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Sample records for mozhete vbrat sami

  1. Perspectives on Sami Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte; Eira, Ellen J. Sara; Sriraman, Bharath

    2011-01-01

    The Sami are an indigenous people of the Arctic, and through a resolution of the United Nations, Norway is bound to take care of the Sami culture and language. Since 1987 the Sami have had their own curriculum, but they have no mathematics syllabus. In this paper we summarize the legal acts that take care of the Sami culture within the Norwegian…

  2. Sami Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is, first, to describe Sami children's education and its status in the Finnish education system and, secondly, to contemplate its development in Finland. The core of the article is intertwined with issues concerning the status, language, and culture of indigenous peoples. According to the article, the western school…

  3. Publishing Sami Literature--From Christian Translations to Sami Publishing Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltto, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Publishing in the Sami languages has always been difficult. The Sami are currently spread across four countries, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. There are nine different Sami languages, some of them with only a few speakers. The Sami publishing industry is entirely dependent on government funding as it does not have its own funds nor is there…

  4. Lifestyle, Genetics, and Disease in Sami

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alastair B.; Johansson, Åsa; Ingman, Max; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the lifestyle, genetic origin, diet, and disease in the population of Sami, indigenous people of northern Fennoscandia. Method A survey of the available scientific literature and preliminary results from our own study of the Swedish Sami population. Results The Sami probably have a heterogeneous genetic origin, with a major contribution of continental or Eastern European tribes and a smaller contribution from Asia. The traditional Sami diet, high in animal products, persists in Sami groups still involved with reindeer herding, but others have adopted a diet typical of Western cultures. Early reports indicated a lower prevalence of heart disease and most cancers, except stomach cancer. Recent studies have not found a lower risk of heart disease, but have consistently shown an overall reduced cancer risk. Sami have been reported to share some specific health-related genetic polymorphisms with other European populations, but none that would explain the observed differences in disease risk. Conclusion The genetic structure of the Sami population makes it suitable for studies of the genetic and environmental factors influencing the development of common diseases. The difference in incidence of heart disease between studies may reflect the ongoing transition from a traditional to a more Westernized lifestyle. The ability to compare population segments with different lifestyles, combined with the genetic structure of the population, creates unusual possibilities for studies of the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of common disease. PMID:16909452

  5. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. T.; Croom, S. M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Bryant, J. J.; Sharp, R.; Cecil, G. N.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Foster, C.; Green, A. W.; Ho, I.-T.; Owers, M. S.; Schaefer, A. L.; Scott, N.; Bauer, A. E.; Baldry, I.; Barnes, L. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Brough, S.; Colless, M.; Cortese, L.; Couch, W. J.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Driver, S. P.; Goodwin, M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Hampton, E. J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kewley, L. J.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; McElroy, R.; Medling, A. M.; Mould, J.; Norberg, P.; Parker, Q. A.; Power, C.; Pracy, M. B.; Richards, S. N.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Sweet, S. M.; Taylor, E. N.; Thomas, A. D.; Tonini, C.; Walcher, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the Early Data Release of the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. The SAMI Galaxy Survey is an ongoing integral field spectroscopic survey of ˜3400 low-redshift (z < 0.12) galaxies, covering galaxies in the field and in groups within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey regions, and a sample of galaxies in clusters. In the Early Data Release, we publicly release the fully calibrated data cubes for a representative selection of 107 galaxies drawn from the GAMA regions, along with information about these galaxies from the GAMA catalogues. All data cubes for the Early Data Release galaxies can be downloaded individually or as a set from the SAMI Galaxy Survey website. In this paper we also assess the quality of the pipeline used to reduce the SAMI data, giving metrics that quantify its performance at all stages in processing the raw data into calibrated data cubes. The pipeline gives excellent results throughout, with typical sky subtraction residuals in the continuum of 0.9-1.2 per cent, a relative flux calibration uncertainty of 4.1 per cent (systematic) plus 4.3 per cent (statistical), and atmospheric dispersion removed with an accuracy of 0.09 arcsec, less than a fifth of a spaxel.

  6. A users evaluation of SAMIS. [Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    SAMIS, the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation computer program was developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) to provide a method whereby manufacturers or potential manufacturers of photovoltaics could simulate a solar industry using their own particular approach. This paper analyzes the usefulness of SAMIS to a growing photovoltaic industry and clearly illustrates its limitations as viewed by an industrial user.

  7. The Linguistic Special Features of the Sami Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Maatta, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the features of Sami language instruction at the first school grades in Norway. The most important part is to describe what kind of challenges Sami language instruction at the first grades as an indigenous people's language and with the status of a minority language has. This situation introduces some differences and…

  8. Sensibility: A New Focus in Sami Health Care Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nymo, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Colonialism has had significant bodily impacts on Indigenous peoples through medicine. Excluded from the German race, Sami have been burdened by mainstream prejudices which perpetuate myths about Sami having poor genetic material and, as a consequence, having an inferior culture and language. This offensive burden and subsequent humiliation has…

  9. SAMIS- STANDARD ASSEMBLY-LINE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY SIMULATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Standard Assembly-Line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program was originally developed to model a hypothetical U. S. industry which manufactures silicon solar modules for use in electricity generation. The SAMIS program has now been generalized to the extent that it should be useful for simulating many different production-line manufacturing industries and companies. The most important capability of SAMIS is its ability to "simulate" an industry based on a model developed by the user with the aid of the SAMIS program. The results of the simulation are a set of financial reports which detail the requirements, including quantities and cost, of the companies and processes which comprise the industry. SAMIS provides a fair, consistent, and reliable means of comparing manufacturing processes being developed by numerous independent efforts. It can also be used to assess the industry-wide impact of changes in financial parameters, such as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required return on equity. Because of the large amount of data needed to describe an industry, a major portion of SAMIS is dedicated to data entry and maintenance. This activity in SAMIS is referred to as model management. Model management requires a significant amount of interaction through a system of "prompts" which make it possible for persons not familiar with computers, or the SAMIS program, to provide all of the data necessary to perform a simulation. SAMIS is written in TURBO PASCAL (version 2.0 required for compilation) and requires 10 meg of hard disk space, an 8087 coprocessor, and an IBM color graphics monitor. Executables and source code are provided. SAMIS was originally developed in 1978; the IBM PC version was developed in 1985. Release 6.1 was made available in 1986, and includes the PC-IPEG program.

  10. Design and Applications of the SAMI-pH Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. S.; Degrandpre, M. D.; Cullison, S. E.; Harris, K. E.; Beck, J.; Spalding, R.; Dickson, A. G.

    2010-12-01

    Spectrophotometric methods are routinely used to make high-precision pH measurements in oceanographic studies. The SAMI-pH sensor incorporates this technique into an autonomous, in situ sensor capable of extended deployments with minimal instrument drift. The SAMI-pH operates by mixing seawater with an indicator dye (metacresol purple) and measuring pH by absorbance. Laboratory studies have found that the SAMI-pH has an accuracy of 0.0017 ± 0.0007 pH units. Additionally, two SAMIs deployed for 22 days in coastal waters had a mean difference of +0.0042, and there was no drift evident during the deployment. The SAMI-pH has recently been re-designed with funding from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The new SAMI-pH design replaces the tungsten lamp with LEDs, decreasing power consumption. The SAMI-pH can now make more than 2,300 measurements in a single deployment, i.e. run for 290 days sampling every 3 hours. The design is also much more compact, allowing for easier deployment. Additionally, the SAMI-pH can now be deployed with a certified reference material (CRM), allowing for in situ data verification. The CRM, produced by Dr. Andrew Dickson (Scripps), is a tris seawater buffer that has a pH that is accurately known over the range of seawater temperatures. The new SAMI-pH has been tested extensively in the lab, with consistent high accuracy and precision. Field based studies have also yielded very good results. The SAMI-pH was deployed for three months at the MBARI M0 mooring. Data collected were used with salinity derived alkalinity to calculate in situ pCO2, which initially had a mean difference of 2.0 ± 0.4 μatm, as compared to an infrared CO2 sensor mounted on the buoy. During this time aragonite saturation states varied from 1.8-3.7, and calcite saturation states varied from 2.9-5.8. Data collected by a SAMI-pH and SAMI-CO2 on the NH-10 mooring off the Oregon Coast gave similar results. The SAMI-pH was deployed on a drifter for 1 month in the

  11. "You never know who are Sami or speak Sami" Clinicians' experiences with language-appropriate care to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    Background The Indigenous population in Norway, the Sami, have a statutory right to speak and be spoken to in the Sami language when receiving health services. There is, however, limited knowledge about how clinicians deal with this in clinical practice. This study explores how clinicians deal with language-appropriate care with Sami-speaking patients in specialist mental health services. Objectives This study aims to explore how clinicians identify and respond to Sami patients' language data, as well as how they experience provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Sami language administrative districts. Method Data were collected using qualitative method, through individual interviews with 20 therapists working in outpatient mental health clinics serving Sami populations in northern Norway. A thematic analysis inspired by systematic text reduction was employed. Findings Two themes were identified: (a) identification of Sami patients' language data and (b) experiences with provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients. Conclusion Findings indicate that clinicians are not aware of patients' language needs prior to admission and that they deal with identification of language data and offer of language-appropriate care ad hoc when patients arrive. Sami-speaking participants reported always offering language choice and found more profound understanding of patients' experiences when Sami language was used. Whatever language Sami-speaking patients may choose, they are found to switch between languages during therapy. Most non-Sami-speaking participants reported offering Sami-speaking services, but the patients chose to speak Norwegian. However, a few of the participants maintained language awareness and could identify language needs despite a patient's refusal to speak Sami in therapy. Finally, some non-Sami-speaking participants were satisfied if they understood what the patients were saying. They left it to patients to

  12. Photovoltaic subsystem production cost model (SAMIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    A complete introduction to the SAMIS model is provided. The purpose of the model is to estimate the costs of manufacturing photovoltaic solar energy products. The model procedure for estimating the long run or steady-state manufacturing cost is divided into four submodels: manufacturing process submodel, factory construction and staffing algorithm, capital requirements submodel, and the financial model of the firm. The model has been applied by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE's National Photovoltaics Program to assess the commercial viability of new solar energy manufacturing processes. However, given the proper input data, the model structure is flexible enough to support the design and analysis of any manufacturing industry. This document explains what the model can and cannot do, and what data is required. An example for a photovoltaic power conditioning unit demonstrates the application of the model.

  13. Ethical guidelines for Sami research: the issue that disappeared from the Norwegian Sami Parliament's agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Stordahl, Vigdis; Tørres, Grete; Møllersen, Snefrid; Eira-Åhren, Inger-Marit

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent decades many indigenous communities, policy makers and researchers worldwide have criticized the academic community for not being aware of the specific challenges these communities have faced and still are facing with regard to research. One result of the decades of discourse in indigenous communities is the development in many Western countries of indigenously sensitive ethical research guidelines. In 1997 the Sami Parliament (SP) in Norway reached a unanimous decision that ethical guidelines for Sami research had to be drawn up. Such guidelines are however still to be created. Objectives The objectives of this article are to enquire into what happened to the Norwegian SP's decision of 1997 and to reflect on why the issue seems to have disappeared from the SP's agenda. Finally, we consider whether research ethics is to be a subject for the research community only. Methods A review of parliamentary white papers on research and SP documents relating to research ethics. Findings The response to the SP's decision in 1997 took place in two different channels, both of them national, namely the research ethics channel and the political channel. Thus, there were actually two parallel processes taking place. In spite of nearly two decades of reports, the concept of the participation of indigenous communities in research is still not an integral part of Norwegian ethical guidelines. Conclusions The issue of indigenously sensitive research ethics seems to have disappeared from the SP's agenda and the research ethics review system with regard to Sami research is with minor adjustments the same as when the SP asked for a revision. PMID:25862334

  14. Rearing of Swedish, Norwegian, and Norwegian Sami children.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E; Ogaard, B; Lindsten, R

    1993-12-01

    A total of 362 3-yr-old Swedish, Norwegian, and Norwegian Sami (Lapp) children were examined, and their parents were asked about their children's present and previous sucking habits and how long they had been breast-fed and bottle-fed. They were also asked what the children's age was when porridge or puréed food or food with a soft chewing resistance was introduced, and when more ordinary foods such as well-diced meat and potatoes were introduced. The study revealed that breast-feeding has increased greatly both in prevalence and in duration in Sweden during the last decades. Despite this, Swedish children were breast-fed for a significantly shorter time than Norwegian children. The longest breast-feeding times were noted for Sami children. Swedish children were bottle-fed two to three times longer than Norwegian children. Sucking habits were correlated to breast-feeding only for Sami children.

  15. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability

    PubMed Central

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Background A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. Objectives The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. Methods The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). Findings and discussion The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. Conclusion The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability. PMID:27396747

  16. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Results Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population. PMID:25694052

  17. "Too Hot for the Reindeer"--Voicing Sami Children's Visions of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsson, Gunnar; Sarri, Carina; Alerby, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we focus attention on the issue of the future by listening to the voices of Indigenous children in the far north of Sweden--the Sami children. The overall aim of the study is to explore the meaning of Sami children's visions of the future. The participants attend the same Sami School, and they were of the age of 9-12 years. Data…

  18. SAMI Galaxy Survey: Spectrally Dissecting 3400 Galaxies By the Dozen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, Gerald N.; Croom, S.; The SAMI Galaxy Survey Team

    2014-01-01

    More than 440 mapped, less than 3000 to go in the Sydney-AAO Multi-object IFU (SAMI) Galaxy Survey! SAMI uses novel, photonic fused-optical fiber “hexabundles” that were developed successfully at The University of Sydney and the Australian Astronomical Observatory AAO), with support from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO). The SAMI Galaxy Survey, led by Assoc. Prof. Croom, is backed by an international team. This spectro-bolometric survey mitigates against “aperture effects” that may mislead when stacking single-fiber galaxy spectra. We seek to answer questions such as “what is the physical role of environment in galaxy evolution? How is stellar mass growth and angular momentum development related in galaxies? How does gas get into and out of galaxies, and how do such flows drive star formation?” SAMI maps stellar and gas properties with 13 integral-field units (IFU) plugged onto a dozen galaxies over the 1° field of the AAT prime-focus corrector. 78% of each bundle's area is filled by sixty-one 1.6-arcsec diameter fibers that are packed closely into concentric circles then their etched, thinned cladding is fused without deforming their cores. The fiber hexabundles route to the bench-mounted AAOmega double-beam spectrograph to cover simultaneously 373-570 nm at R=1730 and 620-735 nm at R=4500. Full spatial resolution of the observing site is recovered by dithered exposures totaling 3.5 hours per field. Target stellar masses generally exceed 108 M⊙, and span a range of environments: ˜650 are within clusters of virial mass 1014-15 M⊙ at 0.03 < z < 0.06, the rest are in the z < 0.1 field with extensive frequency data ancillary to the GAMA Survey. We display some key early results of major science themes being addressed by the SAMI survey team, from rotation curve dependence on group halo mass, through galaxy winds and AGN feedback mechanisms, to oxygen abundance gradients, kinematic decomposition

  19. SAMI: Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. T.; Green, A. W.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Sharp, R.; Nielsen, J.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Taylor, E. N.; Scott, N.; Cortese, L.; Richards, S. N.; Croom, S.; Owers, M. S.; Bauer, A. E.; Sweet, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    The SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph) pipeline reduces data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) for the SAMI Galaxy Survey. The python code organizes SAMI data and, along with the AAO 2dfdr package, carries out all steps in the data reduction, from raw data to fully calibrated datacubes. The principal steps are: data management, use of 2dfdr to produce row-stacked spectra, flux calibration, correction for telluric absorption, removal of atmospheric dispersion, alignment of dithered exposures, and drizzling onto a regular output grid. Variance and covariance information is tracked throughout the pipeline. Some quality control routines are also included.

  20. “You never know who are Sami or speak Sami” Clinicians’ experiences with language-appropriate care to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    Background The Indigenous population in Norway, the Sami, have a statutory right to speak and be spoken to in the Sami language when receiving health services. There is, however, limited knowledge about how clinicians deal with this in clinical practice. This study explores how clinicians deal with language-appropriate care with Sami-speaking patients in specialist mental health services. Objectives This study aims to explore how clinicians identify and respond to Sami patients’ language data, as well as how they experience provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients in outpatient mental health clinics in Sami language administrative districts. Method Data were collected using qualitative method, through individual interviews with 20 therapists working in outpatient mental health clinics serving Sami populations in northern Norway. A thematic analysis inspired by systematic text reduction was employed. Findings Two themes were identified: (a) identification of Sami patients’ language data and (b) experiences with provision of therapy to Sami-speaking patients. Conclusion Findings indicate that clinicians are not aware of patients’ language needs prior to admission and that they deal with identification of language data and offer of language-appropriate care ad hoc when patients arrive. Sami-speaking participants reported always offering language choice and found more profound understanding of patients’ experiences when Sami language was used. Whatever language Sami-speaking patients may choose, they are found to switch between languages during therapy. Most non-Sami-speaking participants reported offering Sami-speaking services, but the patients chose to speak Norwegian. However, a few of the participants maintained language awareness and could identify language needs despite a patient's refusal to speak Sami in therapy. Finally, some non-Sami-speaking participants were satisfied if they understood what the patients were saying. They left it to patients

  1. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: One Year, 50000 Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Croom, S.; The SAMI Galaxy Survey Team

    2014-01-01

    Less than a year into its operations on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, the SAMI Galaxy Survey has collected spatially resolved (IFU) spectroscopy of 440 galaxies. This breaks all previous records owing to the novel 13-fold multiplexing of the newly-designed, lightly-fused 'hexabundles' of 61 optical fibre cores that can be deployed over a degree-wide field. (Illustrations can be found in the partner poster presentation by Gerald Cecil and at http://sami-survey.org.) On our way toward the completion of a ~3000-galaxy-strong sample, that is, of order 4x105 full-optical spectra, we are working on the key scientific objectives of: (i) Mapping the mechanisms that advance and suppress the star formation process and induce morphological transformation in a variety of environments; (ii) Surveying the frequency of gas flows into and out of galaxies of all masses, and deducing the effect on gas phase metallicity and baryonic budgets; (iii) Recording the distribution of angular momentum across the local Universe, thereby advancing our understanding of how mass is built up over time. Our simulations team is working in parallel with the observers to produce mock SAMI data-cubes and interpret our results in a cosmological context. Furthermore, having selected most of our sample from the all-wavelength GAMA survey affords us access to invaluable ancillary information. The SAMI Galaxy Survey, which adds resolved stellar and gas phase kinematics, star formation rates, ionisation diagnostics, stellar ages, metallicities, and much more will provide a unique and long lasting legacy for the astronomical community.

  2. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: instrument specification and target selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, J. J.; Owers, M. S.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Cortese, L.; Scott, N.; Colless, M.; Schaefer, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Allen, J. T.; Baldry, I.; Barnes, L.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Brooks, A. M.; Brough, S.; Cecil, G.; Couch, W.; Croton, D.; Davies, R.; Ellis, S.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Foster, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A.; Gunawardhana, M. L.; Hampton, E.; Ho, I.-T.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kewley, L.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Leslie, S.; McElroy, R.; Lewis, G.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mahajan, S.; Medling, A. M.; Metcalfe, N.; Meyer, M.; Mould, J.; Obreschkow, D.; O'Toole, S.; Pracy, M.; Richards, S. N.; Shanks, T.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Thomas, A. D.; Tonini, C.; Walcher, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey will observe 3400 galaxies with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral-field spectrograph (SAMI) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope in a 3-yr survey which began in 2013. We present the throughput of the SAMI system, the science basis and specifications for the target selection, the survey observation plan and the combined properties of the selected galaxies. The survey includes four volume-limited galaxy samples based on cuts in a proxy for stellar mass, along with low-stellar-mass dwarf galaxies all selected from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA regions were selected because of the vast array of ancillary data available, including ultraviolet through to radio bands. These fields are on the celestial equator at 9, 12 and 14.5 h, and cover a total of 144 deg2 (in GAMA-I). Higher density environments are also included with the addition of eight clusters. The clusters have spectroscopy from 2-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and photometry in regions covered by the SDSS and/or VLT Survey Telescope/ATLAS. The aim is to cover a broad range in stellar mass and environment, and therefore the primary survey targets cover redshifts 0.004 < z < 0.095, magnitudes rpet < 19.4, stellar masses 107-1012 M⊙, and environments from isolated field galaxies through groups to clusters of ˜1015 M⊙.

  3. "I Really Want to Save Our Language": Facing the Challenge of Revitalising and Maintaining Southern Sami Language through Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyngsnes, Kitt Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a study of Southern Sami language learning in Norway. There are around 600-1000 Southern Sami living widely dispersed over a large territorial area in Norway. As an indigenous people, they have a right to instruction in their own language. The Southern Sami language however is in danger of extinction. The purpose of this…

  4. Tromso as a "Sami Town"?--Language Ideologies, Attitudes, and Debates Surrounding Bilingual Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiss, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on local people's expressions of attitudes and ideologies in the light of proposed Sami-Norwegian bilingual policies in their Northern Norwegian hometown. The local politicians' plan to introduce the bilingual regulations of an "administrative area for the Sami language" in the town of Tromso encountered conflicting…

  5. Ethnic Identity and Acculturation Attitudes among Indigenous Norwegian Sami and Ethnocultural Kven Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernmo, Siv; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic identity and acculturation attitudes were studied in indigenous Sami (earlier named Lapps) and ethnocultural Kvens (descendants of early Finnish-speaking immigrants from the northern part of Sweden and Finland) in Northern Norway. The sample consisted of 674 Sami and 347 Kven high school students ages 16 to 19 years. Ethnic identity was…

  6. Childhood violence and adult chronic pain among indigenous Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: a SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Astrid M. A.; Schei, Berit; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Sørlie, Tore; Fleten, Nils; Javo, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Background Internationally, studies have shown that childhood violence is associated with chronic pain in adulthood. However, to date, this relationship has not been examined in any indigenous population. Objective The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between childhood violence and reported chronic pain, number of pain sites and the intensity of pain in adulthood in indigenous Sami and non-Sami adults, and to explore ethnic differences. Design The study is based on the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study, a larger population-based, cross-sectional survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Mid- and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,130 adult participants: 2,167 Sami respondents (19.5%) and 8,963 non-Sami respondents (80.5%). Chronic pain was estimated by reported pain located in various parts of the body. Childhood violence was measured by reported exposure of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence. Results Childhood violence was associated with adult chronic pain in several pain sites of the body regardless of ethnicity and gender. Childhood violence was also associated with increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity compared to those not exposed to childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was only significant for pain located in chest, hips/legs and back, and non-significant for increased number of chronic pain sites (adjusted model), and higher pain intensity. Conclusion Respondents exposed to childhood violence reported more chronic pain in several parts of the body, increased number of chronic pain sites and more intense pain in adulthood than respondents reporting no childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was weaker and also not significant for increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity. PMID:27802844

  7. samiDB: A Prototype Data Archive for Big Science Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Green, A. W.; Cortese, L.; Foster, C.; Scott, N.

    2015-04-01

    samiDB is an archive, database, and query engine to serve the spectra, spectral hypercubes, and high-level science products that make up the SAMI Galaxy Survey. Based on the versatile Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5), samiDB does not depend on relational database structures and hence lightens the setup and maintenance load imposed on science teams by metadata tables. The code, written in Python, covers the ingestion, querying, and exporting of data as well as the automatic setup of an HTML schema browser. samiDB serves as a maintenance-light data archive for Big Science and can be adopted and adapted by science teams that lack the means to hire professional archivists to set up the data back end for their projects.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) of the plasma edge on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, Roddy; Taylor, Gary; Brunner, Jakob; Ellis, Bob; Thomas, David

    2016-10-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a unique phased-array microwave camera with a +/-40° field of view in both directions. It can image cut-off surfaces corresponding to frequencies in the range 10-34.5GHz; these surfaces are typically in the plasma edge. SAMI operates in two modes: either imaging thermal emission from the plasma (often modified by its interaction with the plasma edge e.g. via BXO mode conversion) or ``active probing'' i.e. injecting a broad beam at the plasma surface and imaging the reflected/back-scattered signal. SAMI was successfully pioneered on the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy. SAMI has now been installed and commissioned on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The firmware has been upgraded to include real-time digital filtering, which enables continuous acquisition of the Doppler back-scattered active probing data. In this poster we shall present SAMI's analysis of the plasma edge on NSTX-U including measurements of the edge pitch angle on NSTX-U using SAMI's unique 2-D Doppler-backscattering capability.

  9. The health of young Swedish Sami with special reference to mental health.

    PubMed

    Omma, Lotta; Jacobsson, Lars H; Petersen, Solveig

    2012-07-03

    Objectives. To investigate the health of young Sami in Sweden and the relationship between health and experience of negative societal treatment due to ethnicity, as well as socio-demographic background factors. Study design. Cross-sectional population-based questionnaire study. Methods. A total of 876 persons aged 18-28 and involved in Sami associated activities were addressed, and 516 (59%) responded to a questionnaire investigating physical health, mental health, and stress. Data were analyzed with regard to gender, family situation, occupation, education, enculturation factors and experience of being badly treated because of ethnicity. Results. A majority of the young Sami reported feeling healthy, but close to half of the group reported often having worries, often forgetting things and often experiencing lack of time for doing needed things. Women and those living alone reported a more negative health. Furthermore, half of the group had perceived bad treatment because of Sami ethnicity, and this was negatively associated with some aspects of mental health. Conclusion. The young Sami had a rather good and possibly slightly better health than other young Swedes, except regarding worries and stress. A high degree of bad treatment due to Sami ethnicity and its negative association with health, may partly explain the high degree of some health problems.

  10. Sami Culture and Values: A Study of the National Mathematics Exam for the Compulsory School in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Norway ratified the ILO convention 169 concerning indigenous and tribal people in independent countries in 1990. In accordance with the convention the education programs for the Sami shall address their value systems and their cultural aspirations. Our aim is to investigate the implementation of this convention. The focus is on how Sami values are…

  11. “We are like lemmings”: making sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among the indigenous Sami in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Stoor, Jon Petter A; Kaiser, Niclas; Jacobsson, Lars; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Silviken, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a widespread problem among indigenous people residing in the circumpolar Arctic. Though the situation among the indigenous Sami in northern Scandinavia is better than among some other indigenous people, suicide is still regarded as a major public health issue. To adapt prevention strategies that are culturally attuned one must understand how suicide is understood within context. That is, the cultural meaning(s) of suicide. Objective To explore and make sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among Sami in Sweden. Design Open-ended focus group discussions (FGDs) on the topic “suicide among Sami” were carried out in 5 Sami communities in Sweden, with in total 22 strategically selected Sami participants. FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed through employing content analysis. Results From the FGDs 4 themes emerged including “The Sami are fighting for their culture and the herders are in the middle of the fight,” “Suicide as a consequence of Sami losing (or having lost) their identity,” “A wildfire in the Sami world” and “Difficult to get help as a Sami.” Conclusions Findings indicate that Sami in Sweden make sense of suicide in relation to power and identity within a threatened Sami cultural context. Suicide is then understood as an act that takes place and makes sense to others when a Sami no longer has the power to maintain a Sami identity, resulting in being disconnected from the Sami world and placed in an existential void where suicide is a solution. The findings are useful in development of culturally attuned suicide prevention among Sami in Sweden. PMID:26333721

  12. Convergence and Divergence in Basque, Irish and Sami Media Language Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Holmes, Helen; Moriarty, Mairead; Pietikainen, Sari

    2009-01-01

    The language policies adopted, imposed, or rejected in minority language media highlight the complexities of multilingualism and its regulation or ordering in contemporary contexts. In this article, we discuss convergence and divergence in the language policing of three minority language media contexts, namely Basque, Irish and Sami. All of the…

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAMI Galaxy Survey: EDR (Allen+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. T.; Croom, S. M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Bryant, J. J.; Sharp, R.; Cecil, G. N.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Foster, C.; Green, A. W.; Ho, I.-T.; Owers, M. S.; Schaefer, A. L.; Scott, N.; Bauer, A. E.; Baldry, I.; Barnes, L. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Brough, S.; Colless, M.; Cortese, L.; Couch, W. J.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Driver, S. P.; Goodwin, M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Hampton, E. J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kewley, L. J.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Liske, J.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; McElroy, R.; Medling, A. M.; Mould, J.; Norberg, P.; Parker, Q. A.; Power, C.; Pracy, M. B.; Richards, S. N.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Sweet, S. M.; Taylor, E. N.; Thomas, A. D.; Tonini, C.; Walcher, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    The targets for the SAMI Galaxy Survey are drawn from the GAMA survey G09, G12 and G15 fields, as well as a set of eight galaxy clusters that extend the survey to higher environmental densities. All candidates have known redshifts from GAMA, SDSS or dedicated 2dF observations, allowing us to create a tiered set of volume-limited samples. Full details of the target selection are presented in Bryant et al. (2015MNRAS.447.2857B). The 107 galaxies that form the SAMI Galaxy Survey EDR are those contained in nine fields in the GAMA regions that were observed in 2013 March and April. (2 data files).

  14. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: cubism and covariance, putting round pegs into square holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R.; Allen, J. T.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Croom, S. M.; Cortese, L.; Green, A. W.; Nielsen, J.; Richards, S. N.; Scott, N.; Taylor, E. N.; Barnes, L. A.; Bauer, A. E.; Birchall, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Brough, S.; Bryant, J. J.; Cecil, G. N.; Colless, M.; Couch, W. J.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Driver, S.; Foster, C.; Goodwin, M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Ho, I.-T.; Hampton, E. J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jones, H.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leslie, S. K.; Lewis, G. F.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; McElroy, R.; Medling, A. M.; Mahajan, S.; Mould, J.; Parker, Q.; Pracy, M. B.; Obreschkow, D.; Owers, M. S.; Schaefer, A. L.; Sweet, S. M.; Thomas, A. D.; Tonini, C.; Walcher, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a methodology for the regularization and combination of sparse sampled and irregularly gridded observations from fibre-optic multiobject integral field spectroscopy. The approach minimizes interpolation and retains image resolution on combining subpixel dithered data. We discuss the methodology in the context of the Sydney-AAO multiobject integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey underway at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The SAMI instrument uses 13 fibre bundles to perform high-multiplex integral field spectroscopy across a 1° diameter field of view. The SAMI Galaxy Survey is targeting ˜3000 galaxies drawn from the full range of galaxy environments. We demonstrate the subcritical sampling of the seeing and incomplete fill factor for the integral field bundles results in only a 10 per cent degradation in the final image resolution recovered. We also implement a new methodology for tracking covariance between elements of the resulting data cubes which retains 90 per cent of the covariance information while incurring only a modest increase in the survey data volume.

  15. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: A prototype data archive for Big Science exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Green, A. W.; Foster, C.; Scott, N.; Allen, J. T.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Sweet, S. M.; Hopkins, A. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bryant, J. J.; Croom, S. M.; Goodwin, M.; Lawrence, J. S.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the data archive and database for the SAMI Galaxy Survey, an ongoing observational program that will cover ≈3400 galaxies with integral-field (spatially-resolved) spectroscopy. Amounting to some three million spectra, this is the largest sample of its kind to date. The data archive and built-in query engine use the versatile Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5), which precludes the need for external metadata tables and hence the setup and maintenance overhead those carry. The code produces simple outputs that can easily be translated to plots and tables, and the combination of these tools makes for a light system that can handle heavy data. This article acts as a contextual companion to the SAMI Survey Database source code repository, samiDB, which is freely available online and written entirely in Python. We also discuss the decisions related to the selection of tools and the creation of data visualisation modules. It is our aim that the work presented in this article-descriptions, rationale, and source code-will be of use to scientists looking to set up a maintenance-light data archive for a Big Science data load.

  16. What can we talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom? Sami patients' experiences of language choice and cultural norms in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dagsvold, Inger; Møllersen, Snefrid; Stordahl, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Background The Sami in Norway have a legal right to receive health services adapted to Sami language and culture. This calls for a study of the significance of language choice and cultural norms in Sami patients’ encounters with mental health services. Objectives To explore the significance of language and cultural norms in communication about mental health topics experienced by Sami patients receiving mental health treatment to enhance our understanding of linguistic and cultural adaptation of health services. Methods Data were collected through individual interviews with 4 Sami patients receiving mental health treatment in Northern Norway. A systematic text reduction and a thematic analysis were employed. Findings Two themes were identified: (I) Language choice is influenced by language competence, with whom one talks and what one talks about. Bilingualism was a resource and natural part of the participants’ lives, but there were limited possibilities to speak Sami in encounters with health services. A professional working relationship was placed on an equal footing with the possibility to speak Sami. (II) Cultural norms influence what one talks about, in what way and to whom. However, norms could be bypassed, by talking about norm-regulated topics in Norwegian with health providers. Conclusion Sami patients’ language choice in different communication situations is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Sami patients have varying opinions about and preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. Bilingualism and knowledge about both Sami and Norwegian culture provide latitude and enhanced possibilities for both patients and the health services. The challenge for the health services is to allow for and safeguard such individual variations within the cultural framework of the patients. PMID:25976741

  17. Suicide Attempts among Indigenous Sami Adolescents and Majority Peers in Arctic Norway: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silviken, Anne; Kvernmo, Siv

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide attempts and associated risk factors such as sociodemographic conditions, emotional/behavioural problems and parent-child relationships were examined among 591 indigenous Sami and 2100 majority adolescents in Arctic Norway. There were no significant ethnic differences in prevalence of suicide attempts. In both ethnic…

  18. SAMI3-RCM simulation of the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huba, J. D.; Sazykin, S.; Coster, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a self-consistent modeling study of the ionosphere-plasmasphere system response to the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm using the coupled SAMI3-RCM code. The novel feature of this work is that we capture the important storm time dynamics of the ionosphere on a global scale and its manifestation in the plasmasphere. We find that the penetration electric fields associated with the magnetic storm lead to a storm time enhanced density in the low- to middle-latitude ionosphere. We compare the modeled total electron content (TEC) with GPS-measured TEC in the American sector. Additionally, we observe the development of polar cap "tongues of ionization" and the formation of subauroral plasma streams in the postsunset, premidnight sector, and its impact on the plasmasphere. However, we did not see the development of plasmaspheric plumes during this event which we attribute to the long main phase of the storm (˜18 h).

  19. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Revisiting Galaxy Classification through High-order Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sande, Jesse; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Fogarty, Lisa M. R.; Cortese, Luca; d’Eugenio, Francesco; Croom, Scott M.; Scott, Nicholas; Allen, James T.; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Cecil, Gerald; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Davies, Roger; Elahi, Pascal J.; Foster, Caroline; Goldstein, Gregory; Goodwin, Michael; Groves, Brent; Ho, I.-Ting; Jeong, Hyunjin; Jones, D. Heath; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Leslie, Sarah K.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; McDermid, Richard M.; McElroy, Rebecca; Medling, Anne M.; Oh, Sree; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Schaefer, Adam L.; Sharp, Rob; Sweet, Sarah M.; Taranu, Dan; Tonini, Chiara; Walcher, C. Jakob; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations suggest that integral field spectroscopy can connect the high-order stellar kinematic moments h3 (∼skewness) and h4 (∼kurtosis) in galaxies to their cosmological assembly history. Here, we assess these results by measuring the stellar kinematics on a sample of 315 galaxies, without a morphological selection, using two-dimensional integral field data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey. Proxies for the spin parameter ({λ }{R{{e}}}) and ellipticity ({ε }{{e}}) are used to separate fast and slow rotators; there exists a good correspondence to regular and non-regular rotators, respectively, as also seen in earlier studies. We confirm that regular rotators show a strong h3 versus V/σ anti-correlation, whereas quasi-regular and non-regular rotators show a more vertical relation in h3 and V/σ . Motivated by recent cosmological simulations, we develop an alternative approach to kinematically classify galaxies from their individual h3 versus V/σ signatures. Within the SAMI Galaxy Survey, we identify five classes of high-order stellar kinematic signatures using Gaussian mixture models. Class 1 corresponds to slow rotators, whereas Classes 2–5 correspond to fast rotators. We find that galaxies with similar {λ }{R{{e}}}{--}{ε }{{e}} values can show distinctly different {h}3{--}V/σ signatures. Class 5 objects are previously unidentified fast rotators that show a weak h3 versus V/σ anti-correlation. From simulations, these objects are predicted to be disk-less galaxies formed by gas-poor mergers. From morphological examination, however, there is evidence for large stellar disks. Instead, Class 5 objects are more likely disturbed galaxies, have counter-rotating bulges, or bars in edge-on galaxies. Finally, we interpret the strong anti-correlation in h3 versus V/σ as evidence for disks in most fast rotators, suggesting a dearth of gas-poor mergers among fast rotators.

  20. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: gas streaming and dynamical M/L in rotationally supported systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, G.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Richards, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Lange, R.; Moffett, A.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Ho, I.-T.; Taylor, E. N.; Bryant, J. J.; Allen, J. T.; Sweet, S. M.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Goodwin, M.; Kelvin, L.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Owers, M. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.

    2016-02-01

    Line-of-sight velocities of gas and stars can constrain dark matter (DM) within rotationally supported galaxies if they trace circular orbits extensively. Photometric asymmetries may signify non-circular motions, requiring spectra with dense spatial coverage. Our integral-field spectroscopy of 178 galaxies spanned the mass range of the Sydney-AAO Multi-object integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. We derived circular speed curves (CSCs) of gas and stars from non-parametric fits out to r ˜ 2re. For 12/14 with measured H I profiles, ionized gas and H I maximum velocities agreed. We fitted mass-follows-light models to 163 galaxies by approximating the radial light profile as nested, very flattened mass homeoids viewed as a Sérsic form. Fitting broad-band spectral energy distributions to Sloan Digital Sky Survey images gave median stellar mass/light 1.7 assuming a Kroupa initial mass function (IMF) versus 2.6 dynamically. Two-thirds of the dynamical mass/light measures were consistent with star+remnant IMFs. One-fifth required upscaled starlight to fit, hence comparable mass of unobserved baryons and/or DM distributed like starlight across the SAMI aperture that came to dominate motions as the starlight CSCs declined rapidly. The rest had mass distributed differently from light. Subtracting fits of Sérsic radial profiles to 13 VIKING Z-band images revealed residual weak bars. Near the bar major axis, we assessed m = 2 streaming velocities, and found deviations usually <30 km s-1 from the CSC; three showed no deviation. Thus, asymmetries rarely influenced the CSC despite colocated shock-indicating, emission-line flux ratios in more than 2/3 of our sample.

  1. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: shocks and outflows in a normal star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Medling, Anne M.; Allen, J. T.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bloom, Jessica V.; Bryant, Julia J.; Croom, Scott M.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel; Sharp, Rob

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility and potential of using large integral field spectroscopic surveys to investigate the prevalence of galactic-scale outflows in the local Universe. Using integral field data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) and the Wide Field Spectrograph, we study the nature of an isolated disc galaxy, SDSS J090005.05+000446.7 (z = 0.053 86). In the integral field data sets, the galaxy presents skewed line profiles changing with position in the galaxy. The skewed line profiles are caused by different kinematic components overlapping in the line-of-sight direction. We perform spectral decomposition to separate the line profiles in each spatial pixel as combinations of (1) a narrow kinematic component consistent with H II regions, (2) a broad kinematic component consistent with shock excitation, and (3) an intermediate component consistent with shock excitation and photoionization mixing. The three kinematic components have distinctly different velocity fields, velocity dispersions, line ratios, and electron densities. We model the line ratios, velocity dispersions, and electron densities with our MAPPINGS IV shock and photoionization models, and we reach remarkable agreement between the data and the models. The models demonstrate that the different emission line properties are caused by major galactic outflows that introduce shock excitation in addition to photoionization by star-forming activities. Interstellar shocks embedded in the outflows shock-excite and compress the gas, causing the elevated line ratios, velocity dispersions, and electron densities observed in the broad kinematic component. We argue from energy considerations that, with the lack of a powerful active galactic nucleus, the outflows are likely to be driven by starburst activities. Our results set a benchmark of the type of analysis that can be achieved by the SAMI Galaxy Survey on large numbers of galaxies.

  2. The SAMI Pilot Survey: stellar kinematics of galaxies in Abell 85, 168 and 2399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, L. M. R.; Scott, N.; Owers, M. S.; Croom, S. M.; Bekki, K.; Houghton, R. C. W.; van de Sande, J.; D'Eugenio, F.; Cecil, G. N.; Colless, M. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Cortese, L.; Davies, R. L.; Jones, D. H.; Pracy, M.; Allen, J. T.; Bryant, J. J.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Richards, S.; Sharp, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present the SAMI Pilot Survey, consisting of integral field spectroscopy of 106 galaxies across three galaxy clusters, Abell 85, Abell 168 and Abell 2399. The galaxies were selected by absolute magnitude to have Mr < -20.25 mag. The survey, using the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI), comprises observations of galaxies of all morphological types with 75 per cent of the sample being early-type galaxies (ETGs) and 25 per cent being late-type galaxies (LTGs). Stellar velocity and velocity dispersion maps are derived for all 106 galaxies in the sample. The λR parameter, a proxy for the specific stellar angular momentum, is calculated for each galaxy in the sample. We find a trend between λR and galaxy concentration such that LTGs are less concentrated higher angular momentum systems, with the fast-rotating ETGs (FRs) more concentrated and lower in angular momentum. This suggests that some dynamical processes are involved in transforming LTGs to FRs, though a significant overlap between the λR distributions of these classes of galaxies implies that this is just one piece of a more complicated picture. We measure the kinematic misalignment angle, Ψ, for the ETGs in the sample, to probe the intrinsic shapes of the galaxies. We find the majority of FRs (83 per cent) to be aligned, consistent with them being oblate spheroids (i.e. discs). The slow rotating ETGs (SRs), on the other hand, are significantly more likely to show kinematic misalignment (only 38 per cent are aligned). This confirms previous results that SRs are likely to be mildly triaxial systems.

  3. Incentives and regulations to reconcile conservation and development: thirty years of governance of the Sami pastoral ecosystem in Finnmark, Norway.

    PubMed

    Ulvevadet, Birgitte; Hausner, Vera H

    2011-10-01

    Incentive-based mechanisms are regarded as efficient instruments to reconcile conservation and development. This win-win objective has been difficult to accomplish; cross-compliance has, therefore, been suggested as a mechanism to ensure sustainability. Cross-compliance, which requires producers to conform to production regulations and environmental standards to qualify for direct payments, has been a popular instrument in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. Since 1990, cross-compliance has been the main characteristic of policy design in Sami reindeer husbandry in Finnmark, Norway. All direct transfers to the Sami pastoralists have been connected to harvesting demands to decrease the number of reindeer and to conserve pastures. The content of these incentive-based mechanisms are decided through negotiated agreements with the Sami Reindeer Herders' Association of Norway (NRL), and the regulation of reindeer numbers and access to pastures are delegated to co-management boards. Despite the participation of the Sami pastoralists in shaping these policies, win-win objectives have not been achieved. Although the cross-compliance program could have been improved by payment for graded results, the lack of regulations by the administration or co-management boards is more likely to be the cause of failure to reach sustainability. Despite the long-term failures of the cross-compliance program, policies have been slow to change. We might attribute this delay to the NRL's strong position in the negotiated agreements. In general, we argue that the success of the cross-compliance program depends on a well-functioning governance system that can implement regulations and sanctions if incentives do not work as intended.

  4. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami) population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389) population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years) in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study). Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway. PMID:25683064

  5. Modeling the Effects of Tropospheric Tides on the Ionosphere using SAMI3 Coupled with TIME-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, S. E.; Huba, J.; Hagan, M. E.; Maute, A. I.; Basu, S.

    2009-12-01

    Recent modeling studies performed with the NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) have shown that tides of tropospheric origin are capable of affecting the thermosphere and ionosphere and can explain the wave-four longitudinal structure that has been observed in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The eastward propagating zonal wavenumber-3 diurnal tide (DE3) has a particularly strong signature that peaks near 110 km and penetrates into the upper thermosphere. In this study, we couple the TIME-GCM thermosphere with NRL’s comprehensive 3D ionosphere model, SAMI3, in order to investigate the impact of non-migrating tides on the E- and F-region ionosphere. SAMI3 includes a potential equation to self-consistently solve for the electric field. Simulation runs have been performed for March equinox and June solstice conditions at solar minimum (F10.7 = 75.) The SAMI3 results are compared with TIME-GCM as well as with measurements of electron density and electric fields.

  6. Conformational heterogeneity of the SAM-I riboswitch transcriptional ON state: a chaperone-like role for S-adenosyl methionine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Kim, Joohyun; Jha, Shantenu; Aboul-Ela, Fareed

    2012-05-18

    Riboswitches are promising targets for the design of novel antibiotics and engineering of portable genetic regulatory elements. There is evidence that variability in riboswitch properties allows tuning of expression for genes involved in different stages of biosynthetic pathways by mechanisms that are not currently understood. Here, we explore the mechanism for tuning of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-I riboswitch folding. Most SAM-I riboswitches function at the transcriptional level by sensing the cognate ligand SAM. SAM-I riboswitches orchestrate the biosynthetic pathways of cysteine, methionine, SAM, and so forth. We use base-pair probability predictions to examine the secondary-structure folding landscape of several SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We predict different folding behaviors for different SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We identify several "decoy" base-pairing interactions involving 5' riboswitch residues that can compete with the formation of a P1 helix, a component of the ligand-bound "transcription OFF" state, in the absence of SAM. We hypothesize that blockage of these interactions through SAM contacts contributes to stabilization of the OFF state in the presence of ligand. We also probe folding patterns for a SAM-I riboswitch RNA using constructs with different 3' truncation points experimentally. Folding was monitored through fluorescence, susceptibility to base-catalyzed cleavage, nuclear magnetic resonance, and indirectly through SAM binding. We identify key decision windows at which SAM can affect the folding pathway towards the OFF state. The presence of decoy conformations and differential sensitivities to SAM at different transcript lengths is crucial for SAM-I riboswitches to modulate gene expression in the context of global cellular metabolism.

  7. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: unveiling the nature of kinematically offset active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. T.; Schaefer, A. L.; Scott, N.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Ho, I.-T.; Medling, A. M.; Leslie, S. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bryant, J. J.; Croom, S. M.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Sharp, R.

    2015-08-01

    We have observed two kinematically offset active galactic nuclei (AGN), whose ionized gas is at a different line-of-sight velocity to their host galaxies, with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI). One of the galaxies shows gas kinematics very different from the stellar kinematics, indicating a recent merger or accretion event. We demonstrate that the star formation associated with this event was triggered within the last 100 Myr. The other galaxy shows simple disc rotation in both gas and stellar kinematics, aligned with each other, but in the central region has signatures of an outflow driven by the AGN. Other than the outflow, neither galaxy shows any discontinuity in the ionized gas kinematics at the galaxy's centre. We conclude that in these two cases there is no direct evidence of the AGN being in a supermassive black hole binary system. Our study demonstrates that selecting kinematically offset AGN from single-fibre spectroscopy provides, by definition, samples of kinematically peculiar objects, but integral field spectroscopy or other data are required to determine their true nature.

  8. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: can we trust aperture corrections to predict star formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, S. N.; Bryant, J. J.; Croom, S. M.; Hopkins, A. M.; Schaefer, A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Allen, J. T.; Brough, S.; Cecil, G.; Cortese, L.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Ho, I.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Taylor, E. N.

    2016-01-01

    In the low-redshift Universe (z < 0.3), our view of galaxy evolution is primarily based on fibre optic spectroscopy surveys. Elaborate methods have been developed to address aperture effects when fixed aperture sizes only probe the inner regions for galaxies of ever decreasing redshift or increasing physical size. These aperture corrections rely on assumptions about the physical properties of galaxies. The adequacy of these aperture corrections can be tested with integral-field spectroscopic data. We use integral-field spectra drawn from 1212 galaxies observed as part of the SAMI Galaxy Survey to investigate the validity of two aperture correction methods that attempt to estimate a galaxy's total instantaneous star formation rate. We show that biases arise when assuming that instantaneous star formation is traced by broad-band imaging, and when the aperture correction is built only from spectra of the nuclear region of galaxies. These biases may be significant depending on the selection criteria of a survey sample. Understanding the sensitivities of these aperture corrections is essential for correct handling of systematic errors in galaxy evolution studies.

  9. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Publicly Available Spatially Resolved Emission Line Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medling, Anne; Green, Andrew W.; Ho, I.-Ting; Groves, Brent; Croom, Scott; SAMI Galaxy Survey Team

    2017-01-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey is collecting optical integral field spectroscopy of up to 3400 nearby (z<0.1) galaxies with a range of stellar masses and in a range of environments. The first public data release contains nearly 800 galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Survey. In addition to releasing the reduced data cubes, we also provide emission line fits (flux and kinematic maps of strong emission lines including Halpha and Hbeta, [OII]3726,29, [OIII]4959,5007, [OI]6300, [NII]6548,83, and [SII]6716,31), extinction maps, star formation classification masks, and star formation rate maps. We give an overview of the data available for your favorite emission line science and present a few early science results. For example, a sample of edge-on disk galaxies show enhanced extraplanar emission related to SF-driven outflows, which are correlated with a bursty star formation history and higher star formation rate surface densities. Interestingly, the star formation rate surface densities of these wind hosts are 5-100 times lower than the canonical threshold for driving winds (0.1 MSun/yr/kpc2), indicating that galactic winds may be more important in normal star-forming galaxies than previously thought.

  10. Basis for ligand discrimination between ON and OFF state riboswitch conformations: the case of the SAM-I riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Boyapati, Vamsi Krishna; Huang, Wei; Spedale, Jessica; Aboul-Ela, Fareed

    2012-06-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements that bind to effector ligands and control gene expression. Most consist of two domains. S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM) binds the aptamer domain of the SAM-I riboswitch and induces conformational changes in the expression domain to form an intrinsic terminator (transcription OFF state). Without SAM the riboswitch forms the transcription ON state, allowing read-through transcription. The mechanistic link between the SAM/aptamer recognition event and subsequent secondary structure rearrangement by the riboswitch is unclear. We probed for those structural features of the Bacillus subtilis yitJ SAM-I riboswitch responsible for discrimination between the ON and OFF states by SAM. We designed SAM-I riboswitch RNA segments forming "hybrid" structures of the ON and OFF states. The choice of segment constrains the formation of a partial P1 helix, characteristic of the OFF state, together with a partial antiterminator (AT) helix, characteristic of the ON state. For most choices of P1 vs. AT helix lengths, SAM binds with micromolar affinity according to equilibrium dialysis. Mutational analysis and in-line probing confirm that the mode of SAM binding by hybrid structures is similar to that of the aptamer. Altogether, binding measurements and in-line probing are consistent with the hypothesis that when SAM is present, stacking interactions with the AT helix stabilize a partially formed P1 helix in the hybrids. Molecular modeling indicates that continuous stacking between the P1 and the AT helices is plausible with SAM bound. Our findings raise the possibility that conformational intermediates may play a role in ligand-induced aptamer folding.

  11. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: extraplanar gas, galactic winds and their association with star formation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Medling, Anne M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Dopita, Michael A.; Leslie, Sarah K.; Sharp, Rob; Allen, James T.; Bourne, Nathan; Bryant, Julia J.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Dunne, Loretta; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel; Sweet, Sarah M.; Tescari, Edoardo; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a sample of 40 local, main-sequence, edge-on disc galaxies using integral field spectroscopy with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey to understand the link between properties of the extraplanar gas and their host galaxies. The kinematics properties of the extraplanar gas, including velocity asymmetries and increased dispersion, are used to differentiate galaxies hosting large-scale galactic winds from those dominated by the extended diffuse ionized gas. We find rather that a spectrum of diffuse gas-dominated to wind-dominated galaxies exist. The wind-dominated galaxies span a wide range of star formation rates (SFRs; -1 ≲ log (SFR/M⊙ yr-1) ≲ 0.5) across the whole stellar mass range of the sample (8.5 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 11). The wind galaxies also span a wide range in SFR surface densities (10- 3-10- 1.5 M⊙ yr- 1 kpc- 2) that is much lower than the canonical threshold of 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1 kpc- 2. The wind galaxies on average have higher SFR surface densities and higher HδA values than those without strong wind signatures. The enhanced HδA indicates that bursts of star formation in the recent past are necessary for driving large-scale galactic winds. We demonstrate with Sloan Digital Sky Survey data that galaxies with high SFR surface density have experienced bursts of star formation in the recent past. Our results imply that the galactic winds revealed in our study are indeed driven by bursts of star formation, and thus probing star formation in the time domain is crucial for finding and understanding galactic winds.

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: asymmetry in gas kinematics and its links to stellar mass and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, J. V.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Croom, S. M.; Schaefer, A.; Bryant, J. J.; Cortese, L.; Richards, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Ho, I.-T.; Scott, N.; Goldstein, G.; Medling, A.; Brough, S.; Sweet, S. M.; Cecil, G.; López-Sánchez, A.; Glazebrook, K.; Parker, Q.; Allen, J. T.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N.; Owers, M. S.; Sharp, R.

    2017-02-01

    We study the properties of kinematically disturbed galaxies in the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey using a quantitative criterion, based on kinemetry (Krajnović et al.). The approach, similar to the application of kinemetry by Shapiro et al., uses ionized gas kinematics, probed by H α emission. By this method, 23 ± 7 per cent of our 360-galaxy sub-sample of the SAMI Galaxy Survey are kinematically asymmetric. Visual classifications agree with our kinemetric results for 90 per cent of asymmetric and 95 per cent of normal galaxies. We find that stellar mass and kinematic asymmetry are inversely correlated and that kinematic asymmetry is both more frequent and stronger in low-mass galaxies. This builds on previous studies that found high fractions of kinematic asymmetry in low-mass galaxies using a variety of different methods. Concentration of star formation and kinematic disturbance are found to be correlated, confirming results found in previous work. This effect is stronger for high-mass galaxies (log(M*) > 10) and indicates that kinematic disturbance is linked to centrally concentrated star formation. Comparison of the inner (within 0.5Re) and outer H α equivalent widths of asymmetric and normal galaxies shows a small but significant increase in inner equivalent width for asymmetric galaxies.

  13. [Pathology of adaptation according to Sami-Ali and index of conformity to the Rorschach test in ulcerative rectocolitis].

    PubMed

    Porcelli, P; Zaka, S; Tarantino, S; Sisto, G

    1992-01-01

    According to Sami-Ali's theoretical model the psychosomatic personality is characterised by an adaptation pathology whose main elements are the repression of imaginative thought and conformity to socio-cultural standards. This study examines adaptation pathology using the Rorschach test. The Authors have formulated a conformity index by relating kinestheses (M) and banal perceptions (BAN). The study was carried out on a sample of 41 patients suffering from ulcerous rectocolitis comprising 24 males and 17 women with a mean age of 32 years. As expected in the hypothesis 97.6% of the sample showed M values below the norm, and 68.3% had Ban values higher than normal, whereas the conformity index was positive and tendentially positive in 65.9% of cases. These findings confirm Sami-Ali's theory. Subjects with ulcerous rectocolitis form part of the adaptation pathology which characterised the psychosomatic personality, with an inverse proportionality between imaginative activity (kinesthesia below normal) and conformism (banal perceptions above the norm).

  14. Micro-Level Language-Planning and Grass-Root Initiatives: A Case Study of Irish Language Comedy and Inari Sami Rap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Mairead; Pietikainen, Sari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the increased potential for language change from the micro-level, given the new domains in which minority languages are present in the global era. Drawing on the theoretical notion of sociolinguistic scales this paper presents a comparative account of the changing positions of the Irish and Inari Sami languages.…

  15. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  16. The use of plants as regular food in ancient subarctic economies: a case study based on Sami use of Scots pine innerbark.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingela; Östlund, Lars; Zackrisson, Olle

    2004-01-01

    This study combines ethnological, historical, and dendroecological data from areas north of the Arctic Circle to analyze cultural aspects of Sami use of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) inner bark as regular food. Bark was peeled in June when trees were at the peak of sapping, leaving a strip of undamaged cambium so the tree survived. As a result, it is possible to date bark-peeling episodes using dendrochronology. The paper argues that the use of Scots pine inner bark reflects Sami religious beliefs, ethical concerns, and concepts of time, all expressed in the process of peeling the bark. A well-developed terminology and a set of specially designed tools reveal the technology involved in bark peeling. Consistent patterns with respect to the direction and size of peeling scars found across the region demonstrate common values and standards. Peeling direction patterns and ceremonial meals relating to bark probably reflect ritual practices connected to the sun deity, Biejvve.

  17. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: the discovery of a luminous, low-metallicity H II complex in the dwarf galaxy GAMA J141103.98-003242.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, S. N.; Schaefer, A. L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Croom, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.; Sweet, S. M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Allen, J. T.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Brough, S.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Ho, I.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Koribalski, B. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Owers, M. S.; Sadler, E. M.; Sharp, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present the discovery of a luminous unresolved H II complex on the edge of dwarf galaxy GAMA J141103.98-003242.3 using data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. This dwarf galaxy is situated at a distance of ˜100 Mpc and contains an unresolved region of H II emission that contributes ˜70 per cent of the galaxy's Hα luminosity, located at the top end of established H II region luminosity functions. For the H II complex, we measure a star formation rate of 0.147 ± 0.041 M⊙ yr-1and a metallicity of 12+log(O/H) = 8.01 ± 0.05 that is lower than the rest of the galaxy by ˜0.2 dex. Data from the H I Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) indicate the likely presence of neutral hydrogen in the galaxy to potentially fuel ongoing and future star-forming events. We discuss various triggering mechanisms for the intense star formation activity of this H II complex, where the kinematics of the ionized gas are well described by a rotating disc and do not show any features indicative of interactions. We show that SAMI is an ideal instrument to identify similar systems to GAMA J141103.98-003242.3, and the SAMI Galaxy Survey is likely to find many more of these systems to aid in the understanding of their formation and evolution.

  18. Noise disturbance caused by outdoor activities--a simulated-environment study for Ali Sami Yen Stadium, İstanbul.

    PubMed

    Dal, Zeynep; Akdağ, Neşe Yüğrük

    2011-03-01

    Negative effects of noise on individuals, the inevitable result of urbanization, have become a significant urban problem in our day. Introduction of an approach to the noise problem on an urban-planning scale lightens the burden of measures required to be taken against noise at the stages of regional and developmental planning. Stadiums, which should be also evaluated from the point of noise problem when planning decisions are made on the urban planning scale, may cause very serious problems differing depending on the region they are located in. In this article, various dimensions of the noise problem caused by stadiums have been exemplified by making an assessment on Ali Sami Yen football stadium located in Mecidiyeköy district which is among important residential and commercial centres of İstanbul or Turkey. When the simulation results obtained for ordinary days and match days are evaluated, it has been found out that the people living in the area are exposed to noise levels substantially exceeding the acceptable values. Results of the survey conducted in the area have clearly revealed the existence of noise problem, too.

  19. Experiences of being a young male Sami reindeer herder: a qualitative study in perspective of mental health

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Niclas; Ruong, Terje; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore experiences of what it is to be a young male Sami reindeer herder in Sweden, a group with previously known stigma and specific health issues, and to understand experiences in perspective of mental health. Methods A qualitative content analysis was employed. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with 15 strategically selected reindeer herders aged 18–35 years old. Results The analysis resulted in 5 sub-themes: (a) being “inside” or “outside” is a question of identity; (b) a paradox between being free/bound; (c) an experience of various threats and a feeling of powerlessness; (d) specific norms for how a “real” reindeer herder should be; and (e) the different impacts and meanings of relations. The overarching theme is summarized thus: being a young reindeer herder means so many (impossible) dreams and conditions. Overall, the experience of the informants was that being a reindeer herder is a privileged position that also implies many impossibilities and unjust adversities they have no control over, and that there is nothing they can do but “bite the bullet or be a failure.” Conclusions Knowledge about this group's experiences can be used to understand difficulties faced by young reindeer herders and its consequences regarding mental health problems. This also implies a need for a broader perspective when discussing future interventions aimed at preventing mental health problems in this group. PMID:23853764

  20. A population-based study on health and living conditions in areas with mixed Sami and Norwegian settlements – the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Brustad, Magritt; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Hansen, Solrunn; Melhus, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the method, data collection procedure and participation in The Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Areas with both Sami and Norwegian Settlements – the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study. Study design Cross-sectional and semi-longitudinal. Methods In 2012, all inhabitants aged 18–69 and living in selected municipalities with both Sami and Norwegian settlements in Mid and Northern Norway were posted an invitation to participate in a questionnaire survey covering several topics related to health and living conditions. The geographical area was similar to the area where the SAMINOR 1 study was conducted in 2003/2004 with the exception of one additional municipality. Participants could alternatively use a web-based questionnaire with identical question and answer categories as the posted paper version. Results In total, 11,600 (27%) participated (16% used the web-based questionnaire), with a higher participation rate among those over 50 (37% for women and 32% for men). Some geographical variation in participation rates was found. In addition, for those invited who also participated in the SAMINOR 1 study, we found that the participation rates increased with the level of education and income, while there was little difference in participation rates across ethnic groups. Conclusion The knowledge generated from future theme-specific research utilizing the SAMINOR 2 database has the potential to benefit the general population in this geographical area of Norway, and the Sami people in particular, by providing knowledge-based insight into the health and living conditions of the multi-ethnic population in these parts of Norway. PMID:24971230

  1. Johan Turi’s animal, mineral, vegetable cures and healing practices: an in-depth analysis of Sami (Saami) folk healing one hundred years ago

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The healing knowledge of a Sami (Saami) hunter and reindeer herder was surveyed as a window into the concepts of health, healing, and disease in early twentieth-century Sapmi (Northern Sweden). The two books of Johan Turi (1854–1936)—An Account of the Sami (1910) and Lappish Texts (1918–19) were examined to determine the varieties of recorded zootherapeutic, mineral, chemical, and ethnobotanical lore, as well as the therapeutic acts, identified conditions, and veterinary knowledge included. Methods Tabulation of the materials and species mentioned in Turi’s descriptions (n = 137) permitted analysis of the relative frequency of differing types of healing in Turi’s overall therapeutic repertoire, his relative attention to chronic vs. acute ailments, and the frequency of magic as a component of healing. A qualitative appraisal was made of the degree to which outside influences affected Sami healing of the period. A further assessment of the possible clinical efficacy of the recorded remedies was undertaken. Results Turi’s remedies consist most often of zootherapeutics (31%), followed by physical acts such as massage, moxibustion, or manipulation (22%). Ethnobotanical cures make up a significantly smaller portion of his repertoire (17%), followed by mineral and chemical cures (12%). Magic rituals (including incantations and ritual acts) make up a significant portion of Turi’s repertoire, and could be used alone (17%) or in conjunction with other types of healing (38%). Turi’s healing aimed primarily at acute ailments (65%), with chronic conditions addressed less often (35%). A literature review revealed that Turi’s remedies held a marked frequency of likely efficacy, at least in cases in which it was possible to ascertain the precise species, conditions, or substances described. Although it is possible at times to recognize foreign sources in Turi’s repertoire, it is clear that Turi understood all his healing methods as distinctively

  2. Validity of self-reported myocardial infarction and stroke in regions with Sami and Norwegian populations: the SAMINOR 1 Survey and the CVDNOR project

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Tell, Grethe S; Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen; Braaten, Tonje; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Updated knowledge on the validity of self-reported myocardial infarction (SMI) and self-reported stroke (SRS) is needed in Norway. Our objective was to compare questionnaire data and hospital discharge data from regions with Sami and Norwegian populations to assess the validity of these outcomes by ethnicity, sex, age and education. Design Validation study using cross-sectional questionnaire data and hospital discharge data from all Norwegian somatic hospitals. Participants and setting 16 865 men and women aged 30 and 36–79 years participated in the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in Sami and Norwegian Populations (SAMINOR) 1 Survey in 2003–2004. Information on SMI and SRS was available from self-administered questionnaires for 15 005 and 15 088 of these participants, respectively. We compared this information with hospital discharge data from 1994 until SAMINOR 1 Survey attendance. Primary and secondary outcomes Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value and κ. Results The sensitivity and PPV of SMI were 90.1% and 78.9%, respectively; the PPV increased to 93.1% when all ischaemic heart disease (IHD) diagnoses were included. The SMI prevalence estimate was 2.3% and hospital-based 2.0%. The sensitivity and PPV of SRS were 81.1% and 64.3%, respectively. The SRS prevalence estimate was 1.5% and hospitalisation-based 1.2%. Moderate to no variation was observed in validity according to ethnicity, sex, age and education. Conclusions The sensitivity and PPV of SMI were high and moderate, respectively; for SRS, both of these measures were moderate. Our results show that SMI from the SAMINOR 1 Survey may be used in aetiological/analytical studies in this population due to a high IHD-specific PPV. The SAMINOR 1 questionnaire may also be used to estimate the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction and acute stroke. PMID:27903562

  3. Comparing results of high-resolution palaeoecological analyses with oral histories of land-use of a Sami reindeer herding pen in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamerling, Ilse M.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, James E.; Aronsson, Kjell-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer herding is a key component of Sami culture, but much is still unknown about its development both in the recent and more distant past due to the limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence. Pollen analysis provides a potential tool to supplement this lack of evidence through the detection and evaluation of landscape responses to the impact of reindeer pastoralism. In the boreal forests of northern Fennoscandia, localised forest clearance to create space for dwellings and livestock is presented in the palynological record as a decline in arboreal taxa and an increase in herbaceous taxa favoured by the increased light levels, resistance to soil trampling, and/or the increased soil nutrient levels provided by reindeer dung, domestic waste and ash from smudge fires. Oral histories of 20th century forest Sami reindeer herding at an abandoned reindeer herding pen (renvall) at Akkajävi, northern Sweden (66.9° N, 21.1° E), are integrated here with high-resolution palaeoecological reconstructions of the local vegetation to: (i) assess the sensitivity and value of various palynomorphs to the impacts of reindeer pastoralism; (ii) investigate whether the patterns seen in the palaeoecological record match the timing of activity at and abandonment of the site as understood from these oral histories. A peat monolith collected from within an annexe of the renvall was pollen analysed at a high resolution, supplemented with coprophilous fungal spore (livestock grazing/gathering), microscopic charcoal ([anthropogenic] burning) and sedimentological (loss-on-ignition; soil erosion) records. For the first time, this has allowed for the identification of multi-decadal cycles of use and abandonment of a renvall in the pollen record, but more obviously so in its coprophilous fungal spore archive, with the pattern and timing of changes at the site confirming events previously known only from oral histories. A second, paired profile was collected from the fen

  4. 77 FR 39245 - Sami Arshak Yanikian: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... counts of introduction of an unapproved drug in interstate commerce, in violation of sections 301(d), 505... entered judgment against Mr. Yanikian for the misdemeanor offenses of introduction of an unapproved drug... follows: On March 17, 2005, FDA sent Mr. Yanikian a warning letter regarding his marketing and sale...

  5. Self-Reported Internalization Symptoms and Family Factors in Indigenous Sami and Non-Sami Adolescents in North Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bals, Margrethe; Turi, Anne Lene; Vitterso, Joar; Skre, Ingunn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2011-01-01

    Through differences in family socialization between indigenous and non-indigenous youth, there may be cultural differences in the impact of family factors on mental health outcome. Using structural equation modelling, this population-based study explored the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and family factors in indigenous…

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAMI Galaxy Survey: gas streaming (Cecil+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, G.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Richards, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Lange, R.; Moffett, A.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Ho, I.-T.; Taylor, E. N.; Bryant, J. J.; Allen, J. T.; Sweet, S. M.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Goodwin, M.; Kelvin, L.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Owers, M. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.

    2016-08-01

    From the first ~830 targets observed in the SGS, we selected 344 rotationally supported galaxies having enough gas to map their CSC. We rejected 8 whose inclination angle to us is too small (i<20°) to be established reliably by photometry, and those very strongly barred or in obvious interactions. Finally, we rejected those whose CSC would be smeared excessively by our PSF (Sect. 2.3.1) because of large inclination (i>71°), compact size, or observed in atrocious conditions, leaving 163 SGS GAMA survey sub-sample and 15 "cluster" sub-sample galaxies with discs. (3 data files).

  7. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Interactions and Kinematic Anomalies in Abell 119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sree; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Cortese, Luca; van de Sande, Jesse; Mahajan, Smriti; Jeong, Hyunjin; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Allen, James T.; Bekki, Kenji; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bloom, Jessica V.; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Colless, Matthew; Croom, Scott M.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel; Scott, Nicholas; Sharp, Rob; Sweet, Sarah M.

    2016-11-01

    Galaxy mergers are important events that can determine the fate of a galaxy by changing its morphology, star formation activity and mass growth. Merger systems have commonly been identified from their disturbed morphologies, and we now can employ integral field spectroscopy to detect and analyze the impact of mergers on stellar kinematics as well. We visually classified galaxy morphology using deep images ({μ }{{r}}=28 {mag} {{arcsec}}-2) taken by the Blanco 4 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. In this paper we investigate 63 bright ({M}{{r}}\\lt -19.3) spectroscopically selected galaxies in Abell 119, of which 53 are early type and 20 show a disturbed morphology by visual inspection. A misalignment between the major axes in the photometric image and the kinematic map is conspicuous in morphologically disturbed galaxies. Our sample is dominated by early-type galaxies, yet it shows a surprisingly tight Tully-Fisher relation except for the morphologically disturbed galaxies which show large deviations. Three out of the eight slow rotators in our sample are morphologically disturbed. The morphologically disturbed galaxies are generally more asymmetric, visually as well as kinematically. Our findings suggest that galaxy interactions, including mergers and perhaps fly-bys, play an important role in determining the orientation and magnitude of a galaxy’s angular momentum.

  8. Ionospheric Response to Solar Flares Using an Improved Version of SAMI2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    direct competition . The most rigorous models use the most comprehensive physics (fewest parameterizations), and have a global (3-D) domain. Most models ...the result is the same, however, the cause is an energetic (or photo) electron with kinetic energy exceeding the ionization threshold of the target...previously noted, results from ionization by an electron with kinetic energy that exceeds the ionization threshold of the target neutral. The local

  9. THE SAMI GALAXY SURVEY: TOWARD A UNIFIED DYNAMICAL SCALING RELATION FOR GALAXIES OF ALL TYPES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, L.; Glazebrook, K.; Mould, J.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Croom, S. M.; Scott, N.; Allen, J. T.; Bloom, J.; Bryant, J. J.; Ho, I.-T.; Bekki, K.; Colless, M.; Sharp, R.; Couch, W.; Goodwin, M.; Tonini, C.; Cluver, M.; Davies, R. L.; Drinkwater, M. J.; and others

    2014-11-10

    We take advantage of the first data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field Galaxy Survey to investigate the relation between the kinematics of gas and stars, and stellar mass in a comprehensive sample of nearby galaxies. We find that all 235 objects in our sample, regardless of their morphology, lie on a tight relation linking stellar mass (M {sub *}) to internal velocity quantified by the S {sub 0.5} parameter, which combines the contribution of both dispersion (σ) and rotational velocity (V {sub rot}) to the dynamical support of a galaxy (S{sub 0.5}=√(0.5 V{sub rot}{sup 2}+σ{sup 2})). Our results are independent of the baryonic component from which σ and V {sub rot} are estimated, as the S {sub 0.5} of stars and gas agree remarkably well. This represents a significant improvement compared to the canonical M {sub *} versus V {sub rot} and M {sub *} versus σ relations. Not only is no sample pruning necessary, but also stellar and gas kinematics can be used simultaneously, as the effect of asymmetric drift is taken into account once V {sub rot} and σ are combined. Our findings illustrate how the combination of dispersion and rotational velocities for both gas and stars can provide us with a single dynamical scaling relation valid for galaxies of all morphologies across at least the stellar mass range 8.5 

  10. Asphalt-Rubber SAMI (Stress-Absorbing Membrane Interlayers) Field Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    placed after an AC-1O had been shot onto the Section E area. Laydown began at Station 13 + 75, next to the adjoining taxiway. A Blaw - Knox , PF-180...breakdown rolling with a dynamic D-50 Ingersoll-Rand dual tandem steel wheel roller operating at 1600 vibrations a minute with a dynamic weight of 21,000...Hyster 03500 steel wheel roller completed the surface rolling. No further paving was done until October 5 because of inclement weather and the breakdown

  11. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: the link between angular momentum and optical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Bekki, K.; van de Sande, J.; Couch, W.; Catinella, B.; Colless, M.; Obreschkow, D.; Taranu, D.; Tescari, E.; Barat, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J.; Bryant, J. J.; Cluver, M.; Croom, S. M.; Drinkwater, M. J.; d'Eugenio, F.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mahajan, S.; Scott, N.; Tonini, C.; Wong, O. I.; Allen, J. T.; Brough, S.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Ho, I.-T.; Kelvin, L. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the relationship between stellar and gas specific angular momentum j, stellar mass M* and optical morphology for a sample of 488 galaxies extracted from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field Galaxy Survey. We find that j, measured within one effective radius, monotonically increases with M* and that, for M* > 109.5 M⊙, the scatter in this relation strongly correlates with optical morphology (i.e. visual classification and Sérsic index). These findings confirm that massive galaxies of all types lie on a plane relating mass, angular momentum and stellar-light distribution, and suggest that the large-scale morphology of a galaxy is regulated by its mass and dynamical state. We show that the significant scatter in the M*-j relation is accounted for by the fact that, at fixed stellar mass, the contribution of ordered motions to the dynamical support of galaxies varies by at least a factor of 3. Indeed, the stellar spin parameter (quantified via λR) correlates strongly with Sérsic and concentration indices. This correlation is particularly strong once slow rotators are removed from the sample, showing that late-type galaxies and early-type fast rotators form a continuous class of objects in terms of their kinematic properties.

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Toward a Unified Dynamical Scaling Relation for Galaxies of All Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Ho, I.-T.; Bekki, K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Colless, M.; Couch, W.; Croom, S. M.; Glazebrook, K.; Mould, J.; Scott, N.; Sharp, R.; Tonini, C.; Allen, J. T.; Bloom, J.; Bryant, J. J.; Cluver, M.; Davies, R. L.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A.; Kewley, L. J.; Kostantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Mahajan, S.; Medling, A. M.; Owers, M.; Richards, S. N.; Sweet, S. M.; Wong, O. I.

    2014-11-01

    We take advantage of the first data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field Galaxy Survey to investigate the relation between the kinematics of gas and stars, and stellar mass in a comprehensive sample of nearby galaxies. We find that all 235 objects in our sample, regardless of their morphology, lie on a tight relation linking stellar mass (M *) to internal velocity quantified by the S 0.5 parameter, which combines the contribution of both dispersion (σ) and rotational velocity (V rot) to the dynamical support of a galaxy (S0.5=\\sqrt{0.5 V_rot2+σ 2}). Our results are independent of the baryonic component from which σ and V rot are estimated, as the S 0.5 of stars and gas agree remarkably well. This represents a significant improvement compared to the canonical M * versus V rot and M * versus σ relations. Not only is no sample pruning necessary, but also stellar and gas kinematics can be used simultaneously, as the effect of asymmetric drift is taken into account once V rot and σ are combined. Our findings illustrate how the combination of dispersion and rotational velocities for both gas and stars can provide us with a single dynamical scaling relation valid for galaxies of all morphologies across at least the stellar mass range 8.5

  13. Testing the protein error theory of ageing: a reply to Baird, Samis, Massie and Zimmerman.

    PubMed

    Holliday, R

    1975-01-01

    A major prediction of Orgel's theory is that the misincorporation of amino acids into proteins will increase with age. This has not yet been tested experimentally. Indirect methods have been used to search for the presence of altered proteins in ageing cells or organisms, but these would not necessarily detect a low level of mistakes, nor do they distinquish between errors in synthesis and post-synthetic changes. Nevertheless, some experimental results have been obtained from genetic and biochemical studies with fungi and fibroblasts which confirm certain predictions of the protein error theory.

  14. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: spatially resolving the environmental quenching of star formation in GAMA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, A. L.; Croom, S. M.; Allen, J. T.; Brough, S.; Medling, A. M.; Ho, I.-T.; Scott, N.; Richards, S. N.; Pracy, M. B.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Norberg, P.; Alpaslan, M.; Bauer, A. E.; Bekki, K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Bryant, J. J.; Couch, W. J.; Driver, S. P.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Foster, C.; Goldstein, G.; Green, A. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Owers, M. S.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Taylor, E. N.; van de Sande, J.; Walcher, C. J.; Wong, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-Object Integral Field Spectrograph Galaxy Survey and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to investigate the spatially resolved signatures of the environmental quenching of star formation in galaxies. Using dust-corrected measurements of the distribution of Hα emission, we measure the radial profiles of star formation in a sample of 201 star-forming galaxies covering three orders of magnitude in stellar mass (M*; 108.1-1010.95 M⊙) and in fifth nearest neighbour local environment density (Σ5; 10-1.3-102.1 Mpc-2). We show that star formation rate gradients in galaxies are steeper in dense (log10(Σ5/Mpc2) > 0.5) environments by 0.58 ± 0.29 dex re^{-1} in galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10^{10} < M_{*}/M_{⊙} < 10^{11} and that this steepening is accompanied by a reduction in the integrated star formation rate. However, for any given stellar mass or environment density, the star formation morphology of galaxies shows large scatter. We also measure the degree to which the star formation is centrally concentrated using the unitless scale-radius ratio (r50,Hα/r50,cont), which compares the extent of ongoing star formation to previous star formation. With this metric, we find that the fraction of galaxies with centrally concentrated star formation increases with environment density, from ˜5 ± 4 per cent in low-density environments (log10(Σ5/Mpc2) < 0.0) to 30 ± 15 per cent in the highest density environments (log10(Σ5/Mpc2) > 1.0). These lines of evidence strongly suggest that with increasing local environment density, the star formation in galaxies is suppressed, and that this starts in their outskirts such that quenching occurs in an outside-in fashion in dense environments and is not instantaneous.

  15. Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

  16. The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.

    2007-01-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

  17. Reindeer Diode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Jukka O.

    2013-01-01

    In Finnish Lapland, like in other Northern European regions by the Arctic Sea, aboriginal Sami people still base much of their daily income on reindeer. Earlier the Sami people followed their reindeer herds more or less all the year round, in nomadic fashion. Moving to fixed dwellings has created a problem in herding and guarding the property of…

  18. Multiple sclerosis in North Norway, and first appearance in an indigenous population.

    PubMed

    Grønlie, S A; Myrvoll, E; Hansen, G; Grønning, M; Mellgren, S I

    2000-02-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in 1993 and annual incidence rates 1983-1992, and to examine whether the disease occurs among the Sami people. According to earlier reports the two northernmost counties of Norway, Troms and Finnmark with 225,000 inhabitants, have a relatively low prevalence of MS: 20.6 per 100,000 in 1973 and 31.5 in 1983. Also no person who is of pure Sami heritage (i.e., with both parents speaking Sami natively) has been found with the disease. Except for the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool, there has been no significant change in the neurological service in the area during the past 20 years. Files of patients with the diagnosis of MS were reviewed, and questionnaires were sent to all patients alive on the prevalence day of 1 January 1993. The prevalence in 1993 was 73.0 per 100,000. The mean crude annual incidence rate was 3.5 per 100,000 during the period 1983-1992 compared with 3.0 during 1974-1982. In 1983 there were no pure Sami among the MS patients, but one had a Sami father. On 1 January 1993 there were three patients with both Sami parents and three with only one Sami parent, which is a rate that is still lower than would be expected if the prevalence of MS among the Sami were similar to that in the rest of the Norwegian population. The study shows that the incidence of MS in Troms and Finnmark has been increasing over the past 10 years, but is still lower than on the western coast and in the eastern part of Norway. The lowest incidence is found in Finnmark, where the Sami population is highest. During the past 10 years MS has also been diagnosed among the Sami population.

  19. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI's active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals are directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI's 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.

  20. Eye Exam Might Help Spot Poor Circulation in Legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treatment." Dr. James Catanese is chief of cardiology at Northern Westchester Hospital in Mount Kisco, N. ... peer-reviewed journal. SOURCES: Samy Selim, MBBCh, interventional cardiology and endovascular specialist, Northwell Health's Southside Hospital, Bay ...

  1. 50 CFR 665.121 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... barracuda. Turbinidae (turban shells, green snails Alili green snails Turbo spp. American Samoa Potentially... species not listed as CHCRT) Zoanthinaria.Mollusca. sisi-sami sea snails Gastropoda. aliao, alili...

  2. The Influence of the Solar Cycle on Plasmasphere Refilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J.

    2015-12-01

    During refilling, ionospheric plasma streams into the inner magnetosphere from both the northern and southern hemispheres. Plasmasphere refilling rates depend on both the ionospheric sources and on the thermalization of streaming ions. We use the NRL SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code[1] coupled to the NRLMSIS empirical atmosphere model and the HWM14 empirical wind model, to simulate H+, He+ and O+ populations in the plasmasphere. The SAMI3 ionosphere code includes 7 ion species (H+, He+, O+, N+, O2+, N2+, NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e. Measurements show that refilling rates decrease with increasing solar activity, an effect reproduced by SAMI3 and its two-dimensional cousin, SAMI2. We find that the refilling rate and the resulting the plasmasphere electron content are sensitive to the thermospheric composition and temperature, as well as photoelectron heating and photoproduction rates. Depending on conditions, simulations suggest that the plasmaspheric contribution to the total electron content can either increase or decrease with solar activity, as represented by the daily and 81-day-average F10.7 indices. [1] Huba, J. and J. Krall, 2013, ``Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3'', Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 6--10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 Research supported by NRL base funds and the NASA HSR program.

  3. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    DOE PAGES

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; ...

    2016-09-13

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI’s active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals aremore » directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI’s 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lastly, the results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.« less

  4. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.

    2016-09-13

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI’s active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals are directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI’s 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lastly, the results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.

  5. Measurement and modeling of the refilling plasmasphere during 2001

    DOE PAGES

    Krall, J.; Huba, J. D.; Jordanova, V. K.; ...

    2016-03-18

    The Naval Research Laboratory SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) and the RAM-CPL (Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model-Cold PLasma) codes are used to model observed plasmasphere dynamics during 25 November 2001 to 1 December 2001 and 1–5 February 2001. Model results compare well to plasmasphere observations of electron and mass densities. Comparison of model results to refilling data and to each other shows good agreement, generally within a factor of 2. We find that SAMI3 plasmaspheric refilling rates and ion densities are sensitive to the composition and temperature of the thermosphere and exosphere, and to photoelectron heating.more » Furthermore, results also support our previous finding that the wind-driven dynamo significantly impacts both refilling rates and plasmasphere dynamics during quiet periods.« less

  6. Measurement and modeling of the refilling plasmasphere during 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Krall, J.; Huba, J. D.; Jordanova, V. K.; Denton, R. E.; Carranza, T.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2016-03-18

    The Naval Research Laboratory SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) and the RAM-CPL (Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model-Cold PLasma) codes are used to model observed plasmasphere dynamics during 25 November 2001 to 1 December 2001 and 1–5 February 2001. Model results compare well to plasmasphere observations of electron and mass densities. Comparison of model results to refilling data and to each other shows good agreement, generally within a factor of 2. We find that SAMI3 plasmaspheric refilling rates and ion densities are sensitive to the composition and temperature of the thermosphere and exosphere, and to photoelectron heating. Furthermore, results also support our previous finding that the wind-driven dynamo significantly impacts both refilling rates and plasmasphere dynamics during quiet periods.

  7. Musculoskeletal pain in Arctic indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents, prevalence and associations with psychosocial factors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain related functional impairment. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study; a school-based survey responded by 4,881 10th grade students (RR: 83%) in North Norway, in 2003–2005. 10% were indigenous Sami. Musculoskeletal pain was based on reported pain in the head, shoulder/neck, back and/or arm/knee/leg, measured by the number of pain sites. Linear multiple regression was used for the multivariable analyses. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high, and significantly higher in females. In total, 22.4% reported 3–4 pain sites. We found a strong association between musculoskeletal pain sites and psychosocial problems, with a higher explained variance in those reporting pain related functional impairment and in females. There were no major differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Sami and non-Sami, however the associating factors differed somewhat between the indigenous and non-indigenous group. The final multivariable model, for the total sample, explained 21.2% of the variance of musculoskeletal pain. Anxiety/depression symptoms was the dominant factor associated with musculoskeletal pain followed by negative life events and school-related stress. Conclusions Anxiety/depression, negative life events, and school-related stress were the most important factors associated with musculoskeletal pain, especially in those reporting pain related functional impairment. The most important sociocultural aspect

  8. HBCUs and Writing Programs: Critical Hip Hop Language Pedagogy and First-Year Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian J.; Stewart, Shawanda

    2016-01-01

    In the 2015-16 school year, the authors of this article developed an innovative research and assessment project on a new first year composition curriculum based on a pedagogy they call Critical Hip Hop Rhetoric Pedagogy (CHHRP), an educational approach built upon the classroom-based research of linguistic anthropologist H. Samy Alim…

  9. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  10. Simultaneous 2D Doppler backscattering from edge turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, David; Brunner, Kai; Freethy, Simon; Huang, Billy; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Vann, Roddy

    2015-11-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic (previously at MAST and now at NSTX-U) actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (80 degree beam width) and broadband (10-34.5 GHz) beam. It digitizes the phase and amplitude of the Doppler backscattered signal using a receiving array of eight antennas which can be focused in any direction post shot to an angular range of 6-24 degree FWHM. This allows Doppler BackScattering (DBS) experiments to be conducted in every direction within the field of view simultaneously. This capability is unique to SAMI and is a novel way of conducting DBS experiments. SAMI has measured the magnetic pitch angle in the edge for the first time using a backscattering diagnostic. This is possible with simultaneous 2D DBS because the maximum backscattered power is perpendicular to the turbulence and turbulence is elongated along the magnetic field. SAMI has also studied the effect of NBI and the L-H transition on turbulent velocity, and turbulence suppression in the edge during H-mode. Initial results from all of these studies will be presented. This work is supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grants EP/K504178 and EP/H016732.

  11. Blaming the Victim?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how Sami Al-Arian, of the University of South Florida, may become the first tenured professor to lose his job for his views in the aftermath of September 11. Many faculty members say academic freedom will take a beating. (EV)

  12. Frozen Actions in the Arctic Linguistic Landscape: A Nexus Analysis of Language Processes in Visual Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietikainen, Sari; Lane, Pia; Salo, Hanni; Laihiala-Kankainen, Sirkka

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the linguistic landscape (LL) of seven villages above the Arctic Circle, in the region called North Calotte. The area forms a complex nexus of contested and changing multilingualism, particularly as regards to endangered indigenous Sami languages and Kven and Meankieli minority languages. Viewing LL as a discursively…

  13. Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents: Palgrave Studies in Minority Languages and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume offers a close look at four cases of indigenous language revitalization: Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Sami in Scandinavia, Hnahno in Mexico and Quechua and other indigenous languages in Latin America. Essays by experts from each case are in turn discussed in international perspective by four counterpart experts. This book is divided…

  14. d-Vision: Seeking Excellence through a Hands on Engineering Multi Discipline Global Internship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suss, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The question is, "What can vision do?" (Fritz, 1989) rather than "What is vision?" Keter's Chairman, Mr. Sami Sagol's vision is to establish an internship program that will strengthen the competitive edge of the Israeli industry, within the international arena. The program will set new standards of excellence for product…

  15. A University's Dilemma in the Age of National Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColm, Greg; Dorn, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the events surrounding the University of South Florida's (USF) involvement with Sami Al-Arian, who was a professor at USF prior to accusations of involvement in the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ). The seeds of the Al-Arian controversy were planted in the early 1990s when USF--an ambitious but underfunded…

  16. Educating Nomads for Self-Actualization and Development. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeomah, Chimah

    Nomadism is a worldwide phenomenon and its practitioners fall into three categories: (1) hunter/food gatherers, such as the Hadzabe in the United Republic of Tanzania; (2) itinerant workers, including the gypsies in North America; and (3) pastoralists, such as the Masai and Shuaw Arabs in Africa, the Sami in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the…

  17. Assembly-Line Manufacturing Industry Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Firnett, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Assists in economic analysis of production line manufacturing. Originally developed to estimate product price received by hypothetical U.S. industry that manufactures silicon solar modules for use in electricity generation, SAMIS extended and generalized to extent that it simulates operation of many different production line manufacturing industries and/or companies.

  18. Ada (Tradename) Compiler Validation Summary Report: TeleSoft TeleGen2 E68, Version 3.11. Host: MicroVAX II, Targets: Motorola 68020, 68010 Tektronix 8540 (M68010 CPU),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-24

    Testing, Ada Validation Office, AVO, Ada Validation Facility, AVF, ANSI/MIL-STD- 1815A, Ada Joint Program Office, AJPO 20. ABS TRAC T (Continue on reverse...test SI results ara written to tha tyneenead buffor on the host comrouter usin the $1 sami line Vtt wer used for downlcading. $ £ TSAJA /2OgNLZA - w

  19. Tracking the Footprints of the People without History - Insect Assemblages and Environmental Change in Northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotakopulu, E.

    2014-12-01

    Using palaeocology and in particular palaeoentomology to understand climate, environmental change and impacts by indigenous groups in the North Atlantic Arctic fringe provides the opportunity to obtain refined details about both the rates of impact and the timing of the change from hunting and gathering to farming. In northern Norway and Sweden the Sami coastal fisher-hunters and inland reindeer herders shared the landscape with incoming agriculturalists and were often assimilated or marginalised. While inside their settled areas there is a palaeoentomological record for the Sami and often information about resource use and seasonality is evident from the fossil insect record, their footprint on the wider landscape tends to be slight and difficult to discern. The diverse and often intermittent nature of Sami activities, which may range from reindeer herding, fishing and even some agricultural activities, makes the task of firmly identifying impacts and differentiating these from climate change a complex task. On the other hand, the transition from a diverse subsistence to intensified pastoralism leaves a clear record in the fossil insect assemblages, both from midden deposits and natural profiles. To add to the complexities of the interpretation, farmers in northern Norway for example, were actively involved in fishing and the fur trade, and introduced grain faunas found in the farm mounds attest to the returns on this, but there is no way to be certain whether the occupiers of the farms were Sami or Norse, or a mixture of both. For a group where both archaeological and historical evidence is sparse, the insect record may unfold the poorly known ecological impact of the Sami.

  20. Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Vladimir F.; Freethy, Simon J.; Huang, Billy K.

    2014-08-21

    A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system has been designed and built to obtain 2-D images at several frequencies from fusion plasmas. SAMI uses a phased array of linearly polarised antennas. The array configuration has been optimised to achieve maximum synthetic aperture beam efficiency. The signals received by antennas are down-converted to the intermediate frequency range and then recorded in a full vector form. Full vector signals allow beam focusing and image reconstruction in both real time and a post-processing mode. SAMI can scan over 16 pre-programmed frequencies in the range of 10-35GHz with a switching time of 300ns. The system operates in 2 different modes simultaneously: both a 'passive' imaging of plasma emission and also an 'active' imaging of the back-scattered signal of the radiation launched by one of the antennas from the same array. This second mode is similar to so-called Doppler backscattering (DBS) reflectometry with 2-D resolution of the propagation velocity of turbulent structures. Both modes of operation show good performance in fusion plasma experiments on Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). We have obtained the first ever 2-D images of BXO mode conversion windows. With active probing, first ever turbulence velocity maps have been obtained. We present an overview of the diagnostic and discuss recent results. In contrast to quasi-optical microwave imaging systems SAMI requires neither big aperture viewing ports nor large 2-D detector arrays to achieve the desired imaging resolution. The number of effective 'pixels' of the synthesized image is proportional to the number of receiving antennas squared. Thus only a small number of optimised antennas is sufficient for the majority of applications. Possible implementation of SAMI on ITERand DEMO is discussed.

  1. [Evaluation of mental stress tests among medical students based on salivary sample collected just before the national license examination].

    PubMed

    Ushiki, Kazumi; Sato, Yuka; Arai, Katsuya; Ide, Norihumi; Matsui, Naoki; Handa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hirokazu; Ogawara, Hatsue

    2011-02-01

    We investigated salivary amylase (sAMY) and chromogranin A (sCgA) in students before the national license examination in order to investigate the relationship between stress biomarkers and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) psychological test. Fifty-one medical students that provided informed consent were tested for sAMY activity and sCgA concentration by means of the amylase monitor method (NIPRO) and an ELISA kit (Yanaihara), respectively. The POMS psychology test (shortened form) was purchased from Chiba Test Center, and all students fully answered the lifestyle questionnaires. Based on answers to the questionnaires, students were divided by mental burden into three groups: I all"; II "large"; and III "very large". Scores for "T-A", "D" and "A-H" on the POMS test were significantly higher in groups II and III when compared with group I. Mean TMD scores calculated from the 6 items on the POMS test increased significantly with mental burden. The mean levels and 95% confidence interval (CI) of sAMY activity in the 3 groups were as follows: I, 27.7 (95% CI: 13.7-41.7) KIU/L; II, 29.1(95% CI: 22.4-35.7) KIU/L; and III, 26.9 (95% CI: 15.2-38.6) KIU/L. Mean sCgA concentrations were: I, 4.4(95% CI: 0-9.4) pmol/mg; II, 4.3(95% CI: 2.0-6.7) pmol/mg; and III, 10.9 (95% CI: 6.8-15.0) pmol/mg. There were no significant differences between these mean levels. However, Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient analysis for "T-A", sAMY and sCgA showed a stronger correlation between "T-A" and sCgA than between "T-A" and sAMY (p < 0.05). In conclusion, sCgA was more useful biomarker to evaluate the psychological stress before the national license examination than sAMY.

  2. Hector - Next Generation Multi-Object IFU for the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, J. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2016-10-01

    Hector will be the new massively-multiplexed IFU spectrograph for the Anglo-Australian Observatory in Australia and the next main dark-time instrument for the observatory. Based on the success of the SAMI instrument, which is undergoing the largest galaxy survey done to-date, the hexabundle technology underpinning SAMI is being improved to a new innovative design and scaled up in numbers to give 50-100 IFU imaging bundles across a 2 or 3-degree field. 'Starbug' robots will position the hexabundles across the field plate and several thousand fibers will then be fed into new replicable spectrographs. First prototypes will be on-sky in mid-2016, with full instrument build expected to take ˜5 years. Hector will allow a survey of 100,000 nearby galaxies, sufficient to disentangle intertwined processes in order to investigate the buildup of angular momentum in galaxies and how gas gets into and out of galaxies.

  3. 2dfdr: Data reduction software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AAO software Team

    2015-05-01

    2dfdr is an automatic data reduction pipeline dedicated to reducing multi-fibre spectroscopy data, with current implementations for AAOmega (fed by the 2dF, KOALA-IFU, SAMI Multi-IFU or older SPIRAL front-ends), HERMES, 2dF (spectrograph), 6dF, and FMOS. A graphical user interface is provided to control data reduction and allow inspection of the reduced spectra.

  4. Feasibility of Using Algorithm-Based Clinical Decision Support for Symptom Assessment and Management in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Mary E.; Blonquist, Traci M.; Catalano, Paul J.; Lobach, David F.; Halpenny, Barbara; McCorkle, Ruth; Johns, Ellis B.; Braun, Ilana M.; Rabin, Michael S.; Mataoui, Fatma Zohra; Finn, Kathleen; Berry, Donna L.; Abrahm, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Context Distressing symptoms interfere with quality of life in patients with lung cancer. Algorithm-based clinical decision support (CDS) to improve evidence-based management of isolated symptoms appears promising but no reports yet address multiple symptoms. Objectives This study examined the feasibility of CDS for a Symptom Assessment and Management Intervention targeting common symptoms in patients with lung cancer (SAMI-L) in ambulatory oncology. The study objectives were to evaluate completion and delivery rates of the SAMI-L report and clinician adherence to the algorithm-based recommendations. Methods Patients completed a Web-based symptom-assessment, and SAMI-L created tailored recommendations for symptom management. Completion of assessments and delivery of reports were recorded. Medical record review assessed clinician adherence to recommendations. Feasibility was defined as ≥ 75% report completion and delivery rates and ≥ 80% clinician adherence to recommendations. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used for data analyses. Results Symptom assessment completion was 84% (95% CI: 81–87%). Delivery of completed reports was 90% (95% CI: 86–93%). Depression (36%), pain (30%) and fatigue (18%) occurred most frequently, followed by anxiety (11%) and dyspnea (6%). On average, overall recommendation adherence was 57% (95% CI: 52–62%) and was not dependent on the number of recommendations (P = 0.45). Adherence was higher for anxiety (66%; 95% CI: 55–77%), depression (64%; 95% CI: 56–71%), pain (62%; 95% CI: 52–72%), and dyspnea (51%; 95% CI: 38–64%) than for fatigue (38%; 95% CI: 28–47%). Conclusion CDS systems, such as SAMI-L, have the potential to fill a gap in promoting evidence-based care. PMID:24880002

  5. NIPARS: An Analysis of Procurement Performance and Cost for Nonstandard Items

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Limited AFLC involvement with maximum reliance upon the contractor to provide follow on nonstandard support. 3. Womb to tomb AFLC support for...delay between the actual time of contract acceptance and the point at which BV status is reported to SAMIS. 69 TPLT. To compare the womb to tomb...concept of womb to tomb procurement lead time to be captured for all matched pairs. That is, some pairs may be supply complete while others may still be in

  6. Al Sahawa - The Awakening: An Education and Training Resource Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Mamoun Sami Rashid , Al Anbar Governor during 2005–06 described it best as a sequence of actions and events throughout Al Anbar: When we started... Rashid , Al Anbar Governor 2005 to 2006, interview with Dr. William Knarr, Colonel Dale Alford, USMC, and Lieutenant Colonel David Graves, USMC...1 . Who’s Who Appendix A Interviewees Abd al-Hakim Muhammad Rashid Muhammad al-Jughayfi, Mayor of Hadithah Abdul Qadir Mohammed Jassim Obeidi al

  7. Dayside Ionospheric Superfountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Dayside Ionospheric Super-fountain modified SAMI2 code predicts the uplift, given storm-time electric fields, of the dayside near-equatorial ionosphere to heights of over 800 kilometers during magnetic storm intervals. This software is a simple 2D code developed over many years at the Naval Research Laboratory, and has importance relating to accuracy of GPS positioning, and for satellite drag.

  8. Modeling of Equatorial Anomaly Development and Collapse at Dusk Observed by TIMED/GUVI Over Indian Longitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, S.; Huba, J.; Makela, J.; Ray, S.; Groves, K.

    2007-05-01

    The GUVI instrument on NASA's TIMED satellite acquires images of 135.6-nm emission in the Earth's ionosphere/thermosphere system. The brightness of the GUVI images is approximately proportional to the square of the electron density and, as such, the images can be used to monitor the equatorial F region ionization anomaly. The intensity and separation of these bands are controlled by the equatorial E-B drift and the meridional neutral wind. Further, the collapse of the anomaly has been linked to the suppression of irregularities causing scintillations. The SAMI3, another model of the ionosphere, has been utilized to model the evening collapse of the anomaly in the Indian longitude sector where measurements of TEC, scintillations and estimates of the daytime vertical drifts are available. Preliminary results from SAMI3 show that the collapse of the anomaly at dusk can be simulated by a reduction of the vertical drift, and its reversal in mid-afternoon in agreement with the drift estimates from magnetometer observations. Introduction of neutral winds into SAMI3 reproduces the dusk behavior of TEC at low latitude stations in India. While preliminary results from SAMI3 provide some insights into the day-to-day variation of scintillations, much further work is necessary, particularly on the relative effects of the pre-reversal enhancement of the vertical drifts, time of reversal, neutral winds and the conductivity in the E-region on the generation and suppression of instabilities. We hope these modeling efforts will eventually lead to the isolation of a unique set of drivers that control large and small scale plasma structuring.

  9. IPEG- IMPROVED PRICE ESTIMATION GUIDELINES (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG, program provides a simple yet accurate estimate of the price of a manufactured product. IPEG facilitates sensitivity studies of price estimates at considerably less expense than would be incurred by using the Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation, SAMIS, program (COSMIC program NPO-16032). A difference of less than one percent between the IPEG and SAMIS price estimates has been observed with realistic test cases. However, the IPEG simplification of SAMIS allows the analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform a greater number of sensitivity studies than with SAMIS. Although IPEG was developed for the photovoltaics industry, it is readily adaptable to any standard assembly line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG estimates the annual production price per unit. The input data includes cost of equipment, space, labor, materials, supplies, and utilities. Production on an industry wide basis or a process wide basis can be simulated. Once the IPEG input file is prepared, the original price is estimated and sensitivity studies may be performed. The IPEG user selects a sensitivity variable and a set of values. IPEG will compute a price estimate and a variety of other cost parameters for every specified value of the sensitivity variable. IPEG is designed as an interactive system and prompts the user for all required information and offers a variety of output options. The IPEG/PC program is written in TURBO PASCAL for interactive execution on an IBM PC computer under DOS 2.0 or above with at least 64K of memory. The IBM PC color display and color graphics adapter are needed to use the plotting capabilities in IPEG/PC. IPEG/PC was developed in 1984. The original IPEG program is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 300K of 8 bit bytes. The original IPEG was developed in 1980.

  10. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  11. IPEG- IMPROVED PRICE ESTIMATION GUIDELINES (IBM 370 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG, program provides a simple yet accurate estimate of the price of a manufactured product. IPEG facilitates sensitivity studies of price estimates at considerably less expense than would be incurred by using the Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation, SAMIS, program (COSMIC program NPO-16032). A difference of less than one percent between the IPEG and SAMIS price estimates has been observed with realistic test cases. However, the IPEG simplification of SAMIS allows the analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform a greater number of sensitivity studies than with SAMIS. Although IPEG was developed for the photovoltaics industry, it is readily adaptable to any standard assembly line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG estimates the annual production price per unit. The input data includes cost of equipment, space, labor, materials, supplies, and utilities. Production on an industry wide basis or a process wide basis can be simulated. Once the IPEG input file is prepared, the original price is estimated and sensitivity studies may be performed. The IPEG user selects a sensitivity variable and a set of values. IPEG will compute a price estimate and a variety of other cost parameters for every specified value of the sensitivity variable. IPEG is designed as an interactive system and prompts the user for all required information and offers a variety of output options. The IPEG/PC program is written in TURBO PASCAL for interactive execution on an IBM PC computer under DOS 2.0 or above with at least 64K of memory. The IBM PC color display and color graphics adapter are needed to use the plotting capabilities in IPEG/PC. IPEG/PC was developed in 1984. The original IPEG program is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 300K of 8 bit bytes. The original IPEG was developed in 1980.

  12. 2D Doppler backscattering using synthetic aperture microwave imaging of MAST edge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. A.; Brunner, K. J.; Freethy, S. J.; Huang, B. K.; Shevchenko, V. F.; Vann, R. G. L.

    2016-02-01

    Doppler backscattering (DBS) is already established as a powerful diagnostic; its extension to 2D enables imaging of turbulence characteristics from an extended region of the cut-off surface. The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D DBS experiments of MAST edge plasma. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (±40° vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10-34.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector form using an array of eight Vivaldi PCB antennas. This allows the receiving array to be focused in any direction within the field of view simultaneously to an angular range of 6-24° FWHM at 10-34.5 GHz. This capability is unique to SAMI and is a novel way of conducting DBS experiments. In this paper the feasibility of conducting 2D DBS experiments is explored. Initial observations of phenomena previously measured by conventional DBS experiments are presented; such as momentum injection from neutral beams and an abrupt change in power and turbulence velocity coinciding with the onset of H-mode. In addition, being able to carry out 2D DBS imaging allows a measurement of magnetic pitch angle to be made; preliminary results are presented. Capabilities gained through steering a beam using a phased array and the limitations of this technique are discussed.

  13. From conception to evaluation of mobile services for people with head injury: A participatory design perspective.

    PubMed

    Groussard, Pierre-Yves; Pigot, Hélène; Giroux, Sylvain

    2015-12-17

    Adults with cognitive impairments lack the means to organise their daily life, plan their appointments, cope with fatigue, and manage their budget. They manifest interest in using new technologies to be part of society. Unfortunately, the applications offered on smart phones are often beyond their cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to design a mobile cognitive assistant to enhance autonomy of people living with acquired traumatic brain injury. Participatory design methodologies guided this research by involving adults with cognitive impairments (CI) and their caregivers in the early stages of the design process. The population of the study is composed of four male adults who present cognitive impairments (three with head injury and one with stroke) and three caregivers. The first phase of this research was to design the Services Assistance Mobile and Intelligent (SAMI) application based on the needs expressed by the participants. During three focus groups, needs emerged concerning planning, health monitoring and money management and led to the implementation of assistive solutions on an Android mobile phone. During the second phase, the participants evaluated the mobile assistant SAMI at home for eight weeks. The results demonstrate that the participants were able to participate actively in the conception of SAMI and to use it successfully. People with CI showed a slight improvement in their life satisfaction. Due to the small number of participants, these promising results need to be confirmed by a larger-scale study.

  14. Cancer among circumpolar populations: an emerging public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Kelly, Janet J.; Friborg, Jeppe; Soininen, Leena; Wong, Kai O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups – Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the “world average” rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000–2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a “Circumpolar Inuit” group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories) share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer. PMID:26765259

  15. Simulation of low latitude ionospheric response to 2015 St. Patrick's Day super geomagnetic storm over Indian longitude sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Joshi, Lalit; Sripathi, Samireddipelle; Singh, Ram

    2016-07-01

    We present low latitude ionospheric response over Indian longitude to the recent super geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015, using the SAMI2 model which incorporates ionosonde derived vertical drift impacted by prompt penetration eastward electric field occurring during the evening Prereversal Enhancement (PRE) in the vertical drift. The importance of this storm is that (a) Dst reaches as low as -228 nT and (b) prompt penetration of eastward electric field coincided with evening hours PRE. The daytime vertical EXB drifts in the SAMI2 model are, however, considered based on Scherliess-Fejer model. The simulations indicate a significant enhancement in F layer height and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the post sunset hours on 17 March 2015 vis-a-vis quiet day. The model simulations during recovery phase, considering disturbance dynamo vertical EXB drift along with equatorward disturbance wind, indicates suppression of the daytime EIA. SAMI2 simulations considering the disturbance wind during the recovery phase suggests that equatorward wind enhances the ionospheric density in the low latitude, however, its role in the formation of the EIA depends on the polarity of the zonal electric field. Comparison of model derived total electron content (TEC) with the TEC from ground GPS receivers indicate that model does reproduce enhancement of the EIA during the main phase and suppression of the EIA during the recovery phase of the super storm. However, peculiarities pertaining to the ionospheric response to prompt penetration electric field in the Indian sector vis-a-vis earlier reports from American sector will be discussed.

  16. Cancer among circumpolar populations: an emerging public health concern.

    PubMed

    Young, T Kue; Kelly, Janet J; Friborg, Jeppe; Soininen, Leena; Wong, Kai O

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups - Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the "world average" rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000-2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a "Circumpolar Inuit" group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories) share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.

  17. Single dose povidone-iodine on thyroid functions and urinary iodine excretion.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Teziç, H Tahsin; Zorlu, Pelin; Firat, Serap; Bilaloğlu, Eriş; Kutlu, Alev Oğuz

    2003-08-01

    The effect of single dose povidone-iodine on serum thyrotropin and thyroxine levels and urinary iodine excretion in 30 preterm, 40 full-term newborns and 50 infants at Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital was studied. There was no significant change of thyroid function in any of the groups (p>0.05). Urinary iodine excretion in preterm and full-term groups elevated significantly (p<0.05). The authors conclude that patients who receive single dose povidone-iodine for skin disinfection are not at risk for thyroid disorders.

  18. United States Air Force High School Apprenticeship Program: 1989 Program Management Report. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    with Biotinylated Probes to Heat Shock Protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor 1 01 The Influence of Broad Spectrum Lori Olenick Illumination on Circadian...Systems, Inc 4 3,3 ui g* samis’ ITOG AGENCY MAMA ($) ANM AONuMI4S) 16.SP03m O~saT w 0113 AFOSR/XOT NWapyj" Bid 410 F49620-88-C-0053 Boiling AFB D.C...PROBES TO HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR Prepared by: BRIAN G. McBURNETT Academic Rank: HIGH SCHOOL SENIOR School: SAMUEL CLEMENS HIGH

  19. Assembly-line Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Zendejas, Silvino; Malhotra, Shan

    1987-01-01

    Costs and profits estimated for models based on user inputs. Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program generalized so useful for production-line manufacturing companies. Provides accurate and reliable means of comparing alternative manufacturing processes. Used to assess impact of changes in financial parameters as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required rate of return of equity. Most important capability is ability to estimate prices manufacturer would have to receive for its products to recover all of costs of production and make specified profit. Written in TURBO PASCAL.

  20. Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

  1. Effect of Arachidonic Acid on Twitch Tension of the Rat Phrenic Nerve- Diaphragm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    arachidonic acid-induced re- KANDASAMY , S . Bt. AND HUNT, W. A.; Arachidonic at-id and prostaglandins duction of twitch tension, both tended to attenuate the...samy and Hunt, 1990). It has also been reported to modulate t la.Teognbt ouin10mtws18m ’~ 2 1mto clean. The organ bath s l tion (61) ml I was 1.8• mM...Act (U.S.) and the 10% of the corresponding mean. Received for publication March 27, 1992. Results S A preliminary account of this research wan

  2. Investigation of the spatial structure and developmental dynamics of near-Earth plasma perturbations under the action of powerful HF radio waves

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, A. S.

    2015-10-15

    Results of numerical simulations of the near-Earth plasma perturbations induced by powerful HF radio waves from the SURA heating facility are presented. The simulations were performed using a modified version of the SAMI2 ionospheric model for the input parameters corresponding to the series of in-situ SURA–DEMETER experiments. The spatial structure and developmental dynamics of large-scale plasma temperature and density perturbations have been investigated. The characteristic formation and relaxation times of the induced large-scale plasma perturbations at the altitudes of the Earth’s outer ionosphere have been determined.

  3. Propagation of RF Signals through Structured Ionization. Theory and Antenna Aperture Effect Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-15

    GOVERNMENT SPONSOR (if other than DNA): SPONSORING ORGANIZATION: CONTRACTING OFFICER OR REPRESENTATIVE: _ SIGNATURE. -_ *1 4 C ( - .- ~ t ., - V. - 4...8217** ~ t ./ C d d" UNCLASS I FIED REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE N1) !a. ;EPOR’! SiC..PiT’. C.ASS.F1CAT’C.N 1b ;ESTRICTOVE MARK;NGS UNCLASSIFIED...72193IBUTION/IAAI¶.ASILITy 0; A$ ACý 221 A8STRACT S-C-RI’"’ Cý.ASSiFiCATION CUNCLISSIF’ED/UNLIMTEo: )Cj]SAMIE AS qP T :). VCjSERS UrNC LAý 1 Z~a. NAME OF

  4. The relationship between the summer precipitation in the Yangtze River valley and the boreal spring Southern Hemisphere annular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Sulan; Li, Jianping

    2003-12-01

    The relationship between the boreal spring (April-May) Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM) and the following summer (June-August) precipitation in China for the period of 1951-2001 is examined statistically in this study. There is a significantly positive correlation between the boreal spring SAM index (SAMI) and the following summer rainfall in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The summer large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia are also related to the boreal spring SAMI events. A strong SAM in boreal spring is followed by a weakened East Asian summer monsoon, a strengthened and westward expanded western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), as well as increased ascending vertical velocity, specific humidity and water vapor flux convergence. These situations provide necessary circulation and water vapor conditions for increasing the summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. The boreal spring SAM variation provides a potential valuable signal for predicting the summertime precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley.

  5. Sources of variability in equatorial topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, Roger H.; Hysell, David L.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    Jicamarca measurements of electron temperatures at high altitudes (500-1500km) from the last solar minimum routinely show variations of hundreds of Kelvin from day-to-day. Possible sources of these variations are explored using the SAMI2-PE is another model of the ionosphere including photoelectron transport (SAMI2-PE) model, which includes a multistream photoelectron transport model. Changes to the electric fields, meridional winds, and thermospheric densities can all change the electron densities and temperatures at high altitudes. The high altitude electron temperatures are primarily determined by a balance between heating from photoelectrons which travel up the field lines and thermal diffusion which carries heat back down the field lines. The winds and electric fields will change the altitude and densities of the off-equatorial F-region peaks, especially on the field lines connected to the equatorial arcs. The densities and temperatures in the plasmasphere will self consistently adjust themselves to achieve diffusive equilibrium with the off-equatorial F-regions. Furthermore, decreases in the density and/or altitude of the F-region makes it easier for photoelectrons to escape to high altitudes. These connections between the equatorial plasmasphere, the off-equatorial F-regions, and the neutral thermosphere suggest that high altitude measurements at Jicamarca could be used to study thermospheric variability.

  6. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions.

  7. A new Skyrme energy density functional for a better description of spin-isospin resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Roca-Maza, X.; Colò, G.; Cao, Li-Gang; Sagawa, H.

    2015-10-15

    A correct determination of the isospin and spin-isospin properties of the nuclear effective interaction should lead to an accurate description of the Gamow-Teller resonance (GT), the Spin Dipole Resonance (SDR), the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) or the Antianalog Giant Dipole Resonance (AGDR), among others. A new Skyrme energy density functional named SAMi is introduced with the aim of going a step forward in setting the bases for a more precise description of spin-isospin resonances [1, 2]. In addition, we will discuss some new features of our analysis on the AGDR in {sup 208}Pb [3] as compared with available experimental data on this resonance [4, 5, 6], and on the GDR [7]. Such study, guided by a simple yet physical pocket formula, has been developed by employing the so called SAMi-J family of systematically varied interactions. This set of interactions is compatible with experimental data for values of the symmetry energy at saturation J and slope parameter L falling in the ranges 31−33 MeV and 75−95 MeV, respectively.

  8. Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Helle, Samuli; Brommer, Jon E; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi; Enbuske, Matti; Jokela, Jukka

    2014-11-07

    A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution.

  9. A comparative study of NN- and EKF-based SFDA schemes with application to a nonlinear UAV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samy, Ihab; Postlethwaite, Ian; Gu, Da-Wei

    2010-05-01

    In this article, we propose two schemes for sensor fault detection and accommodation (SFDA): one based on a neural network (NN) and the other on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The objective of this article is to compare both approaches in terms of execution time, robustness to poorly modelled dynamics and sensitivity to different fault types. The schemes are tested on an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) application where traditional sensor redundancy methods can be too heavy and/or costly. In an attempt to reduce the false alarm rates and the number of undetected faults, a modified residual generator, originally proposed in Samy, Postlethwaite, and Gu in 2008 (Samy, I., Postlethwaite, I., and Gu, D.-W. (2008a). Neural Network Sensor Validation Scheme Demonstrated on a UAV Model, in IEEE Proceedings of CDC, Cancun, Mexico, pp. 1237-1242) is implemented. Simulation work is presented for use on a UAV demonstrator under construction with support from BAE systems and EPSRC. Results have shown that the NN-SFDA scheme outperforms the EKF-SFDA scheme with only one missed fault, zero false alarms and an average estimation error of 0.31°/s for 112 different test conditions.

  10. A new Skyrme energy density functional for a better description of spin-isospin resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Colò, G.; Cao, Li-Gang; Sagawa, H.

    2015-10-01

    A correct determination of the isospin and spin-isospin properties of the nuclear effective interaction should lead to an accurate description of the Gamow-Teller resonance (GT), the Spin Dipole Resonance (SDR), the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) or the Antianalog Giant Dipole Resonance (AGDR), among others. A new Skyrme energy density functional named SAMi is introduced with the aim of going a step forward in setting the bases for a more precise description of spin-isospin resonances [1, 2]. In addition, we will discuss some new features of our analysis on the AGDR in 208Pb [3] as compared with available experimental data on this resonance [4, 5, 6], and on the GDR [7]. Such study, guided by a simple yet physical pocket formula, has been developed by employing the so called SAMi-J family of systematically varied interactions. This set of interactions is compatible with experimental data for values of the symmetry energy at saturation J and slope parameter L falling in the ranges 31-33 MeV and 75-95 MeV, respectively.

  11. LZIFU: an emission-line fitting toolkit for integral field spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Medling, Anne M.; Groves, Brent; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Rupke, David S. N.; Hampton, Elise; Kewley, Lisa J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Croom, Scott M.; Richards, Samuel; Schaefer, Adam L.; Sharp, Rob; Sweet, Sarah M.

    2016-09-01

    We present lzifu (LaZy-IFU), an idl toolkit for fitting multiple emission lines simultaneously in integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data. lzifu is useful for the investigation of the dynamical, physical and chemical properties of gas in galaxies. lzifu has already been applied to many world-class IFS instruments and large IFS surveys, including the Wide Field Spectrograph, the new Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, the Sydney-Australian-astronomical-observatory Multi-object Integral-field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. Here we describe in detail the structure of the toolkit, and how the line fluxes and flux uncertainties are determined, including the possibility of having multiple distinct kinematic components. We quantify the performance of lzifu, demonstrating its accuracy and robustness. We also show examples of applying lzifu to CALIFA and SAMI data to construct emission line and kinematic maps, and investigate complex, skewed line profiles presented in IFS data. The code is made available to the astronomy community through github. lzifu will be further developed over time to other IFS instruments, and to provide even more accurate line and uncertainty estimates.

  12. Yoik experiences and possible positive health outcomes: an explorative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hämäläinen, Soile; Musial, Frauke; Graff, Ola; Olsen, Torjer A.; Salamonsen, Anita

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Yoik is an old vocal music tradition of Sami, the indigenous people inhabiting Northern Fennoscandia and Kola peninsula in Russia. Studies of music therapy (MT) and especially singing have documented improvements in social and overall functioning in people with severe mental disorders and positive effect on depressive symptoms and sleep quality. Possible connections between yoik and health are so far underexplored. Objectives: The overall aim of this study was to explore whether yoik may have the potential to positively influence people’s health and well-being. The research questions were: 1. What are different persons’ experiences with yoik? 2. Can yoik experiences be related to health outcomes? Methods: Explorative, qualitative interviews with 13 participants were conducted in the Norwegian counties Finnmark, Troms, Nordland, and Trøndelag. Findings: The findings suggest qualities in yoik that are comparable to positive effects of Music Therapy (MT) in general. Yoik may contribute to emotion management, i.e. processing negative emotions and inducing positive ones in people acknowledging yoik as something positive. Conclusion: Yoik may be considered an important marker of social and cultural belonging for many Sami people. Yoik seems to have an underresearched potential as an intervention in culture sensitive healthcare and health promotion work that deserves to be further investigated.

  13. On the fresh development of equatorial plasma bubbles around the midnight hours of June solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Otsuka, Y.; Niranjan, K.

    2016-09-01

    Using the 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang, Indonesia, the nocturnal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) was examined during the moderate solar activity years 2011-2012. While the evolution of EPBs was mostly (86%) confined to post sunset hours (1900-2100 LT) during equinoxes, in contrast, the majority of EPBs ( 71%) in June solstice found evolve around the midnight hours (2200-0300 LT). The mechanisms behind the fresh evolution of summer time midnight EPBs were investigated, for the first time, through SAMI2 model simulations with a realistic input of background ExB drift variation derived from CINDI IVM on board C/NOFS satellite. The term-by-term analysis of linear growth rate of RT instability indicates that the formation of high flux tube electron content height gradient (KF) (steep vertical gradient) region at higher altitudes is the key factor for the enhanced growth rate of RT instability. The responsible factors are discussed in light of relatively weak westward zonal electric field in the presence of equatorward neutral wind and bottomside recombination around the midnight hours of June solstice. The effects of neutral winds and weak westward electric fields on the uplift of equatorial F layer were examined separately using controlled SAMI2 simulations. The results indicate that relatively larger linear growth rate is more likely to occur around midnight during June solstice because of relatively weak westward electric field than other local times in the presence of equatorward meridional wind.

  14. Effect of time-dependent 3-D electron density gradients on high angle of incidence HF radiowave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawdie, K. A.; Drob, D. P.; Huba, J. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges for the utilization of HF radiowaves in practical applications is to understand how the signals propagate in time- and range-dependent multipath environments. For typical quiescent ionospheric conditions it is often reasonably straightforward to interpret received HF signals. For disturbed ionospheric conditions, however, such as in the presence of large tilts, irregularities, and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs), data interpretation and utilization often becomes challenging. This paper presents a theoretical HF propagation modeling study that exploits the capabilities of a first principles, mesoscale resolution ionosphere code, SAMI3 (Sami3 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) and a new implementation of the 3-D ray trace equations, MoJo-15 (Modernized Jones Code) in order to examine the relationship between various HF propagation observables and MSTID characteristics. This paper demonstrates the implications of MSTIDS on high angle of incidence HF propagation during typical low-latitude, postsunset ionospheric conditions and examines the spatiotemporal evolution of multiple propagation paths that may connect a given source and receiver.

  15. Roads not taken: A narrative positioning analysis of older adults' stories about missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Blix, Bodil Hansen; Hamran, Torunn; Normann, Hans Ketil

    2015-12-01

    The point of departure for this article is narrative gerontology's conceptualization of life as storied and the assumption that identity development and meaning making do not cease at any age, but rather continue throughout life. We suggest that if identity construction is considered to be a lifelong project, narrative gerontology would benefit from applying analytical perspectives focused on the situated activity of narration. In this article, we apply a three-level positioning analysis to segments of interviews with two elderly Sami women concerning missed opportunities or roads not taken and, more specifically, to narrations about missed opportunities for education. We argue that such narrations should not necessarily be considered expressions of regret or processes of reconciliation but rather as pivotal in here-and-now identity constructions. Narrations about missed opportunities demonstrate that what narrators choose to insert into their life stories is chosen for a purpose and for an audience in a specific interpersonal and discursive context. We suggest that narrative gerontology would benefit from a broader focus on the diversity of sites of engagement in which older adults perform identity constructions. This shift implies moving beyond traditional studies of older adults' life stories and biographical narratives as related in the context of qualitative research interviews (of which the present study of Sami older adults' life stories is indeed an example).

  16. High-Quality Perovskite Films Grown with a Fast Solvent-Assisted Molecule Inserting Strategy for Highly Efficient and Stable Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuai; Qiu, Zhiwen; Gao, Chaomin; Zhang, Hailiang; Jiang, Yanan; Li, Cuncheng; Yu, Jinghua; Cao, Bingqiang

    2016-08-31

    The performance of organolead halide perovskites based solar cells has been enhanced dramatically due to the morphology control of the perovskite films. In this paper, we present a fast solvent-assisted molecule inserting (S-AMI) strategy to grow high-quality perovskite film, in which the methylammonium iodide/2-propanol (MAI/IPA) solution is spin-coated onto a dimethylformamide (DMF) wetted mixed lead halide (PbX2) precursor film. The DMF can help the inserting of MAI molecules into the PbX2 precursor film and provide a solvent environment to help the grain growth of the perovskite film. The perovskite film grown by the S-AMI approach shows large and well-oriented grains and long carrier lifetime due to the reduced grain boundary. Solar cells constructed with these perovskite films yield an average efficiency over 17% along with a high average fill factor of 80%. Moreover, these unsealed solar cell devices exhibit good stability in an ambient atmosphere.

  17. Understanding consistencies and gaps between desired forest futures: An analysis of visions from stakeholder groups in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Camilla; Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Lindahl, Karin Beland; Sonnek, Karin Mossberg; Mossing, Annika; Nordin, Annika; Nordström, Eva-Maria; Räty, Riitta

    2016-02-01

    Conflicting perspectives on forests has for a long time challenged forest policy development in Sweden. Disagreements about forest futures create intractable deadlocks when stakeholders talk past each other. The purpose of this study is to move beyond this situation through the application of participatory backcasting. By comparing visions of the future forest among stakeholder groups, we highlight contemporary trajectories and identify changes that were conceived as desirable. We worked with four groups: the Biomass and Bioenergy group, the Conservation group, the Sami Livelihood group and the Recreation and Rural Development group; in total representatives from 40 organizations participated in workshops articulating the groups' visions. Our results show well-known tensions such as intrinsic versus instrumental values but also new ones concerning forests' social values. Identified synergies include prioritization of rural development, new valued-added forest products and diversified forest management. The results may feed directly into forest policy processes facilitating the process and break current deadlocks.

  18. The starfish diagram: Visualising data within the context of survey samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.

    2015-04-01

    As astronomy becomes increasingly invested in large surveys the ample representation of an individual target becomes a significant challenge. Tabulations of basic properties can convey the message in an absolute sense but not within the context of the sample from which the individual is drawn. We present a novel but simple plot that simultaneously visualises the properties of the sample and the individual. Numbers and characters are kept at an absolute minimum to enable the stacking of such plots without introducing too much verbal information. Once the user becomes accustomed to their appearance, a set of starfish diagrams provides a direct representation of the individual within a sample, or between various samples. The utility and versatility of the plot is demonstrated through its application to astrophysical data (SAMI Galaxy Survey) and sports statistics. We provide a brief description of the concept and the source code, which is simple to adapt to any statistical dataset, be it descriptive of physics, demographics, finance, and more.

  19. IBHVG2 (Interior Ballistics of High Velocity Guns, Version 2)--A User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    03 SAMIE AS RPT 0 Wr’C usr*s Un14lassile _____ V~nNAUS1&1 n c’’ e Isn D UA (301) 27蔶 SLCl3R- 10 -A DD FOM 147. . AR ;3 APF4 Z70tiQfli*m b mosw itw...OE+ 10 ] 9 $UM For variables related to gulitube geometry, aamely. NAMT. ame of gun; 2S characters magTYPE CHAM chamber volume [inni Cv CVOL ORVE groove...kept in mind heo usinst, /or example. a $SAV£ deck-OA poision you w lefrne sy now be th one the campaer eode decided upo. 10 GUN TUBE STEEL LAND GRVt

  20. Modulational Instability of Cylindrical and Spherical NLS Equations. Statistical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Grecu, A. T.; Grecu, D.; Visinescu, Anca; De Nicola, S.; Fedele, R.

    2010-01-21

    The modulational (Benjamin-Feir) instability for cylindrical and spherical NLS equations (c/s NLS equations) is studied using a statistical approach (SAMI). A kinetic equation for a two-point correlation function is written and analyzed using the Wigner-Moyal transform. The linear stability of the Fourier transform of the two-point correlation function is studied and an implicit integral form for the dispersion relation is found. This is solved for different expressions of the initial spectrum (delta-spectrum, Lorentzian, Gaussian), and in the case of a Lorentzian spectrum the total growth of the instability is calculated. The similarities and differences with the usual one-dimensional NLS equation are emphasized.

  1. Simulation of PPEF effects in dayside low-latitude ionosphere for the October 30, 2003, Superstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Saito, Akinori; Araki, Tohru; Anderson, David; Abdu, M.; Sobral, J. H. A.

    One of the important signatures during strong magnetic storms is prompt penetrating electric fields (PPEFs) into the ionosphere, which causes the dayside ionospheric superfountain (DIS). Interplanetary-ionosphere coupling for the October 30, 2003, superstorm is analyzed by using ACE and ground-based measurements. The relationships between the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component, ionospheric vertical velocities above Jicamarca, and horizontal magnetic field components measured at Huancayo are presented. DIS is associated with uplift, displacement, and enhancement of the equatorial ionospheric anomalies. We apply an extended SAMI-2 ionospheric model to simulate DIS effects above Jicamarca for this superstorm. An agreement between our results and observed ƒ0F2 during the main phase of the storm is reported. It is shown that the PPEF approach and corresponding modeling results capture the main physics of the dayside low-latitude ionospheric response during the first couple hours of the magnetic superstorm.

  2. HAARP-Induced Ionospheric Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Milikh, Gennady; Vartanyan, Aram

    2011-01-04

    It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents observations of the plasma density perturbations caused by the HF-heating of the ionosphere by the HAARP facility. The low orbit satellite DEMETER was used as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the satellite orbit overflying close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. Those observations will be then checked against the theoretical model of duct formation due to HF-heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with well documented experiments.

  3. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions.

  4. Global response of the low-latitude to midlatitude ionosphere due to the Bastille Day flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huba, J. D.; Warren, H. P.; Joyce, G.; Pi, X.; Iijima, B.; Coker, C.

    2005-08-01

    The first global simulation study and comparison to data of the ionospheric effects associated with the enhanced EUV irradiance of the Bastille Day flare are presented. This is done by incorporating a time-dependent EUV spectrum, based on data and hydrodynamic modeling, into the NRL ionosphere model SAMI3. The simulation results indicate that the total electron content (TEC) increases to over 7 TEC units in the daytime, low-latitude ionosphere. In addition, it is predicted that the maximum density in the F-layer (NmF2) increases by $\\lesssim$20% and that the height of the maximum electron density (HmF2) decreases by $\\lesssim$20%. These results are explained by the increased ionization at altitudes <400 km which increases TEC and NmF2 while decreasing HmF2. The results are in reasonably good agreement with data obtained from GPS satellites and the TOPEX satellite.

  5. Dip-coating process: Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zook, J. D.; Heaps, J. D.; Maciolek, R. B.; Koepke, B. G.; Gutter, C. D.; Schuldt, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. The past quarter demonstrated significant progress in several areas. Seeded growth of silicon-on-ceramic (SOC) with an EFG ribbon seed was demonstrated. Different types of mullite were successfully coated with silicon. A new method of deriving minority carrier diffusion length, L sub n from spectral response measurements was evaluated. ECOMOD cost projections were found to be in good agreement with the interim SAMIS method proposed by JPL. On the less positive side, there was a decrease in cell performance which we believe to be due to an unidentified source of impurities.

  6. Data and Information Exchange System for the "Reindeer Mapper" Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy; Yurchak, Boris

    2005-01-01

    During this past year, the Reindeer Mapper Intranet system has been set up on the NASA system, 8 team members have been established, a Reindeer Mapper reference list containing 696 items has been entered, 6 power point presentations have been put on line for review among team members, 304 satellite images have been catalogued (including 16 Landsat images, 288 NDVI 10-day composited images and an anomaly series- May 1998 to December 2002, and 56 SAR CEOS S A R format files), schedules and meeting dates are being shared, students at the Nordic Sami Institute are experimenting with the system for reindeer herder indigenous knowledge sharing, and an "address book" is being developed. Several documents and presentations have been translated and made available in Russian for our Russian colleagues. This has enabled our Russian partners to utilize documents and presentations for use in their research (e.g., SAR imagery comparisons with Russian GIS of specific study areas) and discussion with local colleagues.

  7. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-08-30

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

  8. Hector: a new massively multiplexed IFU instrument for the Anglo-Australian Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Julia J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Lawrence, Jon; Croom, Scott; Brown, David; Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Gillingham, Peter R.; Zhelem, Ross; Content, Robert; Saunders, Will; Staszak, Nicholas F.; van de Sande, Jesse; Couch, Warrick; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Tims, Julia; McDermid, Richard; Schaefer, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Hector[1,2,3] will be the new massively-multiplexed integral field spectroscopy (IFS) instrument for the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) in Australia and the next main dark-time instrument for the observatory. Based on the success of the SAMI instrument, which is undertaking a 3400-galaxy survey, the integral field unit (IFU) imaging fibre bundle (hexabundle) technology under-pinning SAMI is being improved to a new innovative design for Hector. The distribution of hexabundle angular sizes is matched to the galaxy survey properties in order to image 90% of galaxies out to 2 effective radii. 50-100 of these IFU imaging bundles will be positioned by `starbug' robots across a new 3-degree field corrector top end to be purpose-built for the AAT. Many thousand fibres will then be fed into new replicable spectrographs. Fundamentally new science will be achieved compared to existing instruments due to Hector's wider field of view (3 degrees), high positioning efficiency using starbugs, higher spectroscopic resolution (R=3000-5500 from 3727-7761Å, with a possible redder extension later) and large IFUs (up to 30 arcsec diameter with 61-217 fibre cores). A 100,000 galaxy IFS survey with Hector will decrypt how the accretion and merger history and large-scale environment made every galaxy different in its morphology and star formation history. The high resolution, particularly in the blue, will make Hector the only instrument to be able to measure higher-order kinematics for galaxies down to much lower velocity dispersion than in current large IFS galaxy surveys, opening up a wealth of new nearby galaxy science.

  9. Cone of Darkness: Finding Blank-sky Positions for Multi-object Wide-field Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, N. P. F.

    2014-05-01

    We present the Cone of Darkness, an application to automatically configure blank-sky positions for a series of stacked, wide-field observations, such as those carried out by the SAMI instrument on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) uses a plug-plate to mount its 13×61 core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical plane at the telescope's prime focus. To make the most efficient use of each plug-plate, several observing fields are typically stacked to produce a single plate. When choosing blank-sky positions for the observations it is most effective to select these such that one set of 26 holes gives valid sky positions for all fields on the plate. However, when carried out manually this selection process is tedious and includes a significant risk of error. The Cone of Darkness software aims to provide uniform blank-sky position coverage over the field of observation, within the limits set by the distribution of target positions and the chosen input catalogs. This will then facilitate the production of the best representative median sky spectrum for use in sky subtraction. The application, written in C++, is configurable, making it usable for a range of instruments. Given the plate characteristics and the positions of target holes, the software segments the unallocated space on the plate and determines the position which best fits the uniform distribution requirement. This position is checked, for each field, against the selected catalog using a TAP ADQL search. The process is then repeated until the desired number of sky positions is attained.

  10. An improved coupling model for the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere system (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L.; Kuo, C.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    In order to explain the observed ionospheric TEC variations before strong earthquakes, we have developed a comprehensive model for the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling [Kuo et al., 2011]. In our previous model, the dynamo current flows from the lithosphere, through the atmosphere, and into the ionosphere. The TEC variations in the ionosphere are numerically calculated based on NRL SAMI3 code. Nighttime plasma bubbles are generated for large earthquakes. However, the current in the atmosphere is obtained by first solving the electric field Ε from ▽(σΕ), where the conductivity tensor σ consists of Pedersen and Hall conductivity. The background magnetic field is assumed to be perpendicular to the horizontal plane. In the present paper, we improve the calculation of currents in the atmosphere by solving the current density J directly from the current continuity equation ▽J = 0. The currents in the atmosphere can be solved for any arbitrary angle of magnetic field, i.e., any magnetic latitude. The effects of atmospheric currents and electric fields on the ionosphere with lithosphere current source located at low magnetic altitude 15° and middle magnetic altitude 30° are obtained. For upward (downward) atmospheric currents flowing into the ionosphere, the simulation results show that the westward (eastward) electric fields dominate. At magnetic latitude 15°, the upward (downward) current causes the increase (decrease) of TEC, while the upward (downward) current causes the decrease (increase) of TEC at higher magnetic latitude 30°. The dynamo current density required to generate the same amount of TEC variation in the improved model is found to be smaller by a factor of 30 as compared to that obtained in our earlier paper. We also calculate the ionosphere dynamics with imposed zonal westward and eastward electric field based on SAMI3 code. In the nighttime ionosphere, it is found that the westward electric field may trigger two plasma bubbles

  11. Tertiary education and its association with mental health indicators and educational factors among Arctic young adults: the NAAHS cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bania, Elisabeth Valmyr; Kvernmo, Siv Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background Completed tertiary education is closely associated with employment and influences income, health and personal well-being. Objective The purpose of the study is to explore predictors for completed tertiary education among indigenous Sami and non-indigenous young people in relation to mental health indicators and educational factors in sociocultural rural and urban contexts across the Arctic part of Norway. Design The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study (NAAHS) is a cross-sectional, school-based survey that was conducted in 2003–2005. Of all 5,877 10th graders (aged 15–16 years) in north Norway, 83% from all 87 municipalities participated; 450 (9.2%) reported indigenous Sami ethnicity, and 304 (6.2%) reported Laestadian affiliation. Data from NAAHS were merged with registry data from the National Education Database and Norwegian Patient Register for 3,987 adolescents who gave their consent for follow-up studies. Results Completion of upper secondary school is the only common predictor of a completed tertiary education degree for both genders. Among females, conduct problems was a significant predictor of lower level education, typically vocational professions, while among males severe mental health problems requiring treatment by the specialist health care system reduced the opportunity to complete tertiary education at intermediate and higher level. Parental higher educational level was associated with less lower education among females and less higher education among males. Men residing in the northernmost and remote areas were less likely to complete education on higher level. Males’ completion of higher level education was strongly but not significantly associated (p=0.057) with higher average marks in lower secondary school. Conclusions The gender differences found in this study emphasize the need for gender-specific interventions to encourage, support and empower young people to attend and complete tertiary education. Young females with

  12. Improving small-angle X-ray scattering data for structural analyses of the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Robert P.; Tainer, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Defining the shape, conformation, or assembly state of an RNA in solution often requires multiple investigative tools ranging from nucleotide analog interference mapping to X-ray crystallography. A key addition to this toolbox is small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS provides direct structural information regarding the size, shape, and flexibility of the particle in solution and has proven powerful for analyses of RNA structures with minimal requirements for sample concentration and volumes. In principle, SAXS can provide reliable data on small and large RNA molecules. In practice, SAXS investigations of RNA samples can show inconsistencies that suggest limitations in the SAXS experimental analyses or problems with the samples. Here, we show through investigations on the SAM-I riboswitch, the Group I intron P4-P6 domain, 30S ribosomal subunit from Sulfolobus solfataricus (30S), brome mosaic virus tRNA-like structure (BMV TLS), Thermotoga maritima asd lysine riboswitch, the recombinant tRNAval, and yeast tRNAphe that many problems with SAXS experiments on RNA samples derive from heterogeneity of the folded RNA. Furthermore, we propose and test a general approach to reducing these sample limitations for accurate SAXS analyses of RNA. Together our method and results show that SAXS with synchrotron radiation has great potential to provide accurate RNA shapes, conformations, and assembly states in solution that inform RNA biological functions in fundamental ways. PMID:20106957

  13. Overexpressing both ATP sulfurylase and selenocysteine methyltransferase enhances selenium phytoremediation traits in Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, Danika L; AbdelSamie, Manal; Móntes-Bayon, Maria; Wu, Carol P; Reisinger, Sarah J; Terry, Norman

    2006-11-01

    A major goal of our selenium (Se) phytoremediation research is to use genetic engineering to develop fast-growing plants with an increased ability to tolerate, accumulate, and volatilize Se. To this end we incorporated a gene (encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase, SMT) from the Se hyperaccumulator, Astragalus bisulcatus, into Indian mustard (LeDuc, D.L., Tarun, A.S., Montes-Bayón, M., Meija, J., Malit, M.F., Wu, C.P., AbdelSamie, M., Chiang, C.-Y., Tagmount, A., deSouza, M., Neuhierl, B., Böck, A., Caruso, J., Terry, N., 2004. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation Plant Physiol. 135, 377-383.). The resulting transgenic plants successfully enhanced Se phytoremediation in that the plants tolerated and accumulated Se from selenite significantly better than wild type. However, the advantage conferred by the SMT enzyme was much less when Se was supplied as selenate. In order to enhance the phytoremediation of selenate, we developed double transgenic plants that overexpressed the gene encoding ATP sulfurylase (APS) in addition to SMT, i.e., APSxSMT. The results showed that there was a substantial improvement in Se accumulation from selenate (4 to 9 times increase) in transgenic plants overexpressing both APS and SMT.

  14. Prompt Ion Outflows and Artificial Ducts during High-Power HF Heating at HAARP: Effect of Suprathermal Electrons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Milikh, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    In situ observations from the DMSP and Demeter satellites established that high-power HF heating of the ionosphere F-region results in significant ion outflows associated with 10-30% density enhancements in the topside ionosphere magnetically-conjugate to the heated region. As follows from the SAMI2 two-fluid model calculations, their formation time should exceed 5-7 minutes. However, specially designed DMSP-HAARP experiments have shown that artificial ducts and ion outflows appear on the topside within 2 minutes. We describe the results of these observations and present a semi-quantitative explanation of the fast timescale due to suprathermal electrons accelerated by HF-induced plasma turbulence. There are two possible effects of suprathermal electrons: (1) the increase of the ambipolar electric field over the usual thermal ambipolar diffusion and (2) excitation of heat flux-driven plasma instability resulting in an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange. Both effects result in faster upward ion flows.

  15. Topside equatorial ionospheric density, temperature, and composition under equinox, low solar flux conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Milla, M. A.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Varney, R. H.; Huba, J. D.

    2015-05-01

    We present observations of the topside ionosphere made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in March and September 2013, made using a full-profile analysis approach. Recent updates to the methodology employed at Jicamarca are also described. Measurements of plasma number density, electron and ion temperatures, and hydrogen and helium ion fractions up to 1500 km altitude are presented for 3 days in March and September. The main features of the observations include a sawtooth-like diurnal variation in ht, the transition height where the O+ ion fraction falls to 50%, the appearance of weak He+ layers just below ht, and a dramatic increase in plasma temperature at dawn followed by a sharp temperature depression around local noon. These features are consistent from day to day and between March and September. Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation data from the Communication Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite are used to help validate the March Jicamarca data. The SAMI2-PE model was able to recover many of the features of the topside observations, including the morphology of the plasma density profiles and the light-ion composition. The model, forced using convection speeds and meridional thermospheric winds based on climatological averages, did not reproduce the extreme temperature changes in the topside between sunrise and noon. Some possible causes of the discrepancies are discussed.

  16. Comparative sequence and structure analysis reveals the conservation and diversity of nucleotide positions and their associated tertiary interactions in the riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Appasamy, Sri D; Ramlan, Effirul Ikhwan; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The tertiary motifs in complex RNA molecules play vital roles to either stabilize the formation of RNA 3D structure or to provide important biological functionality to the molecule. In order to better understand the roles of these tertiary motifs in riboswitches, we examined 11 representative riboswitch PDB structures for potential agreement of both motif occurrences and conservations. A total of 61 unique tertiary interactions were found in the reference structures. In addition to the expected common A-minor motifs and base-triples mainly involved in linking distant regions the riboswitch structures three highly conserved variants of A-minor interactions called G-minors were found in the SAM-I and FMN riboswitches where they appear to be involved in the recognition of the respective ligand's functional groups. From our structural survey as well as corresponding structure and sequence alignments, the agreement between motif occurrences and conservations are very prominent across the representative riboswitches. Our analysis provide evidence that some of these tertiary interactions are essential components to form the structure where their sequence positions are conserved despite a high degree of diversity in other parts of the respective riboswitches sequences. This is indicative of a vital role for these tertiary interactions in determining the specific biological function of riboswitch.

  17. Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling During the June 22-24, 2015 Magnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazykin, S. Y.; Coffey, V. N.; Reiff, P. H.; Chandler, M. O.; Minow, J. I.; Huba, J.; Anderson, B. J.; Wolf, R.; Hairston, M. R.; Gershman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic storm that commenced on June 22, 2015 was one of the largest storms in the current solar cycle. During this event, ionospheric density measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on board the International Space Station (ISS) show dramatic depletions in the post-sunset (nighttime) local time sector at equatorial latitudes starting in the main phase of the storm and persisting on several subsequent orbits. Near the same time, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) instrument suite data show ion and electron particle flux dropouts coincident in time with the density depletions seen in the ISS data. Both phenomena seem to follow northward turnings of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) z-component. We present simulations of this event with the SAMI3-RCM numerical model, which is a coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere model with self-consistent large-scale electrodynamics. We will investigate the role of transient changes in the global convection electric field driven by variations in the IMF Bz in connection with observations of the ionospheric depletions. Simulation results will be compared to the ISS FPMU densities, AMPERE Birkeland currents, DMSP ion drift velocities, MMS FPI particle data, as well as the location of the auroral oval and other available multi-instrument observations, in an attempt to understand the details of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling during this event and characterize the fidelity of the simulation electrodynamic inputs to the ionosphere model.

  18. Scaling relations for galaxies of all types with CALIFA and MaNGA surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino-Ortíz, E.; Sánchez-Sánchez, S. F.; Valenzuela, O.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Hernández-Toledo, H.

    2016-06-01

    We used gas and stellar kinematics for the final Data Release of 667 spatially resolved galaxies publicly available from Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) with the aim of study dynamical scaling relations as Tully & Fisher for rotation velocity, Faber & Jackson for velocity dispersion and also a combination of them through the S_{K} parameter defined as S_{K}^2 = KV_{rot}^2 + σ^2. We found a offset between gas and stellar kinematics in Tully & Fisher and Faber & Jackson relations, however when we used the S_{K} parameter all galaxies regardless of the morphological type lie in this M_{*} vs S_{k} scaling relation with a significant improvement compared with the M_{*} vs V_{rot} and M_{*} vs σ relations, in agreement with previous studies with SAMI survey, however the slope ant zero-point are different with them. We also explored different values of the K parameter, as well as different proxys to estimate V_{rot} in order to understand and characterize the physical source of scatter, slope and zero-point.

  19. Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agricultural Management through Apllication of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, J. N.; Akeh, L. E.; Anuforom, A. C.; Aribo, P. B.; Olayanju, S. O.

    Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agriculture Management through Application of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective BY J N Okpara L E Akeh Anuforom P B Aribo and S O Olayanju Directorate of Applied Meteorological Services Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET P M B 615 Garki Abuja Nigeria e-mail underline Juddy Okpara yahoo co uk and underline tonycanuforom yahoo com underline Abstract This paper attempts to highlight the importance of drought early warning system in water resources and agricultural management in Nigeria Various studies have shown that the negative impacts of droughts and other forms of extreme weather phenomena can be substantially reduced by providing early warning on any impending weather extremes X-rayed in this study are the various techniques presently used by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET in generating information for meteorological Early Warning System EWS which are based on models that make use of ground-based raingauge data and sea surface temperatures SST Komuscu standardized precipitation index SPI inclusive These methods are often limited by such factors as network density of stations limited communication infrastructure human inefficiency etc NIMET is therefore embarking on the development of a new Satellite Agrometeorological Information System SAMIS-Nigeria for famine and drought early warning The system combines satellite data with raingauge data to give a range of

  20. Maskevarri Ráhppát in Finnmark, North Norway - is it an earthquake induced landform complex?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, R.; Aro, I.; Närhi, P.; Piekkari, M.; Middleton, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Sami word ráhppát means rough bouldery/stony terrain with sharp-relief topography in Finnmark, North Norway. Ráhppáts are common features in the region of the Younger Dryas landforms, yet their origin has remained obscure. The timing of the Younger Dryas is concomitant with the maximum neotectonic fault instability in Fennoscandia, hence earthquake activity was one of the contributing factors for the Younger Dryas morphologies. Ráhppát on the Maskevarri fell, classified as a part of Tromsø-Lyngen sub-stage of the Younger Dryas, was studied by means of geomorphology and measurements of electrical-sedimentary anisotropy. Ráhppát was found to be built up of a network of stony ridges and mounds on fell terraces bordered with arch-shaped and sinusoidal ridges. These bordering ridges exhibit sedimentary (azimuthal soil electrical conductivity) anisotropy parallel-to-ridge trends and were interconnected to meltwater gullies suggesting generation through short-lived conduit infills. We did not find electrical-sedimentary evidence to support the concept of englacial thrusting and/or compression, often described for Younger Dryas moraines. Maskevarri Ráhppát is typified by ~ 500 ponds and small lakes on three different terrace elevations descending in an up-ice direction. These escarpments may have generated trough late glacial earthquake(s) contributing to subglacial deformation of Maskevarri Ráhppát.

  1. Maskevarri Ráhppát in Finnmark, northern Norway - is it an earthquake-induced landform complex?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, R.; Aro, I.; Närhi, P.; Piekkari, M.; Middleton, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Sami word ráhppát means rough bouldery/stony terrain with sharp-relief topography in Finnmark, northern Norway. Ráhppát is a common name in the region of the Younger Dryas landforms, yet the origin of ráhppát has remained obscure. The timing of the Younger Dryas is concomitant with the maximum neotectonic fault instability in Fennoscandia. Hence, earthquake activity may have been one of the contributing factors for the Younger Dryas morphologies. Ráhppát on the Maskevarri fell, classified as a part of Tromsø-Lyngen sub-stage of the Younger Dryas, was studied by means of geomorphology and measurements of electrical-sedimentary anisotropy. Ráhppát was found to be built up of an anastomosing network of stony esker-like ridges and mounds bordered with arch-shaped and sinusoidal ridges. These bordering ridges exhibit sedimentary (azimuthal soil electrical conductivity) anisotropy parallel-to-ridge trends and were interconnected to meltwater gullies suggesting generation through short-lived conduit infills. We did not find electrical-sedimentary evidence to support the concept of englacial thrusting and/or compression, often described for Younger Dryas moraines. Maskevarri Ráhppát is typified by ~ 500 ponds and small lakes on three different elevations descending in an up-ice direction. These may have generated through late glacial earthquake(s) also contributing to subglacial deformation of Maskevarri Ráhppát.

  2. The effect of sucking habits, cohort, sex, intercanine arch widths, and breast or bottle feeding on posterior crossbite in Norwegian and Swedish 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Øgaard, Bjørn; Larsson, Erik; Lindsten, Rune

    1994-08-01

    The upper and lower intercanine arch widths and the prevalence of posterior crossbite were registered for 445 3-year-old children with and without a continuing or previous dummy-sucking or finger-sucking habit in different areas in Sweden and Norway. Sami children from northern Norway also took part in the study, as well as 15 medieval skulls with intact deciduous dentitions. Compared with the nonsuckers, an increased prevalence of posterior crossbite was observed for the finger suckers, especially the Swedish girls. Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite could be predicted with upper intercanine arch width alone. The finger sucking variable would not improve prediction; neither did other entities such as cohort (residental area), sex, lower intercanine arch width, nor the difference between upper and lower intercanine arch width. High prevalences of posterior crossbite were registered for dummy suckers (pacifiers) especially the Swedish girls (26%). Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite in dummy suckers could be predicted with upper and lower intercanine arch width. Stepwise linear regression showed that both arches tended to be narrower in Swedes and girls, and that dummy sucking decreased the upper and increased the lower intercanine arch width. Analyses of covariance revealed that at least 2 years of dummy sucking is necessary to produce a significant effect in the upper jaw and 3 years in the lower jaw. (AM J ORTHOD DENTOFAC ORTHOP 1994;106:161-6.).

  3. The effect of sucking habits, cohort, sex, intercanine arch widths, and breast or bottle feeding on posterior crossbite in Norwegian and Swedish 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ogaard, B; Larsson, E; Lindsten, R

    1994-08-01

    The upper and lower intercanine arch widths and the prevalence of posterior crossbite were registered for 445 3-year-old children with and without a continuing or previous dummy-sucking or finger-sucking habit in different areas in Sweden and Norway. Sami children from northern Norway also took part in the study, as well as 15 medieval skulls with intact deciduous dentitions. Compared with the nonsuckers, an increased prevalence of posterior crossbite was observed for the finger suckers, especially the Swedish girls. Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite could be predicted with upper intercanine arch width alone. The finger sucking variable would not improve prediction; neither did other entities such as cohort (residential area), sex, lower intercanine arch width, nor the difference between upper and lower intercanine arch width. High prevalences of posterior crossbite were registered for dummy suckers (pacifiers) especially the Swedish girls (26%). Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite in dummy suckers could be predicted with upper and lower intercanine arch width. Stepwise linear regression showed that both arches tended to be narrower in Swedes and girls, and that dummy sucking decreased the upper and increased the lower intercanine arch width. Analyses of covariance revealed that at least 2 years of dummy sucking is necessary to produce a significant effect in the upper jaw and 3 years in the lower jaw.

  4. Theoretical study of static magnetic properties for the chiral and reconstructed graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Suk-Young; Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun

    2013-03-01

    Recent theoretical study of the chiral graphene nanoribbons(CGNR) has demonstrated the magnetic ordering of the edge states below a certain chiral angle1. Based on the Hubbard model for the CGNR, we study the static properties of the magnetic edge states such as the intra-edge and inter-edge spin stiffness, which are the two crucial parameters to control the thermodynamics of the effective magnetic hamiltonian. For the systematic study of the anti-ferromagnetic inter-edge spin correlations, we calculate the inter-edge spin stiffness as a function of ribbon width and transverse electric field. We also attempt to calculate the electronic and magnetic properties for the other edge geometries such as a reconstructed edge geometry, which has been experimentally confirmed as an edge shape other than zigzag or armchair nanoribbon2 1. Oleg V. Yazyev, Rodrigo B. Capaz, and Steven G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115406 (2011). 2. Pekka Koskinen, Sami Malola, and Hannu Hakkinen, Phys. Rev. B 80, 073401 (2009). This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(2012R1A1A2006927).

  5. Thermodynamic study of Na2O-SiO2 melts at 1300° and 1400 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, D. N.; Sigworth, G. K.; Philbrook, W. O.

    1985-06-01

    The vapor pressures of Na above stirred Na2O-SiO2 melts in equilibrium with graphite and CO were determined at 1300° and 1400 °C using the transpiration technique. Compositions studied ranged from about 60 mole pct SiO2 to close to SiO2 saturation. Activities of components Na2O and SiO2 were calculated from the data. Log aNa2O (pure liquid as standard state) varies from about -8.7 and -8.5 at silica saturation to -6.3 and -6.1 at 40 mole pct Na2O at 1300° and 1400 °C, and the molar Gibbs energy of mixing, Δ G m, at the disilicate composition (XNa2O = 0.33) at each of these temperatures is -83.0 and -85.4 kJ, respectively. The Toop and Samis, Yokokawa and Niwa, and Lin and Pelton solution models for binary silicates were applied to the Δ G m data at 1350 °C and parameters for the models were estimated to give best fits. All three models show good correspondence with the measured Δ G m curve. The capabilities of the models in predicting activity data in this system have been compared.

  6. Variations of ionospheric plasma at different altitudes before the 2005 Sumatra Indonesia Ms 7.2 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xuemin; Novikov, Victor; Shen, Xuhui

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, many researchers pay more attention to abnormities before earthquake, and in this study, seismo-ionospheric synchronous disturbances at different altitudes by GPS and satellite observations were first studied around one Sumatra Indonesia Ms 7.2 earthquake that occurred on 5 July 2005. By using the same temporal and spatial methods, data of GPS-total electron content (TEC) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, electron density (Ne) from Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions, and ion density (Ni) from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program were deeply analyzed. The ionospheric plasma disturbances in GPS-TEC and increasement of Ne at 710 km were found on 4 July, and plasma density at the three altitudes has all increased on 7 July after the earthquake. All the disturbances were not just above the epicenter. TEC perturbations have happened at the east of the epicenter for the two days, and electron density enhancement at 710 km has moved to west of the TEC perturbations at the same time on 4 July, which may be caused by E × B drift. The moving direction of upgoing plasma was simulated using SAMI2 model. The results have shown that the plasma will move to higher altitude along the geomagnetic force line, which could exactly account for the plasma density enhancement in the northern direction of the geomagnetic south latitude earthquake.

  7. Artificial ducts caused by HF heating of the ionosphere by HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Mishin, E.; Parrot, M.; Galkin, I.; Reinisch, B.; Huba, J.; Joyce, G.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2012-10-01

    We report on satellite observations of plasma density enhancements (ducts) in the topside ionosphere during four HAARP/BRIOCHE campaigns during 2009-2010. Artificial ducts, caused by high-power HF radio wave injections from the HAARP transmitter toward the magnetic zenith, are detected by the DEMETER and DMSP satellites on a regular basis when there is a perceptible ionospheric F2 peak density. Overall, the plasma density enhancements detected between 0930 and 1230 LT varied from 3-13%, while those during ˜1730-2215 LT were typically 15-40%. We also used a modified SAMI2 model to study the artificial ducts' mechanism driven by HF electron heating in the bottomside F2 region. The heating builds up the plasma pressure, thus pushing plasma along the magnetic field. The simulation results performed for the input parameters similar to the conditions of the heating experiments are in fair agreement with the pertinent observations. The ducts seem to be produced most efficiently for heating frequencies quite close to the critical frequency foF2.

  8. Regional occurrence, high frequency but low diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup d1 suggests a recent dog-wolf hybridization in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Klütsch, C F C; Seppälä, E H; Fall, T; Uhlén, M; Hedhammar, A; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P

    2011-02-01

    The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60-100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480-3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage.

  9. Modelling of ionospheric Medium Scale Travelling Disturbances and a comparison with simultaneous ground-based TEC measurements and DEMETER plasma observations at 650 kilometres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Tatsuo; Wang, Xiaoni; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2010-05-01

    Medium-scale Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) are quasi periodic ionospheric disturbances with typical periods of 15 to 60 minutes and wavelengths of several hundreds of kilometers. They are triggered by Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) mostly generated at high latitudes. Simultaneous measurements of the Total Electron Content (TEC) by the US dense GPS receiver network and of the thermal ions by the CNES DEMETER micro-satellite at 650 km altitude have provided several examples of MSTID and shown typical variations of the ion density and velocity component parallel to the Earth's magnetic field during these events. A quantitative interpretation of such ionospheric disturbances has been undertaken by means of the SAMI2 ionospheric model. A representative pattern of an Atmospheric Gravity with a wave velocity toward the equator was developed to infer the variations of the neutral density and of the meridional component of the neutral velocity. These variations are introduced in the model and directly couples with the ionospheric plasma in the collisional region of the ionosphere. At higher altitudes, when the neutral atmosphere is too faint to have a direct effect on the ions, the resulting plasma disturbance propagates along the magnetic field lines. The computed variations of the plasma parameters along the orbit of DEMETER and of the TEC are analyzed for various parameters of the Atmospheric Gravity Wave. They are compared to the GPS-TEC and DEMETER observations in order to retrieve the AGW characteristics and study the propagation mechanism of the ionospheric plasma disturbance.

  10. Systemic Manifestation of Rotavirus Infection in Children: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Akcaboy, Meltem; Melek Oguz, Melahat; Altınel Acoglu, Esma; Acar, Mehtap; Zorlu, Pelin; Ozbay Hosnut, Ferda; Senel, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Although the clinical complaints associated with rotavirus are generally gastrointestinal, including vomiting and diarrhea, data suggest that it can also cause symptoms that extend beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Case Presentations We report three pediatric cases of rotavirus infection: one accompanied by encephalopathy and two with elevated hepatic transaminase activity. The patients were admitted to Dr. Sami Ulus maternity and children’s health and diseases training and research hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from 2012 - 2014. The presented patients’ aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (1765-2614 IU L-1) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (1448-3558 IU L-1) levels are, to date, the highest reported levels associated with rotavirus infections, and suggest that the rotavirus can cause severe hepatic transaminase elevation. Conclusions This report aimed to increase awareness of the occurrence of extra-intestinal systemic manifestations of rotavirus infection. Although such cases may be rare, they still suggest that that rotavirus is a systemic viral infection. PMID:27781124

  11. Uplift of Ionospheric Oxygen Ions During Extreme Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Huba, Joseph; Lakhina, Gurbax S.

    2013-01-01

    Research reported earlier in literature was conducted relating to estimation of the ionospheric electrical field, which may have occurred during the September 1859 Carrington geomagnetic storm event, with regard to modern-day consequences. In this research, the NRL SAMI2 ionospheric code has been modified and applied the estimated electric field to the dayside ionosphere. The modeling was done at 15-minute time increments to track the general ionospheric changes. Although it has been known that magnetospheric electric fields get down into the ionosphere, it has been only in the last ten years that scientists have discovered that intense magnetic storm electric fields do also. On the dayside, these dawn-to-dusk directed electric fields lift the plasma (electrons and ions) up to higher altitudes and latitudes. As plasma is removed from lower altitudes, solar UV creates new plasma, so the total plasma in the ionosphere is increased several-fold. Thus, this complex process creates super-dense plasmas at high altitudes (from 700 to 1,000 km and higher).

  12. The functional exchangeability of pk- and k-turns in RNA structure

    PubMed Central

    Daldrop, Peter; Masquida, Benoît; Lilley, David M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ribonuclease P RNA requires a sharply kinked RNA helix to make a loop-receptor interaction that creates the binding site for the substrate. In some forms of the ribozyme, this is accomplished by a k-turn, while others have a different element called the pk-turn. The structure of the pk-turn in RNase P of Thermotoga maritima is globally very similar to a k-turn, but lacks all the standard features of that structure, including long-range hydrogen bonds between the two helical arms. We show here that in an isolated RNA duplex, the pk-turn fails to adopt a tightly kinked structure, but rather is a flexible element. This suggests that the tertiary contacts of RNase P assist its folding into the required kinked structure. We find that we can replace the k-turn of the SAM-I riboswitch with the pk-turn, such that the resulting RNA retains its ability to bind SAM, although with lower affinity. We also find that we can replace the pk-turn of T. maritima RNase P with a standard k-turn (in either orientation) with retention of ribozyme activity. Thus, although the pk-turn cannot intrinsically fold into the kinked structure, it can be induced to fold correctly in context. And the pk-turn and k-turns can substitute functionally for one another. PMID:23364423

  13. A critical base pair in k-turns that confers folding characteristics and correlates with biological function

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Scott A.; Huang, Lin; Lilley, David M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Kink turns (k-turns) are widespread elements in RNA that mediate tertiary contacts by kinking the helical axis. We have found that the ability of k-turns to undergo ion-induced folding is conferred by a single base pair that follows the conserved A·G pairs, that is, the 3b·3n position. A Watson–Crick pair leads to an inability to fold in metal ions alone, while 3n=G or 3b=C (but not both) permits folding. Crystallographic study reveals two hydrated metal ions coordinated to O6 of G3n and G2n of Kt-7. Removal of either atom impairs Mg2+-induced folding in solution. While SAM-I riboswitches have 3b·3n sequences that would predispose them to ion-induced folding, U4 snRNA are strongly biased to an inability to such folding. Thus riboswitch sequences allow folding to occur independently of protein binding, while U4 should remain unfolded until bound by protein. The empirical rules deduced for k-turn folding have strong predictive value. PMID:25351101

  14. A critical base pair in k-turns that confers folding characteristics and correlates with biological function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, Scott A.; Huang, Lin; Lilley, David M. J.

    2014-10-01

    Kink turns (k-turns) are widespread elements in RNA that mediate tertiary contacts by kinking the helical axis. We have found that the ability of k-turns to undergo ion-induced folding is conferred by a single base pair that follows the conserved A·G pairs, that is, the 3b·3n position. A Watson-Crick pair leads to an inability to fold in metal ions alone, while 3n=G or 3b=C (but not both) permits folding. Crystallographic study reveals two hydrated metal ions coordinated to O6 of G3n and G2n of Kt-7. Removal of either atom impairs Mg2+-induced folding in solution. While SAM-I riboswitches have 3b·3n sequences that would predispose them to ion-induced folding, U4 snRNA are strongly biased to an inability to such folding. Thus riboswitch sequences allow folding to occur independently of protein binding, while U4 should remain unfolded until bound by protein. The empirical rules deduced for k-turn folding have strong predictive value.

  15. Full wave simulations of microwave interactions with turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Matthew; Vann, Roddy; Leddy, Jarrod; Koehn, Alf; University of York; IPP Garching Collaboration; University of York; Culham Microwave Group Team

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between electromagnetic radiation and plasma perturbations in the case that the radiation wavelength is comparable to the size of the perturbations is not a fully-understood problem. Yet the use of microwaves in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas is widespread for heating, current drive and both passive and active diagnostics, including in regimes for which there exist microwave length-scale plasma perturbations. We present simulation results using the full-wave cold plasma finite difference time domain codes EMIT-3D and IPF-FDMC developed independently at York and Stuttgart, respectively. First we present a novel systematic study of the scattering of microwaves through turbulence: we quantified the relationship between the normalised turbulent correlation length and the scattered power. Additionally we found a quadratic relationship between the scattered wave power and the turbulence amplitude. We go on to present results to model the Doppler back-scattering of a broad microwave beam from a moving turbulent slab. This second problem is particularly important for interpreting data from the Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic currently installed on NSTX-U.

  16. The global warming of group satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies adopting λRe, a proxy for specific angular momentum, have highlighted how early-type galaxies (ETGs) are composed of two kinematical classes for which distinct formation mechanisms can be inferred. With upcoming surveys expected to obtain λRe from a broad range of environments (e.g. SAMI, MaNGA), we investigate in this numerical study how the λRe-ɛe distribution of fast-rotating dwarf satellite galaxies reflects their evolutionary state. By combining N-body/SPH simulations of progenitor disc galaxies (stellar mass ≃109 M⊙), their cosmologically-motivated sub-halo infall history and a characteristic group orbit/potential, we demonstrate the evolution of a satellite ETG population driven by tidal interactions (e.g. harassment). As a general result, these satellites remain intrinsically fast-rotating oblate stellar systems since their infall as early as z = 2; mis-identifications as slow rotators often arise due to a bar/spiral lifecycle which plays an integral role in their evolution. Despite the idealistic nature of its construction, our mock λRe-ɛe distribution at z < 0.1 reproduces its observational counterpart from the ATLAS3D/SAURON projects. We predict therefore how the observed λRe-ɛe distribution of a group evolves according to these ensemble tidal interactions.

  17. ISM and dynamical scaling relations in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade we have seen a tremendous progress in our understanding of the life cycle of galaxies. Particularly powerful has been the synergy between representative surveys of cold gas, dust and metals and improved theoretical models able to follow the evolution of the different phases of the ISM in a self-consistent way. At the same time, the advent of optical integral field spectroscopic surveys is finally allowing us to quantify how the kinematical properties of gas and stars vary across the Hubble sequence. In this talk, I will review recent observational work aimed at providing a local benchmark for the study of the star formation cycle in galaxies and dynamical scaling relations in galaxies. By combining observations obtained as part the Herschel Reference Survey, the GALEX Arecibo SDSS survey, the ALFALFA survey and the SAMI Galaxy Survey, I will discuss what nearby galaxies can teach us about the interplay between kinematics, star formation, chemical enrichment and environmental effects in our neighbourhoods.

  18. An advanced technique for speciation of organic nitrogen in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samy, S.; Robinson, J.; Hays, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical composition of organic nitrogen (ON) in the environment is a research topic of broad significance. The topic intersects the branches of atmospheric, aquatic, and ecological science; thus, a variety of instrumentation, analytical methods, and data interpretation tools have evolved for determination of ON. Recent studies that focus on atmospheric particulate nitrogen (N) suggest a significant fraction (20-80%) of total N is bound in organic compounds. The sources, bioavailability and transport mechanisms of these N-containing compounds can differ, producing a variety of environmental consequences. Amino acids (AA) are a key class of atmospheric ON compounds that can contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and potentially influence water cycles, air pollutant scavenging, and the radiation balance. AA are water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) that can significantly alter the acid-base chemistry of aerosols, and may explain the buffering capacity that impacts heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry. The chemical transformations that N-containing organic compounds (including AA) undergo can increase the light-absorbing capacity of atmospheric carbon via formation of 'brown carbon'. Suggested sources of atmospheric AA include: marine surface layer transport from bursting sea bubbles, the suspension of bacteria, fungi, algae, pollen, spores, or biomass burning. Methodology for detection of native (underivatized) amino acids (AA) in atmospheric aerosols has been developed and validated (Samy et al., 2011). This presentation describes the use of LC-MS (Q-TOF) and microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis for detection of free and combined amino acids in aerosols collected in a Southeastern U.S. forest environment. Accurate mass detection and the addition of isotopically labeled surrogates prior to sample preparation allows for sensitive quantitation of target AA in a complex aerosol matrix. A total of 16 native AA were detected above the reporting

  19. QUENCHING DEPENDS ON MORPHOLOGIES: IMPLICATIONS FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL RADIAL COLOR DISTRIBUTIONS IN GREEN VALLEY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhizheng; Lin, Weipeng; Li, Jinrong; Kong, Xu; Wang, Jing E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn

    2014-09-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the radial ultraviolet-optical color distributions in a sample of low redshift green valley galaxies, with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX)+Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images, to investigate how the residual recent star formation is distributed in these galaxies. We find that the dust-corrected u – r colors of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are flat out to R {sub 90}, while the colors monotonously turn blue when r > 0.5 R {sub 50} for late-type galaxies (LTGs). More than half of the ETGs are blue-cored and have remarkable positive NUV – r color gradients, suggesting that their star formations are centrally concentrated. The rest have flat color distributions out to R {sub 90}. The centrally concentrated star formation activity in a large portion of ETGs is confirmed by the SDSS spectroscopy, showing that ∼50% of the ETGs have EW(Hα) >6.0 Å. Of the LTGs, 95% show uniform radial color profiles, which can be interpreted as a red bulge plus an extended blue disk. The links between the two kinds of ETGs, e.g., those objects having remarkable ''blue-cores'' and those having flat color gradients, are less known and require future investigations. It is suggested that the LTGs follow a general model by which quenching first occurs in the core regions, and then finally extend to the rest of the galaxy. Our results can be re-examined and have important implications for the IFU surveys, such as MaNGA and SAMI.

  20. Characteristics of VLF wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere in the presence of an artificial density duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Dmitry; Demekhov, Andrei

    We study the propagation of VLF waves in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere in the presence of large-scale artificial plasma inhomogeneities which can be created by HF heating facilities like HAARP and ``Sura''. A region with enhanced cold plasma density can be formed due to the action of HF heating. This region is extended along geomagnetic field (up to altitudes of several thousand km) and has rather small size across magnetic field (about 1 degree). The geometric-optical approximation is used to study wave propagation. The plasma density and ion composition are calculated with the use of SAMI2 model, which was modified to take the effect of HF heating into account. We calculate ray trajectories of waves with different initial frequency and wave-normal angles and originating at altitudes of about 100 km in the region near the heating area. The source of such waves could be the lightning discharges, modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, or VLF transmitters. Variation of the wave amplitude along the ray trajectories due to refraction is considered and spatial distribution of wave intensity in the magnetosphere is analyzed. We show that the presence of such a density disturbances can lead to significant changes of wave propagation trajectories, in particular, to efficient guiding of VLF waves in this region. This can result in a drastic increase of the VLF-wave intensity in the density duct. The dependence of wave propagation properties on parameters of heating facility operation regime is considered. We study the variation of the spatial distribution of VLF wave intensity related to the slow evolution of the artificial inhomogeneity during the heating.

  1. Post-midnight occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)/equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are an important topic of space weather interest because of their impact on transionospheric radio communications, satellite-based navigation and augmentation systems. This local plasma depleted structures develop at the bottom side F layer through Rayleigh-Taylor instability and rapidly grow to topside ionosphere via polarization electric fields within them. The steep vertical gradients due to quick loss of bottom side ionization and rapid uplift of equatorial F layer via prereversal enhancement (PRE) of zonal electric field makes the post-sunset hours as the most preferred local time for the formation of EPBs. However, there is a different class of irregularities that occurs during the post-midnight hours of June solstice reported by the previous studies. The occurrence of these post-midnight EPBs maximize during the low solar activity periods. The growth characteristics and the responsible mechanism for the formation of these post-midnight EPBs are not yet understood. Using the rapid beam steering ability of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. The responsible mechanism for the genesis of summer time post-midnight EPBs were discussed in light of growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using SAMI2 model.

  2. Miestų skenavimo LIDAR metodu tikslumo analizė

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žalnierukas, Albinas; Ruzgienė, Birutė; Kalantaitė, Aušra; Valaitienė, Rimanta

    2009-01-01

    Pažangaus vietovės skenavimo lazeriu metodo realus tikslumas ir pritaikymo galimybės miestuose dar nepakankamai ištirta. Pateikiama Lietuvoje pirmą kartą darytų dešimties didžiųjų miestų - apskričių centrų skenavimo lazeriu iš orlaivio (LIDAR) išsami tikslumo analizė. Apibūdinama aparatūra, technologinės ypatybės, taip pat aerofotonuotrauka. Nurodoma, kad erdviniams miestų modeliams sudaryti taikyta pažangi jungtinė technologija: lazerinis skenavimas iš oro GPS-IMU sistema ir skaitmeninė 1:6000 mastelio aerofotonuotrauka. Naudotas skeneris ALTM 3100, skrydžio aukštis - 800 m. Vietovės skenavimo lazeriu tikslumas vertintas remiantis kontrolinių geodezinių ta\\vskų ir referencinių plotų (laukų) matavimų (UAB Aerogeodezijos institutas, UAB InfoERA) bei užsienio autorių LIDAR tikslumo tyrimų duomenimis. Gautieji lazerio impulsų ta\\vskų aukščių standartinių nuokrypių nuo geodezinių reikšmių įverčiai yra 0,05-0,11 m. Didžiausias absoliutusis planimetrinis poslinkis - 0,25 m, t. y. 1/3200 skrydžio aukščio. Daroma išvada, kad pagal tikslumo parametrus lazerinio skenavimo duomenys, sujungti su ortofotografiniu pagrindu, tinka miestų teritorijos paviršiaus, reljefo, pastatų ir kitų antžeminių objektų erdviniams 3D modeliams sukurti pagal stambiojo mastelio topografijos ir GIS poreikius.

  3. Carbon Dioxide in the Gulf of Trieste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, D.; Malacic, V.; Degrandpre, M. D.; McGillis, W. R.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine regions such as the Gulf of Trieste (GOT) in the Northern Adriatic Sea serve as the link between carbon cycling on land and the ocean interior and potentially contribute large uncertainties in the estimate of anthropogenic CO2 uptake. This system may be either a sink or a source for atmospheric CO2. Understanding the sources and sinks as a result of biological and physical controls for air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes in coastal waters may substantially alter the current view of the global carbon budget for unique terrestrial and ocean regions such as the GOT. GOT is a semi-enclosed Mediterranean basin situated in the northern part of Adriatic Sea. It is one of the most productive regions in the Mediterranean and is affected by extreme fresh river input, phytoplankton blooms, and large changes of air-sea exchange during Bora high wind events. The unique combination of these environmental processes and relatively small size of the area makes the region an excellent study site for investigations of air-sea interaction, and changes in biology and carbon chemistry. Here we investigate biological (phytoplankton blooms) and physical (freshwater input and winds) controls on the temporal variability of pCO2 in the GOT. The aqueous CO2 was measured at the Coastal Oceanographic buoy VIDA, Slovenia using the SAMI CO2 sensor. Our results indicate that: 1) The GOT was a sink for atmospheric CO2 in late spring of 2007; 2) Aqueous pCO2 was influenced by fresh water input from rivers entering the GOT and biological production associated with high nutrient input; 3) Surface water pCO2 showed a strong correlation with SST when river plumes where not present at the buoy location, and reasonable correlation with SSS during the presence of the plume.

  4. Ionosphere variations at 700 km altitude observed by the DEMETER satellite during the 29 March 2006 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Berthelier, J. J.; Lebreton, J. P.

    2010-11-01

    We present an experimental and modeling study of the effects of the 29 March 2006 solar eclipse in the topside ionosphere. Measurements of the densities and temperatures of the thermal electrons and ions were provided by instruments aboard the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales microsatellite DEMETER, which flew over Europe and Africa near the time of maximum solar obscuration. Data from several orbits, either on the same day or on days encompassing the eclipse day, were available to determine a reference state of the ionosphere along the orbit in absence of eclipse. The comparison between this latter and the actual observations along the eclipse orbit reveal a clear thermal effect with a fast drop of about 200 K of the electron and ion temperatures that follows the variations of the solar UV flux in the F region of the ionosphere conjugate to the satellite position. The plasma density decreases by about 30% but with a significant delay and is better correlated with the solar UV flux averaged over the previous 1 to 2 h in the conjugate F region. This delayed and prolonged decrease of density induces an increase of the electron temperature to be higher than the reference ionosphere. We have also performed a modeling of the ionosphere using the SAMI2 code, after having introduced adequate modifications to reproduce fairly realistic eclipse conditions. Applied to the DEMETER conditions of observation, the model reproduces the observations very well. This work shows that the plasma temperature responds very quickly along the magnetic field lines to the variations of the energy available from the photoelectrons while the plasma density variations are controlled by more complex and slower transport processes.

  5. Pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus infections in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    PubMed

    Kautto, Arja H; Alenius, Stefan; Mossing, Torgny; Becher, Paul; Belák, Sándor; Larska, Magdalena

    2012-04-23

    Herding semi-domesticated reindeer has economic and social value for Sami people in the northern territories of Fennoscandia. However, with the intensification of reindeer husbandry, interspecies transmission of pathogens between reindeer and domestic animals may become a problem, especially for countries such as Sweden, Norway, and Finland where pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus have been eradicated in domestic ruminants. This study, which included 1158 Swedish reindeer, showed relatively high prevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) (32%) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) (53%). Adult animals were more often seropositive for BVDV and BoHV-1 (50% and 78%, respectively) than were calves (18 and 11%, respectively). While the seroprevalence of alphaherpesvirus was similar in different herding districts, pestivirus seropositivity was highest in the South and diminished towards the North of the Swedish reindeer herding area. High correlation of the seropositivity against both pathogens at both individual and herd levels may indicate possible mutual synergetic effects and may be explained by the immunosuppressive nature of the viruses. While alphaherpesvirus seroprevalence was probably related to putative cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2), the pestivirus infecting reindeer remains undefined. The virus neutralisation test of reindeer sera using different pestivirus strains, revealed higher titres against Border disease virus strains like 137/4 (BDV-1) and Reindeer-1 (BDV-2) than against BVDV-1. However, the virus was not identified by real time RT-PCR in any of the samples (n=276) from seronegative reindeers. The study showed that pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus infections are endemic in the Swedish reindeer population.

  6. Recent Results From the Whistler- and Z-mode Radio Sounding From the IMAGE Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Reddy, A.; Mayank, K.; Hazra, S.; Carpenter, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Whistler mode radio sounding method [Sonwalkar et al., JGR, 2011] was applied to two case studies: (1) daytime and nighttime cases of whistler mode echoes observed on IMAGE inside the plasmasphere (L<4, altitude <5000 km), and (2) cases of whistler mode echoes observed during geomagnetic storm activity. Preliminary results indicate: (i) O+/H+ and O+/ (H+ + He+) transition heights at nighttime are a few hundred kilometers lower than that at daytime. (ii) Electron and ion densities found from whistler mode sounding are consistent with those from the past in situ and radio sounding measurements, but differ from those predicted by IRI-2012 and GCPM. (iii) Electron and ion densities undergo temporal changes as a function of geomagnetic storm activity, and each species has different recovery period. (iv) Major, moderate, and minor storms affect Ne, H+, and O+ densities in a similar manner, but affect He+ density differently-the minor storm did not affect it. By comparing the electron and ion densities measured by whistler mode radio sounding with those predicted by physics based ionospheric models (e.g. SAMI 2) it may be possible to understand how thermospheric winds influence the evolution of the ionospheric electron and ion densities during geomagnetic storms. The application of Sonwalkar et al. [2011] method to nonducted and ducted fast Z mode echoes observed on IMAGE has led to the measurement of field aligned electron density and duct width and enhancement factor from ~1000 km up to the equator. In two cases, ducts with widths of ~0.05-0.1 L and density depletions of ~5-10 % accounted for the observed properties of ducted Z mode echoes. The measurements of both electron density and ducts are consistent with past measurements. The results from the whistler and Z mode sounding will lead to new empirical models of field aligned electron and ion densities and a statistical characterization of ducts in the magnetosphere.

  7. Norway.

    PubMed

    1992-08-01

    Norway with a territory of 386,000 sq. km or 150,000 sq. miles is slightly larger than New Mexico. In 1991 the population was estimated at 4.3 million with an annual growth rate of .5% and a literacy rate of 100%. The infant mortality rate is 7/1000 live births, and lie expectancy is 73 years for men and 80 years for women. Norway's government is a hereditary constitutional monarchy since independence n 1905. Ethnically, Norwegians are predominantly Germanic, but there are indigenous communities of Sami (Lapps) in the north, and in recent years almost 150,000 immigrants, foreign workers, and asylum-seekers have settled there. Norway's health system includes free hospital care, physicians compensation, cash benefits during illness and pregnancy, and other medical and dental plans. Until the 1981 election, Norway has been governed by Labor Party governments since 1935, except for 3 periods (1963, 1965-71, and 1972-73). Gro Harlem Brundtland is again the prime minister after forming her 3rd government in 10 years. Norway holds national elections in September 1993. Norway's large shipping fleet is modern; metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are traditional industries, and major oil and gas discoveries in the mid-1970s transformed the economy. High oil prices in the 1983-85 period raised consumer spending, wages, and inflation. Norway is aspiring to restructure its nonoil economy in favor of efficient, nontraditional industry. The prime minister has indicated that Norway may apply for European Community (EC) membership before the end of 1992. Its main trading partners are the EC countries and its Scandinavian neighbors with the US in 5th place.

  8. A cell-based time-resolved fluorescence assay for selection of antibody reagents for G protein-coupled receptor immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Su, Jui-Lan; Fornwald, Jim; Rivers, Philip; Goldsworthy, Susan; Looney, Noeleen A; Hanvey, Jeff; Plumpton, Chris; Parham, Janet; Romanos, Michael; Kost, Thomas A; Kull, Frederick C

    2004-08-01

    A cell-based time-resolved fluorescence (celTRF) immunoassay is described for pre-screening antibodies to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) peptides that predicts suitability for immunohistochemistry (IHC). Rat GPCRs were expressed in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells via recombinant baculoviruses designed for mammalian cell expression, i.e., the transduced cells were used as a "screening lawn". The lawn was fixed and permeabilized similarly to IHC tissue. The celTRF, a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA), employed Eu-labelled goat anti-rabbit IgG. It exhibited a broad dynamic range upon which enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)-positive affinity-purified anti-peptide antibody reagents were examined for specificity and potency. Over 150 anti-peptide reagents to 27 GPCRs were characterized. All celTRF-positive antibodies were found to be suitable for IHC, whereas ELISA alone did not predict IHC utility. Examples are illustrated with five rabbit anti-neuropeptide FF receptor 1 (NPFF1) antibodies, where a strong correlation between celTRF potency and IHC utility was observed in both applications. In contrast, two high anti-peptide ELISA titer but celTRF-negative antibodies failed to recognize the NPFF1 receptor in IHC. The celTRF assay was performed manually and in an automated fashion, in our case, using a Biomek FX station and Sami scheduling software. The celTRF is the first in vitro automated assay that offers confident pre-selection of antibodies for IHC and the versatility to accommodate the rapid screening of large numbers of GPCRs. The celTRF is readily applicable to other protein target classes.

  9. Exploring the influence of surface waves in the carbon dioxide transfer velocity between the ocean and atmosphere in the coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier; Francisco Herrera, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Osuna, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Field measurements have been carried out in order to better understand the possible influence of ocean surface waves in the transfer of carbon dioxide between the ocean and atmosphere in the coastal zone. The CO2 fluxes are being analysed and results are shown in a contribution by Gutiérrez-Loza et al., in this session. Here we try to highlight the findings regarding the transfer velocity (kCO2) once we have incorporated direct measurements of carbon dioxide concentration in the water side. In this study direct measurements of CO2 fluxes were obtained with an eddy covariance tower located in the shoreline equipped with an infrared open-path gas analyzer (LI-7500, LI-COR) and a sonic anemometer (R3-100 Professional Anemometer, Gill Instruments), both at about 13 m above the mean sea level, and sampling at 20 Hz. For some period of time simultaneous information of waves was recorded with a sampling rate of 2 Hz using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) at 10 m depth and 350 m away from the tower. Besides, recently the concentration of CO2 in water has also been recorded making use of a SAMI-CO2 instrument. A subtle effect of the wave field is detected in the estimated kCO2. Looking into details of the surface currents being detected very near the air-sea interface through an ADPC, a certain association can be found with the gas transfer velocity. Furthermore, some of the possible effects of breaking wave induced turbulence in the coastal zone is to be addressed. This work represents a RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793) contribution. The support from CB-2011-01-168173 CONACYT project is greatly acknowledged.

  10. Transcriptional and epigenetic networks that drive helper T cell identities

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Han-Yu; Sciumè, Giuseppe; Poholek, Amanda C; Vahedi, Golnaz; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Villarino, Alejandro V; Bonelli, Michael; Bosselut, Remy; Kanno, Yuka; Muljo, Stefan A; O’Shea, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the specification of CD4+ helper T cells to discrete effector “lineages” represented a watershed event in conceptualizing mechanisms of host defense and immunoregulation. However, our appreciation for the actual complexity of helper T cell subsets continues unabated. Just as the Sami language of Scandinavia has 1000 different words for reindeer, the range of fates available for a CD4+ T cell is numerous and may be underestimated. Added to the crowded scene for helper T cell subsets is the continuously growing family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), endowed with common effector responses and the previously defined “master regulators” for CD4+ helper T cell subsets are also shared by ILC subsets. Within the context of this extraordinary complexity are concomitant advances in the understanding of transcriptomes and epigenomes. So what do terms like “lineage commitment” and helper T cell “specification” mean in the early 21st century? How do we put all of this together in a coherent conceptual framework? It would be arrogant to assume that we have a sophisticated enough understanding to seriously answer these questions. Instead, we will review the current status of the flexibility of helper T cell responses in relation to their genetic regulatory networks and epigenetic landscapes. Recent data have provided major surprises as to what master regulators can or cannot do, how they interact with other transcription factors and impact global genome-wide changes and how all these factors come together to influence helper cell function. PMID:25123275

  11. The magnitude and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of equatorial ionization anomaly-based on CHAMP and GRACE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, C.; Lühr, H.; Ma, S. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Based on nearly nine years (2001-2009) of observations from CHAMP and GRACE, a comprehensive study has been made on the morphology of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), focusing on the EIA's magnitude, inter-hemispheric asymmetry by resolving their seasonal and local time variations at different altitudes and solar activity levels. The electron density and the magnetic latitudes of the EIA crests both peak around 1400 LT while the crest-to-trough ratio (CTR) of the EIA reaches its highest value post-sunset around 2000 LT, with a value almost twice the daytime level. The magnetic latitude of the EIA at CHAMP altitude (~400 km) can reach 13° around December solstice during both high and low solar activity years, while at GRACE altitude (~480 km) the crests are observed much closer to the dip equator during low solar activity years. During high solar activity years the averaged apex height of the EIA crests can reach 800 km. During solstice seasons a clear inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the EIA can be seen. At CHAMP altitude the electron density of the EIA crest is stronger in the winter hemisphere during morning to noontime hours. It reverses after the noontime and the transition time appears around 1400 LT and 1200 LT for high and low solar activity years, respectively. At higher altitude (GRACE), the electron density of the EIA crest is always stronger in the summer hemisphere over the whole daytime. Simulation results from the SAMI2 model also show the differences in EIA inter-hemisphere asymmetry at the two altitudes.

  12. Mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green valley galaxies and its depends on morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xu; Pan, Zhizheng; Lian, Jianhui

    2015-08-01

    Galaxies are categorized into two main populations, red quiescent galaxies and blue star-forming galaxies. One of the key questions is which physical mechanisms are responsible for quenching star formation activities in blue galaxies and the resulting transformation? In this talk, we present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of "green valley" galaxies in the COSMOS field and low redshift "green valley" galaxies in SDSS. Our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M* < 10^10.0 Msun blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5. Using image from SDSS and GALEX, we analyze the radial ultraviolet-optical color distributions in a sample of low redshift green valley galaxies, and investigate how quenching is processing in a galaxy. The early-type "green valley" galaxies (ETGs) have dramatically different radial NUV-r color distributions compared to late-type "green valley" galaxies (LTGs), most of ETGs have blue cores, nearly all LTGs have uniform color profiles that can be well-interpreted as red bulges plus blue disk components. These results suggest that the LTGs follow a general model by which quenching first occurs in the core regions, and then finally extend to the rest of the galaxy; for ETGs, their star formations are centrally concentrated. Our results can be re-examined and have important implications for the IFU surveys, such as MaNGA and SAMI (2013ApJ...776...14P, 2014ApJ...792L...4P, 2015MNRAS.446.1449L).

  13. Politicians, Patriots and Plotters: Unlikely Debates Occasioned by Maximilian Hell's Venus Transit Expedition of 1769

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontler, Laszlo

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the cultural and political contexts and reception of the most important by-product of Maximilian Hell's famous Venus transit expedition of 1768-69, the Demonstratio. Idioma Ungarorum et Lapponum idem esse (1770) by Hell's associate Janos Sajnovics. Now considered a landmark in Finno-Ugrian linguistics, the Demonstratio addressed an academic subject that was at that time almost destined to be caught up in an ideological battlefield defined by the shifting relationship between the Habsburg government, the Society of Jesus, and the Hungarian nobility. The "enlightened absolutist" policies of the former aimed at consolidating the Habsburg monarchy as an empire, at the expense of privileged groups, including religious orders as well as the noble estates. In the situation created by the 1773 suppression of the Jesuit order (a signal of declining patronage from the dynasty), the growing preoccupation on the part of ex-Jesuits like Hell and Sajnovics with "things Hungarian" could have been part of an attempt to re-situate themselves on the Central European map of learning. At the same time, the founding document of this interest, the Demonstratio, evoked violent protests from the other target of Habsburg policies, the Hungarian nobility, because its basic assumptions - the kinship of the Hungarian and the Sami (Lappian) language - potentially undermined the noble ideology of social exclusiveness, established on the alleged "Scythian" ancestry of Hungarians. By exploring the complex motives, intentions, reactions and responses of the chief agents in this story, it is possible to highlight the extra-scientific constraints and facilitators for the practice of knowledge in late eighteenth century Central Europe.

  14. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Guillermo A.

    The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV) integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph in the world (1.7'x1.7'). It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16' diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormously. Here I review the contributions of the Mitchell Spectrograph to the study of nearby galaxies, from the investigation of the spatial distribution of dark matter and the properties of supermassive black holes, to the studies of the process of star formation and the chemical composition of stars and gas in the ISM, which provide important information regarding the formation and evolution of these systems. I highlight the fact that wide field integral field spectrographs on small and medium size telescopes can be powerful cost effective tools to study the astrophysics of galaxies. Finally I briefly discuss the potential of HETDEX for conducting studies on nearby galaxies. The survey parameters make it complimentary and competitive to ongoing and future surveys like SAMI and MANGA.

  15. An improved coupling model for the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. L.; Lee, L. C.; Huba, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    In our previous model for the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, the background magnetic field was assumed to be perpendicular to the horizontal plane. In the present paper, we improve the calculation of currents in the atmosphere by solving the current density J directly from the current continuity equation ∇ • J = 0. The currents in the atmosphere can be solved for any arbitrary angle of magnetic field, i.e., any magnetic latitude. In addition, a large ratio (~10) of Hall to Pedersen conductivities is used to generate a large Hall electric field. The effects of atmospheric currents and electric fields on the ionosphere with lithosphere current source located at magnetic latitudes of 7.5°, 15°, 22.5°, and 30° are obtained. For upward (downward) atmospheric currents flowing into the ionosphere, the simulation results show that the westward (eastward) electric fields dominate. At magnetic latitude of 7.5° or 15°, the upward (downward) current causes the increase (decrease) of total electron content (TEC) near the source region, while the upward (downward) current causes the decrease (increase) of TEC at magnetic latitude of 22.5°or 30°. The dynamo current density required to generate the same amount of TEC variation in the improved model is found to be smaller by a factor of 30 as compared to that obtained in our earlier paper. We also calculate the ionosphere dynamics with imposed zonal westward and eastward electric field based on SAMI3 code. It is found that the eastward (westward) electric field may trigger one (two) plasma bubble(s) in the nighttime ionosphere.

  16. "On the gate of Arctic": Doors open to foreign schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecchiar, Irene

    2015-04-01

    With the increased attention to the changing of the Arctic Region as a consequence of global climate changes, effective science education, outreach and communication need to be higher priorities within the scientific communities. In order to encourage the dissemination of polar research at educational levels Slovene high school students in Trieste were first engaged at school and at the National Museum of Antarctica of Trieste using conferences and laboratory activities to introduce the main polar climate change topics. Then together with three teachers they visited Tromso University (North Norway) for a week. The first aim of this project was to increase awareness of foreign schools on major topics concerning the Arctic issues (from the economic/social to the environmental/climatic point of view). Forty-three high school students were involved in the laboratory activities running at the University of Tromso and participated in seminars. The topics focused on were Ocean Acidification, Global Warming and the combined effects with other anthropogenic stressors. During their stay, students interviewed several scientists in order to allow them to edit a »visiting report«, that was updated every day in their blog and to elaborate all the material collected (photos, videos, data of laboratory work, reports). In Tromso, they were also introduced to the culture and tradition of the Scandinavian indigenous people at the Center of Sami Study. Back in Italy, they published some articles in local newspapers, and then they presented their results at the National Museum of Antarctica of Trieste about all the data elaboration in an open day exhibition with posters, short movies and PowerPoint presentations. All this work was made in order to pass their experience into the world. This was a pilot project, highlighting the role of universities as links between research and outreach. The next step should be to enlarge these kinds of activities to many Schools, Universities and

  17. Varied effects of untreated textile wastewater onto soil carbon mineralization and associated biochemical properties of a dryland agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Mahnaz; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad Atif; Tahir, Shermeen; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    Wastewater is an alternative, valuable and cost effective resource for irrigation in water-scarce arid and sami-arid regions of the world including Pakistan. Soils near urban centers are cultivated for vegetable and cash crops using untreated wastewater. Current study was performed with objectives of assessing impacts of untreated textile wastewater on some soil chemical, biological and enzymatic activities. The microcosm incubation study used a clay loam soil that received 0 (distilled-water), 25, 50 and 100% wastewater concentrations and incubated for 30 and 60 days under optimum temperature and moisture conditions. Soil respiration was measured periodically throughout the experiment over 60 days. After the incubation periods of 30- and 60-d, soils were destructively analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), water extractable organic matter (WEOM), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) and dehydrogenase enzymatic activity. Results revealed that wastewater and incubation time significantly altered chemical, biological and enzymatic properties of soils. The observed large surge in soil respiration, at initial stage, was stimulated by dissolved organic matter in wastewater. Dehydrogenase activity increased significantly with increasing wastewater concentrations. Increase in qCO2 with wastewater concentration and incubation time suggested more stress to microorganisms but also enhanced microbial activity under stress to synthesize biomass. We found significant positive (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001) relationship between soil respiration and MBC, however, correlation between WEOM and MBC was significant negative (R(2) = 0.18, p < 0.01) indicating a dynamic mismatch between carbon substrate, soil respiration and buildup of MBC pool. Wastewater concentration and incubation time interaction had significant (p < 0.01) effect on WEOM suggesting that WEOM accumulated over time and comparatively less utilized by microorganisms. Short

  18. Native predators reduce harvest of reindeer by Sámi pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, N Thompson; Andrén, Henrik; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Chapron, Guillaume

    2012-07-01

    Contemporary efforts to protect biological diversity recognize the importance of sustaining traditional human livelihoods, particularly uses of the land that are compatible with intact landscapes and ecologically complete food webs. However, these efforts often confront conflicting goals. For example, conserving native predators may harm pastoralist economies because predators consume domestic livestock that sustain people. This potential conflict must be reconciled by policy, but such reconciliation requires a firm understanding of the effects of predators on the prey used by people. We used a long-term, large-scale database and Bayesian models to estimate the impacts of lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) on harvest of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by Sami pastoralists in Sweden. The average annual harvest of reindeer averaged 25% of the population (95% credible interval = 19, 31). Annual harvest declined by 96.6 (31, 155) reindeer for each lynx family group (the surveyed segment of the lynx population) in a management unit and by 94.3 (20, 160) for each wolverine reproduction (the surveyed segment of the wolverine population). We failed to detect effects of predation by brown bear. The mechanism for effects of predation on harvest was reduced population growth rate. The rate of increase of reindeer populations declined with increasing abundance of lynx and wolverine. The density of reindeer, latitude, and weather indexed by the North Atlantic Oscillation also influenced reindeer population growth rate. We conclude that there is a biological basis for compensating the Sámi reindeer herders for predation on reindeer.

  19. Termochemical Models For Slags and Silicate Melts, Review and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottonello, G.

    Thermochemical models devoted to the comprehension of reactive and mixing properties of silicate melts and slags may be roughly grouped into four main classes: 1) fictive chemical; 2) quasi chemical; 3) fictive structural; 4) polymeric. In the first class we may group the fictive regular mixture approach of Ghiorso and Carmichael [1,2]and its extensions [3-5]and the subregular model of Berman and Brown [6]. To the second class belong the modified quasi chemical approach of Pelton and coworkers [7,8] , and the Kapoor - Froberg cellular model and its extensions [9-11]. The third class has much to share with the second one (and indeed the cellular model could be ascribed to this class as well). To this class belong the "central surround model" of Sastri and Lahiri [12] , the associated solution models of Bjorkman [13], Hastie and coworkers [14]and Goel and coworkers [15], the two sublattice model of Hillert and coworkers [16]and the polynomial expansions of Hoch and Arpshofen [17] . The fourth class encompasses the models of Masson[18-20] , Toop-Samis [21,22]and its extensions [23-25] . The phylosophy beyond each one of the four classes is basically different. Benefits and drawbacks are present in any of them, and applications are often limited to simple systems (or to sufficiently complex systems, in the case of arbitrary deconvolutions of type 1) and to limited P-T ranges. The crucial aspects of the various models will be outlined to some extent. It will be shown that, often, model conflictuality is only appartent and that, in some cases, model failure is unperceived by acritical utilizers. New perspectives in the future research devoted to the comprehension of melt reactivity in compositionally complex systems, with special enphasis on the solubility of gaseous components and unmixing, will be finally discussed. References: [1] Ghiorso M.S. and Carmichael I.S.E. (1980) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 71, 323-342. [2] Ghiorso M.S., Carmichael I.S.E., Rivers M.L. and Sack

  20. 50 years of snow stratigraphy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, C.; Pohjola, V.; Jonasson, C.; Challagan, T. V.

    2012-04-01

    With start in autumn 1961 the Abisko Scientific Research Station (ASRS) located in the Swedish sub Arctic has performed snow stratigraphy observations, resulting in a unique 50 year long time series of data. The data set contains grain size, snow layer hardness, grain compactness and snow layer dryness, observed every second week during the winter season. In general snow and snow cover are important factors for the global radiation budget, and the earth's climate. On a more local scale the layered snowpack creates a relatively mild microclimate for Arctic plants and animals, and it also determines the water content of the snowpack (snow water equivalent) important for e.g. hydrological applications. Analysis of the snow stratigraphy data, divided into three consecutive time periods, show that there has been a change in the last time period. The variable most affected is the snow layer hardness, which shows an increase in hardness of the snowpack. The number of observations with a very hard snow layer/ice at ground level increased three-fold between the first two time periods and the last time period. The thickness of the bottom layer in the snowpack is also highly affected. There has been a 60% increase in layers thinner than 10 cm in the last time period, resulting in a mean reduction in the thickness of the bottom layer from 14 cm to 11 cm. Hence the living conditions for plants and animals at the ground surface have been highly changed. The changes in the snowpack are correlated to an increased mean winter air temperature. Thus, continued increasing, or temperatures within the same ranges as in the last time period, is likely to create harder snow condition in the future. These changes are likely to affect animals that live under the snow such as lemmings and voles or animals that graze sub-Arctic vegetation in winter (e.g. reindeer that would potentially require increased supplementary feeding that incurs financial costs to Sami reindeer herders). Any decrease

  1. Hour-Scale Variability in NGC 663 and NGC 1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Steven P.; Garcia Soto, Aylin; Wong, Hallee

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010 we have been monitoring massive emission-line (mainly Be) stars in young open clusters using narrowband imaging at Hα (656nm) and the nearby continuum (645nm) (Souza, Davis, and Teich 2013, BAAS. 45, PM354.22; Souza, Beltz-Mohrmann, and Sami 2014. JAAVSO, 42, 154). To supplement longer-timescale data taken at Williams College we obtained high-cadence observations, in both filters, of NGC 663 on the night of 12/10/15, and of NGC 1960 on the nights of 12/10/14, 1/23/15, 1/25/15, 11/11/15, and 12/13/15 at the 0.5m ARCSAT at Apache Point Observatory. After raw magnitude extraction using Aperture Photometry Tool (Laher et al. 2012, PASP, 124, 737), we used inhomogeneous ensemble photometry (Bhatti et al., 2010, ApJ Supp., 186, 233) to correct for transparency and seeing variations. The NGC 663 field is crowded; of 29 known Be stars in the observed field, 10 have nearby interferers. None of the remaining 19 Be stars showed significant variation during ~5.5 hours of observation. 1σ uncertainty estimates range from 0.02mag at R~10 to 0.15mag at R~14. To verify the observing and reduction procedure, we recovered hour-scale variability in known variables BY Cas (δ Cephei type, ~0.05mag decline) and V1155 Cas (β Cephei type, ~0.04mag amplitude). In NGC 1960, of 5 known and suspect Be stars observed, two not previously reported as variable (BD+34 1110 and USNOB1.0 1241-0103450) showed irregular variation on timescales of hours. In NGC 1960 we also report the incidental discovery of two non-Be suspect variables: a likely eclipsing binary (0.07mag), and a possible δ Scuti star (maximum amplitude ~0.02mag). We gratefully acknowledge support for student research from NSF grant AST-1005024 to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium, and the Office of the Dean of Faculty and the DIII Research Funding Committee of Williams College. Based on observations obtained with Apache Point Observatory's 0.5-m Astrophysical Research Consortium Small Aperture Telescope.

  2. Interplay of Periodic, Cyclic and Stochastic Variability in Selected Areas of the H-R Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2003-03-01

    models, and a session on very long waves. The leading idea throughout the meeting was to discuss the interplay between all kinds of cycles that produce the data obtained when observing stars of the groups mentioned above. In order to provide the participants with a view much broader than the one they encounter when analysing the cyclic data of their pet stars, two lectures on periodicities, cycles and waves in totally different fields of variability were given at the beginning of the workshop: one talk on climate and weather variations by Lennart Bengtsson, and a review on cyclicities in the Sun by Sami Solanki.

  3. New York City International Polar Weekend at the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.

    2008-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008

  4. Variation of Plasmaspheric (90-4000 km) Field-aligned Electron Density and Ion Composition as a Function of Geomagnetic Storm Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, A.; Sonwalkar, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Whistler mode (WM) radio sounding from IMAGE has led to the first measurements of plasmaspheric field-aligned electron density and ion composition as a function of geomagnetic storm activity during Aug-Sep 2005, a period that included several successive geomagnetic storms of varying strength. The plasmapause was located at L~2.4 during the onset and main phases of the storms. On the dayside, as a function of storm activity we found in general the following results: (1) The electron density, relative ion concentrations, and O+/H+ transition height had different temporal behavior. (2) Electron density in the first 1-2 days of the storm increased followed by a decrease in the recovery phase. (3) αH+ decreased during the onset, main and early recovery phase, and then it increased; αO+ increased in the early recovery phase, and then it decreased; αHe+ in general increased in the onset or main phase and decreased in the recovery phase. (4) O+/H+ transition height increased by ~200-300 km during the onset, main and early recovery phase. (5) When successive storms occurred in less than a day's span, the latter storms had little or no effect on the electron density and ion composition. On the nightside, WM sounding data was sparse. In the case of one moderate storm, we found that 3 days after the storm, electron density at F2 peak and relative ion concentrations (at all altitudes) were comparable to those before the storm, whereas electron density above O+/H+ transition height decreased. WM sounding results for the dayside and nightside were in agreement with measurements from CHAMP (350 km) and DMSP (850 km). WM sounding measurements coupled with physics-based models (e.g. SAMI2) will allow: (a) investigation of the role of thermospheric winds, dynamo and storm time electric fields in causing the variations in electron and ion densities, and (b) testing of current theories and validating physics-based models of the thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.

  5. C/NOFS satellite observations of equatorial ionospheric plasma structures supported by multiple ground-based diagnostics in October 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, M.; Basu, Su.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Sheehan, R. E.; Roddy, P. A.; Groves, K. M.

    2011-10-01

    In early October 2008, the C/NOFS satellite orbited near the magnetic equator at its perigee altitude of ˜400 km at dusk in the Peruvian sector. This provided an ideal opportunity for a comparison, under the current very low solar flux condition, of equatorial ionospheric disturbances observed with the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) in situ measurements and ground-based observations available near Jicamarca Observatory. The primary objective was the comparison of plasma density disturbances measured by a Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) instrument on the C/NOFS satellite with VHF scintillation activity at Ancon near Jicamarca for this period. Here we discuss in detail two extreme cases: one in which severe in situ disturbances were accompanied by mild scintillation on a particular day, namely, 10 October while there was little in situ disturbance with strong scintillation on 5 October. This apparent contradiction was diagnosed further by a latitudinal ground-based GPS network at Peruvian longitudes, a Digisonde, and the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) at Jicamarca. The crucial distinction was provided by the behavior of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The EIA was well-developed on the day having severe in situ disturbances (10 Oct). This led to lower equatorial plasma density and total electron content (TEC) at the equator and consequently reduced the scintillations detected at Ancon. On the other hand, on the day with severe scintillations (5 Oct), the EIA was not so well developed as on 10 October, leading to relatively higher equatorial plasma density and TEC. Consequently the severe scintillations at Ancon were likely caused by ionospheric structure located below the altitude of C/NOFS. The NRL SAMI2 model was utilized to gain a greater understanding of the role of neutral winds and electric fields in reproducing the TEC as a function of latitude for both classes of irregularities. Spectral studies with high resolution in situ

  6. A study of 3D structure of nighttime electron density enhancement in the mid-latitude ionosphere by GPS tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Saito, A.

    2011-12-01

    The mid-latitude summer nighttime anomaly (MSNA) is a feature that the nighttime electron density larger than that in the daytime mid-latitude ionosphere. This anomaly was first detected in the southern hemisphere five decades ago and observed in the northern hemisphere recently by ionosondes and satellites. Previous studies presented the electron density structure of MSNA by using COSMIC occultation data and found that MSNA is clearly seen around 300 km altitude during local summer. However, due to lack of observation, the day-to-day variation of MSNA was not investigated. A GPS tomography method by SPEL of Kyoto University using the total electron content (TEC) data measured by the ground-based GPS receiver network is employed in this study. The wide coverage and continuous observation of GPS receivers are suitable for investigating the spatial and day-to-day variations of ionospheric electron densities. The algorithm of the GPS tomography developed by SPEL of Kyoto University use a constraint condition that the gradient of election density tends to be smooth in the horizontal direction and steep in the vicinity of the F2 peak, instead of inputting the initial conditions. Therefore, the algorithm is independent of any ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron density distribution models. The dense ground-based GPS receiver network around European region is used to study the three dimensional (3D) structure of MSNA with GPS tomography. Results show that the MSNA usually appear around the geomagnetic mid-latitude region during local summer nighttime. The feature of MSNA is most obvious at the ionospheric F2-peak altitudes. The result also shows a day-to-day variation in the formation of MSNA, in terms of the occurrence time, intensity, and spatial extent. The tomographic results are compared with the ionosondes, satellites, and radar measurements. A theoretical model simulation, SAMI2, is also used to further discuss the mechanism of MSNA. The comparison with other

  7. Selected papers from the 23rd MicroMechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2012) (Ilmenau, Germany, September 9-12, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Martin

    2013-07-01

    In September 2012, the 23rd MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME) took place in Ilmenau, Germany. With about 120 participants from 20 countries and 76 accepted presentations, the workshop series turned out to be a successful platform for young scientists to present their work to our scientific community. Traditionally, the interaction is an important aspect of this workshop: while short presentations introduce the posters, an extended poster session allows intensive discussion which is quite useful to the participants. The discussion very often extends into the breaks and the evening events. It is also encouraging for them that the best presentations are selected and invited to submit a full paper to this journal. Thanks to the support of IOP Publishing, this next logical step to present work to the scientific world is made possible. In this issue, you can find the best papers that have been selected by a committee during the workshop taking the written workshop contribution, the poster and the presentation into account. Again, all areas of micromechanics from new technology developments up to systems integration were presented at the workshop at different levels of completion. The selected papers present those results which are almost complete. Nevertheless, it is nice to see that in some cases topics grow over the years from 'nice ideas' to realized system concepts. And although this is the 23rd workshop, it is clear that micromechanics is a topic that is not running short of new ideas. First, I would like to thank the authors of the selected papers for each of their individual excellent contributions. My gratitude also goes to my fellow members in the programme committee (Per Ohlckers, Martin Hill and Sami Franssila) for their cooperation in the selection of invited speakers and submitted papers, as well as the anonymous Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM) reviewers for their careful selection of the final papers presented here. Last, but not

  8. Crystal structures of human 108V and 108M catechol O-methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, K.; Le Trong, I.; Stenkamp, R.E.; Parson, W.W.

    2008-08-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays important roles in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol estrogens. The development of COMT inhibitors for use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease has been aided by crystallographic structures of the rat enzyme. However, the human and rat proteins have significantly different substrate specificities. Additionally, human COMT contains a common valine-methionine polymorphism at position 108. The methionine protein is less stable than the valine polymorph, resulting in decreased enzyme activity and protein levels in vivo. Here we describe the crystal structures of the 108V and 108M variants of the soluble form of human COMT bound with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and a substrate analog, 3,5-dinitrocatechol. The polymorphic residue 108 is located in the {alpha}5-{beta}3 loop, buried in a hydrophobic pocket {approx}16 {angstrom} from the SAM-binding site. The 108V and 108M structures are very similar overall [RMSD of C{sup {alpha}} atoms between two structures (C{sup {alpha}} RMSD) = 0.2 {angstrom}], and the active-site residues are superposable, in accord with the observation that SAM stabilizes 108M COMT. However, the methionine side chain is packed more tightly within the polymorphic site and, consequently, interacts more closely with residues A22 ({alpha}2) and R78 ({alpha}4) than does valine. These interactions of the larger methionine result in a 0.7-{angstrom} displacement in the backbone structure near residue 108, which propagates along {alpha}1 and {alpha}5 toward the SAM-binding site. Although the overall secondary structures of the human and rat proteins are very similar (C{sup {alpha}} RMSD = 0.4 {angstrom}), several nonconserved residues are present in the SAM-(I89M, I91M, C95Y) and catechol- (C173V, R201M, E202K) binding sites. The human protein also contains three additional solvent-exposed cysteine residues (C95, C173, C188) that may contribute to intermolecular disulfide bond

  9. FOREWORD: HELAS II International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizon, Laurent; Roth, Markus

    2008-07-01

    . Also available in the online edition are (i) an interactive conference picture, (ii) the abstract book, and (iii) material on the special session `Waves, Waves and Waves'. Additional articles related to both the HELAS II and the SOHO 19/GONG 2007 conferences can be found in a topical issue of Solar Physics, volume 251, nos 1-2. Financial support was provided by the HELAS Network, the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (through Ulrich Christensen and Sami Solanki) and the University of Göttingen (through Stefan Dreizler). We thank the local organizers, and in particular Sabine Deutsch, for their outstanding efforts in making the conference a success. We are also grateful to Graham Douglas and Jacky Mucklow of IoP Publishing for their help in the production of this volume. Laurent Gizon and Markus Roth Editors Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany

  10. Experimental Study on Steel Tank Model Using Shaking Table/ Badania Eksperymentalne Modelu Zbiornika Stalowego Na Stole Sejsmicznym

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkacki, Daniel; Jankowski, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Cylindrical steel tanks are very popular structures used for storage of products of chemical and petroleum industries. Earthquakes are the most dangerous and also the most unpredictable dynamic loads acting on such structures. On the other hand, mining tremors are usually considered to be less severe due to lower acceleration levels observed. The aim of the present paper is to show the results of the experimental study which has been conducted on a scaled model of a real tank located in Poland. The investigation has been carried out under different dynamic excitations (earthquakes and mining tremors) using the shaking table. The results of the study indicate that stored product may significantly influence the values of dynamic parameters and confirm that the level of liquid filling is really essential in the structural analysis. The comparison of the response under moderate earthquakes and mining tremors indicate that the second excitation may be more severe in some cases. Stalowe zbiorniki walcowe są bardzo popularnymi konstrukcjami używanymi do magazynowania produktów przemysłu chemicznego i naftowego. Ich bezpieczeństwo i niezawodność są kluczowe, ponieważ każde uszkodzenie może nieść za sobą bardzo poważne konsekwencje. Trzęsienia ziemi są najbardziej niebezpiecznymi, a zarazem najbardziej nieprzewidywalnymi obciążeniami dynamicznymi, które mogą oddziaływać na tego typu konstrukcje. Z drugiej strony ruchy podłoża związane ze wstrząsami górniczymi są uważane za mniej groźne z powodu osiągania niższych poziomów wartości przyspieszeń. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań eksperymentalnych, które przeprowadzono na wykonanym w skali modelu rzeczywistego zbiornika zlokalizowanego na terenie Polski. Badania wykonano przy użyciu stołu sejsmicznego. Zakres badań obejmował testy harmoniczne właściwości dynamicznych oraz zachowanie się stalowego zbiornika walcowego podczas trzęsień ziemi oraz wstrz

  11. Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, M.; Carpenter, L.

    2007-12-01

    in San Francisco on December 10 to 14, 2007. One component of this conference is entitled « Education, Outreach and Communications During IPY and Beyond ». ACIC proposes to present a discussion paper, « Optimizing Communications Between Arctic Residents and IPY Scientific Researchers », describing the status of IPY outreach and communications in the Arctic at this time. The paper will be complemented by photographs which illustrate the context of communication activity in these regions. ACIC has an existing international network of indigenous northern communicators. The IPY Northern Coordination Offices in Canada, and key informants in Alaska, RAIPON in the Russian Federation, and the Association of Sami Journalists, will be interviewed to determine involvement in IPY activities planned and/or undertaken. The level of community and professional awareness will be surveyed through interviews with community radio personnel. Aspirations and expectations for further cooperation with IPY reseearchers will be determined. Barriers and shortfalls will be identified. The usability and potential of current communications will be assessed. Endorsed IPY projects will be contacted to determine their Arctic communication plans and activities, barriers and opportunities. Information gained from the Joint Committee Assessment in October will be considered in the context of northern informant input. Conclusions and recommendations will reported, with the goal of optimizing opportunities to connect indigenous Arctic residents and IPY scientific research centres.

  12. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (c) 1/7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2004-05-01

    Physics Laboratory, Sciences Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia) and the Co-Chairmen were Professor Sami Mahmood, Dean of Sciences at Yarmouk University (Jordan) and Professor Mohamed Akhavan from the Sharif University of Technology (Iran). The four-day conference consisted of several oral and poster sessions, followed by social programs in the evenings. The success of the event could be measured during the closing session on the last day, when several delegates emphasized the high-quality science that had been evident at the conference. A post conference three-day tour to the south of Tunisia (Matmata, Douz City: the gate of desert and the mountains oasis: Tamerza, Mides and Chebika) was also arranged. The conference was generously sponsored by: - The Tunisian Ministry of High Education, Scientific Research and Technology - The Tunisian Secretary of State for Scientific Research and Technology - The Tunisian National Office of Tourism - The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - French Institute for Cooperation in Tunisia - Tunisian-Italian Scientific Partnership - British Gas - Tunisian Society for Electricity and Gas - Imex Olive Oil -Confiserie TRIKI Le Moulin The next MSM conference in 2005 will be held in Morocco.

  13. PREFACE: International Conference on the Use of X-ray (and related) Techniques in Arts and Cultural Heritage (XTACH 11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Nasser; El-Khatib, Sami

    2012-07-01

    ), Raman measurements, as well as other sample preparation techniques. The training course concluded with a series of presentations of the results by the participants, attended by the NXFL team and experts from the IAEA. This training course was organized as part of the activities of the IAEA technical cooperation RAS1011 Project: Using Ion Beam Analysis and Complementary Nuclear Techniques for Material Characterization in ARASIA State Parties. The course was attended by participants from Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Syria, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. We would like to thank the conference sponsors: Tashkeel, Sharjah Museums, and Sharjah Department of Culture and Information (Directorate on Antiquities). We would also like to thank our invited speakers, the international advisory committee, the referees and the participants. It has been a pleasure working with them all. Organizing Committee Nasser Hamdan AUS, NXFL Members Pia Anderson AUS Hussain Al-Awadhi UoS & NXFL Sami El Khatib AUS Attaelmanan Gaffar UoS & NXFL Johannes Giesen AUS Sabah Jasim Directory of Antiquities Sharjah Najeh Jisrawi UoS & NXFL Adil Tamimi AUS International Advisory Committee Zaki Aslan ATHAR, ICCROM, Italy Mark Beech Abu Dhabi Culture & Heritage, UAE Rene Van Grieken University of Antwerp, Belgium Gene Hall Rutgers, The State University of N.J. Peter Jackson Office of the Ruler of Sharjah Andreas Karydas IAEA Laboratories, Seiberdorf, Austria Giacinto Porco The Italian Association of Non-Destructive Testing, Italy Mohammad Roumie (CNRS) Lebanese Atomic Energy, Commission, Lebanon Acknowledgments The organizers gratefuly acknowledge the support received from the College of Arts and Sciences and the Provosts office at the American University of Sharjah. The support of the Physics Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences at the IAEA is greatly appreciated. We would like to give special thanks to Dr Francoise Muelhauser from the IAEA. We would like also to thank the conference

  14. PREFACE: The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellago, Christoph; Kahl, Gerhard; Likos, Christos N.

    2012-07-01

    interface tension of flat and curved interfaces from Monte Carlo simulationsA Tröster and K Binder Phase diagrams of particles with dissimilar patches: X-junctions and Y-junctionsJ M Tavares and P I C Teixeira The unbearable heaviness of colloids: facts, surprises, and puzzles in sedimentationRoberto Piazza, Stefano Buzzaccaro and Eleonora Secchi Exploring water and other liquids at negative pressureFrédéric Caupin, Arnaud Arvengas, Kristina Davitt, Mouna El Mekki Azouzi, Kirill I Shmulovich, Claire Ramboz, David A Sessoms and Abraham D Stroock The configurational space of colloidal patchy polymers with heterogeneous sequencesIvan Coluzza and Christoph Dellago Repeated sorption of water in SBA-15 investigated by means of in situ small-angle x-ray scatteringM Erko, D Wallacher, G H Findenegg and O Paris Transition of the hydration state of a surfactant accompanying structural transitions of self-assembled aggregatesM Hishida and K Tanaka The effects of topology on the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of network-forming materialsMark Wilson Surface tension of an electrolyte-air interface: a Monte Carlo studyAlexandre Diehl, Alexandre P dos Santos and Yan Levin Water and other tetrahedral liquids: order, anomalies and solvationB Shadrack Jabes, Divya Nayar, Debdas Dhabal, Valeria Molinero and Charusita Chakravarty Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water modelsSami Tazi, Alexandru Boţan, Mathieu Salanne, Virginie Marry, Pierre Turq and Benjamin Rotenberg Phase behaviour of colloidal assemblies on 2D corrugated substratesSamir El Shawish, Emmanuel Trizac and Jure Dobnikar Structural properties of dendrimer-colloid mixturesDominic A Lenz, Ronald Blaak and Christos N Likos Fluid-fluid demixing of off-critical colloid-polymer systems confined between parallel platesE A G Jamie, R P A Dullens and D G A L Aarts Simulations of nematic homopolymer melts using particle-based models with interactions expressed through collective variablesKostas Ch

  15. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference.

    PubMed

    Dellago, Christoph; Kahl, Gerhard; Likos, Christos N

    2012-07-18

    interface tension of flat and curved interfaces from Monte Carlo simulationsA Tröster and K Binder Phase diagrams of particles with dissimilar patches: X-junctions and Y-junctionsJ M Tavares and P I C Teixeira The unbearable heaviness of colloids: facts, surprises, and puzzles in sedimentationRoberto Piazza, Stefano Buzzaccaro and Eleonora Secchi Exploring water and other liquids at negative pressureFrédéric Caupin, Arnaud Arvengas, Kristina Davitt, Mouna El Mekki Azouzi, Kirill I Shmulovich, Claire Ramboz, David A Sessoms and Abraham D Stroock The configurational space of colloidal patchy polymers with heterogeneous sequencesIvan Coluzza and Christoph Dellago Repeated sorption of water in SBA-15 investigated by means of in situ small-angle x-ray scatteringM Erko, D Wallacher, G H Findenegg and O Paris Transition of the hydration state of a surfactant accompanying structural transitions of self-assembled aggregatesM Hishida and K Tanaka The effects of topology on the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of network-forming materialsMark Wilson Surface tension of an electrolyte-air interface: a Monte Carlo studyAlexandre Diehl, Alexandre P dos Santos and Yan Levin Water and other tetrahedral liquids: order, anomalies and solvationB Shadrack Jabes, Divya Nayar, Debdas Dhabal, Valeria Molinero and Charusita Chakravarty Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water modelsSami Tazi, Alexandru Boţan, Mathieu Salanne, Virginie Marry, Pierre Turq and Benjamin Rotenberg Phase behaviour of colloidal assemblies on 2D corrugated substratesSamir El Shawish, Emmanuel Trizac and Jure Dobnikar Structural properties of dendrimer-colloid mixturesDominic A Lenz, Ronald Blaak and Christos N Likos Fluid-fluid demixing of off-critical colloid-polymer systems confined between parallel platesE A G Jamie, R P A Dullens and D G A L Aarts Simulations of nematic homopolymer melts using particle-based models with interactions expressed through collective variablesKostas Ch

  16. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    accuracy. They expect to measure the probe's position within two-thirds of a mile (1 kilometer) at a distance of nearly 750 million miles. "That's like being able to sit in your back yard and watch the ball in a ping-pong game being played on the Moon," said Leonid Gurvits of JIVE. Both the JPL and JIVE teams will record the data collected by the radio telescopes and process it later. In the case of the Doppler measurements, some real-time information may be available, depending on the strength of the signal, but the scientists on this team also plan to do their detailed analysis on recorded data. The JPL team is utilizing special instrumentation from the Deep Space Network called Radio Science Receivers. One will be loaned to the GBT and another to the Parkes radio observatory. "This is the same instrument that allowed us to support the challenging communications during the landing of the Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers as well as the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion when the received radio signal was very weak," said Sami Asmar, the JPL scientist responsible for the data recording. When the Galileo spacecraft's probe entered Jupiter's atmosphere in 1995, a JPL team used the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico to directly track the probe's signal. Adding the data from the VLA to that experiment dramatically improved the accuracy of the wind-speed measurements. "The Galileo probe gave us a surprise. Contrary to some predictions, we learned that Jupiter's winds got stronger as we went deeper into its atmosphere. That tells us that those deeper winds are not driven entirely by sunlight, but also by heat coming up from the planet's core. If we get lucky at Titan, we'll get surprises there, too," said Robert Preston, another JPL scientist. The Huygens probe is a spacecraft built by the European Space Agency (ESA). In addition to the NRAO telescopes, the JPL Doppler Wind Experiment will use the Australia Telescope National Facility and other radio

  17. Welcome to the 2014 volume of Smart Materials and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-01-01

    time, the energy harvesting symposium. (2) A special issue called 'Electromechanically active polymer (EAP) transducers: research in Europe', a collection of articles from the European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles—ESNAM group. This year, look out for focus issues put together by the editorial board on 'fluidic artificial muscles' and 'active materials and structures for origami engineering'. We will also continue to run a busy program of Topical Reviews, which are often among the most cited and most downloaded articles in the journal. Congratulations to Ganesh Raghunath and his team (University of Maryland) who won the Smart Materials and Structures prize for the best paper at SMASIS 2013, and to Kyle Mulligan and his team (University of Sherbrooke) who won our best student paper prize at Cansmart 2013. We were delighted with the news last year that ASME awarded two of its prestigious annual best paper awards to articles published in SMS: the 2013 ASME 'Adaptive Structures and Material Systems Best Paper Award in Adaptive Materials and Material Systems' went to Donghyeon Ryu and Kenneth J Loh for their article 'Strain sensing using photocurrent generated by photoactive P3HT-based nanocomposites'. The 2013 ASME 'Adaptive Structures and Material Systems Best Paper Award in Structural Dynamics and Control' went to Julianna Abel, Jonathan Luntz and Diann Brei for their article 'A two-dimensional analytical model and experimental validation of garter stitch knitted shape memory alloy actuator architecture'. Finally, may I take this opportunity to thank our fantastic Editorial board of Associate Editors who tirelessly oversee the review of each submitted article and give their invaluable advice, helping to develop and shape the journal. Welcome to Professor Alper Erturk who has recently joined us. We also acknowledge and thank Professor Andrea Del Grosso, Professor Sami Masri, Professor Seung Jo Kim and Professor Christian Boller who retired from the Board