Science.gov

Sample records for mpr1 confers ethanol

  1. N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 confers ethanol tolerance on Saccharomyces cerevisiae by reducing reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can reduce intracellular oxidation levels and protect yeast cells under oxidative stress, including H(2)O(2), heat-shock, or freeze-thaw treatment. Unlike many antioxidant enzyme genes induced in response to oxidative stress, the MPR1 gene seems to be constitutively expressed in yeast cells. Based on a recent report that ethanol toxicity is correlated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined here the role of Mpr1 under ethanol stress conditions. The null mutant of the MPR1 and MPR2 genes showed hypersensitivity to ethanol stress, and the expression of the MPR1 gene conferred stress tolerance. We also found that yeast cells exhibited increased ROS levels during exposure to ethanol stress, and that Mpr1 protects yeast cells from ethanol stress by reducing intracellular ROS levels. When the MPR1 gene was overexpressed in antioxidant enzyme-deficient mutants, increased resistance to H(2)O(2) or heat shock was observed in cells lacking the CTA1, CTT1, or GPX1 gene encoding catalase A, catalase T, or glutathione peroxidase, respectively. These results suggest that Mpr1 might compensate the function of enzymes that detoxify H(2)O(2). Hence, Mpr1 has promising potential for the breeding of novel ethanol-tolerant yeast strains.

  2. Heterologous expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPR1 gene confers tolerance to ethanol and L: -azetidine-2-carboxylic acid in Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Ishchuk, Olena P; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2010-02-01

    Hansenula polymorpha is a naturally xylose-fermenting yeast; however, both its ethanol yield from xylose and ethanol resistance have to be improved before this organism can be used for industrial high-temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. In the current research, we checked if the expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPR1 gene encoding N-acetyltransferase can increase the ethanol tolerance of H. polymorpha. The S. cerevisiae MPR1 gene was cloned in the H. polymorpha expression vector under the control of the H. polymorpha strong constitutive promoter of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH). H. polymorpha recombinant strains harboring 1-3 copies of the S. cerevisiae MPR1 gene showed enhanced tolerance to L: -azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and ethanol. The obtained results suggest that the expression of the S. cerevisiae MPR1 gene in H. polymorpha can be a useful approach in the construction of H. polymorpha strains with improved ethanol resistance.

  3. Engineering of the yeast antioxidant enzyme Mpr1 for enhanced activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Iinoya, Kaoru; Kotani, Tetsuya; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b has the MPR1 gene, which confers resistance to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC). This gene encodes an N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 that detoxifies AZC, and the homologous genes have been found in many yeasts. Recently, we found that Mpr1 protects yeast cells by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under oxidative stresses, such as heat-shock, freezing, or ethanol treatment. Unlike the known antioxidant enzymes, Mpr1 is thought to acetylate toxic metabolite(s) involved in ROS generation via oxidative events. To improve the enzymatic functions of Mpr1, we applied PCR random mutagenesis to MPR1. The mutagenized plasmid library was introduced into the S. cerevisiae S288C strain lacking MPR1, and we successfully isolated two Mpr1 variants with higher AZC resistance (K63R and F65L/L117V). Interestingly, overexpression of the K63R variant was found to increase cell viability or decrease intracellular ROS levels after exposure to H(2)O(2) or ethanol compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In vitro studies with the recombinant enzymes showed that the catalytic efficiency of the K63R variant for AZC and acetyl-CoA was higher than that of the wild-type Mpr1 and that the F65L mutation greatly enhanced the thermal stability. The mutational analysis and molecular modeling suggest that an alpha-helix containing Lys63 and Phe65 has important roles in the function of Mpr1. In addition, the wild-type and K63R variant Mpr1 reduced intracellular ROS levels under ethanol stress conditions on haploid sake yeast cells. These results suggest that engineering Mpr1 might be useful in breeding oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains.

  4. MPR1 as a novel selection marker in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ogawa-Mitsuhashi, Kaoru; Sagane, Koji; Kuromitsu, Junro; Takagi, Hiroshi; Tsukahara, Kappei

    2009-11-01

    L-Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC) is a toxic four-membered ring analogue of L-proline that is transported into cells by proline transporters. AZC and L-proline in the cells are competitively incorporated into nascent proteins. When AZC is present in a minimum medium, misfolded proteins are synthesized in the cells, thereby inhibiting cell growth. The MPR1 gene has been isolated from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b as a multicopy suppressor of AZC-induced growth inhibition. MPR1 encodes a novel acetyltransferase that detoxifies AZC via N-acetylation. Since MPR1 is absent in the laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae S288C, it could be a positive selection marker that confers AZC resistance in the S288C background strains. To examine the usefulness of MPR1, we constructed some plasmid vectors that harboured MPR1 under the control of various promoters and introduced them into the S288C-derived strains. The expression of MPR1 conferred AZC resistance that was largely dependent on the expression level of MPR1. In an additional experiment, the galactose-inducible MPR1 and ppr1(+), the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of MPR1, were used for gene disruption by homologous recombination, and here AZC-resistant colonies were also successfully selected. We concluded that our MPR1-AZC system provides a powerful tool for yeast transformation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPR1 gene encoding N-acetyltransferase in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii confers resistance to L-azetidine-2-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Pribylová, L; Sychrová, H

    2006-01-01

    The osmotolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is sensitive to the toxic L-proline analogue, L-azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC). The possibility of use of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPR1 gene (ScMPR1) encoding the AZC-detoxifying enzyme as a dominant selection marker in Z. rouxii was examined. The heterologous expression of ScMPR1 in two Z. rouxii strains resulted in AZC-resistant colonies, but that of ScMPR1 as a dominant marker gene in vectors was affected by a high frequency of spontaneously resistant colonies. The same was found for an AZC-sensitive S. cerevisiae strain in which the ScMPR1 was expressed. In both yeasts, ScMPR1 can be used only as an auxiliary marker gene.

  6. An antioxidative mechanism mediated by the yeast N-acetyltransferase Mpr1: oxidative stress-induced arginine synthesis and its physiological role.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akira; Kotani, Tetsuya; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiaeSigma1278b has the MPR1 gene encoding the N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 that acetylates the proline metabolism intermediate Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C)/glutamate-gamma-semialdehyde (GSA) in vitro. In addition, Mpr1 protects cells from various oxidative stresses by regulating the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the relationship between P5C/GSA acetylation and antioxidative mechanism involving Mpr1 remains unclear. Here, we report the synthesis of oxidative stress-induced arginine via P5C/GSA acetylation catalyzed by Mpr1. Gene disruption analysis revealed that Mpr1 converts P5C/GSA into N-acetyl-GSA for arginine synthesis in the mitochondria, indicating that Mpr1 mediates the proline and arginine metabolic pathways. More importantly, Mpr1 regulate ROS generation by acetylating toxic P5C/GSA. Under oxidative stress conditions, the transcription of PUT1 encoding the proline oxidase Put1 and MPR1 was strongly induced, and consequently, the arginine content was significantly increased. We also found that two deletion mutants (Deltampr1/2 and Deltaput1) were more sensitive to high-temperature stress than the wild-type strain, but that direct treatment with arginine restored the cell viability of these mutants. These results suggest that Mpr1-dependent arginine synthesis confers stress tolerance. We propose an antioxidative mechanism that is involved in stress-induced arginine synthesis requiring Mpr1 and Put1.

  7. The application of the yeast N-acetyltransferase MPR1 gene and the proline analogue L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid as a selectable marker system for plant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Fei-Yi; Ulanov, Alexander; Widholm, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    The yeast N-acetyltransferase MPR1 gene has previously been shown to confer resistance to the toxic proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (A2C) in yeast and transgenic tobacco. Here experiments were carried out to determine if MPR1 and A2C can work as a selectable marker system for plant transformation. The MPR1 gene was inserted into a binary vector under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthase terminator, and transformed into tobacco via the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated leaf disc method. A2C was applied in the selection medium to select for putative transformants. PCR analysis showed that 28.4% and 66.7% of the plantlets selected by 250 μM and 300 μM A2C were positive for the MPR1 gene, respectively. Southern and northern blot analysis and enzyme activity assay confirmed the stable gene incorporation, transcription, and translation of the MPR1 transgene in the transgenic plants. The transgene-carrying T1 progeny could be distinguished from the recessive progeny when grown on 400, 450, or 500 μM A2C. Examination of the metabolism of 22 transgenic plants by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiling did not reveal any significant changes. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that MPR1/A2C is a safe and efficient selection system that does not involve microbial antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes. Recent studies showed that MPR1 can protect yeast against oxidative stresses by decreasing the accumulation of the proline catabolite Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). However, H2O2 treatment resulted in contradictory responses among the five transgenic lines tested. Further experiments are required to assess the response of MPR1 transgenic plants under oxidative stress. PMID:20430752

  8. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  10. A Mutation in a Novel Yeast Proteasomal Gene, RPN11/MPR1, Produces a Cell Cycle Arrest, Overreplication of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA, and an Altered Mitochondrial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Teresa; Ricci, Carlo; Porro, Danilo; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Frontali, Laura

    1998-01-01

    We report here the functional characterization of an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, MPR1, coding for a regulatory proteasomal subunit for which the name Rpn11p has been proposed. For this study we made use of the mpr1-1 mutation that causes the following pleiotropic defects. At 24°C growth is delayed on glucose and impaired on glycerol, whereas no growth is seen at 36°C on either carbon source. Microscopic observation of cells growing on glucose at 24°C shows that most of them bear a large bud, whereas mitochondrial morphology is profoundly altered. A shift to the nonpermissive temperature produces aberrant elongated cell morphologies, whereas the nucleus fails to divide. Flow cytometry profiles after the shift to the nonpermissive temperature indicate overreplication of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Consistently with the identification of Mpr1p with a proteasomal subunit, the mutation is complemented by the human POH1 proteasomal gene. Moreover, the mpr1-1 mutant grown to stationary phase accumulates ubiquitinated proteins. Localization of the Rpn11p/Mpr1p protein has been studied by green fluorescent protein fusion, and the fusion protein has been found to be mainly associated to cytoplasmic structures. For the first time, a proteasomal mutation has also revealed an associated mitochondrial phenotype. We actually showed, by the use of [rho°] cells derived from the mutant, that the increase in DNA content per cell is due in part to an increase in the amount of mitochondrial DNA. Moreover, microscopy of mpr1-1 cells grown on glucose showed that multiple punctate mitochondrial structures were present in place of the tubular network found in the wild-type strain. These data strongly suggest that mpr1-1 is a valuable tool with which to study the possible roles of proteasomal function in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:9763452

  11. Correcting direct effects of ethanol on translation and transcription machinery confers ethanol tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Haft, Rembrandt J F; Keating, David H; Schwaegler, Tyler; Schwalbach, Michael S; Vinokur, Jeffrey; Tremaine, Mary; Peters, Jason M; Kotlajich, Matthew V; Pohlmann, Edward L; Ong, Irene M; Grass, Jeffrey A; Kiley, Patricia J; Landick, Robert

    2014-06-24

    The molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and tolerance in bacteria, although important for biotechnology and bioenergy applications, remain incompletely understood. Genetic studies have identified potential cellular targets for ethanol and have revealed multiple mechanisms of tolerance, but it remains difficult to separate the direct and indirect effects of ethanol. We used adaptive evolution to generate spontaneous ethanol-tolerant strains of Escherichia coli, and then characterized mechanisms of toxicity and resistance using genome-scale DNAseq, RNAseq, and ribosome profiling coupled with specific assays of ribosome and RNA polymerase function. Evolved alleles of metJ, rho, and rpsQ recapitulated most of the observed ethanol tolerance, implicating translation and transcription as key processes affected by ethanol. Ethanol induced miscoding errors during protein synthesis, from which the evolved rpsQ allele protected cells by increasing ribosome accuracy. Ribosome profiling and RNAseq analyses established that ethanol negatively affects transcriptional and translational processivity. Ethanol-stressed cells exhibited ribosomal stalling at internal AUG codons, which may be ameliorated by the adaptive inactivation of the MetJ repressor of methionine biosynthesis genes. Ethanol also caused aberrant intragenic transcription termination for mRNAs with low ribosome density, which was reduced in a strain with the adaptive rho mutation. Furthermore, ethanol inhibited transcript elongation by RNA polymerase in vitro. We propose that ethanol-induced inhibition and uncoupling of mRNA and protein synthesis through direct effects on ribosomes and RNA polymerase conformations are major contributors to ethanol toxicity in E. coli, and that adaptive mutations in metJ, rho, and rpsQ help protect these central dogma processes in the presence of ethanol.

  12. Correcting direct effects of ethanol on translation and transcription machinery confers ethanol tolerance in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Haft, Rembrandt J. F.; Keating, David H.; Schwaegler, Tyler; Schwalbach, Michael S.; Vinokur, Jeffrey; Tremaine, Mary; Peters, Jason M.; Kotlajich, Matthew V.; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Ong, Irene M.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Kiley, Patricia J.; Landick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and tolerance in bacteria, although important for biotechnology and bioenergy applications, remain incompletely understood. Genetic studies have identified potential cellular targets for ethanol and have revealed multiple mechanisms of tolerance, but it remains difficult to separate the direct and indirect effects of ethanol. We used adaptive evolution to generate spontaneous ethanol-tolerant strains of Escherichia coli, and then characterized mechanisms of toxicity and resistance using genome-scale DNAseq, RNAseq, and ribosome profiling coupled with specific assays of ribosome and RNA polymerase function. Evolved alleles of metJ, rho, and rpsQ recapitulated most of the observed ethanol tolerance, implicating translation and transcription as key processes affected by ethanol. Ethanol induced miscoding errors during protein synthesis, from which the evolved rpsQ allele protected cells by increasing ribosome accuracy. Ribosome profiling and RNAseq analyses established that ethanol negatively affects transcriptional and translational processivity. Ethanol-stressed cells exhibited ribosomal stalling at internal AUG codons, which may be ameliorated by the adaptive inactivation of the MetJ repressor of methionine biosynthesis genes. Ethanol also caused aberrant intragenic transcription termination for mRNAs with low ribosome density, which was reduced in a strain with the adaptive rho mutation. Furthermore, ethanol inhibited transcript elongation by RNA polymerase in vitro. We propose that ethanol-induced inhibition and uncoupling of mRNA and protein synthesis through direct effects on ribosomes and RNA polymerase conformations are major contributors to ethanol toxicity in E. coli, and that adaptive mutations in metJ, rho, and rpsQ help protect these central dogma processes in the presence of ethanol. PMID:24927582

  13. Ethanol confers differential protection against generalist and specialist parasitoids of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Zachary R; Schlenke, Todd A; Morran, Levi T; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2017-01-01

    As parasites coevolve with their hosts, they can evolve counter-defenses that render host immune responses ineffective. These counter-defenses are more likely to evolve in specialist parasites than generalist parasites; the latter face variable selection pressures between the different hosts they infect. Natural populations of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are commonly threatened by endoparasitoid wasps in the genus Leptopilina, including the specialist L. boulardi and the generalist L. heterotoma, and both wasp species can incapacitate the cellular immune response of D. melanogaster larvae. Given that ethanol tolerance is high in D. melanogaster and stronger in the specialist wasp than the generalist, we tested whether fly larvae could use ethanol as an anti-parasite defense and whether its effectiveness would differ against the two wasp species. We found that fly larvae benefited from eating ethanol-containing food during exposure to L. heterotoma; we observed a two-fold decrease in parasitization intensity and a 24-fold increase in fly survival to adulthood. Although host ethanol consumption did not affect L. boulardi parasitization rates or intensities, it led to a modest increase in fly survival. Thus, ethanol conferred stronger protection against the generalist wasp than the specialist. We tested whether fly larvae can self-medicate by seeking ethanol-containing food after being attacked by wasps, but found no support for this hypothesis. We also allowed female flies to choose between control and ethanol-containing oviposition sites in the presence vs. absence of wasps and generally found significant preferences for ethanol regardless of wasp presence. Overall, our results suggest that D. melanogaster larvae obtain protection from certain parasitoid wasp species through their mothers' innate oviposition preferences for ethanol-containing food sources.

  14. Ethanol confers differential protection against generalist and specialist parasitoids of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Schlenke, Todd A.; Morran, Levi T.; de Roode, Jacobus C.

    2017-01-01

    As parasites coevolve with their hosts, they can evolve counter-defenses that render host immune responses ineffective. These counter-defenses are more likely to evolve in specialist parasites than generalist parasites; the latter face variable selection pressures between the different hosts they infect. Natural populations of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are commonly threatened by endoparasitoid wasps in the genus Leptopilina, including the specialist L. boulardi and the generalist L. heterotoma, and both wasp species can incapacitate the cellular immune response of D. melanogaster larvae. Given that ethanol tolerance is high in D. melanogaster and stronger in the specialist wasp than the generalist, we tested whether fly larvae could use ethanol as an anti-parasite defense and whether its effectiveness would differ against the two wasp species. We found that fly larvae benefited from eating ethanol-containing food during exposure to L. heterotoma; we observed a two-fold decrease in parasitization intensity and a 24-fold increase in fly survival to adulthood. Although host ethanol consumption did not affect L. boulardi parasitization rates or intensities, it led to a modest increase in fly survival. Thus, ethanol conferred stronger protection against the generalist wasp than the specialist. We tested whether fly larvae can self-medicate by seeking ethanol-containing food after being attacked by wasps, but found no support for this hypothesis. We also allowed female flies to choose between control and ethanol-containing oviposition sites in the presence vs. absence of wasps and generally found significant preferences for ethanol regardless of wasp presence. Overall, our results suggest that D. melanogaster larvae obtain protection from certain parasitoid wasp species through their mothers’ innate oviposition preferences for ethanol-containing food sources. PMID:28700600

  15. Identification of target genes conferring ethanol stress tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on DNA microarray data analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Nakakura, Yuki; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Furusawa, Chikara; Katakura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2007-08-01

    During industrial production process using yeast, cells are exposed to the stress due to the accumulation of ethanol, which affects the cell growth activity and productivity of target products, thus, the ethanol stress-tolerant yeast strains are highly desired. To identify the target gene(s) for constructing ethanol stress tolerant yeast strains, we obtained the gene expression profiles of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, namely, a laboratory strain and a strain used for brewing Japanese rice wine (sake), in the presence of 5% (v/v) ethanol, using DNA microarray. For the selection of target genes for breeding ethanol stress tolerant strains, clustering of DNA microarray data was performed. For further selection, the ethanol sensitivity of the knockout mutants in each of which the gene selected by DNA microarray analysis is deleted, was also investigated. The integration of the DNA microarray data and the ethanol sensitivity data of knockout strains suggests that the enhancement of expression of genes related to tryptophan biosynthesis might confer the ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells. Indeed, the strains overexpressing tryptophan biosynthesis genes showed a stress tolerance to 5% ethanol. Moreover, the addition of tryptophan to the culture medium and overexpression of tryptophan permease gene conferred ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells. These results indicate that overexpression of the genes for trypophan biosynthesis increases the ethanol stress tolerance. Tryptophan supplementation to culture and overexpression of the tryptophan permease gene are also effective for the increase in ethanol stress tolerance. Our methodology for the selection of target genes for constructing ethanol stress tolerant strains, based on the data of DNA microarray analysis and phenotypes of knockout mutants, was validated.

  16. Forced expression of FLO11 confers pellicle-forming ability and furfural tolerance on Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Youji; Hasebe, Toru; Ishiai, Miyuki; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a plasmid that expresses FLO11 encoding a cell surface glycoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of a constitutive promoter. This plasmid conferred pellicle-forming ability on the non-pellicle-forming industrial strain of S. cerevisiae at the air-liquid interface of the glucose-containing liquid medium. The induced pellicle-forming cells exhibited tolerance to furfural, which is a key toxin in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, in ethanol production.

  17. Neuroprotection conferred by post-ischemia ethanol therapy in experimental stroke: an inhibitory effect on hyperglycolysis and NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Kochanski, Ryan; Peng, Changya; Higashida, Tetsuhiro; Geng, Xiaokun; Hüttemann, Maik; Guthikonda, Murali; Ding, Yuchuan

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol provides neuroprotection following ischemia/reperfusion. This study assessed ethanol's effect on hyperglycolysis and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Three sets of experiments were conducted to determine ethanol's effect on (i) conferring neuroprotection by measuring infarct volume and neurological deficits 24 h post reperfusion; (ii) cerebral glucose metabolism and lactic acidosis by measuring brain and blood glucose concentrations and protein expression of glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1, GLUT3), phosphofructokinase (PFK), as well as lactic acidosis by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lactate; and (iii) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activation by detecting enzymatic activity and subunit expression at 3 h after reperfusion. When administered upon reperfusion, ethanol (1.5 g/kg) reduced infarct volume by 40% (p < 0.01) and neurological deficits by 48% at 24 h post reperfusion while reducing (p < 0.01) elevations in glycolytic protein expression and lactate levels during early reperfusion (3 h). Ethanol increased the reductions in cerebral glucose concentration at 3 h post reperfusion by 64% (p < 0.01) while enhancing (p < 0.01) post stroke blood glucose concentration, suggesting a reduced cellular glucose uptake and utilization. Ethanol decreased (p < 0.01) stroke-induced NOX activation by reducing enzymatic activity and gp91(phox) expression by 45% and 38%, respectively. Post-ischemia ethanol treatment exerts neuroprotection through attenuation of hyperglycolysis and associated NOX activation. Because of the lack of associated hypoglycemia and selectivity toward decreasing cerebral metabolism, further investigation of ethanol's use as a post-stroke therapy, especially in the context of hyperglycemia, seems warranted. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Identification of multiple interacting alleles conferring low glycerol and high ethanol yield in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering of industrial microorganisms often suffers from undesirable side effects on essential functions. Reverse engineering is an alternative strategy to improve multifactorial traits like low glycerol/high ethanol yield in yeast fermentation. Previous rational engineering of this trait always affected essential functions like growth and stress tolerance. We have screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity for specific alleles causing lower glycerol/higher ethanol yield, assuming higher compatibility with normal cellular functionality. Previous work identified ssk1E330N…K356N as causative allele in strain CBS6412, which displayed the lowest glycerol/ethanol ratio. Results We have now identified a unique segregant, 26B, that shows similar low glycerol/high ethanol production as the superior parent, but lacks the ssk1E330N…K356N allele. Using segregants from the backcross of 26B with the inferior parent strain, we applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis and identified three minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to low glycerol/high ethanol production. Within these QTLs, we identified three novel alleles of known regulatory and structural genes of glycerol metabolism, smp1R110Q,P269Q, hot1P107S,H274Y and gpd1L164P as causative genes. All three genes separately caused a significant drop in the glycerol/ethanol production ratio, while gpd1L164P appeared to be epistatically suppressed by other alleles in the superior parent. The order of potency in reducing the glycerol/ethanol ratio of the three alleles was: gpd1L164P > hot1P107S,H274Y ≥ smp1R110Q,P269Q. Conclusions Our results show that natural yeast strains harbor multiple specific alleles of genes controlling essential functions, that are apparently compatible with survival in the natural environment. These newly identified alleles can be used as gene tools for engineering industrial yeast strains with multiple subtle changes, minimizing the risk of

  19. Overexpression of the yeast transcription activator Msn2 confers furfural resistance and increases the initial fermentation rate in ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ukibe, Ken; Inai, Tomomi; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source for bioethanol production, because it is abundant worldwide and has few competing uses. However, the treatment of lignocelllulosic biomass with weak acid to release cellulose and hemicellulose generates many kinds of byproducts including furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which inhibit fermentation by yeast, because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. In order to acquire high tolerance to oxidative stress in bioethanol yeast strains, we focused on the transcription activator Msn2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates numerous genes involved in antioxidative stress responses, and constructed bioethanol yeast strains that overexpress Msn2 constitutively. The Msn2-overexpressing bioethanol strains showed tolerance to oxidative stress, probably due to the high-level expression of various antioxidant enzyme genes. Unexpectedly, these strains showed ethanol sensitivity compared with the control strain, probably due to imbalance of the expression level between Msn2 and Msn4. In the presence of furfural, the engineered strains exhibited reduced intracellular ROS levels, and showed rapid growth compared with the control strain. The fermentation test in the presence of furfural revealed that the Msn2-overexpressing strains showed improvement of the initial rate of fermentation. Our results indicate that overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 in bioethanol yeast strains confers furfural tolerance by reducing the intracellular ROS levels and enhances the initial rate of fermentation in the presence of furfural, suggesting that these strains are capable of adapting rapidly to various compounds that inhibit fermentation by inducing ROS accumulation. Our results not only promise to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, but also provide novel insights for molecular breeding of industrial yeast strains.

  20. Microbial production of N-acetyl cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline by coexpression of the Rhizobium L-proline cis-4-hydroxylase and the yeast N-acetyltransferase Mpr1.

    PubMed

    Bach, Thi Mai Hoa; Hara, Ryotaro; Kino, Kuniki; Ohtsu, Iwao; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The proline analogue cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline (CHOP), which inhibits the biosynthesis of collagen, has been clinically evaluated as an anticancer drug, but its water solubility and low molecular weight limits its therapeutic potential since it is rapidly excreted. In addition, CHOP is too toxic to be practical as an anticancer drug, due primarily to its systematic effects on noncollagen proteins. To promote CHOP's retention in blood and/or to decrease its toxicity, N-acetylation of CHOP might be a novel approach as a prodrug. The present study was designed to achieve the microbial production of N-acetyl CHOP from L-proline by coexpression of L-proline cis-4-hydroxylases converting L-proline into CHOP (SmP4H) from the Rhizobium Sinorhizobium meliloti and N-acetyltransferase converting CHOP into N-acetyl CHOP (Mpr1) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a coexpression plasmid harboring both the SmP4H and Mpr1 genes and introduced it into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) or its L-proline oxidase gene-disrupted (ΔputA) strain. M9 medium containing L-proline produced more N-acetyl CHOP than LB medium containing L-proline. E. coli ΔputA cells accumulated L-proline (by approximately 2-fold) compared to that in wild-type cells, but there was no significant difference in CHOP production between wild-type and ΔputA cells. The addition of NaCl and L-ascorbate resulted in a 2-fold increase in N-acetyl CHOP production in the L-proline-containing M9 medium. The highest yield of N-acetyl CHOP was achieved at 42 h cultivation in the optimized medium. Five unknown compounds were detected in the total protein reaction, probably due to the degradation of N-acetyl CHOP. Our results suggest that weakening of the degradation or deacetylation pathway improves the productivity of N-acetyl CHOP.

  1. Disruption of the yeast ATH1 gene confers better survival after dehydration, freezing, and ethanol shock: potential commercial applications.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Alizadeh, P; Harding, T; Hefner-Gravink, A; Klionsky, D J

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of trehalose is a critical determinant of stress resistance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have constructed a yeast strain in which the activity of the trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme, acid trehalase (ATH), has been abolished. Loss of ATH activity was accomplished by disrupting the ATH1 gene, which is essential for ATH activity. The delta ath1 strain accumulated greater levels of cellular trehalose and grew to a higher cell density than the isogenic wild-type strain. In addition, the elevated levels of trehalose in the delta ath1 strain correlated with increased tolerance to dehydration, freezing, and toxic levels of ethanol. The improved resistance to stress conditions exhibited by the delta ath1 strain may make this strain useful in commercial applications, including baking and brewing. PMID:8633854

  2. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  3. Ethanol production in recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D.

    2005-02-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  4. An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor cotranscribed with its cognate anti-sigma factor confers tolerance to NaCl, ethanol and methylene blue in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mukti Nath; Kumar, Santosh; Gupta, Namrata; Kaur, Simarjot; Gupta, Ankush; Tripathi, Anil K

    2011-04-01

    Azospirillum brasilense, a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium, is exposed to changes in its abiotic environment, including fluctuations in temperature, salinity, osmolarity, oxygen concentration and nutrient concentration, in the rhizosphere and in the soil. Since extra-cytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors play an important role in stress adaptation, we analysed the role of ECF sigma factor (also known as RpoE or σ(E)) in abiotic stress tolerance in A. brasilense. An in-frame rpoE deletion mutant of A. brasilense Sp7 was carotenoidless and slow-growing, and was sensitive to salt, ethanol and methylene blue stress. Expression of rpoE in the rpoE deletion mutant complemented the defects in growth, carotenoid biosynthesis and sensitivity to different stresses. Based on data from reverse transcriptase-PCR, a two-hybrid assay and a pull-down assay, we present evidence that rpoE is cotranscribed with chrR and the proteins synthesized from these two overlapping genes interact with each other. Identification of the transcription start site by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends showed that the rpoE-chrR operon was transcribed by two promoters. The proximal promoter was less active than the distal promoter, whose consensus sequence was characteristic of RpoE-dependent promoters found in alphaproteobacteria. Whereas the proximal promoter was RpoE-independent and constitutively expressed, the distal promoter was RpoE-dependent and strongly induced in response to stationary phase and elevated levels of ethanol, salt, heat and methylene blue. This study shows the involvement of RpoE in controlling carotenoid synthesis as well as in tolerance to some abiotic stresses in A. brasilense, which might be critical in the adaptation, survival and proliferation of this rhizobacterium in the soil and rhizosphere under stressful conditions.

  5. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  6. Northwest regional alcohol fuels conference: state of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The conference covered such topics as: safety guidelines and process controls for farm ethanol plants; business organization, permit requirements, and pollution control of ethanol plants; government assistance programs; technology assessments of alcohol production; the experiences of a large farm ethanol plant operation; utilization of by-products; starch conversion techniques; distillation of ethanol; alternative feedstocks; and alternative energy sources for alcohol production. Fourteen of the nineteen papers presented at the conference were abstracted separately. (CKK)

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1994-04-01

    This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  9. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  10. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  11. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  12. Conference Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, W. Warner, Ed.; Beckhard, Richard, Ed.

    This book, written to instruct in the use of a conference as a medium of social intercourse, is divided into four sections. Section I, which contains five articles, deals with factors to be considered in planning a conference. Specific techniques one can employ to improve a conference and several different techniques for evaluating the…

  13. Kansas Ethanol Lyons Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves, with modifications, the petition from Kansas Ethanol, LLC, Lyons facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel

  14. Anaphylactoid reaction to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kelso, J M; Keating, M U; Squillace, D L; O'Connell, E J; Yunginger, J W; Sachs, M I

    1990-05-01

    We studied a 14-year-old boy who developed a pruritic rash and facial swelling after ingestion of beer or wine. A blinded challenge with purified ethanol was positive demonstrating ethanol itself to be the offending agent. An IgE-mediated reaction to ethanol or one of its metabolites as a hapten is possible, or the reaction may involve unusual metabolism of ethanol with accumulation of acetaldehyde and/or direct mast cell degranulation.

  15. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. Loss of RAB-3/A in Caenorhabditis elegans and the mouse affects behavioral response to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kapfhamer, D; Bettinger, J C; Davies, A G; Eastman, C L; Smail, E A; Heberlein, U; McIntire, S L

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms by which ethanol induces changes in behavior are not well understood. Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans loss-of-function mutations in the synaptic vesicle-associated RAB-3 protein and its guanosine triphosphate exchange factor AEX-3 confer resistance to the acute locomotor effects of ethanol. Similarly, mice lacking one or both copies of Rab3A are resistant to the ataxic and sedative effects of ethanol, and Rab3A haploinsufficiency increases voluntary ethanol consumption. These data suggest a conserved role of RAB-3-/RAB3A-regulated neurotransmitter release in ethanol-related behaviors.

  17. Recombinant yeast with improved ethanol tolerance and related methods of use

    SciTech Connect

    Gasch, Audrey P; Lewis, Jeffrey A

    2012-05-15

    The present invention provides isolated Elo1 and Mig3 nucleic acid sequences capable of conferring increased ethanol tolerance on recombinant yeast and methods of using same in biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering yeast using the Elo1 and, or, Mig3 nucleic acid sequences are also provided.

  18. Conference Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Since the first IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, March 2002) and the Second Conference (Rio de Janeiro, May 2005), progress has continued in most countries and world regions to attract girls to physics and advance women into leadership roles, and many working groups have formed. The Third Conference (Seoul, October 2008), with 283 attendees from 57 countries, was dedicated to celebrating the physics achievements of women throughout the world, networking toward new international collaborations, building each participant's capacity for career success, and aiding the formation of active regional working groups to advance women in physics. Despite the progress, women remain a small minority of the physics community in most countries.

  19. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  20. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  1. Ethanol immunosuppression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    Ethanol in concentrations equivalent to levels achieved by the ingestion of moderate to large amounts of alcoholic beverages has been shown to inhibit mitogen and anti-CD3 stimulated human T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition was monophasic suggesting that ethanol affected a single limiting component of T cell proliferation. In experiments designed to test the effect of ethanol on various aspects of proliferation, it was demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the capacity of exogenously supplied interleukin 2 to stimulate proliferation of T cells that had previously acquired interleukin 2 receptors in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no suppression of interleukin 2 production or interleukin 2 receptor acquisition. Thus, ethanol was shown to mediate immunosuppression by a mechanism specific to one component of proliferation. Additive inhibition of T cell proliferation was seen with ethanol plus cyclosporin A which inhibits interleukin 2 production. The level of inhibition with 250 ng/ml cyclosporin A alone was equivalent to the level seen with 62 ng/ml cyclosporin A plus 20 mM (94 mg%) ethanol. Ethanol also suppressed an immune effector mechanism. NK cytotoxicity was depressed in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Thus, ethanol might be considered as a possible adjunct in immunosuppressive therapy.

  2. Moderate Ethanol Ingestion and Cardiovascular Protection

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Maike; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    While ethanol intake at high levels (3-4 or more drinks), either in acute (occasional binge drinking) or chronic (daily) settings, increases the risk for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, an inverse relationship between regular consumption of alcoholic beverages at light to moderate levels (1-2 drinks per day) and cardiovascular risk has been consistently noted in a large number of epidemiologic studies. Although initially attributed to polyphenolic antioxidants in red wine, subsequent work has established that the ethanol component contributes to the beneficial effects associated with moderate intake of alcoholic beverages regardless of type (red versus white wine, beer, spirits). Concerns have been raised with regard to interpretation of epidemiologic evidence for this association including heterogeneity of the reference groups examined in many studies, different lifestyles of moderate drinkers versus abstainers, and favorable risk profiles in moderate drinkers. However, better controlled epidemiologic studies and especially work conducted in animal models and cell culture systems have substantiated this association and clearly established a cause and effect relationship between alcohol consumption and reductions in tissue injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), respectively. The aims of this review are to summarize the epidemiologic evidence supporting the effectiveness of ethanol ingestion in reducing the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, even in patients with co-existing risk factors, to discuss the ideal quantities, drinking patterns, and types of alcoholic beverages that confer protective effects in the cardiovascular system, and to review the findings of recent experimental studies directed at uncovering the mechanisms that underlie the cardiovascular protective effects of antecedent ethanol ingestion. Mechanistic interrogation of the signaling pathways invoked by antecedent ethanol

  3. Ethanol tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ingram, L O

    1990-01-01

    The adverse effects of ethanol on bacterial growth, viability, and metabolism are caused primarily by ethanol-induced leakage of the plasma membrane. This increase in membrane leakage is consistent with known biophysical properties of membranes and ethanolic solutions. The primary actions of ethanol result from colligative effects of the high molar concentrations rather than from specific interactions with receptors. The ethanol tolerance of growth in different microorganisms appears to result in large part from adaptive and evolutionary changes in cell membrane composition. Different cellular activities vary in their tolerance to ethanol. Therefore, it is essential that the aspect of cellular function under study be specifically defined and that comparisons of ethanol tolerance among systems share this common definition. Growth is typically one of the most sensitive cellular activities to inhibition by ethanol, followed by survival, or loss of reproductive ability. Glycolysis is the most resistant of these three activities. Since glycolysis is an exergonic process, a cell need not be able to grow or remain viable for glycolysis to occur.

  4. Conference reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongpei, Chen; Yulong, Ma

    1994-12-01

    The Ultrasonic Electronics Branch Society of the China Acoustics Society, and the Electronics Countermeasure Branch Society of the China Electronics Society held and All-China Applications Conference of Ultrasonic Electronics Devices in Electronic Countermeasures, Radar and Military Communication Technology. A total of 66 papers was received by the conference with contents relating to surface acoustic wave devices, high-frequency acoustic wave devices, acousto-optical devices, applications of devices in radar, applications of devices in electronic countermeasures, and applications of devices in military communication systems.

  5. Conference Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Cait

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes an original conference, organised by the Child Care Research Forum (http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/ccrf/), which brought together experts from all over Northern Ireland to showcase some of the wealth of research with children and young people that is going on in the country today. Developed around the six high-level outcomes of…

  6. The conference

    Treesearch

    Gordon M. Heisler; Lee P. Herrington

    1977-01-01

    This is a report on the Conference on Metropolitan Physical Environment, held in August 1975 at Syracuse, N.Y., where some 160 scientists and planners met to discuss the use of vegetation, space, and structures to improve the amenities for people who live in metropolitan areas.

  7. Conference Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillett, Wade

    2016-01-01

    The following is an exploration of the spatial configurations (and their implications) within a typical panel session at an academic conference. The presenter initially takes up different roles and hyperbolically describes some possible messages that the spatial arrangement sends. Eventually, the presenter engages the audience members in atypical…

  8. Conference Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillett, Wade

    2016-01-01

    The following is an exploration of the spatial configurations (and their implications) within a typical panel session at an academic conference. The presenter initially takes up different roles and hyperbolically describes some possible messages that the spatial arrangement sends. Eventually, the presenter engages the audience members in atypical…

  9. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic

  10. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  11. Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...

  12. Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...

  13. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  14. Mutants of Pachysolen tannophilus with Improved Production of Ethanol from d-Xylose †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung; James, Allen P.; Zahab, Diana M.; Mahmourides, George; Maleszka, Ryszard; Schneider, Henry

    1986-01-01

    The conversion of d-xylose to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus is relatively inefficient in batch culture. The inefficiency has been attributed in part to concurrent utilization of ethanol in the presence of appreciable concentrations of d-xylose and to the formation of xylitol and other by-products. To increase the concentration of ethanol accumulated in batch cultures, UV-induced mutants of P. tannophilus were selected on the basis of diminished growth on ethanol. Eleven independent mutant loci that conferred the ethanol-defective phenotype were identified. Three led to a greater yield and volumetric rate of production of ethanol than the wild type. One also produced less xylitol and was characterized by a deficiency in activity for malate dehydrogenase. PMID:16347083

  15. Ethanol production from cellulosic materials by genetically engineered Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Yanase, Hideshi; Nozaki, Koji; Okamoto, Kenji

    2005-02-01

    To confer the ability to ferment cello-oligosaccharides on the ethanol-producing bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis, the beta-glucosidase gene from Ruminococcus albus, tagged at its N-terminal with the 53-amino acid Tat signal peptide from the periplasmic enzyme glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Z. mobilis, was introduced into the strain. The tag enabled 61% of the beta-glucosidase activity to be transported through the cytoplasmic membrane of the recombinant strain which then produced 0.49 g ethanol/g cellobiose.

  16. Next conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    After the successful conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science (SRPS) in Rolduc Abbey (the Netherlands), we are now looking forward to the next meeting in this topical series started in 1995 by H G Zachmann, one of the pioneers of the use of synchrotron radiation techniques in polymer science. Earlier meetings were held in Hamburg (1995), Sheffield (2002), Kyoto (2006), and Rolduc (2009). In September of 2012 the Synchrotron Radiation and Polymer Science V conferences will be organized in a joint effort by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Advanced Light Source at LBL Advanced Light Source at LBL The conference will be organised in the heart of beautiful San Francisco. The program will consist of invited and contributed lectures divided in sessions on the use of synchrotron SAXS/WAXD, imaging and tomography, soft x-rays, x-ray spectroscopy, GISAXS and reflectivity, micro-beams and hyphenated techniques in polymer science. Poster contributions are more than welcome and will be highlighted during the poster sessions. Visits to both SLAC as well as LBL will be organised. San Francisco can easily be reached. It is served by two major international airports San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport. Both are being served by most major airlines with easy connections to Europe and Asia as well as national destinations. Both also boast excellent connections to San Francisco city centre. We are looking forward to seeing you in the vibrant city by the Bay in September 2012. Golden gate bridge Alexander Hexemer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Michael F Toney Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Pk, CA 94025, USA E-mail: ahexemer@lbl.gov, mftoney@slac.stanford.edu

  17. Conferences revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan

    2008-08-01

    Way back in the mid-1990s, as a young PhD student, I wrote a Lateral Thoughts article about my first experience of an academic conference (Physics World 1994 October p80). It was a peach of a trip - most of the lab decamped to Grenoble for a week of great weather, beautiful scenery and, of course, the physics. A whole new community was there for me to see in action, and the internationality of it all helped us to forget about England's non-appearance in the 1994 World Cup finals.

  18. Technological options for biological fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Vertès, Alain A; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    The current paradigm to produce biotechnological ethanol is to use the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment sugars derived from starch or sugar crops such as maize, sugar cane or sugar beet. Despite its current success, the global impact of this manufacturing model is restricted on the one hand by limits on the availability of these primary raw materials, and on the other hand by the maturity of baker's yeast fermentation technologies. Revisiting the technical, economic, and value chain aspects of the biotechnological ethanol industry points to the need for radical innovation to complement the current manufacturing model. Implementation of lignocellulosic materials is clearly a key enabler to the billion-ton biofuel vision. However, realization of the full market potential of biofuels will be facilitated by the availability of an array of innovative technological options, as the flexibility generated by these alternative processes will not only enable the exploitation of heretofore untapped local market opportunities, but also it will confer to large biorefinery structures numerous opportunities for increased process integration as well as optimum reactivity to logistic and manufacturing challenges. In turn, all these factors will interplay in synergy to contribute in shifting the economic balance in favor of the global implementation of biotechnological ethanol.

  19. Ethanol tolerance in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Casey, G P; Ingledew, W M

    1986-01-01

    It is now certain that the inherent ethanol tolerance of the Saccharomyces strain used is not the prime factor regulating the level of ethanol that can be produced in a high sugar brewing, wine, sake, or distillery fermentation. In fact, in terms of the maximum concentration that these yeasts can produce under batch (16 to 17% [v/v]) or fed-batch conditions, there is clearly no difference in ethanol tolerance. This is not to say, however, that under defined conditions there is no difference in ethanol tolerance among different Saccharomyces yeasts. This property, although a genetic determinant, is clearly influenced by many factors (carbohydrate level, wort nutrition, temperature, osmotic pressure/water activity, and substrate concentration), and each yeast strain reacts to each factor differently. This will indeed lead to differences in measured tolerance. Thus, it is extremely important that each of these be taken into consideration when determining "tolerance" for a particular set of fermentation conditions. The manner in which each alcohol-related industry has evolved is now known to have played a major role in determining traditional thinking on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces yeasts. It is interesting to speculate on how different our thinking on ethanol tolerance would be today if sake fermentations had not evolved with successive mashing and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice carbohydrate, if distillers' worts were clarified prior to fermentation but brewers' wort were not, and if grape skins with their associated unsaturated lipids had not been an integral part of red wine musts. The time is now ripe for ethanol-related industries to take advantage of these findings to improve the economies of production. In the authors' opinion, breweries could produce higher alcohol beers if oxygenation (leading to unsaturated lipids) and "usable" nitrogen source levels were increased in high gravity worts. White wine fermentations could also, if

  20. Ethanol Impacts on BTEX Plumes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of ethanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are beginning to become established through laboratory, modeling and field research. Usage of ethanol, which increased due to federal mandates, drives interest and potential impacts on BTEX. Through co...

  1. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  2. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  3. Disruption of ubiquitin-related genes in laboratory yeast strains enhances ethanol production during sake brewing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Watanabe, Tomoko; Araki, Yoshio; Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Akao, Takeshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2009-06-01

    Sake yeast can produce high levels of ethanol in concentrated rice mash. While both sake and laboratory yeast strains belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the laboratory strains produce much less ethanol. This disparity in fermentation activity may be due to the strains' different responses to environmental stresses, including ethanol accumulation. To obtain more insight into the stress response of yeast cells under sake brewing conditions, we carried out small-scale sake brewing tests using laboratory yeast strains disrupted in specific stress-related genes. Surprisingly, yeast strains with disrupted ubiquitin-related genes produced more ethanol than the parental strain during sake brewing. The elevated fermentation ability conferred by disruption of the ubiquitin-coding gene UBI4 was confined to laboratory strains, and the ubi4 disruptant of a sake yeast strain did not demonstrate a comparable increase in ethanol production. These findings suggest different roles for ubiquitin in sake and laboratory yeast strains.

  4. Neuropeptide Y suppresses ethanol drinking in ethanol-abstinent, but not non-ethanol-abstinent, Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Stewart, Robert B; Badia-Elder, Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on two-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exposure, cycles of ethanol abstinence, or both. Ethanol-drinking Wistar rats were given 6 weeks of access to 15% (vol/vol) ethanol and water followed by either: two cycles of 1 week ethanol vapor exposure and 2 weeks with no ethanol; two cycles of 1 week ethanol bottle availability and 2 weeks with no ethanol; or 2 weeks of ethanol vapor exposure. Rats were infused intracerebroventricularly with one of four NPY doses (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 microg) following the ethanol exposure patterns described above, and tested for ethanol drinking and feeding in a two-bottle choice situation. NPY dose dependently increased food intake regardless of ethanol exposure history, but suppressed ethanol drinking only in rats that underwent cycles of ethanol access and ethanol abstinence. These results support the notion that dysregulation of brain NPY systems during chronic intermittent ethanol exposure is important in the motivational drive for subsequent relapse to ethanol drinking.

  5. Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, David B.

    2014-07-01

    This conference on ``Multi-wavelength AGN Surveys and Studies'' has provided a detailed look at the explosive growth over the past decade, of available astronomical data from a growing list of large scale sky surveys, from radio-to-gamma rays. We are entering an era were multi-epoch (months to weeks) surveys of the entire sky, and near-instantaneous follow-up observations of variable sources, are elevating time-domain astronomy to where it is becoming a major contributor to our understanding of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). While we can marvel at the range of extragalactic phenomena dispayed by sources discovered in the original ``Markarian Survey'' - the first large-scale objective prism survey of the Northern Sky carried out at the Byurakan Astronomical Observtory almost a half-century ago - it is clear from the talks and posters presented at this meeting that the data to be be obtained over the next decade will be needed if we are to finally understand which phase of galaxy evolution each Markarian Galaxy represents.

  6. Ethanol Sensitization during Adolescence or Adulthood Induces Different Patterns of Ethanol Consumption without Affecting Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Carrara-Nascimento, Priscila F.; Hoffmann, Lucas B.; Contó, Marcos B.; Marcourakis, Tania; Camarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    In previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol preexposure may increase ethanol consumption in both adolescent and adult mice, in a two-bottle choice model. We now questioned if ethanol exposure during adolescence results in changes of consumption pattern using a three-bottle choice procedure, considering drinking-in-the-dark and alcohol deprivation effect as strategies for ethanol consumption escalation. We also analyzed aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity as a measurement of ethanol metabolism. Adolescent and adult Swiss mice were treated with saline (SAL) or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) during 15 days (groups: Adolescent-SAL, Adolescent-EtOH, Adult-SAL and Adult-EtOH). Five days after the last injection, mice were exposed to the three-bottle choice protocol using sucrose fading procedure (4% + sucrose vs. 8%–15% ethanol + sucrose vs. water + sucrose) for 2 h during the dark phase. Sucrose was faded out from 8% to 0%. The protocol was composed of a 6-week acquisition period, followed by four withdrawals and reexposures. Both adolescent and adult mice exhibited ethanol behavioral sensitization, although the magnitude of sensitization in adolescents was lower than in adults. Adolescent-EtOH displayed an escalation of 4% ethanol consumption during acquisition that was not observed in Adult-EtOH. Moreover, Adult-EtOH consumed less 4% ethanol throughout all the experiment and less 15% ethanol in the last reexposure period than Adolescent-EtOH. ALDH activity varied with age, in which older mice showed higher ALDH than younger ones. Ethanol pretreatment or the pattern of consumption did not have influence on ALDH activity. Our data suggest that ethanol pretreatment during adolescence but not adulthood may influence the pattern of ethanol consumption toward an escalation in ethanol consumption at low dose, without exerting an impact on ALDH activity. PMID:28386220

  7. The ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stanley, D; Bandara, A; Fraser, S; Chambers, P J; Stanley, G A

    2010-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is traditionally used for alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production; however, its performance during fermentation is compromised by the impact of ethanol accumulation on cell vitality. This article reviews studies into the molecular basis of the ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae; such knowledge can facilitate the development of genetic engineering strategies for improving cell performance during ethanol stress. Previous studies have used a variety of strains and conditions, which is problematic, because the impact of ethanol stress on gene expression is influenced by the environment. There is however some commonality in Gene Ontology categories affected by ethanol assault that suggests that the ethanol stress response of S. cerevisiae is compromised by constraints on energy production, leading to increased expression of genes associated with glycolysis and mitochondrial function, and decreased gene expression in energy-demanding growth-related processes. Studies using genome-wide screens suggest that the maintenance of vacuole function is important for ethanol tolerance, possibly because of the roles of this organelle in protein turnover and maintaining ion homoeostasis. Accumulation of Asr1 and Rat8 in the nucleus specifically during ethanol stress suggests S. cerevisiae has a specific response to ethanol stress although this supposition remains controversial.

  8. Conference Scene

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, J Steven; Lantos, John; Spielberg, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for clinicians, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies is to better understand the relative contributions of ontogeny and genetic variation to observed variability in drug disposition and response across the pediatric age spectrum from preterm and term newborns, to infants, children and adolescents. Extrapolation of adult experience with pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine to pediatric patients of different ages and developmental stages, is fraught with many challenges. Compared with adults, pediatric pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics involves an added measure of complexity as variability owing to developmental processes, or ontogeny, is superimposed upon genetic variation. Furthermore, some pediatric diseases have no adult correlate or are more prevalent in children compared with adults, and several adverse drug reactions are unique to children, or occur at a higher frequency in children. The primary objective of this conference was to initiate an ongoing series of annual meetings on ‘Pediatric Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine’ organized by the Center for Personalized Medicine and Therapeutic Innovation and Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Therapeutics at Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics in Kansas City, MO, USA. The primary goals of the inaugural meeting were: to bring together clinicians, basic and translational scientists and allied healthcare practitioners, and engage in a multi- and cross-disciplinary dialog aimed at implementing personalized medicine in pediatric settings; to provide a forum for the presentation and the dissemination of research related to the application of pharmacogenomic strategies to investigations of variability of drug disposition and response in children; to explore the ethical, legal and societal implications of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine that are unique to children; and finally, to create networking opportunities for stimulating discussion

  9. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  10. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  11. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Final report (September, 1999--February, 2002) [Public outreach and information dissemination - cellulosic and corn-based ethanol outreach project

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Jeremy; Werner, Carol

    2002-08-01

    EESI's ''Ethanol, Climate Protection, Oil Reduction'' (ECO) electr[on]ic newsletter reaches out to the environmental and agricultural communities, state/local government officials and other interested parties, and provides a forum for dialogue about ''the potential benefits of ethanol--and particularly the expanded opportunities provided by cellulosic ethanol--with a special focus on climate protection.'' Each issue features expert commentary, excerpts from recent studies about ethanol, a summary of current government activity on ethanol, and ''notable quotables.'' The newsletter is distributed primarily via email and is also posted on EESI's web site. EESI also conducts outreach on the benefits of ethanol and other biofuels by attending and speaking at conferences, meetings and workshops around the country. The 16 issues of the newsletter published through December 2001 are included as attachments.

  13. Precipitation of DNA with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael R; Sambrook, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    DNA can be precipitated out of solution for the removal of salts and/or for resuspension in an alternative buffer. Either ethanol or isopropanol can be used to achieve this purpose; however, the use of ethanol is generally preferred. Cations, provided as salts, are typically included to neutralize the negative charge of the DNA phosphate backbone. This method describes ethanol precipitation of DNA in microcentrifuge tubes.

  14. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  15. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  16. Ethanol from municipal cellulosic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. J., Jr.; Timbario, T. J.; Mulloney, J. A., Jr.

    This paper addresses the use of municipal cellulosic wastes as a feedstock for producing ethanol fuels, and describes the application of enzymatic hydrolysis technology for their production. The concept incorporates recent process technology developments within the framework of an existing industry familiar with large-scale ethanol fermentation (the brewing industry). Preliminary indications are that the cost of producing ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis in an existing plant with minimal facility modifications (low capital investment) can be significantly less than that of ethanol from grain fermentation.

  17. An Evolutionary Conserved Role for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Behavioral Responses to Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lasek, Amy W.; Lim, Jana; Kliethermes, Christopher L.; Berger, Karen H.; Joslyn, Geoff; Brush, Gerry; Xue, Liquan; Robertson, Margaret; Moore, Monica S.; Morris, Stephan W.; Schuckit, Marc A.; White, Raymond L.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk) is a gene expressed in the nervous system that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase commonly known for its oncogenic function in various human cancers. We have determined that Alk is associated with altered behavioral responses to ethanol in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in mice, and in humans. Mutant flies containing transposon insertions in dAlk demonstrate increased resistance to the sedating effect of ethanol. Database analyses revealed that Alk expression levels in the brains of recombinant inbred mice are negatively correlated with ethanol-induced ataxia and ethanol consumption. We therefore tested Alk gene knockout mice and found that they sedate longer in response to high doses of ethanol and consume more ethanol than wild-type mice. Finally, sequencing of human ALK led to the discovery of four polymorphisms associated with a low level of response to ethanol, an intermediate phenotype that is predictive of future alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These results suggest that Alk plays an evolutionary conserved role in ethanol-related behaviors. Moreover, ALK may be a novel candidate gene conferring risk for AUDs as well as a potential target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:21799923

  18. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  19. Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

  20. EDITORIAL: Conference program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    Some of the papers and talks given at the conference have not been published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The attached PDF file lists the full conference program and indicates (with an asterisk) those papers or talks which are not present in this volume.

  1. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  2. Youth Conference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brenda H.

    This handbook is designed to provide practical aid to those who have charge of the planning and organization of a youth conference, Defined as a conference to provide practical information as well as information about possible responsibilities, risks, and consequences of actions, related to the chosen conference topic. Suggestions are given for…

  3. Atmospheric chemistry: Ethanol and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, Sasha

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol has been heralded as a cleaner fuel for cars than gasoline. An analysis of air quality data suggests that a switch from ethanol to gasoline use in São Paulo in response to changing prices led unexpectedly to lower local levels of ozone pollution.

  4. Thermophilic microbes in ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Slapack, G.E.; Russell, I.; Stewart, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    General and specific properties of thermophilic ethanol-producing bacteria are reviewed and their relative merits in ethanol production assessed. The studies examine the use of bacteria in mono- and co-culture fermentations for ethanol production from cellulosics; in particular, the cellulase system of Clostridium thermocellum is considered. Thermotolerant yeasts and physiological factors influencing their growth and fermentation at high temperatures are discussed. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary approaches to develop economical processes for ethanol production at high temperatures. Relevant topics considered include: adaptation, nutrition, heat shock, ethanol tolerance, metabolic control, genetic improvement, and fermentation/process design. General aspects of thermophily for both bacteria and yeasts (definitions, ecological aspects, merits and limitations, other industrial uses, thermostability of cellular components, and consequences of thermophilic fermentation) are discussed and the volume references over 1100 relevant articles.

  5. Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Harmon, B J; Patterson, D H; Regnier, F E

    1993-12-31

    Capillary electrophoresis was used to determine ethanol by the methodology of electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA). In EMMA, spatially distinct analyte and analytical reagent zones of differing electrophoretic mobility are merged under the influence of an electric field, and the resulting product is transported to the detector. The enzymatic oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase was utilized, and the concurrent reduction of NAD+ to NADH was monitored at 340 nm as a measure of the quantity of ethanol injected. Quantitation using an internal standard and normalization for peak migration time yielded a R.S.D. of 2.7%, and the linear range extended to that quantity of ethanol which could be reacted prior to passing by the detection window. Comparison of the EMMA technique to the Sigma spectrophotometric procedure revealed that the two methods do not yield significantly different values for the determination of ethanol. The EMMA method offered the advantages of electrophoretic mixing and miniaturization.

  6. The anesthetic action of ethanol analyzed by genetics in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Mingi; Choi, Myung Kyu; Lee, Junho

    2008-02-29

    Acute exposure to ethanol causes paralysis at high concentrations in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We set out to elucidate the mechanism of the anesthetic action of ethanol by genetic approaches. We identified nine mutations that conferred reduced sensitivity to ethanol after chemical, irradiation, or transposon insertion mutagenesis. Of these nine, we further characterized five mutations that defined four genes, jud-1-jud-4. Analysis of the phenotypes of the animals heterozygous for two unlinked genes revealed that jud-1 and jud-3 act synergistically in a gene dose-dependent manner. We cloned jud-4 and found that it encodes a protein with limited homology to human Homer proteins. jud-4 was expressed in the hypodermis and vulva muscles, suggesting that this gene acts in tissues directly exposed to the external environment. Characterization of the other mutations identified in this study will facilitate the elucidation of the molecular mechanism for the anesthetic action of ethanol.

  7. Ethanol producer looks to hardwoods as raw material

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.

    1988-01-04

    Bio-Regional Energy Associates (BREA), has launched a project to produce fuel ethanol from the vast reserves of low-value hardwoods that are conveniently located around Floyd, Va., the company's home base. The typical ethanol producer, adds Brecc Avellar, BREA's technical director, has relatively few coproducts to help shoulder production costs, and even relatively few raw materials from which to choose. BREA, he says, is trying to diversify on both ends. Staengl recently outlined the company's plans to develop its wood hydrolysis technology at the International Conference on (Fuel) Alcohols and Chemicals from Biomass held at Montego Bay, Jamaica. The company, he says, is building in three stages a pilot-scale (30 to 40 tons per day) wood hydrolysis and fermentation plant. The goal is to develop markets for the most diverse and highest-value products from each of the three basic wood components - cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

  8. Engineering yeast transcription machinery for improved ethanol tolerance and production.

    PubMed

    Alper, Hal; Moxley, Joel; Nevoigt, Elke; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2006-12-08

    Global transcription machinery engineering (gTME) is an approach for reprogramming gene transcription to elicit cellular phenotypes important for technological applications. Here we show the application of gTME to Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved glucose/ethanol tolerance, a key trait for many biofuels programs. Mutagenesis of the transcription factor Spt15p and selection led to dominant mutations that conferred increased tolerance and more efficient glucose conversion to ethanol. The desired phenotype results from the combined effect of three separate mutations in the SPT15 gene [serine substituted for phenylalanine (Phe(177)Ser) and, similarly, Tyr(195)His, and Lys(218)Arg]. Thus, gTME can provide a route to complex phenotypes that are not readily accessible by traditional methods.

  9. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.I.C.; Dalal, R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a process for preparing and isolating a mutant strain of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. The mutant strain is able to ferment hexose and pentose carbohydrates to produce ethanol and acetic acid in gram ratios of at least about 8:1. The process includes the steps of: 1.) exposing Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum cells to a mutagenic agent sufficient to effect mutation of the cells; 2.) culturing the mutated cells in a growth medium containing minimal carbon sources and pyruvate for a predetermined time period; 3.) enriching the growth medium with at least one antibiotic, the antibiotic killing the actively growing cells in the medium without substantially affecting the non-actively growing cells; and 4.) isolating a mutant Clostridium thermosaccharolyticium strain from the non-actively growing cells via the inability to utilize pyruvate as a carbon source.

  10. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  11. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  12. 47 CFR 1.248 - Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences. 1... Hearing Proceedings Prehearing Procedures § 1.248 Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences. (a) The... to appear at a specified time and place for a conference prior to a hearing, or to submit...

  13. Overexpression of PDE2 or SSD1-V in Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A strain renders it ethanol-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Avrahami-Moyal, Liat; Braun, Sergei; Engelberg, David

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the yeast ability to proliferate and ferment in the presence of restrictive concentrations of ethanol is of importance to both science and technology. In this study, we searched for genes that improve ethanol tolerance in ethanol-sensitive strains. To screen for suppressors of ethanol sensitivity, we introduced a 2µ-based genomic library, prepared from the ethanol-tolerant yeast S288C, into the ethanol-sensitive strain W303-1A. Two genomic fragments from this library rescued the ethanol sensitivity of W303-1A. One contained the PDE2 gene, which when over-expressed, conferred ethanol tolerance. Surprisingly, the effect of PDE2 was not mediated via MSN2/MSN4 transcription factors, as it was able to improve ethanol tolerance in msn2Δmsn4Δ strain. In the second genomic fragment, it was the N-terminal region of the SSD1 gene that carried the ethanol-tolerant phenotype. The SSD1-V allele of the polymorphic SSD1 gene expressed from a low-copy number plasmid also resulted in the tolerant phenotype. Both SSD1 and PDE2 seemed to improve ethanol tolerance by maintaining robustness of the yeast cell wall. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  15. Government support for ethanol withers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    The United States looks set to slash its maize subsidies. This will be good for many reasons, including combating climate change -- and it shouldn't even hurt the US ethanol industry that much, writes Anna Petherick.

  16. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-13

    Teachers participate in the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge during the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  17. Ethanol-Drug Metabolic Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-13

    ethanol, the mice were first characterized for the inductive effects of the classical microsomal enzyme inducers (PB), 3-raethylcholanthrene (3-MC...that ethanol differs in its inducing properties, when compared to the properties of the two classical hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers PB and 3-MC...substrate for this enzyme , whereas p-amlnobenzoic acid (PABA) showed high activity and was polymorphically acetylated. Neither acute nor chronic

  18. Ethanol: A Strategic Energy Source?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 04-05-2009 2. REPORT TYPE Program Research Paper 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...radical terrorists richer.” 3 This research project examines the viability of ethanol as an alternative fuel source. It will identify whether an ethanol...Japan in 1941 went to war to secure its energy supplies. The United States must 3 prepare for these shortages if we are to maintain our economic

  19. Metabolic responses to ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ma, Man-Li; Luo, Sha; Zhang, Rui-Min; Han, Pei; Hu, Wei

    2012-07-01

    During the fermentation process, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are often inhibited by the accumulated ethanol, and the mechanism of the S. cerevisiae response to ethanol is not fully understood. In the current study, a systematic analytical approach was used to investigate the changes in the S. cerevisiae cell metabolome that were elicited by treatment with various concentrations of ethanol. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a multivariate analysis were employed to investigate the ethanol-associated intracellular biochemical changes in S. cerevisiae. The intracellular metabolite profiles that were found upon treatment of the cells with different concentrations of ethanol were unique and could be distinguished with the aid of principal component analysis. Furthermore, partial least-squares-discriminant analysis revealed a group classification and pairwise discrimination between the control without ethanol and ethanol treated groups, and 29 differential metabolites with variable importance in the projection value greater than 1 were identified, which was also confirmed by the subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis. The metabolic relevance of these compounds in the response of S. cerevisiae to ethanol stress was investigated. Under ethanol stress, the glycolysis was inhibited and the use of carbon sources for fermentation was diminished, which might account for the growth inhibition of S. cerevisiae cells. It was suggested that S. cerevisiae cells change the levels of fatty acids, e.g., hexadecanoic, octadecanoic and palmitelaidic acids, to maintain the integrity of their plasma membrane through decreasing membrane fluidity in the medium containing ethanol. Moreover, the increased levels of some amino acids idemtified in the cells of ethanol-treated experimental group might also confer ethanol tolerance to S. cerevisiae. These results reveal that the metabolomics strategy is a powerful tool to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of a microorganism

  20. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  1. Renewable energy: ethanol from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

    1985-08-01

    Information is provided on the current status of renewable energy in Florida. Florida can expect continued increases in the use of ethanol for blends of unleaded gasoline. The sales for 1984 represent about 10% of Florida gasoline consumption. Federal and state tax incentives and other financial assistance are in place to encourage the development and growth of the fuel ethanol industry in Florida. However, it is not expected that Florida will become a major force in the production of ethanol in the short term. All existing commercial ethanol producing facilities employ established fermentation processes that utilize grain or molasses for the most part as feedstocks. Florida is not a large grain producing state and there is not a sufficient supply of molasses to support large scale ethanol production. The use of these feedstocks for Florida ethanol producing facilities is not competitive with the Mid-West grain areas, for example. Research has shown that much of the abundant biomass materials naturally or commercially grown in Florida can be converted to alcohol, but commercial scale facilities have not yet been built. To attract investment money, the non-commercial fermentation technology must progress beyond the laboratory stage and reach a proven and tested pilot plant stage. If the pilot stage indicates a full scale plant will be economical, then the next step is commercialization. 23 refs.

  2. Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

    2010-01-01

    Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plastic changes in GABAA receptors have been studied using different experimental models in vivo and in vitro in order to provide useful evidence and new insights into the mechanisms through which acute and chronic ethanol and stress exposure modulate the activity of GABAergic synapses. We show detailed data on a) the effect of acute and chronic stress on peripheral and brain neurosteroid levels and GABAA receptor gene expression and function; b) ethanol-stimulated brain steroidogenesis; c) plasticity of GABAA receptor after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The implications of these new mechanistic insights to our understanding of the effects of ethanol during stress are also discussed. The understanding of these neurochemical and molecular mechanisms may shed new light on the physiopathology of diseases, such as anxiety, in which GABAergic transmission play a pivotal role. These data may also lead to the need for new anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant selective drugs devoid of side effects. PMID:17555824

  3. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November...

  4. From Ethanol to Salsolinol: Role of Ethanol Metabolites in the Effects of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Peana, Alessandra T.; Rosas, Michela; Porru, Simona; Acquas, Elio

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound. The present review recapitulates, in a perspective manner, the major and most recent advances that in the last decades boosted a significant growth in the understanding on the role of ethanol metabolism, in particular, in the neurobiological basis of its central effects. PMID:27891052

  5. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas…

  6. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  7. [Conference Time Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Public Relations Association, Washington, DC.

    This multimedia kit, for use with and by teachers from kindergarten through the upper elementary grades, consists of four components: 1) a filmstrip for teachers; 2) the 1970 edition of a handbook, "Conference Time for Teachers and Parents"; 3) a filmstrip for parents; 4) a supporting parent information leaflet "How To Confer Successfully with…

  8. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an alternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We…

  9. The Learning Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates--and to introduce an alternative, the "learning conference", that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes.…

  10. The Learning Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates--and to introduce an alternative, the "learning conference", that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes.…

  11. Lyndon Johnson's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stephen

    Because President Lyndon Johnson understood well the publicity value of the American news media, he sought to exploit them. He saw reporters as "torch bearers" for his programs and policies and used the presidential press conference chiefly for promotional purposes. Although he met with reporters often, his press conferences were usually…

  12. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas…

  13. From Conference to Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Robert; Tenenberg, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Revising and extending conference articles for journal publication benefits both authors and readers. The new articles are more complete, and benefit from peer review, feedback from conference presentation, and greater editorial consistency. For those articles that are appropriate, we encourage authors to do this, and present two examples of such…

  14. Ethanol metabolism, cirrhosis and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lieber, C S

    1997-01-03

    Alcohol-induced tissue damage results from associated nutritional deficiencies as well as some direct toxic effects, which have now been linked to the metabolism of ethanol. The main pathway involves liver alcohol dehydrogenase which catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, with a shift to a more reduced state, and results in metabolic disturbances, such as hyperlactacidemia, acidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia and fatty liver. More severe toxic manifestations are produced by an accessory pathway, the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system involving an ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (2E1). After chronic ethanol consumption, there is a 4- to 10-fold induction of 2E1, associated not only with increased acetaldehyde generation but also with production of oxygen radicals that promote lipid peroxidation. Most importantly, 2E1 activates many xenobiotics to toxic metabolites. These include solvents commonly used in industry, anaesthetic agents, medications such as isoniazid, over the counter analgesics (acetaminophen), illicit drugs (cocaine), chemical carcinogens, and even vitamin A and its precursor beta-carotene. Furthermore, enhanced microsomal degradation of retinoids (together with increased hepatic mobilization) promotes their depletion and associated pathology. Induction of 2E1 also yields increased acetaldehyde generation, with formation of protein adducts, resulting in antibody production, enzyme inactivation, decreased DNA repair, impaired utilization of oxygen, glutathione depletion, free radical-mediated toxicity, lipid peroxidation, and increased collagen synthesis. New therapies include adenosyl-L-methionine which, in baboons, replenishes glutathione, and attenuates mitochondrial lesions. In addition, polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) fully prevents ethanol-induced septal fibrosis and cirrhosis, opposes ethanol-induced hepatic phospholipid depletion, decreased phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity and activation of hepatic

  15. ICCK Conference Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Green, William H.

    2013-05-28

    The 7th International Conference on Chemical Kinetics (ICCK) was held July 10-14, 2011, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, MA, hosted by Prof. William H. Green of MIT's Chemical Engineering department. This cross-disciplinary meeting highlighted the importance of fundamental understanding of elementary reactions to the full range of chemical investigations. The specific conference focus was on elementary-step kinetics in both the gas phase and in condensed phase. The meeting provided a unique opportunity to discuss how the same reactive species and reaction motifs manifest under very different reaction conditions (e.g. atmospheric, aqueous, combustion, plasma, in nonaqueous solvents, on surfaces.). The conference featured special sessions on new/improved experimental techniques, improved models and data analysis for interpreting complicated kinetics, computational kinetics (especially rate estimates for large kinetic models), and a panel discussion on how the community should document/archive kinetic data. In the past, this conference had been limited to homogeneous gas-phase and liquid-phase systems. This conference included studies of heterogeneous kinetics which provide rate constants for, or insight into, elementary reaction steps. This Grant from DOE BES covered about half of the subsidies we provided to students and postdocs who attended the conference, by charging them reduced-rate registration fees. The complete list of subsidies provided are listed in Table 1 below. This DOE funding was essential to making the conference affordable to graduate students, and indeed the attendance at this conference was higher than at previous conferences in this series. Donations made by companies provided additional subsidies, leveraging the DOE funding. The conference was very effective in educating graduate students and important in fostering scientific interactions, particularly between scientists studying gas phase and liquid phase kinetics

  16. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  17. Identification of novel genes responsible for ethanol and/or thermotolerance by transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Na-Rae; Yang, Jungwoo; Choi, Wonja

    2011-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains tolerant to ethanol and heat stresses are important for industrial ethanol production. In this study, five strains (Tn 1-5) tolerant to up to 15% ethanol were isolated by screening a transposon-mediated mutant library. Two of them displayed tolerance to heat (42 °C). The determination of transposon insertion sites and Northern blot analysis identified seven putative genes (CMP2, IMD4, SSK2, PPG1, DLD3, PAM1, and MSN2) and revealed simultaneous down-regulations of CMP2 and IMD4, and SSK2 and PPG1, down-regulation of DLD3, and disruptions of the open reading frame of PAM1 and MSN2, indicating that ethanol and/or heat tolerance can be conferred. Knockout mutants of these seven individual genes were ethanol tolerant and three of them (SSK2, PPG1, and PAM1) were tolerant to heat. Such tolerant phenotypes reverted to sensitive phenotypes by the autologous or overexpression of each gene. Five transposon mutants showed higher ethanol production and grew faster than the control strain when cultured in rich media containing 30% glucose and initial 6% ethanol at 30 °C. Of those, two thermotolerant transposon mutants (Tn 2 and Tn 3) exhibited significantly enhanced growth and ethanol production compared to the control at 42 °C. The genes identified in this study may provide a basis for the application in developing industrial yeast strains.

  18. Ethanol-induced alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) potentiates pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Kim, Eun-Hye; Bak, Jong Phil; Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Choi, Sangdun; Briles, David E; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol impairs the host immune system, rendering the host more vulnerable to infection. Therefore, alcoholics are at increased risk of acquiring serious bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including pneumonia. Nevertheless, how alcohol affects pneumococcal virulence remains unclear. Here, we showed that the S. pneumoniae type 2 D39 strain is ethanol tolerant and that alcohol upregulates alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) and potentiates pneumolysin (Ply). Hemolytic activity, colonization, and virulence of S. pneumoniae, as well as host cell myeloperoxidase activity, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and inflammation, were significantly attenuated in adhE mutant bacteria (ΔadhE strain) compared to D39 wild-type bacteria. Therefore, AdhE might act as a pneumococcal virulence factor. Moreover, in the presence of ethanol, S. pneumoniae AdhE produced acetaldehyde and NADH, which subsequently led Rex (redox-sensing transcriptional repressor) to dissociate from the adhE promoter. An increase in AdhE level under the ethanol condition conferred an increase in Ply and H2O2 levels. Consistently, S. pneumoniae D39 caused higher cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells than the ΔadhE strain under the ethanol stress condition, and ethanol-fed mice (alcoholic mice) were more susceptible to infection with the D39 wild-type bacteria than with the ΔadhE strain. Taken together, these data indicate that AdhE increases Ply under the ethanol stress condition, thus potentiating pneumococcal virulence.

  19. 1985 oil spill conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    This 1985 Oil Spill Conference, our ninth biennial meeting, presents another unique opportunity fo industry, government, and academic representatives to meet and exchange ideas to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the prevention, behavior, control, and cleanup of oil spills. Growing international and domestic participation, and the continued worldwide use of the Proceedings of past oil spill conferences as valuable reference sources affirms the importance and quality of these conferences. It is my firm belief, furthermore, that the conferences have contributed substantially to the reduction in the number of marine oil spills, and to our increased cleanup capabilities. The sponsoring organizations--the United States Coast Guard, the American Petroleum Institute, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency--have combined their efforts to provide a program of timely technical content which affords the opportunity to review the state-of-the-art accomplishments since our last conference in 1983. Finally, I hope that the knowledge and associations developed at this conference will influence your decision to participate in the 1987 Oil Spill Conference, to be held in Baltimore, Maryland.

  20. Ethanol Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in the most general terms represents the flexibility of neurotransmission in response to neuronal activity. Synaptic plasticity is essential both for the moment-by-moment modulation of neural activity in response to dynamic environmental cues and for long-term learning and memory formation. These temporal characteristics are served by an array of pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms that are frequently modulated by ethanol exposure. This modulation likely makes significant contributions to both alcohol abuse and dependence. In this review, I discuss the modulation of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the context of specific ethanol-sensitive cellular substrates. A general discussion of the available preclinical, animal-model based neurophysiology literature provides a comparison between results from in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, in the context of alcohol abuse and dependence, the review proposes potential behavioral contributions by ethanol modulation of plasticity. PMID:21195719

  1. Ethanol production method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  2. Ethanol Metabolism and Osmolarity Modify Behavioral Responses to Ethanol in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, Joseph T.; Davis, Scott J.; Song, Sam S.; Burnette, Christopher R.; Grotewiel, Mike; Shelton, Keith L.; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.; Davies, Andrew G.; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is metabolized by a two-step process in which alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Although variation in ethanol metabolism in humans strongly influences the propensity to chronically abuse alcohol, few data exist on the behavioral effects of altered ethanol metabolism. Here, we used the nematode C. elegans to directly examine how changes in ethanol metabolism alter behavioral responses to alcohol during an acute exposure. Additionally, we investigated ethanol solution osmolarity as a potential explanation for contrasting published data on C. elegans ethanol sensitivity. Methods We developed a gas chromatography assay and validated a spectrophotometric method to measure internal ethanol in ethanol-exposed worms. Further, we tested the effects of mutations in ADH and ALDH genes on ethanol tissue accumulation and behavioral sensitivity to the drug. Finally, we tested the effects of ethanol solution osmolarity on behavioral responses and tissue ethanol accumulation. Results Only a small amount of exogenously applied ethanol accumulated in the tissues of C. elegans and consequently their tissue concentrations were similar to those that intoxicate humans. Independent inactivation of an ADH-encoding gene (sodh-1) or an ALDH-encoding gene (alh-6 or alh-13) increased the ethanol concentration in worms and caused hypersensitivity to the acute sedative effects of ethanol on locomotion. We also found that the sensitivity to the depressive effects of ethanol on locomotion is strongly influenced by the osmolarity of the exogenous ethanol solution. Conclusions Our results indicate that ethanol metabolism via ADH and ALDH has a statistically discernable but surprisingly minor influence on ethanol sedation and internal ethanol accumulation in worms. In contrast, the osmolarity of the medium in which ethanol is delivered to the animals has a more substantial effect on

  3. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  4. Ethanol Pharmacokinetics in Neonates and Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Elizabeth; Kraft, Walter K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol has been used for years in neonatal and infant liquid medications, yet the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of ethanol in this vulnerable population have not been well characterized. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of ethanol use as an excipient in neonatal and infant medications and to provide insight, based on the available evidence, into clearance rates of ethanol in babies. We also discuss ethanol pharmacokinetics in adults, theoretical pharmacokinetic changes in neonates and infants as it may apply to ethanol disposition, and case reports involving ethanol exposure in neonates and infants. Materials and methods This study was a narrative review in which relevant papers were selected using databases and scientific search engines such as PubMed with the key words ethanol, infant, and newborninfant. Results It remains unclear what ethanol exposure is safe for neonates and infants. The Food and Drug Administration and American Academy of Pediatrics have both taken action, by either setting limits of ethanol content in over-the-counter medications or by recommending restricted exposure to ethanol-containing pediatric formulations. Conclusions Until the short- and long-term health effects of chronic ethanol administration can be further characterized, ethanol-containing medications should be used with caution. PMID:25379066

  5. Feasibility of producing ethanol from food waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jun Cheol; Pak, Daewon

    2011-01-01

    Food waste generated in Korea is rich in carbohydrate as high as 65% of total solids. Using the food waste, the feasibility of ethanol production was investigated in a lab-scale fermentor. Pretreatment with hydrolyzing enzymes including carbohydrase, glucoamylase, cellulase and protease were tested for hydrolysis of food waste. The carbohydrase was able to hydrolyze and produce glucose with a glucose yield of 0.63 g glucose/g total solid. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation by using carbohydrase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in the batch mode. For separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), ethanol concentration reached at the level corresponding to an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g total solids. For simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the ethanol yield was 0.31 g ethanol/g total solids. During the continuous operation of SHF, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 1.18 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.3g ethanol/g total solids. For SSF process, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 0.8 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.2g ethanol/g total solids.

  6. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  7. Conference Report: Wyoming Invitational Conference on Instructional Applications of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob

    This report: (1) describes the organization of an invitational conference aimed at gathering direction from classroom teachers regarding instructional applications of computers; (2) provides copies of all materials used in organizing such a conference; and (3) reports the results of the conference in terms of conference products (resolutions,…

  8. 48 CFR 6101.11 - Conferences; conference memorandum [Rule 11].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conferences; conference memorandum . 6101.11 Section 6101.11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System CIVILIAN BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.11 Conferences; conference...

  9. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-13

    Teachers prepare to demonstrate the projects they built for the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge during the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  10. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-13

    Education Specialists Lynn Dotson, left, of the NASA Public Engagement Center, and Lester Morales, right, of Texas State University's NASA STEM Educator Professional Development Collaborative, explain the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge to teachers participating in the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  11. Producing ethanol from solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, G.

    1991-07-01

    A Florida company has patented a commercial system that processes agricultural residues, industrial sludges and municipal solid wastes as feedstock for ethanol. The process uses a strain of Escherichia coli that can convert five-carbon sugars from biomass into ethanol as efficiently as using six-carbon sugars from grains, sorghum and sugar cane. The difference is that this process uses plant stems and leaves from agricultural waste, yard waste, paper sludges and even municipal solid waste. Markets in public works, food processing plants, municipal solid waste plants and agriculture have been identified.

  12. [Ethanol content of Kefir water].

    PubMed

    Rabl, W; Liniger, B; Sutter, K; Sigrist, T

    1994-03-01

    The question of the influence of kefir on blood-alcohol-level has been asked in a legal proceeding. The questioned recipe consisted of 21 water, 6 soup-spoons of kefir granules (about 120 g), 150 g sugar, 2 figs and one lemon. The consumption took place after two days of fermentation. Experimentally we found, that one liter of this kefir product may contain up to 38 g/l ethanol after 7 to 10 days. On the second day we measured up to 16 g/l ethanol. Our results may be import for expert appraisements concerning unability of driving.

  13. Rapid adaptation to neuronal membrane effects of ethanol and low temperature: some speculations on mechanism.

    PubMed

    Barondes, S H; Traynor, M E; Schlapfer, W T; Woodson, P B

    1979-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that ethanol exerts its primary effect at neuronal membranes by influencing specific lipid--protein or lipid--lipid interactions that control the state of organization of a specific membrane component; for example, a specific lipid--protein complex that controls a particular physiological property. This implies that tolerance to ethanol is the result of a change in the composition and/or state of organization of this critical membrane component. This altered state confers ethanol resistance. It may or may not have an effect on function in the absence of ethanol. One basis for these speculations comes from experiments using a sensitive and specific neurophysiological assay -- the rate of decay of posttetanic potentiation (PTP) at an identified synapse in an isolated, perfused Aplysia ganglion. We review evidence that PTP decay rate is strikingly accelerated by ethanol (a membrane-fluidizing agent) and strikingly decelerated below a transition temperature, presumably reflecting a transition in the structure of a membrane component. The ethanol and low-temperature effects are antagonistic. The system develops adaptation (tolerance) to either ethanol or low temperature within hours of its exposure. Tolerance persists for at least 12 hours, the longest interval tested thus far. In the absence of ethanol and at normal temperature the system behaves normally, that is it shows no "physical dependence". The system also has the remarkable property that when it becomes tolerant to either of these treatments, it shows tolerance to the other treatment that normally has the opposite effect. Therefore, the adaptation to either treatment cannot be a simple change in membrane composition governing overall membrane fluidity. A hypothesis which could explain the bidirectional cross-tolerance is considered in which adaptation to both treatments involves a shift from a homogeneous to a more heterogeneous composition of the critical membrane component, for

  14. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  15. Kinetics of ethanol inhibition in alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Luong, J H

    1985-03-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol on yeast growth and fermentation has been studied for the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC No. 4126 under anaerobic batch conditions. The results obtained reveal that there is no striking difference between the response of growth and ethanol fermentation. Two kinetic models are also proposed to describe the kinetic pattern of ethanol inhibition on the specific rates of growth and ethanol fermentation: microi/micro0 = 1 - (P/Pm)alpha (for growth) nui/nu0 = 1 - (P/P'm)beta (for ethanol production). The maximum allowable ethanol concentration above which cells do not grow was predicted to be 112 g/L. The ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 115 g/L ethanol. The proposed models appear to accurately represent the experimental data obtained in this study and the literature data.

  16. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  17. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  18. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  19. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  20. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Randy Bresnik of NASA answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060448 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Rex Walheim, STS-135 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060450 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Rex Walheim, STS-135 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 Canadian backup crewmember Chris Hadfield answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028493 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mark Kelly, STS-134 commander, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  6. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060415 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Sandy Magnus, STS-135 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  7. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060445 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Sandy Magnus, STS-135 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineer Paolo Nespoli of ESA answers a reporter's question during a crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028492 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Greg Chamitoff, STS-134 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  10. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060413 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Chris Ferguson, STS-135 commander, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  12. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, left and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit speak during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit speaks during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  15. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063790 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Garrett Reisman, STS-132 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  16. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063807 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Mike Good, STS-132 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  17. STS-131 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    JSC2010-E-038795 (9 March 2010) --- NASA astronaut Stephanie Wilson, STS-131 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during an STS-131 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  18. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063799 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Steve Bowen, STS-132 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  19. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063808 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Garrett Reisman, STS-132 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  20. STS-131 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    JSC2010-E-038797 (9 March 2010) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, STS-131 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-131 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  1. STS-132 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-03

    JSC2010-E-063797 (3 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Steve Bowen, STS-132 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during an STS-132 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  2. STS-131 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    JSC2010-E-038794 (9 March 2010) --- NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 commander, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-131 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  3. STS-135 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-30

    JSC2011-E-060439 (30 June 2011) --- NASA astronaut Chris Ferguson, STS-135 commander, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  4. STS-131 press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    JSC2010-E-038799 (9 March 2010) --- NASA astronaut Clayton Anderson, STS-131 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during an STS-131 preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  5. Expedition 19 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-24

    Expedition 19 Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt smiles at his family from a quarantined glass room after a press conference on Wednesday, March 25, 2009 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Insider conference tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Attending an educator conference and its associated exhibit hall can be a rewarding experience for your brain. But if you keep in mind these insider's tips, your feet, arms, stomach, and wallet will also thank you.

  7. National COPD conference summary.

    PubMed

    Buist, A Sonia; Bailey, William; Hurd, Suzanne S

    2004-01-01

    The first National COPD Conference, sponsored by the US COPD Coalition was held in Arlington, Virginia on November 14-15, 2003. The theme for the conference was developed around the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Healthy People 2010 goals for COPD and included plenary speeches, roundtable discussions, abstracts, and workshops on spirometry, patient/physician education materials, and home monitoring/telemetry. The goal was to bring together a multidisciplinary group to identify important issues relating to COPD in the United States, specifically the barriers to a wider recognition of the disease, and to develop an orchestrated action plan. Over 500 scientists, clinicians, respiratory therapists, nurses, patients, government officials, and representatives from pharmaceutical companies participated. This summary provides the recommendations from the conference that will be used to develop an action plan for the US COPD Coalition. It includes actions proposed by plenary speakers, roundtable faculty and conference participants.

  8. Tackling conference carbon footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozier, Jim

    2016-12-01

    In reply to Margaret Harris's Lateral Thoughts article "Putting my foot down", which discussed the challenges of attending a conference with a physical disability (October p76) and a subsequent letter by Anna Wood (November p18).

  9. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  10. EPOXI Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    Michael A'Hearn, EPOXI Principal Investigator, University of Maryland, holds a plastic bottle containing ice to illustrate a point during a press conference, Thursday, Nov. 18, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The press conference was held to discuss the Nov. 4 successful flyby of Comet Hartley 2 by NASA's EPOXI Mission Spacecraft. Images from the flyby provided scientists the most extensive observations of a comet in history. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  11. EPOXI Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    Dr. James Green, Director of Planetary Science, NASA Headquarters, at podium, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Nov. 18, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The press conference was held to discuss the Nov. 4 successful flyby of Comet Hartley 2 by NASA's EPOXI Mission Spacecraft. Images from the flyby provided scientists the most extensive observations of a comet in history. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  12. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  13. Advanced Biorefineries for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review, "Advanced biorefineries for production of fuel ethanol," is a chapter in the Wiley book entitled Biomass to Biofuels: Strategies for Global Industries and is intended to cover all major ethanol production processes to date. The chapter discusses current fuel ethanol production processe...

  14. Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

  15. Cellulosic ethanol byproducts as a bulking agent

    Treesearch

    J.M. Considine; D. Coffin; J.Y. Zhu; D.H. Mann; X. Tang

    2017-01-01

    Financial enhancement of biomass value prior to pulping requires subsequent use of remaining materials; e.g., high value use of remaining stock material after cellulosic ethanol production would improve the economics for cellulosic ethanol. In this work, use of enzymatic hydrolysis residual solids (EHRS), a cellulosic ethanol byproduct, were investigated as a bulking...

  16. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    PubMed

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  17. Binge ethanol intoxication heightens subsequent ethanol intake in adolescent, but not adult, rats.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-04-01

    A question still to be answered is whether ethanol initiation has a greater effect on ethanol consumption if it occurs during adolescence than in adulthood. This study assessed the effect of ethanol initiation during adolescence or adulthood on voluntary ethanol consumption when animals were still within the same age range. Adolescent or adult rats were given 5, 2, or 0 ethanol exposures. The animals were tested for ethanol consumption through two-bottle choice tests, before undergoing a 1-week deprivation. A two-bottle assessment was conducted after the deprivation. Adolescents, but not adults, given two ethanol administrations during initiation exhibited significantly higher ethanol intake during the pre-deprivation period. These adolescents also exhibited a threefold increase in ethanol intake after 7 days of drug withdrawal, when compared with controls. These findings suggest that very brief experience with binge ethanol intoxication in adolescence, but not in adulthood, impacts later predisposition to drink.

  18. THE ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL AVERSION

    PubMed Central

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. PMID:26774181

  19. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  20. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  1. Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1984-01-01

    Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

  2. Fetal ethanol exposure increases ethanol intake by making it smell and taste better.

    PubMed

    Youngentob, Steven L; Glendinning, John I

    2009-03-31

    Human epidemiologic studies reveal that fetal ethanol exposure is highly predictive of adolescent ethanol avidity and abuse. Little is known about how fetal exposure produces these effects. It is hypothesized that fetal ethanol exposure results in stimulus-induced chemosensory plasticity. Here, we asked whether gestational ethanol exposure increases postnatal ethanol avidity in rats by altering its taste and odor. Experimental rats were exposed to ethanol in utero via the dam's diet, whereas control rats were either pair-fed an iso-caloric diet or given food ad libitum. We found that fetal ethanol exposure increased the taste-mediated acceptability of both ethanol and quinine hydrochloride (bitter), but not sucrose (sweet). Importantly, a significant proportion of the increased ethanol acceptability could be attributed directly to the attenuated aversion to ethanol's quinine-like taste quality. Fetal ethanol exposure also enhanced ethanol intake and the behavioral response to ethanol odor. Notably, the elevated intake of ethanol was also causally linked to the enhanced odor response. Our results demonstrate that fetal exposure specifically increases ethanol avidity by, in part, making it taste and smell better. More generally, they establish an epigenetic chemosensory mechanism by which maternal patterns of drug use can be transferred to offspring. Given that many licit (e.g., tobacco products) and illicit (e.g., marijuana) drugs have noteworthy chemosensory components, our findings have broad implications for the relationship between maternal patterns of drug use, child development, and postnatal vulnerability.

  3. Adaptation of yeast cell membranes to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1987-05-01

    A highly ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces wine strain is able, after growth in the presence of ethanol, to efficiently improve the ethanol tolerance of its membrane. A less-tolerant Saccharomyces laboratory strain, however, is unable to adapt its membrane to ethanol. Furthermore, after growth in the presence of ethanol, the membrane of the latter strain becomes increasingly sensitive, although this is a reversible process. Reversion to a higher tolerance occurs only after the addition of an energy source and does not take place in the presence of cycloheximide.

  4. Nuclear Rocket Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center has a strong interest in nuclear rocket propulsion and provides active support of the graphite reactor program in such nonnuclear areas as cryogenics, two-phase flow, propellant heating, fluid systems, heat transfer, nozzle cooling, nozzle design, pumps, turbines, and startup and control problems. A parallel effort has also been expended to evaluate the engineering feasibility of a nuclear rocket reactor using tungsten-matrix fuel elements and water as the moderator. Both of these efforts have resulted in significant contributions to nuclear rocket technology. Many successful static firings of nuclear rockets have been made with graphite-core reactors. Sufficient information has also been accumulated to permit a reasonable Judgment as to the feasibility of the tungsten water-moderated reactor concept. We therefore consider that this technoIogy conference on the nuclear rocket work that has been sponsored by the Lewis Research Center is timely. The conference has been prepared by NASA personnel, but the information presented includes substantial contributions from both NASA and AEC contractors. The conference excludes from consideration the many possible mission requirements for nuclear rockets. Also excluded is the direct comparison of nuclear rocket types with each other or with other modes of propulsion. The graphite reactor support work presented on the first day of the conference was partly inspired through a close cooperative effort between the Cleveland extension of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (headed by Robert W. Schroeder) and the Lewis Research Center. Much of this effort was supervised by Mr. John C. Sanders, chairman for the first day of the conference, and by Mr. Hugh M. Henneberry. The tungsten water-moderated reactor concept was initiated at Lewis by Mr. Frank E. Rom and his coworkers. The supervision of the recent engineering studies has been shared by Mr. Samuel J. Kaufman, chairman for the second day of the

  5. Transport and degradation of ethanol in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Khan, Imtiyaz A.; Chen, Xun-Hong; Spalding, Roy F.

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol is rapidly replacing methyl tert-butyl ether (M tBE), the primary fuel oxygenate in the US, and ethanol releases from spills and leaky underground storage tanks (LUSTs) are anticipated. Ethanol has received little attention as a potential groundwater contaminant. This study investigates the fate and transport of ethanol under transient conditions in a sand and gravel aquifer. A pulse containing approximately 220 mg L - 1 ethanol and 16 mg L - 1 bromide was injected into the shallow sand and gravel aquifer and monitored to estimate its persistence and transport. The plume was monitored for 2.5 months using downgradient multilevel samplers (MLSs). Values for ethanol retardation were measured from ethanol and bromide breakthrough data and compared to estimates using published Koc values for low carbon aquifer sediments ( foc = 10 μg C g - 1 sediment). Ethanol transport was not retarded ( R = 0.99). A 3-dimensional model reasonably simulated bromide and ethanol breakthrough curves. An average first-order decay constant was estimated to be 0.32 d - 1 ( t1 / 2 = 2.2 d). At the second fence, 75% of the injected bromide and less than 3% of ethanol remained in the plume. Monitored terminal electron acceptor concentrations demonstrated that the majority of the ethanol was transformed by anaerobic processes other than denitrification and sulfate reduction.

  6. Transport and degradation of ethanol in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Khan, Imtiyaz A; Chen, Xun-Hong; Spalding, Roy F

    2006-01-10

    Ethanol is rapidly replacing methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), the primary fuel oxygenate in the US, and ethanol releases from spills and leaky underground storage tanks (LUSTs) are anticipated. Ethanol has received little attention as a potential groundwater contaminant. This study investigates the fate and transport of ethanol under transient conditions in a sand and gravel aquifer. A pulse containing approximately 220 mg L-1 ethanol and 16 mg L-1 bromide was injected into the shallow sand and gravel aquifer and monitored to estimate its persistence and transport. The plume was monitored for 2.5 months using downgradient multilevel samplers (MLSs). Values for ethanol retardation were measured from ethanol and bromide breakthrough data and compared to estimates using published Koc values for low carbon aquifer sediments (foc=10 microg C g-1 sediment). Ethanol transport was not retarded (R=0.99). A 3-dimensional model reasonably simulated bromide and ethanol breakthrough curves. An average first-order decay constant was estimated to be 0.32 d-1 (t1/2=2.2 d). At the second fence, 75% of the injected bromide and less than 3% of ethanol remained in the plume. Monitored terminal electron acceptor concentrations demonstrated that the majority of the ethanol was transformed by anaerobic processes other than denitrification and sulfate reduction.

  7. Mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Menggen; Liu, Z Lewis

    2010-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol stress response in past decades, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not well known. With developments of genome sequencing and genomic technologies, our understanding of yeast biology has been revolutionarily advanced. More evidence of mechanisms of ethanol tolerance have been discovered involving multiple loci, multi-stress, and complex interactions as well as signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks. Transcription dynamics and profiling studies of key gene sets including heat shock proteins provided insight into tolerance mechanisms. A transient gene expression response or a stress response to ethanol does not necessarily lead to ethanol tolerance in yeast. Reprogrammed pathways and interactions of cofactor regeneration and redox balance observed from studies of tolerant yeast demonstrated the significant importance of a time-course study for ethanol tolerance. In this review, we focus on current advances of our understanding for ethanol-tolerance mechanisms of S. cerevisiae including gene expression responses, pathway-based analysis, signal transduction and regulatory networks. A prototype of global system model for mechanisms of ethanol tolerance is presented.

  8. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  9. Daidzin decreases ethanol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Heyman, G M; Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1996-09-01

    In a previous study, daidzin, a constituent of an ancient Chinese herbal treatment for alcoholism, decreased home-cage ethanol consumption in laboratory Syrian golden hamsters. The present study tested the generality of daidzin's antidipsotropic effects. Rats served as subjects in a two-lever choice procedure. At one lever, responses earned 10% ethanol, flavored with saccharin. At the other lever, responses earned an isocaloric starch solution. Daidzin decreased both ethanol and starch consumption, but the decreases in ethanol intake were larger. Changes in consumption were dose dependent, and differences in ethanol and food consumption increased slightly (but significantly) as dose increased. Daidzin produced a similar pattern of decreases in lever pressing. In baseline, there was an approximately equal distribution of responses between the two levers; at the highest daidzin dose, the relative number of responses at the ethanol lever decreased to 30%. These results replicate and extend earlier findings, and they encourage further research on daidzin's capacity to decrease ethanol consumption.

  10. Kinetics of ethanol inhibition in alcohol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, J.H.T.

    1985-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol on yeast growth and fermentation has been studied for the strain Saccharo-myces cerevisiae ATCC No. 4126 under anaerobic batch conditions. The results obtained reveal that there is no striking difference between the response of growth and ethanol fermentation. Two kinetic models are also proposed to describe the kinetic pattern of ethanol inhibition on the specific rates of growth and ethanol fermentation. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration above which cells do not grow was predicted to be 112 g/L. The ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 115 g/L ethanol. The proposed models appear to accurately represent the experimental data obtained in this study and the literature data.

  11. Properties of ethanol fermentation by Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ryoji; Ichinose, Hitomi; Maehara, Tomoko; Takabatake, Koji; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2009-10-01

    Basidiomycetes have the ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and some basidiomycetes produce alcohol dehydrogenase. These characteristics may be useful in the direct production of ethanol from lignocellulose. Ethanol fermentation by basidiomycetes was investigated to examine the possibility of ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Flammulina velutipes. F. velutipes converted D-glucose to ethanol with a high efficiency (a theoretical ethanol recovery rate of 88%), but ethanol production from pentose was not observed. These properties of F. velutipes are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the basidiomycete converted not only sucrose, but also maltose, cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose to ethanol, with almost the same efficiency as that for D-glucose. From these results, we concluded that F. velutipes possesses advantageous characteristics for use in CBP.

  12. Beneficial Effect of Low Ethanol Intake on the Cardiovascular System: Possible Biochemical Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Sudesh; Gill, Vicki; Singal, Pawan K

    2006-01-01

    Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs), altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs. PMID:17326332

  13. Ethanol-mediated operant learning in the infant rat leads to increased ethanol intake during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Luciano Federico; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the infant rat has high affinity for ethanol ingestion and marked sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing effects (Spear & Molina, 2005). A novel operant technique was developed to analyze reinforcing effects of ethanol delivery during the third postnatal week. The impact of this ethanol-reinforcement experience upon subsequent ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal weeks 5–6 was also examined. In Experiment 1, pups (postnatal days 14–17 were given an explicit contingency between nose-poking behavior and intraoral delivery of either water or 3.75% v/v ethanol (paired groups). Yoked controls (pups receiving either reinforcer independently of their behavior) were also included. Paired subjects reinforced with ethanol exhibited rapid and robust operant conditioning leading to blood ethanol concentrations in the 25–48 mg% range. In Experiment 2, a higher ethanol concentration (7.5% v/v) provided significant reinforcement. During adolescence, animals originally reinforced with 3.75% v/v ethanol exhibited greater ingestion of ethanol than control animals without prior ethanol reinforcement. These results indicate that, without extensive initiation to ethanol, infant rats rapidly learn to gain access to ethanol and that this experience has a significant impact upon later ethanol intake patterns. PMID:18571224

  14. Synthesis of nanoparticles using ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jia Xu

    2017-01-24

    The present disclosure relates to methods for producing nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may be made using ethanol as the solvent and the reductant to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distributions, and to coat a thin metal shell on other metal cores. With or without carbon supports, particle size is controlled by fine-tuning the reduction power of ethanol, by adjusting the temperature, and by adding an alkaline solution during syntheses. The thickness of the added or coated metal shell can be varied easily from sub-monolayer to multiple layers in a seed-mediated growth process. The entire synthesis of designed core-shell catalysts can be completed using metal salts as the precursors with more than 98% yield; and, substantially no cleaning processes are necessary apart from simple rinsing. Accordingly, this method is considered to be a "green" chemistry method.

  15. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. Ethanol Production from Ulva fasciata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutani, Evan M.; Yoza, Brandon A.

    The theoretical potential yield of Ulva fasciata as a biomass feedstock for fermentative ethanol was found to be about 310 L per tonne, dry weight. U. fasciata has numerous characteristics that render it a suitable mariculture energy crop. Specifically, it forms large complex structures that grow quickly, with high (14%) dry to wet weight percentages, holocellulose content for the dry mass of 51%, carbohydrate content of 5%, and relatively low (5%) lignin content. Enzymatic saccharification with a commercial cellulase (Accelerase) from Genencor was investigated: After a 12 hr digestion, 25% of the potential glucose was recovered from the cellulose fraction. The hydrolysate was supplemented with a modified YM medium and used directly for batch fermentation. A 12 hr incubation resulted in complete utilization of the glucose and production of ethanol. In this preliminary investigation, the ethanol yield corresponded to approximately 126 L per tonne (dry weight) of macroalga, or 43% of the theoretical alcohol yield with respect to only the cellulose and carbohydrate contents. Theoretical yields are higher when the hemicellulose fraction is considered. While sugar recovery needs further optimization, the data suggest that additional work is warranted.

  17. Chronobiology of ethanol: animal models.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations have revealed that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and other circadian biological rhythms. As with other psychiatric disorders, animal models have been very useful in efforts to better understand the cause and effect relationships underlying the largely correlative human data. This review summarizes the experimental findings indicating bidirectional interactions between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and the circadian timing system, emphasizing behavioral studies conducted in the author's laboratory. Together with convergent evidence from multiple laboratories, the work summarized here establishes that ethanol intake (or administration) alters fundamental properties of the underlying circadian pacemaker. In turn, circadian disruption induced by either environmental or genetic manipulations can alter voluntary ethanol intake. These reciprocal interactions may create a vicious cycle that contributes to the downward spiral of alcohol and drug addiction. In the future, such studies may lead to the development of chronobiologically based interventions to prevent relapse and effectively mitigate some of the societal burden associated with such disorders.

  18. Theophylline blocks ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Selvig, Meghan

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the effects of theophylline on the hyperalgesia produced by ethanol withdrawal using a radiant heat tail-flick assay. Chronic effects of ethanol were tested in four groups of rats which received 10 days exposure to a liquid diet [ethanol alone or with theophylline [0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, twice daily, intraperitoneally (i.p.)], and dextrin control diet]. Ethanol withdrawal was tested 12 h after removal of the liquid diet. Effects of cumulative doses of the non-selective adenosine agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO; 0.6-10 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested during withdrawal in the ethanol-treated groups. Chronic exposure to ethanol produced antinociception, and hyperalgesia was seen during withdrawal. Subchronic administration of theophylline (0.5-1.0 mg/kg, twice daily, i.p.) dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. During ethanol withdrawal, 2-CADO was less potent than when given to non-dependent rats and this effect was prevented by subchronic administration of theophylline (1.0 mg/kg). These findings provide behavioural evidence in agreement with earlier work on the role of adenosine in the development of ethanol tolerance and withdrawal, and suggest that adenosine receptors play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia during ethanol withdrawal.

  19. 10 CFR 501.32 - Conferences (other than prepetition conferences).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conferences (other than prepetition conferences). 501.32 Section 501.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Written Comments, Public Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.32...

  20. 10 CFR 501.32 - Conferences (other than prepetition conferences).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conferences (other than prepetition conferences). 501.32 Section 501.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Written Comments, Public Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.32...

  1. 10 CFR 501.32 - Conferences (other than prepetition conferences).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conferences (other than prepetition conferences). 501.32 Section 501.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Written Comments, Public Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.32...

  2. 10 CFR 501.32 - Conferences (other than prepetition conferences).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conferences (other than prepetition conferences). 501.32 Section 501.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Written Comments, Public Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.32...

  3. 10 CFR 501.32 - Conferences (other than prepetition conferences).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conferences (other than prepetition conferences). 501.32 Section 501.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Written Comments, Public Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.32...

  4. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9,...

  5. ARC Conference Showcases Telecommunications Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1996-01-01

    The Appalachian Regional Commission's 1996 Conference, "Building Blocks for Using Telecommunications and Information Technology," held in Binghamton, New York, focused on the role of telecommunications in Appalachia in education and training, telemedicine, business, and government. Highlights conference presentations on special…

  6. ARC Conference Showcases Telecommunications Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1996-01-01

    The Appalachian Regional Commission's 1996 Conference, "Building Blocks for Using Telecommunications and Information Technology," held in Binghamton, New York, focused on the role of telecommunications in Appalachia in education and training, telemedicine, business, and government. Highlights conference presentations on special…

  7. Turbomachinery controls conference (TCC) 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The proceedings of the Turbomachinery Controls Conference 1995 are presented. Eleven papers were presented at the conference. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the nine papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Ultrasound improved ethanol fermentation from cassava chips in cassava-based ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Shrestha, Prachand; Rasmussen, Mary L; Lamsal, Buddhi P; van Leeuwen, J Hans; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-04-01

    The effects of ultrasound and heat pretreatments on ethanol yields from cassava chips were investigated. Cassava slurries were sonicated for 10 and 30 s at the amplitudes of 80, 160, and 320 microm(pp) (peak to peak amplitude in microm) corresponding to low, medium, and high power levels, respectively. The sonicated and non-sonicated (control) samples were then subjected to simultaneous liquefaction-saccharification and ethanol fermentation. Cassava starch-to-ethanol conversion efficiencies showed that higher ethanol yields were directly related to sonication times, but not to power levels. Significantly higher ethanol yields were observed only for sonicated samples at the high power level. The ethanol yield from the sonicated sample was 2.7-fold higher than yield from the control sample. Starch-to-ethanol conversion rates from sonicated cassava chips were also significantly higher; the fermentation time could be reduced by nearly 24 h for sonicated samples to achieve the same ethanol yield as control samples. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment enhanced both the overall ethanol yield and fermentation rate. When compared to heat-treated samples, the sonicated samples produced nearly 29% more ethanol yield. Combined heat and ultrasound treatment had no significant effect on overall ethanol yields from cassava chips. Ultrasound is also preferable to heat pretreatment because of lower energy requirements, as indicated by energy balances. Integration of ultrasound application in cassava-based ethanol plants can significantly improve ethanol yields and reduce the overall production costs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NR2B-deficient mice are more sensitive to the locomotor stimulant and depressant effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Badanich, K A; Doremus-Fitzwater, T L; Mulholland, P J; Randall, P K; Delpire, E; Becker, H C

    2011-10-01

    The NR2B subunit of N-methyl d-aspartate glutamate receptors influences pharmacological properties and confers greater sensitivity to the modulatory effects of ethanol. This study examined behavioral responses to acute ethanol in a conditional knockout mouse model that allowed for a delayed genetic deletion of the NR2B subunit to avoid mouse lethality. Mice lacking the NR2B gene (knockout) were produced by mating NR2B[f/f] mice with CAMKIIa-driven tTA transgenic mice and the tetO-CRE transgenic mice. Adult male and female offspring representing each of the resultant genotypes (knockout, CAM, CRE and wildtype mice) were tested for open-field locomotor activity following acute low- and high-dose ethanol challenge as well as loss of righting reflex. Findings indicate that male and female mice lacking the NR2B subunit exhibited greater overall activity in comparison to other genotypes during the baseline locomotor activity test. NR2B knockout mice exhibited an exaggerated stimulant response to 1.5 g/kg (i.p.) and an exaggerated depressant response to 3.0 g/kg (i.p.) ethanol challenge. In addition, NR2B knockout mice slept longer following a high dose of ethanol (4.0 g/kg, i.p.). To evaluate pharmacokinetics, clearance rates of ethanol (1.5, 4.0 g/kg, i.p.) were measured and showed that female NR2B knockouts had a faster rate of metabolism only at the higher ethanol dose. Western blot analyses confirmed significant reduction in NR2B expression in the forebrain of knockout mice. Collectively, these data indicate that the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl d-aspartate glutamate receptor is involved in regulating low-dose stimulant effects of ethanol and the depressant/hypnotic effects of ethanol.

  10. NR2B-Deficient Mice are More Sensitive to the Locomotor Stimulant and Depressant Effects of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Randall, Patrick K.; Delpire, Eric; Becker, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    The NR2B subunit of N-methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptors influences pharmacological properties and confers greater sensitivity to the modulatory effects of ethanol. This study examined behavioral responses to acute ethanol in a conditional knockout mouse model that allowed for a delayed genetic deletion of the NR2B subunit to avoid mouse lethality. Mice lacking the NR2B gene (knockout) were produced by mating NR2B[f/f] mice with CAMKIIa-drive tTA transgenic mice and the tetO-CRE transgenic mice. Adult male and female offspring representing each of the resultant genotypes (knockout, CAM, CRE, and wild-type mice) were tested for open field locomotor activity following acute low and high dose ethanol challenge as well as loss of righting reflex. Findings indicate that male and female mice lacking the NR2B subunit exhibited greater overall activity in comparison to other genotypes during the baseline locomotor activity test. NR2B knockout mice exhibited an exaggerated stimulant response to 1.5 g/kg (ip) and an exaggerated depressant response to 3.0 g/kg (ip) ethanol challenge. Additionally, NR2B knockout mice slept longer following a high dose of ethanol (4.0 g/kg, ip). To evaluate pharmacokinetics, clearance rates of ethanol (1.5, 4.0 g/kg, ip) were measured and showed female NR2B knockouts had a faster rate of metabolism only at the higher ethanol dose. Western blot analyses confirmed significant reduction in NR2B expression in the forebrain of knockout mice. Collectively, these data indicate the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptor is involved in regulating low-dose stimulant effects of ethanol and the depressant/hypnotic effects of ethanol. PMID:21762461

  11. Simultaneous prenatal ethanol and nicotine exposure affect ethanol consumption, ethanol preference and oxytocin receptor binding in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah K; Cox, Elizabeth T; McMurray, Matthew S; Fay, Emily E; Jarrett, Thomas M; Walker, Cheryl H; Overstreet, David H; Johns, Josephine M

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and smoking during pregnancy are common, despite the known adverse effects on the fetus. The teratogenicity of each drug independently is well established; however, the effects of concurrent exposure to ethanol and nicotine in preclinical models remain unclear. This study examined the impact of simultaneous prenatal exposure to both ethanol and nicotine on offspring ethanol preference behaviors and oxytocin system dynamics. Rat dams were given liquid diet (17% ethanol derived calories (EDC)) on gestational day (GD) 5 and 35% EDC from GD 6-20 and concurrently an osmotic minipump delivered nicotine (3-6mg/kg/day) from GD 4-postpartum day 10. Offspring were tested for ethanol preference during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 30-43) and again at adulthood (PND 60-73), followed by assays for oxytocin mRNA expression and receptor binding in relevant brain regions. Prenatal exposure decreased ethanol preference in males during adolescence, and decreased consumption and preference in females during adulthood compared to controls. Oxytocin receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was increased in adult prenatally exposed males only. Prenatal exposure to these drugs sex-specifically decreased ethanol preference behavior in offspring unlike reports for either drug separately. The possible role of oxytocin in reduction of ethanol consumption behavior is highlighted.

  12. Simultaneous Prenatal Ethanol and Nicotine Exposure Affect Ethanol Consumption, Ethanol Preference and Oxytocin Receptor Binding in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah K.; Cox, Elizabeth T.; McMurray, Matthew S.; Fay, Emily E.; Jarrett, Thomas M.; Walker, Cheryl H.; Overstreet, David H.; Johns, Josephine M.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and smoking during pregnancy are common, despite the known adverse effects on the fetus. The teratogenicity of each drug independently is well established; however, the effects of concurrent exposure to ethanol and nicotine in preclinical models remain unclear. This study examined the impact of simultaneous prenatal exposure to both ethanol and nicotine on offspring ethanol preference behaviors and oxytocin system dynamics. Rat dams were given liquid diet (17% ethanol derived calories(EDC)) on gestational day (GD) 5 and 35% EDC fromGD 6-20 and concurrently an osmotic minipump delivered nicotine (3-6 mg/kg/day) from GD 4 - postpartum day 10. Offspring were tested for ethanol preference during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 30-43) and again at adulthood (PND 60-73), followed by assays for oxytocin mRNA expression and receptor binding in relevant brain regions. Prenatal exposure decreased ethanol preference in males during adolescence, and decreased consumption and preference in females during adulthood compared to controls. Oxytocin receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was increased in adult prenatally exposed males only. Prenatal exposure to these drugs sex-specifically decreased ethanol preference behavior in offspring unlike reports for either drug separately. The possible role of oxytocin in reduction of ethanol consumption behavior is highlighted. PMID:19539752

  13. Twitter use in physics conferences.

    PubMed

    Webb, Stephen

    An analysis of Twitter use in 116 conferences suggests that the service is used more extensively at PACS10 conferences (those devoted to the physics of elementary particles and fields) and PACS90 conferences (those devoted to geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics) than at conferences in other fields of physics. Furthermore, Twitter is used in a qualitatively different manner. A possible reason for these differences is discussed.

  14. Conducting Telephone Conference IEPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Philip Patrick; Petit, Constance; Williams, Shandelyn

    2007-01-01

    Synchronizing the availability of team members for Individual Education Plan (IEP) meetings can be a daunting task. Fortunately, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 permits alternative means of conducting such meetings. An example of an alternate means is a telephone conference, whereby parents communicate over the…

  15. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  16. Open Mind Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Alexander H.

    1995-01-01

    Open Mind, The Association for the achievement of diversity in higher education, met in conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between October 16 and 18, 1992. A number of workgroups met to discuss the goals, structure, and generally evaluate the Association and its achievements. A summary of the workgroup sessions and their minutes are included.

  17. The interparliamentary conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of information on environmental problems with global origins and consequences. The areas of major concern included the following: global climate change; deforestation and desertification; preservation of biological diversity; safeguarding oceans and water resources; population growth; destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer; and sustainable development.

  18. Press Conference - Skylab 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-08-14

    S72-46699 (19 Jan. 1972) --- Prime crew members of the scheduled second Skylab mission are introduced to the media during a press conference in January 1972 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). From left to right are astronauts Jack R. Lousma, pilot; Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, and Alan L. Bean, commander. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Creating Better Satellite Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  20. Government Quality Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Government Quality Conference was an attempt to bring together executive organizations and senior individuals in the Federal Government that have a desire to improve productivity. It was designed to provide an exchange of ideas based on experience, and to encourage individual management initiatives to tap the capabilities of Federal employees.

  1. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, Evan

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  2. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028491 (24 March 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, STS-134 mission specialist, fields a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  3. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028498 (24 March 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, STS-134 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  4. Expedition 34 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    Russian backup crew member Fyodor Yurchikin, right, answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Dec. 18, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Seen next to him are NASA backup crew member Karen Nyberg and Expedition 34/35 Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028488 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Greg H. Johnson, STS-134 pilot, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  6. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028490 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Michael Fincke, STS-134 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  7. STS-134 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    JSC2011-E-028496 (24 March 2011) --- NASA astronaut Andrew Feustel, STS-134 mission specialist, responds to a question from a reporter during a preflight press conference at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  8. Microbicides 2006 conference

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita; Shattock, Robin; Delany, Sinead; McGowan, Ian; Morar, Neetha; Gottemoeller, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Current HIV/AIDS statistics show that women account for almost 60% of HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV prevention tools such as male and female condoms, abstinence and monogamy are not always feasible options for women due to various socio-economic and cultural factors. Microbicides are products designed to be inserted in the vagina or rectum prior to sex to prevent HIV acquisition. The biannual Microbicides conference took place in Cape Town, South Africa from 23–26 April 2006. The conference was held for the first time on the African continent, the region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The conference brought together a record number of 1,300 scientists, researchers, policy makers, healthcare workers, communities and advocates. The conference provided an opportunity for an update on microbicide research and development as well as discussions around key issues such as ethics, acceptability, access and community involvement. This report discusses the current status of microbicide research and development, encompassing basic and clinical science, social and behavioural science, and community mobilisation and advocacy activities. PMID:17038196

  9. Effective Parent Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Conferences with an upset parent, teacher, or student should be opportunities for schools to build relationships with the community and to foster a positive school culture. But in reality, they are often held because a problem has arisen and often end with stakeholders having a less-than-positive image of the school. Understanding the steps that…

  10. Conference on Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton; And Others

    In this collection of seven speeches from the University of Missouri Conference on Censorship, writers focus on the various aspects of censorship. Speeches are by (1) Milton Meltzer, who lauds those writers who were forced to battle with censors; (2) Enid Olson, who explores the censorship problems faced by teachers and school librarians; (3)…

  11. APPA 2011 Conference Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facilities Manager, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents highlights of APPA conference that was held on July 16-18, 2011. The highlights feature photos of 2011-2012 board of directors, outgoing senior regional representatives to the board, meritorious service award, APPA fellow, president's recognition and gavel exchange, and diamond business partner award.

  12. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, and Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia share a laugh during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, and Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia are seen during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 backup crew members NASA Flight Engineer Joseph Acaba, far left, Russian Soyuz Commander Gennady Padalka, center, and Russian Flight Engineer Sergei Revin are seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Expedition 29 NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov and Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin is scheduled for November 14. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA backup Flight Engineer Don Pettit looks on during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov of Russia speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 7, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 NASA backup crew member Joe Acaba is seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    NASA backup Flight Engineer Don Pettit speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Expedition 39 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-24

    Expedition 39 flight engineer Steve Swanson of NASA is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference be Monday, March 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch March 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Russian backup Flight Engineer Oleg Kononenko speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 backup crew members Joseph Acaba, left, and Russian Flight Engineer Gennady Padalka share a few words during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin is seen at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    A man taking a picture with a cell phone is seen reflected in the glass separating the quarantined crew during a press conference on Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  9. Expedition 29 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Russian Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin answers a reporter’s question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Ivanishin, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov and NASA Flight Engineer Dan Burbank is scheduled for November 14. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. Expedition 28 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum, left, looks on as Soyuz Commander Sergei Volkov speaks during a press conference, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    NASA Expedition 41 backup crew member Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) answers a question during a press conference Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The prime crew is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  13. Conference summary - Personal views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lub, J.

    2016-05-01

    This is a collection of remarks on the three and a half days of the RR Lyrae 2015 Conference, limited only by my own lack of attention and understanding. I end with some personal recollections on my complete failure, even though doing the necessary calculations, to spot the importance and the possible application of Fourier amplitudes and phases of the RR Lyrae light curves.

  14. Grammar! A Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…

  15. 2008 Combat Vehicles Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-22

    General Michael M. Brogan Combat Vehicles Conference Marine Corps Systems Command 21 October 2008 2 MCSC •LAV •AAV •Tank •HMMWV/ ECV •MRAP PEO LS...34,226 Total 56,649 1985 IOC 1996 M1114 armored HMMWV Limited Production 2006 M1100 series begins fielding scalable armor 2009-10 ECV II

  16. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  17. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, left, Commander Ken Bowersox and International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit, right, pose for photos at a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, left, Commander Ken Bowersox and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit, right, answer questions during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, left, Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, right, are seen during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems, center, speaks as Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, right, looks on during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Hydrogen Conference: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1989-10-01

    Hydrogen is currently a major chemical/fuel with long-term energy system benefits that may impact the industry's physical and economic well-being. EPRI's recent hydrogen conference concluded that to be competitive, the production cost must take into account environmental and end-use efficiency benefits.

  2. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Andrew Chaikin, author of "A Man on the Moon" speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the moon, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the Moon, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Tiffany Montague, Technical Program Manager for NASA and Google Lunar X PRIZE, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Brian McLendon, VP of Engineering, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Yoshinori Yoshimura, a respresentative from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Michael Weiss-Malik, Product Manager for Moon in Google Earth, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Miles O'Brien, former chief science and tech correspondent for CNN, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Conference presentations with confidence.

    PubMed

    Strickland, T

    1999-01-01

    Remember that great presentation you heard at last year's convention? Perhaps the marketing case study was especially interesting. Or perhaps you wondered whether you could use the organizational tools the speaker described in your own work. Finally, you might have wondered, "Could I offer a conference presentation at some point?" The answer: yes!

  12. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  13. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  14. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  15. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 flight engineers Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, center, and Expedition 52 flight engineer Randy Bresnik of NASA pose for group photograph at the conclusion of their crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 50 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-26

    Expedition 50 NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, left, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos, center, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet pose for a group photograph at the conclusion of a press conference, Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2016, at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    A painting of Yuri Gagarin is seen in the lobby of the building where the Expedition 52 prime and backup crews held a crew press conference on the grounds of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. DEVELOP students attend conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

  19. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, speaks during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Dean Acosta, NASA Deputy Assistant Administrator and Press Secretary, moderates a press conference with NASA Administrator Michael Griffin Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems, left, looks on as Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, speaks during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, left, looks on as Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems speaks during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Members of the media listen during a press conference with NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, speaks during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems, left, and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, are seen during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Conference on Navajo Orthography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Sirarpi; And Others

    This report on the Conference on Navajo Orthography, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 2-3, 1969 constitutes a summary of the discussion and decisions of a meeting which was convened by the Center for Applied Linguistics under contract with the Bureau of Indian Affairs to agree on an orthography for the Navajo language. The immediate purpose…

  7. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  8. Effective Parent Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Conferences with an upset parent, teacher, or student should be opportunities for schools to build relationships with the community and to foster a positive school culture. But in reality, they are often held because a problem has arisen and often end with stakeholders having a less-than-positive image of the school. Understanding the steps that…

  9. A Conference of Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY. Dept. of Educational Research.

    Presented are the proceedings of the First Historic Helen Keller World Conference on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, held in New York City in September, 1977 on the theme "The Deaf-Blind Person in the Community." Reports have the following titles and authors: "Definition, Demography, Causes and Prevention of Deaf-Blindness; Finding and…

  10. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Alan Eustace, Senior VP of Engineering and Research, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. DEVELOP students attend conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-08

    Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

  12. A Conference of Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY. Dept. of Educational Research.

    Presented are the proceedings of the First Historic Helen Keller World Conference on Services to Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, held in New York City in September, 1977 on the theme "The Deaf-Blind Person in the Community." Reports have the following titles and authors: "Definition, Demography, Causes and Prevention of Deaf-Blindness; Finding and…

  13. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  14. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  15. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits.

  16. Solid state production of ethanol from sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.L.; Linden, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Ethanol, produced from renewable resources, such as corn, sugar cane and sweet sorghum, is used as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline. For biofuels to become economical, means of lowering production costs must be found. Our research focuses on using a modified method of ensiling to produce ethanol from sorghum. Formic acid, +/- cellulase, and yeast were applied to fresh field-chopped sorghum and then packed tightly into five-gallon plastic silos. Counter-current extraction methods were used as a means of biofuel separation. Sorghum receiving 5 IU/grain dry weight cellulase produced 37.7 liters of ethanol per metric ton on a wet weight basis. Sorghum not receiving cellulose additives produced 23.4 liters of ethanol per metric ton. An ethanol plant of intermediate size (565,272 liters of anhydrous ethanol/year) can operate using sorghum grown on less than 1400 acres.

  17. ALA Conference 2009: Chicago Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    There is joy among those who have the funds to go to Chicago for the American Library Association (ALA) annual conference, July 9-15. Every librarian knows there is nothing better than a Chicago gathering, with the city's wonderful haunts, museums, restaurants, and fine memories of past conferences. The conference program covers nearly every…

  18. Making Connections: Attending Professional Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Attending a professional conference is an effective way to explore and advance knowledge, skills, and careers. For graduate students, attending a conference is an effective way to explore academic fields and new professions. However, attending a professional conference requires precious resources--time and money--so the decision to attend, or not,…

  19. ALA Conference 2009: Chicago Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    There is joy among those who have the funds to go to Chicago for the American Library Association (ALA) annual conference, July 9-15. Every librarian knows there is nothing better than a Chicago gathering, with the city's wonderful haunts, museums, restaurants, and fine memories of past conferences. The conference program covers nearly every…

  20. Summary: A Very Timely Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2012-04-01

    The conference poster includes a very apt phrase that describes a primary motivation for this conference: Time discovers truth. This aphorism, attributed to Seneca, was certainly affirmed by the many exciting talks and discussions at this conference, in both formal and informal settings.

  1. Influence of nitrogen sources on ethanol fermentation in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Chengming; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian; Tang, Lei

    2012-09-01

    An integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to resolve wastewater pollution in cassava ethanol production. In the integrated system, wastewater originating from ethanol distillation was treated by two-stage anaerobic digestion and then used in medium for the next batch of ethanol fermentation. Ammonium and other components in the effluent promoted yeast growth and fermentation rate but did not increase the yield of ethanol. Fermentations with the effluent as the nitrogen source showed higher growth and ethanol production rates (0.215 h(-1) and 1.276 g/L/h, respectively) than urea that resulted in corresponding rates of 0.176 h(-1) and 0.985 g/L/h, respectively. Results indicated that anaerobic digestion effluent can be used as nitrogen source for the ethanol fermentation instead of urea in the ethanol-methane fermentation system.

  2. Biological production of ethanol fom coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data (acetate to ethanol) utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  3. Ethanol production and employment. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Petrulis, M.; Sommer, J.; Hines, F.

    1993-07-01

    Increased U.S. production of ethanol could create 28,000-108,000 new jobs by the year 2000. Ethanol, distilled chiefly from corn, can be mixed with gasoline to reduce the level of hydrocarbon pollutants created by fuel combustion in gasoline engines. Job gains will be concentrated in the rural Midwest, where most of the Nation's corn is grown. Small communities elsewhere can benefit through new biomass technologies that can distill ethanol from organic matter other than corn.

  4. Ethanol fuels: use, production, and economics. [Textbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    This text is intended for use at the junior college or community college level. It contains the following chapters: issues and concerns; the production and use of alcohol fuels; ethanol-potential as fuel extender or alternative; ethanol production plausibility and feasibility in specific situations, feedstock considerations; introduction to basis chemistry, microbiology, and heat transfer; production of ethanol fuel; plant design considerations; plant operations; production economics; and safety. (MHR)

  5. Early exposure to ethanol differentially affects ethanol preference at adult age in two inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Molet, Jenny; Bouaziz, Elodie; Hamon, Michel; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2012-08-01

    Although the acute effects of ethanol exposure on brain development have been extensively studied, the long term consequences of juvenile ethanol intake on behavior at adult age, regarding especially ethanol consumption, are still poorly known. The aim of this study was to analyze the consequences of ethanol ingestion in juvenile C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice on ethanol intake and neurobiological regulations at adulthood. Mice were given intragastric ethanol at 4 weeks of age under different protocols and their spontaneous ethanol consumption was assessed in a free choice paradigm at adulthood. Both serotonin 5-HT(1A) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors were investigated using [(35)S]GTP-γ-S binding assay for the juvenile ethanol regimens which modified adult ethanol consumption. In DBA/2J mice, juvenile ethanol ingestion dose-dependently promoted adult spontaneous ethanol consumption. This early ethanol exposure enhanced 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor-mediated [(35)S]GTP-γ-S binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus and reduced CB1 receptor-mediated G protein coupling in both the striatum and the globus pallidus at adult age. In contrast, early ethanol ingestion by C57BL/6J mice transiently lowered spontaneous ethanol consumption and increased G protein coupling of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in the hippocampus but had no effect on CB1 receptors at adulthood. These results show that a brief and early exposure to ethanol can induce strain-dependent long-lasting changes in both behavior toward ethanol and key receptors of central 5-HT and CB systems in mice.

  6. Ethanol self-administration in rats responding under concurrent schedules for milk or ethanol plus milk.

    PubMed

    Paronis, Carol A

    2013-09-01

    The relative reinforcing strength of drugs can be characterized by the distribution of operant behavior during the availability of other reinforcing stimuli. 'Choice' procedures are not widely used in rats, with the exception of ethanol self-administration in which there often is a choice between ethanol and water, which typically does not maintain much responding. A procedure was developed to evaluate the relative reinforcing strength of ethanol in rats when a similar appetitive reinforcer is concurrently available. Rats were trained to respond on two levers under concurrent fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement with milk (1-50%) or ethanol+milk (4-32% ethanol+5-10% milk). Daily 60-min sessions began with a forced sample of each reinforcer, followed by the concurrent schedules. Under this schedule, rats preferentially allocated their responding to the ethanol-associated lever under conditions of ethanol+5% milk versus 5% milk, but neither preferred nor avoided ethanol when ethanol+10% milk versus 10% milk was available. When 8% ethanol+5% milk was available, 85±6% of responses were directed toward the ethanol-associated lever and the mean ethanol intake was 1.55±0.10 g/kg. The response rate decreased monotonically with the concentration of ethanol. Naltrexone injections did not affect the distribution of responding, but slightly decreased ethanol intake. It is concluded that stable behavior can be maintained under concurrent fixed-ratio schedules of ethanol and milk presentation in rats, resulting in intake of behaviorally active amounts of ethanol.

  7. Pervaporation of ethanol produced from banana waste.

    PubMed

    Bello, Roger Hoel; Linzmeyer, Poliana; Franco, Cláudia Maria Bueno; Souza, Ozair; Sellin, Noeli; Medeiros, Sandra Helena Westrupp; Marangoni, Cintia

    2014-08-01

    Banana waste has the potential to produce ethanol with a low-cost and sustainable production method. The present work seeks to evaluate the separation of ethanol produced from banana waste (rejected fruit) using pervaporation with different operating conditions. Tests were carried out with model solutions and broth with commercial hollow hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane membranes. It was observed that pervaporation performance for ethanol/water binary mixtures was strongly dependent on the feed concentration and operating temperature with ethanol concentrations of 1-10%; that an increase of feed flow rate can enhance the permeation rate of ethanol with the water remaining at almost the same value; that water and ethanol fluxes was increased with the temperature increase; and that the higher effect in flux increase was observed when the vapor pressure in the permeate stream was close to the ethanol vapor pressure. Better results were obtained with fermentation broth than with model solutions, indicated by the permeance and membrane selectivity. This could be attributed to by-products present in the multicomponent mixtures, facilitating the ethanol permeability. By-products analyses show that the presence of lactic acid increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. Based on this, we believe that pervaporation with hollow membrane of ethanol produced from banana waste is indeed a technology with the potential to be applied.

  8. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  9. Basis of the Gabamimetic Profile of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Breese, G. R.; Criswell, H. E.; Carta, M.; Dodson, P. D.; Hanchar, H. J.; Khisti, R. T.; Mameli, M.; Ming, Z.; Morrow, A. L.; Olsen, R. W.; Otis, T. S.; Parsons, L. H.; Penland, S. N.; Roberto, M.; Siggins, G. R.; Valenzuela, C. F.; Wallner, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the 2005 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting. The initial presentation by Dr. Wallner provided evidence that selected GABAA receptors containing the δ subunit display sensitivity to low intoxicating ethanol concentrations and this sensitivity is further increased by a mutation in the cerebellar α6 subunit, found in alcohol-hypersensitive rats. Dr. Mameli reported that ethanol affects γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function by affecting neural circuits that influence GABA release. Dr. Parsons presented data from electrophysiological and microdialysis investigations that ethanol is capable of releasing GABA from presynaptic terminals. Dr. Morrow demonstrated that systemic ethanol increases neuroactive steroids in brain, the absence of which alters various functional responses to ethanol. Dr. Criswell presented evidence that the ability of ethanol to increase GABA was apparent in some, but not all, brain regions indicative of regional specificity. Further, Dr. Criswell demonstrated that neurosteroids alone and when synthesized locally by ethanol act postsynaptically to enhance the effect of GABA released by ethanol in a region specific manner. Collectively, this series of reports support the GABAmimetic profile of acutely administered ethanol being dependent on several specific mechanisms distinct from a direct effect on the major synaptic isoforms of GABAA receptors. PMID:16573592

  10. Continuous membrane fermentor separator for ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ethanol on yeast growth and ethanol production has been studied using the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-2034 under anaerobic conditions. Batch and continuous fermentation data were fitted to a kinetic model. The integration of continuous fermentation and separation of ethanol in the same unit has been proposed. Pervaporation with ethanol selective silicone rubber hollow fiber membranes was considered for separation. A laboratory scale Continuous Membrane Fermentor Separator (CMFS) unit utilizing a shell and tube configuration was designed and fabricated. Two types of continuous fermentation experiments were carried out: fermentation with dead membranes as the reference and fermentation with live membranes through which ethanol was continuously removed by pervaporation from the fermentor. Performance of the CMFS results in higher yeast cell densities, reduction of ethanol inhibition, longer residence time of substrate, more glucose consumption, and recovery of clean and concentrated ethanol. A mathematical model was developed and used to determine the effects of design and operation parameters of the CMFS, including dilution rate, dimensionless membrane volume, substrate concentration, membrane properties, etc. Computer simulation results indicated that the CMFS could provide significant improvements not only in ethanol productivity but also in glucose consumption for highly concentrated substrate when the dimensionless membrane volume and/or permeability of ethanol was increased.

  11. Growth characteristics of bakers' yeast in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Wasungu, K.M.; Simard, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    The influence of temperature (15 - 40 degrees C) and pH (2.5 - 6.0) on the continuous growth of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at steady state in 1% ethanol was investigated. Optimal temperature and pH were 30 degrees C and 4.5, respectively. The short-term effect of ethanol concentration (0.1 - 10.0%) on the yeast growth was assessed in batch culture. Up to 1% of ethanol, the yeast growth increased in function of the ethanol concentration in the medium. The biomass reached a maximum within the interval of 1-4% of ethanol (7.9 and 31.6 g/L, respectively) and decreased at higher concentrations. The residual ethanol concentration in the medium increased rapidly when the initial ethanol concentration exceeded 4%. The best-fit model obtained for growth inhibition as a function of ethanol concentrations was that of Tseng and Wayman: mu m S/(K+S) - i (S-S0). With this model, the specific growth rate (mu) decreased linearly as the ethanol concentration increased between the threshold value (S0) of 11.26 g/L to be fully inhibited at 70.00 g/L (S); an inhibition constant (i) of 0.0048 g/L/hour, a maximum specific growth rate (mu m) of 0.284/hour, and a saturation constant (K) of 0.611 g/L were obtained. (Refs. 17).

  12. Intracellular accumulation of ethanol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Loueiro, V.; Ferreira, H.G.

    1983-09-01

    Ethanol produced in the course of a batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae or added from the outside, affects adversely the specific rate of growth of the yeast population, its viability, its specific rate of fermentation, and the specific rates of the uptake of sugar and amino acids. The underlying mechanisms are many and include irreversible denaturation and hyperbolic noncompetitive inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, the exponential noncompetitive inhibition of glucose, maltose, and ammonium transport, the depression of the optimum and the maximum temperature for growth, the increase of the minimum temperature for growth, and the enhancement of thermal death and petite mutation. Nagodawithana and Steinkraus reported that added ethanol was less toxic for S. cerevisiae than ethanol produced by the yeast. The death rates were lower in the presence of added ethanol than those measured at similar external ethanol concentrations endogenously produced. They proposed that, due to an unbalance between the rates of production and the net outflux of ethanol, there would be an intracellular accumulation of ethanol which in turn would explain the apparently greater inhibitory potency of endogenously produced ethanol present in the medium. This hypothesis was supported by the findings of several authors who reported that the intracellular concentration of ethanol, in the course of batch fermentation, is much higher than its concentration in the extracellular medium. The present work is an attempt to clarify this matter. (Refs. 32).

  13. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  14. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  15. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  16. NIH Consensus Conference. Acupuncture.

    PubMed

    1998-11-04

    To provide clinicians, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of the use and effectiveness of acupuncture to treat a variety of conditions. A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member panel representing the fields of acupuncture, pain, psychology, psychiatry, physical medicine and rehabilitation, drug abuse, family practice, internal medicine, health policy, epidemiology, statistics, physiology, biophysics, and the representatives of the public. In addition, 25 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 1200. Presentations and discussions were divided into 3 phases over 2 1/2 days: (1) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to the consensus questions during a 2-day public session; (2) questions and statements from conference attendees during open discussion periods that were part of the public session; and (3) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second day and morning of the third. The conference was organized and supported by the Office of Alternative Medicine and the Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. The literature, produced from January 1970 to October 1997, was searched through MEDLINE, Allied and Alternative Medicine, EMBASE, and MANTIS, as well as through a hand search of 9 journals that were not indexed by the National Library of Medicine. An extensive bibliography of 2302 references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Expert speakers prepared abstracts of their own conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in the open forum and scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience

  17. Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark V; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2014-02-01

    Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the 'drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a 'front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15 min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum.

  18. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  19. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  20. Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2014-01-01

    Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the ‘drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a ‘front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15 min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

  1. Ethanol: a brief economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Del Rio Farms, Inc. has a large farm in the Imperial Valley area of California, a known geothermal resource area. The 10 MW geothermal flash steam power plant, operated by Union Oil Company, is located on their property. Presently the owners have under consideration a 10 million gallon per year ethanol plant. The initial feed to the plant would be corn, with sugar beets as a possible alternate feed. The ultimate plan is to use waste products and biomass feed stocks. Geothermal water would provide the necessary process heat for the plant. An economic evaluation was performed to assist in the planning. Each of the following conclusions are based on an ethanol plant that produces 10 million gallons of ethanol per year. Over a 20 year period, the plant using a corn feed stock would generate a rate of return of +12% on a total equity capital investment of $33,000,000. Over a 15 year period, the plant using a corn feed stock is probably not economically feasible since it would have a rate of return less than 12% or a total equity capital investment of $33,000,000. A corn feed stock plant operates at a loss for the first seven years if 95% of the $33,000,000 cost is debt financed. The plant is economically feasible only if offsetting energy income from other profitable operation permits taking advantage of investment tax credits and depletion allowances that are available. If this is true, the project is highly feasible, paying back twice the 5% equity capital in the first year.

  2. Effects of puffer (Sphoeroides rubripes) supplementation on disruption of antioxidant defense systems in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jong-Chan; Park, Jae-Hee; Kim, Rae-Young; Jeon, Kyoung-Im; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Bo-Young; Park, Eunju

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of puffer (Sphoeroides rubripes) supplementation on antioxidant metabolism in ethanol-treated rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 7 rats each and fed (1) an AIN-93G diet (NC), (2) 25% ethanol (E), (3) 25% ethanol and an AIN-93G diet containing 1% puffer flesh (E+F), or (4) 25% ethanol and an AIN-93G diet containing 1% puffer skin (E+S) for 5 wk. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed and their blood and organs were collected. To evaluate the effect of puffer supplementation, lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and conjugated diene (CD) levels, DNA damage, and mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were assessed. Animals that were fed ethanol showed reduced plasma levels of lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin and significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides, DNA damage, and HO-1 expression. Dietary supplementation with puffer conferred an antioxidant effect by significantly increasing the levels of γ-tocopherol, a lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin, and by significantly decreasing the plasma levels of CD, DNA damage, and HO-1 expression. These results suggest that consumption of puffer improves the antioxidant status of ethanol-treated rats.

  3. European Conference on Health Economics.

    PubMed

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own.

  4. Energy Conferences and Symposia; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.H.; Simpson, W.F. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Energy Conferences and Symposia, a monthly publication, was instituted to keep scientists, engineers, managers, and related energy professionals abreast of meetings sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by other technical associations. Announcements cover conference, symposia, workshops, congresses, and other formal meetings pertaining to DOE programmatic interests. Complete meeting information, including title, sponsor, and contact, is presented in the main section, which is arranged alphabetically by subject area. Within a subject, citations are sorted by beginning data of the meeting. New listings are indicated by a bullet after the conference number and DOE-sponsored conferences are indicated by a star. Two indexes are provided for cross referencing conference information. The Chronological Index lists conference titles by dates and gives the subject area where complete information they may be found. The Location Index is alphabetically sorted by the city where the conference will be held.

  5. Ethanol sensitivity of rice and oat coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2002-05-01

    The ability to avoid the ethanol-induced injury was evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles. The growth of the rice and oat coleoptiles was inhibited by ethanol exogenously applied at concentrations greater than 200 and 30 mM, respectively. At 300 mM ethanol, oat coleoptiles were brown and flaccid but rice coleoptiles did not show any visible symptoms of toxicity. The acetaldehyde level in rice and oat coleoptiles was increased by exogenously applied ethanol and the increases were greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At 300 mM ethanol, the acetaldehyde concentrations in the rice and oat coleoptiles were 46 and 87 nmol g-1 FW under aerobic conditions, respectively, and 52 and 124 nmol g-1 FW under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) in the direction of ethanol to acetaldehyde was greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles and ADH protein in oat coleoptiles was more induced by exogenously applied ethanol than that in rice coleoptiles. These results suggest that in vivo conversion rate of ethanol to acetaldehyde by ADH is lower in rice than oat coleoptiles, which may be one of the reasons that ethanol sensitivity of rice is much lower than that of oat coleoptiles. The great ability of rice to avoid the ethanol-induced injuries may contribute its anoxia tolerance when glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation replace the Krebs cycle as the main source of energy under anaerobic conditions.

  6. Ethanol elimination rates in an ED population.

    PubMed

    Brennan, D F; Betzelos, S; Reed, R; Falk, J L

    1995-05-01

    Knowledge of the rate of ethanol elimination is essential in the assessment of the intoxicated patient. Surprisingly little literature is available regarding ethanol elimination rates in emergency department (ED) patients; prior studies almost exclusively examined populations of alcoholics or normal controls. Consequently, this prospective observational study was undertaken to assess the rate of ethanol elimination in an ED population. Twenty-four consecutive adult ED patients clinically suspected of intoxication who had serum ethanol determinations drawn were enrolled. Patients underwent serial ethanol determinations via breathalyzer (Intoxilyzer 1400, CMI Inc., Owensboro, KY). Linear regression analysis of the plot of decrease in ethanol level over time was performed to determine the rate of ethanol elimination. Initial ethanol levels in the 24 patients ranged from 58 to 447 mg/dL (mean, 249 +/- 109 [SD] mg/dL). Patients were observed for a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 9 observations (mean, 3.9 +/- 1.7), over a period of 0.5 to 12.1 hours (mean, 4.4 +/-3.5 h). Clinical features of intoxication were poorly correlated with ethanol level (r < .5). The rate of ethanol elimination in the ED population was 19.6 mg/dL/h (r = .83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9 to 22.3 mg/dL/h). Subgroup analysis found differences that were statistically significant but small. Multiple regression analysis showed that time was the major variable useful in predicting changes in ethanol level (P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Ethanol induces cytostasis of cortical basal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Riar, Amanjot Kaur; Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Rathinam, Mary Latha; Henderson, George I; Mahimainathan, Lenin

    2016-01-19

    Developing brain is a major target for alcohol's actions and neurological/functional abnormalities include microencephaly, reduced frontal cortex, mental retardation and attention-deficits. Previous studies have shown that ethanol altered the lateral ventricular neuroepithelial cell proliferation. However, the effect of ethanol on subventricular basal progenitors which generate majority of the cortical layers is not known. We utilized spontaneously immortalized rat brain neuroblasts obtained from cultures of 18-day-old fetal rat cerebral cortices using in vitro ethanol exposures and an in utero binge model. In the in vitro acute model, cells were exposed to 86 mM ethanol for 8, 12 and 24 h. The second in vitro model comprised of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure which consisted of 14 h of ethanol treatment followed by 10 h of withdrawal with three repetitions. E18 neuroblasts expressing Tbr2 representing immature basal progenitors displayed significant reduction of proliferation in response to ethanol in both the models. The decreased proliferation was accompanied by absence of apoptosis or autophagy as illustrated by FACS analysis and expression of apoptotic and autophagic markers. The BrdU incorporation assay indicated that ethanol enhanced the accumulation of cells at G1 with reduced cell number in S phase. In addition, the ethanol-inhibited basal neuroblasts proliferation was connected to decrease in cyclin D1 and Rb phosphorylation indicating cell cycle arrest. Further, in utero ethanol exposure in pregnant rats during E15-E18 significantly decreased Tbr2 and cyclin D1 positive cell number in cerebral cortex of embryos as assessed by cell sorting analysis by flow cytometry. Altogether, the current findings demonstrate that ethanol impacts the expansion of basal progenitors by inducing cytostasis that might explain the anomalies of cortico-cerebral development associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.

  8. The Role of Acetaldehyde in the Increased Acceptance of Ethanol after Prenatal Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Angulo-Alcalde, Asier; Spear, Norman E; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the oxidation of ethanol, can be responsible for both, the appetitive and the aversive effects produced by ethanol intoxication. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that acetaldehyde produced in the periphery by the liver is responsible for the aversive effects of ethanol, while the appetitive effects relate to the acetaldehyde produced centrally through the catalase system. On the other hand, from studies in our and other laboratories, it is known that ethanol exposure during the last gestational days (GD) consistently enhances the postnatal acceptance of ethanol when measured during early ontogeny in the rat. This increased liking of ethanol is a conditioned appetitive response acquired by the fetus by the association of ethanol's flavor and an appetitive reinforcer. Although this reinforcer has not yet been fully identified, one possibility points to acetaldehyde produced centrally in the fetus as a likely candidate. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that very early in the rat's ontogeny brain catalases are functional, while the liver's enzymatic system is still immature. In this study, rat dams were administered on GD 17-20 with water or ethanol, together with an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent (D-penicillamine). The offspring's responses to ethanol was then assessed at different postnatal stages with procedures adequate for each developmental stage: on day 1, using the "odor crawling locomotion test" to measure ethanol's odor attractiveness; on day 5, in an operant conditioning procedure with ethanol as the reinforcer; and on day 14 in an ethanol intake test. Results show that the absence of acetaldehyde during prenatal ethanol exposure impeded the observation of the increased acceptance of ethanol at any age. This seems to confirm the crucial role of acetaldehyde as a reinforcer in the appetitive learning occurring during prenatal ethanol exposure.

  9. Role of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde in operant oral self-administration of ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Peana, Alessandra T; Porcheddu, Valeria; Bennardini, Federico; Carta, Antonio; Rosas, Michela; Acquas, Elio

    2015-12-01

    The role of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde has not been examined yet on performance in a model of operant oral self-administration. However, previous studies reported that an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent, D-penicillamine (DP) and an inhibitor of catalase-mediated acetaldehyde production, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) reduce voluntary ethanol consumption. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the effects of DP and 3-AT on acquisition and maintenance of oral operant ethanol self-administration. Using operant chambers, rats learned to nose poke in order to receive ethanol solution (5-10 % v/v) under an FR1 schedule of reinforcement in which discrete light and tone cues were presented during ethanol delivery. DP and 3-AT impair the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, whereas its maintenance is not affected neither by drug given alone for both 10 or 5 % ethanol nor by drugs association for 5 % ethanol. Moreover, when the concentration of ethanol was diminished from 10 to 5 %, rats increased the rate of self-administration behaviour. These findings suggest that brain acetaldehyde plays a critical role during acquisition of operant self-administration in ethanol-naïve rats. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, acetaldehyde could contribute to ethanol self-administration by a combined mechanism: On one hand, its lack (by DP or 3-AT) might result in further ethanol-seeking and taking and, on the other, inhibition of ethanol metabolism (by 3-AT) might release an action of the un-metabolised fraction of ethanol that does not overall result in compromising maintenance of ethanol self-administration.

  10. Mississippi Climate & Hydrology Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, R.; Huang, J.

    2002-05-01

    The GEWEX Continental International Project (GCIP), which started in 1995 and completed in 2001, held its grand finale conference in New Orleans, LA in May 2002. Participants at this conference along with the scientists funded through the GCIP program are invited to contribute a paper to a special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). This special JGR issue (called GCIP3) will serve as the final report on scientific research conducted by GCIP investigators. Papers are solicited on the following topical areas, but are not limited to, (1) water energy budget studies; (2) warm season precipitation; (3) predictability and prediction system; (4) coupled land-atmosphere models; (5) climate and water resources applications. The research areas cover observations, modeling, process studies and water resources applications.

  11. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  12. NSI conference support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaron, Susan

    1991-01-01

    One of the many services NSI provides as an extension of customer/user support is to attend major scientific conferences. The conference effort provides NASA/OSSA scientists with many benefits: (1) scientist get to see NSI in action; they utilize the network to read email, and have recently begun to demonstrate their scientific research to their colleagues; (2) scientist get an opportunity to meet and interact with NSI Staff, which gives scientists a chance to get status on their requirements, ask about network status, get acquainted with our procedures, and learn about services; and (3) scientists are exposed to networking in a larger sense; particularly by knowing about other NASA groups who provide valuable scientific resources over the Internet.

  13. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos hold up tiger toys that will be carried with them to the International Space Station to commemorate International Tiger Day at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014. The mission is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Hoshide, Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko, and NASA Flight Engineer Sunita Williams is scheduled for 8:40 a.m. local time on Sunday, July 15. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 34 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    Expedition 34/35 NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Dec. 18, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for December 19 and will send Marshburn, Roman Romanenko of ROSCOSMOS and Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide, left, answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Seated next to him is Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Hoshide, Malenchenko, and NASA Flight Engineer Sunita Williams is scheduled for 8:40 a.m. local time on Sunday, July 15. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 34 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    Expedition 34/35 Flight Engineer and Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Dec. 18, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for December 19 and will send Hadfield, Tom Marshburn of NASA and Roman Romanenko of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 33 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-22

    Expedition 33 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy answers a reporters question during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Monday, October 22, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 32 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-13

    Quarantined Expedition 32 Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko, right, answers reporters questions from behind glass during a prelaunch press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel on Friday, July 13, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Seated next to him is JAXA Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide. The launch of the Soyuz spacecraft with Malenchenko, NASA Flight Engineer Sunita Williams and Hoshide is scheduled for 8:40 a.m. local time on Sunday, July 15. Photo Credit (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 37 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-24

    Expedition 37 NASA Flight Engineer Michael Hopkins answers a reporter's question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Sept. 24, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for September 26 and will send Hopkins, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kotov and Russian Flight Engineer Sergei Ryazansky on a five and a half-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 37 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-24

    Expedition 37 backup crewmember Alexander Skvortsov anwers a reporter’s question at a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Tuesday, Sept. 24, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for September 26 and will send Kotov, Hopkins and Ryazansky on a five and a half-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Steven Benner, a distinguished fellow at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  3. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a lead researcher and NASA astrobiology research fellow, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  4. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Felisa Wolfe-Simon, director, Astrobiology Program, NASA Headquarters, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  5. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Pamela Conrad, an astrobiologist from Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  6. Military Energy Alternatives Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    Power Generation and Alternative Energy Branch US Army RDECOM CERDEC CP&ID Power Division Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD...RDER-CCA-PG PG A E - C R – 1 2– 0 1 M ili ta ry E ne rg y A lte rn at iv es C on fe re nc e Military Energy ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Energy Alternatives Conference 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jonathan

  7. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 backup crew member Reid Wiseman of NASA is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of the launch of Expedition 38 prime crew members; Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    NASA Expedition 41 backup crew member Flight Engineer Scott Kelly of NASA answers a question during a press conference Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos are set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, right, talks as Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, listens, from quarantine behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of their launch with fellow crew mate, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA answers a question during a press conference on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for Sept. 26 and will carry Wilmore, Elena Serova of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), and Alexander Samokutyaev of Roscosmos into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos is seen in quarantine behind glass during the final press conference held a day ahead of his launch with fellow crew mates, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 38 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 backup crew member Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency is seen in quarantine, behind glass, during the final press conference held a day ahead of the launch of Expedition 38 prime crew members; Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Division Director, left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March asWilliam Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, looks on. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  16. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Sara Seager, Professor of Planetary Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  17. Constellation Program Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-04

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, seated left, Scott Horowitz, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems and Jeff Hanley, Constellation Program Manager, right, are seen during a press conference outlining specific center responsibilities associated with the Constellation Program for robotic and human moon and Mars exploration, Monday, June 5, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Dean Acosta, NASA Deputy Assistant Administrator and Press Secretary, far left, moderates the program. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. SAARC Conference on Children.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In September 1992, in Colombo, Sri Lanka, ministry representatives attended the 2nd South Asian Ministerial Conference on Children to discuss child survival and safe motherhood, maternal and child nutrition, basic education, safe water, sanitation, the environment, child rights, and sociopolitical strategy to reach goals and to reduce poverty. To achieve the 7 major goals and essential supportive goals for the region, each country must define tasks in manageable terms based on country-specific and community-specific needs and importance while at the same time countries should cooperate to strengthen prospects of achieving goals emerging as priorities. The Conference called for countries to reinforce their National Plans of Action with a regional perspective and to consider representative goals in primary education, diarrhea control, iodine deficiency disorders, reducing gender disparity, family size, child labor, drinking water, guinea worm disease, immunization, maternal mortality, and nutrition. The Conference emphasized that the strategy for reaching child-centered goals should be integrated with the total development strategy and be a holistic approach. For example, governments need to expand social safety programs for children and women because of structural adjustments in the economy. The resolution also called on governments to allow community-led local planning. A working group at the conference made recommendations for supporting/sectoral goals on water supply, sanitation, and environment. For example, it called for universal access to potable water and sanitary means of excreta disposal by 2000 and for adequate shelter and services to improve the living environment of children in South Asia. Some recommended strategies to achieve these goals were community participation; decentralization; promotion of self-reliance, cost-sharing, and sustainability; and special training for women. Other areas they addressed were home gardens for vegetables and fruits

  19. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 prime crew members, Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, left, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), center, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos, right, pose for a photo at the conclusion of the press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014. Their mission to the International Space Station is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. Expedition 52 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-10

    Expedition 52 prime and backup crews: Paolo Nespoli of ESA, left, Randy Bresnik of NASA, Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos, Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos, Norishige Kanai of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and, Mark Vande Hei of NASA pose for group photograph at the conclusion of their crew press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), Monday, July 10, 2017 in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, center, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, right, wave to those gathered at the conclusion of a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  2. Expedition 42 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    Expedition 42 Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA (left), Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) (center), and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (right), pose for a photo at the conclusion of the press conference, Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch Nov. 24 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, center, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, right, pose for a picture at the conclusion of a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  4. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, left, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), center, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos, right, wave to the crowd at the conclusion of the press conference, Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. GLORY Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-20

    Joy Bretthauer, Glory Program Executive, NASA Headquarters, talks about the launch of the GLORY mission during a news conference at NASA Headquarters, Thursday, Jan. 20, 2011, in Washington. NASA's newest Earth-observing research mission is scheduled for launch form Vandenburg Air Force Base in California on Feb. 23. The mission will improve our understanding of how the sun and tiny atmosppheric particles called aerosols affect Earth's climate. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  6. GLORY Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-20

    Michael Mischenko, from NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and a Glory project scientist, talks about the launch of the GLORY mission during a news conference at NASA Headquarters, Thursday, Jan. 20, 2011, in Washington. NASA's newest Earth-observing research mission is scheduled for launch form Vandenburg Air Force Base in California on Feb. 23. The mission will improve our understanding of how the sun and tiny atmosppheric particles called aerosols affect Earth's climate. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    Alan Boss, an astrophyscist at the Carnegie Institution at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. Urticarial reaction caused by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yukinobu; Sumikawa, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Itami, Satoshi; Katayama, Ichiro; Aoki, Toshiyuki

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of an urticarial reaction after drinking alcohol beverages. The patient was a 47-year-old man suffering urticarial and anaphylactoid reaction to alcohol for two years. These reactions were observed at every alcohol beverages intake. We performed a prick test with diluted ethanol, alcohol beverages and their metabolites (acetaldehyde, acetic acid). Only acetic acid showed a positive result. Oral challenge test with diluted-ethanol caused pruritus and swelling of his lips. An oral challenge test with 8% diluted Shochu (Japanese distilled alcohol from rice or wheat) caused wheals on his upper back. Only acetic acid, a metabolite of alcohol, induced a positive prick test in the patient with alcohol-induced urticaria. This result was not observed in normal volunteers. An oral challenge test with diluted-alcohol or Shochu showed a positive wheal reaction in a dose dependent-manner which suggests that urticaria seen in this patient might be induced by alcohol-intolerance. However possible allergic reaction to acetaldehyde could not be excluded.

  9. Cocaine attenuates vasoconstriction to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Bove, A.A.; Morley, D.; Vosacek, R.; Zhang, X.Y.; Shah, R. )

    1991-03-11

    The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effects of cocaine and ethanol on vasomotor tone. Using a standard isolated vascular ring preparation, 24 rings from 7 New Zealand White Rabbits were studied. All rings were denuded as verified by methacholine challenge. The dose response to NE for each ring was used as a standard for vasoconstrictors Dose response curves to ETH and C were done in random order. Concentrations of both ETH and C employed were physiologically attainable in man and below thresholds for coma or death. The dose response curve to ETH was repeated after addition of 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M C to the arterial bath. After adding 1,500 ug/ml of ETH, the dose response curve to C was repeated. Ethanol, alone caused significant vasoconstriction of arterial rings. After the addition of C to the bath, the dose response to ETH was significantly shifted to the right, peak contraction achieved was 36.6 {plus minus} 3.2% of maximal NE contraction. Cocaine alone did not result in any change in resting tension of the rings. When ETH was added to the bath, C caused vasoconstriction, the peak value equivalent to 12.5 {plus minus} 2.2% of maximal contraction to NE.

  10. Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by acetaldehyde: role in the cardioprotective effect of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Al-Abed, Y; Mitsuhashi, T; Li, H; Lawson, J A; FitzGerald, G A; Founds, H; Donnelly, T; Cerami, A; Ulrich, P; Bucala, R

    1999-03-02

    Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a beneficial effect of moderate ethanol consumption on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a two-carbon carbonyl compound that can react with nucleophiles to form covalent addition products. We have identified a biochemical modification produced by the reaction of acetaldehyde with protein-bound Amadori products. Amadori products typically arise from the nonenzymatic addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) to protein amino groups and are the precursors to irreversibly bound, crosslinking moieties called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs accumulate over time on plasma lipoproteins and vascular wall components and play an important role in the development of diabetes- and age-related cardiovascular disease. The attachment of acetaldehyde to a model Amadori product produces a chemically stabilized complex that cannot rearrange and progress to AGE formation. We tested the role of this reaction in preventing AGE formation in vivo by administering ethanol to diabetic rats, which normally exhibit increased AGE formation and high circulating levels of the hemoglobin Amadori product, HbA1c, and the hemoglobin AGE product, Hb-AGE. In this model study, diabetic rats fed an ethanol diet for 4 weeks showed a 52% decrease in Hb-AGE when compared with diabetic controls (P < 0.001). Circulating levels of HbA1c were unaffected by ethanol, pointing to the specificity of the acetaldehyde reaction for the post-Amadori, advanced glycation process. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the so-called "French paradox," (the cardioprotection conferred by moderate ethanol ingestion) and may offer new strategies for inhibiting advanced glycation.

  11. SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF ETHANOL: IMPACT OF AGE, STRESS AND PRIOR HISTORY OF ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  12. Actions of Ethanol on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels: Effects of Acute and Chronic Ethanol Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    No. 2 C4"ght 0 1967 by "he Amusca Soiety for Pharmacolog and Kxporuont Therpadu" Prud m U.S.A. Actions of Ethanol on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium ...inhibitory effect of ethanol in vitro on sodium benzoate binding to neuronal sodium channels were studi-d in uptake for up to 20 days after withdrawal...adapt rapidly to some sodium uptake in the absence of ethanol in vitro, however, a effects of ethanol and that chronic ethanol administration can

  13. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  14. 2004 Mutagenesis Gordon Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sue Jinks-Robertson

    2005-09-16

    Mutations are genetic alterations that drive biological evolution and cause many, if not all, human diseases. Mutation originates via two distinct mechanisms: ''vertical'' variation is de novo change of one or few bases, whereas ''horizontal'' variation occurs by genetic recombination, which creates new mosaics of pre-existing sequences. The Mutagenesis Conference has traditionally focused on the generation of mutagenic intermediates during normal DNA synthesis or in response to environmental insults, as well as the diverse repair mechanisms that prevent the fixation of such intermediates as permanent mutations. While the 2004 Conference will continue to focus on the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, there will be increased emphasis on the biological consequences of mutations, both in terms of evolutionary processes and in terms of human disease. The meeting will open with two historical accounts of mutation research that recapitulate the intellectual framework of this field and thereby place the current research paradigms into perspective. The two introductory keynote lectures will be followed by sessions on: (1) mutagenic systems, (2) hypermutable sequences, (3) mechanisms of mutation, (4) mutation avoidance systems, (5) mutation in human hereditary and infectious diseases, (6) mutation rates in evolution and genotype-phenotype relationships, (7) ecology, mutagenesis and the modeling of evolution and (8) genetic diversity of the human population and models for human mutagenesis. The Conference will end with a synthesis of the meeting as the keynote closing lecture.

  15. SALT Science Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    2015-06-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  16. CONFERENCE NOTE: Forthcoming Conference on Frequency Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    The Third Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology will be held 5 7 October 1981 at the Centre Paul Langevin, Aussois, Savoie, France. This Conference will follow the lines of its predecessors at Forêt Montmorency, Quebec, Canada in September 1971 and at Copper Mountain, Colorado, USA in July 1976. It is intended to serve as a discussion forum on recent progress and ideas relating to precision frequency standards, the associated metrology and the specific fields of applications. A tentative list of the topics to be covered is the following: Progress in the field of atomic/molecular frequency standards throughout the electromagnetic spectrum Current trends and discussion of the precision capabilities of new techniques (Ramsey fringes in optics, cooling of atoms and ions . . . ) System application (VLBI, navigation . . .) and scientific applications (relativity, geodesy . . .) of atomic/molecular frequency standards and needs in these fields Modern distant time and frequency comparisons Progress in frequency synthesis of microwave to visible frequencies, etc. Most of the talks will be by invitation. Time will be provided for discussion, as well as for presentation of selected late ideas and results. Those interested in the Symposium should communicate with: Dr C Audoin, Laboratoire de l'Horloge Atomique, Bât. 221, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France.

  17. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor activation on postnatal day 28. These animals were then evaluated for ethanol-mediated conditioned taste aversion and underwent a 16-day-long ethanol intake protocol. Ethanol-mediated aversive effects were unrelated to ethanol locomotor stimulation or subsequent ethanol consumption patterns. Ethanol intake during late adolescence was greatest in animals initiated to ethanol earliest at postnatal day 28. Females that were more sensitive to ethanol’s locomotor-activating effects showed a transient increase in ethanol self-administration. Blood ethanol concentrations during initiation were not related to ethanol-induced locomotor activation. Adolescent rats appeared sensitive to the locomotor-stimulatory effects of ethanol. Even brief ethanol exposure during adolescence may promote later ethanol intake. PMID:20373327

  18. Integrated Biosensor Systems for Ethanol Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadeff, Eliana M.; Salgado, Andrea M.; Cós, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valero, Francisco; Valdman, Belkis

    Different integrated systems with a bi-enzymatic biosensor, working with two different methods for ethanol detection—flow injection analysis (FIA) or sequential injection analysis (SIA)—were developed and applied for ethanol extracted from gasohol mixtures, as well as for samples of alcoholic beverages and fermentation medium. A detection range of 0.05-1.5 g ethanol/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9909, has been reached when using FIA system, working with only one microreactor packed with immobilized alcohol oxidase and injecting free horseradish peroxidase. When using both enzymes, immobilized separately in two microreactors, the detection ranges obtained varied from 0.001 to 0.066 g ethanol/l, without on-line dilution to 0.010-0.047 g ethanol/l when a 1:7,000 dilution ratio was employed, reaching correlation coefficients of 0.9897 and 0.9992, respectively. For the integrated biosensor SIA system with the stop-flow technique, the linear range was 0.005-0.04 g/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9922.

  19. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Silage and silage-containing feed on dairy farms have recently been identified as a source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this work, we present measurements of ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage samples made using a wind tunnel system. Flux of ethanol f...

  20. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

  1. Methamphetamine and ethanol interactions in humans.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, J; Jones, R T; Upton, R; Jacob, P

    1995-05-01

    Methamphetamine and ethanol are commonly used together. We examined the effects of intravenous methamphetamine (30 mg), oral ethanol (1 gm/kg), and the combination of methamphetamine (30 mg) and ethanol (1 gm/kg). Eight methamphetamine and ethanol users were studied in a double-blind, double-placebo, within-subject, balanced Latin-square design. Ethanol was administered in six drinks over 30 minutes. Methamphetamine was injected 60 minutes after the first drink was begun. Cardiovascular, subjective, and neuropsychologic effects of the drug combinations were measured for 6 hours. Methamphetamine and amphetamine in plasma and urine were measured by capillary gas chromatography for 48 hours. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. Compared with methamphetamine alone, the combination increased heart rate but decreased systolic blood pressure. The net cardiovascular effect was an increase in rate pressure product, an index of cardiac work and myocardial oxygen consumption. The combination diminished the subjective effects of ethanol while not affecting the subjective effects of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were not altered by the concurrent administration of ethanol, with the exception of lowering the apparent volume of distribution at steady state for methamphetamine. As a potent sympathomimetic drug with alpha-agonist-like effects, methamphetamine increased systolic blood pressure, with minimal change in heart rate. The concurrent administration of methamphetamine and ethanol increased cardiac work, which could produce more adverse cardiovascular effects than either drug taken alone. The increased perceived global intoxication may explain the popularity of this drug combination.

  2. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  3. Fuel ethanol production from agricultural residues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. In 2012, about 13.3 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was produced from corn in the USA which makes up 10% of gasoline supply. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw and barley straw can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic fee...

  4. SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant issue affecting widespread acceptance of bioethanol as a sustainable fuel is the energy used to grow the feedstock, ferment the feedstock to ethanol, and separate dry ethanol from the fermentation broth. For the latter, the best current technology is two-step disti...

  5. Integrated biosensor systems for ethanol analysis.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Eliana M; Salgado, Andrea M; Cós, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valero, Francisco; Valdman, Belkis

    2008-03-01

    Different integrated systems with a bi-enzymatic biosensor, working with two different methods for ethanol detection--flow injection analysis (FIA) or sequential injection analysis (SIA)--were developed and applied for ethanol extracted from gasohol mixtures, as well as for samples of alcoholic beverages and fermentation medium. A detection range of 0.05-1.5 g ethanol/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9909, has been reached when using FIA system, working with only one microreactor packed with immobilized alcohol oxidase and injecting free horseradish peroxidase. When using both enzymes, immobilized separately in two microreactors, the detection ranges obtained varied from 0.001 to 0.066 g ethanol/l, without on-line dilution to 0.010-0.047 g ethanol/l when a 1:7,000 dilution ratio was employed, reaching correlation coefficients of 0.9897 and 0.9992, respectively. For the integrated biosensor SIA system with the stop-flow technique, the linear range was 0.005-0.04 g/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9922.

  6. SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant issue affecting widespread acceptance of bioethanol as a sustainable fuel is the energy used to grow the feedstock, ferment the feedstock to ethanol, and separate dry ethanol from the fermentation broth. For the latter, the best current technology is two-step disti...

  7. Controlled Antibiotic use during Fuel Ethanol Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The production of fuel ethanol from corn feedstock is a rapidly growing industry in the US. The ability to make a profit in ethanol production from corn is marginal, and depends heavily on the sale of byproducts of the fermentation process. The fermentation reaction is optimized for yeast growth a...

  8. Composition and Behavior of Fuel Ethanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol usage in the United States has increased due in part to the elimination of methyl tert-butyl ether from the fuel supply and to the mandates of Congress. Two samples, one each from a wet mill and a dry mill ethanol plant, were obtained before denaturing. Each of these ...

  9. Sweden will build an ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-16

    It is reported that a 10 million dollar demonstration plant for producing ethanol by continuous fermentation will be built in Sweden. The plant will have a capacity of 20,000 liters/day of ethanol and 30.5 metric tons/day of protein-rich cattle fodder using potatoes and grain as feedstock.

  10. Antidepressant Effect of Aminophylline After Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Escudeiro, Sarah Souza; Soares, Paula Matias; Almeida, Anália Barbosa; de Freitas Guimarães Lobato, Rodrigo; de Araujo, Dayane Pessoa; Macedo, Danielle Silveira; Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2013-01-01

    This work investigated the association of acute ethanol and aminophylline administration on behavioral models of depression and prefrontal monoamine levels (i.e. norepinephrine and dopamine) in mice. The animals received a single dose of ethanol (2 g/kg) or aminophylline (5 or 10 mg/kg) alone or in association. Thirty minutes after the last drug administration, the animals were assessed in behavioral models by the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. After these tests, the animals were sacrificed and the prefrontal cortices dissected to measure monoamine content. Results showed that ethanol presented depression-like activity in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. These effects were reversed by the association with aminophylline in all tests. Norepinephrine and dopamine levels decreased, while an increase in the dopamine metabolite, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid (DOPAC), after ethanol administration was observed. On the contrary, the association of ethanol and aminophylline increased the norepinephrine and dopamine content, while it decreased DOPAC when compared to the ethanol group, confirming the alterations observed in the behavioral tests. These data reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system on ethanol effects, highlighting the importance of the norepinephrine and dopamine pathways in the prefrontal cortex to the effects of ethanol. PMID:23641339

  11. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  12. Composition and Behavior of Fuel Ethanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol usage in the United States has increased due in part to the elimination of methyl tert-butyl ether from the fuel supply and to the mandates of Congress. Two samples, one each from a wet mill and a dry mill ethanol plant, were obtained before denaturing. Each of these ...

  13. Hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  14. Ethanol as an economic competitor to gasoline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fuel ethanol is one of the technology success stories of the 21st century. In less then one third of a century it has gone from being a material produced rather inefficiently in small quantities to a major commercial product. This success can be attributed not only to the fact that ethanol is a rene...

  15. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  16. GM1 ganglioside reduces ethanol intoxication and the development of ethanol dependence.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C J; Rezazadeh, S M; Lal, H

    1995-01-01

    The monosialoganglioside, GM1, protects the nervous system against a variety of insults. In this study, we evaluated the protective properties of GM1 on ethanol intoxication and development of dependence. GM1 (20-40 mg/kg, IP) reduced the extent and duration of ataxia produced by ethanol (2 g/kg, IP, 15-95 min), and delayed the onset of loss and reduced the duration of the righting reflex (LORR) produced by ethanol (4.2 g/kg, IP). GM1 did not alter ethanol-induced hypothermia or the rate of ethanol clearance. Rather, GM1 increased the waking blood ethanol concentration. In animals fed a complete liquid diet containing 4.5% ethanol, concurrent administration of GM1 (40 mg/kg/day) blocked the tremors, hypolocomotion, and anxiety-like behavior associated with ethanol withdrawal. These findings demonstrate that GM1 reduces both ethanol's acute intoxication and the signs and symptoms of ethanol withdrawal by a mechanism not related to ethanol pharmacokinetics.

  17. An integrative analysis of transcriptomic response of ethanol tolerant strains to ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kasavi, Ceyda; Eraslan, Serpil; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Kirdar, Betul

    2016-02-01

    The accumulation of ethanol is one of the main environmental stresses that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to in industrial alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production processes. Despite the known impacts of ethanol, the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol tolerance are still not fully understood. Novel gene targets leading to ethanol tolerance were previously identified via a network approach and the investigations of the deletions of these genes resulted in the improved ethanol tolerance of pmt7Δ/pmt7Δ and yhl042wΔ/yhl042wΔ strains. In the present study, an integrative system based approach was used to investigate the global transcriptional changes in these two ethanol tolerant strains in response to ethanol and hence to elucidate the mechanisms leading to the observed tolerant phenotypes. In addition to strain specific biological processes, a number of common and already reported biological processes were found to be affected in the reference and both ethanol tolerant strains. However, the integrative analysis of the transcriptome with the transcriptional regulatory network and the ethanol tolerance network revealed that each ethanol tolerant strain had a specific organization of the transcriptomic response. Transcription factors around which most important changes occur were determined and active subnetworks in response to ethanol and functional clusters were identified in all strains.

  18. Steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production over Cu/Co-Mg-Al-based catalysts prepared by hydrotalcite route.

    PubMed

    Homsi, Doris; Rached, Jihane Abou; Aouad, Samer; Gennequin, Cédric; Dahdah, Eliane; Estephane, Jane; Tidahy, Haingomalala Lucette; Aboukaïs, Antoine; Abi-Aad, Edmond

    2017-04-01

    The performances of different 5Cu/CoxMg6-xAl2 (x = 0; 2; 4; 6) catalysts prepared by the wet impregnation method were investigated in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction (ESR) at 450 °C during 4 h under a steam/ethanol ratio of 3 (S/E = 3). The best catalyst among the prepared solids was 5Cu/Co6Al2 as it showed a complete ethanol conversion and the highest hydrogen and carbon dioxide productivities. However, following 50 h of aging, the catalyst deactivated due to the formation of a high amount of carbonaceous products detected by differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry. On the other hand, the 5Cu/Co2Mg4Al2 catalyst showed a much lower quantity of coke deposition with no deactivation due to the basic character conferred by the magnesium oxide phase.

  19. Industrial fuel ethanol yeasts contain adaptive copy number changes in genes involved in vitamin B1 and B6 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stambuk, Boris U; Dunn, Barbara; Alves, Sergio L; Duval, Eduarda H; Sherlock, Gavin

    2009-12-01

    Fuel ethanol is now a global energy commodity that is competitive with gasoline. Using microarray-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), we have determined gene copy number variations (CNVs) common to five industrially important fuel ethanol Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains responsible for the production of billions of gallons of fuel ethanol per year from sugarcane. These strains have significant amplifications of the telomeric SNO and SNZ genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of vitamins B6 (pyridoxine) and B1 (thiamin). We show that increased copy number of these genes confers the ability to grow more efficiently under the repressing effects of thiamin, especially in medium lacking pyridoxine and with high sugar concentrations. These genetic changes have likely been adaptive and selected for in the industrial environment, and may be required for the efficient utilization of biomass-derived sugars from other renewable feedstocks.

  20. The ethanol pathway from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum improves ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G.; Holwerda, Evert K.; ...

    2017-06-27

    Clostridium thermocellum ferments cellulose, is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, and has been the focus of studies aimed at improving ethanol yield. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ferments hemicellulose, but not cellulose, and has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. Recent research has led to the identification of four genes in T. saccharolyticum involved in ethanol production: adhE, nfnA, nfnB and adhA. We introduced these genes into C. thermocellum and observed significant improvements to ethanol yield, titer, and productivity. The four genes alone, however, were insufficient to achieve in C. thermocellum the ethanol yields andmore » titers observed in engineered T. saccharolyticum strains, even when combined with gene deletions targeting hydrogen production. Here, this suggests that other parts of T. saccharolyticum metabolism may also be necessary to reproduce the high ethanol yield and titer phenotype in C. thermocellum.« less

  1. The ethanol pathway from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum improves ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G; Holwerda, Evert K; Lanahan, Anthony A; Murphy, Sean J L; Maloney, Marybeth I; Zheng, Tianyong; Papanek, Beth; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ferments cellulose, is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, and has been the focus of studies aimed at improving ethanol yield. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ferments hemicellulose, but not cellulose, and has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. Recent research has led to the identification of four genes in T. saccharolyticum involved in ethanol production: adhE, nfnA, nfnB and adhA. We introduced these genes into C. thermocellum and observed significant improvements to ethanol yield, titer, and productivity. The four genes alone, however, were insufficient to achieve in C. thermocellum the ethanol yields and titers observed in engineered T. saccharolyticum strains, even when combined with gene deletions targeting hydrogen production. This suggests that other parts of T. saccharolyticum metabolism may also be necessary to reproduce the high ethanol yield and titer phenotype in C. thermocellum. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  3. Ethanol from biomass - The quest for efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyoung, H. G.

    1982-02-01

    Methods for the production of ethanol to be used as an energy source from readily renewable biomass, natural materials based largely on cellulose, are reviewed. Current procedures for ethanol production utilize energy-inefficient processes and costly materials, such as corn, and thus are highly impractical for the large-scale ethanol production which is envisioned as a partial solution for US energy needs. The use of cellulosic raw materials is at the center of present research efforts, but no reliable and high-yielding conversion technique has yet been demonstrated. Methods of ethanol production are discussed and attention is focused on new fermentation technologies which potentially could overcome the problems associated with the use of cellulosic raw materials. For example, a strain of yeast is being developed which has the capability to convert up to twice as much of our agricultural wastes to ethanol than was thought possible just a year ago

  4. Measurement of ethanol using fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Quantrill, Nigel Stuart Michael

    1994-06-01

    A new assay procedure for the measurement of ethanol concentrations is described is based on fluorescence quenching of an indicator. The method makes use of the photo reaction between a fluorophore (thionine) and NADH. The latter is generated during an enzymic reaction between ethanol and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) cofactor. An empirical relation is used to analyse the observed quenching, and a quenching constant of 27.2(±2.8)M -1 is obtained for the substrate induced quenching (SIQ) of thionine by ethanol. The reported method is suitable over a range of 0-40 mM with a detection limit of 0.15 mM. A theoretical model for the overall ethanol assay is developed, and its validity is shown by comparison with the experimental results. Various applications of the reactions are discussed, including its use to construct a fibre optic biosensor for ethanol.

  5. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  6. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  7. Phosphatidylinositol from alcoholic rats is uniquely able to render membranes tolerant to disordering by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, J.S.; Taraschi, T.F.; Rubin, E.

    1986-05-01

    Rat liver microsomal membranes from rats chronically fed ethanol are resistant (tolerant) to membrane disordering by 50-100 mM ethanol. To identify the molecular basis of tolerance, the authors quantitatively separated microsomal phospholipids (PL's) extracted from control and ethanol-fed rats by preparative HPLC, and examined, by electron spin resonance, the structural properties of multilamellar vesicles (MLV's) prepared by recombining control and alcoholic PL's. MLV's made from alcoholic PL's (mixed in same molar ratios as in microsomes) were tolerant to disordering by ethanol, whereas control MLV's were not. If alcoholic phosphatidylcholine (66.5%), phosphatidylethanolamine (21%) or phosphatidylserine (4.0%) replaced their respective PL in control MLV's, the membranes were not tolerant. In contrast, when 8.5% alcoholic phosphatidylinositol (PI) replaced control PI, the MLV's were tolerant. Alcoholic rat PI (8.5%) also conferred tolerance to MLV's containing 91.5% bovine PL's. The authors conclude that the acquisition of membrane tolerance in alcoholic liver microsomes is related to changes in PI.

  8. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure diminishes anhedonia during ethanol withdrawal in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent alcohol use may interfere with neurodevelopment, increasing the likelihood of adult alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters the adult reward response to ethanol. Adolescent rats were administered ethanol once (moderate exposure; Cohort 1) or three times per day (severe exposure; Cohort 2) in a 2 days on/2 days off pattern. In adulthood, subjects responded for electrical stimulation directed at the posterior lateral hypothalamus in a discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure that provides current-intensity thresholds as a measure of brain reward function. The effects of ethanol administration and withdrawal were assessed. Control rats showed dose-dependent threshold elevations after acute ethanol, indicating reward deficits. A majority of moderately AIE-exposed rats (Cohort 1) showed threshold lowering after ethanol, suggesting ethanol-induced reward enhancement in this sub-set of rats. Rats exposed to severe AIE (Cohort 2) showed no threshold elevation or lowering, suggesting a blunted affective ethanol response. Daily ethanol induced threshold elevations 24h after administration in control rats but not in either group of AIE-exposed rats, suggesting decreased sensitivity to the negative affective state of ethanol withdrawal. Withdrawal from a 4-day ethanol binge produced robust and enduring threshold elevations in all rats, although threshold elevations were diminished in rats exposed to severe AIE. These results indicate that AIE exposure diminished reward deficits associated with ethanol intoxication and withdrawal and may have increased ethanol-induced reward enhancement in a sub-set of rats. In humans, enhanced ethanol reward accompanied by reduced withdrawal severity may contribute to the development of AUDs.

  9. Oxidation of ethanol in the rat brain and effects associated with chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Du, Hongying; Jiang, Lihong; Ma, Xiaoxian; de Graaf, Robin A; Behar, Kevin L; Mason, Graeme F

    2013-08-27

    It has been reported that chronic and acute alcohol exposure decreases cerebral glucose metabolism and increases acetate oxidation. However, it remains unknown how much ethanol the living brain can oxidize directly and whether such a process would be affected by alcohol exposure. The questions have implications for reward, oxidative damage, and long-term adaptation to drinking. One group of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was treated with ethanol vapor and the other given room air. After 3 wk the rats received i.v. [2-(13)C]ethanol and [1, 2-(13)C2]acetate for 2 h, and then the brain was fixed, removed, and divided into neocortex and subcortical tissues for measurement of (13)C isotopic labeling of glutamate and glutamine by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ethanol oxidation was seen to occur both in the cortex and the subcortex. In ethanol-naïve rats, cortical oxidation of ethanol occurred at rates of 0.017 ± 0.002 µmol/min/g in astroglia and 0.014 ± 0.003 µmol/min/g in neurons, and chronic alcohol exposure increased the astroglial ethanol oxidation to 0.028 ± 0.002 µmol/min/g (P = 0.001) with an insignificant effect on neuronal ethanol oxidation. Compared with published rates of overall oxidative metabolism in astroglia and neurons, ethanol provided 12.3 ± 1.4% of cortical astroglial oxidation in ethanol-naïve rats and 20.2 ± 1.5% in ethanol-treated rats. For cortical astroglia and neurons combined, the ethanol oxidation for naïve and treated rats was 3.2 ± 0.3% and 3.8 ± 0.2% of total oxidation, respectively. (13)C labeling from subcortical oxidation of ethanol was similar to that seen in cortex but was not affected by chronic ethanol exposure.

  10. Behavior of sheep drinking ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, J R; Deam, D R; Denton, D A; Tarjan, E; Weisinger, R S

    1995-06-01

    Sheep that were habituated to drinking 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution instead of water were subjected to proven thirst stimuli to study the effect of chronic ethanol intake on brain mechanisms subserving thirst. Sheep that had not previously drunk 10% ethanol were also tested. All sheep were trained to press a pedal that delivered 50 ml/press of fluid (either 10% ethanol or water) into a drinking cup. In some experiments, fluids were presented in bins. All animals had access to only one fluid at a time. Five ethanol-drinking sheep appeared healthy and maintained body weight over 18 mo. They always preferred water to 10% ethanol. The intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) at 3.8 micrograms/h for 2 h increased ethanol intake from 15 +/- 10 to 200 +/- 55 ml in the 1st h, but 2,850 +/- 320 ml of water was drunk in the 2nd h. The icv infusion of 500 mM NaCl had a similar effect. After fluid deprivation for 22 or 46 h, ethanol intake in 1 h of access was only 280 +/- 40 and 400 +/- 90 ml, respectively, and 24-h intake was not increased. Water-drinking sheep drank 1,300 +/- 195 ml of water in 1 h after 22-h water deprivation, and 24-h intake was 1.5 times normal. The icv infusion of ANG II in these sheep increased water intake in 1 h from 10 +/- 10 to 1,630 +/- 250 ml and intake of 10% ethanol to only 310 +/- 60 ml. In conclusion, sheep accept 10% ethanol as a substitute for water for daily drinking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Removal of atmospheric ethanol by wet deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, J. David; Willey, Joan D.; Thomas, Rachel K.; Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Avery, G. Brooks; Kieber, Robert J.; Mead, Ralph N.; Helms, John; Giubbina, Fernanda F.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.; Cala, John

    2017-02-01

    The global wet deposition flux of ethanol is estimated to be 2.4 ± 1.6 Tg/yr with a conservative range of 0.2-4.6 Tg/yr based upon analyses of 219 wet deposition samples collected at 12 locations globally. This estimate calculated by using observed wet deposition ethanol concentrations is in agreement with previous models (1.4-5 Tg/yr) predicting the wet deposition sink using Henry's law coefficients and atmospheric ethanol concentrations. Wet deposition is estimated to remove between 6 and 17% of the total ethanol emitted to the atmosphere on an annual basis. The concentration of ethanol in marine rain (25 ± 6 nM) is an order of magnitude less than in the majority of terrestrial rains (345 ± 280 nM). Terrestrial rain samples collected in locations impacted by high local sources of biofuel usage and locations downwind from ethanol distilleries were an order of magnitude higher in ethanol concentration (3090 ± 448 nM) compared to rain collected in terrestrial locations not impacted by these sources. These results indicate that wet deposition of ethanol is heavily influenced by local sources. Results of this study are important because they suggest that as biofuel production and usage increase, the concentration of ethanol in the atmosphere will increase as well the wet deposition flux. Additional research constraining the sources, sinks, and atmospheric impacts of ethanol is necessary to better assist in the debate as whether or not to increase consumption of the alcohol as a biofuel.

  12. betagamma Dimers mediate synergy of dopamine D2 and adenosine A2 receptor-stimulated PKA signaling and regulate ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lina; Arolfo, Maria Pia; Dohrman, Douglas P; Jiang, Zhan; Fan, Peidong; Fuchs, Sara; Janak, Patricia H; Gordon, Adrienne S; Diamond, Ivan

    2002-06-14

    Dopamine release is activated by ethanol and addicting drugs, but molecular mechanisms linking dopaminergic signaling to neuronal responses and drinking behavior are poorly understood. We report that dopamine-D2 receptors induce PKA Calpha translocation and increase CRE-regulated gene expression. Ethanol also activates PKA signaling. Subthreshold concentrations of the D2 agonist NPA and ethanol, without effect alone, together cause synergistic PKA translocation and CRE-mediated gene transcription. D2 or adenosine A2 receptor blockade, pertussis toxin, Rp-cAMPS, or overexpression of dominant-negative peptides that sequester betagamma dimers prevent synergy. Importantly, overexpression of a betagamma inhibitor peptide in the nucleus accumbens strikingly reduces sustained alcohol consumption. We propose that synergy of D2 and A2 confers ethanol hypersensitivity and that betagamma dimers are required for voluntary drinking.

  13. On-line extraction of ethanol from fermentation broths using hydrophobic adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lencki, R.W.; Robinson, C.W.; Moo-Young, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of removing ethanol during fermentation on the batch kinetics of glucose utilization by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined using several hydrophobic adsorbents. The addition of the molecular sieve, silicalite, to fermentation broths greatly reduced the concentration of ethanol present, but did not increase the glucose utilization rate to the extent predicted by product-inhibition kinetic models obtained from adsorbent-free continuous culture experiments. Addition of two polymeric adsorbents (XAD-4 and XAD-7) greatly inhibited cell growth. This was due to nutrient and cell adsorption by the resin. Adsorption systems were compared to other on-line schemes (vacuferm, solvent extraction) and it was concluded that all of these currently proposed systems would not appear to confer any added advantage if integrated into a high biomass concentration fermenter system. 19 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  14. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    DOE PAGES

    Lynd, Lee R.; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary J.; ...

    2017-05-18

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today's technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. Here, as an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungalmore » cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).« less

  15. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Bowman, Michael J; Braker, Jay D; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Lee, Charles C; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Wagschal, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated bioprocessing). A commercially ready CBP organism is currently unreported. Production of second generation bioethanol is hindered by economics, particularly in the cost of pretreatment (including waste management and solvent recovery), the cost of saccharification enzymes (particularly exocellulases and endocellulases displaying kcat ~1 s-1 on crystalline cellulose), and the inefficiency of co-fermentation of 5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides (owing in part to redox cofactor imbalances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

  16. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary J; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E; Laser, Mark S; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles E

    2017-06-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today's technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Lynd, L; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  18. Automated Author Aiding System Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    0V) 0 Technical Report 684 r-Vass A Automated Author Aiding System Conference: Final Report edited by Nancy K. Atwood University of California at...AUTHOR AIDING SYSTEM CONFERENCE: Final Report FINAL REPORT June 84 through June 85 4. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOM(I4~dited by Nancy K...Dots Entered) Technical Report 684 Automated Author Aiding System Conference: Final Report edited by Nancy K. Atwood University of California at Los

  19. Rural Energy Conference Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Shannon Watson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.

  20. Ethanol-Regulated Genes That Contribute to Ethanol Sensitivity and Rapid Tolerance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eric C.; Allouche, Lorien; Chapot, Paul A.; Vranizan, Karen; Moore, Monica S.; Heberlein, Ulrike; Wolf, Fred W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased ethanol intake, a major predictor for the development of alcohol use disorders, is facilitated by the development of tolerance to both the aversive and pleasurable effects of the drug. The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol tolerance development are complex and are not yet well understood. Methods To identify genetic mechanisms that contribute to ethanol tolerance, we examined the time course of gene expression changes elicited by a single sedating dose of ethanol in Drosophila, and completed a behavioral survey of strains harboring mutations in ethanol-regulated genes. Results Enrichment for genes in metabolism, nucleic acid binding, olfaction, regulation of signal transduction, and stress suggests that these biological processes are coordinately affected by ethanol exposure. We also detected a coordinate up-regulation of genes in the Toll and Imd innate immunity signal transduction pathways. A multi-study comparison revealed a small set of genes showing similar regulation, including increased expression of 3 genes for serine biosynthesis. A survey of Drosophila strains harboring mutations in ethanol-regulated genes for ethanol sensitivity and tolerance phenotypes revealed roles for serine biosynthesis, olfaction, transcriptional regulation, immunity, and metabolism. Flies harboring deletions of the genes encoding the olfactory co-receptor Or83b or the sirtuin Sir2 showed marked changes in the development of ethanol tolerance. Conclusions Our findings implicate novel roles for these genes in regulating ethanol behavioral responses. PMID:19951294

  1. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, M. F.; Becker, H. C.; Chandler, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. PMID:25266936

  3. Control Center Technology Conference Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Conference papers and presentations are compiled and cover evolving architectures and technologies applicable to flight control centers. Advances by NASA Centers and the aerospace industry are presented.

  4. SVC 2003 Technical Conference Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-07-01

    The 46th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters was held in San Francisco May 2-8. All the world events apparently did not affect the attendance or the spirit of the attendees. The Conference was a huge success and very well attended. Many feel that it was the best Techcon yet. This year's Conference really raised the bar for the 47th Annual Technical Conference in Dallas next year. Congratulations go out to the program committee, board of directors, education committee, scholarship committee and Management Plus for a job well done. Excellent accommodations were provided by the San Francisco Marriott.

  5. The Role of Acetaldehyde in the Increased Acceptance of Ethanol after Prenatal Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Angulo-Alcalde, Asier; Spear, Norman E.; Chotro, M. Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the oxidation of ethanol, can be responsible for both, the appetitive and the aversive effects produced by ethanol intoxication. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that acetaldehyde produced in the periphery by the liver is responsible for the aversive effects of ethanol, while the appetitive effects relate to the acetaldehyde produced centrally through the catalase system. On the other hand, from studies in our and other laboratories, it is known that ethanol exposure during the last gestational days (GD) consistently enhances the postnatal acceptance of ethanol when measured during early ontogeny in the rat. This increased liking of ethanol is a conditioned appetitive response acquired by the fetus by the association of ethanol’s flavor and an appetitive reinforcer. Although this reinforcer has not yet been fully identified, one possibility points to acetaldehyde produced centrally in the fetus as a likely candidate. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that very early in the rat’s ontogeny brain catalases are functional, while the liver’s enzymatic system is still immature. In this study, rat dams were administered on GD 17–20 with water or ethanol, together with an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent (D-penicillamine). The offspring’s responses to ethanol was then assessed at different postnatal stages with procedures adequate for each developmental stage: on day 1, using the “odor crawling locomotion test” to measure ethanol’s odor attractiveness; on day 5, in an operant conditioning procedure with ethanol as the reinforcer; and on day 14 in an ethanol intake test. Results show that the absence of acetaldehyde during prenatal ethanol exposure impeded the observation of the increased acceptance of ethanol at any age. This seems to confirm the crucial role of acetaldehyde as a reinforcer in the appetitive learning occurring during prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:28197082

  6. Correlation between ethanol behavioral sensitization and midbrain dopamine neuron reactivity to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Didone, Vincent; Masson, Sébastien; Quoilin, Caroline; Seutin, Vincent; Quertemont, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Repeated ethanol injections lead to a sensitization of its stimulant effects in mice. Some recent results argue against a role for ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in ethanol behavioral sensitization. The aim of the present study was to test whether in vivo ethanol locomotor sensitization correlates with changes in either basal- or ethanol-evoked firing rates of dopamine neurons in vitro. Female Swiss mice were daily injected with 2.5 g/kg ethanol (or saline in the control group) for 7 days and their locomotor activity was recorded. At the end of the sensitization procedure, extracellular recordings were made from dopaminergic neurons in midbrain slices from these mice. Significantly higher spontaneous basal firing rates of dopamine neurons were recorded in ethanol-sensitized mice relative to control mice, but without correlations with the behavioral effects. The superfusion of sulpiride, a dopamine D2 antagonist, induced a stronger increase of dopamine neuron firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. This shows that the D2 feedback in dopamine neurons is preserved after chronic ethanol administration and argues against a reduced D2 feedback as an explanation for the increased dopamine neuron basal firing rates in ethanol-sensitized mice. Finally, ethanol superfusion (10-100 mM) significantly increased the firing rates of dopamine neurons and this effect was of higher magnitude in ethanol-sensitized mice. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between such a sensitization of dopamine neuron activity and ethanol behavioral sensitization. These results support the hypothesis that changes in brain dopamine neuron activity contribute to the behavioral sensitization of the stimulant effects of ethanol. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Prenatal ethanol increases sucrose reinforcement, an effect strengthened by postnatal association of ethanol and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Culleré, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14-17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5 g/kg) or a high (2.5 g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5 g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy.

  8. Soymilk products affect ethanol absorption and metabolism in rats during acute and chronic ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Kano, M; Ishikawa, F; Matsubara, S; Kikuchi-Hayakawa, H; Shimakawa, Y

    2002-02-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of soy products on ethanol metabolism during periods of acute and chronic consumption in rats. Gastric ethanol content and blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were investigated after the oral administration of ethanol (34 mmol/kg) plus soy products such as soymilk (SM) or fermented soymilk (FSM). The gastric ethanol concentration of the FSM group was greater than that of the control group, whereas portal and aortal blood ethanol concentrations of the FSM group were lower than in controls. The aortal acetaldehyde concentration in the FSM group was lower than that of the control group. The direct effect of isoflavones on liver function was investigated by using hepatocytes isolated from untreated rats. Genistein (5 micromol/L) decreased ethanol (P = 0.045) and tended to decrease acetaldehyde (P = 0.10) concentrations in the culture filtrate. Some variables of ethanol metabolism in the liver were investigated after chronic ethanol exposure for 25 d. Rats consumed a 5% ethanol fluid plus the SM diet, the FSM diet or a control diet. Microsomal ethanol oxidizing activity was significantly lower in the FSM group than the control group. Furthermore, cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity was higher in the SM and FSM groups than in the control group. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (low K(m)) in the FSM group (P = 0.15), but not in the SM group (P = 0.31), tended to be greater than in the control group. The amount of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances in the liver of the SM and FSM groups tended to be less than that of the control group (P = 0.18 and 0.10, respectively). These results demonstrate that soymilk products inhibit ethanol absorption and enhance ethanol metabolism in rats.

  9. Prenatal Ethanol Increases Sucrose Reinforcement, an Effect Strengthened by Postnatal Association of Ethanol and Sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Culleré, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14–17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5 g/kg) or a high (2.5 g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5 g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy. PMID:24398347

  10. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke answer reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Garriott and Fincke will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, right, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, pose for photographs after a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Expedition 18 crew will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    The quarantined crew, from left, American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, back up Expedition 18 Commander Gennady Padalka, Flight Engineer Mike Barratt and spaceflight participant Nik Halik answer reporters questions during a press conference at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke, Lonchakov and Garriott are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, left, and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov answer reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Fincke and Lonchakov will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Garriott will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Expedition 18 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov answers reporters' questions during a press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Lonchakov will launch on the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft along with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott on Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  18. Networks Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tasaki, Keiji K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The papers included in these proceedings represent the most interesting and current topics being pursued by personnel at GSFC's Networks Division and supporting contractors involved in Space, Ground, and Deep Space Network (DSN) technical work. Although 29 papers are represented in the proceedings, only 12 were presented at the conference because of space and time limitations. The proceedings are organized according to five principal technical areas of interest to the Networks Division: Project Management; Network Operations; Network Control, Scheduling, and Monitoring; Modeling and Simulation; and Telecommunications Engineering.

  19. Expedition 43 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-26

    Expedition 43 Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) listens to a reporter’s question as he and, Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko of Roscosmos, and NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly participate in a crew press conference, Thursday, March 26, 2015, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kelly, Kornienko, and Padalka launched to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Expedition 43 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-26

    Expedition 43 Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) answers reporter’s questions as he and, Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka of Roscosmos, and NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly participate in a crew press conference, Thursday, March 26, 2015, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kelly, Kornienko, and Padalka launched to the International Space Station in the Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan March 28, Kazakh time (March 27 Eastern time.) As the one-year crew, Kelly and Kornienko will return to Earth on Soyuz TMA-18M in March 2016. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, second left, reacts as he is introduced during a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 40 Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA will launch aboard their Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft on their mission to the International Space Station in the early hours of May 29. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  2. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Steven Benner, a distinguished fellow at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, right, speaks during a press conference as Mary Voytek, director of the Astrobiology Program at NASA looks on, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  3. Astrobiology Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-02

    Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a lead researcher and NASA astrobiology research fellow, speaks during a press conference, as Mary Voytek, Steven Benner and Pamela Conrad look on, Thursday, Dec. 2, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth. Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  4. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March as Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Division Director, left, looks on. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  5. GLORY Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-20

    Greg Kopp, from the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder, Colo., talks about the launch of the GLORY mission during a news conference at NASA Headquarters, Thursday, Jan. 20, 2011, in Washington. NASA's newest Earth-observing research mission is scheduled for launch form Vandenburg Air Force Base in California on Feb. 23. The mission will improve our understanding of how the sun and tiny atmosppheric particles called aerosols affect Earth's climate. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  6. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Others seated include Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Director, Sara Seager, Professor of Planetary Science and Physics at MIT, and Alan Boss, an Astrophysicist at the Carnegie Institution at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in Washington, right. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Expedition 40 prime crew members Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, far left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, second left, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, center, pose for a picture with Expedition 40 backup crew members Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA, third right, Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of Roscosmos, and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of ESA at the conclusion a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Expedition 42 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    Family visits with Expedition 42 Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) through glass at the conclusion of the press conference, Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for Nov. 24 and will carry Shkaplerov, Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA , and Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Expedition 42 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    Flight Engineer Samantha Cristoforetti of the European Space Agency (ESA) speaks with friends and family through glass at the conclusion of the press conference, Saturday, Nov. 22, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for Nov. 24 and will carry Cristoforetti, Flight Engineer Terry Virts of NASA , and Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) into orbit to begin their five and a half month mission on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. Expedition 41 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Expedition 41 prime crew members, Flight Engineer Barry Wilmore of NASA, right, Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), center, and Flight Engineer Elena Serova of Roscosmos, left, pose for a photo with items they will take with them to the International Space Station at the conclusion of the press conference held at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014. The mission is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  11. Expedition 40 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    A reflection of the audience can been seen in the quarantine glass as Expedition 40 Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency, ESA, left, Soyuz Commander Maxim Suraev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, center, and Flight Engineer Reid Wiseman of NASA, right, pose for a group picture at the conclusion of a press conference, Tuesday, May 27, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission to the International Space Station is set to launch May 29 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  12. LEAP 1992: Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1992-12-01

    We present a summary of the many new results in antiproton ([bar p]) physics presented at the LEAP '92 conference, in the areas of meson spectroscopy, [bar N]N scattering, annihilation and spin observables, strangeness and charm production, [bar N] annihilation in nuclei, atomic physics with very low energy [bar p]'s, the exploration of fundamental symmetries and interactions with [bar p] (CP, T, CPT, gravitation), and the prospects for new [bar p] facilities at ultralow energies or energies above the LEAR regime ([ge] 2 GeV/c).

  13. LEAP 1992: Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1992-12-01

    We present a summary of the many new results in antiproton ({bar p}) physics presented at the LEAP `92 conference, in the areas of meson spectroscopy, {bar N}N scattering, annihilation and spin observables, strangeness and charm production, {bar N} annihilation in nuclei, atomic physics with very low energy {bar p}`s, the exploration of fundamental symmetries and interactions with {bar p} (CP, T, CPT, gravitation), and the prospects for new {bar p} facilities at ultralow energies or energies above the LEAR regime ({ge} 2 GeV/c).

  14. Kepler Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-05

    William Bo-Ricki, Kepler principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center, second from left, is joined by Jon Morse, left, Sara Seager, and Alan Boss while speaking at a press conference, Thursday, Aug. 6, 2009, at NASA Headquarters in Washington about the scientific observations coming from the Kepler spacecraft that was launched this past March. Kepler is NASA's first mission that is capable of discovering earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    PubMed

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production.

  16. Sleepiness and ethanol effects on simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Roehrs, T; Beare, D; Zorick, F; Roth, T

    1994-02-01

    Twelve healthy young men were assessed in each of four experimental conditions presented in a Latin Square design: 8-hr time in bed (TIB) and placebo, 4-hr TIB and placebo, 8-hr TIB and ethanol, and 4-hr TIB and ethanol. After consuming ethanol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo (0900-0930 hr) with 20% supplements at 1030 and 1100 hr, subjects were tested for sleepiness (Multiple Sleep Latency Test at 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 hr) and divided attention (1030 hr) performance on day 1, and for simulated driving and divided attention (1000-1200 and 1400-1600 hr) performance on day 2. In the morning testing, with breath ethanol concentrations (BECs) averaging 0.049%, sleepiness was increased, divided attention reaction times increased (on both days), and simulated driving performance was disturbed in the ethanol and 4-hr TIB relative to placebo. Similarly in the afternoon, with BECs averaging 0.013%, the ethanol and 4-hr TIB condition increased sleepiness and disrupted divided attention and simulated driving performance. The results show that sleepiness and low-dose ethanol combine to impair simulated automobile driving, an impairment that extends beyond the point at which BEC reaches zero. They provide a possible explanation for the incidence of alcohol-related automobile accidents at low BECs.

  17. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Jin . E-mail: jizhong@iupui.edu; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-12-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3{beta}, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3{beta} (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3{beta} inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits.

  18. Ethanol for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Schurmann, Paul; Peñalver, Jorge; Valderrábano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ethanol infusion was an early mode of ablative treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. Its initial descriptions involved coronary intra-arterial delivery, targeting arrhythmogenic substrates in drug-refractory ventricular tachycardia or the atrioventricular node. Largely superseded by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and other contact-based technologies as a routine ablation strategy, intracoronary arterial ethanol infusion remains as an alternative option in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia when conventional ablation fails. Arrhythmic foci that are deep-seated in the myocardium may not be amenable to catheter ablation from either the endocardium or the epicardium by RFA, but they can be targeted by an ethanol infusion. Recent findings Recently, we have explored ethanol injection through cardiac venous systems, in order to avoid the risks of complications and limitations of coronary arterial instrumentation. Vein of Marshall ethanol infusion is being studied as an adjunctive procedure in ablation of atrial fibrillation, and coronary venous ethanol infusion for ventricular tachycardia. Conclusion Ethanol ablation remains useful as a bail-out technique for refractory cases to RFA, or as an adjunctive therapy that may improve the efficacy of catheter ablation procedures. PMID:26049378

  19. Cellulose to ethanol production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The original proposed project was followed until February of 1982 when it became apparent that until further work is completed on development of enzymes, the conversion of cellulose (namely paper mill waste) to ethanol for commercial sale is not feasible. Our approach to the project at this time was to still meet our goal of a economical 100,000 gallon/year ethanol plant. In the early part of 1981 we inquired about fodder beets for conversion to ethanol and through Pacific Seed Production Company and purchased seed for planting in 1981. We planted a quarter acre which was harvested in late fall of 1981. The fodder beets were kept in cold storage until we were ready for testing. Tests were run in February and March. Results indicated that it would be economically feasible to produce ethanol in a 100,000 gallon/year plant using fodder beets. This final report is in two sections. The first section covers the tests on conversion of cellulose to ethanol and the second section covers tests on conversion of fodder beets to ethanol. A 100,000 gallon/year ethanol plant will require 7850 tons of Monarose fodder beets and 157 acres at 50 ton per acre.

  20. Ethanol cytotoxic effect on trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Clave, S; Joya, X; Salat-Batlle, J; Garcia-Algar, O; Vall, O

    2014-03-03

    Prenatal ethanol exposure may cause both, altered fetal neurodevelopment and impaired placental function. These disturbances can lead to growth retardation, which is one of the most prevalent features in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). It is not known whether there is a specific pattern of cytotoxicity caused by ethanol that can be extrapolated to other cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects caused by sustained exposure of trophoblast cells to ethanol. The cytotoxic effect of sustained exposure to standard doses of ethanol on an in vitro human trophoblast cell line, JEG3, was examined. Viable cell count by exclusion method, total protein concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and activation of apoptotic markers (P-H2AX, caspase-3 and PARP-1) were determined. Sustained exposure to ethanol decreased viable cell count and total protein concentration. LDH activity did not increased in exposed cells but apoptotic markers were detected. In addition, there was a dose-dependent relationship between ethanol concentration and apoptotic pathways activation. Sustained ethanol exposure causes cellular cytotoxicity by apoptotic pathways induction as a result of DNA damage. This apoptotic induction may partially explain the altered function of placental cells and the damage previously detected in other tissues.

  1. 5 CFR 185.120 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prehearing conferences. 185.120 Section... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.120 Prehearing conferences. (a) The ALJ may schedule prehearing conferences... conference at a reasonable time in advance of the hearing. (c) The ALJ may use prehearing conferences...

  2. 7 CFR 1753.10 - Preconstruction conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preconstruction conference. 1753.10 Section 1753.10... conference. The borrower shall conduct a conference, attended by the borrower, contractor, and resident... participant with a copy of the conference results. The GFR shall be invited to attend this conference....

  3. 10 CFR 820.22 - Informal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Informal conference. 820.22 Section 820.22 Energy... conference. The Director may convene an informal conference to discuss any situation that might be a... information. The Director may compel a person to attend the conference. This conference will not normally...

  4. 34 CFR 668.87 - Prehearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prehearing conference. 668.87 Section 668.87 Education... Proceedings § 668.87 Prehearing conference. (a) A hearing official may convene a prehearing conference if he or she thinks that the conference would be useful, or if the conference is requested by— (1)...

  5. 29 CFR 2570.40 - Conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conferences. 2570.40 Section 2570.40 Labor Regulations... Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.40 Conferences. (a) Any conference between the Department and an... conference will be held at the applicant's request. (b) An applicant is entitled to only one conference...

  6. Induction of the Nrf2-driven antioxidant response by tert-butylhydroquinone prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis in cranial neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Dong, Jian; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Chen, Shao-yu

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ethanol exposure causes apoptosis in cranial neural crest cells (NCCs), an ethanol-sensitive cell population implicated in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Additionally, induction of endogenous antioxidants through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to prevent oxidative stress and apoptosis in ethanol-exposed mouse embryos. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 inducer, can protect NCCs against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Ethanol exposure was shown to cause a moderate increase in the protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidants in the NCCs. Treatment of NCCs with tBHQ alone significantly increased the protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidants and also significantly increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes. In NCCs exposed to ethanol, the tBHQ-mediated antioxidant response prevented oxidative stress and apoptosis. These results clearly demonstrate that activation of Nrf2 signaling confers protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis in NCCs. PMID:20223225

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Luo, Jia

    2015-10-14

    Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity.

  8. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants.

    PubMed

    Hutter, A; Oliver, S G

    1998-05-01

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23 delta pet191 and FY23 delta cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23 rho(0). Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, qp, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells-1 h-1. FY23 rho(0) was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a Ki of 1.71% (w/v) and qp of 0.87 ethanol g dry cells-1 h-1. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23 delta pet191, having a Ki of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23 delta cox5a, having a Ki of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23 rho(0) is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject to the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation.

  9. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Goldowitz, Dan; Lussier, Alexandre A; Boyle, Julia K; Wong, Kaelan; Lattimer, Scott L; Dubose, Candis; Lu, Lu; Kobor, Michael S; Hamre, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses). Tissue was collected 7 h after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol-induced neurodegeneration.

  10. Ethanol exposure induces the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype and lethal tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Rubin, Emanuel; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how alcohol consumption promotes the onset of human breast cancer(s). One hypothesis is that ethanol induces metabolic changes in the tumor microenvironment, which then enhances epithelial tumor growth. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we used a co-culture system consisting of human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts. Here, we show that ethanol treatment (100 mM) promotes ROS production and oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts, which is sufficient to induce myofibroblastic differentiation. Oxidative stress in stromal fibroblasts also results in the onset of autophagy/mitophagy, driving the induction of ketone body production in the tumor microenvironment. Interestingly, ethanol has just the opposite effect in epithelial cancer cells, where it confers autophagy resistance, elevates mitochondrial biogenesis and induces key enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1/OXCT1). During co-culture, ethanol treatment also converts MCF7 cells from an ER(+) to an ER(-) status, which is thought to be associated with “stemness,” more aggressive behavior and a worse prognosis. Thus, ethanol treatment induces ketone production in cancer-associated fibroblasts and ketone re-utilization in epithelial cancer cells, fueling tumor cell growth via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS). This “two-compartment” metabolic model is consistent with previous historical observations that ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde (which induces oxidative stress) and then ultimately to acetyl-CoA (a high-energy mitochondrial fuel), or can be used to synthesize ketone bodies. As such, our results provide a novel mechanism by which alcohol consumption could metabolically convert “low-risk” breast cancer patients to “high-risk” status, explaining tumor recurrence or disease progression. Hence, our findings have clear implications for both breast cancer prevention and therapy. Remarkably, our results

  11. National Conference[s] on Career Education: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Joseph F.; And Others

    The report describes a series of conferences whose objective was to orient selected educational leaders to the implications of preparing educational personnel with a career education perspective. The first 32 pages of the report discuss project objectives and procedures, and detail participant profiles, pre- and post-conference career education…

  12. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Previous results have shown that the medium pH, the composition of the medium and concentration of medium constituents significantly affect the ratio of ethanol to acetate in the product stream when fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas to products by Clostridium ljungdahlii. An additional batch study was carried out varying the agitation rate at pH 4, 4.5 and 5.0. It was speculated that increased agitation rates in combination with low pH might result in increased ethanol production while, at the same time, yielding higher cell concentrations which could eventually result in higher ethanol concentrations.

  13. Wastepaper as a feedstock for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.W.; Riley, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The possibility of using wastepaper as a cheap feedstock for production of ethanol is discussed. As the single largest material category in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, wastepaper is the main target of efforts to reduce the volume of MSW. And in the process for producing ethanol from lignocellulosics, the feedstock represents the highest cost. If wastepaper could be obtained cheaply in large enough quantities and if conversion process cost and efficiency prove to be similar to those for wood, the cost of ethanol could be significantly reduced. At the same time, the volume of wastepaper that must be disposed of in landfills could be lessened. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol - Issues of Forensic Importance.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W

    2011-07-01

    A reliable method for the quantitative analysis of ethanol in microvolumes (50-100 μL) of blood became available in 1922, making it possible to investigate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of ethanol in healthy volunteers. The basic principles of ethanol pharmacokinetics were established in the 1930s, including the notion of zero-order elimination kinetics from blood and distribution of the absorbed dose into the total body water. The hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is primarily responsible for the oxidative metabolism of ethanol. This enzyme was purified and characterized in the early 1950s and shown to have a low Michaelis constant (km), being about ~0.1 g/L. Liver ADH is therefore saturated with substrate after the first couple of drinks and for all practical purposes the concentration-time (C-T) profiles of ethanol are a good approximation to zero-order kinetics. However, because of dose-dependent saturation kinetics, the entire postabsorptive declining part of the blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) curve looks more like a hockey stick rather than a straight line. A faster rate of ethanol elimination from blood in habituated individuals (alcoholics) is explained by participation of a high km microsomal enzyme (CYP2E1), which is inducible after a period of chronic heavy drinking. Owing to the combined influences of genetic and environmental factors, one expects a roughly threefold difference in elimination rates of ethanol from blood (0.1-0.3 g/L/h) between individuals. The volume of distribution (Vd) of ethanol, which depends on a person's age, gender, and proportion of fat to lean body mass, shows a twofold variation between individuals (0.4-0.8 L/kg). This forensic science review traces the development of forensic pharmacokinetics of ethanol from a historical perspective, followed by a discussion of important issues related to the disposition and fate of ethanol in the body, including (a) quantitative evaluation of

  16. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  17. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  18. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    -Russian International Centre was demonstrated. By the high standards of the reports presented, as well as by its overall organization, the second Seminar met the standards of an international conference. Reviews of state-of-the-art developments in materials science were given by leading scientists from Moscow and from the Lorraine region. The three days of the seminar were structured into four main themes: Functional Materials Coatings, Films and Surface Engineering Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies The Environment and three Round Table discussions: Defining practical means of carrying out Franco-Russian collaborations in technology transfer and innovation Materials science ARCUS: Lorraine-Russian collaboration in materials science and the environment 32 oral and 25 poster presentations within four sections were given by a total of 110 participants. NAMES 2007, the 3rd Franco-Russian Seminar on New Achievements in Materials and Environmental Sciences, took place in Metz, France on 7-9 November 2007. The conference highlights fundamentals and development of the five main themes connected to the Lorraine-Russia ARCUS project with possible extension to other topics. The five main subjects included in the ARCUS project are: Bulk-surface-interface material sciences Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies Environment and natural resources Plasma physics—ITER project Vibrational dynamics The first, second and third NAMES conferences were financially supported by the following organizations: Ambassade de France à Moscou Communauté Urbaine du Grand Nancy Région Lorraine Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine Université de Metz Université Henry Poincaré CNRS ANVAR Federal Agency on Science and Innovations of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation Moscow Committee on Science and Technologies Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys (Technological University) The 4th conference is supported by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of

  19. (Tribology conferences and forums)

    SciTech Connect

    Yust, C.S.

    1990-11-30

    The principal meeting attended during this trip was the Japan International Tribology Conference Nagoya 1990. The conference encompassed a wide range of topics, including the tribology of ceramics, the tribology in high-performance automobiles, and many aspects of lubrication technology. Associated forums were also held on the tribology of advanced ceramics, on solid lubrication, and on automotive lubricants. Presentations made during the latter forum discussed anticipated trends in engine development and anticipated improvements in lubricants required for the next generation of engines. In addition to meetings, site visits were made to five industrial organizations to discuss ceramic tribology. Nippon Steel Corporation and Toshiba Corporation are both very active in the ceramic area, Nippon Steel from their interest in research on new materials and Toshiba from both an interest in new materials and in support of their work in electronic devices. Two engine manufacturers were also visited, Toyota Motor Corporation, and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. These companies were somewhat reserved in their discussion of progress in the utilization of ceramics in automobile engines.

  20. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE INCREASES ETHANOL INTAKE AND REDUCES C-FOS EXPRESSION IN INFRALIMBIC CORTEX OF ADOLESCENT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Maria Carolina; March, Samanta M.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure significantly increases later predisposition for alcohol intake, but the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon remain hypothetical. This study analyzed (Exp. 1) ethanol intake in adolescent inbred WKAH/Hok Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle, on gestational days 17–20. Subsequent Experiments (2, 3 and 4) tested several variables likely to underlie the effect of gestational ethanol on adolescent ethanol preference, including ethanol-induced locomotor activation (LMA), ethanol-induced emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) after exposure to a rough exteroceptive stimulus, and induction of the immediate early gene C-fos in brain areas associated with processing of reward stimuli and with the retrieval and extinction of associative learning. Prenatal ethanol induced a two-fold increase in ethanol intake. Adolescents exhibited significant ethanol-induced LMA, emitted more aversive than appetitive USVs, and postnatal ethanol administration significantly exacerbated the emission of USVs. These effects, however, were not affected by prenatal ethanol. Adolescents prenatally exposed to ethanol as fetuses exhibited reduced neural activity in infralimbic cortex (but not in prelimbic cortex or nucleus accumbens core or shell), an area that has been implicated in the extinction of drug-mediated associative memories. Ethanol metabolism was not affected by prenatal ethanol. Late gestational exposure to ethanol significantly heightened drinking in the adolescent offspring of an inbred rat strain. Ethanol-induced LMA and USVs were not associated with differential ethanol intake due to prenatal ethanol exposure. Prenatal ethanol, however, altered basal neural activity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Future studies should analyze the functionality of medial prefrontal cortex after prenatal ethanol and its potential association with predisposition for heightened ethanol intake. PMID:23266368

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases ethanol intake and reduces c-Fos expression in infralimbic cortex of adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Maria Carolina; March, Samanta M; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2013-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure significantly increases later predisposition for alcohol intake, but the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon remain hypothetical. This study analyzed (Experiment 1) ethanol intake in adolescent inbred WKAH/Hok Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0g/kg) or vehicle, on gestational days 17-20. Subsequent Experiments (2, 3 and 4) tested several variables likely to underlie the effect of gestational ethanol on adolescent ethanol preference, including ethanol-induced locomotor activation (LMA), ethanol-induced emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) after exposure to a rough exteroceptive stimulus, and induction of the immediate early gene C-fos in brain areas associated with processing of reward stimuli and with the retrieval and extinction of associative learning. Prenatal ethanol induced a two-fold increase in ethanol intake. Adolescents exhibited significant ethanol-induced LMA, emitted more aversive than appetitive USVs, and postnatal ethanol administration significantly exacerbated the emission of USVs. These effects, however, were not affected by prenatal ethanol. Adolescents prenatally exposed to ethanol as fetuses exhibited reduced neural activity in infralimbic cortex (but not in prelimbic cortex or nucleus accumbens core or shell), an area that has been implicated in the extinction of drug-mediated associative memories. Ethanol metabolism was not affected by prenatal ethanol. Late gestational exposure to ethanol significantly heightened drinking in the adolescent offspring of an inbred rat strain. Ethanol-induced LMA and USVs were not associated with differential ethanol intake due to prenatal ethanol exposure. Prenatal ethanol, however, altered basal neural activity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Future studies should analyze the functionality of medial prefrontal cortex after prenatal ethanol and its potential association with predisposition for heightened ethanol intake.

  2. Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, David; Patzek, Tad; Cecil, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The prime focus of ethanol production from corn is to replace the imported oil used in American vehicles, without expending more fossil energy in ethanol production than is produced as ethanol energy. In a thorough and up-to-date evaluation of all the fossil energy costs of ethanol production from corn, every step in the production and conversion process must be included. In this study, 14 energy inputs in average U.S. corn production are included. Then, in the fermentation/distillation operation, 9 more identified fossil fuel inputs are included. Some energy and economic credits are given for the by-products, including dried distillers grains (DDG). Based on all the fossil energy inputs, a total of 1.43 kcal fossil energy is expended to produced 1 kcal ethanol. When the energy value of the DDG, based on the feed value of the DDG as compared to that of soybean meal, is considered, the energy cost of ethanol production is reduced slightly, to 1.28 kcal fossil energy input per 1 kcal ethanol produced. Several proethanol investigators have overlooked various energy inputs in U.S. corn production, including farm machinery, processing machinery, and the use of hybrid corn. In other studies, unrealistic, low energy costs were attributed to such inputs as nitrogen fertilizer, insecticides, and herbicides. Controversy continues concerning the energy and economic credits that should be assigned to the by-products. The U.S. Department of Energy reports that 17.0 billion L ethanol was produced in 2005. This represents only less than 1% of total oil use in the U.S. These yields are based on using about 18% of total U.S. corn production and 18% of cornland. Because the production of ethanol requires large inputs of both oil and natural gas in production, the U.S. is importing both oil and natural gas to produce ethanol. Furthermore, the U.S. Government is spending about dollar 3 billion annually to subsidize ethanol production, a subsidy of dollar 0.79/L ethanol produced. With

  3. 2008 Gordon Research Conference on Catalysis [Conference summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Soled, Stuart L.; Gray, Nancy Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The GRC on Catalysis is one of the most prestigious catalysis conferences as it brings together leading researchers from around the world to discuss their latest, most exciting work in catalysis. The 2008 conference will continue this tradition. The conference will cover a variety of themes including new catalytic materials, theoretical and experimental approaches to improve understanding of kinetics and transport phenomena, and state of the art nanoscale characterization probes to monitor active sites. The conference promotes interactions among established researchers and young scientists. It provides a venue for students to meet, talk to and learn from some of the world leading researchers in the area. It also gives them a platform for displaying their own work during the poster sessions. The informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the presentations and posters, and ability to meet many outstanding colleagues makes this an excellent conference.

  4. Calendar of Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-08-01

    8 - 18 August 1996 International Summer School on Plasma Physics and Technology La Jolla, CA, USA Contact: Mr V Stefan, Institute for Advanced Physics Studies, PO Box 2964, La Jolla, CA 92038, USA. Tel +1-619-456-5737. 26 - 30 August 1996 Joint Varenna - Lausanne International Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 2 - 5 September 1996 EU - US Workshop on Transport in Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Further information: G Gorini, ISPP, 16 Via Celoria, I-20133 Milano, Italy. Tel +39-2-2392637, Fax +39-2-2392205, E-mail ggorini@mi.infn.it. Administrative contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 9 - 13 September 1996 International Conference on Plasma Physics Nagoya, Japan Contact: Conference Secretariat, c/o Prof. Hiromu Momota, National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan. Tel +81-52-789-4260, Fax +81-52-789-1037, E-mail icpp96@nifs.ac.jp. Abstract deadline: 31 March 1996. 16 - 20 September 1996 19th Symposium on Fusion Technology Lisbon, Portugal Contact: Professor Carlos Varandas, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal. Fax +351-1-8417819, E-mail cvarandas@cfn.ist.utl.pt. General information will be available via WWW with URL http://www.cfn.ist.utl.pt. 25 - 29 September 1996 Summer University of Plasma Physics Garching, Germany Contact: Ms Ch Stahlberg, Max-Planck-Institut für PlasmaPhysik, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany. Tel +49-89-3299-2232, Fax +49-89-3299-1001. 11 - 15 November 1996 38th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, APS Denver, CO, USA Contact: Dr Richard Hazeltine, University of Texas

  5. Process engineering of high-ethanol-tolerance yeast for the manufacture of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Xia, Y.; Tsao, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    Inhibitory effects of ethanol and glucose on a high-ethanol-tolerance yeast strain (fusion product of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces uvarum) having high osmotic and ethanol tolerance were studied in batch cultures. A model incorporating both substrate and product inhibition was developed that represented the experimental data quite well. By performing fed-batch fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 13.3% (w/v) was obtained. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration for cell growth was predicted to be 129.9 g/L and ethanol-producing capability of cells was found to be completely inhibited at 136.4 g/L. On-line monitoring of the fermentation was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Preliminary results are reported.

  6. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  7. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON THE NATURAL ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that the presence of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by micr...

  8. KINETICS OF ETHANOL BIODEGRADATION UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS IN GASOLINE SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that biodegradation of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by mi...

  9. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON THE NATURAL ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF BENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that the presence of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by micr...

  10. KINETICS OF ETHANOL BIODEGRADATION UNDER METHANOGENIC CONDITIONS IN GASOLINE SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is commonly used as a fuel oxygenate. A concern has been raised that biodegradation of ethanol from a spill of gasoline may inhibit the natural biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons, including benzene. Ethanol is miscible in water, and ethanol is readily metabolized by mi...

  11. Developing Biofuel in the Teaching Laboratory: Ethanol from Various Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jessica L.; Vieira, Matthew; Aryal, Binod; Vera, Nicolas; Solis, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    In this series of experiments, we mimic a small-scale ethanol plant. Students discover that the practical aspects of ethanol production are determined by the quantity of biomass produced per unit land, rather than the volume of ethanol produced per unit of biomass. These experiments explore the production of ethanol from different sources: fruits,…

  12. Survey of U.S. fuel ethanol plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ethanol industry is progressively growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so too ...

  13. 10 CFR 2.329 - Prehearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... place for a conference or conferences before trial. A prehearing conference in a proceeding involving a... proceeding; (10) The setting of a hearing schedule, including any appropriate limitations on the scope and...

  14. 38 CFR 39.33 - Conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Grant Requirements and Procedures § 39.33 Conferences. (a) Predesign conference. A predesign conference is required for all Establishment, Expansion...

  15. 38 CFR 39.33 - Conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Grant Requirements and Procedures § 39.33 Conferences. (a) Predesign conference. A predesign conference is required for all Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement...

  16. 38 CFR 39.33 - Conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Grant Requirements and Procedures § 39.33 Conferences. (a) Predesign conference. A predesign conference is required for all Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement...

  17. 38 CFR 39.33 - Conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Grant Requirements and Procedures § 39.33 Conferences. (a) Predesign conference. A predesign conference is required for all Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement...

  18. 10 CFR 2.329 - Prehearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... place for a conference or conferences before trial. A prehearing conference in a proceeding involving a... proceeding; (10) The setting of a hearing schedule, including any appropriate limitations on the scope and...

  19. Student-Led Portfolio Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, F. Leon; Paulson, Pearl R.

    In at least one Oregon school system, student-led conferences have begun to replace traditional report cards. When conferences are well done, parents believe they have learned more about their child's learning and progress than they would through a traditional report card. There is an important additional benefit in that students can rise to the…

  20. SLA at 100: Conference Preview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    When School Library Association (SLA) convenes its annual conference in Washington, DC, June 14-17, 2009, the association will be celebrating its 100th birthday. This occasion allows for grand gestures--the SLA Salutes! Awards and Leadership Reception will be held in the Library of Congress's Great Hall. The conference also draws upon Washington…