging in the oceans is limited by density fluctuations arising from many sources, particularly from internal waves. We present results from laboratory experiments on sound propagation through an internal wave field produced by a wave generator consisting of multiple oscillating plates. The fluid density as a function of height is measured and used to determine the sound speed as a function of the height. Sound pulses from a transducer propagate through the fluctuating stratified density field and are detected to determine sound refraction, pulse arrival time, and sound signal distortion. The results are compared with sound ray model and numerical models of underwater sound propagation. The laboratory experiments can explore the parameter dependence by varying the fluid density profile, the sound pulse signal, and the internal wave amplitude and frequency. The results lead to a better understanding of sound propagation through and scattered by internal waves.

  8. The effect of an online video intervention 'Movie Models' on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to children's physical activity, screen-time and healthy diet: a quasi experimental study.

    PubMed

    De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté

    2017-04-27

    In children, being sufficiently physically active, having low levels of screen-time and having a healthy diet are largely influenced by parenting practices. Children of parents applying positive parenting practices are at lower risk for overweight and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a health promoting online video intervention for parents ('Movie Models') on children's physical activity (PA), screen-time and healthy diet, and on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to these parenting practices. The online videos are delivered to parents of primary schoolchildren, and were based on real-life scenarios. A two-armed, quasi experimental design was used. Parents of primary schoolchildren were recruited between November and December 2013 by spreading an appeal in social media, and by contacting primary schools. Participating parents were predominantly of high socio-economic status (SES) (83.1%), and only 6.8% of children were overweight/obese. Intervention group participants were invited to watch online videos for 4 weeks. Specific parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, PA, screen-time and healthy diet of the child were assessed at baseline (T0), at one (T1) and at four (T2) months post baseline. Repeated Measures (Multivariate) ANOVAs were used to examine intervention effects. The potential moderating effect of age and gender of the child and parental SES was also examined. Between T0 and T2, no significant intervention effects were found on children's PA, screen-time or healthy diet. Most significant intervention effects were found for more complex parenting practices (e.g., an increase in motivating the child to eat fruit). Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had more effect on the actual parenting practices related to PA, screen-time and healthy diet in parents of older children (10-12 years old), whereas intervention effects on parental self-efficacy related to those behaviors were stronger in parents of

  9. Effects of forward velocity on sound radiation from convecting monopole and dipole sources in jet flow. [subsonic aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, R.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented of the effects of forward velocity of an aircraft at arbitrary subsonic speed on sound radiated from convecting monopole and dipole sources embedded in the jet flow. It is found that with increasing forward velocity there is a steadily increasing amplification (over the static case) of the sound radiated into the forward arc and a large reduction of the sound which is radiated into the rearward arc. The same trend is also shown to result when there is a reduction in the exhaust velocity, with, however, a further rise in amplification in the forward quadrant and a drop in attenuation in the aft quadrant.

  10. A pilot study of medical student attitudes to, and use of, commercial movies that address public health issues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An innovative approach to learning public health by using feature-length commercial movies was piloted in the fourth year of a medical degree. We aimed to explore how students responded to this approach and the relative effectiveness of two promotional strategies. Firstly we placed DVDs of 15 movies (with public health-related content) in the medical school library. Then alternating groups of students (total n = 82 students) were exposed to either a brief promotional intervention or a more intensive intervention involving a class presentation. The response rates were 99% at baseline and 85% at follow-up. Findings The level and strength of support for using movies in public health training increased after exposure to the public health module with significantly more students "strongly agreeing". Student behaviour, in terms of movies viewed or accessed from the library, also suggested student interest. While there were no statistically significant differences in median viewing or library access rates between the two intervention groups, the distribution of viewing patterns was shifted favourably. Those exposed to the more intensive intervention (class presentation) were significantly more likely to have reported watching at least one movie (97% vs. 81%; p = 0.033) or to having accessed at least one movie from the library (100% vs. 70%, p = 0.0001). Conclusions This pilot study found that the students had very positive attitudes towards viewing public health-related commercial movies. Movie access rates from the library were also favourable. PMID:21473773

  11. Anticipated violence, arousal, and enjoyment of movies: viewers' reactions to violent previews based on arousal-seeking tendency.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-Xin; Lee, Moon J

    2008-06-01

    The authors investigated the effects of violent portrayals in movie previews on viewers' arousal and anticipated enjoyment of movies based on their arousal-seeking tendencies. A total of 159 college students watched 6 movie previews, each in a violent or nonviolent version, and reported their expectations of enjoying watching the movies. The results show that high arousal seekers reported a higher level of anticipated enjoyment after watching the violent previews than the nonviolent previews. In contrast, low arousal seekers did not expect much difference in their enjoyment between the two versions. In line with the theory of optimal stimulation level, the results indicate that viewers' anticipated enjoyment of movies after watching violent images in previews is moderated by individuals' arousal-seeking tendencies.

  12. Influence of sound immersion and communicative interaction on the Lombard effect.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Maëva; Henrich, Nathalie; Dubois, Danièle

    2010-06-01

    To examine the influence of sound immersion techniques and speech production tasks on speech adaptation in noise. In Experiment 1, we compared the modification of speakers' perception and speech production in noise when noise is played into headphones (with and without additional self-monitoring feedback) or over loudspeakers. We also examined how this sound immersion effect depends on noise type (broadband or cocktail party) and level (from 62 to 86dB SPL). In Experiment 2, we compared the modification of acoustic and lip articulatory parameters in noise when speakers interact or not with a speech partner. Speech modifications in noise were greater when cocktail party noise was played in headphones than over loudspeakers. Such an effect was less noticeable in broadband noise. Adding a self-monitoring feedback into headphones reduced this effect but did not completely compensate for it. Speech modifications in noise were greater in interactive situation and concerned parameters that may not be related to voice intensity. The results support the idea that the Lombard effect is both a communicative adaptation and an automatic regulation of vocal intensity. The influence of auditory and communicative factors has some methodological implications on the choice of appropriate paradigms to study the Lombard effect.

  13. Smoking motives in movies are important for understanding adolescent smoking: A preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steven C.; Haviland, Amelia; Setodji, Claude; Primack, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to smoking in movies is strongly associated with smoking uptake and maintenance among adolescents. However, little is known about what features of movies (e.g., the context for smoking or motives for a character smoking) moderate the association between exposure to movie smoking and adolescent smoking. This laboratory study examined whether exposure to movie smoking that is portrayed as having a clear motive is associated with the desire to smoke differently than smoking that is portrayed as having no clear motive. Methods: A sample of 77 middle school students (mean age of 12.8 years, 62% male, 60% Caucasian) viewed movie clips that portrayed smoking as helping to facilitate social interaction, to relax, to appear rebellious, or as having no clear motive. After exposure to each clip, participants rated their desire to smoke. Results: Exposure to clips where smoking was portrayed as helping characters to relax was associated with a significantly stronger desire to smoke compared with clips where the motive for smoking was unclear. Desire to smoke was similar for clips where no motive was clear, social smoking clips, and rebellious smoking clips. Discussion: These results suggest that the way that smoking is portrayed in movies is important in determining its effect on adolescent smoking. PMID:20576800

  14. Dog Movie Stars and Dog Breed Popularity: A Case Study in Media Influence on Choice

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend—a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends. PMID:25208271

  15. Can movie theater advertisements promote health behaviors? Evaluation of a flu vaccination pilot campaign.

    PubMed

    Peddecord, K Michael; Jacobson, Isabel Gomez; Engelberg, Moshe; Kwizera, Lisa; Macias, Violet; Gustafson, Kathleen W

    2008-09-01

    As part of a multimedia campaign to promote annual influenza vaccination, three slides were shown as part of the slide show of advertisements prior to the beginning of previews in movie theaters in San Diego County. Intercept surveys were conducted following the movie. The primary target groups for the campaign were adults with children 6 months to 2 years of age and adults over 50 years of age. Overall, 88% of exposed patrons reported seeing some type of movie ad. Among those who recalled any ad, 24% recalled the flu advertisement. In contrast, recall of flu-related news coverage was high, with over 95% of exposed and comparison interviewees recalling news stories during the campaign period. While 56% of those interviewed remembered one or more specific flu-related news items, individuals within this group who also had also been exposed to the movie ads were not more likely to recall flu campaign advertisements. We describe a method for estimating valid recalls and cost per valid exposure. Further research that compares movie ads with public service announcements (PSAs) in other venues is necessary to solidify our conclusions that movie advertising is a highly cost-effective medium for health communication.

  16. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends.

  17. Effects of capacity limits, memory loss, and sound type in change deafness.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Melissa K; Irsik, Vanessa C; Snyder, Joel S

    2017-08-30

    Change deafness, the inability to notice changes to auditory scenes, has the potential to provide insights about sound perception in busy situations typical of everyday life. We determined the extent to which change deafness to sounds is due to the capacity of processing multiple sounds and the loss of memory for sounds over time. We also determined whether these processing limitations work differently for varying types of sounds within a scene. Auditory scenes composed of naturalistic sounds, spectrally dynamic unrecognizable sounds, tones, and noise rhythms were presented in a change-detection task. On each trial, two scenes were presented that were same or different. We manipulated the number of sounds within each scene to measure memory capacity and the silent interval between scenes to measure memory loss. For all sounds, change detection was worse as scene size increased, demonstrating the importance of capacity limits. Change detection to the natural sounds did not deteriorate much as the interval between scenes increased up to 2,000 ms, but it did deteriorate substantially with longer intervals. For artificial sounds, in contrast, change-detection performance suffered even for very short intervals. The results suggest that change detection is generally limited by capacity, regardless of sound type, but that auditory memory is more enduring for sounds with naturalistic acoustic structures.

  18. Stress and fatigue in sound engineers: the effect of broadcasting in a life show and shift work.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia K

    2008-06-01

    The aim was to study the time-of-day variations of cortisol, fatigue and sleep disturbances in sound engineers in relation to job task and shift work. The concentration of saliva cortisol and feeling of stress, sleepiness and fatigue were followed at three hour intervals in 21 sound engineers: 13 sound engineers, aged 45.1 +/- 7.3 years, broadcasting in a life show during fast forward rotating shifts and 8 sound engineers, aged 47.1 +/- 9.8 years, making records in a studio during fast rotating day shifts. Cortisol concentration was assessed in saliva with radioimmunological kits. The participants reported for stress symptoms during the shifts and filled sleep diary. The data were analyzed by tests of between-subjects effects (SPSS). A trend for higher cortisol was found with the group broadcasting in a life show. The sound engineers broadcasting in a life show reported higher scores of stress, sleepiness and fatigue, but no significant differences concerning the sleep disturbances between the groups were found. In conclusion our data show moderate level of stress and fatigue with the studied sound engineers, higher with the subjects broadcasting in a life show. The quality of sleep showed no significant differences between the studied groups, an indication that the sound engineers were able to tolerate the fast forward rotating shifts.

  19. How effectively do horizontal and vertical response strategies of long-finned pilot whales reduce sound exposure from naval sonar?

    PubMed

    Wensveen, Paul J; von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Ainslie, Michael A; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Tyack, Peter L; Miller, Patrick J O

    2015-05-01

    The behaviour of a marine mammal near a noise source can modulate the sound exposure it receives. We demonstrate that two long-finned pilot whales both surfaced in synchrony with consecutive arrivals of multiple sonar pulses. We then assess the effect of surfacing and other behavioural response strategies on the received cumulative sound exposure levels and maximum sound pressure levels (SPLs) by modelling realistic spatiotemporal interactions of a pilot whale with an approaching source. Under the propagation conditions of our model, some response strategies observed in the wild were effective in reducing received levels (e.g. movement perpendicular to the source's line of approach), but others were not (e.g. switching from deep to shallow diving; synchronous surfacing after maximum SPLs). Our study exemplifies how simulations of source-whale interactions guided by detailed observational data can improve our understanding about motivations behind behaviour responses observed in the wild (e.g., reducing sound exposure, prey movement).

  20. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957

  1. The effect of superior semicircular canal dehiscence on intracochlear sound pressures.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Dominic V; Niesten, Marlien E F; Merchant, Saumil N; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a pathological opening in the bony wall of the inner ear that can result in conductive hearing loss. The hearing loss is variable across patients, and the precise mechanism and source of variability are not fully understood. Simultaneous measurements of basal intracochlear sound pressures in scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) enable quantification of the differential pressure across the cochlear partition, the stimulus that excites the cochlear partition. We used intracochlear sound pressure measurements in cadaveric preparations to study the effects of SCD size. Sound-induced pressures in SV and ST, as well as stapes velocity and ear canal pressure were measured simultaneously for various sizes of SCD followed by SCD patching. Our results showed that at low frequencies (<600 Hz), SCD decreased the pressure in both SV and ST, as well as differential pressure, and these effects became more pronounced as dehiscence size was increased. Near 100 Hz, SV decreased by about 10 dB for a 0.5-mm dehiscence and by 20 dB for a 2-mm dehiscence, while ST decreased by about 8 dB for a 0.5-mm dehiscence and by 18 dB for a 2-mm dehiscence. Differential pressure decreased by about 10 dB for a 0.5-mm dehiscence and by about 20 dB for a 2-mm dehiscence at 100 Hz. In some ears, for frequencies above 1 kHz, the smallest pinpoint dehiscence had bigger effects on the differential pressure (10-dB decrease) than larger dehiscences (less than 10-dB decrease), suggesting larger hearing losses in this frequency range. These effects due to SCD were reversible by patching the dehiscence. We also showed that under certain circumstances such as SCD, stapes velocity is not related to how the ear can transduce sound across the cochlear partition because it is not directly related to the differential pressure, emphasizing that certain pathologies cannot be fully assessed by measurements such as stapes velocity.

  2. The Effect of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence on Intracochlear Sound Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Dominic V.; Niesten, Marlien E.F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a pathological opening in the bony wall of the inner ear that can result in conductive hearing loss. The hearing loss is variable across patients, and the precise mechanism and source of variability are not fully understood. Simultaneous measurements of basal intracochlear sound pressures in scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) enable quantification of the differential pressure across the cochlear partition, the stimulus that excites the cochlear partition. We used intracochlear sound pressure measurements in cadaveric preparations to study the effects of SCD size. Sound-induced pressures in SV and ST, as well as stapes velocity and ear-canal pressure were measured simultaneously for various sizes of SCD followed by SCD patching. Our results showed that at low frequencies (<600 Hz), SCD decreased the pressure in both SV and ST, as well as differential pressure, and these effects became more pronounced as dehiscence size was increased. Near 100 Hz, SV decreased about 10 dB for a 0.5 mm dehiscence and 20 dB for a 2 mm dehiscence, while ST decreased about 8 dB for a 0.5 mm dehiscence and 18 dB for a 2mm dehiscence. Differential pressure decreased about 10 dB for a 0.5 mm dehiscence and about 20 dB for a 2 mm dehiscense at 100 Hz. In some ears, for frequencies above 1 kHz, the smallest pinpoint dehiscence had bigger effects on the differential pressure (10 dB decrease) than larger dehiscenses (less than 10 dB decrease), suggesting larger hearing losses in this frequency range. These effects due to SCD were reversible by patching the dehiscence. We also showed that under certain circumstances such as SCD, stapes velocity is not related to how the ear can transduce sound across the cochlear partition because it is not directly related to the differential pressure, emphasizing that certain pathologies cannot be fully assessed by measurements such as stapes velocity. PMID:22814034

  3. Cost-effective control of nitrogen loadings in Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Lynne L.; Thorpe, Steven G.; Guse, A. Joseph

    2000-12-01

    Long Island Sound is plagued by conditions of severe hypoxia (low levels of dissolved oxygen) during the summer months because of the existence of excessive amounts of nitrogen. A new proposal that would allow sewage treatment plants to buy or sell nitrogen discharge credits is currently being evaluated by the states of Connecticut and New York. Existing theory suggests that a trading program for nitrogen emissions would be a cost-effective means of addressing the problem. We estimate the costs associated with several trading scenarios and find that the potential for cost savings is substantial and that cost savings rise as the scope of trading expands.

  4. Developing effective serious games: the effect of background sound on visual fidelity perception with varying texture resolution.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Kapralos, Bill; Cristancho, Sayra; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Conati, Cristina; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on the perception of visual fidelity (defined with respect to texture resolution). Results suggest that the perception of visual fidelity is dependent on ambient sound and more specifically, white noise can have detrimental effects on our perception of high quality visuals. The results of this study will guide future studies that will ultimately aid in developing an understanding of the role that fidelity, and multi-modal interactions play with respect to knowledge transfer and retention for users of virtual simulations and serious games.

  5. The sound-induced flash illusion reveals dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    McGovern, David P; Roudaia, Eugenie; Stapleton, John; McGinnity, T Martin; Newell, Fiona N

    2014-01-01

    While aging can lead to significant declines in perceptual and cognitive function, the effects of age on multisensory integration, the process in which the brain combines information across the senses, are less clear. Recent reports suggest that older adults are susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion (Shams et al., 2000) across a much wider range of temporal asynchronies than younger adults (Setti et al., 2011). To assess whether this cost for multisensory integration is a general phenomenon of combining asynchronous audiovisual input, we compared the time courses of two variants of the sound-induced flash illusion in young and older adults: the fission illusion, where one flash accompanied by two beeps appears as two flashes, and the fusion illusion, where two flashes accompanied by one beep appear as one flash. Twenty-five younger (18-30 years) and older (65+ years) adults were required to report whether they perceived one or two flashes, whilst ignoring irrelevant auditory beeps, in bimodal trials where auditory and visual stimuli were separated by one of six stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). There was a marked difference in the pattern of results for the two variants of the illusion. In conditions known to produce the fission illusion, older adults were significantly more susceptible to the illusion at longer SOAs compared to younger participants. In contrast, the performance of the younger and older groups was almost identical in conditions known to produce the fusion illusion. This surprising difference between sound-induced fission and fusion in older adults suggests dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration, consistent with the idea that these illusions are mediated by distinct neural mechanisms.

  6. The sound-induced flash illusion reveals dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, David P.; Roudaia, Eugenie; Stapleton, John; McGinnity, T. Martin; Newell, Fiona N.

    2014-01-01

    While aging can lead to significant declines in perceptual and cognitive function, the effects of age on multisensory integration, the process in which the brain combines information across the senses, are less clear. Recent reports suggest that older adults are susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion (Shams et al., 2000) across a much wider range of temporal asynchronies than younger adults (Setti et al., 2011). To assess whether this cost for multisensory integration is a general phenomenon of combining asynchronous audiovisual input, we compared the time courses of two variants of the sound-induced flash illusion in young and older adults: the fission illusion, where one flash accompanied by two beeps appears as two flashes, and the fusion illusion, where two flashes accompanied by one beep appear as one flash. Twenty-five younger (18–30 years) and older (65+ years) adults were required to report whether they perceived one or two flashes, whilst ignoring irrelevant auditory beeps, in bimodal trials where auditory and visual stimuli were separated by one of six stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). There was a marked difference in the pattern of results for the two variants of the illusion. In conditions known to produce the fission illusion, older adults were significantly more susceptible to the illusion at longer SOAs compared to younger participants. In contrast, the performance of the younger and older groups was almost identical in conditions known to produce the fusion illusion. This surprising difference between sound-induced fission and fusion in older adults suggests dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration, consistent with the idea that these illusions are mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. PMID:25309430

  7. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-age children (N = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in…

  8. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-age children (N = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in…

  9. Sound System Engineering & Optimization: The effects of multiple arrivals on the intelligibility of reinforced speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Timothy James

    The effects of multiple arrivals on the intelligibility of speech produced by live-sound reinforcement systems are examined. The intent is to determine if correlations exist between the manipulation of sound system optimization parameters and the subjective attribute speech intelligibility. Given the number, and wide range, of variables involved, this exploratory research project attempts to narrow the focus of further studies. Investigated variables are delay time between signals arriving from multiple elements of a loudspeaker array, array type and geometry and the two-way interactions of speech-to-noise ratio and array geometry with delay time. Intelligibility scores were obtained through subjective evaluation of binaural recordings, reproduced via headphone, using the Modified Rhyme Test. These word-score results are compared with objective measurements of Speech Transmission Index (STI). Results indicate that both variables, delay time and array geometry, have significant effects on intelligibility. Additionally, it is seen that all three of the possible two-way interactions have significant effects. Results further reveal that the STI measurement method overestimates the decrease in intelligibility due to short delay times between multiple arrivals.

  10. Converting sunlight into audible sound by means of the photoacoustic effect: The Heliophone.

    PubMed

    Roozen, N B; Glorieux, C; Liu, L; Rychtáriková, M; Van der Donck, T; Jacobs, A

    2016-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five years after Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter explored the photoacoustic effect, and about 40 years after Rosencwaig and Gersho modeled the effect in a photoacoustic cell configuration, the phenomenon is revisited in a "Heliophone" device that converts sunlight into sound. The light is focused on a carbon blackened copper coated Kapton foil in an acoustic cell by means of a compound parabolic collimator, and its intensity is modulated by a mechanical chopper. A horn is employed to make the sound audible without electronic amplification. The description of the photoacoustic effect that was introduced by Rosencwaig and Gersho is extended to a cell-horn configuration, in which the periodically heated air above the foil acts as an oscillating piston, driving acoustic waves in the horn. The pressure in the cavity-horn assembly is calculated by considering the air layer piston as an equivalent volume velocity source. The importance of the carbon black (soot) layer to enhance light absorption, but above all to enhance the photothermal excitation efficiency, is elucidated by means of an experimentally supported physical model.

  11. Evidence for habituation of the irrelevant-sound effect on serial recall.

    PubMed

    Röer, Jan P; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Working memory theories make opposing predictions as to whether the disruptive effect of task-irrelevant sound on serial recall should be attenuated after repeated exposure to the auditory distractors. Although evidence of habituation has emerged after a passive listening phase, previous attempts to observe habituation to to-be ignored distractors on a trial-by-trial basis have proven to be fruitless. With the present study, we suggest that habituation to auditory distractors occurs, but has often been overlooked because past attempts to measure habituation in the irrelevant-sound paradigm were not sensitive enough. In a series of four experiments, the disruptive effects of to-be-ignored speech and music relative to a quiet control condition were markedly reduced after eight repetitions, regardless of whether trials were presented in blocks (Exp. 1) or in a random order (Exp. 2). The auditory distractor's playback direction (forward, backward) had no effect (Exp. 3). The same results were obtained when the auditory distractors were only presented in a retention interval after the presentation of the to-be-remembered items (Exp. 4). This pattern is only consistent with theoretical accounts that allow for attentional processes to interfere with the maintenance of information in working memory.

  12. Freezing effect in tactile perception: sound facilitates tactile identification by enhancing intensity but not duration.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ya-Yeh; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2013-08-01

    Identification of a visual target can be enhanced by a simultaneously presented high tone embedded in a sequence of low tones. This is called "freezing effect" because it is as if the target display was frozen in time by the tone. Until now, however, it has not been known whether this sound facilitation effect exists for a target with modalities other than vision, such as tactility, and if so, what its underlying mechanism is. We demonstrate, for the first time, an audio-tactile freezing effect (Experiment 1). We use a method of constant stimuli in conjunction with a 2-AFC task to determine the point of subjective equality (PSE) of the duration (Experiment 2A) or intensity (Experiment 2B) of the tactile target. Results do not support the view that a high tone expands the duration of the tactile target, but rather that the tone enhances participants' subjective tactile intensity. When the tactile intensity of the target was increased to match the shift of PSE as in Experiment 2B, this increased intensity indeed improved identification, further suggesting that intensity enhancement is the mechanism (Experiment 3). The perceived tactile intensity enhancement by a sound indicates genuine multisensory integration.

  13. Smoking in Top-Grossing US Movies, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Iaccopucci, Anne; Titus, Kori; Polansky, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the number of incidents of tobacco use (almost exclusively smoking) depicted in movies in the United States in 2011 to compare that with previously reported trends. We counted use or implied use of a tobacco product by an actor in all movies whose box office gross ranked in the top 10 for at least 1 week. Total tobacco incidents per movie rose 7% from 2010 to 2011, ending 5 years of decline; incidents rose 34% per movie rated G, PG, or PG-13 and 7% per R-rated movie. The reversal of progress toward less onscreen smoking in youth-rated movies underscores the need to rate movies with tobacco imagery as R, establishing an industry-wide market incentive to keep youth-marketed movies tobacco-free. PMID:23017248

  14. Bewitched, Bothered, and Bored: Harry Potter, The Movie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Explores the Harry Potter phenomenon with college students in a university course. Compares the first book with the first movie. Presents an in-depth discussion of the movie and how it relates to the book. (SG)

  15. Bewitched, Bothered, and Bored: Harry Potter, The Movie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Explores the Harry Potter phenomenon with college students in a university course. Compares the first book with the first movie. Presents an in-depth discussion of the movie and how it relates to the book. (SG)

  16. Smoking in top-grossing US movies, 2011.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Stanton A; Iaccopucci, Anne; Titus, Kori; Polansky, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the number of incidents of tobacco use (almost exclusively smoking) depicted in movies in the United States in 2011 to compare that with previously reported trends. We counted use or implied use of a tobacco product by an actor in all movies whose box office gross ranked in the top 10 for at least 1 week. Total tobacco incidents per movie rose 7% from 2010 to 2011, ending 5 years of decline; incidents rose 34% per movie rated G, PG, or PG-13 and 7% per R-rated movie. The reversal of progress toward less onscreen smoking in youth-rated movies underscores the need to rate movies with tobacco imagery as R, establishing an industry-wide market incentive to keep youth-marketed movies tobacco-free.

  17. Effects of Sound on the Behavior of Wild, Unrestrained Fish Schools.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Louise; Cheesman, Samuel; Hawkins, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    To assess and manage the impact of man-made sounds on fish, we need information on how behavior is affected. Here, wild unrestrained pelagic fish schools were observed under quiet conditions using sonar. Fish were exposed to synthetic piling sounds at different levels using custom-built sound projectors, and behavioral changes were examined. In some cases, the depth of schools changed after noise playback; full dispersal of schools was also evident. The methods we developed for examining the behavior of unrestrained fish to sound exposure have proved successful and may allow further testing of the relationship between responsiveness and sound level.

  18. Effects of Sound Frequency on Audiovisual Integration: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yanna; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    A combination of signals across modalities can facilitate sensory perception. The audiovisual facilitative effect strongly depends on the features of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how sound frequency, which is one of basic features of an auditory signal, modulates audiovisual integration. In this study, the task of the participant was to respond to a visual target stimulus by pressing a key while ignoring auditory stimuli, comprising of tones of different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 kHz). A significant facilitation of reaction times was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the task-irrelevant sounds were low or high frequency. Using event-related potential (ERP), audiovisual integration was found over the occipital area for 0.5 kHz auditory stimuli from 190-210 ms, for 1 kHz stimuli from 170-200 ms, for 2.5 kHz stimuli from 140-200 ms, 5 kHz stimuli from 100-200 ms. These findings suggest that a higher frequency sound signal paired with visual stimuli might be early processed or integrated despite the auditory stimuli being task-irrelevant information. Furthermore, audiovisual integration in late latency (300-340 ms) ERPs with fronto-central topography was found for auditory stimuli of lower frequencies (0.5, 1 and 2.5 kHz). Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration is affected by the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Taken together, the neurophysiological results provide unique insight into how the brain processes a multisensory visual signal and auditory stimuli of different frequencies.

  19. Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum.

    PubMed

    Li, Biao; Wei, Jinmin; Wei, Xiaolan; Tang, Kun; Liang, Yilong; Shu, Kunxian; Wang, Bochu

    2008-06-01

    The effect of sound wave stress on important medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl, was investigated, including the responses on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities change of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Results were found that the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX enhanced totally in different organs of D. candidum, as leaves, stems and roots, in response to the stress. Furthermore there happened similar shift of antioxidant enzymes activities, which increased in the initial stimulation and decreased afterwards. Data showed SOD, CAT, POD and APX activities ascended to max at day 9, 6, 9 and 12 in leaves, at day 9, 6, 12 and 9 in stems, and at day 12, 6, 9 and 9 in roots, respectively. As a lipid peroxidation parameter, MDA content in different organs increased in the beginning, dropped afterward, and increased again in the late. Anyway the total trend was the rise of MDA level compared to the control. It was interesting that the MDA content appeared the lowest levels almost when the antioxidant enzymes activities were up to the highest. Our results demonstrated the different organs of D. candidum might produce accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) under initial treatment of sound wave stress. Later AOS might start to reduce due to the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities treated by the stress. The data revealed that the antioxidant metabolism was to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in sound stress, and the up regulation of these enzymes activities would help to reduce the build up of AOS, which could protect plant cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, different cell compartments might activate different defensive system to reduce excessive amount of AOS. Finally the mechanism of this action was also discussed simply.

  20. Evidence for a neural source of the precedence effect in sound localization.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Jones, Heath G; Kan, Alan; Thakkar, Tanvi; Stecker, G Christopher; Goupell, Matthew J; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2015-11-01

    Normal-hearing human listeners and a variety of studied animal species localize sound sources accurately in reverberant environments by responding to the directional cues carried by the first-arriving sound rather than spurious cues carried by later-arriving reflections, which are not perceived discretely. This phenomenon is known as the precedence effect (PE) in sound localization. Despite decades of study, the biological basis of the PE remains unclear. Though the PE was once widely attributed to central processes such as synaptic inhibition in the auditory midbrain, a more recent hypothesis holds that the PE may arise essentially as a by-product of normal cochlear function. Here we evaluated the PE in a unique human patient population with demonstrated sensitivity to binaural information but without functional cochleae. Users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) were tested in a psychophysical task that assessed the number and location(s) of auditory images perceived for simulated source-echo (lead-lag) stimuli. A parallel experiment was conducted in a group of normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Key findings were as follows: 1) Subjects in both groups exhibited lead-lag fusion. 2) Fusion was marginally weaker in CI users than in NH listeners but could be augmented by systematically attenuating the amplitude of the lag stimulus to coarsely simulate adaptation observed in acoustically stimulated auditory nerve fibers. 3) Dominance of the lead in localization varied substantially among both NH and CI subjects but was evident in both groups. Taken together, data suggest that aspects of the PE can be elicited in CI users, who lack functional cochleae, thus suggesting that neural mechanisms are sufficient to produce the PE.