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Sample records for mri dwi findings

  1. MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in pediatric small bowel Crohn disease: correlation with MRI findings of active bowel wall inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ream, Justin M; Dillman, Jonathan R; Adler, Jeremy; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; McHugh, Jonathan B; Strouse, Peter J; Dhanani, Muhammad; Shpeen, Benjamin; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M

    2013-09-01

    Restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences during magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has been shown in segments of bowel affected by Crohn disease. However, the exact meaning of this finding, particularly within the pediatric Crohn disease population, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of bowel wall restricted diffusion in children with small bowel Crohn disease by correlating apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with other MRI markers of disease activity. A retrospective review of pediatric patients (≤ 18 years of age) with Crohn disease terminal ileitis who underwent MRE with DWI at our institution between May 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011 was undertaken. All of the children had either biopsy-proven Crohn disease terminal ileitis or clinically diagnosed Crohn disease, including terminal ileal involvement by imaging. The mean minimum ADC value within the wall of the terminal ileum was determined for each examination. ADC values were tested for correlation/association with other MRI findings to determine whether a relationship exists between bowel wall restricted diffusion and disease activity. Forty-six MRE examinations with DWI in children with terminal ileitis were identified (23 girls and 23 boys; mean age, 14.3 years). There was significant negative correlation or association between bowel wall minimum ADC value and established MRI markers of disease activity, including degree of bowel wall thickening (R = (-)0.43; P = 0.003), striated pattern of arterial enhancement (P = 0.01), degree of arterial enhancement (P = 0.01), degree of delayed enhancement (P = 0.045), amount of mesenteric inflammatory changes (P < 0.0001) and presence of a stricture (P = 0.02). ADC values were not significantly associated with bowel wall T2-weighted signal intensity, length of disease involvement or mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation. Increasing bowel wall restricted diffusion

  2. Correlating DWI MRI with pathological and other features of Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Potter, Christopher A.; Sattavat, Mamta; Garcia, Paul A.; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; DeArmond, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI is a highly sensitive and specific test for diagnosis of sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (sCJD); however, the neuropathological origin of DWI signal abnormalities including other clinical features have not been well-defined. We describe a case of sCJD with brain MRI taken 15 days prior to death, which provided an opportunity to correlate clinical, EEG, MRI and neuropathological findings in order to better understand which sCJD-specific neuropathological changes underlie the DWI abnormalities. Clinical findings correlated well with both EEG and MRI changes. Neuropathological analysis showed that hyperintensities on DWI MRI correlated best with the vacuolation score (r=0.78, p=0.0005) and PrPSc load (r=0.77; p=0.0006), followed by reactive astrocytic gliosis (r=0.63, p=0.008). This case provides further evidence that DWI abnormalities correlate well with the clinical features and with PrPSc accumulation and vacuolation. PMID:19266702

  3. Correlating DWI MRI with pathologic and other features of Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease.

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Michael D; Potter, Christopher A; Sattavat, Mamta; Garcia, Paul A; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; DeArmond, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive and specific test for diagnosis of sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (sCJD); however, the neuropathologic origin of DWI signal abnormalities including other clinical features has not been well defined. We describe a case of sCJD with brain MRI taken 15 days before death, which provided an opportunity to correlate clinical, electroencephalogram, MRI, and neuropathologic findings to better understand which sCJD-specific neuropathologic changes underlie the DWI abnormalities. Clinical findings correlated well with both electroencephalogram and MRI changes. Neuropathologic analysis showed that hyperintensities on DWI MRI correlated best with the vacuolation score (r=0.78, P=0.0005) and PrP(Sc) load (r=0.77; P=0.0006), followed by reactive astrocytic gliosis (r=0.63, P=0.008). This case provides further evidence that DWI abnormalities correlate well with the clinical features and with PrP(Sc) accumulation and vacuolation.

  4. CT, MRI and DWI Features of a Solid Organizing Hepatic Abscess.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Sergio; Pellizzer, Giampiero; Di Grazia, Lorenzo; Giacomini, Dario; Beghetto, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Solid organizing hepatic abscess is a rare form of focal infection, which needs differentiation from benign and malignant solid masses. We report a case of a 30-year-old man with a solid organizing hepatic abscess, diagnosed by imaging and ex juvantibus criteria. CT and MRI findings are presented and role of DWI is outlined. Noninvasive diagnosis of a solid organizing hepatic abscess is possible in the appropriate clinical setting; percutaneous or surgical biopsy may be indicated in equivocal cases.

  5. Multiparametric breast MRI with 3T: Effectivity of combination of contrast enhanced MRI, DWI and 1H single voxel spectroscopy in differentiation of Breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Aribal, Erkin; Asadov, Ruslan; Ramazan, Abdullah; Ugurlu, Mustafa Ümit; Kaya, Handan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast enhanced breast MRI (DCE-MRI) combined with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and 1H single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) in differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions. One hundred twenty-nine patients with 138 lesions were included in the study. Multiparametric MRI of the breast was performed with a 3T unit. A DWI is followed by DCE-MRI and 1HMRS. All lesions were biopsied within one week after MRI. Histopathologic findings were accepted as the standard of reference. Probability of malignancy was assessed according to BI-RADS for DCE-MRI. ADC values were measured for DWI and choline peaks were assessed using a semi-quantitative method in 1HMRS. Two blinded radiologists evaluated findings in consensus. Diagnostic performance of DCE-MRI, DWI and 1HMRS alone or in combination for multiparametric imaging were statistically evaluated. Histopathology revealed malignancy in 54.4% of lesions (75/138). DCE-MRI showed the highest AUC (0.978), sensitivity (97.33%) and specificity (88.89%) compared to DWI and 1HMRS. Sensitivity was 100% when a positive result from any one of three techniques was accepted as malignancy, albeit with a trade-off for 65.1% specificity. Highest specificity (98.4%) was attained when all three techniques were required to be positive, though with a lower sensitivity (82.7%) as trade-off. Logistic regression analysis confirmed significant association with DCE-MRI (p<0.001) and 1H MRS (p=0.009) but not with DWI (p=0.127). There was one case of fat necrosis which was false positive in all three techniques. Multiparametric imaging with combination of DCE-MRI, DWI and 1HMRS does not improve, and may even reduce the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI. Although, the specificity may be improved with a trade-off for lower sensitivity, we have not set a convenient algorithm for the combined use of these techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [The actions of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in differentiating breast tumors].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Yu, Jianqun; Chen, Dongdong; Xu, Zhongzi; Zeng, Hanjiang

    2013-12-01

    We studied the actions of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating breast tumors. From January 2010 to February 2012, we retrospectively analyzed data of 95 cases with breast tumor pathologically confirmed from DWI and DCE-MRI. We compared the ADC value, time-intensity curve (TIC) and DCE-MRI parameters between breast tumors, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating breast tumors. The results were as follows: (1) On DWI, mean ADC value of malignant tumor was lower than that of benign tumor (P < 0.05). For differentiating breast malignant tumors from benign neoplasm, a cut-off ADC value of 1.2 x 10(-3) mm2/s achieved a sensitivity of 74.1% and specificity of 70.3%. (2) On DCE-MRI, early enhancement ratio (EER) value of malignant tumor was higher than that of benign tumor whereas value of time to peak (Tpeak) and maximal enhancement ratio (SImax) were lower than that of benign tumor (all P < 0.05). As for TIC, type II and III were more frequently seen in malignant tumor than in benign tumor whereas type I was more common in benign tumor than in malignant tumor (all P < 0.05). For differentiating breast malignant tumors from benign neoplasm, DCE-MRI obtained a sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity of 70.3%. (3) For differentiating breast malignant tumors from benign neoplasm, ADC value together with TIC obtained a sensitivity of 79.3% and specificity of 78.4%. Malignant or benign breast tumors could have their own unique characteristics on DWI and DCE-MRI. These characteristics might be helpful for differentiating these tumors.

  7. Joint Generative Model for fMRI/DWI and Its Application to Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Archana; Rathi, Yogesh; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Golland, Polina

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel probabilistic framework to merge information from DWI tractography and resting-state fMRI correlations. In particular, we model the interaction of latent anatomical and functional connectivity templates between brain regions and present an intuitive extension to population studies. We employ a mean-field approximation to fit the new model to the data. The resulting algorithm identifies differences in latent connectivity between the groups. We demonstrate our method on a study of normal controls and schizophrenia patients. PMID:20879231

  8. Whole body MRI with qualitative and quantitative analysis of DWI for assessment of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Balbo-Mussetto, Annalisa; Saviolo, Chiara; Fornari, Alberto; Gottardi, Daniela; Petracchini, Massimo; Macera, Annalisa; Lario, Chiara Valentina; Gallo, Teresa; Tarella, Corrado; Cirillo, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the role of qualitative and quantitative whole body MRI with DWI for assessment of bone marrow involvement (BMI) in newly diagnosed lymphoma using FDG PET-CT and bone marrow biopsy (BMB) as reference standard. We retrospectively evaluated 56 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma (21 Hodgkin's lymphoma and 35 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) who underwent random unilateral BMB, FDG PET-CT and Wb-MRI-DWI for initial staging. In a patient-based analysis, results of Wb-MRI-DWI were compared with FDG PET-CT and BMB. For quantitative analysis, mean ADC values of posterior iliac crest were correlated with BMI and bone marrow cellularity. WB-MR-DWI obtained excellent concordance with FDG PET-CT both in HL (k = 1.000; 95% CI 1.000-1.000) and in DLBCL (k = 1.000; 95% CI 1.000-1.000). In other NHL, WB-MRI-DWI obtained a good correlation with BMB (k = 0.611; 95% CI 0.295-0.927) while FDG PET-CT had poor concordance (k = 0.067; 95% CI 0.372-0.505). WB-MR-DWI has no false negative errors but 4 false positive results consisting in focal lesions consensually reported by FDG PET-CT and resolved after therapy. No significant correlation between ADC mean value and BMI was found (p = 0.0586). Our data suggest that Wb-MRI-DWI is a valid technique for BMI assessment in lymphoma patients, thanks to its excellent concordance with FDG PET-CT and good concordance with BMB (superior than FDG PET-CT). If further investigations will confirm our results on larger patient groups, it could become a useful tool in the clinical workup.

  9. A prospective study of DWI, DCE-MRI and FDG PET imaging for target delineation in brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Kathy; Croke, Jennifer; Foltz, Warren; Metser, Ur; Xie, Jason; Shek, Tina; Driscoll, Brandon; Ménard, Cynthia; Vines, Doug; Coolens, Catherine; Simeonov, Anna; Beiki-Ardakani, Akbar; Leung, Eric; Levin, Wilfred; Fyles, Anthony; Milosevic, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    We examined the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), and FDG-PET imaging for brachytherapy target delineation in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Twenty-two patients had DWI, DCE-MRI, and FDG-PET/CT scans after brachytherapy applicator insertion, in addition to standard T2-weighted (T2w) 3T MRI. Gross tumor volume (GTVB) and high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) were contoured first on T2w images, and then modified if indicated upon review of DWI/DCE-MRI/FDG-PET images by two observers. The primary endpoint was utility, determined by the number of patients whose volumes were modified, and interobserver variability. Eleven patients' T2w-GTVB were modified based on DWI/DCE-MRI/FDG-PET by observer 1, due to clearer demarcation (7) and residual disease not well visualized on T2w MRI (4). GTVB was modified in 17 patients by observer 2 (11 and 6, respectively). Incorporation of functional imaging improved the conformity index (CI) for GTVB from 0.54 (T2w alone) to 0.65 (P=0.003). HRCTV was modified in 3 and 8 patients by observers 1 and 2, respectively, with a trend toward higher CI using functional imaging (0.71 to 0.76, P=0.06). DWI/DCE-MRI/FDG-PET imaging as a supplement to T2w MRI decreased interobserver variability in GTVB delineation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of the effects of noise, DWI sampling, and value of assumed parameters in diffusion MRI models.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Avram, Alexandru V; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Koay, C Guan; Barnett, Alan S; Komlosh, Michal E; Özarslan, Evren; Schwerin, Susan C; Juliano, Sharon L; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2017-01-16

    This study was a systematic evaluation across different and prominent diffusion MRI models to better understand the ways in which scalar metrics are influenced by experimental factors, including experimental design (diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] sampling) and noise. Four diffusion MRI models-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), mean apparent propagator MRI (MAP-MRI), and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI)-were evaluated by comparing maps and histogram values of the scalar metrics generated using DWI datasets obtained in fixed mouse brain with different noise levels and DWI sampling complexity. Additionally, models were fit with different input parameters or constraints to examine the consequences of model fitting procedures. Experimental factors affected all models and metrics to varying degrees. Model complexity influenced sensitivity to DWI sampling and noise, especially for metrics reporting non-Gaussian information. DKI metrics were highly susceptible to noise and experimental design. The influence of fixed parameter selection for the NODDI model was found to be considerable, as was the impact of initial tensor fitting in the MAP-MRI model. Across DTI, DKI, MAP-MRI, and NODDI, a wide range of dependence on experimental factors was observed that elucidate principles and practical implications for advanced diffusion MRI. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Sensitivity of Diffusion-Weighted STEAM MRI and EPI-DWI to Infratentorial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hohenhaus, Marc; Kunze, Claudia; Schmidt, Wolf; Brunecker, Peter; Villringer, Kersten; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Frahm, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the sensitivity of stimulated echo acquisition mode diffusion weighted imaging (STEAM-DWI) to ischemic stroke in comparison to echo-planar imaging diffusion weighted imaging (EPI-DWI) in the infratentorial compartment. Methods Fifty-seven patients presenting with clinical features of infratentorial stroke underwent STEAM-DWI, high-resolution EPI-DWI (HR-DWI, 2.5 mm slice thickness) and low-resolution EPI-DWI (LR-DWI, 5 mm slice thickness). Four readers assessed the presence of ischemic lesions and artifacts. Agreement between sequences and interobserver agreement on the presence of ischemia were calculated. The sensitivities of the DWI sequences were calculated in 45 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of infratentorial stroke. Results Median time from symptom onset to imaging was 24 hours. STEAM-DWI agreed with LR-DWI in 89.5% of cases (kappa = 0.72, p<0.0001) and with HR-DWI in 89.5% of cases (kappa = 0.68, p<0.0001). STEAM-DWI showed fewer intraparenchymal artifacts (1/57) than HR-DWI (44/57) and LR-DWI (41/57). Ischemia was visible in 87% of cases for LR-DWI, 93% of cases for HR-DWI, and 89% of cases for STEAM-DWI. Interobserver agreement was good for STEAM-DWI (kappa = 0.62, p<0.0001). Conclusions Compared to the best currently available MR sequence for detecting ischemia (HR-DWI), STEAM-DWI shows fewer artifacts and a similar sensitivity to infratentorial stroke. PMID:27529697

  12. MRI DWI/ADC signal predicts shrinkage of lumbar disc herniation after O2-O3 discolysis.

    PubMed

    Perri, Marco; Grattacaso, Giuseppe; Di Tunno, Valeria; Marsecano, Claudia; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Evaluate the discal morpho-structural changes as a predictive sign in the clinical outcome after ozone therapy in lumbar disc herniation using the T2-shine through effect in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). One hundred and fifty-four patients suffering from lumbosciatica (89 men and 65 women; age range, 23-62 years) were included, previous MR study performed with FSE-T2 and T2-fat, SE-T1 and DWI sequences, and were randomly assigned to two groups. Seventy-seven patients (control group) underwent conservative treatment with intraforaminal injection of steroid and anaesthetic. The remaining 77 patients (study group) underwent the same treatment with the addition of oxygen-ozone (O2-O3). During the following six months, a MRI follow-up with the same sequences was performed. An intervertebral disc volumetric analysis (IDVA), DWI signal score and post treatment clinical outcome evaluation were performed for an assessment of hernia reduction. χ² test, Student's t test and analysis of covariance were used for comparison of variables. In the study group, 58 of 77 patients had a successful outcome (responders). In the responders group, DWI T2-shine through effect was present during MRI follow-up and in particular in 53 of 77 patients in six months of follow-up (p < 0.05). Moreover, in the same group a statistically significant disc shrinkage was shown by IDVA in sixth months of follow-up (p < 0.05). T2-shine through effect in DWI is present before morphological disc reduction and moreover could be considered as a predictive sign of response to oxygen-ozone treatment. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. MRI DWI/ADC signal predicts shrinkage of lumbar disc herniation after O2–O3 discolysis

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Marco; Grattacaso, Giuseppe; Di Tunno, Valeria; Marsecano, Claudia; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the discal morpho-structural changes as a predictive sign in the clinical outcome after ozone therapy in lumbar disc herniation using the T2–shine through effect in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Method One hundred and fifty-four patients suffering from lumbosciatica (89 men and 65 women; age range, 23–62 years) were included, previous MR study performed with FSE-T2 and T2-fat, SE-T1 and DWI sequences, and were randomly assigned to two groups. Seventy-seven patients (control group) underwent conservative treatment with intraforaminal injection of steroid and anaesthetic. The remaining 77 patients (study group) underwent the same treatment with the addition of oxygen–ozone (O2–O3). During the following six months, a MRI follow-up with the same sequences was performed. An intervertebral disc volumetric analysis (IDVA), DWI signal score and post treatment clinical outcome evaluation were performed for an assessment of hernia reduction. χ2 test, Student's t test and analysis of covariance were used for comparison of variables. Results In the study group, 58 of 77 patients had a successful outcome (responders). In the responders group, DWI T2–shine through effect was present during MRI follow-up and in particular in 53 of 77 patients in six months of follow-up (p < 0.05). Moreover, in the same group a statistically significant disc shrinkage was shown by IDVA in sixth months of follow-up (p < 0.05). Conclusions T2–shine through effect in DWI is present before morphological disc reduction and moreover could be considered as a predictive sign of response to oxygen–ozone treatment. PMID:25923680

  14. A greater involvement of posterior brain areas in interhemispheric transfer in autism: fMRI, DWI and behavioral evidences

    PubMed Central

    Barbeau, Elise B.; Lewis, John D.; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Mottron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    A small corpus callosum (CC) is one of the most replicated neurobiological findings in autism spectrum (AS). However, its effect on interhemispheric (IH) communication is unknown. We combined structural (CC area and DWI), functional (task-related fMRI activation and connectivity analyses) as well as behavioral (Poffenberger and Purdue tasks) measures to investigate IH integration in adult AS individuals of typical intelligence. Despite similar behavioral IH transfer time and performances in bimanual tasks, the CC sub-regions connecting frontal and parietal cortical areas were smaller in AS than in non-AS individuals, while those connecting visual regions were similar. The activation of visual areas was lower in AS than in non-AS individuals during the presentation of visual stimuli. Behavioral IH performances were related to the properties of CC subregions connecting motor areas in non-AS individuals, but to the properties of posterior CC regions in AS individuals. Furthermore, there was greater functional connectivity between visual areas in the AS than in the non-AS group. Levels of connectivity were also stronger in visual than in motor regions in the autistic subjects, while the opposite was true for the non-autistic group. Thus, visual IH transfer plays an important role in visuo-motor tasks in AS individuals. These findings extend the well established enhanced role of perception in autistic cognition to visuo-motor IH information transfer. PMID:26106551

  15. SU-F-303-13: Initial Evaluation of Four Dimensional Diffusion- Weighted MRI (4D-DWI) and Its Effect On Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Yin, F; Czito, B; Bashir, M; Palta, M; Cai, J; Zhong, X; Dale, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) has been shown to have superior tumor-to-tissue contrast for cancer detection.This study aims at developing and evaluating a four dimensional DWI(4D-DWI) technique using retrospective sorting method for imaging respiratory motion for radiotherapy planning,and evaluate its effect on Apparent Diffusion Coefficient(ADC) measurement. Materials/Methods: Image acquisition was performed by repeatedly imaging a volume of interest using a multi-slice single-shot 2D-DWI sequence in the axial planes and cine MRI(served as reference) using FIESTA sequence.Each 2D-DWI image were acquired in xyz-diffusion-directions with a high b-value(b=500s/mm2).The respiratory motion was simultaneously recorded using bellows.Retrospective sorting was applied in each direction to reconstruct 4D-DWI.The technique was evaluated using a computer simulated 4D-digital human phantom(XCAT),a motion phantom and a healthy volunteer under an IRB-approved study.Motion trajectories of regions-of-interests(ROI) were extracted from 4D-DWI and compared with reference.The mean motion trajectory amplitude differences(D) between the two was calculated.To quantitatively analyze the motion artifacts,XCAT were controlled to simulate regular motion and the motions of 10 liver cancer patients.4D-DWI,free-breathing DWI(FB- DWI) were reconstructed.Tumor volume difference(VD) of each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI from the input static tumor were calculated.Furthermore, ADC was measured for each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI data,and mean tumor ADC values(M-ADC) were calculated.Mean M-ADC over all 4D-DWI phases was compared with M-ADC calculated from FB-DWI. Results: 4D-DWI of XCAT,the motion phantom and the healthy volunteer demonstrated the respiratory motion clearly.ROI D values were 1.9mm,1.7mm and 2.0mm,respectively.For motion artifacts analysis,XCAT 4D-DWI images show much less motion artifacts compare to FB-DWI.Mean VD for 4D-WDI and FB-DWI were 8.5±1.4% and 108±15

  16. MRI findings in aphasic status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Manuel; Munuera, Josep; Sueiras, Maria; Rovira, Rosa; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Rovira, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Ictal-MRI studies including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and MR-angiography (MRA) in patients with aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) are lacking. In this report, we aim to describe the consequences of the ASE on DWIs and its impact on cerebral circulation. We retrospectively studied eight patients with ASE confirmed by ictal-EEG, who underwent ictal-MRI shortly after well-documented onset (mean time delay 3 h). ASE consisted in fluctuating aphasia, mostly associated with other subtle contralateral neurological signs such as hemiparesia, hemianopia, or slight clonic jerks. In MRI, six patients showed cortical temporoparietal hyperintensity in DWI and four of them had also ipsilateral pulvinar lesions. Five patients showed close spatial hyperperfusion areas matching the DWI lesions and an enhanced blow flow in the middle cerebral artery. Parenchymal lesions and hemodynamic abnormalities were not associated with seizure duration or severity in any case. The resolution of DWI lesions at follow-up MRI depended on the length of the MRIs interval. In patients with ASE, lesions on DWI in the temporo-parietal cortex and pulvinar nucleus combined with local hyperperfusion can be observed, even when they appear distant from the epileptic focus or the language areas.

  17. Clinical-Radiological Parameters Improve the Prediction of the Thrombolysis Time Window by Both MRI Signal Intensities and DWI-FLAIR Mismatch.

    PubMed

    Madai, Vince Istvan; Wood, Carla N; Galinovic, Ivana; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Revankar, Gajanan S; Martin, Steve Z; Zaro-Weber, Olivier; Moeller-Hartmann, Walter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Ebinger, Martin; Fiebach, Jochen B; Sobesky, Jan

    2016-01-01

    With regard to acute stroke, patients with unknown time from stroke onset are not eligible for thrombolysis. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI relative signal intensity (rSI) biomarkers have been introduced to predict eligibility for thrombolysis, but have shown heterogeneous results in the past. In the present work, we investigated whether the inclusion of easily obtainable clinical-radiological parameters would improve the prediction of the thrombolysis time window by rSIs and compared their performance to the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch. In a retrospective study, patients from 2 centers with proven stroke with onset <12 h were included. The DWI lesion was segmented and overlaid on ADC and FLAIR images. rSI mean and SD, were calculated as follows: (mean ROI value/mean value of the unaffected hemisphere). Additionally, the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch was evaluated. Prediction of the thrombolysis time window was evaluated by the area-under-the-curve (AUC) derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Factors such as the association of age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, MRI field strength, lesion size, vessel occlusion and Wahlund-Score with rSI were investigated and the models were adjusted and stratified accordingly. In 82 patients, the unadjusted rSI measures DWI-mean and -SD showed the highest AUCs (AUC 0.86-0.87). Adjustment for clinical-radiological covariates significantly improved the performance of FLAIR-mean (0.91) and DWI-SD (0.91). The best prediction results based on the AUC were found for the final stratified and adjusted models of DWI-SD (0.94) and FLAIR-mean (0.96) and a multivariable DWI-FLAIR model (0.95). The adjusted visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch did not perform in a significantly worse manner (0.89). ADC-rSIs showed fair performance in all models. Quantitative DWI and FLAIR MRI biomarkers as well as the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch provide excellent

  18. Histogram analysis parameters identify multiple associations between DWI and DCE MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hans Jonas; Leifels, Leonard; Schob, Stefan; Garnov, Nikita; Surov, Alexey

    2017-09-28

    Nowadays, multiparametric investigations of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are established. These approaches can better characterize tumor biology and behavior. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) can by means of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantitatively characterize different tissue compartments. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) reflects perfusion and vascularization of tissues. Recently, a novel approach of data acquisition, namely histogram analysis of different images is a novel diagnostic approach, which can provide more information of tissue heterogeneity. The purpose of this study was to analyze possible associations between DWI, and DCE parameters derived from histogram analysis in patients with HNSCC. Overall, 34 patients, 9 women and 25 men, mean age, 56.7±10.2years, with different HNSCC were involved in the study. DWI was obtained by using of an axial echo planar imaging sequence with b-values of 0 and 800s/mm(2). Dynamic T1w DCE sequence after intravenous application of contrast medium was performed for estimation of the following perfusion parameters: volume transfer constant (Ktrans), volume of the extravascular extracellular leakage space (Ve), and diffusion of contrast medium from the extravascular extracellular leakage space back to the plasma (Kep). Both ADC and perfusion parameters maps were processed offline in DICOM format with custom-made Matlab-based application. Thereafter, polygonal ROIs were manually drawn on the transferred maps on each slice. For every parameter, mean, maximal, minimal, and median values, as well percentiles 10th, 25th, 75th, 90th, kurtosis, skewness, and entropy were estimated. Сorrelation analysis identified multiple statistically significant correlations between the investigated parameters. Ve related parameters correlated well with different ADC values. Especially, percentiles 10 and 75, mode, and median values showed stronger correlations in comparison to other

  19. Multimodal description of whole brain connectivity: A comparison of resting state MEG, fMRI, and DWI

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, Pilar; Pereda, Ernesto; Hernández‐Tamames, Juan A.; Del‐Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Structural and functional connectivity (SC and FC) have received much attention over the last decade, as they offer unique insight into the coordination of brain functioning. They are often assessed independently with three imaging modalities: SC using diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), FC using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG). DWI provides information about white matter organization, allowing the reconstruction of fiber bundles. fMRI uses blood‐oxygenation level‐dependent (BOLD) contrast to indirectly map neuronal activation. MEG and EEG are direct measures of neuronal activity, as they are sensitive to the synchronous inputs in pyramidal neurons. Seminal studies have targeted either the electrophysiological substrate of BOLD or the anatomical basis of FC. However, multimodal comparisons have been scarcely performed, and the relation between SC, fMRI‐FC, and MEG‐FC is still unclear. Here we present a systematic comparison of SC, resting state fMRI‐FC, and MEG‐FC between cortical regions, by evaluating their similarities at three different scales: global network, node, and hub distribution. We obtained strong similarities between the three modalities, especially for the following pairwise combinations: SC and fMRI‐FC; SC and MEG‐FC at theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands; and fMRI‐FC and MEG‐FC in alpha and beta. Furthermore, highest node similarity was found for regions of the default mode network and primary motor cortex, which also presented the highest hubness score. Distance was partially responsible for these similarities since it biased all three connectivity estimates, but not the unique contributor, since similarities remained after controlling for distance. Hum Brain Mapp 37:20–34, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26503502

  20. MRI findings in Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Raval, Monali; Kumari, Rima; Dung, Aldrin Anthony Dung; Guglani, Bhuvnesh; Gupta, Nitij; Gupta, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7), abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  1. P06SUPRATENTORIAL PNET IN ADULTS: MRI CAN HELP DISTINGUISH FROM GLIOBLASTOMA - DWI IS KEY

    PubMed Central

    Eralil, George; Jones, Timothy L.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Barrick, Tom R.; MacKinnon, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extra-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours (sPNETs) are considered rare in adults and little is known about their radiological appearances. The most clinically relevant pre-surgical differential diagnosis is glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We present a series of patients with sPNET over a 6 year period (2008-2014), and provide an imaging update with a review of the existing literature. METHOD: Retrospective review of CT and MRI characteristics of 7 patients with histologically proven sPNETs. Comparisons were made with similarly located and histopathologically confirmed WHO Grade 4 GBMs. RESULTS: 6 of the 7 sPNETs occurred de novo. One arose within the resection bed of a WHO Grade 1 pilocytic astrocytoma. There were 4 frontal and 3 temporal lobe incidences. Mean age was 42.8yrs (range 23 - 73 yrs, median 36 yrs). On CT the solid component of the tumour was usually hyperdense. Some of the small sPNETs contained central haemorrhage, confirmed on MRI. Larger tumours were solid/cystic. On MRI the solid component of all sPNETs was T2 hypointense, showed avid enhancement and marked restricted diffusion, typical of a high grade tumour. The degree of restricted diffusion was notably greater in the sPNET group when compared to the GBM cohort. CONCLUSION: The extreme rarity of sPNETs in adults makes for difficult interpretation of existing imaging modalities. In non-histopathologically confirmed cases, imaging could be misinterpreted as high grade glioma. However, greater restricted diffusion in sPNETs may help distinguish them from GBMs. Advanced MRI techniques and correlation with spectroscopy and molecular markers will also help in the future.

  2. Indeterminate adnexal masses at ultrasound: effect of MRI imaging findings on diagnostic thinking and therapeutic decisions.

    PubMed

    Chilla, Bianka; Hauser, Nik; Singer, Gad; Trippel, Mafalda; Froehlich, Johannes M; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A

    2011-06-01

    To determine the impact of MRI including DWI on therapeutic decision-making and costs in the work-up of patients with a indeterminate adnexal mass on ultrasound. Thirty-eight patients with indeterminate ovarian lesions scheduled for surgery were included in this prospective study. In a questionnaire, the surgeon characterised the lesions based on a morphological score and determined the surgical procedure. The assessment was re-evaluated knowing MR findings and correlated with the final diagnosis. A cost-benefit analysis of MRI was performed. The impact of including DWI in the MR protocol was assessed. MRI provided major diagnostic information in 11/38 cases (28.9%) resulting in abstention from surgery in 5 cases; moderate additional information was recorded in 10/38 (26.3%) patients. Overall a net cost saving (3'676 EUR) was achieved. DWI did not show a significant difference between benign and malignant lesions. Teratomas yielded significantly lower mean ADC values (0.597 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) compared with all other adnexal lesions (1.812 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s); the mean ADC values in endometrioma (1.387 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were significantly lower than in other cystic lesions (2.372 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). Inclusion of MRI in the diagnostic algorithm of the indeterminate adnexal mass allows better differentiation of ovarian lesions resulting in a change of therapeutic decision-making with net cost savings.

  3. Classification of clinical significance of MRI prostate findings using 3D convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Sedghi, Alireza; Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Taghipour, Mehdi; Tempany, Clare M.; Wells, William M.; Kapur, Tina; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Fedorov, Andriy

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of cancer mortality among American men. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is widely used to assist with detection of PCa and characterization of its aggressiveness. Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) of PCa in MRI can be used as clinical decision support system to aid radiologists in interpretation and reporting of mpMRI. We report on the development of a convolution neural network (CNN) model to support CADx in PCa based on the appearance of prostate tissue in mpMRI, conducted as part of the SPIE-AAPM-NCI PROSTATEx challenge. The performance of different combinations of mpMRI inputs to CNN was assessed and the best result was achieved using DWI and DCE-MRI modalities together with the zonal information of the finding. On the test set, the model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80.

  4. Pineal cysts: an incidental MRI finding?

    PubMed Central

    Di Costanzo, A; Tedeschi, G; Di Salle, F; Golia, F; Morrone, R; Bonavita, V

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of pineal cysts (PC) in "standard" MRI was reviewed. Seven cases of PC were found from 400 consecutive MRI examinations. PC did not produce clinically relevant symptoms in any of the patients. Our data, as well as those emerging from a critical review of the literature, suggest that PC are often asymptomatic and represent an incidental MRI finding. Images PMID:8437012

  5. Can DWI-ASPECTS substitute for lesion volume in acute stroke?

    PubMed

    de Margerie-Mellon, Constance; Turc, Guillaume; Tisserand, Marie; Naggara, Olivier; Calvet, David; Legrand, Laurence; Meder, Jean-François; Mas, Jean-Louis; Baron, Jean-Claude; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The extent of diffusion lesion on pretreatment imaging is a risk factor for poor outcome and hemorrhagic transformation after thrombolysis, and volumes of 70 to 100 mL have been advocated as cut-offs. However, estimating diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume (VolDWI) in the acute setting may be cumbersome. We aimed to determine whether the DWI-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (DWI-ASPECTS) can substitute for VolDWI. DWI-ASPECTS and VolDWI were measured retrospectively on pretreatment MRI (median onset-to-MRI delay=122 minutes) in 330 consecutively treated patients with middle cerebral artery stroke. DWI-ASPECTS and VolDWI were strongly correlated (ρ=-0.82), but each DWI-ASPECTS point corresponded to a wide range of VolDWI. All patients with DWI-ASPECTS≥7 (n=207) had VolDWI<70 mL, whereas 32 of the 34 patients with DWI-ASPECTS<4 had VolDWI>100 mL. However, intermediate DWI-ASPECTS (4-6; n=89) corresponded to highly variable VolDWI (median, 66 mL; interquartile range, 40-98). Although each DWI-ASPECTS point corresponds to a wide range of volumes, DWI-ASPECTS<4 or ≥7 may be used as reliable surrogates of VolDWI>100 or <70 mL, respectively.

  6. Breast findings incidentally detected on body MRI.

    PubMed

    Bignotti, Bianca; Succio, Giulia; Nosenzo, Francesca; Perinetti, Michela; Gristina, Licia; Barbagallo, Stella; Secondini, Lucia; Calabrese, Massimo; Tagliafico, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate breast findings incidentally detected on body MRI. A retrospective review of the institutional database identified 1752 body MRI performed between January 2015 and September 2015. MRI of women with breast tissue visible in the field-of-view were reviewed for breast findings. Breast findings were classified with the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. The standard statistic, costs of additional work-up, and the clinical relevance were used to describe breast findings, and we calculated 95 % exact confidence intervals (CIs). 440 body MRI of 440 women (mean age: 57 ± 20 years) included breast tissue in the field-of-view. A total of 41 breast findings were identified in 41 patients. Breast findings were classified BI-RADS 2 N = 25, BI-RADS 3 N = 13, BI-RADS 4 N = 3. A total of 3.6 % [95 % CI 1.6 %, 5.6 %] women with breast tissue visible on MRI had a recommendation for further imaging work-up for a breast finding. The 18.7 % (3 of 16) of these patients had a clinically important finding (breast cancer). Further imaging evaluation increased costs of €108.3 per patient with a breast finding. Clinically important breast findings could be detected on body MRI in up to 0.7 % (3 of 440) of women.

  7. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Ferdinando; Gambi, Beatrice; Garani, Giampaolo; Tamisari, Lalla

    2004-12-01

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized.

  8. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia.

  9. Association of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging parameters with histological findings from MRI/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dianat, Seyed Saeid; Carter, H Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M; Hamper, Ulrik M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Macura, Katarzyna J

    2015-10-01

    Purpose of this pilot study was to correlate quantitative parameters derived from the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) of the prostate with results from MRI guided transrectal ultrasound (MRI/TRUS) fusion prostate biopsy in men with suspected prostate cancer. Thirty-nine consecutive patients who had 3.0T MP-MRI and subsequent MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsy were included and 73 MRI-identified targets were sampled by 177 cores. The pre-biopsy MP-MRI consisted of T2-weighted, diffusion weighted (DWI), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) images. The association of quantitative MRI measurements with biopsy histopathology findings was assessed by Mann-Whitney U- test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Of 73 targets, biopsy showed benign prostate tissue in 46 (63%), cancer in 23 (31.5%), and atypia/high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in four (5.5%) targets. The median volume of cancer-positive targets was 1.3 cm3. The cancer-positive targets were located in the peripheral zone (56.5%), transition zone (39.1%), and seminal vesicle (4.3%). Nine of 23 (39.1%) cancer-positive targets were higher grade cancer (Gleason grade > 6). Higher grade targets and cancer-positive targets compared to benign lesions exhibited lower mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (952.7 < 1167.9 < 1278.9), and lower minimal extracellular volume fraction (ECF) (0.13 < 0.185 < 0.213), respectively. The difference in parameters was more pronounced between higher grade cancer and benign lesions. Our findings from a pilot study indicate that quantitative MRI parameters can predict malignant histology on MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsy, which is a valuable technique to ensure adequate sampling of MRI-visible suspicious lesions under TRUS guidance and may impact patient management. The DWI-based quantitative measurement exhibits a stronger association with biopsy findings than the other MRI parameters.

  10. Assessment of non-Gaussian diffusion with singly and doubly stretched biexponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) signal attenuation in prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matt G; Bongers, Andre; Sved, Paul; Watson, Geoffrey; Bourne, Roger M

    2015-04-01

    Non-Gaussian diffusion dynamics was investigated in the two distinct water populations identified by a biexponential model of diffusion in prostate tissue. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) signal attenuation was measured ex vivo in two formalin-fixed prostates at 9.4 T with diffusion times Δ = 10, 20 and 40 ms, and b values in the range 0.017-8.2 ms/µm(2) . A conventional biexponential model was compared with models in which either the lower diffusivity component or both of the components of the biexponential were stretched. Models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and a leave-one-out (LOO) test of model prediction accuracy. The doubly stretched (SS) model had the highest LOO prediction accuracy and lowest AIC (highest information content) in the majority of voxels at Δ = 10 and 20 ms. The lower diffusivity stretching factor (α2 ) of the SS model was consistently lower (range ~0.3-0.9) than the higher diffusivity stretching factor (α1 , range ~0.7-1.1), indicating a high degree of diffusion heterogeneity in the lower diffusivity environment, and nearly Gaussian diffusion in the higher diffusivity environment. Stretched biexponential models demonstrate that, in prostate tissue, the two distinct water populations identified by the simple biexponential model individually exhibit non-Gaussian diffusion dynamics.

  11. Mesentery neurilemmoma: CT, MRI and angiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Lao, Wilson T; Yang, Shih-Hung; Chen, Chi-Long; Chan, Wing P

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric neurilemmoma is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old man with mesenteric neurilemmoma, with CT, MRI and angiographic findings. The patient was healthy and had had no symptoms previously. CT and MRI images revealed a 2.2-cm well-defined, soft-tissue mass adjacent to the posterior border of the left lobe of the liver. The tumor mass displayed a heterogenous low signal on T2-weighted image and peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration. Angiography showed a hypervascular mass beneath the tail of pancreas, which was supplied by small branches of middle splenic artery. Histopathology revealed a mesentery neurilemmoma composed of spindle tumor cells.

  12. Scurvy in an autistic child: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gongidi, Preetam; Johnson, Craig; Dinan, David

    2013-10-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C and is rarely seen in the United States. We describe the MRI findings of a case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior. Advanced imaging is rarely performed in clinically well-understood disease entities such as scurvy. Typical radiographic findings are well described leading to definitive diagnosis, although the findings can be missed or misinterpreted given the rarity of scurvy in daily practice. To our knowledge, MRI features of scurvy in children in the US have been described in only one case report. This case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior emphasizes that classic nutritional deficiencies, despite their rarity, must be included in the differential diagnosis of at-risk populations.

  13. Thread sign in biliary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: a novel specific finding for MRI.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gil-Sun; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Hong, Seung-Mo; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate thread sign of biliary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (B-IPMN) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thread sign was defined as intraductal linear or curvilinear hypointense striations. Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence and location of thread sign on MR cholangiography (thin-slice, thick-slab and 3D MRC) and axial MR images (T2 TSE, T2 HASTE and DWI) in patients with B-IPMN (n = 38) and in matched control groups with benign (n = 36) or malignant (n = 35) biliary diseases. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of thread sign for diagnosing B-IPMN were evaluated. Thread sign was observed only in patients with B-IPMN on MRC (44.7-52.6 % [17/38-20/38], P < 0.001) and axial MR images (31.6 % [12/38], P < 0.001), except in one patient with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis on MRC (2.8 %, 1/36). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of thread sign for diagnosing B-IPMN on MRC were 0.53, 0.99, 0.83, 0.95 and 0.80, respectively (reader 1) and 0.45, 1.0, 0.81, 1.0 and 0.77, respectively (reader 2). Thread sign was detected mainly at the extrahepatic bile duct (52.6 %, 20/38). B-IPMN can manifest thread sign, a novel specific MR finding, mainly at the extrahepatic bile duct on MRI, especially on MRC. • Some B-IPMNs manifest thread sign within the bile ducts on MRI. • Thread sign is a highly specific finding for B-IPMN on MRI. • MRC is superior to axial T2WI and DWI for detecting thread sign.

  14. Unusual MRI Findings in a Polio Survivor

    PubMed Central

    Kubosawa, Hitoshi; Ishii, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old male consulted our institution due to worsening of right hip pain for approximately one month. The patient had no apparent functional disorders besides rigidity of the right ankle secondary to childhood poliomyelitis. Plain radiographs demonstrated narrowing of the right hip joint space. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed unusual findings in the right gluteus medius muscle, suspecting a malignant musculoskeletal tumor. Further examinations clarified acute inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus with no atypia. After treatment, serum inflammatory markers normalized and MRI showed homogeneous fat signal intensity in the muscle, which was consistent with poliomyelitis. Total hip arthroplasty was performed due to progression of osteoarthritis. Intraoperative findings showed flaccidity of the gluteus medius muscle, and histological examination of the specimen also was compatible with poliomyelitis. Postoperatively there was no hip instability and the patient has been able to resume his previous physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding polio survivors combined with septic arthritis, and sole MRI examination was unable to lead to the diagnosis. The current patient demonstrates the possibility that the involved muscles in poliomyelitis exist even in asymptomatic regions, which will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and life guidance in polio survivors. PMID:27069705

  15. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Eutsler, Eric P; Horton, Daniel B; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol.

  16. Non-Infectious Ischiogluteal Bursitis: MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Jang, Han Won

    2004-01-01

    Objective We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. Materials and Methods The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. Results The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/17 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Conclusion Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance. PMID:15637479

  17. Asymptomatic choroid plexus cysts in the lateral ventricles: an incidental finding on diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakir, B; Karakas, H M; Unlu, E; Tuncbilek, N

    2002-10-01

    We assessed the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of choroid plexus cysts. We reviewed more than 1000 patients who had undergone MRI in a 1-year period. We reviewed echo-planar DWI with b=1000 s/mm(2), acquired at 1.0 tesla, for any difference in signal intensity which might indicate choroid plexus cysts. On conventional images, all cystic lesions were isointense with cerebrospinal fluid, and 72 cysts could not be identified. On DWI, 90 rounded high-signal foci were detected in 58 patients; 64 cysts were bilateral. Focal ventricular expansion due to large cysts was observed in nine cases. DWI were found to show choroid plexus cysts undetected within the cerebrospinal fluid on conventional images.

  18. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, M E; Maheshwari, S; Shabshin, N

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the MR findings of Hallux Valgus (HV) and Hallux Rigidus (HR). Twenty-four patients (11 with HV, 4 with HR, and 9 with both HV and HR) were studied at 1.5 Tesla MRI. Two separate observers evaluated the first ray blindly for the following signs: sesamoid position, sesamoid proliferation, hypertrophy of the median eminence, presence of a lateral facet, presence of an adventitial bursa, shape of the first metatarsal head, relative length of the first metatarsal, joint space loss, osteophytes (dorsalor lateral), marrow edema, geodes, subchondral sclerosis, intra-articular ossicle, and pes planus. The most common findings observed in HV were a hypertrophic medial eminence (95%), sesamoid proliferation (90%) and adventitial bursitis (70%). The most common findings observed in HR were osteophytes (77% and 69%), geodes, and marrow edema. We conclude that traditional routine radiograph signs of HV and HR may be applied to MR images.

  19. A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shenton, Martha E.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Frumin, Melissa; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    After more than 100 years of research, the neuropathology of schizophrenia remains unknown and this is despite the fact that both Kraepelin (1919/1971: Kraepelin,E., 1919/1971. Dementia praecox. Churchill Livingston Inc., New York) and Bleuler (1911/1950: Bleuler, E., 1911/1950. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. International Universities Press, New York), who first described ‘dementia praecox’ and the ‘ schizophrenias’, were convinced that schizophrenia would ultimately be linked to an organic brain disorder. Alzheimer (1897: Alzheimer, A., 1897. Beitrage zur pathologischen anatomie der hirnrinde und zur anatomischen grundlage einiger psychosen. Monatsschrift fur Psychiarie und Neurologie. 2, 82–120) was the first to investigate the neuropathology of schizophrenia, though he went on to study more tractable brain diseases. The results of subsequent neuropathological studies were disappointing because of conflicting findings. Research interest thus waned and did not flourish again until 1976, following the pivotal computer assisted tomography (CT) finding of lateral ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia by Johnstone and colleagues. Since that time significant progress has been made in brain imaging, particularly with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), beginning with the first MRI study of schizophrenia by Smith and coworkers in 1984 (Smith, R.C., Calderon, M., Ravichandran, G.K., et al. (1984). Nuclear magnetic resonance in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Psychiatry Res. 12, 137–147). MR in vivo imaging of the brain now confirms brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The 193 peer reviewed MRI studies reported in the current review span the period from 1988 to August, 2000. This 12 year period has witnessed a burgeoning of MRI studies and has led to more definitive findings of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia than any other time period in the history of schizophrenia research. Such progress in defining the

  20. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Scarlato, Marina; Maggi, Lorenzo; Cava, Mariangela; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Pasanisi, Barbara; Falini, Andrea; Previtali, Stefano Carlo; Morandi, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. Muscle MRI identifies a specific pattern of muscle involvement in FSHD patients. Muscle MRI may predict FSHD in asymptomatic and severely affected patients. Muscle MRI of upper girdle better predicts FSHD. Muscle MRI may differentiate FSHD from other forms of muscular dystrophy. Muscle MRI may show the involvement of non-clinical testable muscles.

  1. Placenta percreta: methotrexate treatment and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Kröger, Jaana; Kainulainen, Sakari; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-02-01

    Our patient was a 24-year-old gravida 2 para 0 woman. After delivery, placenta percreta was noticed. There was no postpartum hemorrhage, and the patient desired future pregnancies. Although placenta percreta is rare, its sequelae include potentially lethal hemorrhage and loss of reproduction function. Placenta percreta was confirmed histologically and with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Placenta percreta was treated conservatively with methotrexate. On follow-up, MRI showed a small calcified transmural extension of the placenta throughout the uterus in the right fundal area. Color Doppler ultrasonography showed no blood flow in the corresponding area, and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was undetectable. Use of MRI is a new method to detect abnormal placentation, and it could be used on follow-up in selective cases with other follow-up modalities. However, it seems likely that conservative management to preserve future fertility remains a secured and reasonable alternative when a patient has no active bleeding.

  2. Brain MRI findings in Wernicke encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wicklund, Meredith R; Knopman, David S

    2013-08-01

    A 71-year-old woman with myelofibrosis on chemotherapy experienced an acute illness with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Two weeks later, she developed an acute confusional state characterized by disorientation and fluctuating alertness with normal speech and language. Her neurologic examination demonstrated an upper motor neuron pattern of right hemiparesis. She reported double vision though ophthalmoparesis was not appreciated. Her gait was normal. While hospitalized, she developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Brain MRI revealed a small area of restricted diffusion of the left precentral gyrus (figure). She was diagnosed with a stroke with secondary seizures; however, as the confusional state resolved, she developed profound retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Review of the brain MRI showed high T2 signal in the medial thalamus and contrast enhancement of the mamillary bodies; a diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome was entertained and she was started on thiamine replacement. The encephalopathy and hemiparesis resolved though she remains severely amnestic.

  3. Cranial MRI findings in children with protein energy malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Odabaş, Dursun; Caksen, Hüseyin; Sar, Sakir; Unal, Ozkan; Tuncer, Oguz; Ataş, Bülent; Yilmaz, Cahide

    2005-06-01

    In this study, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were investigated in children with moderate and severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM) to determine cerebral abnormalities in malnutrition in childhood. A total of 20 children aged 3 months to 36 months were included in the study. Thirteen (65%) children had severe malnutrition and seven (35%) children had moderate malnutrition. Fifteen (75%) children had abnormal MRI findings: all of them had cerebral atrophy, and 10 (75%) children had cerebral atrophy plus ventricular dilatation. None of the children had abnormality in the brain stem or cerebellum. The authors did not find statistically significant differences between the groups when comparing the MRI findings for degree of malnutrition, head circumference, iron deficiency anemia, and serum albumin levels. In conclusion, the findings showed that most (75%) children with moderate/severe PEM had abnormal MRI findings. Therefore, it is suggested that children with PEM should be evaluated for cerebral atrophy.

  4. MRI findings of benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

    PubMed

    Hamano, T; Mutoh, T; Hirayama, M; Ito, K; Kimura, M; Aita, T; Kiyosawa, K; Ohtaki, T; Kuriyama, M

    1999-06-01

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb. Both subjects showed unilateral amyotrophy of the lower limb with a benign clinical course, and the affected muscles demonstrated neurogenic changes. On T1- and T2-weighted MRI, marked atrophy and increased signal intensity were found mainly in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Moreover, MRI examination also revealed that thigh muscles including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and vastus intermedius and lateralis muscles were involved in one of the patients. We concluded that muscle MRI is very useful for detecting affected muscles, especially deep skeletal muscles in patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

  5. Maple syrup urine disease: diffusion-weighted MRI findings during acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis.

    PubMed

    Kilicarslan, Rukiye; Alkan, Alpay; Demirkol, Demet; Toprak, Huseyin; Sharifov, Rasul

    2012-07-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a genetic defect of branched-chain amino acids, which include leucine, isoleucine and valine. We report diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings in a newborn child with MSUD who presented with acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis. DWI (b = 1,000 s/mm(2)) showed high signal localized within the myelinated white matter (WM) areas including the cerebellar white matter, pons, bulbus, cerebral peduncles, lentiform nucleus, posterior limbs of the internal capsules, corona radiata and bilateral perirolandic cortex. The apparent diffusion coefficient values of these regions were markedly low in the affected areas. The presence of these findings was considered cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema evidenced by restricted water diffusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that during the acute phase and early encephalopathic crisis stage of MSUD, DWI can demonstrate the involvement of myelinated WM in newborns.

  6. Sex Differences in the Personality and Cognitive Characteristics of First-Time DWI Offenders.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thomas G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Nadeau, Louise; Tremblay, Jacques; Pruessner, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) is a significant yet preventable public health problem. The overrepresentation of males among DWI offenders has been attributed in part to greater sensation seeking and impulsivity features in males, although recent evidence points to increasing female DWI events. Studies exploring sex differences in DWI to better understand and intervene in these trends are rare and often methodologically lacking. This study examined sex differences among first-time DWI offenders by testing the hypotheses that, compared with non-DWI drivers, male offending is primarily associated with greater impulsive and sensation-seeking personality features and response disinhibition, whereas female offending is primarily associated with greater alcohol misuse. Male and female drivers ages 18-44 years convicted of a first DWI offense (n = 217) and non-DWI driver controls (n = 79) were recruited and compared on measures of psychosocial characteristics, substance use, personality, and response inhibition. In partial support of our hypotheses, greater alcohol misuse severity was found in female DWI offenders compared with female non-DWI drivers but an equivalent effect was not detected in males. Counter to hypothesis, greater impulsivity, sensation seeking, and response disinhibition were not found in male non-DWI drivers compared with male non-DWI drivers. Unexpectedly, greater impulsivity was found in female DWI offenders compared with female DWI drivers. Little evidence was found for impulsivity, sensation seeking, and response disinhibition being factors that directly explain higher rates of DWI offending in males. In contrast, more marked alcohol misuse and trait impulsivity in female DWI drivers suggest a greater vulnerability to uncontrolled drinking leading to dangerous driving. These findings represent a basis for examining sex-related responsivity to distinct approaches to DWI prevention.

  7. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  8. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  9. Postnatal in-vivo MRI findings in anencephaly.

    PubMed

    Poretti, A; Meoded, A; Ceritoglu, E; Boltshauser, E; Huisman, T A G M

    2010-12-01

    We report on the MRI findings of an anencephalic infant who survived 10 weeks postnatally. MRI showed absence of the cranial vault, all supratentorial structures, and the cerebellum. A brainstem primordium without pontine prominence was present. The brainstem was surrounded by the area cerebrovasculosa. The absence of a pontine prominence in an anencephalic infant without cerebellar tissue supports the hypothesis that absent pontine prominence is found in children with a prenatal loss of cerebellar tissue.

  10. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  11. MRI gadolinium enhancement precedes neuroradiological findings in acute necrotizing encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Tamura, Takuya; Nagai, Yuhki; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Awaya, Tomonari; Shibata, Minoru; Kato, Takeo; Heike, Toshio

    2013-11-01

    We report a 2-year-old Japanese boy with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) triggered by human herpes virus-6, who presented insightful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. He was admitted due to impaired consciousness and a convulsion, 2 days after the onset of an upper respiratory infection. At admission, cranial MRI showed marked gadolinium enhancement at the bilateral thalami, brainstem and periventricular white matter without abnormal findings in noncontrast MRI sequences. On the following day, noncontrast computed tomography demonstrated homogeneous low-density lesions in the bilateral thalami and severe diffuse brain edema. The patient progressively deteriorated and died on the 18th day of admission. The pathogenesis of ANE remains mostly unknown, but it has been suggested that hypercytokinemia may play a major role. Overproduced cytokines cause vascular endothelial damage and alter the permeability of the vessel wall in the multiple organs, including the brain. The MRI findings in our case demonstrate that blood-brain barrier permeability was altered prior to the appearance of typical neuroradiological findings. This suggests that alteration of blood-brain barrier permeability is the first step in the development of the brain lesions in ANE, and supports the proposed mechanism whereby hypercytokinemia causes necrotic brain lesions. This is the first report demonstrating MRI gadolinium enhancement antecedent to typical neuroradiological findings in ANE.

  12. Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Henning; Pabst, Thomas; Dick, Anke; Machann, Wolfram; Evangelista, Laura; Wirth, Clemens; Köstler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert; Beer, Meinrad

    2013-01-01

    Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 ± 3 years (mean ± standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition.

  13. Driving while impaired (DWI) intervention service provider orientations: the scales of the DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI).

    PubMed

    DeMuro, Scott; Wanberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    The therapeutic educator who provides services to driving while impaired (DWI) offenders is a unique professional hybrid, combining education and therapeutic service delivery. In an effort to understand and address this service provider, a 69-item DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI) was constructed. Using principal components and common factor analyses, 6 reliable DWI provider orientation styles were identified: judicial, disease, structure, relationship, interaction, and empathic-supportive. Second-order factoring identified 2 broad reliable dimensions: correctional and therapeutic. These findings further support the construct validity of the DTEI and raise a new question for research: do different provider orientations impact intervention outcomes, such as relapse and recidivism?

  14. Pelvic hydatid disease: CT and MRI findings causing sciatica.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Yildirim, Duzgun

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic masses, especially hydatid disease, rarely present with sciatica (1, 2). We present the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 49-year-old female patient with presacral hydatid disease, who was evaluated for her sciatica. We also want to emphasize the importance of assessing the pelvis of patients with symptoms and clinical findings that are inconsistent and that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the spinal imaging findings.

  15. Pelvic Hydatid Disease: CT and MRI Findings Causing Sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Yildirim, Duzgun

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic masses, especially hydatid disease, rarely present with sciatica (1, 2). We present the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 49-year-old female patient with presacral hydatid disease, who was evaluated for her sciatica. We also want to emphasize the importance of assessing the pelvis of patients with symptoms and clinical findings that are inconsistent and that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the spinal imaging findings. PMID:18071287

  16. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Hulya; Pourbagher, Aysin; Colakoglu, Tamer

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign breast disease with unknown etiology which can mimic breast carcinoma, both clinically and radiologically. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of IGM have been previously described; however there is no study evaluating diffusion-weighted MRI findings of IGM. To analyze conventional, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and diffusion-weighted MRI signal characteristics of IGM by comparing it with the contralateral normal breast parenchyma. A total of 39 patients were included in the study. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, the distribution and enhancement patterns of the lesions were evaluated. We also detected the frequencies of involving quadrants, retroareolar involvement, accompanying abscess, and skin edema. T2-weighted (T2W) and STIR signal intensities and both mean and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared with the contralateral normal parenchyma. IGM showed significantly lower mean and minimum ADC values when compared with the normal parenchyma. Signal intensities on T2W and STIR sequences of the lesion were significantly higher than the normal parenchyma. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 7.7% of the patients had mass-like contrast enhancement, 92.3% of the patients had non-mass-like contrast enhancement. Abscess was positive in 33.3% of the patients. As a result, IGM showed commonly non-mass-like lesions with restricted diffusion. Although it is a benign pathology, it may show clustered ring-like enhancement like malignant lesions. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  17. Cardiac calcified amorphous tumors: CT and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Ravza; Demir, Ali Aslan; Önür, İmran; Yılbazbayhan, Dilek; Dursun, Memduh

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of cardiac calcified amorphous tumors (CATs). METHODS CT and MRI findings of cardiac CATs in 12 patients were included. We retrospectively examined patient demographics, location, size, shape configuration, imaging features, calcification distribution of tumors, and accompanying medical problems. RESULTS There was a female predominance (75%), with a mean age at presentation of 65 years. Patients were mostly asymptomatic on presentation (58.3%). The left ventricle of the heart was mostly involved (91%). CT findings of CATs were classified as partial calcification with a hypodense mass in four patients or a diffuse calcified form in eight. Calcification was predominant with large foci appearance as in partially calcified masses. On T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, CATs appeared hypointense and showed no contrast enhancement. CONCLUSION The shape and configuration of cardiac CATs are variable with a narrow spectrum of CT and MRI findings, but large foci in a partially calcified mass or diffuse calcification of a mass on CT is very important in the diagnosis of cardiac CATs. Masses show a low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images with no contrast enhancement on MRI. PMID:27705878

  18. Acute Brain MRI Findings in 120 Malawian Children with Cerebral Malaria: New Insights into an Ancient Disease

    PubMed Central

    Potchen, Michael J.; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Seydel, Karl B.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Hammond, Colleen A.; Bradley, William G.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Glover, Simon J.; Ugorji, Joseph O.; Latourette, Matt; Siebert, James; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been few neuroimaging studies of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM), a common, often fatal tropical condition. We undertook a prospective study of pediatric CM to better characterize the MRI features of this syndrome, comparing findings in children meeting a stringent definition of CM to those in a control group who were infected with malaria but who were likely to have a non-malarial cause of coma. Materials and Methods Consecutive children admitted with traditionally defined CM (parasitemia, coma and no other coma etiology evident) were eligible for this study. The presence or absence of malaria retinopathy was determined. MRI findings in patients with retinopathy-positive (ret+) CM (cases) were compared to those with retinopathy-negative (ret−) CM (controls). Two radiologists blinded to retinopathy status jointly developed a scoring procedure for image interpretation and provided independent reviews. MRI findings were compared between patients with and without retinopathy, to assess the specificity of changes for patients with very strictly defined CM. Results Of 152 children with clinically defined CM, 120 were ret+, and 32 were ret −. Abnormalities were much more common in the ret + cases, and included severe edema, abnormal T2 signal, and DWI abnormalities in the cortical, deep gray and white matter structures. Focal abnormalities rarely respected vascular distributions. Most of the scans in the more clinically heterogeneous ret− group were normal, and none of the abnormalities noted were more prevalent in controls. Conclusions Distinctive MRI findings present in patients meeting a stringent definition of CM may offer insights into disease pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:22517285

  19. [Value of MRI findings in Gayet-Wernicke encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Lenz, V; Vargas, M I; Bin, J F; Bogorin, A; Grebici-Guessoum, M; Jacques, C; Marin, H; Zöllner, G; Dietemann, J L

    2002-09-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy (Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy) is related to thiamine deficiency. We report the MRI findings in four patients with visualization of bilateral and symmetrical hyperintense foci on T2W and FLAIR images involving the periaqueductal gray matter, the mamillary bodies and around the third ventricle. Diffusion weighted images obtained in two patients demonstrated mild hypersignal in the same areas. Contrast enhancement within the mamillary bodies was noted in one patient. Follow-up MRI obtained in three patients showed rapid regression of signal abnormalities without correlation with good clinical outcome.

  20. Sphenoid sinus ectopic pituitary adenomas: CT and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B T; Chong, V F H; Wang, Z C; Xian, J F; Chen, Q H

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic pituitary adenomas (EPAs) are rare lesions. The purpose of this study was to describe the CT and MRI features of sphenoid sinus EPAs. Eight patients with histology-proven EPAs in the sphenoid sinus, all of whom underwent CT and MRI, were reviewed retrospectively. The following imaging features were analysed: (i) size, (ii) margin, (iii) CT attenuation characteristics and (iv) MRI signal intensity. In addition, the involvement of adjacent structures and the time–intensity curve (TIC) of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI were analysed. All EPAs had well-defined margins and showed no relationship to the intrasellar pituitary gland. The mean size was 28 mm (range, 20–46 mm). On non-enhanced CT, the lesions appeared isodense to grey matter in 7 (88%) patients and hypodense in 1 (12%) patient. Only two patients underwent post-contrast CT, and they showed moderate enhancement. On T1 weighted images, EPAs appeared isointense in 6 (75%) patients and hypointense in 2 (25%). On T2 weighted images, the lesions appeared hyperintense in 2 (25%) patients and isointense in 6 (75%). EPAs showed mild to moderate heterogeneous contrast enhancement and exhibited a cribriform-like appearance. Two patients underwent DCE MRI; the TIC showed a rapidly enhancing and slow washout pattern. The following features were also seen: an empty sella, bone changes and involvement of the cavernous sinus (5 patients; 62.5%). In conclusion, a high index of suspicion for EPA and a familiarity with the imaging findings may help to diagnose this rare entity accurately. PMID:19651706

  1. MRI findings of intraspinal extradural paragonimiasis granuloma in a child.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong; Cai, Jinhua

    2012-10-01

    Spinal paragonimiasis is a rare entity. We present a unique case of paragonimiasis involving the extradural space. MR imaging of the thoracic spine showed a bean-shaped extradural mass that extended through the left intervertebral foramen to paravertebral thickened pleura. This finding offers imaging evidence to support the theory that larvae of Paragonimus migrate through perivascular or perineural tissues into the extradural space. Another MRI finding was the hemorrhagic foci in the mass, which occurs frequently in the intracranial paragonimiasis and could also be a feature of the intraspinal paragonimiasis granuloma.

  2. MRI findings in pediatric neuro-Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Saltik, S; Saip, S; Kocer, N; Siva, A; Yalçinkaya, C

    2004-06-01

    Behçet's disease (BD), a systemic vasculitis of unknown cause, affects many organs and systems. Neurological involvement is seen in 5-15% of the patients, and the two major forms of neurological disease seen in BD are central nervous system (CNS) parenchymal involvement and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We report a 14-year-old boy with BD who had neuro-parenchymal involvement. The diagnosis of the systemic disease was not made until the onset of the neurological manifestations, which led to an MRI study that revealed findings suggestive of CNS involvement of BD. We therefore emphasize the importance of the localization and appearance of other characteristics of the lesions on MRI in the differential diagnosis of parenchymal neuro-Behçet syndrome.

  3. [Clinical features of NMO according to brain MRI findings].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuko

    2010-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory, demyelinating disease, and its clinical characteristics include recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. The NMO-immunoglobulin (Ig) G auto-antibody (Ab), which binds to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein, is a marker for NMO. These clinical and immunological features have been used to distinguish NMO from multiple sclerosis (MS). In 1999, Wingerchuk et al. broadened the clinical criteria for diagnosing NMO to include "negative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at onset." However, after NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab became a supportive criterion for diagnosing NMO, patients with NMO were frequently found to have symptomatic or asymptomatic brain lesions. In 2006, Pittock et al. reported that asymptomatic brain lesions were common in NMO, and that NMO brain lesions characteristically occurred in the hypothalamus and periventricular areas, which correspond to brain regions with high levels of AQP4 expression. Furthermore, Nakashima et al. detected abnormalities on brain MRI in 71% of NMO-IgG-positive Japanese patients. Patients with NMO have unique brain lesions that are clearly different from the lesions of patients with MS. In patients with NMO, involvement of the dorsal portion of the medulla oblongata causes intractable hiccups and nausea. Some studies described a hypothalamic lesion, and hypothalamic dysfunction could cause symptomatic hypersomnia, narcolepsy, and endocrinopathies. In some patients with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder who experience blood pressure fluctuations, vasogenic edema, manifesting as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, may occur. In a recent report highlighting brain MRI with contrast enhancement, the most prominent feature that appeared to be a specific finding in NMO was "cloud-like enhancement" with multiple patchy enhancing lesions with a blurred margin. Another report showed that acute, large, edematous callosal lesions with

  4. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura with Reversible Neurological Features: Brain Diffusion MRI with ADC Map, Spect and EEG Findings. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yerdelen, D; Göksel, B K; Yıldırım, T; Karataş, M; Karaca, S; Reyhan, M; Ozdoğu, H

    2006-11-30

    Although nervous system involvement is common in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), abnormalities on computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography are not encountered so frequently and if present, these abnormalities are often reversible. We describe a 39-year-old woman with recurring transient focal neurological findings found to have laboratory findings consistent with TTP. In cerebral diffusion weighted images (DWI), diffuse cortical hyperintensity was noted in right frontal lobe, but the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) map was normal. Electroencephalography demonstrated lateralized slowing and repeated DWI showed diffuse cortical hyperintensity in the right hemisphere. SPECT showed luxury perfusion in the right hemisphere areas. The patient's condition resolved with plasmapheresis. Our patient illustrates that diffuse hemispheric involvement can be seen in DWI and EEG, and SPECT may show luxury perfusion after resolution of neurological findings in TTP cases. To our knowledge, this is the first TTP case in which the ADC map was normal.

  5. MRI Findings in Patients with Clinical Onset Consistent with Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (INAD), Literature Review, Clinical and MRI Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, B; Pini, A; Santucci, M; Cenacchi, C; Garavaglia, B; Ucchino, V; Garrone, C; Guerra, A; Faggioli, R; Barzaghi, C; Preda, P; Franzoni, E; Gobbi, G; Parmeggiani, A

    2011-05-15

    Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by infantile onset and rapid progression of psychomotor regression and hypotonia evolving into spasticity. The neuroradiologic hallmark of the disease is represented by progressive cerebellar atrophy. Prior to the discovery of mutations in the PLA2G6 gene in family with INAD, the clinical diagnosis of the disease had been confirmed by the presence of spheroid bodies (SB) in a peripheral nerve biopsy. Various studies have found that some patients with mutations lacked SB and some without mutations had SB, indicating incomplete detection using either pathologic or molecular methods (7). This, together with the observation that the spectrum of clinical features associated with mutations in PLA2G6 is broader than previously described, has increased the usefulness of Magnetic Resonance (MR) in INAD diagnosis, particularly in the frequent occurrence of atypical cases, especially in the early stages of the disease. We retrospectively reviewed the MR studies of eight patients in whom clinical and imaging onset met the typical criteria for INAD. Their clinical and MR imaging (MRI) onset and follow-up were evaluated together with the neuroradiological findings reported in the literature in order to identify MRI features useful in differentiating INAD from other diseases with similar clinical onset and to discuss which of them are the most important, thus suggesting INAD diagnosis. Our contribution included the use of Proton Spectroscopy ((1)H-MR), diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the follow-up of seven of the eight patients. The literature reviewed included attempts to correlate clinical and MR data with the genotype in the group of patients carrying PLA2G6 mutations. From the limited and inhomogeneous cohort of patients included in our study, a correlation between the MR features, phenotype and genotype was not exhaustive.

  6. "Dropped-head" syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna; Blandino, Alfredo

    2006-02-01

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings.

  7. [Clinical and MRI Findings in Patients with Congenital Anosmia].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takao; Kato, Tomohisa; Ono, Mayu; Shimizu, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    The clinical characteristics of 16 patients with congenital anosmia were examined retrospectively. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) was used to assess the morphological changes in the olfactory bulbs and olfactory sulci according to the method of P. Rombaux (2009). Congenital anosmia was divided into two forms: syndromic forms in association with a syndrome, and isolated forms without evidence of other defects. Only three patients (19%) in our series had syndromic forms of congenital anosmia, such as the Kallmann syndrome. Most cases (13 patients, 81%) had isolated congenital anosmia. Psychophysical testing of the olfactory function included T&T olfactometry and the intravenous Alinamin test, which are widely used in Japan. In T&T olfactometry, detection and recognition thresholds for the five odorants are used to assign a diagnostic category representing the level of olfactory function. Most cases (14 patients, 88%) showed off-scale results on T&T olfactometry, and the Alinamin test resulted in no response in all 11 patients who underwent the test. Abnormal MRI findings of the olfactory bulbs and sulci were detected in 15 of 16 patients (94%). Olfactory bulbs were bilaterally absent in nine patients (56%), and two patients (13%) had unilateral olfactory bulbs. Four patients (25%) had bilateral hypoplastic olfactory bulbs, and only one patient had normal olfactory bulbs (6%). The olfactory sulcus was unilaterally absent in one patient (6%), and nine patients (56%) had bilaterally hypoplastic olfactory sulci. Two patients (13%) had a unilateral normal olfactory sulcus and hypoplastic olfactory sulcus. Three patients (19%) had normal olfactory sulci. Quantitative analysis showed that the volume of olfactory bulbs varied from 0 mm3 to 63.5 mm3, with a mean volume of 10.20 ± 18 mm3, and the mean depth of the olfactory sulcus varied from 0 mm to 12.22 mm, with a mean length of 4.85 ± 4.1 mm. Currently, there is no effective treatment for congenital anosmia. However

  8. Do DWI Courts Work? An Empirical Evaluation of a Texas DWI Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael R.; Franklin, Travis W.

    2012-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts have recently gained traction as a potential solution to the problem of repeat DWI offending. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of peer-reviewed studies that have examined their effectiveness. Thus, the current study compared DWI court graduates to a group of similar offenders who completed probation.…

  9. Do DWI Courts Work? An Empirical Evaluation of a Texas DWI Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael R.; Franklin, Travis W.

    2012-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts have recently gained traction as a potential solution to the problem of repeat DWI offending. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of peer-reviewed studies that have examined their effectiveness. Thus, the current study compared DWI court graduates to a group of similar offenders who completed probation.…

  10. High-resolution MRI of the intraparotid facial nerve based on a microsurface coil and a 3D reversed fast imaging with steady-state precession DWI sequence at 3T.

    PubMed

    Chu, J; Zhou, Z; Hong, G; Guan, J; Li, S; Rao, L; Meng, Q; Yang, Z

    2013-08-01

    3D high-resolution MR imaging can provide reliable information for defining the exact relationships between the intraparotid facial nerve and adjacent structures. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical value of using a surface coil combined with a 3D-PSIF-DWI sequence in intraparotid facial nerve imaging. Twenty-one healthy volunteers underwent intraparotid facial nerve scanning at 3T by using the 3D-PSIF-DWI sequence with both the surface coil and the head coil. Source images were processed with MIP and MPR to better delineate the intraparotid facial nerve and its branches. In addition, the SIR of the facial nerve and parotid gland was calculated. The number of facial nerve branches displayed by these 2 methods was calculated and compared. The display rates of the main trunk, divisions (cervicofacial, temporofacial), and secondary branches of the intraparotid facial nerve were 100%, 97.6%, and 51.4% by head coil and 100%, 100%, and 83.8% by surface coil, respectively. The display rate of secondary branches of the intraparotid facial nerve by these 2 methods was significantly different (P < .05). The SIRs of the intraparotid facial nerve/parotid gland in these 2 methods were significantly different (P < .05) at 1.37 ± 1.06 and 1.89 ± 0.87, respectively. The 3D-PSIF-DWI sequence combined with a surface coil can better delineate the intraparotid facial nerve and its divisions than when it is combined with a head coil, providing better image contrast and resolution. The proposed protocol offers a potentially useful noninvasive imaging sequence for intraparotid facial nerve imaging at 3T.

  11. Is there a role for DWI in the diagnosis of sacroiliitis based on ASAS criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Neslin; Hacibeyoglu, Hatice; Ince, Ozlem; Solak, Aynur; Uyar, Belkiz; Erol, Ozlem; Uslu, Zulal Alnur; Kobak, Senol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sacroiliitis based on MRI is one of the main diagnostic criteria of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Our purpose was to assess (a) whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) differ between regions of bone marrow edema (BME) and subchondral normal-appearing bone marrow (NABM) in active sacroiliitis, (b) whether ADC values can differentiate early SpA and chronic SpA, both in the active and inactive phase, and (c) whether ADC values are related to laboratory findings. Materials and methods: 47 patients (24 female, 23 male, mean age: 38.53 years) with the diagnosis of SpA were included in this retrospective study. 20 age- and sex-matched subjects without SpA constituted the control group. ADC measurements were taken from all lesions and NABM of each sacroiliac joint. Results: A total number of 120 subchondral BME lesions (acute: 17, chronic active: 103) were noted. The mean ADC values of the BME lesions (1.30 ± 0.18 × 10-3 mm2/s) were significantly higher than the ADC values in the NABM regions (0.55 ± 0.08 × 10-3 mm2/s) as well as in both the control group (0.56 ± 0.05 × 10-3 mm2/s) and the chronic inactive group (0.54 ± 0.03 × 10-3 mm2/s). There were more BME regions in patients with chronic active sacroiliitis than early SpA patients. Correlation was found between the CRP values and ADC values. Conclusion: DWI with ADC values may be complementary to FS T2-weighted or STIR MR images for accurately diagnosing inflammatory sacroiliitis. The value of DWI versus dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging in the follow-up needs to be clarified. PMID:26221298

  12. Psychosocial and Sociodemographic Characteristics of DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veneziano, Carol; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined demographic characteristics, arrest and treatment data, symptoms of problem drinking, drug use, stressful life events, and depressive symptomatology among 498 driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders. DWI offenders were likely to have experienced financial problems, new job, job loss or unemployment, conflict at home, illness or death of…

  13. Advantage of Adding Diffusion Weighted Imaging to Routine MRI Examinations in the Diagnostics of Scrotal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed Mohamed; Tantawy, Hazim Ibrahim; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Darweesh, Adham

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study is to identify the diagnostic value of adding diffusion weighted images (DWI) to routine MRI examinations of the scrotum. Material/Methods The study included 100 testes of 50 patients with a unilateral testicular disease. Fifty normal contralateral testes were used as a control group. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI examinations of the scrotum. The results of MRI and DWI of the group of patients treated surgically were correlated with histopathological findings. The MRI and DWI results of non-surgical cases were correlated with the results of clinical, laboratory and other imaging studies. Comparison of the ADC value of normal and pathological tissues was carried out followed by a statistical analysis. Results There was a significant difference between ADC values of malignant testicular lesions and normal testicular tissues as well as benign testicular lesions (P=0.000). At a cut-off ADC value of ≤0.99, it had a sensitivity of 93.3%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 87.5%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% in the characterization of intratesticular masses. Conclusions Inclusion of DWI to routine MRI has a substantial value in improving diagnosis in patients with scrotal lesions and consequently can reduce unnecessary radical surgical procedures in these patients. PMID:26491491

  14. Whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI compared with 5-HTP PET/CT in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carlbom, Lina; Caballero-Corbalán, José; Granberg, Dan; Sörensen, Jens; Eriksson, Barbro; Ahlström, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Aim We wanted to explore if whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW) and liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging could be valuable in lesion detection of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). [11C]-5-Hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography/computed tomography (5-HTP PET/CT) was used for comparison. Materials and methods Twenty-one patients with NET were investigated with whole-body MRI, including DW imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging of the liver, and whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Seven additional patients underwent upper abdomen MRI including DWI, liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging, and 5-HTP PET/CT. Results There was a patient-based concordance of 61% and a lesion-based concordance of 53% between the modalities. MRI showed good concordance with PET in detecting bone metastases but was less sensitive in detecting metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes. MRI detected more liver metastases than 5-HTP PET/CT. Conclusion Whole-body MRI with DWI did not detect all NET lesions found with whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Our findings indicate that MRI of the liver including liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging and DWI could be a useful complement to whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. PMID:27894208

  15. Whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI compared with 5-HTP PET/CT in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Carlbom, Lina; Caballero-Corbalán, José; Granberg, Dan; Sörensen, Jens; Eriksson, Barbro; Ahlström, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    We wanted to explore if whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW) and liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging could be valuable in lesion detection of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). [11C]-5-Hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography/computed tomography (5-HTP PET/CT) was used for comparison. Twenty-one patients with NET were investigated with whole-body MRI, including DW imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging of the liver, and whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Seven additional patients underwent upper abdomen MRI including DWI, liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging, and 5-HTP PET/CT. There was a patient-based concordance of 61% and a lesion-based concordance of 53% between the modalities. MRI showed good concordance with PET in detecting bone metastases but was less sensitive in detecting metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes. MRI detected more liver metastases than 5-HTP PET/CT. Whole-body MRI with DWI did not detect all NET lesions found with whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Our findings indicate that MRI of the liver including liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging and DWI could be a useful complement to whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT.

  16. Pediatric primary and metastatic neuroblastoma: MRI findings: pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A; Abdelmonem, Ola; Tawfik, Ahmed M; Naguib, Nagy N N; Klingebiel, Thomas; Rolle, Udo; Schwabe, Dirk; Harth, Marc; Eltoukhy, Mohammed M; Vogl, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most valuable modalities for initial and follow-up imaging of suspected or known neuroblastoma (NBL) owing to its excellent inherent contrast, lack of ionizing radiation and multiplanar imaging capability. Importantly, NBL has a variable appearance on different imaging modalities, and this is particularly pertinent to MRI. MRI is a cornerstone for management of NBL, providing essential information at initial presentation regarding diagnosis, staging, resectability and relation to vital structures. It can also define the extent of residual disease after surgical resection or assess the efficacy of treatment. Follow-up MRI is frequently performed to ensure sustained complete remission or to monitor known residual disease. This pictorial review article aims to provide the reader with a concise, yet comprehensive, collection of MR images of primary and metastatic NBL lesions with relevant correlation with other imaging modalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CT and MRI of aortic coarctation: pre- and postsurgical findings.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to summarize the roles of CT and MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with aortic coarctation. CONCLUSION. Aortic coarctation is a common congenital heart disease accounting for approximately 6-8% of congenital heart defects. Despite its deceptively simple anatomic presentation, it is a complex medical problem with several associated anatomic and physiologic abnormalities. CT and MRI may provide very accurate information of the coarctation anatomy and other associated cardiac abnormalities.

  18. MRI in medium-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency: neuroimaging during the first month.

    PubMed

    Talamanca, Lorenzo Figà; Pasquini, Luca; Napolitano, Antonio; Longo, Daniela

    2017-08-28

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) is the most common genetic disorder of fatty acid oxidation, which presents before the age of 2 with the onset of acute hypoketotic hypoglycemia, and is typically precipitated by stress. We report serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes, including MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), in a patient with a classical MCAD presentation, compared with five healthy controls. Through this unique case we analyze the evolution of radiological findings during the first month of illness and we highlight the pivotal role of MRI, especially DWI, in the early diagnosis of the decompensated state of the disease.

  19. Ethical and Practical Considerations in the Management of Incidental Findings in Pediatric MRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Anderson, Britt; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Kan, Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ethical and practical management issues resulting from the detection of incidental abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research studies in healthy pediatric volunteers. Method: A retrospective examination of the findings from 60 clinical reports of research MRI scans from a cohort of healthy…

  20. Ethical and Practical Considerations in the Management of Incidental Findings in Pediatric MRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Anderson, Britt; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Kan, Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ethical and practical management issues resulting from the detection of incidental abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research studies in healthy pediatric volunteers. Method: A retrospective examination of the findings from 60 clinical reports of research MRI scans from a cohort of healthy…

  1. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the cervical spinal cord using a single-shot fast spin-echo technique: findings in normal subjects and in myelomalacia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, K; Katase, S; Fujikawa, A; Hachiya, J; Kanazawa, H; Yodo, K

    2003-02-01

    We have implemented a new diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) sequence based on the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. We hypothesised that this would add information to conventional MRI for diagnosis of lesions of the cervical spinal cord. DWI was performed using a technique in which echo collection after the application of motion-probing gradients was done in the same manner as in the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. We first imaged six healthy volunteers to demonstrate the cervical spinal cord using the sequence. Then we applied the sequence to 12 patients with cervical myelomalacia due to chronic cord compression. The spinal cord was well seen in all subjects without the distortion associated with echo-planar DWI. In the patients, lesions appeared as areas of low- or isointense signal on DWI. Calculated apparent diffusion coefficients of the lesions (3.30+/-0.38x10(-3) mm(2)/s) were significantly higher than those of normal volunteers (2.26+/-0.08x10(-3) mm(2)/s). Increased diffusion in areas of cervical myelomalacia, suggesting irreversible damage, can be detected using this technique.

  2. Review of paratesticular pathology: findings on ultrasound and MRI.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Refky; Menias, Christine O; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Robinson, Kathryn; Hara, Amy K; Siegel, Cary Lynn

    2017-02-01

    The paratesticular scrotal contents consist of the spermatic cord, epididymis, and fascia, which originate from the embryologic descent of the testis through the abdominal wall. Historically, the primary diagnostic modality has been high-resolution ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an alternative imaging option. Both contrast MRI and diffusion weighted imaging can assist in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. Unlike the testis which most disease processes are malignant, a wide spectrum of benign disease processes affects the paratesticular region either in isolation or as part of a contiguous disease process from adjacent organs. The familiarity with the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and imaging features can aid the radiologic diagnoses and guide appropriate clinical management. In this article, we review the ultrasound and MR characteristics of various paratesticular pathologies.

  3. Association between pathological and MRI findings in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Barkhof, Frederik; Brück, Wolfgang; Chen, Jacqueline T; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, Gabriele; De Stefano, Nicola; Erickson, Bradley J; Evangelou, Nikos; Fazekas, Franz; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Lucchinetti, Claudia; Miller, David H; Pelletier, Daniel; Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; Lassmann, Hans

    2012-04-01

    The identification of pathological processes that could be targeted by therapeutic interventions is a major goal of research into multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological assessment is the gold standard for such identification, but has intrinsic limitations owing to the limited availability of autopsy and biopsy tissue. MRI has gained a leading role in the assessment of MS because it allows doctors to obtain an ante mortem picture of the degree of CNS involvement. A number of correlative pathological and MRI studies have helped to define in vivo the pathological substrates of MS in focal lesions and normal-appearing white matter, not only in the brain, but also in the spinal cord. These studies have resulted in the identification of aspects of pathophysiology that were previously neglected, including grey matter involvement and vascular pathology. Despite these important achievements, numerous open questions still need to be addressed to resolve controversies about how the pathology of MS results in fixed neurological disability.

  4. Ultrasound and MRI findings in appendicular and truncal fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip; Farrant, Joanna M; Bourke, Grainne; Merchant, William; McKie, Scott; Horgan, Kieran J

    2008-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate ultrasound and MRI in clinical appendicular and truncal fat necrosis. Thirty-three patients (14 men, 19 women, median age 55, range 29-95) were retrospectively evaluated. Histologically, three groups were seen: Group 1 (n = 18) consisted of patients with subcutaneous masses with septal and extrinsic oedema; in Group 2 (n = 11) necrosis occurred within lipomatous tumours and little oedema; and in Group 3 (n = 4) there were large complex masses consistent with Morel-Lavallée lesions. Two experienced radiologists reviewed MR (n = 30) and ultrasound (n = 32) images with consensus agreement. MRI was performed on a 1.5T system with T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-suppressed and T1-weighted fat-suppressed post-intravenous gadolinium sequences obtained in two orthogonal planes. Ultrasound (linear 5- to 13.5-MHz probe) was performed in the longitudinal and short axis. Anatomical position, size, shape (oval, linear, ill-defined), internal architecture (lobules, septi or stranding), intrinsic signal characteristics, presence of surrounding pseudocapsule, extrinsic linear stranding and vascularity (gadolinium enhancement or power Doppler) were recorded. Anatomical locations were buttock/thigh (n = 17), leg (n = 6), upper limb (n = 5) and thoracic/abdominal wall (n = 5) with the majority of lesions (30 out of 33) oval/linear in shape. On ultrasound and MRI most lesions showed internal fat lobules, intervening septi and a surrounding pseudocapsule. Fat necrosis can usually be identified as containing multiple fat lobules on ultrasound and MRI despite a varying degree of inflammatory change surrounding and within the mass.

  5. MRI findings in deep and generalized morphea (localized scleroderma).

    PubMed

    Horger, Marius; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Tzaribachev, Nikolay; Wehrmann, Manfred; Claussen, Claus D; Fritz, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the spectrum of MRI features in patients with deep and generalized morphea. Imaging features of morphea are not specific and usually overlap with those of other disorders involving the skin, fascia, and musculature, such as some types of fasciitis, myositis, and so forth. Nevertheless, the imaging features of morphea reflect pathomorphologic changes of this rare disorder and enable a complete assessment of the disease extent, including depth of infiltration and disease activity.

  6. The MRA-DWI Mismatch Identifies Patients With Stroke Who Are Likely to Benefit From Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lansberg, Maarten G.; Thijs, Vincent N.; Bammer, Roland; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Marks, Michael P.; Wechsler, Lawrence R.; Kemp, Stephanie; Albers, Gregory W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of this exploratory analysis was to evaluate if a combination of MR angiography (MRA) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) selection criteria can be used to identify patients with acute stroke who are likely to benefit from early reperfusion. Methods Data from DEFUSE, a study of 74 patients with stroke who received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in the 3- to 6-hour time window and underwent MRIs before and approximately 4 hours after treatment were analyzed. The MRA–DWI mismatch model was defined as (1) a DWI lesion volume less than 25 mL in patients with a proximal vessel occlusion; or (2) a DWI lesion volume less than 15 mL in patients with proximal vessel stenosis or an abnormal finding of a distal vessel. Favorable clinical response was defined as an improvement on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of at least 8 points between baseline and 30 days or a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤1 at 30 days. Results Twenty-seven of 62 patients (44%) had an MRA-DWI mismatch. There was a differential response to early reperfusion based on MRA-DWI mismatch status. Reperfusion was associated with an increased rate of a favorable clinical response in patients with an MRA-DWI mismatch (OR, 12.5; 95% CI, 1.8 to 83.9) and a lower rate in patients without mismatch (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.0 to 0.8). Conclusions The MRA-DWI mismatch model appears to identify patients with stroke who are likely to benefit from reperfusion therapy administered in the 3- to 6-hour time window after symptom onset. The criteria established for the MRA-DWI mismatch model in this study require validation in an independent cohort. PMID:18635861

  7. Cardiac Metastasis from Invasive Thymoma Via the Superior Vena Cava: Cardiac MRI Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Dursun, Memduh Sarvar, Sadik; Cekrezi, Bledi; Kaba, Erkan; Bakir, Baris; Toker, Alper

    2008-07-15

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and metastatic deposits are more common than primary cardiac tumors. We present cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 50-year-old woman with invasive thymoma. Cardiac MRI revealed a heterogeneous, lobulated anterior mediastinal mass invading the superior vena cava and extending to the right atrium. In cine images there was no invasion to the right atrial wall.

  8. MRI cervical spine findings in asymptomatic fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J

    1999-12-01

    MRI of the cervical spine for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 42 yr with mean accumulated flying time of 2600 h), and for comparison on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 23 yr with 220 h of flying per person) were also examined. There were significantly more osteophytes, disk protrusions, compressions of the spinal cord and foraminal stenoses in the experienced pilots than in the age-matched controls. Low frequency of low grade degenerative lesions was found in the young and inexperienced pilots.

  9. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Omor, Y; Dhaene, B; Grijseels, S; Alard, S

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper.

  10. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Omor, Y.; Dhaene, B.; Grijseels, S.; Alard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper. PMID:26425380

  11. Thoracic Splenosis after a Gunshot: Diffusion-Weighted MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Tutar, Onur; Bakan, Selim; Samanci, Cesur; Nurili, Fuat; Sayman, Haluk Burcak; Akman, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm after a traumatic event involving the spleen and the diaphragma and is defined as autotransplantation of splenic tissue in thorax. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis in a patient 19 years after penetrating trauma. She has left dorsal side pain and routine chest roentgenogram shows pleural nodular masses. The patient was referred to us for radiologic work up. Conclusions The MRI scans revealed the intrathoracic and subcutan masses as mainly hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and significant restriction in diffusion-weighted images. Scintigraphy revealed abnormal hot spots in subcutaneous tissue and diaphragmatic pleura of the left hemithorax. PMID:25745523

  12. Evaluation of extracapsular extension in prostate cancer using qualitative and quantitative multiparametric MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooil; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Jung Jae; Kim, Minji; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for extracapsular extension (ECE) in prostate cancer (PCa). In all, 292 patients who received radical prostatectomy and underwent preoperative mpMRI at 3T were enrolled retrospectively. For determining the associations with ECE, the likelihood of ECE was assessed qualitatively on T2 -weighted imaging (T2 WI) and combined T2 WI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) or dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCEI). Quantitative MRI parameters were measured in PCa based on histopathological findings. Two models for detecting ECE including imaging and clinical parameters were developed using multivariate analysis: Model 1 excluding combined T2 WI and DWI and DCEI and Model 2 excluding combined T2 WI and DWI, and combined T2 WI and DCEI. Diagnostic performance of imaging parameters and models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az). For detecting ECE, the specificity, accuracy, and Az of combined T2 WI and DWI or DCEI were statistically better than those of T2 WI (P < 0.05), and all quantitative MRI parameters showed a statistical difference between the patients with and without ECE (P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, significant independent markers in Model 1 were combined T2 WI and DWI, combined T2 WI and DCEI, and K(trans) (P < 0.05). In Model 2, significant markers were combined T2 WI and DWI and DCEI, K(trans) , Kep , and Ve (P < 0.05). The Az values of models 1 and 2 were 0.944 and 0.957, respectively. mpMRI may be useful to improve diagnostic accuracy of the models for determining the associations with ECE in PCa. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1760-1770. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Fryns syndrome with atypical findings--with large midline cleft on forehead but normal cranial MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Demirel, G; Oguz, S S; Celik, I H; Yilmaz, Y; Uras, N; Erdeve, O; Dilmen, U

    2010-01-01

    We report a newborn with Fryns syndrome and atypical findings like a large midline cleft on forehead. Abnormal findings included congenital left diaphragmatic hernia, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, anteverted nostrils, cleft palate, low set ears, tapered fingers, macrocephaly, congenital heart defect, midline defects and renal anomalies. This is the first case that has a midline cleft on forehead with normal cranial MRI findings.

  14. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings.

  15. Can pathoanatomical pathways of degeneration in lumbar motion segments be identified by clustering MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for detailed visualisation of spinal pathological and degenerative processes, but the prevailing view is that such imaging findings have little or no clinical relevance for low back pain. This is because these findings appear to have little association with treatment effects in clinical populations, and mostly a weak association with the presence of pain in the general population. However, almost all research into these associations is based on the examination of individual MRI findings, despite its being very common for multiple MRI findings to coexist. Therefore, this proof-of-concept study investigated the capacity of a multivariable statistical method to identify clusters of MRI findings and for those clusters to be grouped into pathways of vertebral degeneration. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of data from 631 patients, from an outpatient spine clinic, who had been screened for inclusion in a randomised controlled trial. The available data created a total sample pool of 3,155 vertebral motion segments. The mean age of the cohort was 42 years (SD 10.8, range 18–73) and 54% were women. MRI images were quantitatively coded by an experienced musculoskeletal research radiologist using a detailed and standardised research MRI evaluation protocol that has demonstrated high reproducibility. Comprehensive MRI findings descriptive of the disco-vertebral component of lumbar vertebrae were clustered using Latent Class Analysis. Two pairs of researchers, each containing an experienced MRI researcher, then independently categorised the clusters into hypothetical pathoanatomic pathways based on the known histological changes of discovertebral degeneration. Results Twelve clusters of MRI findings were identified, described and grouped into five different hypothetical pathways of degeneration that appear to have face validity. Conclusions This study has shown that Latent Class Analysis can be used

  16. MRI in the acute phase of spinal cord traumatic lesions: Relationship between MRI findings and neurological outcome.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Chiara; Colaiacomo, Maria Chiara; Rojas Beccaglia, Mario; Di Biasi, Claudio; Casciani, Emanuele; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of emergency MRI in the diagnosis of acute spinal injuries, and to correlate the MRI pattern with the neurological outcome. Thirty-eight patients with MRI-proven spinal cord injury were classified according to the Frankel classification. MRI was always performed within 8 hours from trauma. Frankel classification divides spinal cord injuries into 5 classes of decreasing severity based on the presence of motor and/or sensory function loss. On the basis of the MRI findings the patients were classified in 3 groups: group 1 (intramedullary haematoma), group 2 (multi-metamer oedema), group 3 (single-metamer oedema). All patients underwent neurosurgery and were clinically evaluated until the stabilization of neurological recovery. Mean follow-up time was 12 months. The MR images were retrospectively evaluated and correlated to the neurological outcome. Twenty-eight patients showed complete motor loss (Frankel classes A and B); of these 28 patients 12 (42.8%) had MRI evidence of intramedullary haematoma, 12 (42.8%) had multi-metamer oedema and 4 (14.4%) had single-metamer oedema. Of the 10 patients with incomplete motor loss, none had MRI evidence of haemorrhage, 4 (40%) showed multi-metamer oedema and 6 (60%) showed single-metamer oedema. Follow-up clinical assessment revealed that 14/38 patients (36,8%) had clinical improvement and 2/38 cases (5%) had a complete motor recovery, as demonstrated by the move to a higher Frankel class. Our results, consistent with previous reports, confirm a strong correlation between the MRI appearance of traumatic spinal cord injuries in acute phase and long-term recovery of motor and sensory function: patients with initial haemorrhage had a poor prognosis, whereas those with spinal cord oedema had a good clinical outcome, as demonstrated by the passage to a higher Frankel class. MRI is particularly important in the initial evaluation of unconscious patients who cannot undergo a motor and sensory neurological

  17. A fully automatic method to register the prostate gland on T2-weighted and EPI-DWI images.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Massimo; Giannini, Valentina; Vignati, Anna; Mazzetti, Simone; Bracco, Christian; Stasi, Michele; Armando, Enrico; Russo, Filippo; Bollito, Enrico; Porpiglia, Francesco; Regge, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) is the most frequent noncutaneous cancer among men in developed countries. Magnetic Resonance (MR) has been used to detect PCa and several clinical trials report on the accuracy of the test. Multiparametric MR imaging (mpMRI) is defined as the integration of information from different morphological and functional datasets. mpMRI could be used to increase the performances of prostate MR, therefore allowing a more accurate assessment of the tumor gland extent, while reducing reporting time and interobserver variability. The first step to perform such a multiparametric analysis is to correct for voluntary and involuntary movements during the acquisitions, as well as for image distortion in the Diffusion Weighted (DWI) images. The aim of this work is to present a fully automatic registration algorithm between T2w and DWI images, able to realign the images and to correct the distortions in the DWI. Results showed a good overlap after registration and a strong decrease of mean surface distance in both the central gland and peripheral zone. These promising results suggest that the algorithm could be integrated in a CAD system which will combine the pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI, T2w MRI and DWI MR to generate one comprehensive value assessing the risk of malignancy. However to perform such a multiparametric analysis, it is necessary to correct for voluntary and involuntary (breathing, heart beating) movements during the DCE-MRI acquisition, and to realign also the DCE-MRI sequence to the T2w sequence.

  18. Clinical Breast MR Using MRS or DWI: Who Is the Winner?

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Carbonaro, Luca Alessandro; Montemezzi, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo; Trimboli, Rubina Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast gained a role in clinical practice thanks to the optimal sensitivity of contrast-enhanced (CE) protocols. This approach, first proposed 30 years ago and further developed as bilateral highly spatially resolved dynamic study, is currently considered superior for cancer detection to any other technique. However, other directions than CE imaging have been explored. Apart from morphologic features on unenhanced T2-weighted images, two different non-contrast molecular approaches were mainly run in vivo: proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Both approaches have shown aspects of breast cancer (BC) hidden to CE-MRI: 1H-MRS allowed for evaluating the total choline peak (tCho) as a biomarker of malignancy; DWI showed that restricted diffusivity is correlated with high cellularity and tumor aggressiveness. Secondary evidence on the two approaches is now available from systematic reviews and meta-analyses, mainly considered in this article: pooled sensitivity ranged 71–74% for 1H-MRS and 84–91% for DWI; specificity 78–88% and 75–84%, respectively. Interesting research perspectives are opened for both techniques, including multivoxel MRS and statistical strategies for classification of MR spectra as well as diffusion tensor imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion for DWI. However, when looking at a clinical perspective, while MRS remained a research tool with important limitations, such as relatively long acquisition times, frequent low quality spectra, difficult standardization, and quantification of tCho tissue concentration, DWI has been integrated in the standard clinical protocols of breast MRI and several studies showed its potential value as a stand-alone approach for BC detection. PMID:27840809

  19. Clinical Breast MR Using MRS or DWI: Who Is the Winner?

    PubMed

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Carbonaro, Luca Alessandro; Montemezzi, Stefania; Cavedon, Carlo; Trimboli, Rubina Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast gained a role in clinical practice thanks to the optimal sensitivity of contrast-enhanced (CE) protocols. This approach, first proposed 30 years ago and further developed as bilateral highly spatially resolved dynamic study, is currently considered superior for cancer detection to any other technique. However, other directions than CE imaging have been explored. Apart from morphologic features on unenhanced T2-weighted images, two different non-contrast molecular approaches were mainly run in vivo: proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Both approaches have shown aspects of breast cancer (BC) hidden to CE-MRI: 1H-MRS allowed for evaluating the total choline peak (tCho) as a biomarker of malignancy; DWI showed that restricted diffusivity is correlated with high cellularity and tumor aggressiveness. Secondary evidence on the two approaches is now available from systematic reviews and meta-analyses, mainly considered in this article: pooled sensitivity ranged 71-74% for 1H-MRS and 84-91% for DWI; specificity 78-88% and 75-84%, respectively. Interesting research perspectives are opened for both techniques, including multivoxel MRS and statistical strategies for classification of MR spectra as well as diffusion tensor imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion for DWI. However, when looking at a clinical perspective, while MRS remained a research tool with important limitations, such as relatively long acquisition times, frequent low quality spectra, difficult standardization, and quantification of tCho tissue concentration, DWI has been integrated in the standard clinical protocols of breast MRI and several studies showed its potential value as a stand-alone approach for BC detection.

  20. Internal mammary lymph nodes as incidental findings at screening breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kimberly M; Munir, Reema; Wisner, Dorota J; Azziz, Ania; Holland, Belinda Chang; Kornak, John; Joe, Bonnie N

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a screening population. We retrospectively reviewed 92 consecutive screening breast MRI exams. Logistic regression was performed to ascertain the risk of IMLNs in cancer-free subjects and to determine whether the risk varies with age. IMLNs were present in 48.9% of patients. Mean node size was 4 mm (range, 3-10 mm). The prevalence of IMLNs was not related to age. No patients developed breast cancer after a mean follow-up of 3 years. Subcentimeter IMLNs are common incidental findings at screening breast MRI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Multimodality MRI Findings in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui Juan; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from a number of complex neurological complications including vascular damage and cognitive dysfunction. It is of great significance to detect the neurological complications and improve the prognosis of ESRD patients. Many new noninvasive MRI techniques have been steadily used for the diagnosis of occult central nervous system complications in ESRD patients. This gives an opportunity to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of these neurological disorders. This paper is a review that presents the MRI findings of occult brain damage in ESRD patients, outlines the applications of advanced MRI techniques, and introduces a brief perspective in this study field. PMID:26064943

  2. Pain related to rotator cuff abnormalities: MRI findings without clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Bencardino, Jenny T; Beltran, Luis S

    2010-06-01

    MRI has become an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of rotator cuff pathology and the technology continues to evolve. Direct MR arthrography, diagnosis-specific sequencing such as fat suppression, special positioning such as abducted externally rotated (ABER) views and ultra high field magnets allow for an unprecedented level of detail in imaging. In this article, we review MRI findings in patients with rotator cuff abnormalities that are anatomic variants or incidental findings. Although MRI findings may be diagnostic in some cases, we find that clinical correlation with history and physical examination is critical to differentiate between anatomic variants, incidental findings, and true pathology. We conclude that good communication between the orthopedic surgeon and the radiologist is necessary to optimize diagnostic yield.

  3. CT and MRI findings in X-linked progressive deafness.

    PubMed

    Altay, Hakan; Savaş, Recep; Oğüt, Fatih; Kirazli, Tayfun; Alper, Hüdaver

    2008-09-01

    Congenital X-linked mixed deafness is a rare anomaly that has typical features and can be diagnosed on the basis of progressive mixed hearing loss and the typical imaging findings. Recognition of these findings may alter the course of treatment and perilymph gushing can be avoided. A 10-year-old male patient presented with a history of progressive hearing loss. Computed tomography of the temporal bones showed bulbous dilatation of the fundi of the internal auditory canals (IAC) and the absence of the bony plates separating the basal turn of the cochleas and IAC. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated obliteration of the labyrinthine spaces at the right side.

  4. Intracranial hypotension: the nonspecific nature of MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Bruera, O C; Bonamico, L; Giglio, J A; Sinay, V; Leston, J A; Figuerola, M L

    2000-01-01

    We present three patients who complained of postural headache related to different types of intracranial hypotension: spontaneous or primary, and secondary, but presenting the same findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement supports the belief that the enhancement is a nonspecific meningeal reaction to low pressure.

  5. Orbital and Intracranial Effects of Microgravity: 3T MRI Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, L. A.; Sargsyan, A.; Hasan, K. M.; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    Goals and Objectives of this presentation are: 1. To briefly describe a newly discovered clinical entity related to space flight. 2. To describe normal anatomy and pathologic changes of the optic nerve, posterior globe, optic nerve sheath and pituitary gland related to exposure to microgravity. 3. To correlate imaging findings with known signs of intracranial hypertension.

  6. Role of multidetector CT in the recognition of hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS) in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia: correlation with DWI-MRI sequences and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Romano, Andrea; Biraschi, Francesco; Tavanti, Francesca; Beccia, Mario; Dilisi, Filomena; Castrignanò, Antonella; Giuliani, Giorgia; Pierallini, Alberto; Fantozzi, Luigi Maria; Rasura, Maurizia; Bozzao, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS) obtained by multidetector computed tomography (CT) in predicting acute stroke, using diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a reference. The location of the HMCAS, the extension of the ischaemic lesion and its prognostic value were also assessed. The CT examinations of 654 patients with symptoms related to acute cerebral stroke were retrospectively reviewed. DW-MRI confirmed recent stroke in 175 patients. Two expert neuroradiologists analysed the CT examinations of these patients in four phases. Sensitivity, specificity and interobserver reliability was evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups according to the HMCAS site (M1-M2-M3) and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on DW-MRI was calculated. The ASPECTS average score was correlated with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months. In 41 patients, the presence of HMCAS was confirmed (71 % sensitivity; 100 % specificity; Interobserver reliability k, 84 %). An inverse correlation was found by comparing the ASPECTS and NIHSS scores (Rsq = -0.206). After logistic regression analysis, HMCAS was found to be independently associated with a poor outcome (mRS >2) at 3 months after adjusting for age, NIHSS on admission, risk factors and aetiology of stroke. Our study demonstrated that HMCAS obtained with multidetector CT can be detected in more than 70 % of patients with large acute ischaemic lesion and it is an unfavourable prognostic sign.

  7. Multiple tendon xanthomas in patient with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: sonographic and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Dagistan, Emine; Canan, Arzu; Kizildag, Betul; Barut, Abdullah Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    Tendon xanthomas are a component of familial hypercholesterolaemia, which is a hereditary disease and characterised by elevated low-density lipo protein cholesterol plasma levels and premature coronary artery disease. Tendon xanthomas are diagnostic for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HFH) and they mostly occur in Achilles tendon. Sonography and MRI are superior to clinical assessment and are useful in detecting tendon xanthomas. In this report, we present ultrasonographic and MRI findings of multiple tendon xanthomas in a case of HFH. PMID:24252837

  8. Gastrocnemius tendinosis--A frequent finding on MRI knee examination.

    PubMed

    Jawahar, Anugayathri; Lu, Yanan; Okur, Gokcan; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Lomasney, Laurie

    2015-12-01

    Gastrocnemius tendinosis (GT) is one potential cause for posterior knee pain, commonly overlooked on clinical examinations and imaging. This study assesses the frequency of GT on MR imaging in a convenience sample based on a database search and associations with other articular pathologies and clinical findings. With IRB approval, retrospective review was completed on 300 randomly selected MR knee exams performed from February 2009 to June 2010. Following de-identification, axial T2 and sagittal PD images, with or without fat suppression, were reviewed by 2 radiologists. The gastrocnemius tendon femoral attachments were graded as normal, mild (few cysts, thickening, intermediate signal) or severe GT (multiple cysts, marrow edema, tear). Select associated MR findings of internal derangement were documented. Clinical charts were reviewed for clinical presentation, physical exam findings, and select demographics. The inter-observer reliability for presence/grading of GT was very high (kappa statistic=0.97). Frequency of GT was 50.33%, most frequently involving medial head of gastrocnemius (63.6%). Grades of GT were 41.7% and 17.2% for mild and severe respectively. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant relationship between grade of GT with arthrosis (p=0.05) and clinical joint effusion (p=0.02). Multivariate analysis showed higher odds of severe GT for individuals with medial plus lateral GT. Statistical significance was noted for presence of both GT and ACL tear (13.9%; p=0.02). Significant findings of our analysis included GT presented with predominant involvement of medial head of gastrocnemius tendon, mild in severity, strong association with ACL tear, presented frequently as posterior knee pain, limited joint motion and clinical joint effusion. However, there was no statistically significant association between demographic features and medical comorbidities in the patients. Increased understanding of frequency of GT allows more accurate reporting of

  9. Brain-stem Listeriosis: A Comparison of SPECT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Sevki; Arisoy, Ayse S.; Topkaya, Aynur E.; Karsidag, Sibel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Listeria monocytogenes, although uncommon as a cause of illness in the general population, can result in serious illness when it affects pregnant women, neonates, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Typically, it is a food-borne organism. This report describes a case of brain-stem listeriosis in a previously healthy 51-year-old woman. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings, the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, CSF culture, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MRI demonstrated upper brain stem and cerebellar peduncle involvement. In addition, Tc-99m exametazime (HMPAO)-labeled single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain revealed bilateral cerebellar hypoperfusion. Antibiotic therapy resulted in partial clinical recovery after 3 weeks. At the end of 6 months, brain-stem findings had nearly resolved. However, although minimal residual findings were observed on MRI at 6 months, bilateral diffuse cerebellar hypoperfusion remained on Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. PMID:17415328

  10. Brain MRI of children with retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Postels, Douglas G; Li, Chenxi; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Taylor, Terrie E; Seydel, Karl B; Kampondeni, Sam D; Glover, Simon J; Potchen, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Our goals were to understand the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in children with retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria (CM) and investigate whether any findings on acute MRI were associated with adverse outcomes. We performed MRI scans on children admitted to the hospital in Blantyre, Malawi with clinically defined CM. Two hundred and seventeen children were imaged during the study period; 44 patients were malarial retinopathy-negative; and 173 patients were retinopathy-positive. We compared MRI findings in children with retinopathy-negative and retinopathy-positive CM. In children who were retinopathy-negative, we identified MRI variables that were associated with death and adverse neurologic outcomes. On multivariate analysis, cortical diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) abnormality and increased brain volume were strongly associated with neurologic morbidity in survivors. Investigations to explore the underlying pathophysiologic processes responsible for these MRI changes are warranted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Brain MRI of Children with Retinopathy-Negative Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Postels, Douglas G.; Li, Chenxi; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Taylor, Terrie E.; Seydel, Karl B.; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Glover, Simon J.; Potchen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Our goals were to understand the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in children with retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria (CM) and investigate whether any findings on acute MRI were associated with adverse outcomes. We performed MRI scans on children admitted to the hospital in Blantyre, Malawi with clinically defined CM. Two hundred and seventeen children were imaged during the study period; 44 patients were malarial retinopathy-negative; and 173 patients were retinopathy-positive. We compared MRI findings in children with retinopathy-negative and retinopathy-positive CM. In children who were retinopathy-negative, we identified MRI variables that were associated with death and adverse neurologic outcomes. On multivariate analysis, cortical diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) abnormality and increased brain volume were strongly associated with neurologic morbidity in survivors. Investigations to explore the underlying pathophysiologic processes responsible for these MRI changes are warranted. PMID:25200262

  12. Spinal MRI Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Ozlem; Yildirim, Tulin; Tokmak, Naime; Tan, Meliha

    2009-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is a relatively common, acute, and rapidly progressive, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The diagnosis is usually established on the basis of symptoms and signs, aided by cerebrospinal fluid findings and electrophysiologic criteria. Previously, radiologic examinations have been used only to rule out other spinal abnormalities. We report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome with marked enhancement of nerve roots of the conus medullaris and cauda equina on MR imaging. These MR observations may help confirm the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:22470650

  13. MRI findings in eastern equine encephalitis: the "parenthesis" sign.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Joshua P; Kannabiran, Suma; Burbank, Heather N

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) presented to a tertiary referral center. Both subjects' brain magnetic resonance imaging showed T2/FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyperintensities including linear areas of hyperintensity in the external and internal capsules with sparing of the lentiform nuclei. Single case reports of imaging findings in EEE exist with nonspecific patterns of abnormality. We propose that this "( ) parentheses sign" on T2 or FLAIR imaging may distinguish EEE from other processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation of clinical and MRI findings of tempero-mandibular joint internal derangement.

    PubMed

    Chowdary, U V; Rajesh, P; Neelakandan, R S; Nandagopal, C M

    2006-01-01

    The most common clinical features of tempero-mandibular joint internal derangement are correlated with the MRI findings of shape of the disc in an attempt to find the etiology of tempero-mandibular joint internal derangement. In this study, the clinical parameters of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking with in the joint (like early, middle and late) are correlated with the MRI findings of disc shapes. (like biconcave, thick, lengthened, folded, adhesion). The study reveals any trauma that leads to muscle tenderness results in internal derangement of tempero-mandibular joint.

  15. MRI Findings Do not Correlate with Outcome in Athletes with Chronic Groin Pain

    PubMed Central

    Daigeler, Adrien; Belyaev, Orlin; Pennekamp, Werner H.; Morrosch, Stephan; Köster, Odo; Uhl, Waldemar; Weyhe, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This trial aimed to assess the value of MRI in the differential diagnosis of chronic groin pain in athletes, a condition caused by various pathologies, the most common being posterior abdominal wall deficiency, osteitis pubis and muscular imbalance. Nineteen subjects with clinically ruled-out hernia and recurrent episodes of exercise-triggered groin pain were assessed. Dynamic MRI was performed under Valsalva manoeuver and at rest within a training- free period and after training activity. Follow-up was performed after 4 years using a questionnaire and physical examination. An incipient hernia was seen in one case, Valsalva manoeuver provoked a visible bulging in 7 others (3 bilateral). Eight athletes showed symphysitis (accompanied by bulging in 3 cases). MRI visualized one hydrocele, one osteoma of the left femur, one enchondroma of the pubic bone, and one dilated left ureter without clinical symptoms or therapeutic relevance. MRI findings after training and during the training free period did not vary. Fifteen participants were available for a follow-up control examination 4 years later - one suffered from ongoing pain, eleven were free of symptoms and three had improvement. However, most of them improved only with changing or reducing training. There were four participants with a specific therapy of their MRI findings. MRI revealed a variety of pathological findings in athletes suffering from chronic groin pain, but it was not reliable enough in differentiating between diagnoses requiring conservative or operative treatment. The MRI examination within the training interval did not have an advantage to that within the training-free period. Further randomized prospective trials with a long follow-up should establish whether MRI findings could be of help in the choice between conservative and surgical treatment for chronic groin pain. Key pointsMRI findings after training and during the train free period did not vary.MRI revealed a variety of pathological findings

  16. Congenital overinflation: prenatal MRI and US findings and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jennifer H; Kline-Fath, Beth M; Bitters, Constance; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Lim, Foong-Yen Y

    2016-06-01

    The purpose is to describe fetal MR and US findings of congenital overinflation (CO) and to correlate with postnatal outcome. Two radiologists reviewed fetal MR and US images in 25 fetuses diagnosed with CO. Lesion size, appearance, location, and presence of hydrops were documented. Chart review was performed for pregnancy outcome, postnatal imaging, interventions, histopathology, and clinical outcome. All lesions demonstrated primarily homogeneous increased echogenicity and MR signal with absent pulmonary vascular distortion. A tubular cystic hilar structure was consistent with a dilated bronchus (68% MR, 25% US). The right lower (32%) and left lower (23%) lobes were most commonly involved. Two cases with central bronchial obstruction resulted in perinatal demise. Of 23 live births, 17 were asymptomatic, 1 symptomatic, and 5 lost to follow-up. Postnatal CT was performed in 17 of 18 patients confirming CO. Histopathology in nine patients revealed bronchial anomalies with hyperinflated (n = 7) or polyalveolar lung (n = 2). Nine patients were observed and remained asymptomatic. Fetal MR and US demonstrate a consistent pattern of imaging findings in fetuses with CO. Many cases are asymptomatic and can be managed with nonsurgical conservative therapy. CO because of central bronchial obstruction is associated with a guarded prognosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Integration of DCE-MRI and DW-MRI Quantitative Parameters for Breast Lesion Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Amato, Daniela Maria; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Capasso, Immacolata; Rinaldo, Massimo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an imaging protocol combining dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in patients with suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods. A total of 31 breast lesions (15 malignant and 16 benign proved by histological examination) in 26 female patients were included in this study. For both DCE-MRI and DW-MRI model free and model based parameters were computed pixel by pixel on manually segmented ROIs. Statistical procedures included conventional linear analysis and more advanced techniques for classification of lesions in benign and malignant. Results. Our findings indicated no strong correlation between DCE-MRI and DW-MRI parameters. Results of classification analysis show that combining of DCE parameters or DW-MRI parameter, in comparison of single feature, does not yield a dramatic improvement of sensitivity and specificity of the two techniques alone. The best performance was obtained considering a full combination of all features. Moreover, the classification results combining all features are dominated by DCE-MRI features alone. Conclusion. The combination of DWI and DCE-MRI does not show a potential to dramatically increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast MRI. DCE-MRI alone gave the same performance as in combination with DW-MRI. PMID:26339597

  18. The use of vignette analysis of dangerous driving situations involving alcohol to differentiate adolescent DWI offenders and high school drivers.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent drivers are commonly involved in a variety of dangerous driving situations involving alcohol and drug use. Both situational and personality factors contribute to the adolescent DWI phenomenon. Little is known about young drivers' ability to analyze common potentially dangerous alcohol-involved driving situations, or in what respects differing patterns of analysis differentiate adolescent drivers at risk for DWI. Three groups of adolescent drivers (N = 153) completed an analysis of vignettes questionnaire to assess their decision-making skills and attitudes with respect to drinking and driving. The three comparison groups consisted of high school drivers, young DWI offenders, and juvenile offenders without DWI citations. Subjects were demographically similar except for academic performance, employment, family intactness, car ownership, and drug and alcohol use, with DWI offenders and non-DWI offenders showing significant differences in these measures (p less than .001). Situation analysis showed that adolescent DWI offenders more often than controls drink prior to driving (p less than .001), associate alcohol with many social events and dating (p less than .001), become angry when questioned about driving ability (p less than .001), play drinking games (p = .1), drive fast to resolve stress (p = .001), are less likely to recruit parents when faced with driving intoxicated (p less than .001), and a number of other situational characteristics indicating differential risk between groups for DWI. In many cases, other juvenile offenders matched responses of DWI offenders. Important aspects of these findings are discussed in the context of intervention strategies and the use of vignette analysis as one tool to identify high-risk adolescent drivers for DWI.

  19. Endorectal MRI for risk classification of localized prostate cancer: Radiographic findings and influence on treatment decisions.

    PubMed

    Liauw, Stanley L; Kropp, Lauren M; Dess, Robert T; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-09-01

    To report the results of endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) in patients with localized prostate cancer, and how these images influenced radiotherapeutic management. A total of 122 men with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate referred to radiation oncology underwent 3-T eMRI between 2010 and 2014, to evaluate candidacy for active surveillance (n = 26) and brachytherapy as monotherapy (n = 47), or to further risk stratify intermediate-risk (n = 29) or high-risk (n = 20) men before external beam radiation therapy. By National Comprehensive Cancer Network classification, men had low-risk (28%), intermediate-risk (55%), or high-risk (17%) disease. Multiparametric MRI sequences included T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. Radiographic extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion (rSVI), and pelvic lymph node involvement (LNI) were graded as negative, indeterminate, or positive. A dominant nodule was defined as a nodule≥1.5cm. Changes in management were identified comparing pre-MRI and post-MRI plan of care. The rates of radiographic extracapsular extension, radiographic seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement, and dominant nodule were 39%, 7%, 12%, and 28%, respectively. The eMRI identified measurable disease in most patients with an increasing burden of disease (sextants involved, median nodule size) according to risk category (P<0.01). Changes in management after eMRI occurred in 18%, including 9%, 18%, and 33% of men with low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk disease (P = 0.08), and 12%, 17%, and 22% of men who were candidates for active surveillance, brachytherapy as monotherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (P = 0.48), respectively. The eMRI influenced management in a risk-dependent fashion. Further study is required to determine the clinical importance of eMRI findings and to determine whether changes in management can lead to improved clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016

  20. Resolution of MRI findings in central pontine myelinosis associated with hypokalemia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shomeet V; Parish, David C; Patel, Rajendrakumar M; Grimsley, Edwin W

    2007-12-01

    We report a case of a 20-year-old African-American female, hospitalized and treated for hyperemesis gravidarum and hypokalemia with a normal serum sodium level. Two to 3 days into her hospitalization, she developed urinary incontinence, weakness, and pain in her lower extremities. An MRI brain scan showed central pontine signal alteration, leading to a diagnosis of CPM. A 4-month follow-up MRI brain scan showed complete resolution of the central pontine signal, with symptomatic improvement manifested by resolution of urinary incontinence and increased strength. Our case describes CPM occurring secondary to hypokalemia, with resolution of characteristic MRI findings at follow-up. Sole hypokalemia-induced CPM is very rare. What makes our patient even more unique is the complete resolution of the central pontine lesion on follow-up MRI. The cause of this cannot be completely explained and warrants further study.

  1. Whole body MRI: Improved Lesion Detection and Characterization With Diffusion Weighted Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Attariwala, Rajpaul; Picker, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established functional imaging technique that interrogates the delicate balance of water movement at the cellular level. Technological advances enable this technique to be applied to whole-body MRI. Theory, b-value selection, common artifacts and target to background for optimized viewing will be reviewed for applications in the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Whole-body imaging with DWI allows novel applications of MRI to aid in evaluation of conditions such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and skeletal metastases, while the quantitative nature of this technique permits evaluation of response to therapy. Persisting signal at high b-values from restricted hypercellular tissue and viscous fluid also permits applications of DWI beyond oncologic imaging. DWI, when used in conjunction with routine imaging, can assist in detecting hemorrhagic degradation products, infection/abscess, and inflammation in colitis, while aiding with discrimination of free fluid and empyema, while limiting the need for intravenous contrast. DWI in conjunction with routine anatomic images provides a platform to improve lesion detection and characterization with findings rivaling other combined anatomic and functional imaging techniques, with the added benefit of no ionizing radiation. PMID:23960006

  2. A simple brain atrophy measure improves the prediction of malignant middle cerebral artery infarction by acute DWI lesion volume.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christoph; Kruetzelmann, Anna; Forkert, Nils D; Juettler, Eric; Singer, Oliver C; Köhrmann, Martin; Kersten, Jan F; Sobesky, Jan; Gerloff, Christian; Fiehler, Jens; Schellinger, Peter D; Röther, Joachim; Thomalla, Götz

    2014-06-01

    In patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI) decompressive surgery within 48 h improves functional outcome. In this respect, early identification of patients at risk of developing MMI is crucial. While the acute diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume was found to predict MMI with high predictive values, the potential impact of preexisting brain atrophy on the course of space-occupying middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction and the development of MMI remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of the acute DWI lesion volume with simple measures of brain atrophy improves the early prediction of MMI. Data from a prospective, multicenter, observational study, which included patients with acute middle cerebral artery main stem occlusion studied by MRI within 6 h of symptom onset, was analyzed retrospectively. The development of MMI was defined according to the European randomized controlled trials of decompressive surgery. Acute DWI lesion volume, as well as brain and cerebrospinal fluid volume (CSF) were delineated. The intercaudate distance (ICD) was assessed as a linear brain atrophy marker by measuring the hemi-ICD of the intact hemisphere to account for local brain swelling. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors of MMI. Cut-off values were determined by Classification and Regression Trees analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the resulting models were calculated. Twenty-one (18 %) of 116 patients developed a MMI. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions patients had higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission and presented more often with combined occlusion of the internal carotid artery and MCA. There were no differences in brain and CSF volume between the two groups. Diffusion weighted imaging lesion volume was larger (p < 0.001), while hemi-ICD was smaller (p = 0.029) in

  3. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings.

  4. Normal findings on brain FLAIR MRI scans at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Neema, Mohit; Guss, Zachary D.; Stankiewicz, James M.; Arora, Ashish; Healy, Brian C.; Bakshi, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging of the brain has become a routine tool for assessing lesions in patients with suspected neurologic disorders. There is growing interest in 3T brain FLAIR MR imaging but little normative data are available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and topography of cerebral hyperintensities seen with FLAIR MR imaging of the brain at 3T in a normal population and compare those findings to 1.5T. MATERIALS AND METHODS Whole-brain 2D FLAIR MR imaging was performed in 22 healthy controls (mean age, 44 ± 8 years; range, 30–53 years) at 3T. Fifteen of these subjects also underwent 2D FLAIR at 1.5T, with similar optimized parameters and voxel size. Cerebral hyperintense areas, including discrete foci, anterior and posterior periventricular capping, diffuse parenchymal hyperintensity, septal hyperintensity, corticospinal tract hyperintensity, and CSF flow artifacts were assessed. The Spearman rank test assessed the correlation between discrete hyperintense foci and age. The Wilcoxon signed rank test compared foci detectability at 3T versus 1.5T. RESULTS FLAIR at 3T commonly showed hyperintensities such as discrete foci (mean, 10.68 per subject; at least 1 present in 68% of subjects), anterior and posterior periventricular capping, diffuse posterior white matter hyperintensity, septal hyperintensity, corticospinal tract hyperintensity, and ventricular CSF flow artifacts. FLAIR at 3T showed a higher hyperintense foci volume (170 ± 243 versus 93 ± 152 mm3, P < .01) and number (9.4 ± 13 versus 5.5 ± 9.2, P < .01) than at 1.5T. No significant differences (P = .68) in the length/diameter of individual discrete hyperintense foci were seen between 3T and 1.5T. Discrete foci volume (r = 0.72 at 3T, r = 0.70 at 1.5T) and number (r = 0.74 at 3T; r = 0.69 at 1.5T) correlated with age to a similar degree on both platforms. All discrete foci were confined to the noncallosal supratentorial

  5. DWI lesions and TIA etiology improve the prediction of stroke after TIA.

    PubMed

    Calvet, David; Touzé, Emmanuel; Oppenheim, Catherine; Turc, Guillaume; Meder, Jean-François; Mas, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    The ABCD(2) score has been shown to predict the early risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack (TIA). The additional predictive value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and TIA etiology is not well known. From January 2003 to June 2007, 343 consecutive patients (mean+/-SD age, 62.4+/-15.4 years) with TIA were admitted to our stroke unit. Most (339) patients underwent DWI and all had an etiologic work-up and were followed up for 3 months. The predictive value of the ABCD(2) score, positive DWI findings, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), and atrial fibrillation (AF) with respect to occurrence of ischemic stroke at 1 week and 3 months was assessed. DWI was positive in 136 (40%) patients. Sixty (17%) patients had LAA and 27 (8%) had AF. Patients with positive DWI findings were more likely to have unilateral weakness (odds ratio [OR]=2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.7), TIA duration >/=60 minutes (OR=2.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.2), ABCD(2) >5 (OR=4.7; 95% CI, 2.0 to 11.0), LAA (OR=1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and AF (OR=3.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 8.0). During follow-up, 5 patients had a stroke within 7 days (absolute risk=1.5%, 95% CI, 0.3% to 2.7%), and 10 had a stroke within 3 months (absolute risk=2.9%; 95% CI, 1.1% to 4.7%). All early strokes but 1 occurred in patients with positive DWI findings. ABCD(2) score and positive DWI findings were associated with an increased 7-day and 3-month risk of stroke. At 3 months, ABCD(2) score >5 (hazard ratio=10.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 93.4), positive DWI result (hazard ratio=8.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 71.0), and LAA (hazard ratio=3.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 11.8) were independently associated with an increased risk of stroke. There was no association with AF. Taking DWI and TIA etiology into account in addition to the ABCD(2) score improves the prediction of the early risk of stroke after TIA.

  6. MRI findings of hemolytic uremic syndrome with encephalopathy: widespread symmetrical distribution.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshi; Takaba, Hitonori; Inoue, Takeshi; Saku, Yoshisuke; Saito, Fumihiko; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Fujishima, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 22-year-old woman with hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy secondary to verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Multiple lesions in the midbrain, cerebellum, occipital lobe, and basal ganglia showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images with widespread symmetrical distribution. Most of these findings showed remarkable reduction on MRI images obtained 70 days after the onset. It is suggested that edema induced by local breakdown of blood-brain barrier might play an important role in the patient.

  7. The prevalence of positive imaging findings on MRI scans ordered by chiropractic versus medical providers

    PubMed Central

    Morries, Larry; Yochum, Terry; Barry, Michael; Slizeski, John; Freuden, Donald; Danielson, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if there is a greater yield of pathological findings identified on MRI scans of patients referred by chiropractors as compared to those referred by allopathic providers. Methods MRI reports authored by medical radiologists from two independent MRI centers in the Denver metropolitan area were analyzed retrospectively for pathological data related to the spinal regions studied. A pathological report data sheet was used to record pathological findings in 22 different categories. A total of 150 reports from each provider group were reviewed. Results Of the 22 pathological conditions studied, a statistically significant difference between doctor of chiropractic and medical doctor referrers was identified in 4 categories: central spinal canal stenosis, lateral stenosis, facet arthrosis, and negative report. The most common primary diagnoses given for MRI referral were low back pain/sciatica, neck pain, and extremity pain. Seventy-four percent of the reports evaluated were performed on patients referred with a diagnosis of pain. In 3 of the 22 categories (14%), the medical doctors had a statistically higher pathological yield than the chiropractors. However, in 4 of the 22 categories (18%), the chiropractors had a statistically higher pathological yield. In 18 of the 22 categories (82%), there was no statistical difference between the two provider groups. Conclusion The data presented in this study suggests chiropractic and medical providers are compeer at ordering MRI for suspected pathological findings. PMID:19674677

  8. Comparison of brain MRI findings with language and motor function in the dystroglycanopathies.

    PubMed

    Brun, Brianna N; Mockler, Shelley R H; Laubscher, Katie M; Stephan, Carrie M; Wallace, Anne M; Collison, Julia A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Dobyns, William B; Mathews, Katherine D

    2017-02-14

    To describe the spectrum of brain MRI findings in a cohort of individuals with dystroglycanopathies (DGs) and relate MRI results to function. All available brain MRIs done for clinical indications on individuals enrolled in a DG natural history study (NCT00313677) were reviewed. Reports were reviewed when MRI was not available. MRIs were categorized as follows: (1) cortical, brainstem, and cerebellar malformations; (2) cortical and cerebellar malformations; or (3) normal. Language development was assigned to 1 of 3 categories by a speech pathologist. Maximal motor function and presence of epilepsy were determined by history or examination. Twenty-five MRIs and 9 reports were reviewed. The most common MRI abnormalities were cobblestone cortex or dysgyria with an anterior-posterior gradient and cerebellar hypoplasia. Seven individuals had MRIs in group 1, 8 in group 2, and 19 in group 3. Language was impaired in 100% of those in MRI groups 1 and 2, and degree of language impairment correlated with severity of imaging. Eighty-five percent of the whole group achieved independent walking, but only 33% did in group 1. Epilepsy was present in 8% of the cohort and rose to 37% of those with an abnormal MRI. Developmental abnormalities of the brain such as cobblestone lissencephaly, cerebellar cysts, pontine hypoplasia, and brainstem bowing are hallmarks of DG and should prompt consideration of these diagnoses. Brain imaging in individuals with DG helps to predict outcomes, especially language development, aiding clinicians in prognostic counseling. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. MRI findings in low grade tumours associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tarsi, A; Marliani, A F; Bartiromo, F; Giulioni, M; Marucci, G; Martinoni, M; Volpi, L; Leonardi, M

    2012-12-20

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is mandatory to identify the epileptogenic zone in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The correct identification of lesions is essential to obtain good post-surgery seizure control. Low grade tumours (LGT) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are common findings in symptomatic TLE, and frequently coexist. The aim of this study was to identify the MRI characteristics in the diagnosis of FCD associated with LGT. We analyzed 24 subjects with TLE who underwent tailored surgery. They all had LGTs. Two expert neuroradiologists analyzed the imaging data and compared them with histological results, hypothesizing the causes of diagnostic errors in the identification of FCD. We selected three exemplary cases to report the most important causes of errors. In the diagnosis of FCD we reported false positives and false negatives due to different causes. An incomplete MRI protocol, the large dimensions of the tumour, infiltration and related oedema were the most important factors limiting MRI accuracy. MRI can be limited by an incomplete protocol. In addition, the presence of an LGT may limit the neuroradiological diagnosis of FCD in the temporal lobe. Advanced MRI techniques could help reveal subtle lesions that eluded a previous imaging inspection.

  10. Muscle MRI Findings in Childhood/Adult Onset Pompe Disease Correlate with Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bonaparte, Sebastián; Segovia, Sonia; Llauger, Jaume; Belmonte, Izaskun; Pedrosa, Irene; Alejaldre, Aída; Mayos, Mercè; Suárez-Cuartín, Guillermo; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enzyme replacement therapy has shown to be effective for childhood/adult onset Pompe disease (AOPD). The discovery of biomarkers useful for monitoring disease progression is one of the priority research topics in Pompe disease. Muscle MRI could be one possible test but the correlation between muscle MRI and muscle strength and function has been only partially addressed so far. Methods We studied 34 AOPD patients using functional scales (Manual Research Council scale, hand held myometry, 6 minutes walking test, timed to up and go test, time to climb up and down 4 steps, time to walk 10 meters and Motor Function Measure 20 Scale), respiratory tests (Forced Vital Capacity seated and lying, Maximun Inspiratory Pressure and Maximum Expiratory Pressure), daily live activities scales (Activlim) and quality of life scales (Short Form-36 and Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life questionnaire). We performed a whole body muscle MRI using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging centered on thighs and lower trunk region. Results T1w whole body muscle MRI showed a homogeneous pattern of muscle involvement that could also be found in pre-symptomatic individuals. We found a strong correlation between muscle strength, muscle functional scales and the degree of muscle fatty replacement in muscle MRI analyzed using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging studies. Moreover, muscle MRI detected mild degree of fatty replacement in paraspinal muscles in pre-symptomatic patients. Conclusion Based on our findings, we consider that muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful for diagnosis and follow-up in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic patients under treatment. Take home message Muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful to follow-up patients in daily clinic. PMID:27711114

  11. [Clinical course and serial brain MRI findings in a patient with Lissauer form of general paresis].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Tomohiko; Ishihara, Ayako; Ozawa, Tetutaro; Sanpei, Kazuhiro; Shimohata, Takayoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with progressive dementia and generalized convulsions. An initial MRI revealed a widespread high-intensity area with a mass effect in the right frontal and temporal lobes on T2-weighted images. Findings on digital subtraction angiography were normal. Serum and CSF tests showed high titers of antibodies to Treponema pallidum, which helped to distinguish neurosyphilis from glioma. He was initially treated with penicillin injection; however, it caused liver dysfunction and penicillin was switched to erythromycin. Even after antibiotic therapy for 2 months, his dementia did not improve. He underwent brain MRI four times during the treatment course, and they showed steady progression of brain atrophy in the right hemisphere. Taking these findings together, we diagnosed Lissauer form of general paresis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Lissauer form of paretic neurosyphilis, in which the progression of brain atrophy was clearly demonstrated on MRI.

  12. MRI findings of radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast (RAS).

    PubMed

    Chikarmane, Sona A; Gombos, Eva C; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Raut, Chandrajit; Jagannathan, Jyothi P

    2015-09-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas (RAS). In this Institutional Review board (IRB)-approved retrospective study, 57 women were diagnosed with pathologically confirmed RAS during the study period (January 1999 to May 2013). Seventeen women underwent pretreatment breast MRI (prior to surgical resection or chemotherapy), of which 16 studies were available for review. Imaging features, including all available mammograms, ultrasounds, and breast MRIs, of these patients were evaluated by two radiologists independently and correlated with clinical management and outcomes. The median age of patients at original breast cancer diagnosis was 69.3 years (range 42-84 years), with average time from initial radiation therapy to diagnosis of RAS of 7.3 years (range 5.1-9.5 years). Nine women had mammograms (9/16, 56%) and six had breast ultrasound (US) (6/16, 38%) prior to MRI, which demonstrated nonsuspicious findings in 5/9 mammograms and 3/6 ultrasounds. Four patients had distinct intraparenchymal masses on mammogram and MRI. MRI findings included diffuse T2 high signal skin thickening (16/16, 100%). Nearly half (7/16, 44%) of patients had T2 low signal intensity lesions; all lesions rapidly enhanced on postcontrast T1 -weighted imaging. All women underwent surgical resection, with 8/16 (50%) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four women died during the study period. Clinical, mammographic, and sonographic findings of RAS are nonspecific and may be occult on conventional breast imaging; MRI findings of RAS include rapidly enhancing dermal and intraparenchymal lesions, some of which are low signal on T2 weighted imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison of MRI findings with traditional criteria in diagnosis of Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharghi, Sasan; Haghpanah, Vahid; Heshmat, Ramin; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Hadizadeh, Homayoun; Lashkari, Anahita; Tabatabaei, Ozra; Taheri, Eghbal; Motesaddi, Massoud; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher

    2007-02-01

    Pendred syndrome, defined as the constellation of goiter, sensori-neural hearing loss, and positive perchlorate discharge test, is the most frequent cause of congenital deafness. Newly introduced diagnostic approaches to the disease are rather expensive and complicated, therefore we evaluated the value of MRI as the sole, or adjunctive diagnostic approach, and compared it with the traditional ones. Presuming the classic triad as the gold standard, we compared MRI findings in six such defined patients with six cases having goiter, hearing loss, and normal perchlorate discharge test. Our results indicated that MRI was 83.6% sensitive and 66.7% specific in patients fulfilling all three criteria (complete), while in the 'partial' group the sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 100% respectively. In conclusion, MRI, although impressive as an adjunctive diagnostic tool, may not replace the holistic approach, and the latter may be more convenient, cheaper, and still more accurate. However in 'partial' cases with equivocal findings, and in relatives of the patients, MRI may be a valuable diagnostic adjunct.

  14. Characteristic MRI Findings of upper Limb Muscle Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    PubMed

    Sugie, Kazuma; Sugie, Miho; Taoka, Toshio; Tonomura, Yasuyo; Kumazawa, Aya; Izumi, Tesseki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients.

  15. Correlations between MRI findings and outcome of capsular distension in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Hee; Park, Young Sook; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeongmi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with adhesive shoulder capsulitis and the therapeutic effect of capsular distension. [Subjects and Methods] We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 57 patients who underwent capsular distension therapy after a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis with clinical and MRI scans. Axillary joint capsular thickness by MRI was graded as I (≤3.6 mm), II (3.7–4.2 mm), and III (≥4.3 mm). Subcoracoid fat obliteration of the rotator interval was graded subjectively as absent, partial, and complete. [Results] Capsular thickness and fat replacement were correlated with passive range of motion (PROM) and pain score on a visual analog scale (VAS) by analysis of variance with a Bonferroni correction before treatment and by analysis of covariance with a Bonferroni correction after treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS) for patients with all grades decreased significantly after treatment and passive range of motion (PROM) for patients with all grades improved. No difference was detected between grades. [Conclusion] Although MRI is useful to evaluate adhesive capsulitis, MRI findings of shoulder did not predict the prognosis after capsular distension treatment. PMID:27821938

  16. MRI Features of Mucinous Cancer of the Breast: Correlation With Pathologic Findings and Other Imaging Methods.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Almir G V; Graziano, Luciana; Osório, Cynthia A B T; Guatelli, Camila S; Souza, Juliana A; Mendonça, Maria Helena S; Marques, Elvira F

    2016-02-01

    Mucinous breast carcinoma is an uncommon histologic type of invasive breast carcinoma that can be differentiated in pure and mixed forms, which have different prognosis and treatment. MRI features of both types of mucinous breast carcinomas are discussed, illustrated, and compared with pathologic findings and with other imaging methods, including mammography, ultrasound, and PET/CT.

  17. Sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia: apparent false positive MIBG scan and expected MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Yung, B C; Loke, T K; Tse, T W; Tsang, M W; Chan, J C

    2000-10-01

    Adrenal medullary hyperplasia is a rare cause of clinical symptoms and biochemical findings identical to pheochromocytoma occurring mostly in multiple endocrine neoplasia patients. The scenario of positive MIBG scan, but no focal lesion found on CT and MRI led to diagnostic and management difficulties. Like pheochromocytoma, surgical excision can lead to clinical and biochemical recovery. We report this unusual case of sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia, with hypertension and biochemical abnormalities alleviated after surgical adrenalectomy. Based on T2 values reported in literature, high signal focal lesions may not appear on T2-weighted MRI images until development of frank pheochromocytoma. MIBG scan remains the most sensitive imaging modality for this condition.

  18. PET/MRI for the Evaluation of Patients With Lymphoma: Initial Observations

    PubMed Central

    Heacock, Laura; Weissbrot, Joseph; Raad, Roy; Campbell, Naomi; Friedman, Kent P.; Ponzo, Fabio; Chandarana, Hersh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to assess the role of recently introduced hybrid PET/MRI in the evaluation of lymphoma patients using PET/CT as a reference standard. SUBJECTS AND METHODS In this prospective study 28 consecutive lymphoma patients (18 men, 10 women; mean age, 53.6 years) undergoing clinically indicated PET/ CT were subsequently imaged with PET/MRI using residual FDG activity from the PET/ CT study. Blinded readers evaluated PET/CT (reference standard), PET/MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) studies separately; for each study, they assessed nodal and extranodal involvement. Each FDG-avid nodal station was marked and compared on DWI, PET/MRI, and PET/CT. Modified Ann Arbor staging was performed and compared between PET/MRI and PET/CT. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on PET/MRI for FDG-avid nodal lesions was compared with the SUVmax on PET/CT. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for FDG-avid nodal lesions was compared to SUVmax on PET/MRI. RESULTS Fifty-one FDG-avid nodal groups were identified on PET/CT in 13 patients. PET/MRI identified 51 of these nodal groups with a sensitivity of 100%. DWI identified 32 nodal groups for a sensitivity of 62.7%. PET/MRI staging and PET/CT staging were concordant in 96.4% of patients. For the one patient with discordant staging results, disease was correctly upstaged to stage IV on the basis of the PET/MRI finding of bone marrow involvement, which was missed on PET/CT. DWI staging was concordant with PET/CT staging in 64.3% of the patients. The increased staging accuracy of PET/MRI relative to DWI was significant (p = 0.004). SUVmax measured on PET/MRI and PET/CT showed excellent statistically significant correlation (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). There was a poor negative correlation between ADC and SUVmax (r = −0.036, p = 0.847). CONCLUSION PET/MRI can be used to assess disease burden in lymphoma with sensitivity similar to PET/CT and can be a viable alternative for lymphoma staging and

  19. MRI in assessing children with learning disability, focal findings, and reduced automaticity.

    PubMed

    Urion, David K; Huff, Hanalise V; Carullo, Maria Paulina

    2015-08-18

    In children with clinically diagnosed learning disabilities with focal findings on neurologic or neuropsychological evaluations, there is a hypothesized association between disorders in automaticity and focal structural abnormalities observed in brain MRIs. We undertook a retrospective analysis of cases referred to a tertiary-hospital-based learning disabilities program. Individuals were coded as having a focal deficit if either neurologic or neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated focal dysfunction. Those with abnormal MRI findings were categorized based on findings. Children with abnormalities from each of these categories were compared in terms of deficits in automaticity, as measured by the tasks of Rapid Automatized Naming, Rapid Alternating Stimulus Naming, or the timed motor performance battery from the Physical and Neurological Examination for Soft Signs. Data were compared in children with and without disorders of automaticity regarding type of brain structure abnormality. Of the 1,587 children evaluated, 127 had a focal deficit. Eighty-seven had a brain MRI (52 on 1.5-tesla machines and 35 on 3.0-tesla machines). Forty of these images were found to be abnormal. These children were compared with a clinic sample of 150 patients with learning disabilities and no focal findings on examination, who also had undergone MRI. Only 5 of the latter group had abnormalities on MRI. Reduced verbal automaticity was associated with cerebellar abnormalities, whereas reduced automaticity on motor or motor and verbal tasks was associated with white matter abnormalities. Reduced automaticity of retrieval and slow timed motor performance appear to be highly associated with MRI findings. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Methanol-induced toxic optic neuropathy with diffusion weighted MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Tanrivermis Sayit, Asli; Aslan, Kerim; Elmali, Muzaffer; Gungor, Inci

    2016-12-01

    We report a 52-year-old man with methanol intoxication who showed optic nerve damage as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He was admitted to the hospital with blurred vision after the consumption of alcohol (600-700 ml of cologne). He was treated with intravenous ethanol, NaHCO3 and hemodialysis. On admission, a brain and orbital MRI was performed. Bilateral mild contrast enhancement was detected on the contrast-enhanced images in the retrobulbar segment of the optic nerves (RBONs). Also, diffusion-weighted images showed restricted diffusion in the RBONs. Diagnosis was considered as methanol-induced optic neuropathy based on the MRI findings of the optic nerves.

  1. Low-Functioning Autism and Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Findings.

    PubMed

    Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara; Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Chiapparini, Luisa; Esposito, Silvia; Annunziata, Silvia; Riva, Daria

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroradiologic studies reported a high incidence of abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children. In this population, it is difficult to know which abnormality depends on autism itself and which is related to intellectual disability associated with autism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of neuroradiologic abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children compared to Intellectual Quotient and age-matched nonsyndromic children, using the same set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. MRI was rated as abnormal in 44% of autistic and 54% of children with intellectual disability. The main results were mega cisterna magna in autism and hypoplastic corpus callosum in intellectual disability. These abnormalities are morphologically visible signs of altered brain development. These findings, more frequent than expected, are not specific to the 2 conditions. Although MRI cannot be considered mandatory, it allows an in-depth clinical assessment in nonsyndromic intellectual-disabled and autistic children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. CT and MRI findings of cyclosporine-related encephalopathy and hypertensive encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akira; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Houjyou, Makoto

    2002-05-01

    We present the MRI and CT findings of one child with cyclosporine-related encephalopathy, and one child with hypertensive encephalopathy following cyclosporine-related encephalopathy. The imaging findings were shown well on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR images. Cyclosporine-related encephalopathy was distributed predominantly in the posterior white matter. Hypertensive encephalopathy showed similar changes of CT attenuation, but with wider distribution. These two disorders seem to have the same pathogenesis.

  3. Comparison between clinical, ultrasound, CT, MRI, and pathology findings in dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taeymans, Olivier; Penninck, Dominique G; Peters, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    This study compares clinical, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and pathology findings in 16 prospectively, and seven retrospectively recruited dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma. Of these, 17 were confirmed thyroid carcinoma, while six were initially misdiagnosed. These included four carotid body tumors, one para-esophageal abscess, and one undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thyroid carcinomas occurred in older dogs without evidence of sex predilection, and were more often unilateral. All were large, heterogeneous, moderately to strongly vascularized, and most commonly contained areas of dystrophic mineralization and/or fluid accumulations. On MRI, thyroid carcinomas appeared hyperintense compared to surrounding musculature in all imaging sequences used, while on CT they had a lower attenuation value than normal thyroid gland tissue. Histologically confirmed tumor capsule disruption with invasion of the surrounding structures was most commonly detected with MRI. Palpation was not an accurate predictor of locally invasive vs. well-encapsulated masses. Computed tomography had the highest specificity (100%) and MRI had the highest sensitivity (93%) in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma, while ultrasound had considerably lower results. We conclude that ultrasound is adequate for use as a screening tool for dogs with suspected thyroid carcinoma, but recommend either CT or MRI for preoperative diagnosis and staging.

  4. Reliability of MRI Findings of Peroneal Tendinopathy in Patients with Lateral Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Kim, Hyung Soo; Chung, Soo Tae; Park, Noh Hyuck; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jai Hyung; Kim, Joo Hak; Lee, Tae Woo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Oh, Se Man

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic lateral ankle instability also have peroneal tendinopathy often. However, preoperative MRIs of these patients are vague in many cases. Our study was performed to see the reliability of MRI findings of peroneal tendinopathy in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. Methods MRI images for 82 patients who had chronic lateral ankle instability, and had received surgical treatment between March 2006 and November 2009 were compared with impressions from operating rooms. The mean age of patients was 36.4 years (range, 15 to 64 years), 82 ankles were studied, and patients with rheumatoid diseases were excluded from the study. Results Of the 82 cases, 26 were true positives, 38 true negatives, 13 false positives and 5 false negatives. Of 39 cases of peroneal tendinopathy diagnosed from MRI, 14 had peroneal tendon partial tears, 15 tenosynovitis, 3 dislocations, 17 low-lying muscle bellies, and 6 peroneus quartus muscles. Of 31 cases of peroneal tendinopathy observed in surgery 11 had peroneal tendon partial tears, 4 tenosynovitis, 5 dislocations, 12 low-lying muscle belliess, and 1 peroneus quartus muscle. Sensitivity and specificity of peroneal tendinopathy were 83.9% and 74.5%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 66.7%. Negative predictive value was 88.4%. Accuracy rate was 78.0%. Conclusions MRI is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting peroneal tendinopathy in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. However, MRI is vague in many cases. Therefore, a thorough delicate physical examination and careful observation is needed. PMID:21119941

  5. Successive MRI Findings of Reversible Cerebral White Matter Lesions in a Patient with Cystathionine β-Synthase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Hideo; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Asano, Takahiko; Kawamoto, Norio; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Kimura, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Minako; Matsui, Eiko; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency, well known as classical homocystinuria, is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of homocysteine and sulfur metabolism. CBS converts homocysteine to cystathionine. The clinical features of untreated CBS deficiency include myopia, ectopia lentis, mental retardation, skeletal anomalies resembling Marfan syndrome, and thromboembolic events. Cerebral white matter lesions (CWMLs), identified in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are related to various clinical conditions including ischemia, inflammation, demyelination, infection, a tumor, and metabolic disorders such as phenylketonuria. The presence of CWMLs is, however, believed to be a very rare condition in CBS-deficient patients. Herein, we report reversible CWMLs associated with hypermethioninemia caused by poor protein restriction and betaine therapy in a 21-year-old male with pyridoxine-nonresponsive CBS deficiency. T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images showed diffuse high signal intensity in subcortical areas extending to the deep white matter. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) showed high signal intensity, while apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map demonstrated decreased ADC value in the lesions. The course of improvement after correct methionine restriction was successively followed by brain MRI. The CWMLs had regressed at 1 month after restriction, and disappeared after 5 months. ADC values were very low before proper methionine restriction, but normalized after 2 months. Use of betaine in the presence of elevated plasma methionine may increase the risk of reversible CWMLs in some CBS-deficient patients.

  6. Trigeminal nerve deficit in large and compressive acoustic neuromas and its correlation with MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Karkas, Alexandre; Lamblin, Eléa; Meyer, Mikael; Gay, Emmanuel; Ternier, Jessica; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Evaluate the prevalence of preoperative trigeminal nerve deficit in large/compressive acoustic neuromas and try to find a correlation between pre/postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and pre/postoperative trigeminal nerve deficit. Case series with chart review. University medical center. Retrospective study (1994-2009) including patients with stage 4 or 5 acoustic neuromas (Zini-Magnan classification). All patients underwent surgical resection. Pre- and postoperative trigeminal symptoms were sought. Imaging criteria were sought on pre- and 3-month postoperative MRI scans. Pearson χ(2) statistical test was used. Fifty-three patients (27 females, mean 51 years) were operated on. Preoperatively, 3 patients (5.7%) had trigeminal neuralgia, 1 (1.9%) trigeminal anesthesia, and 28 (52.8%) trigeminal hypoesthesia. Sixteen patients (30.2%) had no corneal reflex (ophthalmic branch); keratitis occurred in 1 patient (1.9%). Postoperatively, 2 patients (3.8%) had trigeminal neuralgia, 1 (1.9%) trigeminal anesthesia, and 24 (45.3%) trigeminal hypoesthesia. Twenty-six patients (49%) had no corneal reflex; keratitis occurred in 11 patients (20.7%). Preoperative trigeminal hypoesthesia was statistically correlated with impaction of the tumor on cerebellar peduncles on preoperative MRI. Postoperative trigeminal hypoesthesia was statistically correlated with nonvisibility of the trigeminal nerve on postoperative MRI. In large/compressive acoustic neuromas, trigeminal nerve deficit has to be sought to avoid corneal complications in particular. Trigeminal hypoesthesia occurs preoperatively in about half of the cases. It remains relatively stable after tumor removal, but there appears to be an increased rate of absent corneal reflex and keratitis postoperatively. We were able to correlate pre/postoperative trigeminal hypoesthesia with pre/postoperative MRI findings. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  7. Post-mortem forensic neuroimaging: correlation of MSCT and MRI findings with autopsy results.

    PubMed

    Yen, Kathrin; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Scheurer, Eva; Ozdoba, Christoph; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Anon, Javier; Frickey, Nathalie; Zwygart, Karin; Weis, Joachim; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-11-15

    Multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly used for forensic purposes. Based on broad experience in clinical neuroimaging, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were performed in 57 forensic cases with the goal to evaluate the radiological methods concerning their usability for forensic head and brain examination. An experienced clinical radiologist evaluated the imaging data. The results were compared to the autopsy findings that served as the gold standard with regard to common forensic neurotrauma findings such as skull fractures, soft tissue lesions of the scalp, various forms of intracranial hemorrhage or signs of increased brain pressure. The sensitivity of the imaging methods ranged from 100% (e.g., heat-induced alterations, intracranial gas) to zero (e.g., mediobasal impression marks as a sign of increased brain pressure, plaques jaunes). The agreement between MRI and CT was 69%. The radiological methods prevalently failed in the detection of lesions smaller than 3mm of size, whereas they were generally satisfactory concerning the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage. Due to its advanced 2D and 3D post-processing possibilities, CT in particular possessed certain advantages in comparison with autopsy with regard to forensic reconstruction. MRI showed forensically relevant findings not seen during autopsy in several cases. The partly limited sensitivity of imaging that was observed in this retrospective study was based on several factors: besides general technical limitations it became apparent that clinical radiologists require a sound basic forensic background in order to detect specific signs. Focused teaching sessions will be essential to improve the outcome in future examinations. On the other hand, the autopsy protocols should be further standardized to allow an exact comparison of imaging and autopsy data. In consideration of these facts, MRI and CT have the power to play an important role in future forensic

  8. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cornelia de Lange Syndrome: Correlation of Brain MRI Findings With Behavioral Assessment

    PubMed Central

    ROSHAN LAL, TAMANNA R.; KLIEWER, MARK A.; LOPES, THELMA; REBSAMEN, SUSAN L.; O’CONNOR, JULIA; GRADOS, MARCO A.; KIMBALL, AMY; CLEMENS, JULIA; KLINE, ANTONIE D.

    2017-01-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. PMID:27164360

  10. SU-E-P-33: Critical Role of T2-Weighted Imaging Combined with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of MRI in Diagnosis of Loco-Regional Recurrent Esophageal Cancer After Radical Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, G; Qiao, L; Liang, N; Xie, J; Zhang, J; Luo, H; Zhang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We perform this study to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of T2-weighted MRI (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in confirming local relapses of esophageal cancer in patients highly suspected of recurrence after eradicating surgery. Methods: Forty-two postoperative esophageal cancer patients with clinical suspicions of cancer recurrence underwent 3.0T MRI applying axial, coronal, sagittal T2WI and axial DWI sequences. Two experienced radiologists (R1 and R2) both used two methods (T2WI, T2WI+DWI) to observe the images, and graded the patients ranging from 1 to 5 to represent severity of the disease based on visual signal intensity (patients equal to or more than grade 3 was confirmed as recurrent disease) Results: 27/42patients were verified of recurrent disease by pathologic findings and/or imaging findings during follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of R1 applying T2WI+DWI are 96%, 87% and 93% versus 81%, 80% and 77% on T2WI, these figures by R2 were 96%, 93% and 95% versus 89%, 93% and 90%. The receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses suggest that both of the two readers can obtain better accuracy when adding DWI to T2WI compared with T2WI alone. Kappa test between R1 and R2 indicates excellent inter-observer agreement on T2WI+DWI. Conclusion: Standard T2WI in combination DWI can achieve better accuracy than T2WI alone in diagnosing local recurrence of esophageal cancer, and improve consistency between different readers.

  11. Pre-radiographic MRI findings are associated with onset of knee symptoms: the most study

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, M. K.; Lynch, J. A.; Tolstykh, I.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Aliabadi, P.; McCulloch, C.; Curtis, J.; Felson, D.; Lane, N. E.; Torner, J.; Nevitt, M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greater sensitivity to detect osteoarthritis (OA) damage than radiographs but it is uncertain which MRI findings in early OA are clinically important. We examined MRI abnormalities detected in knees without radiographic OA and their association with incident knee symptoms. Method Participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) without frequent knee symptoms (FKS) at baseline were eligible if they also lacked radiographic features of OA at baseline. At 15 months, knees that developed FKS were defined as cases while control knees were drawn from those that remained without FKS. Baseline MRIs were scored at each subregion for cartilage lesions (CARTs); osteophytes (OST); bone marrow lesions (BML) and cysts. We compared cases and controls using marginal logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), previous injury and clinic site. Results 36 case knees and 128 control knees were analyzed. MRI damage was common in both cases and controls. The presence of a severe CART (P = 0.03), BML (P = 0.02) or OST (P = 0.02) in the whole knee joint was more common in cases while subchondral cysts did not differ significantly between cases and controls (P > 0.1). Case status at 15 months was predicted by baseline damage at only two locations; a BML in the lateral patella (P = 0.047) and at the tibial subspinous subregions (P = 0.01). Conclusion In knees without significant symptoms or radiographic features of OA, MRI lesions of OA in only a few specific locations preceded onset of clinical symptoms and suggest that changes in bone play a role in the early development of knee pain. Confirmation of these findings in other prospective studies of knee OA is warranted. PMID:19919856

  12. Select and Cluster: A Method for Finding Functional Networks of Clustered Voxels in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    DonGiovanni, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Extracting functional connectivity patterns among cortical regions in fMRI datasets is a challenge stimulating the development of effective data-driven or model based techniques. Here, we present a novel data-driven method for the extraction of significantly connected functional ROIs directly from the preprocessed fMRI data without relying on a priori knowledge of the expected activations. This method finds spatially compact groups of voxels which show a homogeneous pattern of significant connectivity with other regions in the brain. The method, called Select and Cluster (S&C), consists of two steps: first, a dimensionality reduction step based on a blind multiresolution pairwise correlation by which the subset of all cortical voxels with significant mutual correlation is selected and the second step in which the selected voxels are grouped into spatially compact and functionally homogeneous ROIs by means of a Support Vector Clustering (SVC) algorithm. The S&C method is described in detail. Its performance assessed on simulated and experimental fMRI data is compared to other methods commonly used in functional connectivity analyses, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or clustering. S&C method simplifies the extraction of functional networks in fMRI by identifying automatically spatially compact groups of voxels (ROIs) involved in whole brain scale activation networks. PMID:27656202

  13. Correlation of MRI findings to histology of acetaminophen toxicity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aliza T; Ou, Xiawei; James, Laura P; Jambhekar, Kedar; Pandey, Tarun; McCullough, Sandra; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Borrelli, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is responsible for approximately half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States. The mouse model of APAP toxicity is widely used to examine mechanisms of APAP toxicity. Noninvasive approaches would allow for serial measurements in a single animal to study the effects of experimental interventions on the development and resolution of hepatocellular necrosis. The following study examined the time course of hepatic necrosis using small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following the administration of 200 mg/kg ip APAP given to B6C3F1 male mice. Mice treated with saline served as controls (CON). Other mice received treatment with the clinical antidote N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC). Mouse liver pathology was characterized using T1- and T2-weighted sequences at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h following APAP administration. Standard assays for APAP toxicity [serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) levels and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of liver sections] were examined relative to MRI findings. Overall, T2 sequences had a greater sensitivity for necrosis and hemorrhage than T1 (FLASH) images. Liver injury severity scoring of MR images demonstrated increased scores in the APAP mice at 4, 8 and 24 h compared to the CON mice. APAP+NAC mice had MRI scores similar to the CON mice. Semiquantitative analysis of hepatic hemorrhage strongly correlated with serum ALT. Small animal MRI can be used to monitor the evolution of APAP toxicity over time and to evaluate the response to therapy.

  14. CLIPPERS-like MRI findings in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R M; Machado, G; Souza, A S; Lin, K; Corrêa-Neto, Y

    2013-04-15

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) has been described as a clinically and radiologically distinct pontine-predominant encephalomyelitis with a favorable response to high dose corticosteroids and usually requiring chronic immunosuppresive therapy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals a characteristic pattern of punctate and curvilinear enhancement lesions in the pons extending variably to surrounding areas. We herein describe such imaging findings in a patient with a definite diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS).

  15. Does the probability of DWI arrest fall following participation in DWI and hybrid drug treatment court programs?

    PubMed

    Sloan, Frank A; Gifford, Elizabeth J; Eldred, Lindsey M; McCutchan, Sabrina A

    2016-12-01

    Using North Carolina administrative data, this study examined recidivism following participation in specialty hybrid drug and driving while intoxicated (DWI) court programs. Three court program participation levels were considered-being referred to, enrolling in, and completing a specialty court program. Measures of DWI recidivism were: arrest and total number of arrests for DWI, and being convicted of DWI during follow-up periods of two and, alternatively, four years. Propensity score matching was used to obtain comparable control groups. Using a four-year follow-up, persons convicted of a DWI who completed a specialty court program were associated with a greater reduction in DWI re-arrests and re-convictions than did matched individuals who were never referred to a specialty court program. DWI courts were more effective in reducing re-arrests than hybrid drug courts were. Although promising from the vantage point of participants, few persons convicted of a DWI were referred to either court type, thus limiting this strategy's potential effectiveness in reducing DWI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MRI and MRS findings in fucosidosis; a rare lysosomal storage disease.

    PubMed

    Ediz, Suna Sahin; Aralasmak, Ayse; Yilmaz, Temel Fatih; Toprak, Huseyin; Yesil, Gozde; Alkan, Alpay

    2016-04-01

    Fucosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the enzyme l-fucosidase in all tissues. We presented magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and MR spectroscopy [MRS] findings of a 4-year-old boy with genetically proven fucosidosis. He had a history and clinical findings of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, hypertonicity on lower extremities, gingival hypertrophy, bilateral ptosis, angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, and dysostosis multiplex. He had no organomegaly and urine glycosaminoglycan analysis were normal. MRI revealed abnormalities within the globus pallidus and periventricular and subcortical white matter. MRS showed a peak at the 3.8-3.9 ppm as a result of accumulating carbohydrate containing macromolecules and another peak at 1.2 which was doublet and inverted on TE 135, suggesting fructose peak. A final diagnosis of fucosidosis was proved by mutational analysis of FUCA1 gene which is responsible for the Fucosidosis phenotype. Two recent reports of MRS of two patients demonstrated that MRS is specific for fucosidosis. In this case, we aim to discuss fucosidosis with MRI and MRS findings accompanied by the literature.

  17. Dinosaur Tail Sign: A Useful Spinal MRI Finding Indicative of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Keita; Kanoto, Masafumi; Nakagawa, Motoo; Shimohira, Masashi; Tokumaru, Aya M; Kameyama, Masashi; Shimoji, Keigo; Morimoto, Satoru; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Nishio, Minoru; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the imaging characteristics and diagnostic utility of the "Dinosaur tail sign" in the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. The authors propose the "Dinosaur tail sign," defined as a combination of the dorsal epidural hyperintensities, fat tissue, spinal cord, and cauda equine on lumbosacral sagittal fat-suppressed T2-weighted image (FST2WI), as a sensitive indicator for diagnosing CSF leakage. Imaging characteristics of the "Dinosaur tail sign" was evaluated in seven spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) and 23 iatrogenic CSF leakage (ICSFL) patients. Additionally, the diagnostic index was compared between the "Dinosaur tail sign" and other previously reported useful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) findings. In contrast to other imaging findings including the epidural expansion, floating dural sac sign, and distension of the spinal epidural veins on MRI, and paraspinal fluid collections (PFC) on MRM, the "Dinosaur tail sign" was found equally in both SIH and ICSFL patients (6 SIH and 19 ICSFL; 83% of all patients with CSF leakage). The "Dinosaur tail sign" showed sufficient diagnostic utility (sensitivity 83%, specificity 94%, accuracy 89%) that was comparable to that of PFC. The "Dinosaur tail sign" is a useful imaging finding suggestive of CSF leakage. Evaluation of subtle interspinous arched hyperintensities on spinal MRI is mandatory for the diagnosis of SIH and ICSFL. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  18. [MRI findings of brain-stem tuberculoma in a case of tuberculous meningitis].

    PubMed

    Kubota, A; Takahashi, T; Suzuki, Y; Hasegawa, O

    1992-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman developed headache and slight fever. When she consulted a physician, she could not move either of her eyes to the right. Cranial CT scan revealed no significant findings. Lumbar puncture was performed and CSF examination showed the cell count of 10,304/mm3, glucose level of 10 mg/dl, and total protein value of 270 mg/dl. Her symptoms and laboratory findings suggested meningitis and she was admitted to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed bilateral dilated pupils with sluggish light reflex, right gaze palsy, and hypesthesia of the left side of her face. A diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis was established by a positive test for acid-fast bacillus in CSF, and anti-tuberculous therapy was started at once. One month after the onset of symptoms, her main complaints were double vision and cerebellar ataxia. Both CT and MRI revealed a right brain-stem lesion. Pre-contrast CT could not clearly visualize the lesion but with contrast medium a homogeneously-enhanced circular lesion was shown. MRI on T2WI demonstrated the right brain-stem lesion to have a central bright core with hypointense periphery, which in turn was surrounded by hyperintensity. The lesion appeared isointense with cerebral white matter and the "central bright core" area was demonstrated to be slightly hypointense on T1WI. On post-contrast T1WI (with Gd-DTPA), the lesion showed strong homogeneous enhancement. The CT and MRI findings indicated a brain-stem tuberculoma, which was regarded as the cause of the ocular movement paralysis and cerebellar ataxia. As the clinical symptoms gradually resolved with anti-tuberculous treatment, the MRI appearance of the lesion also improved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Correlation of MRI findings to histology of acetaminophen toxicity in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Aliza T.; Ou, Xiawei; James, Laura P.; Jambhekar, Kedar; Pandey, Tarun; McCullough, Sandra; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Borrelli, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is responsible for approximately half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States. The mouse model of APAP toxicity is widely used to examine mechanisms of APAP toxicity. Non-invasive approaches would allow for serial measurements in a single animal to study the effects of experimental interventions on the development and resolution of hepatocellular necrosis. The following study examined the time course of hepatic necrosis using small animal magnetic reasonance imaging (MRI) following the administration of 200 mg/kg ip APAP given to B6C3F1 male mice. Mice treated with saline served as controls (CON). Other mice received treatment with the clinical antidote N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC). Mouse liver pathology was characterized using T1 and T2 weighted sequences at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h following APAP administration. Standard assays for APAP toxicity (serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) levels and hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of liver sections) were examined relative to MRI findings. Overall, T2 sequences had a greater sensitivity for necrosis and hemorrhage than T1 (FLASH) images. Liver injury severity scoring of MRI images demonstrated increased scores in the APAP mice at 4, 8 and 24 h compared to the CON mice. APAP+NAC mice had MRI scores similar to the CON mice. Semi-quantitative analysis of hepatic hemorrhage strongly correlated with serum ALT. Small animal MRI can be used to monitor the evolution of APAP toxicity over time and to evaluate the response to therapy. PMID:22055850

  20. MRI Findings in 77 Children with Non-Syndromic Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boddaert, Nathalie; Zilbovicius, Mônica; Philipe, Anne; Robel, Laurence; Bourgeois, Marie; Barthélemy, Catherine; Seidenwurm, David; Meresse, Isabelle; Laurier, Laurence; Desguerre, Isabelle; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Brunelle, Francis; Munnich, Arnold; Samson, Yves; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Chabane, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of MR scanning in children with autism is still an open question and must be considered in light of the evolution of this technology. MRI was judged to be of insufficient value to be included in the standard clinical evaluation of autism according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology and Child Neurology Society in 2000 [1]. However, this statement was based on results obtained from small samples of patients and, more importantly, included mostly insufficient MRI sequences. Our main objective was to evaluate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in a large group of children with a non-syndromic autistic disorder (AD) using T1, T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences. Methodology MRI inspection of 77 children and adolescents with non-syndromic AD (mean age 7.4±3.6) was performed. All met the DSM-IV and ADI –R criteria for autism. Based on recommended clinical and biological screenings, we excluded patients with infectious, metabolic or genetic diseases, seizures or any other neurological symptoms. Identical MRI inspections of 77 children (mean age 7.0±4.2) without AD, developmental or neurological disorders were also performed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Signa GE (3-D T1-FSPGR, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). Two neuroradiologists independently inspected cortical and sub-cortical regions. MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or uninterpretable. Principal Findings MRIs were judged as uninterpretable in 10% (8/77) of the cases. In 48% of the children (33/69 patients), abnormalities were reported. Three predominant abnormalities were observed, including white matter signal abnormalities (19/69), major dilated Virchow–Robin spaces (12/69) and temporal lobe abnormalities (20/69). In all, 52% of the MRIs were interpreted as normal (36/69 patients). Conclusions An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in non-syndromic autism. These

  1. Day of Injury CT and Late MRI Findings: Cognitive Outcome in a Pediatric Sample with Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jantz, Paul B; Farrer, Thomas J.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or cmTBI is based on the presence of visibly identifiable brain pathology on the day-of-injury computed tomography (CT) scan. In a pediatric sample the relation of DOI CT to late MRI findings and neuropsychological outcome was examined. Methods MRI (> 12 months) was obtained in pediatric cmTBI patients and a sample of orthopedically injured (OI) children. Those children with positive imaging findings (MRI+) were quantitatively compared to those without (MRI-) or with the OI sample. Groups were also compared in neurocognitive outcome from WASI subtests and the WISC-IV Processing Speed Index (PSI), along with the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and a parent-rated behavioral functioning measure (ABAS-II). Results Despite the MRI+ group having significantly more DOI CT findings than the MRI-group, no quantitative differences were found. WASI Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning scores were significantly lower, but not PSI, TEA-Ch or ABAS-II scores. MRI+ and MRI-groups did not differ on these measures. Conclusions Heterogeneity in the occurrence of MRI-identified focal pathology was not associated with uniform changes in quantitative analyses of brain structure in cmTBI. Increased number of DOI CT abnormalities was associated with lowered neuropsychological performance. PMID:26186038

  2. Stakeholder Opinions And Ethical Perspectives Support Complete Disclosure Of Incidental Findings In MRI Research

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John P.; Cole, Caitlin; Gluck, John P; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Petree, Linda; Helitzer, Deborah; Schrader, Ronald; Holdsworth, Mark

    2015-01-01

    How far does a researcher's responsibility extend when an incidental finding is identified? Balancing pertinent ethical principles such as beneficence, respect for persons, and duty to rescue is not always straightforward, particularly in neuroimaging research where empirical data that might help guide decision-making is lacking. We conducted a systematic survey of perceptions and preferences of 396 investigators, research participants and IRB members at our institution. Using the partial entrustment model as described by Richardson, we argue that our data supports universal reading by a neuroradiologist of all research MRI scans for incidental findings and providing full disclosure to all participants. PMID:26877623

  3. Desmoplastic Fibroma of Bone in a Toe: Radiographic and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Ji Yeon; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Choo, Hye Jung; Lee, Sun Joo; Lee, In Sook; Suh, Kyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare benign primary bone tumor that is histologically similar to the soft tissue desmoid tumor. It most often involves the mandible, large long bone or iliac bone. Desmoplastic fibroma in a toe has been extremely rarely reported. Authors report a rare case of desmoplastic fibroma of bone occurring in the distal phalanx of a foot, with descriptions of the radiographic and MRI findings, correlation of the radiologic and pathologic findings, and discussion on the differential diagnosis of the tumor. PMID:24265574

  4. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.

    The course guide has been designed as the basic planning document for the program director and instructional personnel in the organization and administration of a Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It contains an explanation of the developmental effort of the DWI Law Enforcement Training Project and detailed…

  5. Neuronal activity significantly reduces water displacement: DWI of a vital rat spinal cord with no hemodynamic effect.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Nitzan; Nevo, Uri

    2013-08-01

    Changes in the diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) signal were observed to be correlated with neuronal activity during chemically induced brain activity, epileptic seizures, or visual stimulation. These changes suggest a possible reduction in water displacement that accompanies neuronal activity, but were possibly affected by other physiological mechanisms such as blood oxygenation level and blood flow. We developed an imaging experiment of an excised and vital newborn rat spinal cord to examine the effect of neuronal function on the displacement of water molecules as measured by DWI signal. This approach provides a DWI experiment of a vital mammalian CNS tissue in the absence of some of the systemic sources of noise. We detected a significant and reproducible drop with an average value of 19.5 ± 1.6% (mean ± SE) upon activation. The drop repeated itself in three orthogonal directions. ADC values corresponded to an oblate anisotropy. This result was validated by high resolution DWI of a fixed tissue, imaged with an ultra-high field MRI. The results support our working hypothesis that water displacement is affected by neuronal activation. These results further imply that water displacement might serve as a potential marker for brain function, and that, although commonly viewed as wholly electrochemical, neuronal activity includes a significant mechanical dimension that affects water displacement.

  6. Electroencephalographic coherence analysis in multiple sclerosis: correlation with clinical, neuropsychological, and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Leocani, L.; Locatelli, T.; Martinelli, V.; Rovaris, M.; Falautano, M.; Filippi, M.; Magnani, G.; Comi, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To explore functional corticocortical connections in multiple sclerosis by means of coherence of the EEG, and to evaluate their correlations with the degree of cognitive impairment and with brain lesion load assessed by MRI.
METHODS—EEG coherence was studied from 28 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis. Ten minutes of resting EEG were recorded with 20 scalp electrodes, with binaural reference. FFT power and coherence were calculated in artifact free epochs of 1 second and compared with values from 22 control subjects of comparable age and sex distribution. Patients also underwent MRI (n=27) and neuropsychological examination (n=21).
RESULTS—Compared with controls, patients with multiple sclerosis showed increased θ power in the frontotemporal-central regions (p<0.005). θ Band coherence was decreased between homologous areas (p<0.02). α Band coherence was decreased both in the local and long distance connections (p<0.0005). These findings were most striking both in patients with high MRI subcortical lesion load and in patients with cognitive involvement. A significant correlation was found between interhemispheric θ (p=0.02) and α (p=0.017) and anteroposterior α (p=0.013) coherence and subcortical MRI lesion load, but not with exclusively periventricular lesion load.
CONCLUSIONS—These findings support the hypothesis that cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is mostly dependent on involvement of corticocortical connections related to demyelination and/or axonal loss within the white matter immediately underlying the cortex.

 PMID:10896692

  7. Correlation Between Clinical Findings of Temporomandibular Disorders and MRI Characteristics of Disc Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman; Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Sheikh, Soheyl; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sonam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is a common condition that is best evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The first step in MR imaging of the TMJ is to evaluate the articular disk, or meniscus, in terms of its morphologic features and its location relative to the condyle in both closed- and open-mouth positions. Disk location is of prime importance because the presence of a displaced disk is a critical sign of TMJ dysfunction. However, disk displacement is also frequently seen in asymptomatic volunteers. It is important for the maxillofacial radiologist to detect early MR imaging signs of dysfunction, thereby avoiding the evolution of this condition to its advanced and irreversible phase which is characterized by osteoarthritic changes such as condylar flattening or osteophytes. Further the MR imaging techniques will allow a better understanding of the sources of TMJ pain and of any discrepancy between imaging findings and patient symptoms. Henceforth, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether MRI findings of various degrees of disk displacement could be correlated with the presence or absence of clinical signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Materials and Methods : In this clinical study, 44 patients (88 TMJs) were examined clinically and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients with clinical signs and symptoms of TMDs either unilaterally or bilaterally and considered as study group. Group 2 consisted of 22 patients with no signs and symptoms of TMDs and considered as control group. MRI was done for both the TMJs of each patient. Displacement of the posterior band of articular disc in relation to the condyle was quantified as anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDWR), posterior disc displacement (PDD). Results : Disk displacement was found in 18 (81.8%) patients of 22 symptomatic subjects in Group 1

  8. Preoperative MRI Findings Predict Two-Year Postoperative Clinical Outcome in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuittinen, Pekka; Sipola, Petri; Leinonen, Ville; Saari, Tapani; Sinikallio, Sanna; Savolainen, Sakari; Kröger, Heikki; Turunen, Veli; Airaksinen, Olavi; Aalto, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the predictive value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for the two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods 84 patients (mean age 63±11 years, male 43%) with symptoms severe enough to indicate LSS surgery were included in this prospective observational single-center study. Preoperative MRI of the lumbar spine was performed with a 1.5-T unit. The imaging protocol conformed to the requirements of the American College of Radiology for the performance of MRI of the adult spine. Visual and quantitative assessment of MRI was performed by one experienced neuroradiologist. At the two-year postoperative follow-up, functional ability was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI 0–100%) and treadmill test (0–1000 m), pain symptoms with the overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS 0–100 mm), and specific low back pain (LBP) and specific leg pain (LP) separately with a numeric rating scale from 0–10 (NRS-11). Satisfaction with the surgical outcome was also assessed. Results Preoperative severe central stenosis predicted postoperatively lower LP, LBP, and VAS when compared in patients with moderate central stenosis (p<0.05). Moreover, severe stenosis predicted higher postoperative satisfaction (p = 0.029). Preoperative scoliosis predicted an impaired outcome in the ODI (p = 0.031) and lowered the walking distance in the treadmill test (p = 0.001). The preoperative finding of only one stenotic level in visual assessment predicted less postoperative LBP when compared with patients having 2 or more stenotic levels (p = 0.026). No significant differences were detected between quantitative measurements and the patient outcome. Conclusions Routine preoperative lumbar spine MRI can predict the patient outcome in a two-year follow up in patients with LSS surgery. Severe central stenosis and one-level central stenosis are predictors of good outcome. Preoperative finding of scoliosis

  9. Driving While Impaired (DWI) Intervention Service Provider Orientations: The Scales of the DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Scott; Wanberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic educator who provides services to driving while impaired (DWI) offenders is a unique professional hybrid, combining education and therapeutic service delivery. In an effort to understand and address this service provider, a 69-item DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI) was constructed. Using principal components and common…

  10. Driving While Impaired (DWI) Intervention Service Provider Orientations: The Scales of the DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Scott; Wanberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic educator who provides services to driving while impaired (DWI) offenders is a unique professional hybrid, combining education and therapeutic service delivery. In an effort to understand and address this service provider, a 69-item DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI) was constructed. Using principal components and common…

  11. Extraspinal Incidental Findings on Routine MRI of Lumbar Spine: Prevalence and Reporting Rates in 1278 Patients.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Çaglı, Bekir; Tekataş, Aslan; Kırıcı, Mehmet Yadigar; Ünlü, Ercüment; Gençhellaç, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  12. Clinical forensic radiology in strangulation victims: forensic expertise based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

    PubMed

    Yen, Kathrin; Vock, Peter; Christe, Andreas; Scheurer, Eva; Plattner, Thomas; Schön, Corinna; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Beutler, Verena; Thali, Michael J; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-03-01

    Based on only one objective and several subjective signs, the forensic classification of strangulation incidents concerning their life-threatening quality can be problematic. Reflecting that it is almost impossible to detect internal injuries of the neck with the standard forensic external examination, we examined 14 persons who have survived manual and ligature strangulation or forearm choke holds using MRI technique (1.5-T scanner). Two clinical radiologists evaluated the neck findings independently. The danger to life was evaluated based on the "classical" external findings alone and in addition to the radiological data. We observed hemorrhaging in the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the neck in ten cases. Other frequent findings were hemorrhages of the neck and larynx muscles, the lymph nodes, the pharynx, and larynx soft tissues. Based on the classical forensic strangulation findings with MRI, eight of the cases were declared as life-endangering incidents, four of them without the presence of petechial hemorrhage but with further signs of impaired brain function due to hypoxia. The accuracy of future forensic classification of the danger to life will probably be increased when it is based not only on one objective and several subjective signs but also on the evidence of inner neck injuries. However, further prospective studies including larger cohorts are necessary to clarify the value of the inner neck injuries in the forensic classification of surviving strangulation victims.

  13. Diminished liver microperfusion in Fontan patients: A biexponential DWI study.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Wolff, Djoeke; van Melle, Joost P; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Willems, Tineke P; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hillege, Hans; van den Berg, Aad P; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M F; Sijens, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that hepatic apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) are decreasing in patients with a Fontan circulation. It remains however unclear whether this is a true decrease of molecular diffusion, or rather reflects decreased microperfusion due to decreased portal blood flow. The purpose of this study was therefore to differentiate diffusion and microperfusion using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) modeled diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for different liver segments in patients with a Fontan circulation, compare to a control group, and relate with liver function, chronic hepatic congestion and hepatic disease. For that purpose, livers of 59 consecutively included patients with Fontan circulation (29 men; mean-age, 19.1 years) were examined (Oct 2012─Dec 2013) with 1.5T MRI and DWI (b = 0,50,100,250,500,750,1500,1750 s/mm2). IVIM (Dslow, Dfast, ffast) and ADC were calculated for eight liver segments, compared to a control group (19 volunteers; 10 men; mean-age, 32.9 years), and correlated to follow-up duration, clinical variables, and laboratory measurements associated with liver function. The results demonstrated that microperfusion was reduced (p<0.001) in Fontan livers compared to controls with ─38.1% for Dfast and ─32.6% for ffast. Molecular diffusion (Dslow) was similar between patients and controls, while ADC was significantly lower (─14.3%) in patients (p<0.001). ADC decreased significantly with follow-up duration after Fontan operation (r = ─0.657). Dslow showed significant inverse correlations (r = ─0.591) with follow-up duration whereas Dfast and ffast did not. From these results it was concluded that the decreasing ADC values in Fontan livers compared with controls reflect decreases in hepatic microperfusion rather than any change in molecular diffusion. However, with the time elapsed since the Fontan operation molecular diffusion and ADC decreased while microperfusion remained stable. This indicates that after Fontan

  14. Diminished liver microperfusion in Fontan patients: A biexponential DWI study

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Djoeke; van Melle, Joost P.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hillege, Hans; van den Berg, Aad P.; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Sijens, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that hepatic apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) are decreasing in patients with a Fontan circulation. It remains however unclear whether this is a true decrease of molecular diffusion, or rather reflects decreased microperfusion due to decreased portal blood flow. The purpose of this study was therefore to differentiate diffusion and microperfusion using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) modeled diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for different liver segments in patients with a Fontan circulation, compare to a control group, and relate with liver function, chronic hepatic congestion and hepatic disease. For that purpose, livers of 59 consecutively included patients with Fontan circulation (29 men; mean-age, 19.1 years) were examined (Oct 2012─Dec 2013) with 1.5T MRI and DWI (b = 0,50,100,250,500,750,1500,1750 s/mm2). IVIM (Dslow, Dfast, ffast) and ADC were calculated for eight liver segments, compared to a control group (19 volunteers; 10 men; mean-age, 32.9 years), and correlated to follow-up duration, clinical variables, and laboratory measurements associated with liver function. The results demonstrated that microperfusion was reduced (p<0.001) in Fontan livers compared to controls with ─38.1% for Dfast and ─32.6% for ffast. Molecular diffusion (Dslow) was similar between patients and controls, while ADC was significantly lower (─14.3%) in patients (p<0.001). ADC decreased significantly with follow-up duration after Fontan operation (r = ─0.657). Dslow showed significant inverse correlations (r = ─0.591) with follow-up duration whereas Dfast and ffast did not. From these results it was concluded that the decreasing ADC values in Fontan livers compared with controls reflect decreases in hepatic microperfusion rather than any change in molecular diffusion. However, with the time elapsed since the Fontan operation molecular diffusion and ADC decreased while microperfusion remained stable. This indicates that after Fontan

  15. [MRI and SPECT findings in a case of metronidazole-induced reversible acute cerebellar ataxia].

    PubMed

    Takase, Kei-ichiro; Santa, Yo; Ohta, Sumio; Yoshimura, Takeo

    2005-05-01

    A 69-year-old man was referred to our department because of acute onset nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, dysarthria and gait disturbance. He had a 50-day-history of amebic dysentery and had been treated with 1,500 mg metronidazole per day. Neurological examination revealed dysphagia, ataxic speech, ataxia of the left extremities and the trunk, and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes in all extremities. Sensory impairment of all modalities was apparent in a glove and stocking pattern, with mild paresthesia. Brain MRI showed T2 high signal lesions in the bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei, more markedly on the left. On brain SPECT, obvious low blood perfusion was observed in the left cerebellar hemisphere. These findings well explained the ataxia of the left limbs. One month after discontinuing metronidazole, the cerebellar ataxia, dysphagia and MRI abnormalities completely cleared. Therefore, central nervous system damage induced by metronidazole is considered reversible. In spite of the presence of the MRI lesion in the right dentate nucleus, the patient had no ataxia of the right extremities and there was no hypoperfusion in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Thus, metronidazole does not appear to have a direct neurotoxic effect on the central nervous system. On the other hand, nerve conduction studies showed axonal polyneuropathy, which was not improved one month after cessation of the drug; thus metronidazole seems to exert more damage on peripheral nerves.

  16. MRI findings in patients with severe trismus following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Kunwar S S; King, Ann D; Paunipagar, Bhawan K; Abrigo, Jill; Vlantis, Alexander C; Leung, Sing F; Ahuja, Anil T

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to document MRI findings in masticator structures in patients with trismus developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MRI neck examinations were reviewed in 35 patients with marked trismus, defined as an interincisal gap of 25 mm or less, post-radiotherapy for NPC. Patients with trismus before treatment, infiltration of masticator structures at the time of trismus, or previous surgery involving the masticator structures were excluded. Sixteen patients had no significant abnormality in their masticator structures (46%). Nineteen patients (54%) had abnormalities comprising radiotherapy-induced masticator muscle fibrosis (n = 19), denervation atrophy of the masticator muscles secondary to mandibular nerve damage (n = 1), mandibular ramus signal abnormalities (n = 5), mandibular condyle sclerosis with or without capsular thickening (n = 5), perimasticator fibrosis extending into the masticator space (n = 3) and inflammation secondary to severe sinusitis extending into the masticator space (n = 2). Nine patients (26%) had more than one type of abnormality. Twenty-two patients (63%) had concomitant skull base osteoradionecrosis which extended into the pterygoid bases in 16 patients (45%). The presence of several MRI abnormalities in the masticator structures of patients with trismus after radiotherapy suggests that trismus is multifactorial. This study advances the understanding of mechanisms behind this debilitating side effect of radiotherapy.

  17. Can MRI Findings Help to Predict Neurological Recovery in Paraplegics With Thoracolumbar Fracture?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonchul; Koh, Seong-Eun; Jung, Heeyoune; Lee, Hye Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the prognosis of neurological recovery in paraplegics with thoracolumbar fracture using association analysis with clinical outcomes and electrodiagnostic features. Methods This retrospective study involved 30 patients treated for paraplegia following thoracolumbar fracture. On axial and sagittal T2-weighted MRI scans, nerve root sedimentation sign, root aggregation sign, and signal intensity changes in the conus medullaris were independently assessed by two raters. A positive sedimentation sign was defined as the absence of nerve root sedimentation. The root aggregation sign was defined as the presence of root aggregation in at least one axial MRI scan. Clinical outcomes including the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale, ambulatory capacity, and electrodiagnostic features were used for association analysis. Results Inter-rater reliability of the nerve root sedimentation sign and the root aggregation sign were κ=0.67 (p=0.001) and κ=0.78 (p<0.001), respectively. A positive sedimentation sign was significantly associated with recovery of ambulatory capacity after a rehabilitation program (χ2=4.854, p=0.028). The presence of the root aggregation sign was associated with reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude of common peroneal and tibial nerves in nerve conduction studies (χ2=5.026, p=0.025). Conclusion A positive sedimentation sign was significantly associated with recovery of ambulatory capacity and not indicative of persistent paralysis. The root aggregation sign suggested the existence of significant cauda equina injuries. PMID:26798606

  18. Armor-piercing bullet: 3-T MRI findings and identification by a ferromagnetic detection system.

    PubMed

    Karacozoff, Alexandra M; Pekmezci, Murat; Shellock, Frank G

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues at 3 T for an armor-piercing bullet and to determine if this item could be identified using a ferromagnetic detection system. An armor-piercing bullet (.30 caliber, 7.62 × 39, copper-jacketed round, steel core; Norinco) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was assessed with the bullet in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive radio frequency body coil at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9 W/kg for 15 minutes. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. In addition, a special ferromagnetic detection system (Ferroguard Screener; Metrasens, Lisle, Illinois) was used in an attempt to identify this armor-piercing bullet. The findings indicated that the armor-piercing bullet showed substantial magnetic field interactions. Heating was not excessive. Artifacts were large and may create diagnostic problems if the area of interest is close to this bullet. The ferromagnetic detection system yielded a positive result. We concluded that this armor-piercing bullet is MR unsafe. Importantly, this ballistic item was identified using the particular ferromagnetic detection system utilized in this investigation, which has important implications for MRI screening and patient safety. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage in cryptococcal meningitis: MRI findings and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Yoshiharu; Kudo, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Ryoo; Johkura, Ken

    2013-12-01

    A pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage (pseudo-SAH) is a brain computed tomography (CT) finding that is seen as high-density areas along the basal cisterns, the sylvian vallecula/fissure, the tentorium cerebella, or the cortical sulci, although no SAH is found upon lumbar puncture or at autopsy. There is one report of cryptococcal meningitis presenting as pseudo-SAH, but the explanatory pathology is unknown. A 68-year-old woman with headache, fever, decreased hearing, and decreased vision was admitted to our hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid India ink staining was positive, and culture yielded Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcus meningitis was diagnosed. Head CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormality upon admission, but 1 month later, head CT showed iso- to high-density areas within the sulci, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI showed high signal intensity within the convexity sulci resembling an SAH. These areas were enhanced by gadolinium on T1-weighted images. Lumber puncture produced no evidence of bleeding. Biopsy of the left frontal lobe sulci was performed, and histopathological study revealed inflammation and granulation with capsules of C. neoformans. The inflammation and granulation at the convexity sulci induced by the C. neoformans infection explained the pseudo-SAH in this case. Physicians should be aware that cryptococcal meningitis-induced inflammation and granulation at the sulci can present as pseudo-SAH on CT and MRI.

  20. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls.

    PubMed

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund; Boesen, Mikael; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2015-05-01

    Soccer players are commonly affected by long-standing adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), but the clinical significance of MRI findings in these athletes is largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to evaluate whether MRI findings are associated with long-standing ARGP in soccer players, (2) to assess MRI findings in asymptomatic soccer players and non-soccer playing controls. This cross-sectional study included 28 male soccer players with long-standing ARGP, 17 male asymptomatic soccer players and 20 male asymptomatic non-soccer playing athletes of matching age and athletic exposure. Participants underwent identical standardised and reliable clinical examination, and MRI scans (3 T) of the pelvis performed by a blinded observer. Images were consensus rated by three blinded radiologists according to a standardised MRI evaluation protocol. The associations between clinical adductor-related findings and pathological MRI findings were investigated with χ(2) statistics and OR. Central disc protrusion (p=0.027) and higher grades of pubic bone marrow oedema (BMO; p=0.027) were significantly more present in symptomatic players than asymptomatic players. However, up to 71% of asymptomatic soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc protrusion and higher grades of pubic BMO. Moreover, positive MRI findings were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with non-soccer players irrespective of symptoms, suggesting that these MRI changes may be associated with soccer play itself rather than clinical symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Multiparametric MRI in differentiating pulmonary artery sarcoma and pulmonary thromboembolism: a preliminary experience

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Luo, Chunhai; Wang, Ying; Guo, Xiaojuan; Ma, Zhanhong; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhang, Tianjing

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to define multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings to differentiate between pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). METHODS Eleven patients with suspected PTE were prospectively included to undergo pulmonary MRI before surgery or biopsy. MRI protocol included an unenhanced sequence, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, b=800 s/mm2) and a dynamic contrast-enhanced sequence. Morphologic characteristics including distribution, filling defect, and intensity were observed on T1-, T2-, and fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated. RESULTS Six patients were pathologically diagnosed as PAS and the other five as chronic PTE. There were no significant differences in age, gender, presenting symptoms, D-dimer, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide between the two groups (P > 0.05). Among MRI findings that were tested for their ability to diagnose PAS, area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher than 0.5 for main pulmonary artery involvement (AUC, 0.83±0.13; P = 0.011), hyperintensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (AUC, 0.82±0.14; P = 0.025), hyperintensity on DWI (AUC, 0.88±0.12; P = 0.002), contrast enhancement (AUC, 0.92±0.10; P < 0.001) and pleural effusion (AUC, 0.82±0.14; P = 0.025). Moreover, grape-like appearance in distal pulmonary artery and cardiac invasion had 100% specificity for diagnosis of PAS. However, ADC value of PAS was not significantly different than that of chronic PTE (U, 12.00; P = 0.584). CONCLUSION Hyperintense filling defect in main pulmonary artery on fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and DWI and contrast enhancement may help to discriminate PAS from PTE. PMID:27919861

  2. Multiparametric MRI in differentiating pulmonary artery sarcoma and pulmonary thromboembolism: a preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Luo, Chunhai; Wang, Ying; Guo, Xiaojuan; Ma, Zhanhong; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhang, Tianjing

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to define multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings to differentiate between pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Eleven patients with suspected PTE were prospectively included to undergo pulmonary MRI before surgery or biopsy. MRI protocol included an unenhanced sequence, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, b=800 s/mm2) and a dynamic contrast-enhanced sequence. Morphologic characteristics including distribution, filling defect, and intensity were observed on T1-, T2-, and fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated. Six patients were pathologically diagnosed as PAS and the other five as chronic PTE. There were no significant differences in age, gender, presenting symptoms, D-dimer, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide between the two groups (P > 0.05). Among MRI findings that were tested for their ability to diagnose PAS, area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher than 0.5 for main pulmonary artery involvement (AUC, 0.83±0.13; P = 0.011), hyperintensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (AUC, 0.82±0.14; P = 0.025), hyperintensity on DWI (AUC, 0.88±0.12; P = 0.002), contrast enhancement (AUC, 0.92±0.10; P < 0.001) and pleural effusion (AUC, 0.82±0.14; P = 0.025). Moreover, grape-like appearance in distal pulmonary artery and cardiac invasion had 100% specificity for diagnosis of PAS. However, ADC value of PAS was not significantly different than that of chronic PTE (U, 12.00; P = 0.584). Hyperintense filling defect in main pulmonary artery on fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and DWI and contrast enhancement may help to discriminate PAS from PTE.

  3. Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Eijun Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji

    2006-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

  4. [MRI findings and effectiveness of cyproheptadine in two patients with ophthalmoplegic migraine].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Nobuyoshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Mochizuki, Mika; Nara, Takahiro

    2002-11-01

    We reported the MRI findings and clinical course of two patients with ophthalmoplegic migraine. Both patients presented with unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy. Contrast enhanced MR imaging revealed unilateral enhancement and thickening of the oculomotor nerve in one patient. Prednisolone was effective in both patients, but only could transiently. On the other hand, cyproheptadine hydrochloride could completely prevent recurrent attacks of ophthalmoplegic migraine. Thus, MR imaging with of contrast enhancement is useful in the diagnosis of ophthalmoplegic migraine. Cyproheptadine hydrochloride is better than prednisolone to prevention recurrent attacks and to avoid adverse effects.

  5. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of temporal and occipital lobe dysplasia in a twin with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Pugash, D; Lehman, A M; Langlois, S

    2014-09-01

    Thanatophoric dysplasia, hypochondroplasia and achondroplasia are all caused by FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) mutations. Neuropathological findings of temporal lobe dysplasia are found in thanatophoric dysplasia, and temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities have been described recently in brain imaging studies of children with hypochondroplasia. We describe twins discordant for achondroplasia, in one of whom the prenatal diagnosis was based on ultrasound and fetal MRI documentation of temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities characteristic of hypochondroplasia, in addition to the finding of short long bones. Despite the intracranial findings suggestive of hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia was confirmed following postnatal clinical and genetic testing. These intracranial abnormalities have not been previously described in a fetus with achondroplasia.

  6. Differentiation of malignant and benign breast lesions: Added value of the qualitative analysis of breast lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using readout-segmented echo-planar imaging at 3.0 T

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hun

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the added value of qualitative analysis as an adjunct to quantitative analysis for the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions in patients with breast cancer using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI). Methods A total of 99 patients with 144 lesions were reviewed from our prospectively collected database. DWI data were obtained using rs-EPI acquired at 3.0 T. The diagnostic performances of DWI in the qualitative, quantitative, and combination analyses were compared with that of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Additionally, the effect of lesion size on the diagnostic performance of the DWI combination analysis was evaluated. Results The strongest indicators of malignancy on DWI were a heterogeneous pattern (P = 0.005) and an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value <1.0 × 10–3 mm2/sec (P = 0.002). The area under the curve (AUC) values for the qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and combination analysis on DWI were 0.732 (95% CI, 0.651–0.803), 0.780 (95% CI, 0.703–0.846), and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.754–0.885), respectively (P<0.0001). The AUC for the combination analysis on DWI was superior to that for DCE-MRI alone (0.651, P = 0.003) but inferior to that for DCE-MRI plus the ADC value (0.883, P = 0.03). For the DWI combination analysis, the sensitivity was significantly lower in the size ≤1 cm group than in the size >1 cm group (80% vs. 95.6%, P = 0.034). Conclusions Qualitative analysis of tumor morphology was diagnostically applicable on DWI using rs-EPI. This qualitative analysis adds value to quantitative analyses for lesion characterization in patients with breast cancer. PMID:28358833

  7. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers: findings on MRI.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Jan Louis; Peersman, Benjamin; Peersman, Geert; Roelant, Ella; Van Dyck, Pieter; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Roeykens, Johan

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal intensity (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained before and after exercise were compared (D-SNR). Magnetic resonance imaging after exercise showed an increase in SI and SNR in the muscles on T2-WI. The SI increase was obvious in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) in all CECS patients. In addition, a minor SI and SNR increase in the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) was noted. In the non-symptomatic group of motocross racers, there was only a minor increase in SI and the SNR, which was similar in the FDP and ECRL muscles. In the untrained individuals a remarkable increase in the SI and SNR of the FDS/FDP-ECRL was noted. This increased SI and SNR was not present in the majority of non-symptomatic racers. Post-exertional MRI produces significant findings in CECS of the forearm. The motocross racers without post-exertional oedema in the FDP/FDS had no CECS.

  8. Contrast-associated transient cortical blindness: three cases with MRI and electrophysiology findings.

    PubMed

    Baguma, Marius; Younan, Nadia; London, Frédéric; Ossemann, Michel; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but striking complication following contrast agent injection. TCB might be secondary to a direct toxicity of the contrast agent, leading to an osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), with a preferential involvement of the posterior circulation and occipital cortex. We report a series of three patients with contrast medium-associated TCB (intra-arterial injection of non-ionic contrast agent during diagnostic cerebral angiography for two of them and coronary angioplasty for the other one). In two patients, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable; in the other patient, typical MRI findings were observed, with FLAIR hyperintensities in the right occipital cortex and decreased apparent diffusions coefficient (ADC). Interestingly, this patient also presented posterior rhythmic epileptiform activities on electroencephalogram during the first 36 h. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) showed normal retinal potential, but a massive destructuration of the later potentials of the cortical origin. To our knowledge, this is the first time that VEPs acquired during TCB are reported. We discuss these findings with respect to the pathophysiology of TCB.

  9. Rotator cuff tear imaging in patients over 70 years: specific MRI findings?

    PubMed

    Kany, J; Flurin, P-H; Richardi, G; Hardy, P

    2013-12-01

    During the symposium held by the French Arthroscopy Society on rotator cuff tears in patients over 70 years of age, the absence of studies into potential specific pathological features in this age group was pointed out. Here, our main objective was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in this patient population. Tendons and muscles are smaller, lamellar dissection more prominent, and dystrophic changes more marked in patients over 70 years of age. We retrospectively studied 50 patients with isolated supraspinatus tears, including 25 younger than 50 and 25 older than 70 years of age. Tear size and retraction were evaluated according to Patte; tendon thickness, lamellar dissection, and fatty infiltration according to Goutallier; muscle size according to Thomazeau; and the tangent sign according to Zanetti. In contradiction to our study hypothesis, lateral tendon thickness was similar in the two age groups. Medial thickness of the tendon-muscle junction, however, was greater in the younger group. Lamellar dissection was more marked and fatty infiltration more severe in the older group. As expected, marked muscle wasting and a positive tangent sign were noted in over two-thirds of patients in the older group. This preliminary study in a small number of patients identified specific MRI features of supraspinatus tears in patients older than 70 years compared to younger patients. A larger study would be useful to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Partial achilles tendon rupture presenting with giant hematoma; MRI findings of 4 year follow up.

    PubMed

    Sarsilmaz, Aysegul; Varer, Makbule; Coskun, Gulten; Apaydın, Melda; Oyar, Orhan

    2011-12-01

    In the young population, spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon is very rare. The big hematoma is also rare finding of the Achilles tendon partial rupture. It is usually seen with complete rupture. We presented imaging findings of 4 years follow up of the spontaneous partial rupture of Achilles tendon presenting with giant expanding hematoma and mimicking complete rupture radiologically. We discussed the alterations of tendon signal intensity and result of conservative therapy after partial rupture with big hematoma in the long term. A 29 year-old man, applied with pain and swelling in the retrocalcaneal region of left ankle. He did not have chronic metabolic disease. He was not active in physical activities. X-ray radiograms were normal. At magnetic resonance images (MRI), there was an intratendinous big hematoma, subcutanous fat planes were edematous around tendon. The diagnosis was partial rupture and giant hematoma. Hematoma was drained. The conservative treatment was applied and his complaints disappeared. After treatment, approximately 4 years later, control MRI showed thickened and hypointense tendon in all images. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MR assessment of lumbar disk herniation treated with oxygen-ozone diskolysis: the role of DWI and related ADC versus intervertebral disk volumetric analysis for detecting treatment response.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, A; Perri, M; Conchiglia, A; Fasano, F; Di Egidio, G; Masciocchi, C; Gallucci, M

    2013-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the diagnostic criteria of morphologic MRI study (MMS) and the accuracy of DWI and related ADC values (DWI-ADC) versus intervertebral disk volumetric analysis (IDVA) for predicting shrinkage of lumbar disk herniation treated with oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) diskolysis. Sixty-eight patients (36 men and 32 women; mean age 39) with lumbosciatica underwent O2-O3 diskolysis. The six-month MRI follow-up was performed with FSE-T2 and T2-fat, SE-T1 and DWI-weighted images. IDVA was determined using OsiriX(®). Diagnostic criteria and accuracy were evaluated with regards to DWI and related ADC in detecting response to ozone therapy. Fifty-eight of 68 patients had successful outcomes (responders), whereas ten patients showed unsatisfactory outcomes (non-responders). MMS showed that a centrally located herniated disk and grade 1 nerve root compression were more common in the responder group (p < 0.05). DWI-ADC and IDVA showed statistically significant shrinkage in the sixth month of follow-up (p < 0.05) with a mean ADC value reduction of 2.10 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s +/- 0.19 SD in the second month of follow-up (p < 0.05). DWI-ADC had an accuracy of 0.81 in detecting response to therapy around the second month of follow-up. DWI-ADC appear to be useful adjuncts to MMS in the follow-up of patients undergoing O2-O3 diskolysis.

  12. MR Assessment of Lumbar Disk Herniation Treated with Oxygen-Ozone Diskolysis: The Role of DWI and Related ADC versus Intervertebral Disk Volumetric Analysis for Detecting Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, A.; Perri, M.; Conchiglia, A.; Fasano, F.; Di Egidio, G.; Masciocchi, C.; Gallucci, M.

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively assessed the diagnostic criteria of morphologic MRI study (MMS) and the accuracy of DWI and related ADC values (DWI-ADC) versus intervertebral disk volumetric analysis (IDVA) for predicting shrinkage of lumbar disk herniation treated with oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) diskolysis. Sixty-eight patients (36 men and 32 women; mean age 39) with lumbosciatica underwent O2-O3 diskolysis. The six-month MRI follow-up was performed with FSE-T2 and T2-fat, SE-T1 and DWI-weighted images. IDVA was determined using OsiriX®. Diagnostic criteria and accuracy were evaluated with regards to DWI and related ADC in detecting response to ozone therapy. Fifty-eight of 68 patients had successful outcomes (responders), whereas ten patients showed unsatisfactory outcomes (non-responders). MMS showed that a centrally located herniated disk and grade 1 nerve root compression were more common in the responder group (p < 0.05). DWI-ADC and IDVA showed statistically significant shrinkage in the sixth month of follow-up (p < 0.05) with a mean ADC value reduction of 2.10 × 10−3mm2/s +/− 0.19 SD in the second month of follow-up (p < 0.05). DWI-ADC had an accuracy of 0.81 in detecting response to therapy around the second month of follow-up. DWI-ADC appear to be useful adjuncts to MMS in the follow-up of patients undergoing O2-O3 diskolysis. PMID:23859294

  13. Discrepancy between morphological findings in juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Björn Peter; Paulus, Alexander Christoph; Niethammer, Thomas Richard; Wegener, Veronika; Gülecyüz, Mehmet Fatih; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter Ernst; Utzschneider, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of preoperative MRI for the staging of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the knee and the talus in juvenile patients, using arthroscopy as the gold standard of diagnosis. Sixty-three juvenile patients (range 8-16 years) with an OCD of the knee or the talus underwent arthroscopy after MRI. In 54/9 out of 63 cases, 1.5/3 T MR scanners were used. The OCD stage was classified according the staging criteria of Dipaola et al. Arthroscopic findings were compared with MRI reports in each patient. From the 63 juvenile patients, MRI/arthroscopy revealed a stage I OCD in 4/19 patients, stage II in 31/22 patients, stage III in 22/9 patients and stage IV in 6/6 patients. No osteochondral pathology was evident in arthroscopy in seven out of 63 patients. The overall accuracy of preoperative MRI in staging an OCD lesion of the knee or the talus was 41.3%. In 33 out of 63 patients (52.4%), arthroscopy revealed a lower OCD stage than in the preoperative MRI grading, and in four out of 63 cases (6.4%), the intraoperative arthroscopic grading was worse than in preoperative MRI prior to surgery. The utilization of the 3 T MRI provided a correct diagnosis with 44.4%. Even with today's modern MRI scanners, it is not possible to predict an accurate OCD stage in children. The children's orthopaedist should not solely rely on the MRI when it comes to the decision to further conservative or surgical treatment of a juvenile OCD, but rather should take surgical therapy in consideration within persisting symptoms despite a low OCD stage provided by MRI. III.

  14. Utility of Postmortem Autopsy via Whole-Body Imaging: Initial Observations Comparing MDCT and 3.0T MRI Findings with Autopsy Findings

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Dae Ho; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Jai Soung; Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Choi, Duek Lin; Chung, Nak Eun; Lee, Bong Woo; Seo, Joong Seok

    2010-01-01

    Objective We prospectively compared whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) images with autopsy findings. Materials and Methods Five cadavers were subjected to whole-body, 16-channel MDCT and 3.0T MR imaging within two hours before an autopsy. A radiologist classified the MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings into major and minor findings, which were compared with autopsy findings. Results Most of the imaging findings, pertaining to head and neck, heart and vascular, chest, abdomen, spine, and musculoskeletal lesions, corresponded to autopsy findings. The causes of death that were determined on the bases of MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings were consistent with the autopsy findings in four of five cases. CT was useful in diagnosing fatal hemorrhage and pneumothorax, as well as determining the shapes and characteristics of the fractures and the direction of external force. MRI was effective in evaluating and tracing the route of a metallic object, soft tissue lesions, chronicity of hemorrhage, and bone bruises. Conclusion A postmortem MDCT combined with MRI is a potentially powerful tool, providing noninvasive and objective measurements for forensic investigations. PMID:20592923

  15. Candida spondylitis: Comparison of MRI findings with bacterial and tuberculous causes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheen-Woo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Min Jee; Seo, Min Jeong; Shin, Myung Jin

    2013-10-01

    Candida spondylitis is relatively uncommon and is usually encountered as an opportunistic infection. We analyzed the MRI characteristics of biopsy-proven cases of Candida spondylitis, and compared the findings with bacterial or tuberculous spondylitis. The study included patients with infectious spondylitis who underwent MRI and biopsy from 1998 to 2011 (60 patients; mean age 56 ± 18 years). MR images were analyzed with respect to the number of involved vertebrae, contrast enhancement pattern, signal intensity of spinal inflammatory masses on T2-weighted imaging, paraspinal abscess size, intervertebral disk destruction, subligamentous spread, and skip lesions. The Fisher exact test and analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. There were 10 cases of Candida spondylitis, and 29 and 21 cases of bacterial and tuberculous spondylitis, respectively. On MRI, disk destruction was seen in 50%, 93%, and 30% of Candida, bacterial, and tuberculous cases, respectively. Subligamentous spread of infection was noted in 22%, 10%, and 85%. Paraspinal inflammatory masses were seen in 100%, 100%, and 76%, and abscesses in 100%, 66%, and 90%, of Candida, bacterial, and tuberculous cases, respectively. Paraspinal inflammatory masses contained low T2 signal intensity portions in 80%, 21%, and 67%, and skip lesions were seen in 0%, 10%, and 14%, respectively. Small abscesses were noted in 100%, 76%, and 35% of Candida, bacteria, and tuberculosis infections, respectively. Candida involved 2.3 ± 0.4 vertebrae compared with 2.3 ± 0.9 and 3.0 ± 1.7 in bacterial and tuberculous, respectively. Differences in the three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05) except for the number of involved vertebrae, and skip lesions. Candida spondylitis can be suspected when infectious lesions contain low-signal spinal inflammatory masses on T2-weighted imaging, small paraspinal abscesses, and in immunocompromised patients.

  16. ADC Histograms from Routine DWI for Longitudinal Studies in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Field Study in CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Bence; Porcher, Raphael; Duering, Marco; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Mawet, Jerome; Jouvent, Eric; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) histogram metrics are correlated with clinical parameters in cerebral small vessel diseases (cSVD). Whether ADC histogram parameters derived from simple diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) can provide relevant markers for long term studies of cSVD remains unknown. CADASIL patients were evaluated by DWI and DTI in a large cohort study overa6-year period. ADC histogram parameters were compared to those derived from mean diffusivity (MD) histograms in 280 patients using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman plots. Impact of image corrections applied to ADC maps was assessed and a mixed effect model was used for analyzing the effects of scanner upgrades. The results showed that ADC histogram parameters are strongly correlated to MD histogram parameters and that image corrections have only limited influence on these results. Unexpectedly, scanner upgrades were found to have major effects on diffusion measures with DWI or DTI that can be even larger than those related to patients’ characteristics. These data support that ADC histograms from daily used DWI can provide relevant parameters for assessing cSVD, but the variability related to scanner upgrades as regularly performed in clinical centers should be determined precisely for longitudinal and multicentric studies using diffusion MRI in cSVD. PMID:24819368

  17. Glioblastoma complicated by fatal malignant acute ischemic stroke: MRI finding to assist in tricky surgical decision

    PubMed Central

    Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Fioretti, Edith; Mathon, Bertrand; Cornu, Philippe; Nouet, Aurélien; Chauvet, Dorian

    2015-01-01

    Background In most cases, glioblastomas are associated with seizures, headaches, neurological deficits, aphasia, or bleeding. But these tumors are rarely associated with cerebral infarction and never so deadly. Case report A 40-year-old man presented with sudden morning isolated aphasia. One hour later, he developed a motor deficit at right upper member, quickly completed with a total right hemiplegia. Imaging studies revealed a left frontotemporal enhancing glioblastoma with a perilesional edema which produced an important mass effect on the posterior arm of the external capsule, on the primary motor cortex posteriorly and the entire sylvian valley anteriorly. Due to major surgical risks associated with left middle cerebral artery (MCA) inclusion and large edema, we decided to postpone the tumor removal and introduce quickly high concentrations of steroids. Twenty-four hours after his admittance, the patient presented a sudden impaired consciousness, coma, and a left mydriasis. A brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed a left malignant MCA infarction, deadly for the patient. Conclusion To our knowledge, glioblastomas complicated by fatal ischemic stroke have not been reported. We discuss the pathology of such an event and try to figure out if it was predictable based on MRI finding, and inevitable with precocious surgery. PMID:26306931

  18. Cervical and lumbar MRI in asymptomatic older male lifelong athletes: Frequency of degenerative findings

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.F.; Healy, B.B.; Wong, W.H.M.; Olson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    The athletic activity of the adult U.S. population has increased markedly in the last 20 years. To evaluate the possible long-term effects of such activity on the cervical and lumbar spine, we studied a group of asymptomatic currently very active lifelong male athletes over age 40 (41-69 years old, av. age 53). Nineteen active, lifelong male athletes were studied with MRI and the results compared with previous imaging studies of other populations. An athletic history and a spine history were also taken. Evidence of asymptomatic degenerative spine disease was similar to that seen in published series of other populations. Degenerative changes including disk protrusion and herniation, spondylosis, and spinal stenosis were present and increased in incidence with increasing patient age. In this group, all MRI findings proved to be asymptomatic and did not limit athletic activity. The incidence of lumbar degenerative changes in our study population of older male athletes was similar to those seen in other populations. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Long-Term MRI Findings of Muslin-Induced Foreign Body Granulomas after Aneurysm Wrapping

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Lee-Anne; Chandra, Ronil V.; Holt, Michael; Danks, Andrew; Chong, Winston

    2014-01-01

    Summary Muslin-induced foreign body granulomas are rare delayed complications after wrapping of intracranial aneurysms. Few small case series have been reported, with a paucity of documented MRI findings. In addition, there are no reports on long-term radiological appearances or temporal evolution of conservatively managed patients. We thus report on the long-term radiological and clinical follow-up of two patients with asymptomatic muslin-induced foreign body granulomas after wrapping of recurrent middle cerebral arterial aneurysms. Both patients were successfully managed conservatively and remain asymptomatic three and six years after diagnosis of their granulomas. A literature review confirms that MRI features of muslin-induced foreign body granuloma are typical. Features include focal areas of elevated T2 signal with increased diffusion-weighted signal and thin rim enhancement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to confirm that there is a corresponding reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient, as typical in an intracranial abscess. Thus a history of aneurysm wrapping is critical for diagnosis. Accurate clinical recognition of this exuberant inflammatory response will avoid misdiagnosis as pyogenic abscess or tumor and prevent unnecessary or invasive treatment. PMID:24556302

  20. Accuracy of Diffusion Weighted Images and MR Spectroscopy in Prostate Lesions - Our Experience with Endorectal Coil on 1.5 T MRI.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Devimeenal; Indiran, Venkatraman

    2017-05-01

    Prostatic cancer is most commonly seen in individuals greater than 65 years of age. The incidence rates are constantly increasing. To assess the accuracy of the non-contrast sequences {Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)} in the multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mp-MRI) in identifying and differentiating benign and malignant prostate lesions using endorectal coil on 1.5 T MRI. Twenty-six patients with clinical indications for prostate lesions were evaluated using endorectal coil on 1.5 T MRI. DWI and MRS were obtained in all the lesions. Signal change on T2 weighted images, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values and choline + creatinine to citrate ratios (Cho+Cr/Ci) of the lesions were obtained for all the patients. All the patients underwent Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy within one week of MRI study. Signal change on T2 weighted images, DWI and Cho+Cr/Ci ratios were correlated with the histopathological findings using appropriate statistical analysis (Wilson score). Of the 26 patients, seven had benign pathology and 19 had malignant pathology on the histopathological examination. Sensitivity and specificity (89.5% and 85.7% respectively) of the diagnosis of malignancy based on DWI were quite good. Positive and negative predictive values were also very much acceptable (94.4% and 75% respectively). Though, MRS had good sensitivity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) (84.2% and 76.2% respectively), specificity and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were poor (28.6% and 40% respectively). Accuracy of imaging diagnosis based on combining T2, DWI and MRS was same as that of results based on T2 signal alone (80.8%) and had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than DWI alone (94.7% and 42.9% respectively). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for ADC values and Cho+Cr/Ci ratios. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for ADC is 0.74 and for Cho+Cr/Ci is 0.70. Comparing the accuracy of

  1. Accuracy of Diffusion Weighted Images and MR Spectroscopy in Prostate Lesions – Our Experience with Endorectal Coil on 1.5 T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Indiran, Venkatraman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prostatic cancer is most commonly seen in individuals greater than 65 years of age. The incidence rates are constantly increasing. Aim To assess the accuracy of the non-contrast sequences {Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)} in the multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mp-MRI) in identifying and differentiating benign and malignant prostate lesions using endorectal coil on 1.5 T MRI. Materials and Methods Twenty-six patients with clinical indications for prostate lesions were evaluated using endorectal coil on 1.5 T MRI. DWI and MRS were obtained in all the lesions. Signal change on T2 weighted images, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values and choline + creatinine to citrate ratios (Cho+Cr/Ci) of the lesions were obtained for all the patients. All the patients underwent Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy within one week of MRI study. Signal change on T2 weighted images, DWI and Cho+Cr/Ci ratios were correlated with the histopathological findings using appropriate statistical analysis (Wilson score). Results Of the 26 patients, seven had benign pathology and 19 had malignant pathology on the histopathological examination. Sensitivity and specificity (89.5% and 85.7% respectively) of the diagnosis of malignancy based on DWI were quite good. Positive and negative predictive values were also very much acceptable (94.4% and 75% respectively). Though, MRS had good sensitivity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) (84.2% and 76.2% respectively), specificity and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were poor (28.6% and 40% respectively). Accuracy of imaging diagnosis based on combining T2, DWI and MRS was same as that of results based on T2 signal alone (80.8%) and had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than DWI alone (94.7% and 42.9% respectively). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for ADC values and Cho+Cr/Ci ratios. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for ADC is 0.74 and for

  2. Effectiveness of customized Victim Impact Panels on first-time DWI offender inmates.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Denise R; Rogers, Everett M; Tonigan, J Scott; Woodall, W Gill

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a customized Victim Impact Panel (VIP) on reducing 'driving while impaired' recidivism, alcohol consumption and drinking and driving behavior. The study was conducted at a 28-day Detention/Treatment Program in a largely rural county in northwestern New Mexico. Study participants were randomly assigned to attend or not attend a VIP while participating in the program for court-defined first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders. There were no significant differences between the two groups on alcohol consumption, drinking and driving behavior, or recidivism within 2 years. These findings support the findings of other studies that VIPs do not produce a differential benefit with regards to recidivism of those convicted as a first-time DWI offenders.

  3. Bilateral subependymal heterotopia, ventriculomegaly and cerebellar asymmetry: fetal MRI findings of a rare association of brain anomalies.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, Lucia; Saldari, Matteo; Bernardo, Silvia; Aliberti, Camilla; Silvestri, Evelina

    2013-11-01

    Subependymal heterotopia (SEH) is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by nodules of gray matter along the lateral ventricular walls and often associated with other brain malformations. We present two cases of SEH associated with ventriculomegaly and cerebellar abnormalities diagnosed by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 20 and 23 weeks' gestation respectively. Fetal MRI findings of this association of abnormalities have never been reported in literature. This report emphasizes the role of fetal MRI in recognition of subependymal heterotopia and other associated brain anomalies at early age of gestation along with its importance for a more targeted counseling and management strategies.

  4. Language lateralization of a bilingual person with epilepsy using a combination of fMRI and neuropsychological assessment findings.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Christopher; Omisade, Antonina; Sadler, R Mark

    2016-10-01

    This report describes the findings of language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a left-handed Urdu and English speaker with right hemisphere-originating epilepsy and unclear language dominance. fMRI is a reliable method for determining hemispheric language dominance in presurgical planning. However, the effects of bilingualism on language activation depend on many factors including age of acquisition and proficiency in the tested language, and morphological properties of the language itself. This case demonstrates that completing fMRI in both spoken languages and interpreting the results within the context of a neuropsychological assessment are essential in arriving at accurate conclusions about language distribution in bilingual patients.

  5. [Long-term prognosis of patients with initial cerebral thrombosis and the MRI findings].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, T; Shimizu, T; Akazawa, M; Kikawada, M; Nishimura, T; Takasaki, M

    1999-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between long-term prognosis of patients with stroke and their MRI findings, 103 patients with initial cerebral thrombosis, who survived more than three months after the ictus, were studied for five years. The mean age of 98 patients (T group), who were followed up completely, was 73.1 years-old and 65 were men. The age-matched controls consisted of two groups: 65 subjects, who had hypertension and/or diabetes without a history of stroke (R group), and 85 subjects, who had any hypertension, diabetes and stroke (N group). MRI findings were divided into six categories: 1) types of causative lesion, 2) grades of periventricular hyperintensity (none, rims/caps, patchy, diffuse PVH), 3) number of spotty lesions, 4) presence of silent infarction. 5) ventricular dilatation, and 6) extents of brain atrophy. Types of causative lesion were subdivided into 3 subtypes; infarction of the perforating artery territory (P type), infarction of the cortical artery territory (C type), and brainstem infarction (B type). The presence of vascular risks and dementia, and the extent of activity of daily living (ADL) were assessed. The P, C, and B types were identified by MRI in 46, 36, and 16 of the T group, respectively. Motor impairment, dementia, and an ADL status of complete dependence at discharge were also seen in 84, 44, and 22, respectively. In the T group, 33 patients died during five years, which resulted in a cumulative mortality rate of 33.7% and an annual mortality rate of 8.2%. Based on log-rank analysis, the survival rate of the T group revealed was significantly lower than those of the R and N groups. The recurrent rate in the T group (annual stroke recurrence rate was 4.0%) was higher than in the R and N groups, but stroke recurrence was not the cause of death and two thirds of deaths were due to aspiration pneumonia and/or asphyxia. Cox hazard regression analysis for death due to respiratory diseases showed that the hazard ratios of infarction

  6. MRI findings and cognitive functions in a small cohort of myotonic dystrophy type 1: Retrospective analyses.

    PubMed

    Bajrami, Arsida; Azman, Filiz; Yayla, Vildan; Cagirici, Sultan; Keskinkiliç, Cahit; Sozer, Nejla

    2017-02-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a progressive multisystemic disease with common cognitive deficits and potential brain involvement in addition to the cardinal muscular and systemic symptoms. Impaired mental function associated with nonspecific pathological findings such as white-matter hyperintense lesions (WMHLs), ventricular enlargement and brain atrophy on brain MRI have been previously reported in DM1 patients. While some studies showed correlation of brain morphological changes with neuropsychological and clinical parameters including CTG repeat sizes and disease severity scales in DM1, others failed. The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate cranial MR abnormalities, predominantly WMHLs, and their effects on clinical and cognitive deficits in a small, phenotypically or genotypically well-characterized cohort of DM1 patients.

  7. Why Do Some Find it Hard to Disagree? An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez D, Juan F.; Taing, Sreyneth A.; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    People often find it hard to disagree with others, but how this disposition varies across individuals or how it is influenced by social factors like other people's level of expertise remains little understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that activity across a network of brain areas [comprising posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and angular gyrus] was modulated by individual differences in the frequency with which participants actively disagreed with statements made by others. Specifically, participants who disagreed less frequently exhibited greater brain activation in these areas when they actually disagreed. Given the role of this network in cognitive dissonance, our results suggest that some participants had more trouble disagreeing due to a heightened cognitive dissonance response. Contrary to expectation, the level of expertise (high or low) had no effect on behavior or brain activity. PMID:26858629

  8. MRI findings in multifetal pregnancies complicated by twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP).

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Carolina V A; Kline-Fath, Beth M; Linam, Leann E; Garcia, Maria A Calvo; Rubio, Eva I; Lim, Foong-Yen

    2011-06-01

    Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP) is a rare complication in multifetal monochorionic pregnancies in which a normal "pump" twin provides circulation to an abnormal acardiac co-twin, resulting in high-output cardiac dysfunction in the pump twin. To define fetal MRI findings of TRAP sequence. Fetal MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 35 pregnancies complicated by TRAP sequence. Abnormalities of the pump twin, acardiac twin, umbilical cord, placenta and amniotic fluid were reviewed. Acardiac twins were classified as: acephalus (51%), anceps (40%), amorphus (9%), acormus (0%). Common findings in acardiac twins include subcutaneous edema (77%), absent cardiac structures (86%), absent or abnormal thoracic cavity (100%), abnormal abdominal organs (100%), superior limbs absent (46%) or abnormal (51%), and inferior limbs present but abnormal (83%). There were pump twin findings of cardiac dysfunction in 43% and intracranial ischemic changes in 3%. Umbilical cord anomalies were present in 97%. Acardiac twins present with a predictable pattern of malformation with poorly developed superior structures, more normally formed inferior structures and absent or rudimentary heart. Although usually absent, abnormal heart structures can be seen and do not exclude TRAP sequence. Pump twins are commonly normal with exception of findings of cardiac dysfunction and possible brain ischemia.

  9. Quantification of inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's disease using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in MR enteroclysis and MR enterography.

    PubMed

    Stanescu-Siegmund, Nora; Nimsch, Yessica; Wunderlich, Arthur P; Wagner, Martin; Meier, Reinhard; Juchems, Markus S; Beer, Meinrad; Schmidt, Stefan A

    2017-03-01

    Background Individual studies have demonstrated the potential of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) for identifying inflamed bowel segments. However, these studies were conducted with rather small patient cohorts and in most cases by means of MR enterography only. Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of detecting inflamed bowel segments in a large collective of patients with Crohn's disease using DWI in MR enteroclysis and MR enterography and to compare the results of both techniques, also considering clinical parameters by means of the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Material and Methods Ninety-six patients underwent MRI enteroclysis and 35 patients MR enterography, both with additional DWI. The HBI as well as apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) in areas of inflamed and normal bowel wall were determined. Thus resulting in 208 bowel segments that were visualized and subsequently statistically analyzed. Results There were no significant differences in ADC values in MR enteroclysis and MR enterography ( P = 0.383 in inflammation, P = 0.223 in normal wall). Areas of inflammation showed statistically highly significant lower ADC values than areas of normal bowel wall ( P < 0.001). An ADC threshold of 1.56 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s can distinguish between normal and inflamed bowel segments with a sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 99.2%. A highly significant correlation could be shown between ADC and HBI values ( P = 0.001). Conclusion DWI-MRI facilitates recognition of inflamed bowel segments in patients with Crohn's disease and the ADC values show an excellent correlation to the HBI. There were no significant differences in ADC values in MR enteroclysis and MR enterography. An ADC threshold of 1.56 × 10(-3 )mm(2)/s differentiates between normal and inflamed bowel wall.

  10. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Jacob L; MacMahon, Peter J; Torriani, Martin; Merker, Vanessa L; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R; Bredella, Miriam A

    2012-08-01

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 & NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time ~40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings.

  11. A phenomenological approach to assessing a DUI/DWI program.

    PubMed

    Narag, Raymund E; Maxwell, Sheila Royo; Lee, Byung

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to find a more proactive solution to the problem of drunk driving, a midwestern city has implemented a Driving Under the Influence or Driving While Impaired (DUI/DWI) Court program, a derivative of the popular drug courts. Eligible participants are those who have had two or more drunk-driving offenses but who have not been convicted of a violent offense. Participants volunteer for a 36-week program in exchange for a suspension of their prison sentence. Program elements include drug/alcohol monitoring, support groups, counseling, and extensive supervision. Using a phenomenological approach, this article describes the challenges faced by 20 participants, how they navigated the program requirements, their key realizations about their conditions, and their views on the viability and effectiveness of the program. The article uses qualitative interviews of participants and stakeholders collected for a process evaluation of the DUI program, and official records collected for programming purposes. Findings from this research can be used broadly for programming purposes and can be used by other court jurisdictions that are developing similar programs.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiation of cervical cancer and benign cervical lesions at 3.0T: Comparison with routine MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Fei; Yan, Zhiping; Li, Huili; Feng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (T1 WI and T2 WI), diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), and DCE-MRI (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) at 3.0T for differentiation of cervical cancer and benign cervical lesions. A cohort of 75 cervical cancer patients, 26 cervical leiomyoma patients, 22 patients with cervical polyps consecutively underwent pelvic MRI scanning on a 3T MR unit. Two radiologists independently evaluated images at three imaging settings; routine MRI alone, DWI combined with routine MRI (DWI+routine MRI), and DCE-MRI. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated from b 0, 600 s/mm(2) and b 0, 1000 s/mm(2). DWI+routine MRI was significantly better than routine MRI and obtained high accuracy (0.95); the diagnostic performance was not significantly different between DWI+routine MRI and DCE-MRI. Reader agreement was excellent for both DWI+routine MRI (κ, 0.90) and DCE-MRI (κ, 0.92). The ADCs of cervical cancer were significantly lower than those of benign cervical lesions at both ADC maps (P = 0.0001). The diagnostic accuracy was not different at both ADC maps (P = 0.375). For differentiation of cervical cancer and benign cervical lesions, unenhanced MRI with combined diffusion-weighted and routine MRI (DWI+routine MRI) at 3T can provide accurate information and may be preferable to DCE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Systematic evaluation of MRI findings in different stages of treatment of cervical cancer: Potential of MRI on delineation of target, pathoanatomic structures, and organs at risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Johannes . E-mail: johannes.dimopoulos@akhwien.at; Schard, Gerdi; Berger, Daniel; Lang, Stefan; Goldner, Gregor; Helbich, Thomas; Poetter, Richard

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at different stages of cervix cancer treatment and to define the potential of MRI to delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), pathoanatomic structures, and organs at risk (OAR) in brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine patients underwent MRI at diagnosis and at brachytherapy. The ability to discriminate anatomic structures on MRI was assessed (quality factor: 0 = inability to discriminate; 1 = fair discrimination; 2 = good discrimination; 3 = excellent discrimination). The overall ability to visualize (percentage of patients with quality factors greater than 0) and the overall discrimination quality score (mean quality factors of all patients) were estimated for the applicator, GTV at diagnosis (GTV{sub D}), GTV at brachytherapy (GTV{sub BT})/'gray zones,' cervix rim/uterine corpus, OAR, vaginal wall, and parametria. Results: The overall ability to visualize the applicator on MRI at brachytherapy was 100%; for the GTV{sub BT}/'gray zones,' cervix rim/uterine corpus, OAR, and vaginal wall, visualization was 98% (overall discrimination quality factors: 1.2, 2.9, 2.1, 1.9, 1.7, and 2.6). Three of 4 borders of parametrial space were defined in more than 98% (discrimination quality factors: 2.9, 2.1, and 1.2). Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging provides appropriate information for definition of the applicator, GTV, CTV, pathoanatomic structures, and OAR that enables precise delineation for cervix cancer brachytherapy.

  14. 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI for GTV-definition of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions in patients with Prostate Cancer – an interobserver variability study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the interobserver variability of gross tumor volume (GTV) - delineation of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions (DIPL) in patients with prostate cancer using published MRI criteria for multiparametric MRI at 3 Tesla by 6 different observers. Material and methods 90 GTV-datasets based on 15 multiparametric MRI sequences (T2w, diffusion weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) of 5 patients with prostate cancer were generated for GTV-delineation of DIPL by 6 observers. The reference GTV-dataset was contoured by a radiologist with expertise in diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using MRI. Subsequent GTV-delineation was performed by 5 radiation oncologists who received teaching of MRI-features of primary prostate cancer before starting contouring session. GTV-datasets were contoured using Oncentra Masterplan® and iplan® Net. For purposes of comparison GTV-datasets were imported to the Artiview® platform (Aquilab®), GTV-values and the similarity indices or Kappa indices (KI) were calculated with the postulation that a KI > 0.7 indicates excellent, a KI > 0.6 to < 0.7 substantial and KI > 0.5 to < 0.6 moderate agreement. Additionally all observers rated difficulties of contouring for each MRI-sequence using a 3 point rating scale (1 = easy to delineate, 2 = minor difficulties, 3 = major difficulties). Results GTV contouring using T2w (KI-T2w = 0.61) and DCE images (KI-DCE = 0.63) resulted in substantial agreement. GTV contouring using DWI images resulted in moderate agreement (KI-DWI = 0.51). KI-T2w and KI-DCE was significantly higher than KI-DWI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003). Degree of difficulty in contouring GTV was significantly lower using T2w and DCE compared to DWI-sequences (both p < 0.0001). Analysis of delineation differences revealed inadequate comparison of functional (DWI, DCE) to anatomical sequences (T2w) and lack of awareness of non-specific imaging findings as a source of erroneous

  15. Avoiding sedation in research MRI and spectroscopy in infants: our approach, success rate and prevalence of incidental findings.

    PubMed

    Gale, Christopher; Jeffries, Suzan; Logan, Karen Mary; Chappell, Karyn E; Uthaya, Sabita N; Modi, Neena

    2013-05-01

    Performing magnetic resonance investigations in a paediatric population can be difficult; image acquisition is commonly complicated by movement artefact and non-compliance. Sedation is widely used for clinically indicated investigations, but there is controversy when used for research imaging. Over a 10-year period we have performed whole body MRI on over 450 infants and hepatic magnetic resonance spectroscopy on over 270 infants. These investigations have been accomplished without the use of sedation in infants up to 3 months of age. Our overall success rate in achieving good quality images free of movement artefact is 94%. The prevalence of incidental findings on whole body (excluding brain) MRI in our cohort was 0.8%. We conclude that the use of sedation for research MRI in this group is not necessary. Our approach to MRI in infancy is also described.

  16. MRI-guided targeted blood-brain barrier disruption with focused ultrasound: histological findings in rabbits.

    PubMed

    McDannold, Nathan; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Raymond, Scott; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2005-11-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a method to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) noninvasively and reversibly at targeted locations. The purpose of this study was to test the safety of this method by searching for ischemia and apoptosis in areas with BBB disruption induced by pulsed ultrasound in the presence of preformed gas bubbles and by looking for delayed effects up to one month after sonication. Pulsed ultrasound exposures (sonications) were performed in the brains of 24 rabbits under monitoring by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (ultrasound: frequency = 1.63 MHz, burst length = 100 ms, PRF = 1 Hz, duration = 20 s, pressure amplitude 0.7 to 1.0 MPa). Before sonication, an ultrasound contrast agent (Optison, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) was injected IV. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced MR images. Whole brain histologic examination was performed using haematoxylin and eosin staining for general histology, vanadium acid fuchsin-toluidine blue staining for ischemic neurons and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. The main effects observed were tiny regions of extravasated red blood cells scattered around the sonicated locations, indicating affected capillaries. Despite these vasculature effects, only a few cells in some of the sonicated areas showed evidence for apoptosis or ischemia. No ischemic or apoptotic regions were detected that would indicate a compromised blood supply was induced by the sonications. No delayed effects were observed either by MRI or histology up to 4 wk after sonication. Ultrasound-induced BBB disruption is possible without inducing substantial vascular damage that would result in ischemic or apoptotic death to neurons. These findings indicate that this method is safe for targeted drug delivery, at least when compared with the currently available invasive methods.

  17. Compatibility of MRI and FDG-PET findings with histopathological results in patients with focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Halac, Gulistan; Delil, Sakir; Zafer, Dila; Isler, Cihan; Uzan, Mustafa; Comunoglu, Nil; Oz, Buge; Yeni, S Naz; Vatankulu, Betul; Halac, Metin; Ozkara, Cıgdem

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the specific characteristics of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) analyses of the FCD subgroups were compatible with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical findings of the patients in these subgroups. This study included 71 patients who had a presurgical evaluation workup performed due to drug-resistant seizures, who underwent epilepsy surgery, and who were histopathologically diagnosed with FCD. Relationships involving MRI and FDG-PET findings and clinical data from pathological subgroups and patients were assessed. According to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classifications of FCD, 28 of the patients were type I and 43 were type II. FCD was visible on the MRI scans of 53 patients, and a majority of this group was classified as type II FCD (n=34). Of these 53 patients, FCD was located in the temporal area of 21 patients, the extratemporal area of 29 patients. Of the patients who exhibited FDG-PET hypometabolism (PET-positive), 23 were classified as temporal, 17 as frontal, 11 showed involvement of the posterior cortex. The age of seizure onset was younger in PET-positive patients (p=0.032), and histopathological analyses revealed that 23 patients had type I FCD and 30 patients had type II FCD. PET scans reveal a lesion by showing hypometabolism in patients who have refractory epilepsy and an early age of onset with FCD. The lesions of MRI-negative/PET-positive FCD patients tend to be localized in the temporal lobe and that FCD may be localized in the frontal lobe of MRI-negative/PET-negative patients. However, the histopathological examinations of MRI-positive/PET-positive, MRI-negative/PET-positive, and MRI-negative/PET-negative patients did not exhibit a particular histopathological subtype. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome: early magnetic resonance imaging findings and neuroradiological follow-up.

    PubMed

    Toldo, I; Calderone, M; Boniver, C; Dravet, Ch; Guerrini, R; Laverda, A M

    2007-03-01

    We describe a case of hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome documented by longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A two-year and nine-month-old boy had a prolonged hemiconvulsion during fever followed by right hemiparesis. Seven days later the imaging abnormality on T2 and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) was limited to the white matter of the left hemisphere. One month later severe gliosis and unilateral brain atrophy were already evident. MRI is useful in the early stages of prolonged seizures and T2 and DWI abnormalities appear to be well correlated with parenchymal damage that results from sustained ictal activity. The neuroradiological findings in our case and in the few HHE patients reported in the literature seem to be very characteristic and, if confirmed in larger series, could permit an early diagnosis.

  19. The EEG in E200K familial CJD: relation to MRI patterns.

    PubMed

    Appel, Shmuel A; Chapman, Joab; Prohovnik, Isak; Hoffman, Chen; Cohen, Oren S; Blatt, Ilan

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between EEG abnormalities and the pattern of MRI changes in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (fCJD) patients with E200K mutation. As part of a controlled, prospective study, 13 E200K fCJD patients underwent comprehensive evaluations, with EEG and an extensive MRI protocol that included one of the most prion-disease sensitive sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The relationship between EEG abnormalities and the pattern of DWI hyperintensities was examined. EEG demonstrated the classical CJD finding of PSWC (periodic sharp wave complexes) in five patients (38%) while in eight patients (62%) the EEG showed only slow activity. Six patients showed the typical cortical changes on MRI, and in five of them (83%) concordance between the MRI and the EEG was found. Five patients had isolated basal ganglia involvement per MRI, and in two of them (40%) concordance between the MRI and the EEG laterality was found. In the remaining two patients MRI did not show any changes suggesting CJD and EEG showed focal slow activity. The EEG of our E200K fCJD patients appears similar to that of the largest prion disease patient group, sporadic CJD (sCJD). EEG abnormalities in E200K fCJD appear to correlate mainly with cortical pathology, as revealed by DWI, rather than basal ganglia pathology. The observation that PSWC abnormalities reflect cortical rather than basal ganglia pathology is significant with respect to theories of the origins of EEG abnormalities in prion disease.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of three different MRI protocols in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Løgager, Vibeke Berg; Munkholm, Pia; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for workup and control of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, disagreement remains as to how the MRI should be performed. Purpose To compare prospectively the diagnostic accuracy of MRI with neither oral nor intravenous contrast medium (plain MRI), magnetic resonance follow-through (MRFT) and MR enteroclysis (MRE) using MRE as the reference standard in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Material and Methods Plain MRI and MRE were carried out in addition to MRFT. All patients underwent both plain MR and MRFT on the same day and MRE within seven days. For the evaluation, the bowel was divided into nine segments. One radiologist, blinded to clinical findings, evaluated bowel wall thickness, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), mural hyperenhancement, and other inflammatory changes in each bowel segment. Results Twenty patients (6 men, 14 women; median age, 43.5 years; age range, 26–76 years) underwent all three examinations; 10 with Crohn’s disease (CD), three with ulcerative colitis (UC), and seven with IBD unclassified (IBD-U). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were in the range of 0–75%, 81–96%, and 75–95% for wall thickening, and 0–37%, 59–89%, and 50–86% for DWI in plain MRI, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were in the range of 0–50%, 96–100%, and 90–100% for wall thickening, 0–50%, 84–97%, and 82–95% for DWI, and 0–71%, 94–100%, and 85–100% for mural hyperenhancement in MRFT, respectively. Conclusion The use of oral and intravenous contrast agent improves detection of bowel lesions resulting in MRFT remaining the superior choice over plain MRI for diagnostic workup in patients with IBD. PMID:26097746

  1. Usefulness of DWI in preoperative assessment of deep myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis in order to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the preoperative assessment of deep myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Methods Studies evaluating DWI for the detection of deep myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial carcinoma were systematically searched for in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from January 1995 to January 2014. Methodologic quality was assessed by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analytic methods were used to obtain pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The study also evaluated the clinical utility of DWI in preoperative assessment of deep myometrial invasion. Results Seven studies enrolling a total of 320 individuals met the study inclusion criteria. The summary area under the ROC curve was 0.91. There was no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.90, bias coefficient analysis). Sensitivity and specificity of DWI for detection of deep myometrial invasion across all studies were 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios with DWI were 8 and 0.11 respectively. In patients with high pre-test probabilities, DWI enabled confirmation of deep myometrial invasion; in patients with low pre-test probabilities, DWI enabled exclusion of deep myometrial invasion. The worst case scenario (pre-test probability, 50%) post-test probabilities were 89% and 10% for positive and negative DWI results, respectively. Conclusion DWI has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting deep myometrial invasion and more importantly can reliably rule out deep myometrial invasion. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to add a DWI sequence to the standard MRI protocols in preoperative evaluation of endometrial cancer in order to detect deep

  2. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDCMD): a case report with MRI, MRS and DTI findings.

    PubMed

    Ip, Janice J K; Hui, Peter K T; Chau, M T; Lam, Wendy W M

    2012-08-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders present at birth with muscle weakness, hypotonia and contractures. Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders with muscle weakness, hypotonia and contractures present at birth. A particular subset of classic CMD is characterized by a complete absence of merosin. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDCMD) is a rare genetic disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system in the childhood. High signal intensities are often observed throughout the centrum semiovale, periventricular, and sub-cortical white matters on T2-weighted images in MRI brain in children with MDCMD. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map may reveal increased signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient values in the periventricular and deep white matters. These white matter findings, observed in late infancy, decrease in severity with age. The pathogenesis of these changes remains uncertain at present. In this article, we outline the specific MR imaging findings seen in a patient with documented MDCMD and also suggest the causes.

  3. Neonatal pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Soares-Fernandes, João P; Teixeira-Gomes, Roseli; Cruz, Romeu; Ribeiro, Manuel; Magalhães, Zita; Rocha, Jaime F; Leijser, Lara M

    2008-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is one of the most common causes of congenital lactic acidosis. Correlations between the genetic defect and neuroimaging findings are lacking. We present conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI findings in a 7-day-old male neonate with PDH deficiency due to a mosaicism for the R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene. Corpus callosum dysgenesis, widespread increased diffusion in the white matter, and bilateral subependymal cysts were the main features. Although confirmation of PDH deficiency depends on specialized biochemical analyses, neonatal MRI plays a role in evaluating the pattern and extent of brain damage, and potentially in early diagnosis and clinical decision making.

  4. [The Diagnostic Value of Pre-Biopsy Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Detecting Prostate Cancer].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yoneyama, Shuko; Ishida, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Kondo, Keiichi; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the value of pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting prostate cancer. We analyzed 267 men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3-10 ng/ml who underwent systematic prostate needle biopsy. From April 2009 to March 2011, a total of 98 male patients underwent 16-core prostatic biopsies without pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (nonenforcement group). From April 2011 to March 2013, 169 men underwent pre-biopsy MRI [T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] (enforcement group). When MRI findings indicated cancer in the latter group, in addition to the systematic 16-core biopsy one or two targeted biopsies were performed. Patients without suspicious MRI findings underwent only systematic 16-core biopsy. Cancer detection rates in the nonenforcement and enforcement groups were 42.9% (48/92) and 46. 2% (78/169), respectively. The difference did not reach significance (p=0.612). Although the cancer detection rates were 39.4% (41/104) in the MRI-negative group and 56. 9% (37/65) in the MRI-positive group (p=0.039), the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection by MRI were relatively low: 47.4% and 69.2%, respectively. By receiver-operating curve analysis, the area under the curve for cancer detection by MRI was only 0.583. There were two study limitations. First, the patient sample size was small. Second, it is unclear whether an adequate sample of the suspicious lesion was obtained by biopsy. We thus demonstrated that it might be improper to base a diagnosis solely on pre-biopsy MRI (T2WI and DWI) findings in men with serum PSA levels of 3-10 ng/ml.

  5. Systematic comparison of MRI findings in pediatric ependymoblastoma with ependymoma and CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor not otherwise specified

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Johannes; Seidel, Carolin; Pietsch, Torsten; Alkonyi, Balint; Fuss, Taylor Laura; Friedrich, Carsten; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Warmuth-Metz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background Ependymoblastoma (EBL), ependymoma (EP), and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system not otherwise specified (CNS-PNET NOS) are pediatric brain tumors that can be differentiated by histopathology in the clinical setting. Recently, we described specific MRI features of EBL. In this study, we compare standardized MRI characteristics of EBL with EP and CNS-PNET NOS in a series comprising 22 patients in each group. Methods All 66 centrally reviewed cases were obtained from the database of the German multicenter HIT trials. We systematically analyzed the initial MRI scans at diagnosis according to standardized criteria, and paired comparison was performed for EBL and EP, as well as for EBL and CNS-PNET NOS. Results We found differences between EBL and EP regarding age at diagnosis, MR signal intensity, tumor margin and surrounding edema, presence and size of cysts, and contrast enhancement pattern. Although MRI appearance of EBL shares many features with CNS-PNET NOS, we revealed significant differences in terms of age at diagnosis, tumor volume and localization, tumor margins, edema, and contrast enhancement. Conclusion This is the first study that systematically compares multiple parameters of MRI in pediatric EBL with findings in EP and CNS-PNET NOS. Although a definite differentiation by means of MRI alone might not be feasible in the individual case, we identify significant differences between these tumor entities. PMID:25916887

  6. Characterization of brain tumors by MRS, DWI and Ki-67 labeling index.

    PubMed

    Calvar, J A; Meli, F J; Romero, C; Calcagno, M L; Yánez, P; Martinez, A R; Lambre, H; Taratuto, A L; Sevlever, G

    2005-05-01

    With the advent of fast imaging hardware and specialized software, additional non-invasive magnetic resonance characterization of tumors has become available through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), hemodynamic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Thus, patterns could be discerned to discriminate different types of tumors and even to infer their possible evolution in time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between MRS, DWI, histopathology and Ki-67 labeling index in a large number of brain tumors. Localized proton spectra were obtained in 47 patients with brain tumors who subsequently underwent surgery (biopsy or tumor removal). We performed MRS with short echo-time (30 ms) and metabolic values in spectra were measured using an external software with 25 peaks. In all patients who had DWI, we measured apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) in the same region of interest (ROI) where the voxel in MRS was located. In most tumors the histological diagnosis and Ki-67 labeling index had been determined on our original surgical specimen. Cho/Cr, (Lip+Mm)/Cr, NAA/(Cho+Cr) and Glx/Cr indexes in MRS allowed discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas and metastases (MTs). Likewise, absolute ADC values differentiated low- from high-grade gliomas expressed by Ki-67 labeling index. A novel finding was that high Glx/Cr in vivo MRS index (similar to other known indexes) was a good predictor of tumor grading.

  7. Multicentre multiobserver study of diffusion-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reliability and agreement study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Koji; Harada, Masafumi; Sasaki, Makoto; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Sanjo, Nobuo; Shiga, Yusei; Satoh, Katsuya; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Shirabe, Susumu; Nagata, Ken; Maeda, Tetsuya; Murayama, Shigeo; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji; Yamada, Masahito; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the utility of the display standardisation of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and to compare the effectiveness of DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Design A reliability and agreement study. Setting Thirteen MRI observers comprising eight neurologists and five radiologists at two universities in Japan. Participants Data of 1.5-Tesla DWI and FLAIR were obtained from 29 patients with sCJD and 13 controls. Outcome measures Standardisation of DWI display was performed utilising b0 imaging. The observers participated in standardised DWI, variable DWI (the display adjustment was observer dependent) and FLAIR sessions. The observers independently assessed each MRI for CJD-related lesions, that is, hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex or striatum, using a continuous rating scale. Performance was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Results The mean AUC values were 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.87) for standardised DWI, 0.85 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.88) for variable DWI and 0.68 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.72) for FLAIR, demonstrating the superiority of DWI (p<0.05). There was a trend for higher intraclass correlations of standardised DWI (0.74, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.83) and variable DWI (0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.81) than that of FLAIR (0.63, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.74), although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Standardised DWI is as reliable as variable DWI, and the two DWI displays are superior to FLAIR for the diagnosis of sCJD. The authors propose that hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex or striatum on 1.5-Tesla DWI but not FLAIR can be a reliable diagnostic marker for sCJD.

  8. Serial changes of (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in ischiopubic synchondrosis: comparison with contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kazunobu; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Tanizawa, Akihiko; Kimura, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    A 3 years old female patient underwent resection and chemotherapy for a yolk sac tumor of the retroperitoneum. Two years later, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) showed high uptake in the right ischiopubic synchondrosis (IPS), which had a radiolucent structure on CT. The structure showed contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was a non-specific finding. Six weeks later, a follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed which showed no abnormal uptake in the IPS. The disappearance of (18)F-FDG uptake preceded that of contrast enhancement on MRI, which was seen 7 months after the initial (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan. This is the first report showing serial changes of (18)F-FDG uptake in IPS, in comparison to MRI findings.

  9. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient and correlation with hepatobiliary phase findings in the differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma from dysplastic nodules in cirrhotic liver.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Riccardo; De Gaetano, Anna Maria; Curione, Davide; Ciresa, Marzia; Miele, Luca; Pompili, Maurizio; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Giuliante, Felice; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the correlation with hepatobiliary phase (delayed phase imaging, DPI) findings in the differentiation of cirrhotic hepatocellular nodules. Forty-three patients with 53 pathology-proven nodules (29 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 13 high-grade (HGDNs) and 11 low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs); mean size 2.17 cm, range 1-4 cm), who underwent liver MRI with DWI and DPI sequences, were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions were classified as hypointense, isointense, or hyperintense relative to the adjacent liver parenchyma. ADC of each nodule, of the surrounding parenchyma, and lesion-to-liver ratio were calculated. Hyperintensity versus iso/hypointensity on DWI, hypointensity versus iso/hyperintensity on DPI, and the mean lesion-to-liver ratio showed a statistically significant difference both between HCCs versus DNs and between "HCCs + HGDNs" versus LGDNs (p < 0.05); sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of "HCCs + HGDNs" were 96.8 %, 100 %, 97.4 % respectively when combining hyperintensity on DWI and hypointensity on DPI, and 90.9 %, 81.0 %, 83.6 % respectively when lesion-to-liver ratio was <0.95. Hyperintensity on DWI, especially in association with hypointensity on DPI, and low lesion-to-liver ratios should raise the suspicion of HCC, or at least of HGDN, thus helping the characterization of atypically enhancing lesions. • Usefulness of DWI and ADC is shown in differential diagnosis of cirrhotic nodules. • Correlation of DWI with DPI improves differential diagnosis of cirrhotic nodules. • Characterization of atypically enhancing lesions becomes more confident.

  10. Athletic groin pain (part 1): a prospective anatomical diagnosis of 382 patients—clinical findings, MRI findings and patient-reported outcome measures at baseline

    PubMed Central

    Falvey, É C; King, E; Kinsella, S; Franklyn-Miller, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletic groin pain remains a common field-based team sports time-loss injury. There are few reports of non-surgically managed cohorts with athletic groin pain. Aim To describe clinical presentation/examination, MRI findings and patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores for an athletic groin pain cohort. Methods All patients had a history including demographics, injury duration, sport played and standardised clinical examination. All patients underwent MRI and PRO score to assess recovery. A clinical diagnosis of the injured anatomical structure was made based on these findings. Statistical assessment of the reliability of accepted standard investigations undertaken in making an anatomical diagnosis was performed. Result 382 consecutive athletic groin pain patients, all male, enrolled. Median time in pain at presentation was (IQR) 36 (16–75) weeks. Most (91%) played field-based ball-sports. Injury to the pubic aponeurosis (PA) 240 (62.8%) was the most common diagnosis. This was followed by injuries to the hip in 81 (21.2%) and adductors in 56 (14.7%) cases. The adductor squeeze test (90° hip flexion) was sensitive (85.4%) but not specific for the pubic aponeurosis and adductor pathology (negative likelihood ratio 1.95). Analysed in series, positive MRI findings and tenderness of the pubic aponeurosis had a 92.8% post-test probability. Conclusions In this largest cohort of patients with athletic groin pain combining clinical and MRI diagnostics there was a 63% prevalence of PA injury. The adductor squeeze test was sensitive for athletic groin pain, but not specific individual pathologies. MRI improved diagnostic post-test probability. No hernia or incipient hernia was diagnosed. Clinical trial registration number NCT02437942. PMID:26626272

  11. Correlation between MRI results and intraoperative findings in patients with silicone breast implants

    PubMed Central

    Lindenblatt, Nicole; El-Rabadi, Karem; Helbich, Thomas H; Czembirek, Heinrich; Deutinger, Maria; Benditte-Klepetko, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Background Silicone gel breast implants may silently rupture without detection. This has been the main reason for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the augmented or reconstructed breast. The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of MRI for implant rupture. Methods Fifty consecutive patients with 85 silicone gel implants were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 51 (range 21–72) years, with a mean duration of implantation of 3.8 (range 1–28) years. All patients underwent clinical examination and breast MRI. Intraoperative implant rupture was diagnosed by the operating surgeon. Results Nineteen of the 50 patients suffered from clinical symptoms. An implant rupture was diagnosed by MRI in 22 of 85 implants (26%). In seven of 17 removed implants (41%), the intraoperative diagnosis corresponded with the positive MRI result. However, only 57% of these patients were symptomatic. Ultrasound imaging of the harvested implants showed signs of interrupted inner layers of the implant despite integrity of the outer shell. By microsurgical separation of the different layers of the implant shell, we were able to reproduce this phenomenon and to produce signs of implant rupture on MRI. Conclusion Our results show that rupture of only the inner layers of the implant shell with integrity of the outer shell leads to a misdiagnosis on MRI. Correlation with clinical symptoms and the specific wishes of the patient should guide the indication for implant removal. PMID:25114595

  12. Increased bone tracer uptake in symptomatic patients with ACL graft insufficiency: a correlation of MRI and SPECT/CT findings.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Dominic T; Hirschmann, Anna; Falkowski, Anna L; Kiekara, Tommi; Amsler, Felix; Rasch, Helmut; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2017-05-27

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computerised tomography/computerised tomography (SPECT/CT) are used as diagnostic tools in symptomatic patients after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The benefit of SPECT/CT in comparison with MRI is under debate. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how bone tracer uptake (BTU) intensity and distribution in SPECT/CT correlate with MRI findings in symptomatic patients after ACL reconstruction. Twenty-nine patients (male:female = 22:7, mean age ± SD 26 ± 10 years) with symptoms of pain and instability after ACL reconstruction were retrospectively investigated using prospectively acquired SPECT/CT and MRI. On MRI graft tear, graft signal intensity, bone marrow oedema, tunnel cyst formation, roof impingement, roof osteophytes, local arthrofibrosis, joint effusion and synovial thickness were analysed by two readers blinded to the BTU results. BTU was anatomically localised and volumetrically quantified. Spearman's rho test was used for correlation of BTU in SPECT/CT and MRI findings (p < 0.05). SPECT/CT showed increased femoral and tibial BTU in patients with MRI-confirmed graft tear, signal hyperintensity of the intraarticular graft section, joint effusion, synovial thickening, roof osteophytes and bone marrow oedema. Cyst formation in the femoral tunnel results in significantly reduced BTU in femur and tibia. No correlation of increased BTU was found for graft impingement and graft arthrofibrosis. Bone tracer uptake in SPECT/CT and defined MRI findings in symptomatic patients after ACL reconstruction were correlated. Both imaging modalities have a definite role in post-operative diagnostic and have established their value in those patients. This study provides a better understanding of the clinical value of SPECT/CT versus MRI in the clinical decision-making process. SPECT/CT provides a window into the in vivo loading of the joint as well as bone

  13. Primary clear cell carcinoma in the liver: CT and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Yu; Li, Hai-Gang; Gao, Ming; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yong; Chen, Jian-Yu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver (PCCCL) and compare the imaging appearances of PCCCL and common type hepatocellular carcinoma (CHCC) to determine whether any differences exist between the two groups. METHODS: Twenty cases with pathologically proven PCCCL and 127 cases with CHCC in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were included in this study. CT or MRI images from these patients were retrospectively analyzed. The following imaging findings were reviewed: the presence of liver cirrhosis, tumor size, the enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast scanning, the presence of pseudo capsules, tumor rupture, portal vein thrombosis and lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: Both PCCCL and CHCC were prone to occur in patients with liver cirrhosis, the association rate of liver cirrhosis was 80.0% and 78.7%, respectively (P > 0.05). The mean sizes of PCCCL and CHCC tumors were (7.28 ± 4.25) cm and (6.96 ± 3.98) cm, respectively. Small HCCs were found in 25.0% (5/20) of PCCCL and 19.7% (25/127) of CHCC cases. No significant differences in mean size and ratio of small HCCs were found between the two groups (P = 0.658 and 0.803, respectively). Compared with CHCC patients, PCCCL patients were more prone to form pseudo capsules (49.6% vs 75.0%, P = 0.034). Tumor rupture, typical HCC enhancement patterns and portal vein tumor thrombosis were detected in 15.0% (3/20), 72.2% (13/18) and 20.0% (4/20) of patients with PCCCL and 3.1% (4/127), 83.6% (97/116) and 17.3% (22/127) of patients with CHCC, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups (all P > 0.05). No patients with PCCCL and 2.4% (3/127) of patients with CHCC showed signs of lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The imaging characteristics of PCCCL are similar to those of CHCC and could be useful for differentiating these from other liver tumors (such

  14. PET-MRI Findings of Two Patients with Breast Carcinoma before Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Çelebi, Filiz; Köksal, Ülkühan; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Çetin; Sarsenov, Dauren; İlgün, Serkan; Çabuk, Fatmagül Kuşku; Alço, Gül; Özdil, Güzide; Erdoğan, Zeynep; Özmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Integrated positron-emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) is a new hybrid simultaneous imaging modality with higher soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses compared with PET-CT. Two patients who were referred to our hospital with left breast masses that were pathologically diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma. The women were then scanned using the first PET-MRI system in Turkey, which was established in our department. In this case report, we aimed to determine the advantages of PET-MRI in staging, follow-up, neoadjuvant chemotherapy response, and to compare the usefulness of this modality with PET-CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. PMID:28331741

  15. Dynamic ultrasound with postural change facilitated the detection of an incisional hernia in a case with negative MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Wongsithichai, Patcharaporn; Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-09-01

    Incisional hernias commonly develop after abdominal surgeries with a lower incidence in patients receiving laparoscopy. Diagnosis through a non-surgical approach is usually made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance images (MRI) but both image modalities require patients to be examined in a supine position. We reported a case noticing a mass over her right lower abdomen after a laparoscopic liver segmentectomy with negative findings of hernia on MRI. A hernia sac was found by ultrasound with the patient being standing, highlighting the utility of dynamic ultrasound with postural change in investigation of incisional hernias.

  16. Progressive Low-Grade Glioma: Assessment of Prognostic Importance of Histologic Reassessment and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Narang, Amol K; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon D; Redmond, Kristin J; Lim, Michael; Olivi, Alessandro; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfred; Kleinberg, Lawrence R

    2017-03-01

    In patients with progressive low-grade glioma (LGG), the presence of new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement is commonly used as an indicator of malignant degeneration, but its accuracy in this setting is uncertain. We characterize the ability of new MRI enhancement to serve as a surrogate for histologic grade in patients with progressive LGG, and to explore the prognostic value of new MRI enhancement, pathologic grade, and extent of resection. Patients at our institution with World Health Organization grade II glioma diagnosed between 1994 and 2010 and who underwent repeat biopsy or resection at progression were retrospectively reviewed (n = 108). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of new MRI enhancement were characterized. A multivariable proportional hazards model was used to test associations with overall survival (OS), and Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare OS between patient subsets. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of new MRI enhancement were 82%, 77%, 92%, and 57%, respectively. In patients without malignant degeneration, new MRI enhancement was associated with inferior median OS (92.5 months vs. not reached; P = 0.03). In patients with malignant degeneration, gross or near total resection was associated with improved median OS (58.8 vs. 28.8 months; P = 0.02). In patients with progressive LGG, new MRI enhancement and pathologic grade were discordant in greater than 20% of cases. Pathologic confirmation of grade should therefore be attempted, when safe, to dictate management. Beyond functioning as a surrogate for pathologic grade, new MRI enhancement may predict for worse outcomes, a concept that merits prospective investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MRI findings following metal on metal hip arthroplasty and their relationship with metal ion levels and acetabular inclination angles.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ciara M; Bergin, Karen M; Kelly, Gabrielle E; McCoy, Gerry F; Ryan, Anthony G; Quinlan, John F

    2014-08-01

    Following the global recall of all ASR metal on metal hip products, our aim was to correlate MRI findings with acetabular inclination angles and metal ion levels in patients with these implants. Both cobalt and chromium levels were significantly higher in the presence of a periprosthetic fluid collection. There was no association between the presence of a periprosthetic mass, bone marrow oedema, trochanteric bursitis or greater levels of abductor muscle destruction for cobalt or chromium. There was no association between the level of periprosthetic tissue reaction and the acetabular inclination angle with any of the pathologies identified on MRI. The relationship between MRI pathology, metal ion levels and acetabular inclination angles in patients with ASR implants remains unclear adding to the complexity of managing patients.

  18. Non-EPI DW MRI in planning the surgical approach to primary and recurrent cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Migirov, Lela; Wolf, Michael; Greenberg, Gahl; Eyal, Ana

    2014-01-01

    To investigate a correlation between preoperative non-echo planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (non-EPI DW MRI) with surgical findings of localization and extension of cholesteatoma and to develop criteria for surgical planning. Preoperative non-EPI DWMRI was available and positive for cholesteatoma in 27 patients with primary and 23 with residual/recurrent lesions. Patients with cholesteatoma limited to the middle ear and its extensions were managed with a transcanal endoscopic approach. Patients with extension of the cholesteatoma posteriorly to the lateral semicircular canal underwent retroauricular mastoidectomy combined with an endoscopic approach. Comparison of preoperative radiologic to surgical findings. DWI showed isolated tympanic and attic extension in 33 cases and attico-antral and mastoid extension in 17 cases. MRI findings correlated with surgical findings in all patients with primary cholesteatoma, 19 of whom were managed with a transcanal endoscopic approach and 8 with endoscope-assisted ear surgery. The transcanal endoscopic approach was applied in 14 of the patients with residual/recurrent cholesteatoma, and the other 9 residual/recurrent lesions were eradicated using endoscope-assisted mastoidectomy. DWI overestimated cholesteatoma sites in 1 patient with residual lesion. The smallest cholesteatoma detected on DWI was a 3-mm lesion in the middle ear over the facial nerve. Primary and residual/recurrent cholesteatoma was accurately detected on non-EPI DWI with 98% clinical and radiologic concordance. Lesions less than 8 mm confined to the middle ear and its extensions can be eradicated with a minimally invasive endoscopic transcanal technique, whereas endoscope-assisted retroauricular mastoidectomy is preferred for larger lesions.

  19. DWI filtering using joint information for DTI and HARDI.

    PubMed

    Tristán-Vega, Antonio; Aja-Fernández, Santiago

    2010-04-01

    The filtering of the Diffusion Weighted Images (DWI) prior to the estimation of the diffusion tensor or other fiber Orientation Distribution Functions (ODF) has been proved to be of paramount importance in the recent literature. More precisely, it has been evidenced that the estimation of the diffusion tensor without a previous filtering stage induces errors which cannot be recovered by further regularization of the tensor field. A number of approaches have been intended to overcome this problem, most of them based on the restoration of each DWI gradient image separately. In this paper we propose a methodology to take advantage of the joint information in the DWI volumes, i.e., the sum of the information given by all DWI channels plus the correlations between them. This way, all the gradient images are filtered together exploiting the first and second order information they share. We adapt this methodology to two filters, namely the Linear Minimum Mean Squared Error (LMMSE) and the Unbiased Non-Local Means (UNLM). These new filters are tested over a wide variety of synthetic and real data showing the convenience of the new approach, especially for High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI). Among the techniques presented, the joint LMMSE is proved a very attractive approach, since it shows an accuracy similar to UNLM (or even better in some situations) with a much lighter computational load. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  1. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  2. Multiple Myeloma-Like Spinal MRI Findings in Skeletal Fluorosis: An Unusual Presentation of Fluoride Toxicity in Human

    PubMed Central

    Quadri, Javed Ahsan; Alam, Mohd Meraj; Sarwar, Saba; Ghanai, Ashraf; Shariff, A.; Das, Taposh K.

    2016-01-01

    Endemic fluorosis is a worldwide environmental problem due to excessive fluoride, commonly due to increased drinking water fluoride levels but sometimes due to other sources such as food with high fluoride content. In India, 21 of the 35 states are known to have health problems associated with fluoride toxicity. The present report is a case of a 50-year-old female who was seen with progressive spinal complications and a MRI of the spine suggestive of multiple myeloma. The MRI of the lumbosacral spine showed a diffuse and heterogeneous marrow signal of the lower dorsal and lumbosacral vertebrae. The MRI was also suggestive of coarse trabeculation and appeared predominantly hypointense on the T1W image and had mixed signal intensity on the T2W image. These findings were suggestive of neoplastic bone marrow infiltration and the presence of a proliferative disorder, with multiple myeloma being the most likely. During the patient workup, it was found that other family members were also having similar complications and, after investigation of these family members, it was found that they are suffering from systemic fluorosis. The patient was then evaluated for skeletal fluorosis, and this condition was found to be present. Multiple myeloma was ruled out by the finding of a negative serum protein electrophoresis. The spinal complications appeared to be mainly due to the compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots by protruding osteophytes, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and thickening of the ligamentum flavum resulting in a compressive myeloradiculopathy and compressive myelopathy. The finding of multiple myeloma-like findings on the spinal MRI in association with skeletal fluorosis was considered to be a very rare event. This case report underlines the need to consider the presence of spinal skeletal fluorosis when evaluating spinal complications with unusual pseudo-multiple myeloma-like changes on the spinal MRI. PMID:27917370

  3. Ultrasound of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular disjonction: Comparison of radiographic, ultrasound and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Faruch Bilfeld, Marie; Lapègue, Franck; Chiavassa Gandois, Hélène; Bayol, Marie Aurélie; Bonnevialle, Nicolas; Sans, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are typically diagnosed by clinical and radiographic assessment with the Rockwood classification, which is crucial for treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to describe how the ultrasound findings of acromioclavicular joint injury compare with radiography and MRI findings. Forty-seven patients with suspected unilateral acromioclavicular joint injury after acute trauma were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent digital radiography, ultrasound and 3T MRI. A modified Rockwood classification was used to evaluate the coracoclavicular ligaments. The classifications of acromioclavicular joint injuries diagnosed with radiography, ultrasound and MRI were compared. MRI was used as the gold standard. The agreement between the ultrasound and MRI findings was very good, with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (95 % CI: 0.72-0.90; p < 0.0001). Ultrasound detected coracoclavicular ligament injuries with a sensitivity of 88.9 %, specificity of 90.0 %, positive predictive value of 92.3 % and negative predictive value of 85.7 %. The agreement between the ultrasound and radiography findings was poor, with a correlation coefficient of 0.69 (95 % CI: 0.51-0.82; p < 0.0001). Ultrasound is an effective examination for the diagnostic work-up of lesions of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular injury. • Ultrasound is appropriate for acute acromioclavicular trauma due to its accessibility. • Ultrasound contributes to the diagnostic work-up of acute lesions of the coracoclavicular ligaments. • Ultrasound is appropriate in patients likely to benefit from surgical treatment. • Ultrasound could be a supplement to standard radiography in acute acromioclavicular trauma.

  4. Identifying MRI Markers Associated with Early Response following Laser Ablation for Neurological Disorders: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) as a minimally invasive alternative to craniotomy for local treatment of various brain tumors and epilepsy. LITT allows for focused delivery of laser energy monitored in real time by MRI, for precise ablation of the lesion. Although highly promising, the long-term effects of laser ablation as a viable treatment option for neurological disorders have yet to be rigorously studied and quantified. In this work, we present a quantitative framework for monitoring per-voxel thermal-induced changes post-LITT over time on multi parametric MRI. We demonstrate that voxel-by-voxel quantification of MRI markers over time can enable a careful and accurate (a) characterization of early LITT-related changes (if and when they are exaggerated and when they subside), and (b) identification and monitoring of MRI markers that potentially allow for better quantification of response to LITT therapy. The framework was evaluated on two distinct cohorts of patients (GBM, epilepsy), who were monitored post-LITT at regular time-intervals via multi-parametric MRI. On a cohort of six GBM studies we found that (a) it may be important for the initial treatment-related changes to subside to more reliably capture MRI markers relating to tumor recurrence, and (b) T1w MRI and T2-GRE may better differentiate changes that may correspond to tumor recurrence from patients with no recurrence, as compared to T2w-MRI, and FLAIR. Similarly, our preliminary analysis of four epilepsy studies suggests that (a) early LITT changes (attributed to swelling, edema) appear to subside within 4-weeks post-LITT, and (b) ADC may be more reflective of early treatment changes (up to 1 month), while T1w may be more reflective of early delayed treatment changes (1 month, 3 months), while T2-w and T2-FLAIR appeared to be more sensitive to late treatment related changes (6-months post-LITT) compared to the other MRI protocols under evaluation

  5. A comparison of MRI, radiographic and clinical findings of the position of the TMJ articular disc following open treatment of condylar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Alexander; Zahnert, Diana; Klengel, Steffen; Loukota, Richard; Eckelt, Uwe

    2007-10-01

    We examined the position and function of the articular disc after open treatment of condylar fractures by comparing magnetic resonance images (MRI) and radiographs with clinical data. MRI and radiographs were taken after treatment of 28 patients with 33 fractures of the mandibular condyles. In all cases, the disc was located in the fossa after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The MRI, radiographic and clinical findings did not correlate, and damage to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) could be seen more clearly on MRI than on clinical or radiographic examination. Damage to soft tissues seen on MRI after treatment was more pronounced in dislocated than in displaced fractures.

  6. DWI at MR Enterography for Evaluating Bowel Inflammation in Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Ho

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review regarding DWI enterography used for evaluating Crohn disease and to summarize the relevant evidence. Active bowel inflammation in Crohn disease causes restricted diffusion on MR enterography with DWI. Enterographic DWI to evaluate Crohn disease is increasingly drawing attention for both academic research and clinical practice and has shown potential as a quantitative tool for assessing bowel inflammation. DWI enterography also has multiple unresolved issues and limitations.

  7. Effect of Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: Analysis According to the Neck Pain Patterns and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Won; Lim, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Won Il; Lee, Eun Kyung; Chang, Choo Hoon; Yang, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that cervical interlaminar steroid injection (CIESI) is more effective in treating radicular pain than axial neck pain, but without direct comparison. And the differences of effect after CIESI according to MRI findings are inconsistent. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the therapeutic response of CIESI according to pain sites, durations, MRI findings, and other predictive factors altogether, unlike previous studies, which evaluated them separately. Methods The medical records of 128 patients who received fluoroscopy guided CIESI were analyzed. We evaluated the therapeutic response (more than a 50% reduction on the visual analog scale [VAS] by their second visit) after CIESI by (1) pain site; neck pain without radicular pain/radicular pain with or without neck pain, (2) pain duration; acute/chronic (more than 6 month), and (3) findings of MRI; herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD)/spinal stenosis, respectively and altogether. Results Eighty-eight patients (68%) responded to CIESI, and there were no significant differences in demographic data, initial VAS score, or laboratory findings. And there were no significant differences in the response rate relating to pain site, pain duration, or MRI findings, respectively. In additional analysis, acute radicular pain with HIVD patients showed significantly better response than chronic neck pain with spinal stenosis (P = 0.04). Conclusions We cannot find any sole predictive factor of therapeutic response to the CIESI. But the patients having acute radicular pain with HIVD showed the best response, and those having other chronic neck pain showed the worst response to CIESI. PMID:27103964

  8. Ossifying renal tumor of infancy: findings at ultrasound, CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hwan; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2014-05-01

    A 4-month-old boy presented with persistent gross hematuria. At ultrasonography, a 3.5-cm echogenic mass with posterior shadowing and tumor vascularity was detected within the right renal pelvis. Precontrast CT showed a slightly hyperattenuating mass in the renal pelvis. At MRI the mass was heterogeneously hypointense on T2-weighted images and isointense on T1-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI both revealed peripheral enhancement of the mass. A histological diagnosis of ossifying renal tumor of infancy was made after open pyelostomy and tumor enucleation. We suggest that ossifying renal tumor of infancy should be considered when a mass with posterior acoustic shadowing and tumor vascularity on US, hyperattenuation on precontrast CT and hypointensity on T2-weighted MRI is seen within the renal pelvis of an infant with hematuria.

  9. MRI and ultrasonographic findings in the investigation of lymphedema and lipedema.

    PubMed

    Dimakakos, P B; Stefanopoulos, T; Antoniades, P; Antoniou, A; Gouliamos, A; Rizos, D

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy subjects and 16 patients with lymphedema and lipedema were studied with MRI and ultratomography. In chronic lymphedema, ultrasonography revealed a statistically significant increase of the subcutaneous fat without difference in skin thickness as compared to the healthy subjects. MRI revealed in lymphedema a statistically significant increase of skin thickness + subcutaneous tissue + muscular mass (p = 0.048); in lipedema, a statistically significant increase of skin thickness and subcutaneous tissue (p < 0.0001) as compared to the healthy controls. MRI offers strong qualitative and quantitative parameters in the diagnosis of lymphedema and lipolymphedema, while ultrasonography is expected to improve its diagnostic efficiency with the aid of high frequency echo with more sophisticated resolution apparatus. Age, weight and height of the patient as well as duration of the disease do not seem to affect the above-mentioned parameters.

  10. Do MRI Findings Change Over a Period of Up to 1 Year in Patients With Low Back Pain and/or Sciatica?: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, John; Hush, Julia; Steffens, Daniel; Hancock, Mark J

    2017-04-01

    Systematic review OBJECTIVE.: The aim of the study was to investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings change over a relatively short period of time (<1 yr) in people with low back pain (LBP) or sciatica. We also investigated whether there was an association between any change in MRI findings and change in clinical outcomes. MRI offers the potential to identify possible pathoanatomic sources of LBP and/or sciatica; however, the clinical importance of MRI findings remains unclear. Little is known about whether lumbar MRI findings change over the short term and if so whether these changes are associated with changes in clinical outcomes. Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched. Included were cohort studies that performed repeat MRI scans within 12 months in patients with LBP and/or sciatica. Data on study characteristics and change in MRI findings were extracted from included studies. Any data describing associations between change in MRI findings and change in clinical outcomes were also extracted. A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Pooling was not possible due to heterogeneity of studies and findings. Seven studies reported on changes in disc herniation and reported 15% to 93% of herniations reduced or disappeared in size. Two studies reported on changes in nerve root compression and reported 17% to 91% reduced or disappeared. Only one study reported on the association between change in MRI findings and change in clinical outcomes within 1 year, and found no association. This review found moderate evidence that the natural course of herniations and nerve root compression is favorable over a 1-year period in people with sciatica or LBP. There is a lack of evidence on whether other MRI findings change, and whether changes in MRI findings are associated with changes in clinical outcomes. 1.

  11. Correlating MRI findings with disability in syndesmotic sprains of NFL players.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Robby S; Fetzer, Gary B; Sugarman, Eric; Wright, Rick W; Fritts, Hollis; Boyd, Joel L; Fischer, David A

    2012-05-01

    Syndesmotic sprains may be a significant source of missed playing time, especially in football players. Advanced imaging is frequently used to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Our purpose was to evaluate the prognostic ability of MRI in predicting time of disability. Training room records from 1993 to 2007 for three National Football League teams were reviewed. Forty-three players were diagnosed with syndesmotic ankle injuries and underwent radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. A blinded musculoskeletal radiologist interpreted all images. Players with fractures were excluded. Thirty-six professional football players were included in the final analysis. Twenty-three players had a positive squeeze test which was correlated with increased missed practices (p = 0.012) and increased missed games (p ≤ 0.01). The average number of games missed was 3.3 (range, 0 to 20) and the average number of practices missed was 16.7 (range, 0 to 114). Four players had isolated injury to the anterior tibio-fibular ligament (AITFL) (MRI Grade I). Five players had injury to the AITFL and interosseous ligament (MRI Grade II). Twenty-four players sustained injury to the AITFL, interosseous ligament, and posterior inferior tibio-fibular ligament (MRI Grade III). Three players had Grade III injuries with additional injury to the deltoid ligament (MRI Grade IV). Increasing grade of injury was positively correlated with increased number of missed games (p = 0.033) and missed practices (p = 0.002). MRI can be useful to help delineate the injury pattern and associated injuries, and may be useful in predicting time of disability using a grading system. Positive squeeze test can also be useful to determine prognosis.

  12. Reduced Recidivism among First-Time DWI Offenders as a Correlate of Pre-Trial Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, G. William; Osti, James R.

    1997-01-01

    Examines recidivism rates for 3,994 first-time, driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders. Results indicate that convicted DWI offenders placed on probation had a 47% greater risk of a re-arrest for DWI than did individuals who completed a pretrial intervention (PTI) program. Discusses the utility of a PTI alternative. (RJM)

  13. Systematic comparison of MRI findings in pediatric ependymoblastoma with ependymoma and CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Johannes; Seidel, Carolin; Pietsch, Torsten; Alkonyi, Balint; Fuss, Taylor Laura; Friedrich, Carsten; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Warmuth-Metz, Monika

    2015-08-01

    Ependymoblastoma (EBL), ependymoma (EP), and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system not otherwise specified (CNS-PNET NOS) are pediatric brain tumors that can be differentiated by histopathology in the clinical setting. Recently, we described specific MRI features of EBL. In this study, we compare standardized MRI characteristics of EBL with EP and CNS-PNET NOS in a series comprising 22 patients in each group. All 66 centrally reviewed cases were obtained from the database of the German multicenter HIT trials. We systematically analyzed the initial MRI scans at diagnosis according to standardized criteria, and paired comparison was performed for EBL and EP, as well as for EBL and CNS-PNET NOS. We found differences between EBL and EP regarding age at diagnosis, MR signal intensity, tumor margin and surrounding edema, presence and size of cysts, and contrast enhancement pattern. Although MRI appearance of EBL shares many features with CNS-PNET NOS, we revealed significant differences in terms of age at diagnosis, tumor volume and localization, tumor margins, edema, and contrast enhancement. This is the first study that systematically compares multiple parameters of MRI in pediatric EBL with findings in EP and CNS-PNET NOS. Although a definite differentiation by means of MRI alone might not be feasible in the individual case, we identify significant differences between these tumor entities. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Intraorbital Encephalocele Presenting with Exophthalmos and Orbital Dystopia : CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Asil, Kiyasettin; Gunduz, Yasemin; Yaldiz, Can; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old female patient with progressive pulsatile exophthalmos caused by intraorbital encephalocele was evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our clinic. She had no history of trauma or reconstructive surgery. When she was a little girl, she had undergone surgery for congenital glaucoma on the right eye. On the three-dimensional image of CT, a hypoplasic bone defect was observed in the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone. MRI and CT scan showed herniation through this defect of the arachnoid membrane and protruded cerebral tissue into the right orbita. Intraorbital encephalocele is an important entity that can cause pulsatile exophthalmos and blindness.

  15. Role of MRI in low-risk prostate cancer: finding the wolf in sheep's clothing or the sheep in wolf's clothing?

    PubMed

    Schoots, Ivo G; Moore, Caroline M; Rouvière, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    In men on active surveillance for localized prostate cancer, MRI and MRI-targeted biopsies can be used prior to confirmatory or surveillance biopsy, to detect individuals with high-grade cancer (the wolf in sheep's clothing). However, some men will have low-risk disease despite adverse MRI findings (the sheep in wolf's clothing). We review the value addition of MRI-targeted biopsies in comparison to systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies, using pathological reclassification as an end-point. At confirmatory and surveillance biopsies, both the MRI-targeted and repeat standard biopsies have shown value in identifying histologically adverse findings in men with low-risk prostate cancer. For maximal detection of clinically significant cancer, a prebiopsy MRI should be performed together with both MRI-targeted and systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. Stable disease on MRI may reduce the need for serial biopsies in some men on active surveillance. Prostate MRI and subsequent MRI-targeted biopsies are worthwhile to the current management of men with low-risk prostate cancer on active surveillance. Prostate MRI, in combination with a multivariable risk-prediction model may help in identifying both the wolf in sheep's clothing and the sheep in wolf's clothing, and in potentially reducing the need for serial biopsies.

  16. 18F-DOPA PET/CT and MRI Findings in a Patient With Multiple Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Ferdinando F; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Calabria, Eros N; Grillea, Giovanni; Schillaci, Orazio

    2016-08-01

    A 56-year-old man was referred to our Department for a 2-year story of upper limb tremor, severe headache, and episodes of confusion. Brain F-DOPA PET/CT showed multiple areas of tracer uptake in the two hemispheres of the brain. Subsequent MRI displayed demyelinating foci with high contrast enhancement. Histological specimen confirmed the diagnosis of multiple meningiomas.

  17. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  18. Neurological, visual, and MRI brain scan findings in 87 South African patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Loyse, A; Moodley, A; Rich, P; Molloy, S F; Bicanic, T; Bishop, L; Rae, W I D; Bhigjee, A I; Loubser, N D; Michowicz, A J; Wilson, D; Harrison, T S

    2015-06-01

    HIV-associated cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is a leading cause of adult meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Neuroradiological data is however limited to case reports and small case series from developed countries and/or immunocompetent patients. Eighty seven patients aged ≥18 hospitalized with a first episode of CM had magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging during the first two weeks of admission. A subset of eleven patients had follow-up scans approximately one month from their initial MRI scan. All had prospectively-recorded detailed neurological and visual examinations. An abnormal finding on neurological examination was detected in 33 (39%) patients. 38 (48%) patients experienced some visual loss. Neuroradiological lesions presumed to be cryptococcosis-related, as defined by the presence of dilated Virchow Robin spaces, pseudocysts or cryptococcomas, enhancing nodules, hydrocephalus, meningitis, focal perilesional oedema and infarcts, were detected in 55 (63%) patients. MRI findings suggestive of a second diagnosis were found in 18 (21%) patients. Visual loss was associated with the presence of cryptococcal-related lesions (p = 0.02). Blindness was associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) (p = 0.02). Of eleven patients with paired scans, brain swelling was identified on the initial scan in only one patient. The majority of patients had MRI brain scan abnormalities presumed secondary to CM. Dilated Virchow Robin spaces were the commonest neuroradiological lesion. Visual loss was associated with the degree of cerebral involvement as reflected by the presence of MRI abnormalities. Blindness was associated with the presence of raised ICP. Initial generalised brain swelling does not appear to be common, but further studies with paired scans are needed. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elbow MRI Findings Do Not Correlate With Future Placement on the Disabled List in Asymptomatic Professional Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Nicholas M; Granville, Christopher; Kaplan, Lee; Baraga, Michael; Jose, Jean

    Injury rates among professional baseball players may reach as high as 5.8 per 1000 encounters, with pitchers being most vulnerable on account of the excessive biomechanical load on the upper extremity during the throwing motion. Anatomically, the shoulder is the most common site of pitching-related injury, accounting for 30.7% of injuries, closely followed by the elbow at 26.3%. Characteristic valgus loading imparts a predictable constellation of stresses on the joint, including medial tension, lateral compression, and posterior medial shearing. The degenerative cohort of tissue changes that result are readily detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is not yet known whether such findings predict future placement on the disabled list (DL) in asymptomatic Major League pitchers. Abnormal soft tissue and osseous changes detected on MRI of the throwing elbow in asymptomatic professional pitchers will impart an increased risk of subsequent transfer to the DL in the season after MRI. Retrospective cohort study. Level 3. The study aimed to examine a potential association between the total number of innings pitched (approximate lifetime valgus load) and the typical MRI degenerative changes, hypothesizing a rejection of the null hypothesis. A total of 26 asymptomatic professional pitchers from a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization and its various minor league affiliates underwent MRI of their dominant elbow from 2003 to 2013 as a condition of their contract signing or trade. Twenty-one of those pitchers played at the Major League level while 5 played with the team's minor league affiliates including both the AA and AAA levels. Asymptomatic was defined as no related stints on the DL due to elbow injury in the 2 seasons prior to MRI. A fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist reevaluated the studies after being blinded to patient name, injury history, and baseball history. A second investigator collected demographic data; this included total career

  20. Comparison of CT and MRI findings for cervical spine clearance in obtunded patients without high impact trauma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Traynelis, Vincent C

    2014-05-01

    Cervical spinal injuries occur in 2.0-6.6% of patients after blunt trauma and can have devastating neurological sequelae if left unrecognized. Although there is high quality evidence addressing cervical clearance in asymptomatic and symptomatic awake patients, cervical spine clearance in patients with altered level of alertness (i.e., obtunded patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 14 or less) following blunt trauma has been a matter of great controversy. Furthermore, there are no data on cervical spine clearance in obtunded patients without high impact trauma and these patients are often treated based on evidence from similar patients with high impact trauma. This retrospective study was conducted on this specific subgroup of patients who were admitted to a neurointensive care unit (NICU) with primary diagnoses of intracranial hemorrhage with history of minor trauma; the objective being to evaluate and compare cervical spinal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in this particular group of patients. Patients with GCS of 14 or less admitted to neruointensive care unit (NICU) at RUSH University Medical Center from 2008 to 2010 with diagnoses of intracranial hemorrhage (surgical or non-surgical) who had reported or presumed fall (i.e., "found down") were queried from the computer data registry. A group of these patients had cervical spine CT and subsequently MRI for clearing the cervical spine and removal of the cervical collar. Medical records of these patients were reviewed for demographics, GCS score and injury specific data and presence or absence of cervical spine injury. Eighty-three patients were identified from the computer database. Twenty-eight of these patients had positive findings on both CT and MRI (33.73% - Group I); four patients had a negative CT but had positive findings on follow-up MRI (4.82% - Group II); fifty-one patients had both negative CT and MRI (61.44% - Group III). All patients in Group I required

  1. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and MRI findings in a case of severe neonatal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Olischar, Monika; Hunt, Rod W; Daley, Andrew J; Clifford, Vanessa; Tingay, David G

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can cause serious infection among hospitalised patients. The emergence of community acquired strains of MRSA (CA-MRSA) increases the potential exposure of newborns. The high incidence of reported meningitis in neonates in large CA-MRSA outbreaks suggests increased virulence in the neonatal population. The authors describe a case of severe meningitis due to MRSA in a previously healthy neonate and include findings from amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) and MRI. PMID:22802366

  2. Visual outcome in children with congenital hemiplegia: correlation with MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, E; Spanò, M; Bruccini, G; Frisone, M F; Trombetta, J C; Blandino, A; Longo, M; Guzzetta, F

    1996-08-01

    Fourteen children with congenital hemiplegia were studied with a detailed assessment of various aspects of vision (linear acuity, stereopsis, visual fields) and MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a congenital lesion on visual function. The results showed a very high incidence (78%) of children who had abnormal results on at least one of the visual tests. Visual abnormalities were not correlated with the clinical severity of hemiplegia or with a specific pattern of lesion on MRI. Similarly no constant association could be found between visual structures (optic radiations and primary visual cortex) and visual function. Finally, our results would suggest that all the children with congenital hemiplegia need to be investigated irrespective of the clinical severity or of the type or the extent of the lesion. This would help to identify children with minor visual abnormalities which can affect everyday life performance.

  3. Retardation of myelination due to dietary vitamin B12 deficiency: cranial MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Lövblad, K; Ramelli, G; Remonda, L; Nirkko, A C; Ozdoba, C; Schroth, G

    1997-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is known to be associated with signs of demyelination, usually in the spinal cord. Lack of vitamin B12 in the maternal diet during pregnancy has been shown to cause severe retardation of myelination in the nervous system. We report the case of a 14(1)/2-month-old child of strictly vegetarian parents who presented with severe psychomotor retardation. This severely hypotonic child had anemia due to insufficient maternal intake of vitamin B12 with associated megaloblastic anemia. MRI of the brain revealed severe brain atrophy with signs of retarded myelination, the frontal and temporal lobes being most severely affected. It was concluded that this myelination retardation was due to insufficient intake of vitamin B12 and vitamin B12 therapy was instituted. The patient responded well with improvement of clinical and imaging abnormalities. We stress the importance of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected diseases of myelination.

  4. An unusual breast lesion: the ultrasonographic, mammographic, MRI and nuclear medicine findings of mammary hibernoma

    PubMed Central

    Martini, N; Londero, V; Machin, P; Travaini, L L; Zuiani, C; Bazzocchi, M; Paganelli, G

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old woman being treated for an ovarian cancer who was diagnosed at the age of 40. A CT–positron emission tomography (PET) scan performed as follow-up documented abnormal uptake in the right breast. Mammograms were negative for malignancy, while a focal hyperechoic lesion was observed on ultrasonography in the same breast. Thus, she was referred to our institution for breast MRI, which showed a focal area of enhancement with atypical features. Percutaneous biopsy was performed, and a mammary hibernoma was diagnosed. Radiological and pathological correlation was provided. To our knowledge, this is the only report that describes the features of this rare tumour on four different imaging modalities (mammography, ultrasonography, MRI and CT–PET). PMID:20139247

  5. Epilepsy and phenylketonuria: a case description and EEG-fMRI findings.

    PubMed

    Guida, Melania; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Fabbri, Serena; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Cosottini, Mirco; Giorgi, Filippo Sean

    2014-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by phenylalanine accumulation due to phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Up to 50% of PKU patients experience seizures. We evaluated an adult PKU patient who suffered from absences and primarily generalized tonicclonic seizures, associated with generalized spikeand-wave discharges (GSWs) on EEG. An analysis of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during interictal epileptiform discharges showed early activation of the left perirolandic cortex followed by a BOLD signal decrease within cortical regions belonging to the default mode network and left frontoparietal cortex. Moreover, deactivation of the head of the right caudate nucleus and the left thalamus was observed. The fMRI pattern observed in our patient during GSWs is similar but not identical to that observed in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, suggesting different neurophysiological mechanisms. This is the first description of BOLD-fMRI patterns in a PKU patient with epilepsy. Similar studies in more patients might help to uncover the pathophysiology of seizures in this disease.

  6. Intraorbital Encephalocele Presenting with Exophthalmos and Orbital Dystopia : CT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Yaldiz, Can; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old female patient with progressive pulsatile exophthalmos caused by intraorbital encephalocele was evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our clinic. She had no history of trauma or reconstructive surgery. When she was a little girl, she had undergone surgery for congenital glaucoma on the right eye. On the three-dimensional image of CT, a hypoplasic bone defect was observed in the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone. MRI and CT scan showed herniation through this defect of the arachnoid membrane and protruded cerebral tissue into the right orbita. Intraorbital encephalocele is an important entity that can cause pulsatile exophthalmos and blindness. PMID:25674346

  7. Primary lymphoma of the gallbladder accompanied by cirrhosis: CT and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Batur, Abdussamed; Odev, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old patient with cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis B was admitted to the hospital for routine controls. An ultrasonographic examination demonstrated a soft tissue mass originating from the gallbladder. A CT scan and after 3 months a dynamic liver MRI were performed for the possible diagnosis. Based on these imaging studies, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathological examination diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:24827653

  8. Anatomical patterns and correlated MRI findings of non-perinatal hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    White, M L; Zhang, Y; Helvey, J T; Omojola, M F

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Non-perinatal hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) has varying anatomical patterns dependent on the type of insult, the degree and duration of cerebral hypoxia, or presence and degree of hypoperfusion. Profound insults can affect the entire cerebral cortex or just the perirolandic cortex, the cerebellum and the deep grey matter structures. Less severe insults may affect only the watershed regions. The objective of this article is to review the anatomical patterns of non-perinatal HIEs by MRI. PMID:23255548

  9. Anatomical patterns and correlated MRI findings of non-perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    White, M L; Zhang, Y; Helvey, J T; Omojola, M F

    2013-01-01

    Non-perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) has varying anatomical patterns dependent on the type of insult, the degree and duration of cerebral hypoxia, or presence and degree of hypoperfusion. Profound insults can affect the entire cerebral cortex or just the perirolandic cortex, the cerebellum and the deep grey matter structures. Less severe insults may affect only the watershed regions. The objective of this article is to review the anatomical patterns of non-perinatal HIEs by MRI.

  10. MRI findings reveal three different types of tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Anne; Grant, Ellen P.; Madan, Neel; Jarrett, Delma Y.; Lyczkowski, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Cortical tubers are very common in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and widely vary in size, appearance and location. The relationship between tuber features and clinical phenotype is unclear. The aim of the study is to propose a classification of tuber types along a spectrum of severity, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in 35 patients with TSC and history of epilepsy, and to investigate the relationship between tuber types and genetics, as well as clinical manifestations. Three types of tubers were identified based on the MRI signal intensity of their subcortical white matter component. (1) Tubers Type A are isointense on volumetric T1 images and subtly hyperintense on T2 weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR); (2) Type B are hypointense on volumetric T1 images and homogeneously hyperintense on T2 weighted and FLAIR; (3) Type C are hypointense on volumetric T1 images, hyperintense on T2 weighted, and heterogeneous on FLAIR characterized by a hypointense central region surrounded by a hyperintense rim. Based on the dominant tuber type present, three distinct patient groups were also identified: Patients with Type A tuber dominance have a milder phenotype. Patients with Type C tuber dominance have more MRI abnormalities such as subependymal giant cell tumors, and were more likely to have an autism spectrum disorder, a history of infantile spasms, and a higher frequency of epileptic seizures, compared to patients who have a dominance in Type B tubers, and especially to those with a Type A dominance. PMID:20352250

  11. A case of mass-forming splenic tuberculosis: MRI findings with emphasis of diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jihe; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Hong, Soon Won; Chung, Jae-Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2011-03-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the most prevalent and fatal infectious diseases in spite of considerable improvements in medical science. The diagnosis and treatment of extrapulmonary tuberculosis involving the abdomen is still complicated owing to vague or non-specific clinical features. Although rare, isolated splenic involvement is one of the important manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and imaging suspicion of the disease is essential. We report a case of surgically confirmed mass-forming splenic tuberculosis showing a layered pattern consisting of caseous necrosis with profound restriction of water molecules surrounded by an irregular rind of granulation tissue with less diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). In the differential diagnosis of neoplastic or non-neoplastic mass-forming lesions involving the spleen, this unique DWI feature could be helpful in characterizing splenic tuberculosis. The patient has been in clinically disease free status for nearly 20 months after splenectomy.

  12. Successful conservative management of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects presenting with cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Kwee, Thomas C; Sonneveld, Heleen; Nix, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    The dorsal patellar defect is a relatively rare entity that involves the superolateral quadrant of the patella. It is usually considered to represent a delayed ossification process, although its exact origin remains unclear. Because of its usually innocuous nature and clinical course, invasive interventions are generally deemed unnecessary, although curretage has been successfully performed on symptomatic cases. This case report presents a rather unusual case of symptomatic bilateral dorsal patellar defects with cartilage involvement and widespread surrounding bone marrow edema as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both cartilage involvement and bone marrow edema should be considered part of the spectrum of associated MRI findings that can be encountered in this entity. Furthermore, the presented case shows that symptomatic dorsal patellar defects can be treated conservatively with success and that (decrease of) pain symptoms are likely related to (decrease of) bone marrow edema.

  13. Characteristic MRI findings in hyperglycaemia-induced seizures: diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, E J; Kim, K K; Lee, E K; Lee, J E

    2016-12-01

    To describe characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in hyperglycaemia-induced seizures, and evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging. Possible underlying mechanisms of this condition are also discussed. Eleven patients with hyperglycaemia-induced seizures and MRI abnormalities were retrospectively studied. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, MRI findings, and clinical outcomes were analysed. All patients, except one, presented with focal seizures, simple or complex partial seizures, or negative motor seizures. All patients had long-standing uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The MRI abnormalities observed acutely were focal subcortical hypointensities on T2-weighted imaging and FLAIR imaging in all patients with overlying cortical gyral T2 hyperintensities in five. Focal overlying cortical or leptomeningeal enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging or contrast-enhanced FLAIR imaging was observed in all patients. Contrast-enhanced FLAIR imaging was superior to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging for detecting characteristic cortical or leptomeningeal enhancement. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed mildly restricted diffusion in four of five patients with cortical gyral T2 hyperintensity. In nine patients, the lesions were localised in the parietal or parieto-occipital lobes. The other two patients showed localised precentral gyral lesions. After treatment, the neurological symptoms, including the seizures, improved in all patients. On clinical recovery, the subcortical T2 hypointensity, gyral or leptomeningeal enhancement, and overlying cortical T2 hyperintensities resolved. Recognition of these radiological abnormalities in patients with hyperglycaemia-induced seizures is important in restricting unwarranted investigations and initiating early therapy. These patients generally have a good prognosis. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by

  14. Rotator cuff tears: correlation between geometric tear patterns on MRI and arthroscopy and pre- and postoperative clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Sela, Yaron; Eshed, Iris; Shapira, Shachar; Oran, Ariel; Vogel, Guy; Herman, Amir; Perry Pritsch, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered to be the best non-invasive procedure for the evaluation of rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears. Burkhart's classification is a geometric classification of full-thickness RC tears on MRI. To correlate MRI and arthroscopic geometric full-thickness RC tears according to the Burkhart's classification with pre- and postoperative clinical findings. Patients who underwent arthroscopic RC repair between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Preoperative MRI and arthroscopic surgical reports were reviewed for tear geometry (Burkhart's) by three (1 radiologist, 2 surgeons) and two (surgeons) readers. MRIs were also evaluated for tear size and change of tear size in successive sagittal sections and for muscle mass and fatty infiltration. Clinical examinations were performed preoperatively and at least 12 months afterwards. Postoperative function questionnaires were filled in by the patients. Forty-six patients (35 men, 11 women; mean age, 57 years; range, 41-72 years) were evaluated. Tears depicted on MRIs were classified as crescent in 11 patients (24%), longitudinal in three (6.5%), massive contracted in 29 (63%), and cuff arthropathy in three (6.5%). Muscle changes were noted almost exclusively in patients with massive tears and cuff arthropathy (16/32 patients, P = 0.013). MRIs and arthroscopic geometric classifications were in close agreement. Tear type did not correlate with pre- and postoperative physical examination or with postoperative clinical questionnaires scores. Geometric RC tear characterizations on preoperative MRIs were closely associated with arthroscopic findings. Postoperative results were not affected by the geometric pattern of the tears. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Clinical implications of increased use of MRI in TIA.

    PubMed

    Kvistad, C E; Thomassen, L; Waje-Andreassen, U; Moen, G; Logallo, N; Naess, H

    2013-07-01

    Transient ischemic attack has been redefined as a tissue-based diagnosis and MRI recommended as the preferred imaging modality. We aimed to investigate whether an increased use of MRI leads to a decrease in the proportion of TIA as compared to cerebral infarction. We also sought to see whether DWI-positive patients with transient ischemic symptoms <24 h differ from DWI-negative TIA patients in terms of performed diagnostic investigations and clinical characteristics. Patients admitted with cerebral infarction or TIA in the period 2006-2011 were prospectively registered. The use of MRI in patients with transient ischemic symptoms <24 h and proportion of TIA were annually recorded. DWI-positive and DWI-negative patients with transient ischemic symptoms <24 h were compared in univariate analyses regarding baseline data, diagnostic investigations, and etiology. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of DWI lesions. The use of MRI increased from 65.0% in 2006-2008 to 89.0% in 2009-2011 (P < 0.001). The proportion of TIA as compared to cerebral infarction decreased from 12.2% in 2006-2008 to 8.3% in 2009-2011 (P = 0.002). DWI-positive patients were more often examined with 24-h Holter monitoring (P < 0.001) and echocardiography (P < 0.001). Lower age (P < 0.001) and prior myocardial infarction (P < 0.029) were independently associated with DWI lesions in patients with transient ischemic symptoms <24 h. An increased use of MRI and a tissue-based TIA definition resulted in a decrease in the proportion of TIA at discharge as compared to cerebral infarction. DWI-positive patients had a more extensive cardiac work-up and were associated with lower age and prior myocardial infarction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. MRI findings of new uptake in the femoral head detected on follow-up bone scans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kang, Yusuhn; Choi, Ja-Young; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to suggest clinical indications for MRI in patients with breast cancer who have new uptake lesions in the femoral head on follow-up bone scans, by evaluating the incidence and causes of new uptake lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Between January 2002 and July 2013, a total of 145 patients with breast cancer who showed new uptake in the femoral head on follow-up bone scans were included in our study. They were classified into two groups: group 1 consisted of 125 patients without known bone metastases, and group 2 consisted of 20 patients who already had bone metastases other than that in the femoral head. The Fisher exact test was performed for the statistical analysis. Thereafter, we reviewed MR images for characterization of the new abnormal uptake in the femoral head. RESULTS. New uptake lesions in the femoral head were metastatic in only 4.8% (6/125) of group 1 patients but in 75% (15/20) of group 2 patients (p < 0.0001). In both groups, no patient with a single uptake lesion in the femoral head had bone metastasis, whereas all patients with more than five new uptake lesions, including those of the femoral head, showed bone metastasis. Most MRI diagnoses for new uptake in the femoral head were fibrocystic change (15/30, 50%) and subchondral fracture (11/30, 36.7%). CONCLUSION. Most of the new uptake lesions in the femoral head detected on the follow-up bone scans in patients with breast cancer were benign. However, MRI could be considered in patients with known bone metastasis or with multiple new uptake lesions on bone scans.

  17. MRI findings in AOA2: Cerebellar atrophy and abnormal iron detection in dentate nucleus☆

    PubMed Central

    Frismand, Solène; Salem, Hannoun; Panouilleres, Muriel; Pélisson, Denis; Jacobs, Stéphane; Vighetto, Alain; Cotton, François; Tilikete, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is one of the most frequent types of autosomal degenerative cerebellar ataxia. The first objective of this work was to identify specific cerebellar atrophy using MRI in patients with AOA2. Since increased iron deposits have been reported in degenerative diseases, our second objective was to report iron deposits signals in the dentate nuclei in AOA2. Five patients with AOA2 and 5 age-matched controls were subjects in a 3T MRI experiment that included a 3D turbo field echo T1-weighted sequence. The normalized volumes of twenty-eight cerebellar lobules and the percentage of atrophy (relative to controls) of the 4 main cerebellar regions (flocculo-nodular, vermis, anterior and posterior) were measured. The dentate nucleus signals using 3D fast field echo sequence for susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) were reported, as a measure of iron content. We found that all patients had a significant atrophy of all cerebellar lobules as compared to controls. The percentage of atrophy was the highest for the vermis, consistent with patients' oculomotor presentation, and for the anterior lobe, consistent with kinetic limb ataxia. We also describe an absence of hypointensity of the iron signal on SWI in the dentate nucleus of all patients compared to control subjects. This study suggests that patients with Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 present MRI patterns consistent with their clinical presentation. The absence of SWI hypointensity in dentate nucleus is a new radiological sign which was identified in all patients. The specificity of this absence of signal must be further determined in AOA2. PMID:24179805

  18. Amyloidoma Involving the Orbit, Meckel's Cave and Infratemporal Fossa: 3T MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Menetti, F; Bartolomei, I; Ambrosini-Spaltro, A; Salvi, F; Agati, R; Leonardi, M

    2009-03-23

    Amyloidoma is a rare lesion characterized by tissue deposition of an abnormal fibrillary protein (amyloid). It is the focal and localized counterpart of systemic amyloidosis, where the deposition of amyloid diffusely involves several organs. The few literature reports of intracranial amyloidomas include lesions involving the pituitary gland, orbit, cerebral hemispheres, temporal bone, cerebellopontine angle and jugular foramen. We describe the case of a 27-year-old woman presenting with painless slowly progressive proptosis of the right eye. The patient underwent a contrast-enhanced CT study of the head, followed by 3T MRI which disclosed a homogeneous mass in the right Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus, extending through an enlarged foramen ovale to the infratemporal fossa. The right optic nerve and ocular muscles were enlarged and infiltrated along with the retrobulbar fat by contrast-enhancing tissue. Thin contrast-enhanced MRI scans through the area of interest showed the mass to extend posterior to the gasserian ganglion, involving the cerebellopontine angle cistern, where the intracisternal parts of the III, V, and VI nerves bilaterally appeared enlarged and showed perineural enhancement. The lesion closely mimicked a malignant tumor with perineural tumor infiltration, so we performed fine needle biopsy of the portion of the lesion near the right foramen ovale under fluoroscopic guidance. Histopathology revealed that the lesion was an amyloidoma. Further clinical and blood examinations, serum chemistry, followed by biopsy of the periumbilical fat showed no signs of systemic amyloidosis or an underlying inflammatory or neoplastic disorder. No further treatment was instituted, follow-up MRI six months later showed no enlargement of the mass.

  19. Acute intervertebral disc extrusion in a cat: clinical and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Lamb, C R; Wesselingh, K; Targett, M P

    2002-03-01

    A 5 year old, neutered male, domestic shorthaired cat had acute left hemiparesis and Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a loss of the normal signal from the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc at C3/4, narrowing of the ventral subarachnoid space and slight dorsal displacement of the spinal cord and a focal hyperintense lesion affecting the left side of the spinal cord at the same level. The presumptive diagnosis was focal spinal cord oedema associated with intervertebral disc extrusion. A traumatic aetiology was suspected. The cat was treated conservatively and improved gradually over a period of 6 months. Copyright 2002 ESFM and AAFP.

  20. Granular cell tumour of the breast: MRI findings and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scaranelo, A M; Bukhanov, K; Crystal, P; Mulligan, A M; O'Malley, F P

    2007-12-01

    Granular cell tumours (GCTs) are uncommon, usually benign neoplasms that can mimic malignancy on breast imaging. GCTs can originate anywhere in the body but are most frequently found in the head and neck area, particularly in the oral cavity. When occurring in the breast, as occurs in 5-8% of all cases of GCT, the clinical presentation is similar to that of a primary breast carcinoma. We report a case of granular cell tumour of the breast presenting as a suspicious lesion on breast imaging, and review the MRI features of GCTs.

  1. Functional hemispherotomy in Rasmussen syndrome in the absence of classic MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Yasunori; Joshi, Charuta; Dlouhy, Brian; Wu, Angela Y; Abel, Taylor J; Baumbach, Gary; Kawasaki, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    A 7-year-old previously healthy girl presented with a left-sided focal seizure without impaired consciousness and subsequently developed epilepsia partialis continua. Initial MRI was normal, and the subsequent images only showed a focal T2/FLAIR hyperintense area without cortical atrophy. She was diagnosed with Rasmussen syndrome by pathology and promptly treated with functional hemispherotomy. Rasmussen syndrome is a rare progressive neurological disorder, the only definitive cure for which is hemispheric disconnection. The disease presents a management dilemma, especially early in disease course without characteristic neuroimaging features. A high index of suspicion, multidisciplinary approach, and clear timely communication with the family are critical.

  2. Cardiac involvement in Erdheim- Chester disease: MRI findings and literature revision

    PubMed Central

    Puglia, Marta; Barbuto, Luigi; Solla, Raffaele; Altiero, Michele; Lubrano, Valentina; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by the involvement of several organs. The lesions may be skeletal or extra-skeletal: in particular, long bones, skin, lungs, and the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems can be affected. In this report, we describe a case of a 34-year-old man, who came to our observation with symptomatic ECD, for a correct assessment of the degree of cardiac involvement through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:26405559

  3. Efficacy of HGF carried by ultrasound microbubble-cationic nano-liposomes complex for treating hepatic fibrosis in a bile duct ligation rat model, and its relationship with the diffusion-weighted MRI parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shou-hong; Wen, Kun-ming; Wu, Wei; Li, Wen-yan; Zhao, Jian-nong

    2013-12-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a major consequence of liver aggression. Finding novel ways for counteracting this damaging process, and for evaluating fibrosis with a non-invasive imaging approach, represent important therapeutic and diagnostic challenges. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an anti-fibrosis cell growth factor that induces apoptosis in activated hepatic stellate cells, reduces excessive collagen deposition, and stimulates hepatocyte regeneration. Thus, using HGF in gene therapy against liver fibrosis is an attractive approach. The aims of the present study were: (i) to explore the efficacy of treating liver fibrosis using HGF expression vector carried by a novel ultrasound microbubble delivery system; (ii) to explore the diagnostic interest of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI-MRI) in evaluating liver fibrosis. We established a rat model of hepatic fibrosis. The rats were administered HGF linked to novel ultrasound micro-bubbles. Progression of hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology, hydroxyproline content, and DWI-MRI to determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Our targeted gene therapy produced a significant anti-fibrosis effect, as shown by liver histology and significant reduction of hydroxyproline content. Moreover, using DWI-MRI, the b value (diffusion gradient factor) was equal to 300s/mm(2), and the ADC values significantly decreased as the severity of hepatic fibrosis increased. Using this methodology, F0-F2 could be distinguished from F3 and F4 (P<0.01). This is the first in vivo report of using an ultrasound microbubble-cationic nano-liposome complex for gene delivery. The data indicate that, this approach is efficient to counteract the fibrosis process. DWI-MRI appears a promising imaging technique for evaluating liver fibrosis.

  4. Interictal Electroencephalography (EEG) Findings in Children with Epilepsy and Bilateral Brain Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Zubcevic, Smail; Milos, Maja; Catibusic, Feriha; Uzicanin, Sajra; Krdzalic, Belma

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging procedures and electroencephalography (EEG) are basic parts of investigation of patients with epilepsies. The aim is to try to assess relationship between bilaterally localized brain lesions found in routine management of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy and their interictal EEG findings. Total amount of 68 patients filled criteria for inclusion in the study that was performed at Neuropediatrics Department, Pediatric Hospital, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, or its outpatient clinic. There were 33 girls (48,5%) and 35 boys (51,5%). Average age at diagnosis of epilepsy was 3,5 years. Both neurological and neuropsychological examination in the moment of making diagnosis of epilepsy was normal in 27 (39,7%) patients, and showed some kind of delay or other neurological finding in 41 (60,3%). Brain MRI showed lesions that can be related to antenatal or perinatal events in most of the patients (ventricular dilation in 30,9%, delayed myelination and post-hypoxic changes in 27,9%). More than half of patients (55,9%) showed bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges on their EEGs, and further 14,7% had other kinds of bilateral abnormalities. Frequency of bilateral epileptic discharges showed statistically significant predominance on level of p<0,05. Cross tabulation between specific types of bilateral brain MRI lesions and EEG finding did not reveal significant type of EEG for assessed brain lesions. We conclude that there exists relationship between bilaterally localized brain MRI lesions and interictal bilateral epileptiform or nonspecific EEG findings in children with newly diagnosed epilepsies. These data are suggesting that in cases when they do not correlate there is a need for further investigation of seizure etiology.

  5. Using a multidimensional Rasch model approach to measure the police's perceived ability to detect, detain and intercept DWI vehicles when conducting sobriety checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Shih, Chang-Ku

    2012-09-01

    This study developed a scale to measure 502 Taiwan traffic police officers' perceived ability to detect, detain, and intercept those vehicles whose drivers are driving while intoxicated (DWI) when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Through factor analysis, the officers' enforcement ability was found to consist of two component latent traits: detecting ability (DA) and detaining and intercepting ability (DIA). A multidimensional approach of Rasch models was then applied to measure the police officers' perceived abilities and particular difficulties in conducting sobriety checkpoints. The study results indicated that the majority of police officers performed well in detecting DWI vehicles, but half of the study participants lacked confidence in detaining DWI vehicles and intercepting escaping DWI vehicles. DWI with weaving was found to be the most aggressive and threatening behavior to traffic police when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Police officers over age 46 were found to have significantly lower DA and DIA, while branch captains were found to have significantly higher DA than their colleagues. Several strategies and programs are suggested based on the study findings to improve the enforcement ability of police officers.

  6. Post traumatic deafness: a pictorial review of CT and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Olivier; Attyé, Arnaud; Boyer, Eric; Heck, Olivier; Kastler, Adrian; Grand, Sylvie; Schmerber, Sébastien; Krainik, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is a common functional disorder after trauma, and radiologists should be aware of the ossicular, labyrinthine or brain lesions that may be responsible. After a trauma, use of a systematic approach to explore the main functional components of auditory pathways is essential. Conductive hearing loss is caused by the disruption of the conductive chain, which may be due to ossicular luxation or fracture. This pictorial review firstly describes the normal 2-D and 3-D anatomy of the ossicular chain, including the incudo-malleolar and incudo-stapedial joints. The role of 3-D CT in the post-traumatic evaluation of injury to the temporal bone is then evaluated. In the case of sensorineural hearing loss, CT can detect pneumolabyrinth and signs of perilymphatic fistulae but fails to detect subtle lesions within the inner ear, such as labyrinthine haemorrhage or localized brain axonal damage along central auditory pathways. The role that MRI with 3-D-FLAIR acquisition plays in the detection of inner ear haemorrhage and post-traumatic lesions of the brain parenchyma that may lead to auditory agnosia is also discussed. • The most common middle ear injuries are incudo-malleolar and incudo-stapedial joint luxation. • In patients with SNHL, CT can detect pneumolabyrinth or perilymphatic fistula • 3-D-FLAIR MRI appears the best sequence to highlight labyrinthine haemorrhage • Axonal damage and brain hematoma may lead to deafness.

  7. Epilepsy and phenylketonuria: a case description and EEG-fMRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Melania; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Fabbri, Serena; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Cosottini, Mirco; Giorgi, Filippo Sean

    2014-01-01

    Summary Phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by phenylalanine accumulation due to phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Up to 50% of PKU patients experience seizures. We evaluated an adult PKU patient who suffered from absences and primarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures, associated with generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWs) on EEG. An analysis of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during interictal epileptiform discharges showed early activation of the left perirolandic cortex followed by a BOLD signal decrease within cortical regions belonging to the default mode network and left frontoparietal cortex. Moreover, deactivation of the head of the right caudate nucleus and the left thalamus was observed. The fMRI pattern observed in our patient during GSWs is similar but not identical to that observed in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, suggesting different neurophysiological mechanisms. This is the first description of BOLD-fMRI patterns in a PKU patient with epilepsy. Similar studies in more patients might help to uncover the pathophysiology of seizures in this disease. PMID:25014052

  8. A CAD system for assessment of MRI findings to track the progression of multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Alexis; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zee, Chi-Shing; Guo, Bing; Liu, Brent J.

    2007-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease affecting myelin pathways. MRI has become the medical imaging study of choice both for the diagnosis and for the follow-up and monitoring of multiple sclerosis. The progression of the disease is variable, and requires routine follow-up to document disease exacerbation, improvement, or stability of the characteristic MS lesions or plaques. The difficulties with using MRI as a monitoring tool are the significant quantities of time needed by the radiologist to actually measure the size of the lesions, and the poor reproducibility of these manual measurements. A CAD system for automatic image analysis improves clinical efficiency and standardizes the lesion measurements. Multiple sclerosis is a disease well suited for automated analysis. The segmentation algorithm devised classifies normal and abnormal brain structures and measures the volume of multiple sclerosis lesions using fuzzy c-means clustering with incorporated spatial (sFCM) information. First, an intracranial structures mask in T1 image data is localized and then superimposed in FLAIR image data. Next, MS lesions are identified by sFCM and quantified within a predefined volume. The initial validation process confirms a satisfactory comparison of automatic segmentation to manual outline by a neuroradiologist and the results will be presented.

  9. Isolated mild white matter signal changes in preterm infants: a regional approach for comparison of cranial ultrasound and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, M; Ben Bashat, D; Gross-Tsur, V; Leitner, Y; Berger, I; Marom, R; Geva, R; Uliel, S; Ben-Sira, L

    2014-06-01

    To compare echogenicity detected using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by identical region-based scoring criteria in preterm infants. To explore the association between these white matter (WM) signal changes with early neurobehavior. Forty-nine pre-selected premature infants with only echogenicity on a first routine cUS1 underwent MRI and a repeated cUS2 at term equivalent age. Echogenicity and DEHSI were graded in various brain areas and diffusivity values were calculated. Neurobehavior was assessed using the Rapid Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Procedure. WM signal changes were significantly higher on cUS1 than cUS2; and higher in MRI than cUS2 in posterior regions. Infants with DEHSI demonstrated reduced tissue integrity. Imaging findings were not correlated with early neurobehavior. Echogenicity and DEHSI likely represent the same phenomenon. Reduction of over-interpretation of WM signal changes may help define criteria for the judicious use of imaging in routine follow-up of premature infants.

  10. The relationship between MRI findings and the relative signal intensity of retrodiscal tissue in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hwa; Yoon, Hyun-Joong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the relative signal intensity (RSI) of retrodiscal tissue in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) and to determine the usefulness of RSI as a diagnostic marker. One hundred and thirty-two temporomandibular joints in 66 TMD patients were analyzed. The signal intensities of regions of interest (ROIs) in retrodiscal tissues were measured using T2-weighted MRI. The RSIs of retrodiscal tissues were referenced to the signal intensities of the ROIs of brain gray matter. The relationships between the RSI of retrodiscal tissue and condylar degenerative change (Wilcoxon rank sum test), joint effusion (Wilcoxon rank sum test), disc position (Kruskal-Wallis test), pain (Wilcoxon rank sum test), and limited mouth opening (Wilcoxon rank sum test) were determined. A strong association was seen between retrodiscal-tissue RSI and disc displacement, joint effusion, condylar degenerative change, and joint pain. Limited mouth opening did not significantly correlate with retrodiscal-tissue RSI. The retrodiscal-tissue RSI for T2-weighted MRI is a valuable noninvasive tool for monitoring the progression of TMD. Additional clinical studies are warranted.

  11. Second-generation autologous chondrocyte transplantation: MRI findings and clinical correlations at a minimum 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kon, E; Di Martino, A; Filardo, G; Tetta, C; Busacca, M; Iacono, F; Delcogliano, M; Albisinni, U; Marcacci, M

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of hyaluronan-based arthroscopic autologous chondrocyte transplantation at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up and to correlate it with the MRI evaluation parameters. Fifty consecutive patients were included in the study and evaluated clinically using the Cartilage Standard Evaluation Form as proposed by ICRS and the Tegner score. Forty lesions underwent MRI evaluation at a minimum 5-year follow-up. For the description and evaluation of the graft, we employed the MOCART-scoring system. A statistically significant improvement in all clinical scores was observed at 2 and over 5 years. The total MOCART score and the signal intensity (3D-GE-FS) of the repair tissue were statistically correlated to the IKDC subjective evaluation. Larger size of the treated cartilage lesions had a negative influence on the degree of defect repair and filling, the integration to the border zone and the subchondral lamina integrity, whereas more intensive sport activity had a positive influence on the signal intensity of the repair tissue, the repair tissue surface, and the clinical outcome. Our findings confirm the durability of the clinical results obtained with Hyalograft C and the usefulness of MRI as a non-invasive method for the evaluation of the repaired tissue and the outcome after second-generation autologous transplantation over time. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult: A Case Report of CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-12-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings.A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180 s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation.Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH.

  13. [Diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Mueller-Lisse, U G; Mueller-Lisse, U L; Zamecnik, P; Schlemmer, H-P W; Scherr, M K

    2011-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can complement MRI of the prostate in the detection and localization of prostate cancer, particularly after previous negative biopsy. A total of 13 original reports and 2 reviews published in 2010 demonstrate that prostate cancer can be detected by DWI due to its increased cell density and decreased diffusiveness, either qualitatively in DWI images or quantitatively by means of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). In the prostate, the ADC is influenced by the strength of diffusion weighting, localization (peripheral or transitional zone), presence of prostatitis or hemorrhage and density and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Mean differences between healthy tissue of the peripheral zone and prostate cancer appear to be smaller for ADC than for the (choline + creatine)/citrate ratio in MR spectroscopy. Test quality parameters vary greatly between different studies but appear to be slightly better for combined MRI and DWI than for MRI of the prostate alone. Clinical validation of DWI of the prostate requires both increased technical conformity and increased numbers of patients in clinical studies.

  14. A descriptive study to find possible correlation between MRI findings of pituitary gland and serum prolactin level.

    PubMed

    Azeemuddin, Muhammad; Naqi, Rohana; Wasay, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    To explore equation, if any, between findings of magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary gland and serum prolactin level. The retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and related to patients' records from April 19, 2006 to April 23, 2009. Seventy patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of brain for pituitary gland. Inclusion criteria were all patients referred with relevant clinical symptoms or deranged serum prolactin level. Patients who were claustrophobic or had a pacemaker, aneurysm clip, metallic foreign body in the orbit or with no laboratory investigation were excluded from the study. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 70 patients, normal imaging was noted in 29 (41.4%) patients. Out of these, 18 (62.06%) patients had normal and 11 (37.93%) had raised serum prolactin levels. Microadenoma was found in 23 (32.8%) patients. Out of these, 10 (42.47%) had normal and 13 (56.52%) had raised prolactin levels. Macroadenoma was found in 16 (22.8 %). Out of these, 8 (50%) had normal and 8 (50%) had raised prolactin levels. Pituitary cyst was located in 2 (2.8 %) patients. Out of these, 1 (50%) had normal and 1 (50%) had raised serum prolactin levels. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary gland was not associated with serum prolactin levels in patients with clinical suspicion of pituitary abnormality. Therefore, regular monitoring of serum prolactin is suggested.

  15. POTENTIAL OF MRI FINDINGS TO REFINE CASE DEFINITION FOR MECHANICAL LOW BACK PAIN IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Endean, Alison; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David

    2011-01-01

    Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis Objective To assess how confidently LBP can be attributed to abnormalities on MRI, and thereby explore the potential value of MRI abnormalities in refining case definition for mechanical low back pain (LBP) in epidemiological research. Summary of background data Most epidemiological studies of mechanical LBP have defined cases only by reported symptoms, but it is possible that the potency of causes differs according to whether or not there is demonstrable underlying spinal pathology. Methods We reviewed the published literature on MRI abnormalities, looking for data on the repeatability of their assessment, their prevalence in people free from LBP, and their association with LBP. Where data were sufficient, we calculated a summary estimate of prevalence in people without LBP and a meta-estimate of the odds ratio for the association with LBP. A formula was then applied to estimate the corresponding prevalence rate ratio (PRR), assuming three possible prevalence rates for LBP in the general population. Results Data were most extensive for disc protrusion, nerve root displacement/compression, disc degeneration and high intensity zone (HIZ), all of which could be assessed repeatably. All were associated with LBP, meta-estimates of odds ratios ranging from 2.3 (nerve root displacement/compression) to 3.6 (disc protrusion). However, even for disc protrusion, estimates of the corresponding PRRs were mostly less than two. Conclusion MRI findings of disc protrusion, nerve root displacement/compression, disc degeneration and HIZ are all associated with LBP, but individually, none of these abnormalities provides a strong indication that LBP is attributable to underlying pathology. This limits their value in refining epidemiological case definitions for LBP. PMID:20739918

  16. Perirolandic hypoperfusion on single-photon emission computed tomography in term infants with perinatal asphyxia: comparison with MRI and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Yoon, C S; Ryu, Y H; Kim, D I; Park, C I; Lee, S; Yoon, P H; Jeon, T J; Lee, J D

    2000-12-01

    We describe the findings on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with perinatal asphyxia at term, with perirolandic cortico-subcortical changes on MRI, and to correlate them with clinical features. SPECT of 7 patients was obtained after injection of 185-370 MBq of Tc-99m-ECD (ethyl cysteinate dimer). The patients had spastic quadriplegia (7/7) with perinatal asphyxia (6/7) at term (7/7). The results were correlated with the MRI findings. Hypoperfusion of the perirolandic cortex was clearly seen on SPECT in all patients, even in two with subtle changes on MRI. SPECT demonstrated a more extensive area of involvement than MRI, notably in the cerebellum (in 4), the thalamus (in 7) and basal ganglia (in 5), where MRI failed to show any abnormalities.

  17. A Child with elemental mercury poisoning and unusual brain MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Abbaslou, Parvin; Zaman, Talieh

    2006-01-01

    Mercury vapor poisoning is a serious and potentially fatal problem. Neurological manifestations involving the central nervous system are seen with chronic mercury intoxication. We present the case of a 10-year-old child who demonstrated acrodynia, seizures, and visual impairment following 20 days of exposure to elemental mercury at home. The initial blood mercury concentration was 27.7 microg/L (normal <2 microg/L) and the initial 24-hour urine mercury concentration was 34.4 microg/L (normal =10 microg/L). After 9 months of treatment with D-penicillamine, the patient's clinical condition, biochemical laboratory parameters, and mercury concentrations all returned to normal. The T2-weighted MRI images of the patient's brain initially showed multiple hyperintense lesions in cerebral white matter, left globus pallidus, and putamen, which also improved.

  18. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Two Malaysian Siblings with Abnormal MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bee Chin; Mohd Rawi, Rowani; Meinsma, Rutger; Meijer, Judith; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; van Kuilenburg, André B.P.

    2014-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the pyrimidine metabolism. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to an accumulation of thymine and uracil and a deficiency of metabolites distal to the catabolic enzyme. The disorder presents with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic to severe neurological manifestations, including intellectual disability, seizures, microcephaly, autistic behavior, and eye abnormalities. Here, we report on an 11-year-old Malaysian girl and her 6-year-old brother with DPD deficiency who presented with intellectual disability, microcephaly, and hypotonia. Brain MRI scans showed generalized cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and callosal body dysgenesis in the boy. Urine analysis showed strongly elevated levels of uracil in the girl and boy (571 and 578 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively) and thymine (425 and 427 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively). Sequence analysis of the DPYD gene showed that both siblings were homozygous for the mutation c.1651G>A (pAla551Thr). PMID:25565930

  19. A small pons as a characteristic finding in Down syndrome: A quantitative MRI study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yuta; Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu; Enokizono, Mikako; Nozawa, Kumiko; Inoue, Tomio

    2017-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal aberration, but the characteristics of the brainstem component in this condition during childhood (from newborn to preteen stages) have not been clarified. To evaluate the morphological features of the brainstem in DS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRIs for 32 children with DS (16 boys and girls each; age range, 0-11years) without major brain insults, and 32 age-matched controls (16 boys and girls each) were retrospectively analyzed. Height, width, and area of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata were measured on sagittal T1-weighted images; these were compared in children with DS and age-matched controls. The ratios of the brainstem to the size of the posterior fossa (BS/PF index) were calculated; these were also compared in the children with DS and the control group. The width and area of the midbrain; height, width, area of the pons; and area of the medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in children with DS than in control children (P<0.05); the area of the pons, particularly for the ventral part, showed the largest differences in the mean relative differences. The BS/PF indices of the height, width, and area of the pons were significantly smaller in children with DS than in the control group (P<0.01). However, the BS/PF indices for the midbrain and the medulla oblongata did not differ between these two groups. Children with DS may have small brainstems, particularly in the pons; this may be a characteristic morphological feature of the brainstem on MRI in childhood including neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroxycarbamide treatment and brain MRI/MRA findings in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Nottage, Kerri A; Ware, Russell E; Aygun, Banu; Smeltzer, Matthew; Kang, Guolian; Moen, Joseph; Wang, Winfred C; Hankins, Jane S; Helton, Kathleen J

    2016-10-01

    Silent cerebral infarction (SCI) is the most common neurological abnormality among children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The effect of hydroxycarbamide (also termed hydroxyurea) on the development and progression of SCI is unclear. We evaluated brain magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) in children with SCA receiving long-term hydroxycarbamide therapy. Fifty participants (median 9·4 years, range 1·1-17·3) enrolled in the Hydroxyurea Study of Long-Term Effects (HUSTLE; NCT00305175) underwent brain MRI/MRA and laboratory evaluations before hydroxycarbamide initiation and after 3 and 6 years of treatment to maximum tolerated dose. SCI and vascular stenosis were evaluated. At baseline, 3 and 6 years, SCI were present in 19/50 (38%), 20/49 (41%), and 7/17 (41%), respectively. At 3 years, one child developed a SCI lesion, and another progressed (single lesion to multiple). Lower haemoglobin (Hb) (80 g/l vs. 86 g/l, P = 0·049), fetal Hb (5·0% vs. 10·4%, P < 0·001) and oxygen saturation (97% vs. 98%, P = 0·027) before hydroxycarbamide initiation were associated with SCI. No patients had vascular stenosis identified on MRA, transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Our data indicate that children receiving hydroxycarbamide over a 3- to 6-year period have a low rate of new or worsening cerebrovascular disease. Further studies are needed to confirm that hydroxycarbamide can prevent the onset and progression of SCI. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Admission and Treatment Strategies of DWI Courts on Offender Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank A.; Chepke, Lindsey M.; Davis, Dontrell V.; Acquah, Kofi; Zold-Kilbourne, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to classify DWI courts on the basis of the mix of difficult cases participating in the court (casemix severity) and the amount of involvement between the court and participant (service intensity). Using our classification typology, we assess how casemix severity and service intensity are associated with program outcomes. We expected that holding other factors constant, greater service intensity would improve program outcomes while a relatively severe casemix would result in worse program outcomes. Methods The study used data from 8 DWI courts, 7 from Michigan and 1 from North Carolina. Using a 2-way classification system based on court casemix severity and program intensity, we selected participants in 1 of the courts, and alternatively 2 courts as reference groups. Reference group courts had relatively severe casemixes and high service intensity. We used propensity score matching to match participants in the other courts to participants in the reference group court programs. Program outcome measures were the probabilities of participants’: failing to complete the court’s program; increasing educational attainment; participants improving employment from time of program enrollment; and re-arrest. Results For most outcomes, our main finding was that higher service intensity is associated with better outcomes for court participants, as anticipated, but a court’s casemix severity was unrelated to study outcomes. Conclusions Our results imply that devoting more resources to increasing duration of treatment is productive in terms of better outcomes, irrespective of the mix of participants in the court’s program PMID:23416679

  2. Internalizing and externalizing dimensions and alcohol use in first time DWI offenders: indirect effects through coping self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schlauch, Robert C; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A

    2012-03-01

    Using cross-sectional data and structural equation modeling, we evaluated whether coping self-efficacy to abstain from drinking in various situations accounted for the relationship between internalizing (depression, anxiety) and externalizing (aggression, low socialization) dimensions with problematic alcohol use in 292 first-time DWI offenders. Results indicated that an internalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in negative situations only, whereas an externalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in positive situations only. These findings support two potential pathways to problematic drinking behavior among DWI offenders and suggest that internalizing and externalizing dimensions may differentially predict high risk drinking situations due to one's inability to abstain in specific situations.

  3. Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions and Alcohol Use in First Time DWI Offenders: Indirect Effects Through Coping Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data and structural equation modeling, we evaluated whether coping self-efficacy to abstain from drinking in various situations accounted for the relationship between internalizing (depression, anxiety) and externalizing (aggression, low socialization) dimensions with problematic alcohol use in 292 first-time DWI offenders. Results indicated that an internalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in negative situations only, whereas an externalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in positive situations only. These findings support two potential pathways to problematic drinking behavior among DWI offenders and suggest that internalizing and externalizing dimensions may differentially predict high risk drinking situations due to one's inability to abstain in specific situations. PMID:21988478

  4. The Efficiency of Diffusion Weighted MRI and MR Spectroscopy On Breast MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Canan; Balcı, Pınar

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiologically routine is to establish an imaging protocol that will create high quality images with a short period of time. Fort this purpose, an imaging protocol should include a conventional breast MRI and contrast enhanced sequences. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are important MR techniques for evaluation to complicated breast lesions. In this article, we will evaluate that technical properties of the MRS and DWI as additional MR imaging.

  5. Structural Changes in Socio-Affective Networks: Multi-Modal MRI Findings in Long-Term Meditation Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Bernhardt, Boris C; Skottnik, Leon; Ricard, Matthieu; Singer, Tania

    2017-08-22

    Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k hours, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices. To identify functional networks relevant for the generation of socio-affective states, structural imaging analysis were complemented by fMRI analysis in LTMs, showing amplitude increases during a loving-kindness meditation session relative to non-meditative rest in multiple prefrontal and insular regions bilaterally. Importantly, functional findings partially overlapped with regions of cortical thickness increases in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula, suggesting that these regions may play a central role in the generation of emotional states relevant for the meditative practice. Our multi-modal MRI approach revealed structural changes in LTMs who have cultivated loving-kindness and compassion for a significant period of their life in functional networks activated by these practices. These preliminary cross-sectional findings motivate future longitudinal work studying brain plasticity following the regular practice of skills aiming at enhancing human altruism and prosocial motivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Finding common task-related regions in fMRI data from multiple subjects by periodogram clustering and clustering ensemble.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Li, Yehua; Lazar, Nicole A; Schaeffer, David J; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-07-10

    We propose an innovative and practically relevant clustering method to find common task-related brain regions among different subjects who respond to the same set of stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series data, we first cluster the voxels within each subject on a voxel by voxel basis. To extract signals out of noisy data, we estimate a new periodogram at each voxel using multi-tapering and low-rank spline smoothing and then use the periodogram as the main feature for clustering. We apply a divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm to the estimated periodograms within a single subject and identify the task-related region as the cluster of voxels that have periodograms with a peak frequency matching that of the stimulus sequence. Finally, we apply a machine learning technique called clustering ensemble to find common task-related regions across different subjects. The efficacy of the proposed approach is illustrated via a simulation study and a real fMRI data set. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The value of online learning and MRI: finding a niche for expensive technologies.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of online learning come at a price. How can we optimize the overall value? Critically appraise the value of online learning. Narrative review. Several prevalent myths overinflate the value of online learning. These include that online learning is cheap and easy (it is usually more expensive), that it is more efficient (efficiency depends on the instructional design, not the modality), that it will transform education (fundamental learning principles have not changed), and that the Net Generation expects it (there is no evidence of pent-up demand). However, online learning does add real value by enhancing flexibility, control and analytics. Costs may also go down if disruptive innovations (e.g. low-cost, low-tech, but instructionally sound "good enough" online learning) supplant technically superior but more expensive online learning products. Cost-lowering strategies include focusing on core principles of learning rather than technologies, using easy-to-learn authoring tools, repurposing content (organizing and sequencing existing resources rather than creating new content) and using course templates. Online learning represents just one tool in an educator's toolbox, as does the MRI for clinicians. We need to use the right tool(s) for the right learner at the right dose, time and route.

  8. Gender differences in creative thinking: behavioral and fMRI findings.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anna; Thybusch, Kristin; Pieritz, Karoline; Hermann, Christiane

    2014-03-01

    Gender differences in creativity have been widely studied in behavioral investigations, but this topic has rarely been the focus of neuroscientific research. The current paper presents follow-up analyses of a previous fMRI study (Abraham et al., Neuropsychologia 50(8):1906-1917, 2012b), in which behavioral and brain function during creative conceptual expansion as well as general divergent thinking were explored. Here, we focus on gender differences within the same sample. Conceptual expansion was assessed with the alternate uses task relative to the object location task, whereas divergent thinking was assessed in terms of responses across both the alternate uses and object location tasks relative to n-back working memory tasks. While men and women were indistinguishable in terms of behavioral performance across all tasks, the pattern of brain activity while engaged in the tasks in question was indicative of strategy differences between the genders. Brain areas related to semantic cognition, rule learning and decision making were preferentially engaged in men during conceptual expansion, whereas women displayed higher activity in regions related to speech processing and social perception. During divergent thinking, declarative memory related regions were strongly activated in men, while regions involved in theory of mind and self-referential processing were more engaged in women. The implications of gender differences in adopted strategies or cognitive style when faced with generative tasks are discussed.

  9. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Joan S.; Andersen, Hans; Keseler, Bjarne; Jensen, Troels S.; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion and extension of the cervical spine. Participants were included after rear-end or frontal car collisions. Patients with fractures or dislocations diagnosed by standard procedures at the emergency unit were not included. MRI scans of the cervical spine were performed at baseline and repeated after 3 months. Clinical follow-ups were performed after 3 and 12 months. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, neck disability and working ability. A total of 178 participants had a cervical MRI scan on average 13 days after the injury. Traumatic findings were observed in seven participants. Signs of disc degeneration were common and most frequent at the C5–6 and C6–7 levels. Findings were not associated with outcome after 3 or 12 months. The population had no considerable neck trouble prior to the whiplash injury and the non-traumatic findings represent findings to be expected in the background population. Trauma-related MRI findings are rare in a whiplash population screened for serious injuries in the emergency unit and not related to a specific symptomatology. Also, pre-existing degeneration is not associated with prognosis. PMID:18512085

  10. Do deterrence and social-control theories predict driving after drinking 15 years after a DWI conviction?

    PubMed

    Lapham, Sandra C; Todd, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (N=337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a Screening Program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do Deterrence and Social-Control Theories Predict Driving after Drinking 15 years after a DWI Conviction?

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra C.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. Method The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (n = 337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Results Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Conclusion Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. PMID:22269495

  12. Avoiding DWI Among Bar-room Drinkers: Strategies and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Barry D.; Rogers, John W.; Howard, Jan; Frissell, Kevin C.; Harding, Wayne M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and predictors of 11strategies to avoid driving when feeling intoxicated among 561 bar-room patrons in two medium-sized Maryland communities. Logistic regression analyses identified demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors of avoidance strategies and interactions among predictors. Overall, 89% reported one or more DWI avoidance actions in the past year, and 38% reported driving intoxicated during that time. Average frequencies of avoidance behavior and intoxicated driving increased significantly as drinking level increased. However, the higher the drinking level, the smaller the ratio of avoidance actions to DWI experiences, highlighting the vulnerability of heavy drinkers who had driven intoxicated. Using a sober driver or one who allegedly drank less than the respondent were the most popular and frequent strategies, but paying for a cab, walking, and using a bus or free cab were relatively unpopular. Higher drinking levels predicted significantly higher odds of using avoidance approaches, as did intoxicated driving. Confidence in driving safely when intoxicated was positively related to drinking level and intoxicated driving, but it tended to predict lower odds of avoidance actions. Similarly, marital status, age, gender, and location influenced the odds of avoidance behaviors. Interventions should be strategically tailored to exploit or counter drinker predilections among avoidance options. PMID:22879742

  13. Case Report of False-Negative Diffusion-Weighted Image of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Lai, Ji-Ching; Chen, Rong-Fu; Hu, Han-Hwa; Pan, Chau-Shiung

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 75 Final Diagnosis: Acute ischemic stroke Symptoms: Dizziness • unsteady gait Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Radiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Taiwan. Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) is a sensitive and common strategy used for imaging acute ischemic stroke. Case report: We present a case of a negative DWI MRI for detecting acute ischemic stroke in a clinical setting. A 75-year-old male had a DWI performed after onset of symptoms suggesting acute ischemic stroke. The initial DWI result was negative at 72 hours of presentation. The neurological symptoms of the patient persisted and DWI was repeated. After 14 days, the DWI data confirmed and demonstrated an acute ischemic stroke. The delay in DWI confirmation, from symptom onset until DWI diagnosis, was 336 hours. Conclusions: DWI may not have 100% sensitivity and accuracy in early stages of acute ischemic stroke. The time course to the development of abnormalities detected by DWI may be longer than anticipated. PMID:28111452

  14. fDWI Evaluation of Hypothalamic Appetite Regulation Pathways in Mice Genetically Deficient in Leptin or Neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Lizarbe, Blanca; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the contribution of leptin-dependent anorexigenic pathways and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-dependent orexigenic pathways to the changes in hypothalamic water diffusion parameters observed in vivo by functional diffusion weighted MRI (fDWI). Mice genetically deficient in leptin (B6.V-Lep (ob) /J) or NPY (129S-Npy (tm1Rpa) /J) and the corresponding wild-type controls, were subjected to sequential isocaloric feeding, fasting and recovery regimes. Non-invasive fDWI measurements were performed under these conditions, and complemented with parallel determinations of food and water consumption, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), locomotor activity and endocrine profiles. Control mice showed significant increases in hypothalamic water diffusion parameters upon fasting, returning to normal values in the recovery period. Leptin deficient mice depicted permanently increased water diffusion parameters under all feeding conditions as compared to wild type controls, without important changes upon fasting or recovery. These results paralleled sustained increases in food and water intake, significantly augmented body weight, and decreased RER values or locomotor activity, thus configuring an obese phenotype. NPY-deficient mice showed significantly reduced increases (or even slight decreases) in the water diffusion parameters upon fasting as compared to wild type controls, paralleled by decreased food and water intake during the recovery period. In conclusion, leptin deficiency results in sustained orexigenic stimulation, leading to increased water diffusion parameters, while NPY deficiency lead to reduced orexigenic stimulation and water diffusion parameters. Diffusion changes are proposed to reflect net astrocytic volume changes induced by the balance between the orexigenic and anorexigenic firings of AgRP/NPY and POMC/CART neurons, respectively. Together, our results suggest that fDWI provides an adequate tool to investigate hypothalamic appetite disorders.

  15. Clinical presentation and spectrum of neuroimaging findings in newborn infants with incontinentia pigmenti.

    PubMed

    Soltirovska Salamon, Aneta; Lichtenbelt, Klaske; Cowan, Frances M; Casaer, Alexandra; Dudink, Jeroen; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Paro-Panjan, Darja; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S

    2016-10-01

    To report on the neurological presentation and neuroimaging findings in newborn infants with incontinentia pigmenti. The clinical and neurological course including neuroimaging and follow-up data of eight newborn infants with the neurological phenotype of incontinentia pigmenti were retrospectively reviewed. While the clinical picture was polymorphic, the neurological manifestations were defined as encephalopathic and comprised lethargy and seizures in all but one of the infants. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were predominantly in the white matter. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was obtained during the acute phase in seven of the eight infants, showing restricted diffusion in the deep and subcortical white matter but also in the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellum, and cerebral peduncles. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), performed in five infants, showed a variable amount of signal loss, mainly in the white matter, within areas of restricted diffusion. Extensive MRI abnormalities in newborn infants were followed by abnormal neurodevelopment, with significant motor, cognitive, and/or visual problems. To assess the extent of central nervous system involvement, MRI is recommended in the clinical evaluation of infants with incontinentia pigmenti. They have a characteristic pattern of brain lesions seen on MRI, best recognized using DWI and SWI in the acute neonatal phase, which allow the identification of and distinction between ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Correlation of histological findings with gadolinium enhanced MRI scans during healing of a PHEMA orbital implant in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, C.; Morris, I.; Vijayasekaran, S.; Fallon, M.; McAllister, J.; Clayton, A.; Chirila, T.; Crawford, G.; Constable, I.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—To investigate a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) orbital implant with a spongy anterior hemisphere and a smooth gel posterior hemisphere, by histology correlated with magnetic resonance images.
METHODS—Following enucleation, eight rabbits received PHEMA implants to which the muscles were directly sutured, and underwent gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 3 to 52 weeks. After the rabbits were killed, the implants were removed, cut in a plane corresponding to the scan, and processed for light and electron microscopy.
RESULTS—All eight rabbits retained their implant to the end of the study period without complications. The scans demonstrated muscle attachment to the anterior half of the implant, and enhancement was seen on injection of gadolinium chelate. Histology confirmed muscle attachment, and cellular and vascular ingrowth. Over time, a transformation from reactive inflammatory to relatively non-vascular scar tissue was seen within the implant. Calcium deposits in one implant were detected by imaging and histology.
CONCLUSION—The implants are readily visualised on MRI. Muscle attachment and fibrovascular ingrowth into the anterior hemisphere are seen, while encapsulation of the posterior hemisphere is minimal. Histological findings confirm the progress of the healing response, with initial inflammation and marked vascularisation, developing later into quiescent scar tissue predominantly of fibroblasts.

 PMID:10216066

  17. Discrepancy between preoperative MRI evaluation and intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings for the extent of local invasion in maxillary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Lee, M J; Kwon, K H; Chung, E J; Yoon, D Y; Rho, Y S

    2014-06-01

    Preoperative radiological evaluation of the extent of local invasion in maxillary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very important in planning curative surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of preoperative radiological evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the extent of local invasion in maxillary SCC. A retrospective study was conducted of 33 patients who underwent a maxillectomy for maxillary SCC. We compared the MRI findings for 18 structures around the maxillary sinus with intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings. Discrepancies were found between preoperative MRI findings and intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings for 22 patients (66.7%). Overall, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI were 83.4%, 83.0%, 64.5%, and 90.4%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that MRI evaluation of the posterolateral structures including the pterygoid plate, pterygoid muscle, and infratemporal fossa had a lower area under the curve (0.614) and a significantly lower accuracy when compared with the other structures (P = 0.294, 95% confidence interval 0.405-0.822). In conclusion, as the accuracy of preoperative MRI evaluation of the posterolateral structures is low, careful evaluation of local extension to the posterolateral structures is needed when planning curative surgery for maxillary SCC. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging features in conventional MRI, spectroscopy and diffusion weighted images of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS).

    PubMed

    Bender, Benjamin; Klose, Uwe; Lindig, Tobias; Biskup, Saskia; Nägele, Thomas; Schöls, Ludger; Karle, Kathrin N

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations within the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene. While a small number of reports on imaging findings in routine MRI exist, reported imaging findings in DWI and spectroscopy are scarce, and limited to not genetically proven case reports. We assessed MRI including DWI and MR spectroscopy in six patients with HDLS and two asymptomatic mutation carriers. A total of 13 MRIs were evaluated and a score of the white-matter lesion (WML) load was calculated. The course of MR abnormalities was followed for 6-19 months in four patients and 95 months in one carrier. MRI revealed widespread white-matter lesions of patchy or confluent pattern especially in the frontal and occipital lobe. The pyramidal tract was less affected than the surrounding tissue in all symptomatic patients on conventional T2WI. Three of four cases with DWI showed small dots of diffusion restriction within WML. Spectroscopy showed increased levels of mIns, Cho and lactate while NAA was decreased. Asymptomatic mutation carriers had, for the age of the patients, unusually pronounced unspecific WMLs. No diffusion restriction or alterations in metabolite levels could be detected in asymptomatic mutation carriers. Microbleeds were not found in any patient. Diffusion restriction seems to be a typical imaging pattern visible in patients with active disease progression in HDLS. Spectroscopic findings and the absence of microbleeds differ clearly from reported findings in CADASIL and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. While the distribution and character of WMLs in asymptomatic cases remain unspecific they are likely to represent subclinical markers of HDLS.

  19. LONI MiND: Metadata in NIfTI for DWI

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vishal; Dinov, Ivo D.; Van Horn, John D.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of computational methods have been developed for reconstructing white matter geometry from a set of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs), and many clinical studies rely on publicly-available implementations of these methods for analyzing DWI data sets. Unfortunately, the poor interoperability between DWI analysis tools often effectively restricts users to the algorithms provided by a single software suite, which may be suboptimal relative to those in other packages, or outdated given recent developments in the field. A major barrier to data portability and the interoperability between DWI analysis tools is the lack of a standard format for representing and communicating essential DWI-related metadata at various stages of post-processing. In this report, we address this issue by developing a framework for storing Metadata in NIfTI for DWI (MiND). We utilize the standard NIfTI format extension mechanism to store essential DWI metadata in an extended header for multiple commonly-encountered DWI data structures. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by implementing a full suite of tools for DWI analysis workflows which communicate solely through the MiND mechanism. We also show that the MiND framework allows for simple, direct DWI data visualization, and we illustrate its effectiveness by constructing a group atlas for 330 subjects using solely MiND-centric tools for DWI processing. Our results indicate that the MiND framework provides a practical solution to the problem of interoperability between DWI analysis tools, and it effectively expands the analysis options available to end users. PMID:20206274

  20. A challenging diagnosis of late-onset tumefactive multiple sclerosis associated to cervicodorsal syringomyelia: doubtful CT, MRI, and bioptic findings

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Renata; Capasso, Raffaella; Galasso, Rosario; Cirillo, Mario; Taglialatela, Gemma; Galasso, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unusual variant of demyelinating disease characterized by lesions with pseudotumoral appearance on radiological imaging mimicking other space-occupying lesions, such as neoplasms, infections, and infarction. Especially when the patient's medical history is incompatible with MS, the differential diagnosis between these lesions constitutes a diagnostic challenge often requiring histological investigation. An older age at onset makes distinguishing tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL) from tumors even more challenging. Methods: We report a case of brain TDL as the initial manifestation of late-onset MS associated with cervico-dorsal syringomyelia. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a 15-day history headache was referred to our hospital because of the acute onset of paraphasia. She suffered from noncommunicating syringomyelia associated to basilar impression and she reported a 10-year history of burning dysesthesia of the left side of the chest extended to the internipple line level. Results: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations revealed a left frontal lesion with features suspicious for a tumor. Given the degree of overlap with other pathologic processes, CT and MRI findings failed to provide an unambiguous diagnosis; furthermore, because of the negative cerebrospinal fluid analysis for oligoclonal bands, the absence of other lesions, and the heightened suspicion of neoplasia, the clinicians opted to perform a stereotactic biopsy. Brain specimen analysis did not exclude the possibility of perilesional reactive gliosis and the patient, receiving anitiedemigen therapy, was monthly followed up. In the meanwhile, the second histological opinion of the brain specimen described the absence of pleomorphic glial cells indicating a tumor. These findings were interpreted as destructive inflammatory demyelinating disease and according to the evolution of MRI lesion burden, MS

  1. Correlation between morphological MRI findings and specific diagnostic categories in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Boronat, S; Sánchez-Montañez, A; Gómez-Barros, N; Jacas, C; Martínez-Ribot, L; Vázquez, E; Del Campo, M

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include physical and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to prenatal alcohol exposure. Some neuroimaging findings have been clearly related to FASD, including corpus callosum and cerebellar anomalies. However, detailed studies correlating with specific FASD categories, that is, the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS) and alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND), are lacking. We prospectively performed clinical assessment and brain MR imaging to 72 patients with suspected FASD, and diagnosis was confirmed in 62. The most frequent findings were hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and/or of the cerebellar vermis. Additional findings were vascular anomalies, gliosis, prominent perivascular spaces, occipito-cervical junction and cervical vertebral anomalies, pituitary hypoplasia, arachnoid cysts, and cavum septum pellucidum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain MRI findings with vigabatrin therapy: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Kaiser; Walsh, Thomas J; Chazen, J Levi

    2016-01-01

    Infantile spasm or West syndrome is a pediatric epileptic disorder characterized by flexor and/or extensor spasms beginning in childhood. Vigabatrin is an effective medical therapy for infantile spasm but has pronounced, potentially worrisome imaging findings in patients receiving therapy. We present the case of an 8-month-old infant with such brain magnetic resonance imaging findings after treatment initiation. In this article, we highlight the imaging changes and discuss the differential diagnosis along with the required follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristic brain MRI findings in ataxia-neuropathy spectrum related to POLG mutation

    PubMed Central

    Henao, Adriana I; Pira, Sonia; Vargas, Sergio A; Montoya, Jorge; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Patients with mutations in the polymerase gamma gene (POLG) may present with progressive ataxia and in such situations neuroimaging findings may suggest the diagnosis. Herein we report a patient with a POLG gene W748S homozygous mutation and characteristic lesions in the thalamus, cerebellum and inferior olivary nucleus seen on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26755490

  4. Can MRI biomarkers at 3 T identify low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ?

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Habib; Parsian, Sana; Lam, Diana L; Dontchos, Brian N; Andeen, Nicole K; Rendi, Mara H; Lehman, Constance D; Partridge, Savannah C

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to explore whether 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI features of 36 DCIS lesions [8 low risk, Van Nuys Pathologic Classification (VNPC) 1; 28 high risk, VNPC 2/3] were reviewed. An MRI model that best identified low-risk DCIS was determined using multivariate logistic regression. Low-risk DCIS exhibited different DWI properties [i.e., higher contrast-to-noise ratio (P=.02) and lower normalized apparent diffusion coefficients (P=.04)] than high-risk DCIS. A model combining these DWI features provided best performance (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.86). DWI may help identify DCIS lesions requiring less therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gray Matter Alterations in Schizophrenia High-Risk Youth and Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Review of Structural MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Benjamin K.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on structural MRI findings in pediatric and young adult populations at clinical or genetic high-risk for schizophrenia, as well as in early-onset schizophrenia. The authors discuss the implications of this research for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and for early intervention strategies for prevention of the illness. The evidence linking brain structural changes in pre-psychosis development and early-onset schizophrenia with disruptions of normal neurodevelopmental processes during childhood and/or adolescence are described. In addition, the authors outline future directions for research to address current knowledge gaps regarding the neurobiological basis of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and to help improve the utility of these abnormalities for preventative interventions. PMID:24012081

  6. Acute calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris associated with intraosseous involvement: a case report with serial CT and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Sung; Lee, Ho Min; Kim, Jong Pil

    2013-11-01

    Acute calcific tendinitis of the shoulder is a well-known condition, but it is rare in the rectus femoris origin. Mostly reported cases were occurred in the reflected head of the rectus femoris, and only few cases were in the direct head of the rectus femoris. Intraosseous marrow involvement of calcific tendinitis is a more rare condition; it often goes misdiagnosed as an infection or a neoplasm. We report a rare, unusual case of acute calcific tendinitis of the direct head of the rectus femoris associated with intraosseous marrow involvement of calcification in anterior inferior iliac spine with serial CT and MRI findings. Aggressive osseous change may occur in acute calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris as in this case which should be made an appropriate diagnosis to avoid unnecessary investigation and overtreatment like a surgery.

  7. Infantile Type Sandhoff Disease with Striking Brain MRI Findings and a Novel Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Elmas, Muhsin; Koken, Resit; Unlu, Ebru; Bukulmez, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by β-hexosaminidase deficiency in which the ganglioside GM2 and other glycolipids accumulate intracellularly within lysosomes. This process results in progressive motor neuron manifestations, death from respiratory failure and infections in infantiles. Case Report This report presents a 22-month-old girl with infantile type Sandhoff disease that was hospitalized for generalized seizures and psychomotor retardation. She was diagnosed with a genetically proven novel mutation and by demonstrating it’s specific imaging findings. Conclusions Determination of spesific changes in neuroimaging which are initial findings for GM2 gangliosidosis is important from the point of diagnosis and follow-up in infants suspected of having a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26985245

  8. Infantile Type Sandhoff Disease with Striking Brain MRI Findings and a Novel Mutation.

    PubMed

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Elmas, Muhsin; Koken, Resit; Unlu, Ebru; Bukulmez, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by β-hexosaminidase deficiency in which the ganglioside GM2 and other glycolipids accumulate intracellularly within lysosomes. This process results in progressive motor neuron manifestations, death from respiratory failure and infections in infantiles. This report presents a 22-month-old girl with infantile type Sandhoff disease that was hospitalized for generalized seizures and psychomotor retardation. She was diagnosed with a genetically proven novel mutation and by demonstrating it's specific imaging findings. Determination of spesific changes in neuroimaging which are initial findings for GM2 gangliosidosis is important from the point of diagnosis and follow-up in infants suspected of having a neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Brain MRI findings of older patients with Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Masuko, Kaori; Kaneko, Kaori; Chikumaru, Yuri; Saito, Kazuyo; Iwamoto, Hiroko; Matsui, Akira; Aida, Noriko; Kurosawa, Kenji; Kuroki, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a disorder caused by a mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p, which manifests with dysmorphism, intellectual disabilities, auditory disturbance, and epilepsy. Here, we describe the findings of brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in two patients with PKS. One patient, a 43-year-old man, showed multiple lesions with high signal intensity on T2-weighted image (WI) in the basal ganglia, and widespread T2 elongation in the periventricular white matter. The same signal change was also present in the pontine base. The other patient, a 37-year-old woman, showed T2-high lesions in the bilateral putamina and the parietal periventricular white matter. There was prominent atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem in this latter case. Both cases showed cortical atrophy with frontal predominance, with accompanying dilatation of the lateral ventricles. Hypoplastic corpus callosum was also present in both cases. Cerebral atrophy with ventricular dilatation has been often described in PKS cases, but many of the MR findings in the present patients have never been reported. Such findings may appear with advancing age in PKS. Since 12p mosaicism is rarely detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes, examination of buccal mucosal cells with fluorescent in situ hybridization method is preferable for the diagnosis of PKS. Recognition of the characteristic features on cranial MR imaging, in addition to the characteristic facial appearance in adulthood, should prompt the correct diagnosis of adult PKS patients.

  10. MRI findings and sleep apnea in children with Chiari I malformation.

    PubMed

    Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-04-01

    Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation.

  11. Muscle MRI findings in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy with calpain 3 deficiency (LGMD2A) and early contractures.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Bushby, Kate; Ricci, Enzo; Birchall, Daniel; Pane, Marika; Kinali, Maria; Allsop, Joanna; Nigro, Vincenzo; Sáenz, Amets; Nascimbeni, Annachiara; Fulizio, Luigi; Angelini, Corrado; Muntoni, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is a common variant secondary to mutations in the calpain 3 gene. A proportion of patients has early and severe contractures, which can cause diagnostic difficulties with other conditions. We report clinical and muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A patients (four sporadic and three familial) who had prominent and early contractures. All patients showed a striking involvement of the posterior thigh muscles. The involvement of the other thigh muscles was variable and was related to clinical severity. Young patients with minimal functional motor impairment showed a predominant involvement of the adductors and semimembranosus muscles while patients with restricted ambulation had a more diffuse involvement of the posterolateral muscles of the thigh and of the vastus intermedius with relative sparing of the vastus lateralis, sartorius and gracilis. At calf level all patients showed involvement of the soleus muscle and of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with relative sparing of the lateral head. MRI findings were correlated to those found in two patients with the phenotype of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A without early contractures and the pattern observed was quite similar. However, the pattern observed in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is different from that reported in other muscle diseases such as Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy which have a significant clinical overlap with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A once early contractures are present. Our results suggest that muscle MRI may help in recognising patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A even when the clinical presentation overlaps with other conditions, and may therefore, be used as an additional investigation to target the appropriate biochemical and genetic tests.

  12. Evaluation of a Dutch Educational "Driving While Intoxicated (DWI)" Prevention Program for Driving Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, Robin E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A DWI prevention program for driving schools was developed and evaluated. Two hundred and eight driving school students followed the program. Research found that knowledge improved, attitudes and behavior intentions were already positive at pretest, DWI was equally reported by both control and study groups, and there was a positive effect on…

  13. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  14. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…

  15. A Comparison of the Social Context for Alcohol Consumption of College Students and Convicted DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Summons, Terry G.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=272) and convicted DWI offenders (N=261). The results revealed that DWI offenders tend to drink in their own home, alone, and to relieve stress; whereas college students are more likely to drink at a party, for the enjoyment of taste, and to get drunk. (JAC)

  16. Interactive Journaling as a Brief Intervention for Level-II DUI and DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheck, Amy Mary; Hoffmann, Norman G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Couillou,Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief alcohol intervention in increasing basic alcohol-related knowledge, and the intention to change high-risk drinking behaviors, among a sample of DUI and DWI offenders. Pre- and post-test data, in addition to program evaluation data, from 872 Level-II DUI and DWI offenders…

  17. Interactive Journaling as a Brief Intervention for Level-II DUI and DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheck, Amy Mary; Hoffmann, Norman G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Couillou,Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief alcohol intervention in increasing basic alcohol-related knowledge, and the intention to change high-risk drinking behaviors, among a sample of DUI and DWI offenders. Pre- and post-test data, in addition to program evaluation data, from 872 Level-II DUI and DWI offenders…

  18. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…

  19. CT and MRI Findings in a Rare Case of Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Zehra; Peker, Elif; Gulpinar, Basak; Karadag, Hale; Erden, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor/extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma (PNET/EES) is a very rare renal tumor. Case Report We report a case of primary renal PNET/EES of the kidney in an adult patient and describe its computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including diffusion weighted images along with a review of the current medical literature. Conclusions Although very rare, a relatively large renal mass which shows very infiltrative growth pattern on CT and MR imaging and striking diffusion restriction should raise the suspicion of a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor, in a young adult. PMID:27635170

  20. A benchmarking tool to evaluate computer tomography perfusion infarct core predictions against a DWI standard.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Carlo W; Christensen, Søren; Campbell, Bruce Cv; Mishra, Nishant K; Mlynash, Michael; Levi, Christopher; Straka, Matus; Wintermark, Max; Bammer, Roland; Albers, Gregory W; Parsons, Mark W; Lansberg, Maarten G

    2016-10-01

    Differences in research methodology have hampered the optimization of Computer Tomography Perfusion (CTP) for identification of the ischemic core. We aim to optimize CTP core identification using a novel benchmarking tool. The benchmarking tool consists of an imaging library and a statistical analysis algorithm to evaluate the performance of CTP. The tool was used to optimize and evaluate an in-house developed CTP-software algorithm. Imaging data of 103 acute stroke patients were included in the benchmarking tool. Median time from stroke onset to CT was 185 min (IQR 180-238), and the median time between completion of CT and start of MRI was 36 min (IQR 25-79). Volumetric accuracy of the CTP-ROIs was optimal at an rCBF threshold of <38%; at this threshold, the mean difference was 0.3 ml (SD 19.8 ml), the mean absolute difference was 14.3 (SD 13.7) ml, and CTP was 67% sensitive and 87% specific for identification of DWI positive tissue voxels. The benchmarking tool can play an important role in optimizing CTP software as it provides investigators with a novel method to directly compare the performance of alternative CTP software packages. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Degenerative disk disease at lumbosacral junction: plain film findings and related MRI abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Jaovisidha, S; Techatipakorn, S; Apiyasawat, P; Laohacharoensombat, W; Poramathikul, M; Siriwongpairat, P

    2000-08-01

    Due to a wide range of normal disk space heights at lumbosacral (LS) junction, we conducted this study to evaluate how to diagnose degenerative disk disease (DDD) of LS junction and how much information we can obtain from plain radiography regarding this condition. We retrospectively reviewed lateral LS spine films and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 100 patients presented with low back pain. Anterior disk height (ADH) and posterior disk height (PDH) were directly measured from plain radiographs. Signs of DDD were recorded from both plain radiographs and MR imaging. We found that ADH < 11.3 mm or PDH < 5.5 mm indicate DDD at LS junction with 95 per cent confidence interval. When spondylolisthesis presented, disks were all degenerated. Endplate sclerosis had significant relative risk (p < 0.05) for lateral neural canal stenosis and disk herniation. No radiographic finding showed significant relative risk for nerve root compression.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii meningoencephalitis without cerebral MRI findings in a patient with ulcerative colitis under immunosuppressive treatment.

    PubMed

    Assimakopoulos, S F; Stamouli, V; Dimitropoulou, D; Spiliopoulou, A; Panos, G; Anastassiou, E D; Marangos, M; Spiliopoulou, I

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system in immunosupressed patients. It is usually presented as a space-occupying lesion detected by cerebral computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The diffuse form of the disease (diffuse toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis) lacks the characteristic cerebral radiologic findings rendering pre-mortem diagnosis much more difficult. Herein, we describe a case of toxoplasmic menincoencephalitis, without evidence of cerebral space-occupying lesions, in a patient with ulcerative colitis under combined therapy with systemic glucocorticoids and azathioprine. Diagnosis was based on microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the parasite, whereas, RT-PCR for Toxoplasma gondii was negative. Taking into consideration the limitations of molecular methods, investigation of the etiology of meningeal involvement in patients under immunosuppressive therapy presenting positive serology of previous T. gondii infection, should include microscopic examination of CSF for parasite presence.

  3. Evolving role of MRI in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Obara, Piotr; Oto, Aytekin

    2013-06-01

    MR enterography is playing an evolving role in the evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). Standard MR enterography includes a combination of rapidly acquired T2 sequence, balanced steady-state acquisition, and contrast enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. The diagnostic performance of these sequences has been shown to be comparable, and in some respects superior, to other small bowel imaging modalities. The findings of CD on MR enterography have been well described in the literature. New and emerging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), cinematography, and magnetization transfer, may lead to improved accuracy in characterizing the disease. These advanced techniques can provide quantitative parameters that may prove to be useful in assessing disease activity, severity, and response to treatment. In the future, MR enterography may play an increasing role in management decisions for patients with small bowel CD; however, larger studies are needed to validate these emerging MRI parameters as imaging biomarkers.

  4. The Human Likeness Dimension of the “Uncanny Valley Hypothesis”: Behavioral and Functional MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates “uncanny” research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis’ dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori’s DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future “uncanny” studies consider CP and the DOH’s category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects. PMID:22131970

  5. The human likeness dimension of the "uncanny valley hypothesis": behavioral and functional MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates "uncanny" research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori's DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future "uncanny" studies consider CP and the DOH's category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects.

  6. A Case of ADEM Mimicking Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy Based on Supratentorial MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    BEYAZAL, Mehmet; ÜNAL, Özkan; YILMAZ, Sanem; BORA, Aydın

    2014-01-01

    A 9-year-old male admitted for syncope also had the complains of pain and numbness in his legs and frequent falling down. There was a history of upper respiratory tract infection 10 days before. On neurologic examination, paraparesia and fall a sleep were identified. On magnetic resonance imaging, the symetric signal increases were seen in biparieto-occipital white matter intented to corpus callosum at T2-weighted sequences and cytotoxic edema was seen at diffusion-weighted images. Heterogeneous contrast enhancement was seen on these areas. In addition, at the C7-Th5 vertebrae levels, spinal cord had diffuse increased signal intensity and contrast enhancement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was thought based on clinical and radiological findings. Steroid therapy was started. Significant improvement was shown after treatment. On 2-year follow-up, there was no recurrence. In conclusion, it must be kept in mind that acute disseminated encephalomyelitis can rarely present with biparieto-occipital involvement which extends to corpus callosum and can mimic adrenoleukodystrophy. For the differential diagnosis butterfly glioma, tumefactive demyelinating lesions or multiple sclerosis should be considered.

  7. Sterile brain abscess due to juvenile xanthogranuloma: DWI characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ellie S; Marrero, Daniel E; Pfannl, Rolf; Erbay, Sami H

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a disorder of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis that usually displays as a self-limiting course in children. Rare systemic involvement implies poor prognosis. Although conventional and spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of JXG in CNS have been described, diffusion imaging of intracranial JXG has not been reported. Our case report is the first manuscript to describe diffusion restriction of a cerebral lesion seen in the setting of JXG. Since diffusion restriction has not been described in the setting of JXG but it is more commonly associated with infectious cerebral abscess, this finding has had significant impact in the management. Central nervous system (CNS) lesion of our patient has also had additional imaging features similar to typical infectious cerebral abscess. Extensive work-up has been unrevealing any infectious source. Patient has had biopsy proven peripheral sterile abscesses. After extensive discussion with the family, brain biopsy is deferred. Intravenous steroid therapy is initiated in intensive care setting. All of the lesions have gradually responded to steroid therapy. CNS lesion has taken the longest time to clear. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Accuracy of Whole-Body DWI for Metastases Screening in a Diverse Group of Malignancies: Comparison With Conventional Cross-Sectional Imaging and Nuclear Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Paruthikunnan, Samir Mustaffa; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Karegowda, Lakshmikanth Halegubbi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the role of whole-body (WB) DWI as a screening modality for the detection of metastases and to compare it to conventional cross-sectional imaging modalities or nuclear scintigraphy in a population with various histopathologic malignancies. WB DWI and conventional imaging (CT, MRI, or scintigraphy) were performed for patients with known malignancies for metastatic workup, and these patients were followed up for a period of 1 year. Two radiologists assessed WB DW images separately, and conventional images were assessed by the senior radiologist. The metastatic lesions were classified into four regions: liver, lung, skeletal system, and lymph nodes. The reference standard was considered on the basis of histopathologic confirmation or clinical follow-up of the metastatic lesions. WB DWI was slightly inferior to conventional imaging modalities for the detection of hepatic metastases (sensitivity, 86.6% vs 93.3%; specificity, 91.6% vs 95.8%; and accuracy, 89.7% vs 94.8%) and skeletal metastases (sensitivity, 81.8% vs 89.4%; specificity, 86.4% vs 94.3%; and accuracy, 85.2% vs 93.0%); however, the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.625 for hepatic metastases and p = 0.0953 for skeletal metastases, McNemar test). WB DWI was statistically significantly inferior to conventional imaging for the detection of lymph node metastases (sensitivity, 74.0% vs 81.5%; specificity, 87.9% vs 90.1%; accuracy, 81.4% vs 86.0%; p = 0.0389). WB DWI was statistically significantly inferior to conventional imaging for the detection of pulmonary metastases (sensitivity, 33.3% vs 100.0%; specificity, 90.9% vs 100.0%; accuracy, 60.8% vs 100.0%; p = 0.045). WB DWI can be used for screening hepatic and skeletal metastases, but its reliability as the sole imaging sequence for the detection of lymph nodal and pulmonary metastases is poor and, at present, it cannot replace conventional imaging modalities.

  9. Imaging and pathology findings after an initial negative MRI-US fusion-guided and 12-core extended sextant prostate biopsy session

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheng William; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Hoang, Anthony N.; Türkbey, Barış; Stamatakis, Lambros; Xu, Sheng; Amalou, Hayet; Minhaj Siddiqui, M.; Nix, Jeffrey W.; Vourganti, Srinivas; Merino, Maria J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE A magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasonography (MRI-US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy increases detection rates compared to an extended sextant biopsy. The imaging characteristics and pathology outcomes of subsequent biopsies in patients with initially negative MRI-US fusion biopsies are described in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed 855 biopsy sessions of 751 patients (June 2007 to March 2013). The fusion biopsy consisted of two cores per lesion identified on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and a 12-core extended sextant transrectal US (TRUS) biopsy. Inclusion criteria were at least two fusion biopsy sessions, with a negative first biopsy and mpMRI before each. RESULTS The detection rate on the initial fusion biopsy was 55.3%; 336 patients had negative findings. Forty-one patients had follow-up fusion biopsies, but only 34 of these were preceded by a repeat mpMRI. The median interval between biopsies was 15 months. Fourteen patients (41%) were positive for cancer on the repeat MRI-US fusion biopsy. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, digital rectal exam findings, lesion diameter, and changes on imaging were comparable between patients with negative and positive rebiopsies. Of the patients with positive rebiopsies, 79% had a positive TRUS biopsy before referral (P = 0.004). Ten patients had Gleason 3+3 disease, three had 3+4 disease, and one had 4+4 disease. CONCLUSION In patients with a negative MRI-US fusion prostate biopsy and indications for repeat biopsy, the detection rate of the follow-up sessions was lower than the initial detection rate. Of the prostate cancers subsequently found, 93% were low grade (≤3+4). In this low risk group of patients, increasing the follow-up time interval should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:24509182

  10. Imaging and pathology findings after an initial negative MRI-US fusion-guided and 12-core extended sextant prostate biopsy session.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cheng William; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Hoang, Anthony N; Türkbey, Barış; Stamatakis, Lambros; Xu, Sheng; Amalou, Hayet; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Nix, Jeffrey W; Vourganti, Srinivas; Merino, Maria J; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasonography (MRI-US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy increases detection rates compared to an extended sextant biopsy. The imaging characteristics and pathology outcomes of subsequent biopsies in patients with initially negative MRI-US fusion biopsies are described in this study. We reviewed 855 biopsy sessions of 751 patients (June 2007 to March 2013). The fusion biopsy consisted of two cores per lesion identified on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and a 12-core extended sextant transrectal US (TRUS) biopsy. Inclusion criteria were at least two fusion biopsy sessions, with a negative first biopsy and mpMRI before each. The detection rate on the initial fusion biopsy was 55.3%; 336 patients had negative findings. Forty-one patients had follow-up fusion biopsies, but only 34 of these were preceded by a repeat mpMRI. The median interval between biopsies was 15 months. Fourteen patients (41%) were positive for cancer on the repeat MRI-US fusion biopsy. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, digital rectal exam findings, lesion diameter, and changes on imaging were comparable between patients with negative and positive rebiopsies. Of the patients with positive rebiopsies, 79% had a positive TRUS biopsy before referral (P = 0.004). Ten patients had Gleason 3+3 disease, three had 3+4 disease, and one had 4+4 disease. In patients with a negative MRI-US fusion prostate biopsy and indications for repeat biopsy, the detection rate of the follow-up sessions was lower than the initial detection rate. Of the prostate cancers subsequently found, 93% were low grade (≤ 3+4). In this low risk group of patients, increasing the follow-up time interval should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting.

  11. Renal zoomed EPI-DWI with spatially-selective radiofrequency excitation pulses in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Lan; Hausmann, Daniel; Morelli, John N; Attenberger, Ulrike I; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Riffel, Philipp

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and clinical robustness of zoomed diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (z-EPI) relative to conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI) for DWI of the kidneys. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional research ethics board. 66 patients (median age 58.5 years±13.4, range 23-83 years, 45 men, 21 women) undergoing 3T (Magnetom Skyra(®), Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using a dynamic parallel transmit array (TimTX TrueShape, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for renal MRI were included in this study. Both c-EPI and z-EPI images were obtained. For z-EPI, a two-dimensional spatially-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulse was applied for echo planar imaging with the FOV reduced by a factor of 3. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data and scan parameters evaluated the images with respect to their diagnostic confidence, overall preference, overall image quality, delineation of the kidney, spatial distortion, and image blur. Sequences were compared using a paired Wilcoxon test. ADC values for the upper pole, mid-zone, lower pole of the normal kidneys were compared between sequences as well as ADC values for renal lesions, using a paired t-test. With z-EPI, the kidney was significantly better delineated with sharper boundaries, less image blur and distortion, and overall better image quality relative to c-EPI (all p<0.001). The z-EPI technique led to greater diagnostic confidence than c-EPI (p=0.020). z-EPI was preferred to c-EPI in 60 cases (90.9%, 60/66). No statistically significant differences in the ADC values of renal parenchyma or of renal lesions were observed between the two sequences (all p>0.05). Image quality, distortion, and susceptibility artifacts might be improved by using z-EPI rather than c-EPI for DWI of the kidney. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of attention processes in presumed obligate carriers of schizophrenia: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca Mapua; Russell, Tamara; Morris, Robin G; Murray, Robin M; McDonald, Colm

    2008-01-01

    Background Presumed obligate carriers (POCs) are the first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia who, although do not exhibit the disorder, are in direct lineage of it. Thus, this subpopulation of first-degree relatives could provide very important information with regard to the investigation of endophenotypes for schizophrenia that could clarify the often contradictory findings in schizophrenia high-risk populations. To date, despite the extant literature on schizophrenia endophenotypes, we are only aware of one other study that examined the neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive abnormalities in this group. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a more homogeneous group of relatives, such as POCs, have neural abnormalities that may be related to schizophrenia. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to collect blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response data in six POCs and eight unrelated healthy controls while performing under conditions of sustained, selective and divided attention. Results The POCs indicated alterations in a widely distributed network of regions involved in attention processes, such as the prefrontal and temporal (including the parahippocampal gyrus) cortices, in addition to the anterior cingulate gyrus. More specifically, a general reduction in BOLD response was found in these areas compared to the healthy participants during attention processes. Conclusion These preliminary findings of decreased activity in POCs indicate that this more homogeneous population of unaffected relatives share similar neural abnormalities with people with schizophrenia, suggesting that reduced BOLD activity in the attention network may be an intermediate marker for schizophrenia. PMID:18834530

  13. Diagnostic yield and impact of MRI for acute ischaemic stroke in patients presenting with dizziness and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Kabra, R; Robbie, H; Connor, S E J

    2015-07-01

    To identify predictors of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and evaluate the diagnostic yield and impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients imaged for dizziness and vertigo. Patients imaged using MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with or without computed tomography (CT), for dizziness and vertigo over a 2-year period were identified retrospectively. MRI findings were categorised as "acute ischaemic stroke", "significant", or "non-significant". We reviewed the medical records to identify presenting symptoms and signs, vascular risk factors, duration of symptoms, and pre- and post-MRI clinical management in patients with proven stroke. One hundred and eighty-eight patients were included: 39 with vertebrobasilar AIS (20.7%), 32 (17%) with a significant but non-ischaemic abnormality, and 117 (62.2%) with a normal or non-related abnormality. The sensitivity of CT in diagnosing AIS was 9.52% (95% CI: 1.67-31.8%). Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory infarcts were the most common (38.5%). Patients with AIS were significantly more likely to be older than 50 years (p = 0.04), have a greater number of cardiovascular risk factors (p < 0.01), shorter duration of symptoms (p = 0.03), and at least one neurological sign (p = 0.02). DWI MRI had a diagnostic impact on 21.6% patients with stroke. MRI plays an important role in differentiating peripheral and central aetiology when this proves challenging clinically. Predictors of AIS were identified that aid patient selection for MRI, to increase the yield and impact of neuroimaging. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. First-time DWI offenders are at risk of recidivating regardless of sanctions imposed

    PubMed Central

    Ahlin, Eileen M.; Zador, Paul L.; Rauch, William J.; Howard, Jan M.; Duncan, G. Doug

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research demonstrates that punitive approaches to DWI employed by the judiciary have failed to significantly reduce recidivism. However, little is known about the deterrent effects of administrative and diversion sanctions. We examine whether such sanctions deter first-time DWI offenders. Methods We grouped combinations of administrative, judicial, and diversion sanctions routinely employed in the state of Maryland for processing drivers arrested for DWI into one of eight mutually exclusive disposition sequences. We applied this classification to Maryland drivers who had been licensed in the state and had precisely one DWI on their record prior to January 1, 1999. We then used a proportional hazards model to estimate the probability of remaining free of a new DWI during a 6-year period (January 1, 1999 – December 31, 2004) as a function of the disposition of the index violation, and of selected factors that could affect that probability. Results Drivers with a prior DWI were at relatively high risk of recidivating regardless of how they were sanctioned. Those who received administrative and alternative sanctions had a risk of recidivating similar to that of drivers who were convicted. Conclusion All dispositions sequences, not just convictions, indicate that first-time DWI offenders are at high risk of recidivating. PMID:21603059

  15. The Test–Retest Reliability of the Form 90-DWI: An Instrument for Assessing Intoxicated Driving

    PubMed Central

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Miller, William R.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Delaney, Harold D.

    2010-01-01

    Although driving while intoxicated (DWI) is a pervasive problem, reliable measures of this behavior have been elusive. In the present study, the Form 90, a widely utilized alcohol and substance use instrument, was adapted for measurement of DWI and related behaviors. Levels of reliability for the adapted instrument, the Form 90-DWI, were tested among a university sample of 60 undergraduate students who had consumed alcohol during the past 90 days. The authors administered the instrument once during an intake interview and again, 7–30 days later, to determine levels of test–retest reliability. Overall, the Form 90-DWI demonstrated high levels of reliability for many general drinking and DWI behaviors. Levels of reliability were lower for riding with an intoxicated driver and for variables involving several behavioral conjunctions, such as seat belt use and the presence of passengers when driving with a blood alcohol concentration above .08. Overall, the Form 90-DWI shows promise as a reliable measure of DWI behavior in research on treatment outcome and prevention. PMID:18298237

  16. Are Nonlinguistic Functions in ''Broca's Area'' Prerequisites for Language Acquisition? fMRI Findings from an Ontogenetic Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ralph-Axel; Basho, Surina

    2004-01-01

    There is incomplete consensus on the anatomical demarcation of Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus and its functional characterization remains a matter of debate. Exclusive syntactic specialization has been proposed, but is overall inconsistent with the neuroimaging literature. We examined three functional MRI (fMRI) datasets on…

  17. Are Nonlinguistic Functions in ''Broca's Area'' Prerequisites for Language Acquisition? fMRI Findings from an Ontogenetic Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ralph-Axel; Basho, Surina

    2004-01-01

    There is incomplete consensus on the anatomical demarcation of Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus and its functional characterization remains a matter of debate. Exclusive syntactic specialization has been proposed, but is overall inconsistent with the neuroimaging literature. We examined three functional MRI (fMRI) datasets on…

  18. Lung cancer screening with MRI: results of the first screening round.

    PubMed

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Homsi, Rami; Skowasch, Dirk; Buermann, Jens; Zipfel, Matthias; Schild, Hans Heinz; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-09-20

    To evaluate the suitability of MRI for lung cancer screening in a high-risk population. A 5-year lung cancer screening program comparing MRI and low-dose CT (LDCT) in a high-risk population was initiated. 224 subjects were examined with MRI and LDCT. Acquired MRI sequences were T2w MultiVane XD, balanced steady-state-free precession, 3D T1w GRE, and DWI with a maximum in-room-time of 20 min. Categorization and management of nodules were based on Lung-RADS. MRI findings were correlated with LDCT as a reference. Here, we report on the first screening round. MRI accurately detected 61 of 88 nodules 4-5 mm, 20 of 21 nodules 6-7 mm, 12 of 12 nodules 8-14 mm, 4 of 4 nodules ≥ 15 mm (solid nodules), and 8 of 11 subsolid nodules. Sensitivity/specificity of MRI for nodule detection was 69.3/96.4% for 4-5 mm, 95.2/99.6% for 6-7 mm, 100/99.6% for 8-14 mm, 100/100% for ≥ 15 mm (solid nodules), and 72.7/99.2% for subsolid nodules. The early recall rate was 13.8% for MRI and 12.5% for LDCT. Following Lung-RADS recommendations and based on interdisciplinary consensus, histology was obtained in eight subjects. The biopsy rate was 3.6% for MRI and 3.4% for LDCT. In all of these eight cases, the nodules were carcinomas, and all of them were accurately detected by MRI. The results of the first screening round suggest that MRI is suitable for lung cancer screening with an excellent sensitivity and specificity for nodules ≥ 6 mm.

  19. MRI analysis of the ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system for the dynamic fixation of intervertebral discs: a comparison with rigid internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we analyzed the efficacy of the posterior approach lumbar ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system for the dynamic fixation of intervertebral discs, with particular emphasis on its effects on degenerative intervertebral disc disease. Methods We retrospectively compared the MRIs of 54 patients who had previously undergone either rigid internal fixation of the lumbar spine or ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation for the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis. All patients had received preoperative and 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative MRI scans of the lumbar spine with acquisition of both routine and diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The upper-segment discs of the fusion were subjected to Pfirrmann grading, and the lumbar intervertebral discs in the DWI sagittal plane were manually drawn; the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was measured. Results ADC values in the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group measured at the 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative MRI studies were increased compared to the preoperative ADC values. The ADC values in the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group at 24 months postoperatively were significantly different from the preoperative values (P < 0.05). At 24 months, the postoperative ADC values were significantly different between the rigid fixation group and the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group (P < 0.05). Conclusion MRI imaging findings indicated that the posterior approach lumbar ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system can prevent or delay the degeneration of intervertebral discs. PMID:24898377

  20. Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Vestibular Schwannoma as the Most Common Cause of MRI Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Eun; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2016-04-01

    The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains unclear in most cases. This study aimed to assess abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SSNHL and evaluate the value of MRI in identifying the cause of SSNHL.A retrospective analysis of the charts and MRI findings of 291 patients with SSNHL was performed.In 291 patients, MRI abnormality, which was considered a cause of SSNHL, was detected in 13 patients. Vestibular schwannoma involving the internal auditory canal (IAC) and/or cerebellopontine angle was observed in 9 patients. All 9 patients had intrameatal tumors, and 6 of the 9 patients displayed extrameatal extension of their tumors. The tumor was small (<1 cm) or medium-sized (1.1-2.9 cm) in these 6 patients. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma, labyrinthine hemorrhage, IAC metastasis, and a ruptured dermoid cyst were each observed in 1 patient.The most commonly observed MRI abnormality in patients with SSNHL was vestibular schwannoma, and all of the lesions were small or medium-sized tumors involving the IAC.

  1. Limitations and Prospects for Diffusion-Weighted MRI of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Roger; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the most effective component of the modern multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scan for prostate pathology. DWI provides the strongest prediction of cancer volume, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates moderately with Gleason grade. Notwithstanding the demonstrated cancer assessment value of DWI, the standard measurement and signal analysis methods are based on a model of water diffusion dynamics that is well known to be invalid in human tissue. This review describes the biophysical limitations of the DWI component of the current standard mpMRI protocol and the potential for significantly improved cancer assessment performance based on more sophisticated measurement and signal modeling techniques. PMID:27240408

  2. Hyperintense vessels on acute stroke Fluid-attenuated Inversion Recovery imaging: Associations with clinical and other MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bastian; Ebinger, Martin; Kufner, Anna; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C.; Christensen, Soren; Warach, Steve; Luby, Marie; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fiehler, Jens; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyperintense vessels (HV) have been observed in Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) imaging of patients with acute ischemic stroke and been linked to slow flow in collateral arterial circulation. Given the potential importance of HV, we used a large, multicentre dataset of stroke patients to clarify which clinical and imaging factors play a role in HV. Methods We analyzed data of 516 patients from the previously published PRE-FLAIR study. Patients were studied by MRI within 12 hours of symptom onset. HV were defined as hyperintensities in FLAIR corresponding to the typical course of a blood vessel that was not considered the proximal, occluded main artery ipsilateral to the diffusion restriction. Presence of HV was rated by two observers and related to clinical and imaging findings. Results Presence of HV was identified in 240 of all 516 patients (47%). Patients with HV showed larger initial ischemic lesion volumes (median 12.3 vs. 4.9 ml; p<0.001) and a more severe clinical impairment (median NIHSS 10.5 vs. 6; p<0.001). In 198 patients with MR-angiography, HV were found in 80% of patients with vessel occlusion and in 17% without vessel occlusion. In a multivariable logistic regression model, vessel occlusion was associated with HV (OR 21.7%; 95% CI 9.6–49.9, p < 0.001). HV detected vessel occlusion with a specificity of 0.86 (95% CI 0.80–0.90) and sensitivity of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69–0.83). Conclusions HV are a common finding associated with proximal arterial occlusions and more severe strokes. HV predict arterial occlusion with high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:22933582

  3. Image-Guided High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Boost Localization Using MRI/MR Spectroscopy: A Correlation Study with Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Mbodji, Khaly; Racine, Louis G; Chevrette, Eric; Lavallee, Marie C; Martin, André-Guy; Despres, Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the blind interpretations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mapping, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the prostate, in comparison to prostate biopsy to identify a valid dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) for dose escalation using high-dose rate brachytherapy. Methods: MRI/MRS were performed on 20 patients with intermediate risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate. T1W, T2W, DWI-ADC, and MRS sequences were performed at 1.5 T with pelvic and endorectal coils. An experienced radiologist rated the presence of cancer in each sextant by using a dichotomic approach, first on MR standard acquisitions (T1W and T2W), then on DWI-ADC mapping, and later on MRS images. Areas under the receiver’s operating characteristic curve were calculated using a sextant as the unit of analysis. The transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy results were used as the reference standard. A table summarizing the MRI/MRS findings was made and compared to the corresponding area in the prostate biopsy report. A perfect match was defined to be the presence of cancer in the same sextant of the MRI/MRS exam and the prostate biopsy. Results: The interpretation of the MRI/MRS exams per sextant was compared to the diagnostic biopsy report. MRI readings were compared with the biopsy as a surrogate for the complete pathology specimen of the prostate. A sensitivity (Sn) of 98.6% (95% confidence interval, 92.2% - 99.9%) and specificity (Sp) of 60.8% (46.1% - 74.2%) were found. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were 77.3% (67.1% - 85.5%) and 96.9% (83.8% - 99.9%), respectively. When MRS readings were compared with biopsy, we found a Sn of 96.4% (87.7% - 99.6%) and Sp of 54.8% (38.7% - 70.2%). The PPV and NPV were 74% (62.4% - 83.6%) and 92% (74% - 99%), respectively. DWI-ADC mapping results were also compared with biopsy. We found a Sn and Sp of

  4. Cerebellar Involvement in Patients with Mild to Moderate Myoclonus Due to EPM1: Structural and Functional MRI Findings in Comparison with Healthy Controls and Ataxic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nigri, Anna; Visani, Elisa; Bertolino, Nicola; Nanetti, Lorenzo; Mariotti, Caterina; Panzeri, Marta; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Franceschetti, Silvana; Canafoglia, Laura

    2017-05-01

    EPM1 (epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 1; Unverricht-Lundborg disease, OMIM #254800) is the most frequent form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Previous findings have suggested that its pathophysiology mainly involves the cerebellum, but the evaluation of cerebellar dysfunction is still unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to assess the structural and functional involvement of the cerebellum in EPM1. We used voxel-based morphometry and spatially unbiased infra-tentorial template analyses of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and functional MRI (fMRI) scans during block and event-related go/no-go motor tasks to study 13 EPM1 patients with mild to moderate myoclonus. We compared the results with those obtained in 12 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and in 12 patients with hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Structural analyses revealed different patterns of atrophic changes in the EPM1 and SCA patients: in the former, they involved both cerebrum and cerebellum but, in the latter, only the cerebellum. During fMRI, block and event-related go/no-go tasks similarly activated the cerebellum and cerebrum in the EPM1 patients and HCs, whereas both tasks revealed much less cerebellar activation in the SCA patients than in the other two groups. Volumetric evaluation of the EPM1 patients showed that the cerebellum seemed to be marginally involved in a widespread atrophic process, and fMRI showed that it was not functionally impaired during motor tasks.

  5. MRI-imaging and clinical findings of eleven children with tick-borne encephalitis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, C; Winkler, P; Koch, J; Zeches-Kansy, C; Schöttler-Glas, A; Wolf, G; Niller, H H; Staudt, M; Kluger, G; Rostasy, K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is increasing in many countries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the course of TBE is not regularly performed in children. The aim of our study was evaluating MRI-findings of children and adolescents with TBE. Retrospective evaluation of the charts and MRIs of patients who had been treated for TBE in the four participating hospitals in the last twenty years. 11 patients (5 male; age at TBE 3 weeks-15 9/12 years; mean 104.9 months) were included. MRI (within the first week after admission) revealed symmetric or asymmetric T2-hyperintensities in both thalami in 7/11 patients with additional bilateral lesions in putamen and/or caudate nucleus in 3 patients, and additional cortical lesions in 2 patients. Our youngest patient presented with T2-hyperintensities affecting the whole left cerebral hemisphere including white and grey matter and both cerebellar hemispheres. One patient had a minimal reversible T2-hyperintensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum (RHSCC). 3/11 patients had a normal MRI. 4/11 patients showed complete neurological recovery (2/4 with a normal MRI, RHSCC patient). 6/11 children survived with significant sequelae: hemiparesis (n = 4); cognitive deficits (n = 4); pharmacoresistant epilepsy (n = 2). One patient died of a malignant brain edema. A spectrum of MRI findings can be found in children with TBE, often showing involvement of the subcortical deep grey matter structures. In children presenting with a meningoencephalitis and bilateral thalamic involvement TBE should be included in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  7. DWI in transient global amnesia and TIA: proposal for an ischaemic origin of TGA.

    PubMed

    Winbeck, K; Etgen, T; von Einsiedel, H G; Röttinger, M; Sander, D

    2005-03-01

    There are conflicting reports concerning signal intensity changes in transient global amnesia (TGA) using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). We prospectively analysed DWI signal intensity changes in TIA and TGA patients, and compared the clinical characteristics and risk factors of both groups. Using DWI and conventional T1 and T2 weighted turbo spin echo sequences, 28 patients with acute TGA (13 men, mean age 61.5 years) and 74 TIA patients (47 men, mean age 62.4 years) were studied within 48 hours after symptom onset. Every patient underwent an intensive diagnostic investigation. In 10/28 (36%) of the TGA patients and 21/74 (28%) of the TIA patients, DWI signal intensity changes occurred. The time to DWI and the duration of symptoms were comparable in TIA and TGA patients. Overall, TIA patients showed an increased prevalence of vascular risk factors compared with TGA patients. In the TGA group, patients with abnormal DWI showed carotid atherosclerosis significantly more frequently. Based on our data, we suggest that the aetiology of TGA could be explained by an ischaemic event; due to arterial thrombembolic ischaemia in one subgroup, particularly in those patients with increased vascular risk factors, and due to venous ischaemia in another subgroup with valsalva-like activities before symptom onset.

  8. Association of computerized texture features on MRI with early treatment response following laser ablation for neuropathic cancer pain: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar F.; Jiang, Benjamin; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has recently emerged as a new treatment modality for cancer pain management that targets the cingulum (pain center in the brain) and has shown promise over radio frequency (RF)-based ablation, due to magnetic resonance image (MRI) guidance that allows for precise ablation. Since laser ablation for pain management is currently exploratory and is only performed at a few centers worldwide, its short- and long-term effects on the cingulum are currently unknown. Traditionally, treatment effects for neurological conditions are evaluated by monitoring changes in intensities and/or volume of the ablation zone on post-treatment Gadolinium-contrast T1-w (Gd-T1) MRI. However, LITT introduces subtle localized changes corresponding to tissues response to treatment, which may not be appreciable on visual inspection of volumetric or intensity changes. Additionally, different MRI protocols [Gd-T1, T2w, gradient echo sequence (GRE), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)] are known to capture complementary diagnostic information regarding the patient’s response to treatment; the utility of these MRI protocols has so far not been investigated to evaluate early and localized response to LITT treatment in the context of neuropathic cancer pain. In this work, we present the first attempt at (a) examining early treatment-related changes on a per-voxel basis via quantitative comparison of computer-extracted texture descriptors across pre- and post-LITT multiparametric (MP-MRI) (Gd-T1, T2w, GRE, FLAIR), subtle microarchitectural texture changes that may not be appreciable on original MR intensities or volumetric differences, and (b) investigating the efficacy of different MRI protocols in accurately capturing immediate post-treatment changes reflected (1) within and (2) outside the ablation zone. A retrospective cohort of four patient studies comprising pre- and immediate (24 h) post-LITT 3 Tesla Gd-T1, T2w, GRE, and FLAIR

  9. Contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the characterization of papillary breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Seyma; Toprak, Huseyin; Ersoy, Yeliz Emine; Malya, Fatma Ümit; Bakan, Ayşe Ahsen; Aralaşmak, Ayşe; Gucin, Zuhal

    2017-08-01

    Papillary lesions have a broad spectrum of appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of papillary lesions can be used to characterize lesion as benign or malignant. This retrospective study included 29 papillary lesions. Diagnostic values of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), DWI-ADC, and DCE-MRI plus DWI-ADC were separately calculated. The malignant papillary lesions (0.744×10(-3)  mm(2) /s) exhibited significantly lower mean ADC values than the benign lesions (1.339×10(-3)  mm(2) /s). Addition of DWI to standard DCE-MRI provided 100% sensitivity. We hypothesized that this combination may prevent unnecessary excisional biopsies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structural MRI volumetric analysis in patients with organic amnesia, 1: methods and comparative findings across diagnostic groups

    PubMed Central

    Colchester, A; Kingsley, D; Lasserson, D; Kendall, B; Bello, F; Rush, C; Stevens, T; Goodman, G; Heilpern, G; Stanhope, N; Kopelman, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—If they are to be replicable, MRI volume measurements require explicit definitions of structures and of criteria for delineating these structures on MRI. Previously published volumes in healthy subjects show considerable differences in measurements across different studies, including a fourfold variation in estimates of hippocampal volume. Previous neuroimaging reports in patients with Korsakoff syndrome have generally found widespread or non-specific change, whereas in patients with herpes encephalitis the extent of pathological involvement reported beyond the temporal lobes has varied.
METHOD—In the present study, a clear set of anatomical criteria and detailed MRI segmentation procedures were applied to measure whole brain, frontal and temporal lobe, and anterolateral and medial temporal volumes, as well as thalamic areas in patients with organic amnesia (from Korsakoff's syndrome, herpes encephalitis, and focal frontal lesions) as well as healthy controls.
RESULTS—Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome showed decreased thalamic measurements but no significant changes in the medial temporal lobes, whereas patients with herpes encephalitis showed severe medial temporal but not thalamic atrophy. In the patients with known frontal lobe lesions, quantitative analysis on MRI showed reduced frontal lobe volume but no significant temporal lobe or thalamic atrophy.
CONCLUSION—Quantified MRI can be a useful technique with which to examine brain-cognitive relations, provided that detailed techniques are explicitly described. In particular, specific patterns of volume change can be found in vivo in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and those with herpes encephalitis.

 PMID:11413256

  11. Real-time functional mapping with electrocorticography in pediatric epilepsy: comparison with fMRI and ESM findings.

    PubMed

    Korostenskaja, Milena; Wilson, Adam J; Rose, Douglas F; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin; Leach, James; Mangano, Francesco T; Fujiwara, Hisako; Rozhkov, Leonid; Harris, Elana; Chen, Po-Ching; Seo, Joo-Hee; Lee, Ki H

    2014-07-01

    SIGFRIED (SIGnal modeling For Real-time Identification and Event Detection) software provides real-time functional mapping (RTFM) of eloquent cortex for epilepsy patients preparing to undergo resective surgery. This study presents the first application of paradigms used in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) studies for shared functional cortical mapping in the context of RTFM. Results from the 3 modalities are compared. A left-handed 13-year-old male with intractable epilepsy participated in functional mapping for localization of eloquent language cortex with fMRI, ESM, and RTFM. For RTFM, data were acquired over the frontal and temporal cortex. Several paradigms were sequentially presented: passive (listening to stories) and active (picture naming and verb generation). For verb generation and story processing, fMRI showed atypical right lateralizing language activation within temporal lobe regions of interest and bilateral frontal activation with slight right lateralization. Left hemisphere ESM demonstrated no eloquent language areas. RTFM procedures using story processing and picture naming elicited activity in the right lateral and basal temporal regions. Verb generation elicited strong right lateral temporal lobe activation, as well as left frontal lobe activation. RTFM results confirmed atypical language lateralization evident from fMRI and ESM. We demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of a new RTFM stimulation paradigm during presurgical evaluation. Block design paradigms used in fMRI may be optimal for this purpose. Further development is needed to create age-appropriate RTFM test batteries.

  12. Brain 18F-FDG-PET characteristics in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and its correlation with clinical and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Masangkay, Neil; Basu, Sandip; Moghbel, Mateen; Kwee, Thomas; Alavi, Abass

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the imaging characteristics and clinical and MRI correlates of brain F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET imaging in patients with paraneoplatic neurological syndrome. Data of patients diagnosed with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome were retrospectively reviewed using the electronic medical records of the patients, looking specifically at records of hospital stays, laboratory findings and imaging reports. Both brain MRI and F-FDG-PET imaging characteristics were analyzed and compared. A total of 19 patients (ages 26-78; 13 female and six male patients) with clinical diagnoses of PNS were analyzed in this study. Limbic encephalitis (paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis) was found in 10 patients, seven of whom had a diagnosis of cancer. Brain F-FDG-PET showed bilaterally increased mesial temporal F-FDG uptake in eight of 10 patients with limbic encephalitis; seven of these eight patients exhibited memory loss. There was also a notable reduction in general cortical F-FDG uptake (including in the primary visual cortex) in six of the 10 patients with limbic encephalitis; three of the six patients had their primary motor cortices spared, two of them being spared bilaterally. Five of the seven limbic encephalitis patients with diagnosed cancer and two of the three without it had the aforementioned cortical and temporal lobe findings. Of the eight patients with onconeuronal antibodies, seven had temporal lobe enhancement and a total of six had diffuse cortical dysfunction. One patient with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis without antibodies had demonstrated severely increased F-FDG uptake in both occipital lobes extending to the temporal lobes. The other patient without antibodies had a normal PET scan. Only one patient among four with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration had demonstrated decreased cerebellar uptake on F-FDG-PET that correlated with atrophy of the cerebellar vermis on MRI. Three patients had a clinical diagnosis of sensory

  13. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  14. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of cartilage repair after microfracture treatment for full-thickness cartilage defect models in rabbit knee joints: correlations with histological findings.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hongyue; Li, Hong; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Zhongqing; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuang

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate repair tissue (RT) after microfracture treatment for full-thickness cartilage defect models using quantitative MRI and investigate the correlations between MRI and histological findings. The animal experiment was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of our college. Thirty-six full-thickness cartilage defect models in rabbit knee joints were assigned to the microfracture or joint debridement group (as control). Each group consisted of 3-week, 5-week, and 7-week subgroups. MR imaging, including a three-dimensional double-echo steady-state sequence (3D-DESS), and T2 mapping were performed at 3, 5, and 7 weeks postoperatively. The thickness and T2 indices of RT were calculated. After MRI scans at each time point, operation sites were removed to make hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained sections. Histological results were evaluated using the modified O'Driscoll score system. Comparisons were made between the two groups with respect to the MRI and histological findings, and correlation analysis was performed within each group. The thickness index and histological O'Driscoll score of RT in the two groups increased over time, while the T2 index decreased. The thickness index and histological O'Driscoll score of the microfracture group were higher than in the joint debridement group at each time point. The T2 index of the microfracture group was lower than in the joint debridement group at 3 weeks (P = 0.006), while it was higher than in the joint debridement group at 5 and 7 weeks (P = 0.025 and 0.025). The thickness index was positively correlated with the histological O'Driscoll score in both groups (microfracture: r s = 0.745, P < 0.001; joint debridement: r s = 0.680, P = 0.002). The T2 index was negatively correlated with the histological O'Driscoll score in both groups (microfracture: r s = -0.715, P = 0.002; joint debridement: r s = -0.826, P < 0.001). Significant improvement over time after microfracture can

  15. Abdominal Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma Associated With Lymphangiomatosis Involving Mesentery and Ileum: A Case Report of MRI, CT, and 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yang; He, Tianlin; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-02-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH) is a rare vascular tumor of intermediate malignancy that occurs mainly in the childhood. Adult patients with KH are rare. Imaging findings of KH have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in an adult patient with KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum.A 22-year-old female complained of a 9-month history of intermittent melena, weakness, and palpitation. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal occult blood test was positive. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed a large abdominal mass involving mesentery and ileum. On enhanced MRI, there were many hypervascular nodules in the mass. On FDG PET/CT, the mass and the nodules showed slight FDG uptake. Small bowel capsule endoscopy showed numerous grape-shaped red nodules in the luminal wall of the involved ileum. The patient underwent resection of the abdominal mass and a segment of the ileum invaded by the abdominal mass. KH arising within lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum was confirmed by pathology. After surgery, the patient's symptoms improved.This is the first case of KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. In this case, the lymphangiomatosis overshadowed the small tumor nodules resulting in unusual imaging findings. Familiarity with these imaging findings is helpful for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of KH.

  16. [Preliminary evaluation of PET-CT and DWI for the detection of lymphoma bone marrow infiltration].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Su, L P; Yang, X T; Zhang, J X; Zhao, M; Zhang, Z; Guan, T; Liu, X L; Zheng, Y P; Han, W E

    2016-11-23

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of PET-CT and DWI for the detection of bone marrow infiltration of lymphoma. Methods: The bone marrow samples of 93 untreated patients with pathologically diagnosed lymphoma were retrospectively analyzed. 61 patients underwent PET-CT examination, and other 32 underwent DWI examination. With bone marrow biopsy results as "gold standard" , the rates and sites of bone marrow infiltration of various lymphoma subtypes were analyzed, and the detection rates of the two imaging techniques were compared according to different lymphoma subtypes. Results: 39 patients were diagnosed as bone marrow infiltration based on pathological examination of bone marrow biopsies from routine sampling sites and bone marrow pathological examination of biopsies guided by PET-CT and DWI. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of PET-CT for lymphoma bone marrow infiltration were 80.8%, 88.6%, 85.3%, 84.0% and 86.1%, respectively; for DWI examination, these rates were 84.6%, 89.5%, 87.5%, 84.6% and 89.5%, respectively. The detection rates of the two imaging techniques for aggressive lymphoma were 37.5% (18/48) and 38.1% (8/21), respectively, which were slightly higher than those for the indolent lymphoma [23.1% (3/13) and 27.3% (3/11)], although the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.521, P=0.660). For both aggressive lymphoma and indolent lymphoma, the detection rates of DWI were numerically slightly higher than those of PET-CT(P=0.963, P=1.000). Conclusions: PET-CT and DWI have important and similar diagnostic value for bone marrow infiltration of lymphoma. None of PET-CT and DWI can replace bone marrow biopsy (BMB). However, image-guided bone marrow biopsies can improve the detection rate of bone marrow infiltration of lymphoma.

  17. Infarction of Uterine Fibroids After Embolization: Relationship Between Postprocedural Enhanced MRI Findings and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Kin, Yoko; Nozaki, Taiki

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the degree of infarction of uterine fibroids on enhanced MRI after embolization and long-term clinical outcomes. Methods. During 92 months, 290 consecutive patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated with embolization; 221 who underwent enhanced MRI before embolization and 1 week after embolization were included in this study. The infarction rates of all fibroid tissue were assessed using enhanced MRI after embolization. Patients were divided into three groups according to the infarction rates: group A (100% infarction, n 142), group B (90-99% infarction, n = 74), group C (<90% infarction, n = 5). The cumulative rates of clinical outcomes were compared among groups using the Kaplan-Meier limited method. Results. Group A had a significantly higher rate of symptom control than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of symptom control at 5 years were 93%, 71%, and 60% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Group A had a significantly lower rate of gynecologic intervention after embolization than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of additional gynecologic intervention at 5 years were 3%, 15%, and 20% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions. The degree of infarction of uterine fibroids after embolization on enhanced MRI was related to long-term clinical outcomes. Complete infarction of all fibroid tissue can induce a higher rate of symptom control, with a lower rate of additional gynecologic intervention in the long term compared with incomplete infarction of fibroid tissue.

  18. MRI findings in people with epilepsy and nodding syndrome in an area endemic for onchocerciasis: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, A S; Friedrich, K; Velicheti, S; Dharsee, J; König, R; Nassri, A; Meindl, M; Kidunda, A; Müller, T H; Jilek-Aall, L; Matuja, W; Gotwald, T; Schmutzhard, E

    2013-06-01

    Onchocerciasis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The debate on a potential causal relationship between Onchocerca volvulus and epilepsy has taken a new direction in the light of the most recent epidemic of nodding syndrome. To document MRI changes in people with different types of epilepsy and investigate whether there is an association with O. volvulus infection. In a prospective study in southern Tanzania, an area endemic for O. volvulus with a high prevalence of epilepsy and nodding syndrome, we performed MRI on 32 people with epilepsy, 12 of which suffered from nodding syndrome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of O. volvulus was performed in skin and CSF. The most frequent abnormalities seen on MRI was atrophy (twelve patients (37.5%)) followed by intraparenchymal pathologies such as changes in the hippocampus (nine patients (28.1%)), gliotic lesions (six patients (18.8%)) and subcortical signal abnormalities (three patients (9.4%)). There was an overall trend towards an association of intraparenchymal cerebral pathologies and infection with O. volvulus based on skin PCR (Fisher's Exact Test p=0.067) which was most pronounced in children and adolescents with nodding syndrome compared to those with other types of epilepsy (Fisher's Exact Test, p=0.083). Contrary to skin PCR results, PCR of CSF was negative in all patients. The observed trend towards an association of intraparenchymal cerebral pathological results on MRI and a positive skin PCR for O. volvulus despite negative PCR of CSF is intriguing and deserves further attention.

  19. New Findings, Classification and Long-Term Follow-Up Study Based on MRI Characterization of Brainstem Encephalitis Induced by Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feiqiu; Huang, Wenxian; Gan, Yungen; Zeng, Weibin; Chen, Ranran; He, Yanxia; Wang, Yonker; Liu, Zaiyi; Liang, Changhong; Wong, Kelvin K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To report the diversity of MRI features of brainstem encephalitis (BE) induced by Enterovirus 71. This is supported by implementation and testing of our new classification scheme in order to improve the diagnostic level on this specific disease. Methods Neuroimaging of 91 pediatric patients who got EV71 related BE were hospitalized between March, 2010 to October, 2012, were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI scan. Thereafter, 31 patients were randomly called back for follow-up MRI study during December 2013 to August 2014. The MRI signal patterns of BE primary lesion were analyzed and classified according to MR signal alteration at various disease stages. Findings in fatal and non-fatal cases were compared, and according to the MRI scan time point during the course of this disease, the patients’ conditions were classified as 1) acute stage, 2) convalescence stage, 3) post mortem stage, and 4) long term follow-up study. Results 103 patients were identified. 11 patients did not undergo MRI, as they died within 48 hours. One patient died on 14th day without MR imaging. 2 patients had postmortem MRI. Medical records and imaging were reviewed in the 91 patients, aged 4 months to 12 years, and two cadavers who have had MRI scan. At acute stage: the most frequent pattern (40 patients) was foci of prolonged T1 and T2 signal, with (15) or without (25) contrast enhancement. We observed a novel pattern in 4 patients having foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, with contrast enhancement. Another pattern in 10 patients having foci of contrast enhancement without abnormalities in T1WI or T2WI weighted images. Based on 2 cases, the entire medulla and pons had prolonged T1 and T2 signal, and 2 of our postmortem cases demonstrated the same pattern. At convalescence stage, the pattern observed in 4 patients was foci of prolonged T1 and T2 signal without contrast enhancement. Follow-up MR study of 31 cases showed normal in 26

  20. Discordance between MRI and bone scan findings in a child with acute complicated osteomyelitis: scintigraphic features that contribute to the early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mpalaris, V; Arsos, G; Iakovou, I; Dalpa, E; Karatzas, N

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acute osteomyelitis are of paramount importance in children because they can prevent irreversible bone damage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with its superior spatial resolution and lack of ionizing radiation is routinely preferred over bone scan for this purpose. Increased blood flow, hyperemia and focally increased tracer uptake shown by "three phase" bone scan are the typical scintigraphic findings of acute osteomyelitis. In addition, diffuse uptake along the shaft of long bones and focal "cold" lesions are two special features that may be highly suggestive of infective periostitis, soft tissue sepsis and subperiosteal abscess formation, due to the loose attachment of periosteum to bone during childhood. We present a case of complicated osteomyelitis in a child with inconclusive MRI correctly diagnosed on the basis of these special scintigraphic findings resulting in treatment change from double i.v. Vancomycin--Ceftriaxone scheme to surgical intervention.

  1. Alberta stroke program early computed tomographic scoring performance in a series of patients undergoing computed tomography and MRI: reader agreement, modality agreement, and outcome prediction.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Ryan A; Jovin, Tudor G; Lansberg, Maarten G; Mlynash, Michael; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Choudhri, Omar A; Inoue, Manabu; Marks, Michael P; Albers, Gregory W

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we compare the performance of pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic scoring (ASPECTS) using noncontrast CT (NCCT) and MRI in a large endovascular therapy cohort. Prospectively enrolled patients underwent baseline NCCT and MRI and started endovascular therapy within 12 hours of stroke onset. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were evaluable pretreatment NCCT, diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), and 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores. Two expert readers graded ischemic change on NCCT and DWI using the ASPECTS. ASPECTS scores were analyzed with the full scale or were trichotomized (0-4 versus 5-7 versus 8-10) or dichotomized (0-7 versus 8-10). Good functional outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2. Seventy-four patients fulfilled our study criteria. The full-scale inter-rater agreement for CT-ASPECTS and DWI-ASPECTS was 0.579 and 0.867, respectively. DWI-ASPECTS correlated with functional outcome (P=0.004), whereas CT-ASPECTS did not (P=0.534). Both DWI-ASPECTS and CT-ASPECTS correlated with DWI volume. The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that DWI-ASPECTS outperformed both CT-ASPECTS and the time interval between symptom onset and start of the procedure for predicting good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, ≤2) and DWI volume ≥70 mL. Inter-rater agreement for DWI-ASPECTS was superior to that for CT-ASPECTS. DWI-ASPECTS outperformed NCCT ASPECTS for predicting functional outcome at 90 days. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Prostate Cancer Detection Using High-Spatial Resolution MRI at 7.0 Tesla: Correlation with Histopathologic Findings at Radical Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0253 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Detection Using High-Spatial Resolution...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate Cancer Detection Using High-Spatial Resolution MRI at 7.0 Tesla: Correlation with Histopathologic Findings at Radical...endorectal coils, avoiding the need for this comparatively invasive devise. These initial steps are now being followed with testing in prostate cancer

  3. Infrarenal high intra-abdominal testis: fusion of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Seiji; Sato, Yuichi; Hata, Junya; Akaihata, Hidenori; Ogawa, Soichiro; Haga, Nobuhiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-08-24

    Several recent reports have demonstrated that the preoperative sensitivity and accuracy of identifying and locating non-palpable testes increases with the use of conventional MRI, in addition to diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Therefore, pre-operative prediction of the presence and location of testes using imaging techniques may guide management of intra-abdominal testis. Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy is effective for treating patients with intra-abdominal testis; however, long-term testicular function after this procedure has not been clarified. We present a case of a high intra-abdominal testis located below the kidney, and discuss the usefulness of fusion view with T2-weighted and DWI images to make a diagnosis of high intra-abdominal testis and the pathological findings to predict future fertility potential. A 10-month-old boy was referred to the urology department for the management of non-palpable testis. We employed not only conventional MRI, but also DWI, to improve the diagnostic accuracy of non-palpable testes by MRI examination. The high-intensity mass-like structure below the kidney on the T2-weighted image and the markedly high signal intensity mass on the DWI image completely matched, which suggested that the mass below the kidney was the right testis. The patient underwent diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy. A testis was found under the ascending colon, 1 cm below the right kidney. We performed 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy. The testis could be delivered to the scrotum without any tension. We examined expression patterns of the stem cell marker, undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1) in the testicular biopsy sample, and demonstrated that the UTF1-positive Ad spermatogonia / negative Ad spermatogonia ratio was lower in this patient than in boys his age with descended and inguinal undescended testes, indicating that spermatogonial stem cell activity may decrease remarkably in this boy. Fusion view with T2-weighted and

  4. Incidental Intracranial Findings and Their Clinical Impact; The HUNT MRI Study in a General Population of 1006 Participants between 50-66 Years

    PubMed Central

    Håberg, Asta Kristine; Hammer, Tommy Arild; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Rydland, Jana; Müller, Tomm B.; Eikenes, Live; Gårseth, Mari; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate types and prevalence of all, incidental, and clinically relevant incidental intracranial findings, i.e. those referred to primary physician or clinical specialist, in a cohort between 50 and 66 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) study. Types of follow-up, outcome of repeated neuroimaging and neurosurgical treatment were assessed. Material and Methods 1006 participants (530 women) underwent MRI of the head at 1.5T consisting of T1 weighted sagittal IR-FSPGR volume, axial T2 weighted, gradient echo T2* weighted and FLAIR sequences plus time of flight cerebral angiography covering the circle of Willis. The nature of a finding and if it was incidental were determined from previous radiological examinations, patient records, phone interview, and/or additional neuroimaging. Handling and outcome of the clinically relevant incidental findings were prospectively recorded. True and false positives were estimated from the repeated neuroimaging. Results Prevalence of any intracranial finding was 32.7%. Incidental intracranial findings were present in 27.1% and clinically relevant findings in 15.1% of the participants in the HUNT MRI cohort. 185 individuals (18.4%) were contacted by phone about their findings. 40 participants (6.2%) underwent ≥ 1 additional neuroimaging session to establish etiology. Most false positives were linked to an initial diagnosis of suspected glioma, and overall positive predictive value of initial MRI was 0.90 across different diagnoses. 90.8% of the clinically relevant incidental findings were developmental and acquired cerebrovascular pathologies, the remaining 9.2% were intracranial tumors, of which extra-axial tumors predominated. In total, 3.9% of the participants were referred to a clinical specialist, and 11.7% to their primary physician. 1.4% underwent neurosurgery/radiotherapy, and 1 (0.1%) experienced a procedure related postoperative deficit. Conclusions In a general population between 50 and 66 years most

  5. Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging: the added value to whole-body MRI at initial diagnosis of lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jing; Chan, Tao; Zhang, Jingbo; Leung, Anskar Y H; Kwong, Yok-Lam; Khong, Pek-Lan

    2011-09-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of conventional whole-body MRI without and with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of known (18)F-FDG-avid lymphomas. The conventional whole-body MRI protocol consisted of a T2-weighted sequence and a T2-weighted spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) sequence with frequency-selective fat suppression. The second protocol used the same sequences as the first protocol but also included DWI. Seventeen patients with pathologically confirmed, newly diagnosed, untreated lymphoma were recruited. T2-weighted and T2-weighted SPAIR images were evaluated first, separate from the DW images, and then were evaluated with the DW images. We used (18)F-FDG PET/CT as the standard of reference. True-positive, false-positive, and false-negative values were evaluated on a per-lesion basis. Tumor staging based on T2-weighted and T2-weighted SPAIR imaging without DWI and then with DWI was compared using the Ann Arbor staging system. True-positive lesions were increased from 89% to 97%, false-positive lesions were increased from 3% to 6%, and false-negative lesions were decreased from 11% to 3% by the addition of DWI. Diagnostic sensitivity was significantly increased (p = 0.002) by adding DWI. Lesions detected on DWI but not on T2-weighted and T2-weighted SPAIR imaging were located in renal (n = 1), paraaortic (n = 6), and pelvic (n = 3) lymph nodes. On DWI, 47% of the lesions (n = 55) were more conspicuous than on T2-weighted and T2-weighted SPAIR imaging; most of these lesions (58%, n = 32) were from lymph nodes in the pelvic or abdominal regions and bone marrow. No difference was found between T2-weighted and T2-weighted SPAIR imaging without DWI and T2-weighted and T2-weighted SPAIR imaging with DWI in lymphoma staging, being consistent with PET/CT in 88% of the patients (n = 15). The addition of DWI to conventional whole-body MRI sequences enhanced lesion conspicuity and improved diagnostic

  6. Whole-Body MRI Screening in Asymptomatic Subjects; Preliminary Experience and Long-Term Follow-Up Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, Sila; Suleyman, Erdogan; Ozcan, Umit Aksoy; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study is to describe the technique and to evaluate the results of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in an asymptomatic population. Material/Methods Between March 2009 and December 2011, 118 consecutive subjects undergoing thorough medical check-up were prospectively included in the study. MRI was performed with a 205-cm moving table, parallel imaging and automatic image composing software. Results In 83 subjects (70%), 103 benign lesions were detected. Two malignant (adrenal and renal carcinoma) lesions and one precancerous (pancreatic mucinous carcinoma) lesion were detected. The most common lesions were renal cysts, liver hemangiomas, liver cysts, thyroid nodules, and uterine leiomyomas. Conclusions WB-MRI is able to cover area from head to toes in one diagnostic work-up, and besides the anatomic regions evaluated by conventional radiological modalities, i.e. brain parenchyma, bones and extremities, can be evaluated in one examination. PMID:27635171

  7. Primary Uterine Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report of MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuefeng; Yang, Panpan; Wang, Li; Jing, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Primary uterine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is extremely rare accounting for <1% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Imaging findings of primary uterine lymphoma have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in a patient with primary uterine peripheral T-cell lymphoma.A 27-year-old female presented with intermittent fever with neutropenia for 7 months. MRI showed an ill-defined mass involved both the uterine corpus and cervix, resulting in diffuse enlargement of the uterus. This mass showed inhomogeneous hypointensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images, hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted imaging, relative hypointensity compared to the surrounding myometrium on T2-weighted images and lower enhancement than the surrounding myometrium on enhanced T1-weighted images. FDG PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake in the thickened wall of the uterine corpus and cervix with SUVmax of 26.9. There were multiple hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the pelvis and retroperitoneum. Uterine curettage and CT-guided biopsy of the uterine mass revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Bone marrow biopsy revealed no evidence of lymphomatous involvement. The imaging and pathologic findings were consistent with primary uterine lymphoma. After 3 circles of chemotherapy, follow-up enhanced MRI showed decreased thickness of the uterine wall.Despite its rarity, primary uterine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma should be taken into consideration when a uterine tumor shows large size, relative hypointesity on both T2-weighted images and enhanced T1-weighted images compared to the surrounding myometrium, and intense FDG uptake on PET/CT. MRI may be helpful for describing the relationship between the tumor and adjacent structures. FDG PET/CT may be useful for tumor detection and staging.

  8. Breast cancer and bone metastases: the association of axial skeleton MRI findings with skeletal-related events and survival.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Christian B; Schweitzer, Mark E; Di Primio, Gina; Sampaio, Marcos L; Kielar, Ania; Clemons, Mark; Jaberi, Arash

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if bone metastasis characteristics on axial skeleton MRI are associated with either skeletal-related events (SREs) or survival in breast cancer patients. A retrospective review was performed on 247 breast cancer patients with bone metastases identified on axial skeleton MRI. MRI studies were reviewed for metastases T1 signal, signal uniformity, complete vertebral metastatic marrow replacement, metastases quantity, and distribution. Odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated, with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI), to determine association with either future SREs or survival. At the time of analysis, 174 (70 %) patients had developed SREs and 176 (71 %) patients were dead. Features of skeletal metastases associated with SREs included the presence of complete metastatic marrow replacement within any vertebra; OR 2.363 (95 % CI 1.240-4.504, P = 0.0090), and more widely distributed metastases; OR 1.239 (95 % CI 1.070-1.435, P = 0.0040). Features associated with shorter survival included the presence of complete metastatic marrow replacement within any vertebra; HR 1.500 (95 % CI 1.105-2.036, P = 0.0093), and more widely distributed metastases; HR 1.141 (95 % CI 1.047-1.243, P = 0.0027). Metastases T1 signal, signal uniformity, and surprisingly quantity were not associated with SREs or survival. Axial skeleton MRI was able to identify characteristics predictive of future SREs and survival. These characteristics could be used for risk stratification for future trials if prospectively validated.

  9. Evaluation of atherosclerotic lesions using dextran- and mannan–dextran-coated USPIO: MRI analysis and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Keiko; Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta-Seko, Ayumi; Ohta, Shinichi; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Shiomi, Masashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Nohara, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect atherosclerotic lesions containing accumulations of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIO). Positing that improved USPIO with a higher affinity for atherosclerotic plaques would yield better plaque images, we performed MRI and histologic studies to compare the uptake of dextran- and mannan–dextran-coated USPIO (D-USPIO and DM-USPIO, respectively) by the atherosclerotic walls of rabbits. We intravenously injected atherosclerotic rabbits with DM-USPIO (n = 5) or D-USPIO (n = 5). Two rabbits were the controls. The doses delivered were 0.08 (dose 1) (n = 1), 0.4 (dose 2) (n = 1), or 0.8 (dose 3) (n = 3) mmol iron/Kg. The dose 3 rabbits underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before and 5 days after USPIO administration. Afterwards, all animals were euthanized, the aortae were removed and subjected to in vitro MRI study. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the aortic wall in the same region of interest (ROI) was calculated in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Histological assessment through measurement of iron-positive regions in Prussian blue-stained specimens showed that iron-positive regions were significantly larger in rabbits injected with DM- rather than D-USPIO (P < 0.05) for all doses. In vivo MRA showed that the SNR-reducing effect of DM- was greater than that of D-USPIO (P < 0.05). With in vitro MRI scans, SNR was significantly lower in rabbits treated with dose 2 of DM-USPIO compared with D-USPIO treatment (P < 0.05), and it tended to be lower at dose 3 (P < 0.1). In conclusion, we suggest that DM-USPIO is superior to D-USPIO for the study of atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits. PMID:22619561

  10. Quantifying Post- Laser Ablation Prostate Therapy Changes on MRI via a Domain-Specific Biomechanical Model: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Robert; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Focal laser ablation destroys cancerous cells via thermal destruction of tissue by a laser. Heat is absorbed, causing thermal necrosis of the target region. It combines the aggressive benefits of radiation treatment (destroying cancer cells) without the harmful side effects (due to its precise localization). MRI is typically used pre-treatment to determine the targeted area, and post-treatment to determine efficacy by detecting necrotic tissue, or tumor recurrence. However, no system exists to quantitatively evaluate the post-treatment effects on the morphology and structure via MRI. To quantify these changes, the pre- and post-treatment MR images must first be spatially aligned. The goal is to quantify (a) laser-induced shape-based changes, and (b) changes in MRI parameters post-treatment. The shape-based changes may be correlated with treatment efficacy, and the quantitative effects of laser treatment over time is currently poorly understood. This work attempts to model changes in gland morphology following laser treatment due to (1) patient alignment, (2) changes due to surrounding organs such as the bladder and rectum, and (3) changes due to the treatment itself. To isolate the treatment-induced shape-based changes, the changes from (1) and (2) are first modeled and removed using a finite element model (FEM). A FEM models the physical properties of tissue. The use of a physical biomechanical model is important since a stated goal of this work is to determine the physical shape-based changes to the prostate from the treatment, and therefore only physical real deformations are to be allowed. A second FEM is then used to isolate the physical, shape-based, treatment-induced changes. We applied and evaluated our model in capturing the laser induced changes to the prostate morphology on eight patients with 3.0 Tesla, T2-weighted MRI, acquired approximately six months following treatment. Our results suggest the laser treatment causes a decrease in prostate volume

  11. Primary central nervous system lymphoma with lymphomatosis cerebri in an immunocompetent child: MRI and 18F-FDG PET-CT findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun K; Sharma, Punit; Suman, Sudhir K C; Faizi, Nauroze A; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is extremely rare in immunocompetent children. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings of such a case in a 14-year old immunocompetent boy. In this patient, PCNSL was associated with lymphomatosis cerebri. Familiarity with the findings of this rare condition will improve the diagnostic confidence of the nuclear radiologist and avoid misdiagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease versus clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease in the Cache County Study on Memory and Aging: a comparison of quantitative MRI and neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Fearing, Michael A; Bigler, Erin D; Norton, Maria; Tschanz, Jo Ann; Hulette, Christine; Leslie, Carol; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2007-07-01

    Atrophy of specific, regional, and generalized brain structures occurs as a result of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) process. Comparing AD patients with histopathological confirmation of the disease at autopsy to those without autopsy but who were clinically diagnosed using the same antemortem criteria will provide further evidence of the utility and accuracy of neuropsychological assessments at the time of diagnosis, as well as the efficacy of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) in demonstrating gross neuropathological changes associated with the disease. The Cache County Study of Aging provides a unique opportunity to determine how closely AD subjects with only the clinical diagnosis match similarly diagnosed AD subjects but with postmortem confirmation of the disease. qMRI volumes of various brain structures, as well as neuropsychological outcome measures from an expanded battery, were obtained in 31 autopsy-confirmed AD subjects and 45 clinically diagnosed AD subjects. Of the various qMRI variables examined, only total temporal lobe volume was different, where those with postmortem confirmation had reduced volume. No significant differences between the two groups were found with any of the neuropsychological outcome measures. These findings confirm the similarity in neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment findings between those with just the clinical diagnosis of AD and those with an autopsy-confirmed diagnosis in the moderate-to-severe stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis.

  13. Design and construction of a realistic DWI phantom for filtering performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Tristán-Vega, Antonio; Aja-Fernández, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to build a realistic phantom for the assessment of filtering performance in Diffusion Weighted Images (DWI) is presented. From a real DWI data-set, a regularization process is carried out taking into account the diffusion model. This process drives to a model which accurately preserves the structural characteristics of actual DWI volumes, being in addition regular enough to be considered as a noise-free data-set and therefore to be used as a ground-truth. We compare our phantom with a kind of simplified phantoms commonly used in the literature (those based on homogeneous cross sections), concluding that the latter may introduce important biases in common quality measures used in the filtering performance assessment, and even drive to erroneous conclusions in the comparison of different filtering techniques.

  14. An Evaluation of Three Intensive Supervision Programs for Serious DWI Offenders.

    PubMed

    Wiliszowski, Connie H; Fell, James C; McKnight, A Scott; Tippetts, A Scott; Ciccel, J Decarlo

    2010-01-01

    There are many variations of supervision and probation programs for driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders. These programs include case-specific restrictions (e.g., individualized conditions to probation), unsupervised probation, basic supervision probation (e.g., regularly scheduled visits to probation services with varying frequency), and intensive supervision probation (which may involve many program components and close monitoring). Offenders who receive monitoring through intensive supervision programs (ISPs) have more contact with probation officers, a judge, or other designated authorities compared to standard (nonintensive) probation programs. Three ISPs were evaluated: the Minnesota Staggered Sentencing Program, the Westchester County New York DWI Enforcement Program, and the Oregon Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants (DUII) Intensive Supervision Program (DISP). The Minnesota program appeared to be successful in reducing offender recidivism in a relatively small ISP (n=200 offenders in the program). Compared to a similar matched group of DWI offenders, the staggered sentencing offenders had a significant 30.6% lower recidivism rate (p=.017) up to 4 years postoffense. The program prevented an estimated 15 to 23 re-arrests for DWI. Compared to a matched group of offenders, the Westchester County program appeared to be effective in the short term (18.1% lower recidivism in 5 years postoffense [p<.001]) but not in the long term (only 5.4% [p=.171] lower recidivism in 15 years postoffense). This program resulted in an estimated 78 fewer re-arrests for DWI in the first 5 years. The Oregon DISP intervention group had 54.1% lower recidivism up to 8 years postindex offense than both of the stratified matched-sample comparison groups, adjusting for the demographic covariates (Wald=51.50; p>.001). The program prevented 67 re-arrests for DWI in the first 8 years. The benefit/cost of ISPs appears to be very good for the prevention of re-arrests.

  15. An Evaluation of Three Intensive Supervision Programs for Serious DWI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Wiliszowski, Connie H.; Fell, James C.; McKnight, A. Scott; Tippetts, A. Scott; Ciccel, J. DeCarlo

    2010-01-01

    There are many variations of supervision and probation programs for driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders. These programs include case-specific restrictions (e.g., individualized conditions to probation), unsupervised probation, basic supervision probation (e.g., regularly scheduled visits to probation services with varying frequency), and intensive supervision probation (which may involve many program components and close monitoring). Offenders who receive monitoring through intensive supervision programs (ISPs) have more contact with probation officers, a judge, or other designated authorities compared to standard (nonintensive) probation programs. Three ISPs were evaluated: the Minnesota Staggered Sentencing Program, the Westchester County New York DWI Enforcement Program, and the Oregon Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants (DUII) Intensive Supervision Program (DISP). The Minnesota program appeared to be successful in reducing offender recidivism in a relatively small ISP (n=200 offenders in the program). Compared to a similar matched group of DWI offenders, the staggered sentencing offenders had a significant 30.6% lower recidivism rate (p=.017) up to 4 years postoffense. The program prevented an estimated 15 to 23 re-arrests for DWI. Compared to a matched group of offenders, the Westchester County program appeared to be effective in the short term (18.1% lower recidivism in 5 years postoffense [p<.001]) but not in the long term (only 5.4% [p=.171] lower recidivism in 15 years postoffense). This program resulted in an estimated 78 fewer re-arrests for DWI in the first 5 years. The Oregon DISP intervention group had 54.1% lower recidivism up to 8 years postindex offense than both of the stratified matched-sample comparison groups, adjusting for the demographic covariates (Wald=51.50; p>.001). The program prevented 67 re-arrests for DWI in the first 8 years. The benefit/cost of ISPs appears to be very good for the prevention of re-arrests. PMID:21050620

  16. Femoral and Tibial Tunnel Diameter and Bioabsorbable Screw Findings After Double-Bundle ACL Reconstruction in 5-Year Clinical and MRI Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kiekara, Tommi; Paakkala, Antti; Suomalainen, Piia; Huhtala, Heini; Järvelä, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tunnel enlargement is frequently seen in short-term follow-up after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). According to new evidence, tunnel enlargement may be followed by tunnel narrowing, but the long-term evolution of the tunnels is currently unknown. Hypothesis/Purpose: The hypothesis was that tunnel enlargement is followed by tunnel narrowing caused by ossification as seen in follow-up using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ossification pattern of the tunnels, the communication of the 2 femoral and 2 tibial tunnels, and screw absorption findings in MRI. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Thirty-one patients underwent anatomic double-bundle ACLR with hamstring grafts and bioabsorbable interference screw fixation and were followed with MRI and clinical evaluation at 2 and 5 years postoperatively. Results: The mean tunnel enlargement at 2 years was 58% and reduced to 46% at 5 years. Tunnel ossification resulted in evenly narrowed tunnels in 44%, in conical tunnels in 48%, and fully ossified tunnels in 8%. Tunnel communication increased from 13% to 23% in the femur and from 19% to 23% in the tibia between 2 and 5 years and was not associated with knee laxity. At 5 years, 54% of the screws were not visible, with 35% of the screws replaced by a cyst and 19% fully ossified. Tunnel cysts were not associated with worse patient-reported outcomes or knee laxity. Patients with a tibial anteromedial tunnel cyst had higher Lysholm scores than patients without a cyst (93 and 84, P = .03). Conclusion: Tunnel enlargement was followed by tunnel narrowing in 5-year follow-up after double-bundle ACLR. Tunnel communication and tunnel cysts were frequent MRI findings and not associated with adverse clinical evaluation results. PMID:28203605

  17. The impact of image fusion in resolving discrepant findings between FDG-PET and MRI/CT in patients with gynaecological cancers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Chien; Tsai, Chien-Sheng; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Hsueh, Swei; Kao, Pan-Fu; Chang, Ting-Chang; Hong, Ji-Hong; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed to prospectively investigate the impact of image fusion in resolving discrepant findings between fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or X-ray computed tomography (CT) in patients with gynaecological cancers. Discrepant findings were defined as lesions where the difference between the FDG-PET and MRI/CT images was assigned a value of at least 2 on a 5-point probability scale. The FDG-PET and MRI/CT images were taken within 1 month of each other. Image fusion between FDG-PET and CT was performed by automatic registration between the two images. During an 18-month period, 34 malignant lesions and seven benign lesions from 32 patients who had undergone either surgical excision or a CT-guided histopathological investigation were included for analysis. Among these cases, image fusion was most frequently required to determine the nature and/or the extent of abdominal and pelvic lesions (28/41, 68%), especially as regards peritoneal seeding (8/41, 20%). Image fusion was most useful in providing better localisation for biopsy (16/41, 39%) and in discriminating between lesions with pathological versus physiological FDG uptake (12/41, 29%). Image fusion changed the original diagnosis based on MRI/CT alone in 9/41 lesions (22%), and the original diagnosis based on FDG-PET alone in 5/41 lesions (12%). It led to alteration of treatment planning (surgery or radiotherapy) in seven of the 32 patients (22%). In patients with gynaecological cancers, the technique of image fusion is helpful in discriminating the nature of FDG-avid lesions, in effectively localising lesions for CT-guided biopsy and in providing better surgical or radiotherapy planning.

  18. Does Screening Classification Predict Long-Term Outcomes of DWI Offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We interviewed 583 driving while intoxicated (DWI) first offenders with substance use disorders (SUDs) to determine the usefulness of a screening classification system in predicting treatment utilization, current SUD, and driving over the alcohol limit (DOL) at 15-year follow-ups. Methods Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to determine predictors of long-term outcomes. Results Screening classification defined groups with different treatment histories and 15-year outcomes. Current SUDs were reported by 21%, and DOL by 10%, of subjects. Conclusions Group differences suggest that screening data could be used more effectively to triage and treat DWI offenders. PMID:20604698

  19. Is there a benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with large stroke (DWI-ASPECTS≤ 5)?

    PubMed

    Manceau, Pierre-François; Soize, Sébastien; Gawlitza, Matthias; Fabre, Guillaume; Bakchine, Serge; Durot, Carole; Serre, Isabelle; Metaxas, Georgios-Emmanouil; Pierot, Laurent

    2017-09-14

    Whether to withhold mechanical thrombectomy when the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion exceeds a given volume is undetermined. We aimed to identify markers that will help to select patients with large DWI lesions (DWI-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, DWI-ASPECTS≤5) that may benefit from thrombectomy. From May 2010 to November 2016, we studied 82 acute ischemic stroke patients with DWI-ASPECTS≤5 (43 men, 64.6±14.4 years, NIHSS 18.4±5.4) treated with state-of-the-art mechanical thrombectomy. Thrombectomy alone was performed in 28 (34%) and bridging therapy in 54 (66%) patients. Recanalization was defined as a thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) score 2B-3 and significant hemorrhagic transformation as parenchymal hematoma type 2 (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study 3 classification). Pretreatment variables were compared between patients with a good (mRS 0-2) and a poor (mRS 3-6) neurological outcome at 3 months. Overall, 28 patients (34%) achieved good neurological outcome at 3 months. Recanalizers were significantly more likely to achieve good outcome (61% vs 7.3%, P<0.0001), had lower mortality (24% vs 49%, P=0.03) and similar rates of parenchymal hematoma type 2 (9.8% vs 7.3%, P=1) compared to non-recanalizers. Regression modeling identified DWI-ASPECTS>2 (OR 6.93; 95%CI 1.05-45.76, P=0.04), glycemia ≤6.8 mmol/l (OR 4.05; 95%CI 1.09-15.0, P=0.03) and thrombolysis (OR 3.67; 95%CI 1.04-12.9, P=0.04) as independent predictors of good neurological outcome. In patients with DWI-ASPECTS≤5, 2/3 of patients experienced good neurological outcome when recanalized by state-of-the-art thrombectomy, while only 1/14 non-recanalizers achieved similar outcomes. Pretreatment markers of good neurological outcomes were DWI-ASPECTS>2, intravenous thrombolysis and glycemia≤6.8 mmol/l. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Femoral epiphyseal cartilage matrix changes at predilection sites of equine osteochondrosis: Quantitative MRI, second-harmonic microscopy, and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Martel, Gabrielle; Couture, Charles-André; Gilbert, Guillaume; Bancelin, Stéphane; Richard, Hélène; Moser, Thomas; Kiss, Sabrina; Légaré, François; Laverty, Sheila

    2016-10-01

    Osteochondrosis is an ischemic chondronecrosis of epiphyseal growth cartilage that results in focal failure of endochondral ossification and osteochondritis dissecans at specific sites in the epiphyses of humans and animals, including horses. The upstream events leading to the focal ischemia remain unknown. The epiphyseal growth cartilage matrix is composed of proteoglycan and collagen macromolecules and encases its vascular tree in canals. The matrix undergoes major dynamic changes in early life that could weaken it biomechanically and predispose it to focal trauma and vascular failure. Subregions in neonatal foal femoral epiphyses (n = 10 osteochondrosis predisposed; n = 6 control) were assessed for proteoglycan and collagen structure/content employing 3T quantitative MRI (3T qMRI: T1ρ and T2 maps). Site-matched validations were made with histology, immunohistochemistry, and second-harmonic microscopy. Growth cartilage T1ρ and T2 relaxation times were significantly increased (p < 0.002) within the proximal third of the trochlea, a site predisposed to osteochondrosis, when compared with other regions. However, this was observed in both control and osteochondrosis predisposed specimens. Microscopic evaluation of this region revealed an expansive area with low proteoglycan content and a hypertrophic-like appearance on second-harmonic microscopy. We speculate that this matrix structure and composition, though physiological, may weaken the epiphyseal growth cartilage biomechanically in focal regions and could enhance the risk of vascular failure with trauma leading to osteochondrosis. However, additional investigations are now required to confirm this. 3T qMRI will be useful for future non-invasive longitudinal studies to track the osteochondrosis disease trajectory in animals and humans. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1743-1752, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley

  1. Cervical neuroblastoma in eleven infants--a tumor with favorable prognosis. Clinical and radiologic (US, CT, MRI) findings.

    PubMed

    Abramson, S J; Berdon, W E; Ruzal-Shapiro, C; Stolar, C; Garvin, J

    1993-01-01

    Cervical neuroblastoma, a disease primarily of infants, has a favorable prognosis. Eleven patients are reported. Clinical presentations (other than mass) included stridor and swallowing problems. Masses when felt were commonly mistaken for infectious adenitis. Imaging studies (US, CT, MRI) showed solid masses with vascular displacement and narrowing; intraspinal extension was absent though extension into the adjacent sites of mediastinum and skull occurred. Horner syndrome was seen in five patients with accompanying heterochromia iridis in one. Five tumors had calcification. A high index of suspicion will lead to biopsy and less delay in diagnosis once a mass is felt or imaged.

  2. Comparison of Diffuse Weighted Imaging and Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery Sequences of MRI in Brain Multiple Sclerosis Plaques Detection.

    PubMed

    Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza; Rahimdel, Abolghasem; Shanbehzadeh, Tahereh; Fallah, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Suitable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques from conventional to new devices can help physicians in diagnosis and follow up of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. The aim of present research was to compare effectiveness of Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) sequence of conventional MRI and Diffuse Weighted Imaging (DWI) sequence as a new technique in detection of brain MS plaques. In this analytic cross sectional study, sample size was assessed as 40 people to detect any significant difference between two sequences with a level of 0.05. DWI and FLAIR sequences of without contrast brain MRI of consecutive MS patients referred to MRI center of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran from January to May 2012, were evaluated. Thirty-two females and 8 males with mean age of 35.20±9.80 yr (range = 11-66 yr) were evaluated and finally 340 plaques including 127(37.2%) in T2WI, 127(37.2%) in FLAIR, 63(18.5%) in DWI and 24(7.1%) in T1WI were detected. FLAIR sequence was more efficient than DWI in detection of brain MS plaques, oval, round, amorphous plaque shapes, frontal and occipital lobes, periventricular, intracapsular, corpus callosum, centrum semiovale, subcortical, basal ganglia plaques and diameter of detected MS plaques in DWI sequence was smaller than in FLAIR. Old lesion can be detected by conventional MRI and new techniques might be more useful in early inflammatory phase of MS and assessment of experimental treatments.

  3. Treatment of chronic achilles tendinopathy and ruptures with flexor hallucis tendon transfer: clinical outcome and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Frederik; Meyer, Patrick; Maiwald, Christian; Zanetti, Marco; Vienne, Patrick

    2008-08-01

    In patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy, augmentation with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer can be performed to improve pain and functional limitations. There are no reports of postoperative imaging for evaluating tendon integration, inflammatory alterations or degeneration of the FHL muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate postoperative MR imaging based on clinical outcome and isokinetic strength. 13 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (10 ruptures) underwent augmentation with FHL transfer. Clinical parameters, isokinetic strength and outcome measurements (AOFAS, SF-36) were evaluated at an average followup of 46.5 months. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of postoperative MRI were conducted using the non-operated side for comparison. All patients had a significant reduction of pain. The operated side had a torque deficit of 35% for plantar flexion. Ten patients returned to their former level of activity. MRI showed a complete integration of the FHL tendon in six patients. Fatty atrophy in the triceps surae was found in ten patients. The FHL was free of degeneration in all patients. Hypertrophy of the FHL of more than 15% was observed in eight patients. Augmentation with FHL transfer is a valuable option in the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy with and without rupture. Our results demonstrate high patient satisfaction without donor site morbidity. The FHL tendon is well integrated into the Achilles tendon. Hypertrophy of the FHL muscle suggests functional incorporation into plantar flexion. The primary benefit of the operation is pain relief and increased muscle strength.

  4. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound as a New Investigative Tool in Diagnostic Imaging of Muscle Injuries-A Pilot Study Evaluating Conventional Ultrasound, CEUS, and Findings in MRI.

    PubMed

    Hotfiel, Thilo; Heiss, Rafael; Swoboda, Bernd; Kellermann, Marion; Gelse, Kolja; Grim, Casper; Strobel, Deike; Wildner, Dane

    2017-07-11

    To emphasize the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the imaging of muscle injuries with different degrees of severity by comparing findings to established imaging modalities such as conventional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Case series. Institutional study. Conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed in the Department of Internal Medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in the Department of Radiology within the Magnetom Avanto 1.5T and Magnetom Skyra fit 3T (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany) and in the Institution of Imaging Diagnostics and Therapy (Magnetom Avanto 1.5T; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Fifteen patients who underwent an acute muscle injury were recruited. The appearance and detectable size of muscle injuries were compared between each imaging modality. The injuries were assessed by 3 independent observers and blinded between imaging modalities. All 15 injuries were identified on MRI and CEUS, whereas 10 injuries showed abnormalities in conventional ultrasound. The determination and measurement revealed significant differences between conventional ultrasound and CEUS depending on injury severity. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound revealed an impairment of microcirculation in grade I lesions (corresponding to intramuscular edema observed in MRI), which was not detectable using conventional ultrasound. Our results indicate that performing CEUS seems to be a sensitive additional diagnostic modality in the early assessment of muscle injuries. Our results highlight the advantages of CEUS in the imaging of low-grade lesions when compared with conventional ultrasound, as this was the more accurate modality for identifying intramuscular edema.

  5. Clinical features and neuroimaging (CT and MRI) findings in presumed Zika virus related congenital infection and microcephaly: retrospective case series study.

    PubMed

    de Fatima Vasco Aragao, Maria; van der Linden, Vanessa; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Coeli, Regina Ramos; Rocha, Maria Angela; Sobral da Silva, Paula; Durce Costa Gomes de Carvalho, Maria; van der Linden, Ana; Cesario de Holanda, Arthur; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes

    2016-04-13

    To report radiological findings observed in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the first cases of congenital infection and microcephaly presumably associated with the Zika virus in the current Brazilian epidemic. Retrospective study with a case series. Association for Assistance of Disabled Children (AACD), Pernambuco state, Brazil. 23 children with a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Types of abnormalities and the radiological pattern of lesions identified on CT and MRI brain scans. Six of the 23 children tested positive for IgM antibodies to Zika virus in cerebrospinal fluid. The other 17 children met the protocol criteria for congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus, even without being tested for IgM antibodies to the virus--the test was not yet available on a routine basis. Of the 23 children, 15 underwent CT, seven underwent both CT and MRI, and one underwent MRI. Of the 22 children who underwent CT, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, 21 (95%) had malformations of cortical development, 20 (91%) had a decreased brain volume, 19 (86%) had ventriculomegaly, and 11 (50%) had hypoplasia of the cerebellum or brainstem. Of the eight children who underwent MRI, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, malformations of cortical development occurring predominantly in the frontal lobes, and ventriculomegaly. Seven of the eight (88%) children had enlarged cisterna magna, seven (88%) delayed myelination, and six each (75%) a moderate to severe decrease in brain volume, simplified gyral pattern, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (38% hypogenesis and 38% hypoplasia). Malformations were symmetrical in 75% of the cases. Severe cerebral damage was found on imaging in most of the children in this case series with congenital infection

  6. Clinical features and neuroimaging (CT and MRI) findings in presumed Zika virus related congenital infection and microcephaly: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Coeli, Regina Ramos; Rocha, Maria Angela; Sobral da Silva, Paula; Durce Costa Gomes de Carvalho, Maria; van der Linden, Ana; Cesario de Holanda, Arthur; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report radiological findings observed in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the first cases of congenital infection and microcephaly presumably associated with the Zika virus in the current Brazilian epidemic. Design Retrospective study with a case series. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children (AACD), Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants 23 children with a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Types of abnormalities and the radiological pattern of lesions identified on CT and MRI brain scans. Results Six of the 23 children tested positive for IgM antibodies to Zika virus in cerebrospinal fluid. The other 17 children met the protocol criteria for congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus, even without being tested for IgM antibodies to the virus—the test was not yet available on a routine basis. Of the 23 children, 15 underwent CT, seven underwent both CT and MRI, and one underwent MRI. Of the 22 children who underwent CT, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, 21 (95%) had malformations of cortical development, 20 (91%) had a decreased brain volume, 19 (86%) had ventriculomegaly, and 11 (50%) had hypoplasia of the cerebellum or brainstem. Of the eight children who underwent MRI, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, malformations of cortical development occurring predominantly in the frontal lobes, and ventriculomegaly. Seven of the eight (88%) children had enlarged cisterna magna, seven (88%) delayed myelination, and six each (75%) a moderate to severe decrease in brain volume, simplified gyral pattern, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (38% hypogenesis and 38% hypoplasia). Malformations were symmetrical in 75% of the cases. Conclusion Severe cerebral damage was

  7. MRI for Assessing Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using DCE-MR and DW-MR Data Sets: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Mario; Fusco, Roberta; Catalano, Orlando; Sansone, Mario; Avallone, Antonio; Delrio, Paolo; Pecori, Biagio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate MRI for neoadjuvant therapy response assessment in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), we have compared magnetic resonance volumetry based on DCE-MRI (V(DCE)) and on DWI (V(DWI)) scans with conventional T2-weighted volumetry (V(C)) in LARC patients after neoadjuvant therapy. Twenty-nine patients with LARC underwent MR examination before and after neoadjuvant therapy. A manual segmentation was performed on DCE-MR postcontrast images, on DWI (b-value 800 s/mm2), and on conventional T2-weighted images by two radiologists. DCE-MRI, DWI, and T2-weigthed volumetric changes before and after treatment were evaluated. Nonparametric sample tests, interobserver agreement, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were performed. Diagnostic performance linked to DCE-MRI volumetric change was superior to T2-w and DW-MRI volumetric changes performance (specificity 86%, sensitivity 93%, and accuracy 93%). Area Under ROC (AUC) of V(DCE) was greater than AUCs of V(C) and V(DWI) resulting in an increase of 15.6% and 11.1%, respectively. Interobserver agreement between two radiologists was 0.977, 0.864, and 0.756 for V(C), V(DCE), and V(DWI), respectively. V(DCE) seems to be a promising tool for therapy response assessment in LARC. Further studies on large series of patients are needed to refine technique and evaluate its potential value. PMID:26413528

  8. MRI-induced heating of selected thin wire metallic implants-- laboratory and computational studies-- findings and new questions raised.

    PubMed

    Bassen, H; Kainz, W; Mendoza, G; Kellom, T

    2006-01-01

    We performed experiments and computer modeling of heating of a cardiovascular stent and a straight, thin wire by RF fields in a 1.5 T MRI birdcage coil at 64 MHz. We used ASTM F2182-02a standard and normalized results to 4 W/kg whole body average. We used a rectangular saline-gel filled phantom and a coiled, double stent (Intracoil by ev3 Inc) 11 cm long. The stent had thin electrical insulation except for bare ends (simulating drug eluting coating). The stent and phantom were placed close to the wall of the RF Coil and had approximately 0.5 degrees C initial temperature rise at the ends (local SAR = 320 W/kg). We exposed a wire (24.1 cm, 0.5 mm diameter) with 0.5 mm insulation and saw an 8.6 degrees C temperature rise (local SAR = 5,680 W/kg) at the bare ends. All heating was within 1 mm3 of the ends, so the position of our fiber optic temperature probe was critical for repeatability. Our computational study used finite difference time domain software with a thermodynamics solver. We modeled a coiled bare-wire stent as a spiral with a rectangular cross section and found a maximum increase of 0.05 degrees C induced at the tips for plane wave exposures. A maximum local SAR of up to 200 W/kg occurred in a volume of only 8 x 10(-3) mm. We developed improved computational exposure sources-- optimized birdcage coils and quasi-MRI fields that may eliminate the need to model an RF coil. We learned that local (point) SAR (initial linear temperature rise) is the most reliable indicator of the maximum heating of an implant. Local SAR depends greatly on implant length, insulation and shape, and position in the MRI coil. Accurate heating must be measured with sensors or software having millimeter resolution. Many commercially available fiber optic temperature probes do meet this requirement.

  9. Multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Preliminary results on quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy imaging.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Petrillo, Mario; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Granata, Vincenza; Botti, Gerardo; Perdonà, Sisto; Borzillo, Valentina; Muto, Paolo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    Early promising data suggest that combined use of both morphological and functional MRI (multi-parametric MR, mpMRI) including MRSI, DWI and DCE may be of additional value for prostate cancer localization and its local staging. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of mpMRI in the detection of prostate cancer. Thirty-one consecutive male patients were screened to be enrolled in a single center prospective observational study. All eligible patients underwent multi-parametric MRI and TRUS (Trans Rectal Ultra Sound) guided prostate biopsies. A register, approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee, included patients enrolled in this study. All patients who decided to undergo the MRI examination signed an explicit informed consensus. MRI data were aligned on a common spatial grid and several functional parameters (perfusion, diffusion and metabolic parameters) were computed. Statistical analysis was conducted in order to compare mpMRI with biopsy-based analysis. Statistically significant differences between median values in high Gleason score (≥5) and low Gleason score (<5) to Wilcox on rank sum test were obtained for MRSI parameters and for plasma fraction (Tofts model) of DCE-MRI. The area under curve obtained with ROC analysis showed that the best-performing single-parameter was vp (plasma fraction of Tofts model), while the best parameters combination to discriminate the area with high Gleason score were (Cho+Cr)/Cit and Cho+Cr. Linear Discrimination Analysis showed that the best results were obtained considering the linear combination of all MRSI parameters and the linear combination of all features (perfusion, diffusion and metabolic parameters). In conclusion, our findings showed that by combining morphological MRI, DWI, DCE-MRI and MRSI, an increase in sensitivity and specificity correlated to biopsy Gleason grade could be obtained. Furthermore, morphological and functional MRI could have a diagnostic role in patients with

  10. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  11. [Pontine infarction presenting non-paralytic pontine exotropia--evaluation of its clinical course and its MRI findings].

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, K; Takizawa, T; Sato, S; Sano, A; Takahashi, K; Murakami, Y; Yoshihisa, K; Sato, M; Ota, K; Miyamoto, T

    1992-07-01

    We report two patients with brainstem infarction who presented non-paralytic pontine exotropia (NPPE) in acute phase. Case 1 was a 76-year-old woman. NPPE observed 3 hours after the onset disappeared two days later. Case 2 was a 60-year-old man. Paralytic pontine exotropia was observed 4 hours after the onset of his stroke. NPPE was noted on the next day and left medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome was still present on the third day. Seven days later, the disturbances of ocular movement was disappeared. T2-weighted cranial MRI showed high signal intensity lesions in the paramedian portion of the mid-pontine tegmentum beneath the fourth ventricle in both cases. Although it has been thought that NPPE is a rare clinical symptom, we think that NPPE is by no means a rare symptom in the acute stage of brainstem infarction.

  12. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool.

  13. Focal Liver Lesions Classification and Characterization: What Value Do DWI and ADC Have?

    PubMed

    Calistri, Linda; Castellani, Alessandro; Matteuzzi, Benedetta; Mazzoni, Elisa; Pradella, Silvia; Colagrande, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the classification/characterization of focal liver lesions (FLLs). Retrospective study, approved by ethical board, of 100 proven FLLs (20 hemangiomas, 20 focal nodular hyperplasia, 20 dysplastic nodules, 20 hepatocellular carcinomas, and 20 metastases) was performed by 1.5-T MR. For each lesion, 2 readers, blinded of medical history, have evaluated 6 sets of images: set A (T1/T2-weighted images), set B (set A + DWI), set C (set B + apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] map), set D (set A + dynamic and hepatobiliary phases), set E (set D + DWI), set F (set E + ADC map). In unenhanced images, the evaluation of the ADC improves the accuracy in classification/characterization (+9%/14%, respectively), whereas in enhanced images the accuracy was increased by DWI (+7%/12%, respectively) and ADC (+13%/19%, respectively). Diffusion-weighted imaging does not improve classification/characterization of hemangiomas, may be useful in focal nodular hyperplasia/dysplastic nodules vs metastases/hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation, and increases the classification/characterization of metastases in both unenhanced and enhanced images. Diffusion-weighted imaging may improve classification/characterization of FLLs at unenhanced/enhanced examinations.

  14. The Efficacy of the Use of Coercion in Getting DWI Offenders into Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) offenders (N=151) identified as alcoholics were coerced to seek treatment for their alcoholism. A follow-up study six months later revealed that these coerced alcoholics did no better or no worse than other alcoholics entering treatment without coercion. (Author/RC)

  15. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Jungmann, Pia M.; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Link, Thomas M.; Li, Xiaojuan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus; Welsch, Goetz H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair. PMID:24877139

  16. Cartilage repair surgery: outcome evaluation by using noninvasive cartilage biomarkers based on quantitative MRI techniques?

    PubMed

    Jungmann, Pia M; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Erdle, Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rummeny, Ernst J; Woertler, Klaus; Welsch, Goetz H

    2014-01-01

    New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  17. Investigating Effective Brain Connectivity from fMRI Data: Past Findings and Current Issues with Reference to Granger Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Interactions between brain regions have been recognized as a critical ingredient required to understand brain function. Two modes of interactions have held prominence—synchronization and causal influence. Efforts to ascertain causal influence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have relied primarily on confirmatory model-driven approaches, such as dynamic causal modeling and structural equation modeling, and exploratory data-driven approaches such as Granger causality analysis. A slew of recent articles have focused on the relative merits and caveats of these approaches. The relevant studies can be classified into simulations, theoretical developments, and experimental results. In the first part of this review, we will consider each of these themes and critically evaluate their arguments, with regard to Granger causality analysis. Specifically, we argue that simulations are bounded by the assumptions and simplifications made by the simulator, and hence must be regarded only as a guide to experimental design and should not be viewed as the final word. On the theoretical front, we reason that each of the improvements to existing, yet disparate, methods brings them closer to each other with the hope of eventually leading to a unified framework specifically designed for fMRI. We then review latest experimental results that demonstrate the utility and validity of Granger causality analysis under certain experimental conditions. In the second part, we will consider current issues in causal connectivity analysis—hemodynamic variability, sampling, instantaneous versus causal relationship, and task versus resting states. We highlight some of our own work regarding these issues showing the effect of hemodynamic variability and sampling on Granger causality. Further, we discuss recent techniques such as the cubature Kalman filtering, which can perform blind deconvolution of the hemodynamic response robustly well, and hence enabling wider

  18. Investigating effective brain connectivity from fMRI data: past findings and current issues with reference to Granger causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between brain regions have been recognized as a critical ingredient required to understand brain function. Two modes of interactions have held prominence-synchronization and causal influence. Efforts to ascertain causal influence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have relied primarily on confirmatory model-driven approaches, such as dynamic causal modeling and structural equation modeling, and exploratory data-driven approaches such as Granger causality analysis. A slew of recent articles have focused on the relative merits and caveats of these approaches. The relevant studies can be classified into simulations, theoretical developments, and experimental results. In the first part of this review, we will consider each of these themes and critically evaluate their arguments, with regard to Granger causality analysis. Specifically, we argue that simulations are bounded by the assumptions and simplifications made by the simulator, and hence must be regarded only as a guide to experimental design and should not be viewed as the final word. On the theoretical front, we reason that each of the improvements to existing, yet disparate, methods brings them closer to each other with the hope of eventually leading to a unified framework specifically designed for fMRI. We then review latest experimental results that demonstrate the utility and validity of Granger causality analysis under certain experimental conditions. In the second part, we will consider current issues in causal connectivity analysis-hemodynamic variability, sampling, instantaneous versus causal relationship, and task versus resting states. We highlight some of our own work regarding these issues showing the effect of hemodynamic variability and sampling on Granger causality. Further, we discuss recent techniques such as the cubature Kalman filtering, which can perform blind deconvolution of the hemodynamic response robustly well, and hence enabling wider application of

  19. Pilot Study of the Use of Hybrid Multidimensional T2-Weighted Imaging-DWI for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Evaluation of Gleason Score.

    PubMed

    Sadinski, Meredith; Karczmar, Gregory; Peng, Yahui; Wang, Shiyang; Jiang, Yulei; Medved, Milica; Yousuf, Ambereen; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of a hybrid T2-weighted imaging-DWI sequence for prostate cancer diagnosis and differentiation of aggressive prostate cancer from nonaggressive prostate cancer. Twenty-one patients with prostate cancer who underwent preoperative 3-T MRI and prostatectomy were included in this study. Patients underwent a hybrid T2-weighted imaging-DWI examination consisting of DW images acquired with TEs of 47, 75, and 100 ms and b values of 0 and 750 s/mm(2). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 were calculated for cancer and normal prostate ROIs at each TE and b value. Changes in ADC and T2 as a function of increasing the TE and b value, respectively, were analyzed. A new metric termed "PQ4" was defined as the percentage of voxels within an ROI that has increasing T2 with increasing b value and has decreasing ADC with increasing TE. ADC values were significantly higher in normal ROIs than in cancer ROIs at all TEs (p < 0.0001). With increasing TE, the mean ADC increased 3% in cancer ROIs and increased 12% in normal ROIs. T2 was significantly higher in normal ROIs than in cancer ROIs at both b values (p ≤ 0.0002). The mean T2 decreased with increasing b value in cancer ROIs (ΔT2 = -17 ms) and normal ROIs (ΔT2 = -52 ms). PQ4 clearly differentiated normal ROIs from prostate cancer ROIs (p = 0.0004) and showed significant correlation with Gleason score (ρ = 0.508, p < 0.0001). Hybrid MRI measures the response of ADC and T2 to changing TEs and b values, respectively. This approach shows promise for detecting prostate cancer and determining its aggressiveness noninvasively.

  20. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  1. Improved CT Detection of Acute Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Encephalitis Based on a Frequency-Selective Nonlinear Blending: Comparison With MRI.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Malte Niklas; Bier, Georg; Ditt, Hendrik; Beck, Robert; Ernemann, Ulrike; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Horger, Marius

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic efficacy of a new CT postprocessing tool based on frequency-selective nonlinear blending (best-contrast CT) with that of standard linear blending of unenhanced head CT in patients with herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE), using FLAIR MRI sequences as the standard of reference. Fifteen consecutive patients (six women and nine men; mean [± SD] age, 60 ± 19 years) with proven HSE (positive polymerase chain reaction results from CSF analysis and the presence of neurologic deficits) were retrospectively enrolled. All patients had undergone head CT and MRI (mean time interval, 2 ± 2 days). After standardized unenhanced head CT scans were read, presets of the best-contrast algorithm were determined (center, 30 HU; delta, 5 HU; slope, 5 nondimensional), and resulting images were analyzed. Contrast enhancement was objectively measured by ROI analysis, comparing contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of unenhanced CT and best-contrast CT. FLAIR and DWI MRI sequences were analyzed, and FLAIR was considered as the standard of reference. For assessment of disease extent, a previously reported 50-point score (HSE score) was used. CNR values for unenhanced head CT (CNR, 5.42 ± 2.77) could be statistically significantly increased using best-contrast CT (CNR, 9.62 ± 4.28) (p = 0.003). FLAIR sequences yielded a median HSE score of 9.0 (range, 6-17) and DWI sequences yielded HSE scores of 6.0 (range, 5-17). By comparison, unenhanced head CT resulted in a median HSE score of 3.5 (range, 1-6). The median best-contrast CT HSE score was 7.5 (range, 6-10). Agreement between FLAIR and unenhanced CT was 54.44%, that between DWI and best-contrast CT was 95.36%, and that between FLAIR and best-contrast CT was 85.21%. The most frequently overseen findings were located at the level of the upper part of the mesencephalon and at the subthalamic or insular level. Frequency-selective nonlinear blending

  2. Relationship between diffusion parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion MRI and perfusion measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Simona; Stefanetti, Linda; Sperati, Francesca; Anelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the link between diffusion parameters measured by intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the perfusion metrics obtained with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in soft tissue tumors (STTs). Twenty-eight patients affected by histopathologically confirmed STT were included in a prospective study. All patients underwent both DCE MRI and IVIM DWI. The perfusion fraction f, diffusion coefficient D and perfusion-related diffusion coefficient D* were estimated using a bi-exponential function to fit the DWI data. DCE MRI was acquired with a temporal resolution of 3-5 s. Maps of the initial area under the gadolinium concentration curve (IAUGC), time to peak (TTP) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were derived using commercial software. The relationships between the DCE MRI and IVIM DWI measurements were assessed by Spearman's test. To exclude false positive results under multiple testing, the false discovery rate (FDR) procedure was applied. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the differences between all variables in patients with non-myxoid and myxoid STT. No significant relationship was found between IVIM parameters and any DCE MRI parameters. Higher f and D*f values were found in non-myxoid tumors compared with myxoid tumors (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). MSI was significantly higher in non-myxoid tumors than in myxoid tumors (p = 0.029). From the visual assessments of single clinical cases, both f and D*f maps were in satisfactory agreement with DCE maps in the extreme cases of an avascular mass and a highly vascularized mass, whereas, for tumors with slight vascularity or with a highly heterogeneous perfusion pattern, this association was not straightforward. Although IVIM DWI was demonstrated to be feasible in STT, our data did not support evident relationships between perfusion-related IVIM parameters and perfusion measured by DCE MRI.

  3. Associations between the properties of the cartilage matrix and findings from quantitative MRI in human osteoarthritic cartilage of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bo; Du, Xiaotao; Liu, Jun; Mao, Fengyong; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Shuai; Xu, Yan; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the properties of the cartilage matrix and the results of T2 mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dGEMRIC) in human knee osteoarthritic cartilage. Osteochondral samples were harvested from the middle part of the femoral condyle and tibial plateaus of 20 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) during total knee arthroplasty. Sagittal T2 mapping, T1pre, and T1Gd were performed using 7.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution was evaluated by OARSI, collagen anisotropy was assessed by polarized light microscopy (PLM), and biochemical analyses measured water, GAG, and collagen content. Associations between properties of the cartilage matrix and T2 and ΔR1 (1/T1Gd-1/T1pre) values were explored using correlation analysis. T2 and ΔR1 values were significantly correlated with the degree of cartilage degeneration (OARSI grade; Ρ = 0.53 and 0.77). T2 values were significantly correlated with water content (r = 0.69; P < 0.001), GAG content (r = -0.43; P < 0.001), and PLM grade (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), but not with collagen content (r = -0.02; P = 0.110). ΔR1 values were significantly correlated with GAG content (r = -0.84; P < 0.001) and PLM grade (r = 0.41; P < 0.001). Taken together, T2 mapping and dGEMRIC results were correlated with the properties of the cartilage matrix in human knee osteoarthritic cartilage. Combination T2 mapping and dGEMRIC represents a potential non-invasive monitoring technique to detect the progress of knee OA. PMID:26097577

  4. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  5. [Clinical Study of Rs-EPI DWI to Improve Imaging Quality and Assessment on Intracranial Mass Lesions].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Xia, Chun-Chao; Yue, Qiang; Guo, Tao; Peng, Wan-Lin; Li, Yu-Ming; Li, Lei; Zhao, Fei; Pu, Jin; Leng, Qi; Li, Zhen-Lin

    2017-05-01

    To explore the clinical value of readout-segmented echo planar imaging (Rs-EPI) sequence in the assessment of intracranial mass lesions compared to the standard single-shot EPI (Ss-EPI) sequence. We included 21 patients with intracranial mass lesions who underwent both Ss-EPI diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and Rs-EPI DWI at 3.0T MR scanner with a twenty-channel head-neck coil. The quality of images was assessed by two experienced radiologists independently. The differences in image quality between two sequences were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-observer agreements were analyzed using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa test. All objectives were completed on 3.0T MR. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in Rs-EPI DWI were higher than those in Ss-EPI DWI (130.46±49.10 vs. 71.58±30.43, P=0.000; 33.22±18.86 vs. 17.92±18.72, P=0.003). The scores of overall image quality, ghost artifact where next to the paranasal sinuses, mastoid air cells and frontal sinus of Rs-EPI DWI were significantly higher than those of Ss-EPI DWI. Meanwhile, the geometric distortion of anatomical structures of Rs-EPI DWI were significantly lower compared to Ss-EPI DWI sequence (0.016±0.021 vs. 0.037±0.069, P=0.00). The inter-reader and intra-reader agreements for the assessment of qualitative parameters were good [0.74≤Kappa value or ICC≤0.92]. Rs-EPI DWI sequence is a potential technique to improve the imaging quality in the diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions.

  6. Best MRI predictors of complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sathyakumar, Kirthi; Chandramohan, Anuradha; Masih, Dipti; Jesudasan, Mark Ranjan; Pulimood, Anna; Eapen, Anu

    2016-01-01

    To identify the MRI parameters which best predict complete response (CR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and to assess their diagnostic performance. This was a prospective study of pre- and post-CRT MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of 64 patients with LARC who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and subsequent surgery. Histopathological tumour regression grade was the reference standard. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the best MRI predictors of CR to neoadjuvant CRT, and their diagnostic performance was assessed. The study cohort comprised 48 males and 16 females (n = 64), with mean age of 49.48 ± 14.3 years, range of 23-74 years. 11 patients had pathological complete response. The following factors predicted CR on univariate analysis: low initial (pre-CRT) tumour volume on T2 weighted high-resolution (HR) images and DWI, tumour volume-reduction rate (TVRR) of >95% on DWI and CR on post-CRT DWI (ydwiT0) as assessed by the radiologist. However, the best MRI predictors of CR on multivariate regression analysis were CR on post-CRT DWI (ydwiT0) as assessed by the radiologist and TVRR of >95% on DWI, and these parameters had an area under the curve (95% confidence interval) of 0.881 (0.74-1.0) and 0.843 (0.7-0.98), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value, negative-predictive value and accuracy of DWI in predicting CR was 81.8%, 94.3%, 75%, 96.1% and 76%; the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TVRR of >95% as a predictor of CR was 80%, 84.1% and 64.1%, respectively; however, this difference was not statistically significant. The interobserver agreement was substantial for ydwiT0. Visual assessment of CR on post-CRT DWI and TVRR of >95% on DWI were the best predictors of CR after neoadjuvant CRT in patients with LARC, and the former being more practical can be used in daily practice. In rectal cancer, ydwiT0 as assessed by the radiologist

  7. MRI Biomarkers in Oncology Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Richard G.; Arlinghaus, Lori; Dula, Adrienne; Quarles, C. Chad; Stokes, Ashley; Weis, Jared; Whisenant, Jennifer; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Zhukov, Igor; Williams, Jason; Yankeelov, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have the ability to quantitatively report various pathophysiological processes associated with cancer. These measures have been shown to provide complementary information to that typically obtained from standard morphologically based criteria (e.g., size) and, furthermore, have been shown to outperform sized based measures in certain applications. In this review, we discuss eight areas of quantitative MRI that are either currently employed in clinical trials, or are emerging as promising techniques for both diagnosing cancer as well as assessing—or even predicting—the response of cancer to various therapies. The currently employed methods include the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), dynamic susceptibility MRI (DSC-MRI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). The emerging techniques covered are chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI (CEST-MRI), elastography, hyperpolarized MRI, and multi-parameter MRI. After a brief introduction to each technique, we present a small number of illustrative applications before noting the existing limitations of each method and what must be done to move each to more routine clinical application. PMID:26613873

  8. Anatomical accuracy of brain connections derived from diffusion MRI tractography is inherently limited.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cibu; Ye, Frank Q; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Modi, Pooja; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Leopold, David A; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2014-11-18

    Tractography based on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is widely used for mapping the structural connections of the human brain. Its accuracy is known to be limited by technical factors affecting in vivo data acquisition, such as noise, artifacts, and data undersampling resulting from scan time constraints. It generally is assumed that improvements in data quality and implementation of sophisticated tractography methods will lead to increasingly accurate maps of human anatomical connections. However, assessing the anatomical accuracy of DWI tractography is difficult because of the lack of independent knowledge of the true anatomical connections in humans. Here we investigate the future prospects of DWI-based connectional imaging by applying advanced tractography methods to an ex vivo DWI dataset of the macaque brain. The results of different tractography methods were compared with maps of known axonal projections from previous tracer studies in the macaque. Despite the exceptional quality of the DWI data, none of the methods demonstrated high anatomical accuracy. The methods that showed the highest sensitivity showed the lowest specificity, and vice versa. Additionally, anatomical accuracy was highly dependent upon parameters of the tractography algorithm, with different optimal values for mapping different pathways. These results suggest that there is an inherent limitation in determining long-range anatomical projections based on voxel-averaged estimates of local fiber orientation obtained from DWI data that is unlikely to be overcome by improvements in data acquisition and analysis alone.

  9. 99mTc-HDP pinhole SPECT findings of foot reflex sympathetic dystrophy: radiographic and MRI correlation and a speculation about subperiosteal bone resorption.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong-Whee; Chung, Yong An; Song, Kyung Sub

    2003-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a common rheumatic disorder manifesting painful swelling, discoloration, stiffening and atrophy of the skin. Radiographic alterations include small, spotty subperiosteal bone resorption (SBR) and diffuse porosis, and MR imaging shows bone and soft-tissue edema. The purposes of current investigation were to assess 99mTc HDP pinhole SPECT (pSPECT) findings of RSD, to correlate them with those of radiography and MRI and to speculate about causative mechanism of SBR which characterizes RSD. pSPECT was performed in five patients with RSD of the foot. pSPECT showed small, discrete, spotty hot areas in the subperiosteal zones of ankle bones in all five patients. Diffusely increased tracer uptake was seen in the retrocalcaneal surface where the calcaneal tendon inserts in two patients with atrophic RSD. pSPECT and radiographic correlation showed spotty hot areas, that reflect focally activated bone turnover, to closely match with SBR. Further correlation with MRI showed both spotty hot areas and SBR to coincide in location with the insertions of ligaments and tendons, onto which pulling strain is constantly exerted. In contrast, the disuse osteoporosis in unstrained bones did not show any more significantly increased tracer uptake than normal cancellous bones. PMID:14555825

  10. [Evaluation by statistical brain perfusion SPECT analysis on MRI findings, kana pick-out test and Mini-Mental State Examination results in patients with forgetfulness].

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Matsubara, Ichirou; Ohtani, Haruhiko

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) study was to determine the abnormality of the regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) using a three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3 D-SSP) in 18 patients who were referred to the hospital because of forgetfulness. Two intergroup comparison by 3 D-SSP analysis was conducted based on MRI, kana pick-out test and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) results. Of the MRI findings, in the brain atrophy group, rCBF was decreased in the posterior cingulate gyrus, medial temporal structure and parieto-temporal association cortex; these rCBF-decreased areas are similar to the Alzheimer disease pattern. In the group where the MMSE was normal but the kana pick-out test was abnormal, rCBF was decreased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and cinguloparietal transitional area. In the group where both the MMSE and kana pick-out test were abnormal, rCBF was decreased in the parieto-temporal association cortex, temporal cortex and medial temporal structure. These results suggest that 3 D-SSP analysis of the SPECT with MMSE and the kana pick-out test provides the possibility of early diagnosis of initial stage of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. CT and MRI findings of radiation-induced external auditory canal carcinoma in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Bai, S; Li, H; Hu, H; Duan, X; Chen, M; Wang, D; Chen, Y; Zhang, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the radiological and clinical features of radiation-induced external auditory canal carcinomas (RIEACCs) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) after radiation therapy. Methods: CT, MRI and clinical features in 16 patients with histologically proven RIEACCs were retrospectively reviewed. There were 2 females and 14 males, with a median age of 52.5 years at the time of diagnosis of RIEACC. Imaging parameters including lesion extent, size, margin, shape, bone destruction, adjacent structure invasion, density/signal intensity, and pattern and degree of enhancement were assessed. Clinical features including clinical staging, histological type, treatment and radiation dose (RD) of primary NPC as well as the histological type, staging of radiation-induced tumour and the latent period between NPC and RIT were recorded. Results: All patients had a single RIEACC. The lesions had a size of 3.5 ± 1.4 cm and were localized (n = 7) or extensive (n = 9). Most of the lesions were partially or ill defined with an irregular shape and had an intermediate density/signal pattern and moderate homogeneous enhancement. The latent period of RIEACCs ranged from 10 to 20 years in nine patients with a RD of 68–70 Gy; from 2 to 10 years in five patients with a RD of 68–74 Gy; and more than 20 years in two patients with a RD of 70 or 72 Gy. Conclusion: An external auditory canal (EAC) mass with homogeneous, intermediate CT density or signal intensity in patients with NPC after radiotherapy is highly suggestive of RIEACC, which should be included in the routine surveillance for patients with NPC after radiotherapy. Advances in knowledge: RIEACCs could occur as short as 2 years after radiotherapy in patients with NPC and have distinct features from otitis media and sarcomas. This EAC malignancy should be included in routine surveillance for patients with NPC after radiotherapy. PMID:25827205

  12. Early MRI in term infants with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury: interobserver agreement and MRI predictors of outcome at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Goergen, S K; Ang, H; Wong, F; Carse, E A; Charlton, M; Evans, R; Whiteley, G; Clark, J; Shipp, D; Jolley, D; Paul, E; Cheong, J L Y

    2014-01-01

    To compare diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and non-DWI magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and clinical biomarkers for prediction of 2 year developmental outcome in term infants with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Nineteen infants ≥36 weeks gestation with HIE were recruited and MRI performed day 3-7 (mean = 5). MRI was scored independently by three radiologists using a standardized scoring system. Lactate-to-N-acetylaspartate ratio (Lac:NAA) in the lentiform nucleus was calculated. Developmental assessment was performed at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III). Interobserver agreement about abnormality in 10 brain regions was measured. Univariate analysis was performed to determine variables associated with adverse outcome (i.e., death or Bayley score for any domain <70). Good interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.61-0.69) on scores for DWI was obtained for the cortex, putamen, and brainstem, but not for any region on non-DWI. A significant association was found between outcome and Lac:NAA (p < 0.003) and DWI scores for lentiform nucleus, thalamus, cortex, posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), and paracentral white matter (p = 0.001-0.013), but for non-DWI score only in the vermis or brainstem. A combination of Lac:NAA ≥0.25 or DWI/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signal abnormality in the PLIC had 100% specificity and sensitivity for poor outcome. Interobserver agreement for non-DWI performed during the first week is poor. Agreement by three radiologists about the presence of abnormal signal within the PLIC on ADC/DWI images or elevation of Lac:NAA above 0.25 improved sensitivity without reducing the prognostic specificity of MRS in the 19 patients, but this requires validation in a larger group of infants with HIE who have been treated with hypothermia. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aneurysms of the portal venous system. Gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic findings with CT and MRI correlation.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, K C; Fitoz, S; Akyar, G; Aytaç, S; Erden, I

    1998-01-01

    Two cases of incidentally detected aneurysms involving the portal venous system are described with emphasis on gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic (US) findings. Appearing on US as anechoic masses showing direct luminal continuity with the right portal vein and superior mesenteric vein, the lesions displayed spectral findings characteristic of portal venous system on color Doppler US. Dynamic helical computed tomography (CT) demonstrated simultaneous enhancement with the portal system, while the aneurysms were hypointense owing to flow void on T1-weighted spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) images.

  14. MRI-guided breast vacuum biopsy: Localization of the lesion without contrast-agent application using diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Berger, Nicole; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Boss, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    In magnetic resonance-guided breast vacuum biopsies, the contrast agent for targeting suspicious lesions can typically be applied only once during an intervention, due to the slow elimination of the gadolinium chelate from the extracellular fluid space. This study evaluated the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for lesion targeting in vacuum assisted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biopsies. DWI may be used as an alternative to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with the advantage of reproducibility. However, the targeted lesion requires the characteristics of a mass-like lesion, substantial diffusion restriction, and a minimum size of approximately 1cm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol abuse screening instruments: normative test data collected from a first DWI offender screening program.

    PubMed

    Lapham, S C; Skipper, B J; Owen, J P; Kleyboecker, K; Teaf, D; Thompson, B; Simpson, G

    1995-01-01

    A variety of instruments are used by Driving While Impaired (DWI) screening programs nationwide to assess offenders for alcohol- or drug-related problems. This study presents normative data from five standardized instruments administered by a DWI screening program: the MAC scale of the MMPI, the Alcohol Use Inventory (AUI), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) and the Skinner's Trauma Scale (STS). The population under study were 2,317 first DWI offenders who completed screening evaluations in 1989-91. The sample included 24% women; the racial distribution was 46% Hispanic, 43% non-Hispanic white, 8% Native American and 3% other races. A statistical model was developed to determine associations among scores on the various instruments and age, gender, ethnicity, education, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and validity measures on the MMPI-2 (L and K scale scores) There were significant differences in test scores among the ethnic- and gender-specific client groups. Test scores were significantly higher among men than women for the MAST, the D1 and D2 scales of the AUI, the MAC, and the STS. Correlations among the instruments were generally low, and the percentage of persons who scored above instrument cut-points varied significantly. The MAST identified the highest percentage of persons as alcoholic. MMPI profile validity was the most significant independent variable associated with test scores. Persons with scores in the valid range had higher mean scores on each of the instruments. The choice of instruments used in the DWI assessment can greatly influence the percentage of offenders assessed as having alcohol-related problems.

  16. Prevalence of positive diffusion-weighted imaging findings and ischemic stroke recurrence in transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Gon, Yasufumi; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Okazaki, Shuhei; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between transient ischemic attack (TIA) clinical etiology, positive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings, and stroke recurrence is controversial. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of positive DWI findings and TIA recurrence in relation to TIA patient characteristics. The subjects were patients admitted to our stroke unit within 7 days after symptom onset between January 2006 and July 2013. We examined DWI findings and TIA recurrence according to etiologic subtypes. We enrolled 139 patients with lacunar TIA (n = 17), atherothrombotic TIA (n = 35), cardioembolic TIA (n = 25), TIA due to other causes (n = 32), or TIA with undetermined etiology (n = 30). The prevalence of positive DWI findings was highest among the cardioembolic TIA patients (56.0%). No association was found between the prevalence of positive DWI findings and symptom duration, motor presence, or ABCD(2) score. Plasma d-dimer level was significantly higher in the DWI-positive group than that in the DWI-negative group (P = .01). The prevalence of TIA recurrence was highest (5 of 35, 14.3%) among the atherothrombotic TIA patients, regardless of positive DWI findings. None of the patients treated with the anticoagulant and antiplatelet combination therapy experienced a recurrence. In contrast, almost all patients with cardioembolic TIA received anticoagulant treatment and none experienced recurrence. The prevalence of positive DWI findings was high among the cardiogenic TIA patients. TIA recurrence was often observed among the atherothrombotic TIA patients treated with antiplatelets. Management of patients with atherothrombotic TIA requires further aggressive antithrombotic strategy. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT Findings in a Patient with Wilson Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungyoo; Song, In Uk; Chung, Yong An; Choi, Eun Kyung; Oh, Jin Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    A 34-year-old female had experienced head and hand tremors with a dystonic component for 8 months. Brain MRI showed T2 high signal intensity in the periaqueductal region, dorsal midbrain and dorsal upper pons. No abnormal uptake was noted on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT or F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT. Wilson disease was diagnosed according to the 2008 consensus guideline from the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and 2012 guideline from the European Association for the Study of the Liver. This case demonstrates T2 signal change in the basal ganglia, excluding the putamen, in a Wilson disease patient with relatively severe clinical findings, but normal Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT.

  18. An unusual case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a previously healthy pregnant patient: radiographic, CT, and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Paruthikunnan, Samir; Shankar, Balasubramanyam; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Jain, Harshwardhan

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous protozoal infection that during pregnancy commonly affects the fetus severely, with maternal infection usually being mild self-limiting. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a healthy pregnant woman has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. We present a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis involving pulmonary, central nervous system, and lymph nodes in a pregnant woman and imaging findings on radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. DWI and SPARCC scoring assess curative effect of early ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the magnetic diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequence and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring in assessing curative effect of combined treatment of Chinese and Western medicine for early ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods 48 cases diagnosed as early AS and treated with Chinese and Western medicine were included in the study. Magnetic routine and DWI sequence scanning image were performed to obtain the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of sub-articular surface bone marrow. Combined with SPARCC scoring, statistical analysis was conducted to compare the difference with the information obtained in the previous study. Results The mean ADC value in the sub-articular surface bone marrow of patients after clinical treatment: (4.34±0.55)×10-4mm2/s in ilium and (3.96±0.23)×10-4mm2/s in sacrum, which were both significantly lower than that before treatment (p< 0.05). There was highly positive correlation between mean ADC value and SPARCC scoring (P<0.05). The regression relationship could be demonstrated as Y=-64.420+21.262X(Y: SPARCC scoring value; X: mean ADC value). Conclusions Magnetic DWI and SPARCC scoring could be applied in accessing AS inflammation activity changes and in reflect of curative effect of early AS patients as well as in providing reliable radiologist evidence for clinical therapeutic efficacy. PMID:28352767

  20. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI for the Detection of Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Heng; Hobbs, Brian Paul; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for the detection of prostate cancer in comparison with standard evaluation with T2-weighted imaging. Materials and Methods A PubMed electronic database search for the terms “dynamic contrast-enhanced,” “prostate,” and “MRI” was completed for articles up to September 17, 2013. All included studies had histopathologic correlation. Two by two contingency data were constructed for each study. A binormal bayesian ROC model was used to estimate and compare sensitivity, specificity, and AUC among eligible modalities. Results Both DCE-MRI (0.82–0.86) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) (0.84–0.88) yielded significantly better AUC than T2-weighted imaging (0.68–0.77). Moreover, partial AUC for the combination of DCE-MRI, DWI, and T2-weighted imaging was improved significantly (0.111; 0.103–0.119) when compared with DCE-MRI alone (0.079; 0.072–0.085) and T2-weighted imaging alone (0.079; 0.074–0.084) but not DWI alone (0.099; 0.091–0.108). Sensitivity and specificity were similar among the four modalities. Conclusion DCE-MRI improves AUC of tumor detection overall compared with T2-weighted imaging alone. Methods for DCE-MRI analysis require standardization, but visual analysis performs similar to semiquantitative methods. A two-parameter approach using DCE-MRI and T2-weighted imaging or DWI and T2-weighted imaging may be sufficient, and the latter may be more favorable for most routine prostate cancer imaging. PMID:25794093

  1. Evaluation of three inverse problem models to quantify skin microcirculation using diffusion-weighted MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, G.; Choi, J.; Raguin, L. G.

    2008-11-01

    Skin microcirculation plays an important role in diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency and diabetes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide quantitative information with a better penetration depth than other noninvasive methods, such as laser Doppler flowmetry or optical coherence tomography. Moreover, successful MRI skin studies have recently been reported. In this article, we investigate three potential inverse models to quantify skin microcirculation using diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), also known as q-space MRI. The model parameters are estimated based on nonlinear least-squares (NLS). For each of the three models, an optimal DWI sampling scheme is proposed based on D-optimality in order to minimize the size of the confidence region of the NLS estimates and thus the effect of the experimental noise inherent to DWI. The resulting covariance matrices of the NLS estimates are predicted by asymptotic normality and compared to the ones computed by Monte-Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed models and corresponding DWI sampling schemes as compared to conventional approaches.

  2. MRI findings in children with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction occurring during the 2014 enterovirus D68 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Maloney, J A; Mirsky, D M; Messacar, K; Dominguez, S R; Schreiner, T; Stence, N V

    2015-02-01

    Enterovirus D68 was responsible for widespread outbreaks of respiratory illness throughout the United States in August and September 2014. During this time, several patients presented to our institution with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction. The purpose of this report is to describe the unique imaging findings of this neurologic syndrome occurring during an enterovirus D68 outbreak. Patients meeting a specific case definition of acute flaccid paralysis and/or cranial nerve dysfunction and presenting to our institution during the study period were included. All patients underwent routine MR imaging of the brain and/or spinal cord, including multiplanar T1, T2, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Eleven patients met the inclusion criteria and underwent MR imaging of the brain and/or spinal cord. Nine patients presented with brain stem lesions, most commonly involving the pontine tegmentum, with bilateral facial nerve enhancement in 1 patient. Ten patients had longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions; those imaged acutely demonstrated involvement of the entire central gray matter, and those imaged subacutely showed lesions restricted to the anterior horn cells. Ventral cauda equina nerve roots enhanced in 4 patients, and ventral cervical nerve roots enhanced in 3, both only in the subacute setting. Patients presenting with acute flaccid paralysis and/or cranial nerve dysfunction during the recent enterovirus D68 outbreak demonstrate unique imaging findings characterized by brain stem and gray matter spinal cord lesions, similar to the neuroimaging findings described in previous outbreaks of viral myelitis such as enterovirus 71 and poliomyelitis. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Topological Measurements of DWI Tractography for Alzheimer's Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Alfonso; Neuroimaging Initiative, Alzheimer's Disease

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect brain morphology and connectivity, making complex networks a suitable tool to investigate and model their effects. Because of its stereotyped pattern Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a natural benchmark for the study of novel methodologies. Several studies have investigated the network centrality and segregation changes induced by AD, especially with a single subject approach. In this work, a holistic perspective based on the application of multiplex network concepts is introduced. We define and assess a diagnostic score to characterize the brain topology and measure the disease effects on a mixed cohort of 52 normal controls (NC) and 47 AD patients, from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The proposed topological score allows an accurate NC-AD classification: the average area under the curve (AUC) is 95% and the 95% confidence interval is 92%–99%. Besides, the combination of topological information and structural measures, such as the hippocampal volumes, was also investigated. Topology is able to capture the disease signature of AD and, as the methodology is general, it can find interesting applications to enhance our insight into disease with more heterogeneous patterns. PMID:28352290

  4. Predictors of false negative diffusion-weighted MRI in clinically suspected central cause of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Akoglu, Haldun; Cimilli Ozturk, Tuba; Onur, Bahaeddin; Eroglu, Serkan Emre; Onur, Ozge; Denizbasi, Arzu

    2017-09-23

    Vertigo is classified as peripheral and central. Differentiation of stroke mimics is the most important diagnostic challenge. There is no clinical guidance for the indications of neuroimaging in isolated vertigo patients. The primary aim of this study is to test the diagnostic value of a DWI-MRI protocol to rule-out a central cause in patients with acute isolated vertigo in the ED. We prospectively enrolled 144 patients who were presented with isolated vertigo to the ED. A detailed neurological examination and maneuvers were performed for differential diagnosis. All patients underwent CT and/or DW-MRI either during ED visit or at the follow-up, if necessary. Out-patient follow-up exams and evaluations were repeated until all patients had a definitive diagnosis. In the study, 137 of the 144 patients completed the follow-up period, and 34 of 137 patients were diagnosed with central vertigo. Six of 34 central vertigo patients had normal DW-MRI findings. One was diagnosed with migraine headache and five with vertebra-basilar insufficiency during the out-patient follow-up. One of the 28 patients with a pathological MRI was diagnosed with mass and the rest was stroke. The utility of DW-MRI in vertigo patients was moderately high (sensitivity: 82%, specificity: 100%). We found that age, history of HT, history of CAD and vertigo unresponsive to ED treatment were significantly associated with a central cause of vertigo. We suggest that unresponsiveness to ED treatment, especially in patients with a history of HT and CAD, should alert physicians for central causes and warrant DW-MRI imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A case of monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb: MRI findings and the implication on its pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuebing; Remmel, Krista

    2012-06-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb or Hirayama disease is mostly considered as an anterior horn disorder resulting from local ischemia, triggered by arterial compression from an anterior shifting of the posterior cervical dura upon neck flexion. However, such a dural shifting is not universally seen. We report on a Caucasian male patient who developed a slowly progressive unilateral distal hand weakness in his teens. His clinical and electromyographic findings were consistent with Hirayama disease. Local anterior cervical cord atrophy was observed without dural shifting on the dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Axial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated signal changes of "snake-eye" appearance in the cervical anterior horn region, similar to ischemic myelopathies caused by various etiologies. This case illustrated that even without dural shifting, a mechanism of anterior spinal cord ischemia could still be responsible for the pathogenesis of Hirayama disease.

  6. The Incidence and Nature of Cerebellar Findings in Schizophrenia: A Quantitative Review of fMRI Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lungu, Ovidiu; Barakat, Marc; Laventure, Samuel; Debas, Karen; Proulx, Sébastien; Luck, David; Stip, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Clinical evidence and structural neuroimaging studies linked cerebellar deficits to cognitive-related symptoms in schizophrenia. Yet, in functional neuroimaging literature to date, the role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia was not explored in a systematic fashion. Here, we reviewed 234 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies indexed by PubMed and published in 1997–2010 that had at least one group of schizophrenia patients, used blood oxygenation level dependent contrast and the general linear model to assess neuronal activity. We quantified presence/absence of cerebellar findings and the frequency of hypo- and hyperactivations (ie, less or more activity in patients relative to healthy controls). We used peaks of activations reported in these studies to build a topographical representation of group differences on a cerebellar map. Cerebellar activity was reported in patients in 41.02% of the articles, with more than 80% of these dedicated to cognitive, emotional, and executive processes in schizophrenia. Almost two-thirds of group comparisons resulted in cerebellar hypoactivation, with a frequency that presented an inverted U shape across different age categories. The majority of the hypoactivation foci were located in the medial portion of the anterior lobe and the lateral hemispheres (lobules IV–V) of the cerebellum. Even though most experimental manipulations did not target explicitly the cerebellum’s functions in schizophrenia, the cerebellar findings are frequent and cerebellar hypoactivations predominant. Therefore, although the cerebellum seems to play an important functional role in schizophrenia, the lack of reporting and interpretation of these data may hamper the full understanding of the disorder. PMID:22267533

  7. Focal and Generalized Patterns of Cerebral Cortical Veins Due to Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus or Prolonged Seizure Episode after Convulsive Status Epilepticus – A MRI Study Using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajeev Kumar; Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar; Krestel, Heinz; Springer, Elisabeth; Huber, Adrian; Weisstanner, Christian; Hauf, Martinus; Gralla, Jan; Wiest, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate variant patterns of cortical venous oxygenation during status epilepticus (SE) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with clinically witnessed prolonged seizures and/or EEG-confirmed SE. All MRI exams encompassed SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (MRI-DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We aimed to identify distinct patterns of SWI signal alterations that revealed regional or global increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and DWI restrictions. We hypothesized that SWI-related oxygenation patterns reflect ictal or postictal patterns that resemble SE or sequelae of seizures. Results Sixteen patients were examined during nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) as confirmed by EEG, a further ten patients suffered from witnessed and prolonged seizure episode ahead of imaging without initial EEG. MRI patterns of 15 of the 26 patients revealed generalized hyperoxygenation by SWI in keeping with either global or multifocal cortical hyperperfusion. Eight patients revealed a focal hyperoxygenation pattern related to focal CBF increase and three patients showed a focal deoxygenation pattern related to focal CBF decrease. Conclusions SWI-related hyper- and deoxygenation patterns resemble ictal and postictal CBF changes within a range from globally increased to focally decreased perfusion. In all 26 patients the SWI patterns were in keeping with ictal hyperperfusion (hyperoxygenation patterns) or postictal hypoperfusion (deoxygenation patterns) respectively. A new finding of this study is that cortical venous patterns in SWI can be not only focally, but globally attenuated. SWI may thus be considered as an alternative contrast-free MR sequence to identify perfusion changes related to ictal or postictal conditions. PMID:27486662

  8. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  9. [Three-dimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging at 3T MRI in sudden deafness: its findings and relationship with the prognosis].

    PubMed

    Qian, Yin-feng; Wu, Ji-chun; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Yong-qiang

    2011-10-01

    To investigate inner ear of patients with sudden deafness with three-dimensional fluid attenuated inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) MRI, and the relationship between the results of 3D FLAIR and the prognosis. Twenty-three patients with sudden deafness received 3D FLAIR at 3T MRI, and the signals of inner ear were recorded. Hearing levels were evaluated at initial visit and after treatment. The relationship between 3D FLAIR findings and hearing prognosis was evaluated. Eight patients with sudden deafness showed high signals in the affected cochlea on 3D FLAIR, the others of affected cochlea and all of contralateral cochlea showed no signal on 3D FLAIR. The age, sex, affected side, period to initial visit and initial audiogram had no difference between cochlea no signal group and high signal group. The average auditory threshold (x±s) in cochlea high signal group (90±21) dB HL was significant higher than that in cochlea no signal group (60±28) dB HL, P<0.05 at patients' discharge. After treatment, in cochlea no signal group, two cases' hearing was complete recovered, remarkable improvement in five cases, slight improvement in two cases and no change in six cases. In cochlea high signal group, hearing was slight improvement in one case and no change in seven cases. The prognosis was significant difference between two groups. Five of seven patients with vertigo and sudden deafness showed high signal in affected side vestibule on 3D FLAIR, and the hearing of whom had no change after treatment. 3D FLAIR can show high signal in affected inner ear in sudden deafness patients, and which is related to a poor hearing prognosis.

  10. Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hirohisa; Nishijima, Yoji; Adachi, Naoto; Tachibana, Shigekuni; Chitoku, Shiroh; Mukaihara, Shigeo; Sakamoto, Masaki; Kudo, Yohei; Nakazawa, Jun; Kaneko, Kumi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2011-06-07

    In acute stage of cerebral infarction, MRI indices (rDWI & rADC) deteriorate during the first 3-7 days after the ictus and then gradually normalize in approximately 10 days (pseudonormalization time), although the tissue is already infarcted. Since effective treatments improve these indices significantly and in less than the natural pseudonormalization time, a combined analysis of these changes provides an opportunity for objective evaluation on the effectiveness of various treatments for cerebral infarction. Hydroxyl radicals are highly destructive to the tissue and aggravate cerebral infarction. We treated brainstem infarction patients in acute stage with hydroxyl radical scavengers (Edaravone and hydrogen) by intravenous administration and evaluated the effects of the treatment by a serial observation and analysis of these MRI indices. The effects of the treatment were evaluated and compared in two groups, an Edaravone alone group and a combined group with Edaravone and hydrogen, in order to assess beneficial effects of addition of hydrogen. The patients were divided in Edaravone only group (E group. 26 patients) and combined treatment group with Edaravone and hydrogen enriched saline (EH group. 8 patients). The extent of the initial hump of rDWI, the initial dip of rADC and pseudo-normalization time were determined in each patient serially and averages of these data were compared in these two groups and also with the natural course in the literatures. The initial hump of rDWI reached 2.0 in the E group which was better than 2.5 of the natural course but was not as good as 1.5 of the EH group. The initial dip of rADC was 0.6 in the E group which was close to the natural course but worse than 0.8 of the EH group. Pseudonormalization time of rDWI and rADC was 9 days only in EH group but longer in other groups. Addition of hydrogen caused no side effects. Administration of hydroxyl radical scavengers in acute stage of brainstem infarction improved MRI indices

  11. Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In acute stage of cerebral infarction, MRI indices (rDWI & rADC) deteriorate during the first 3-7 days after the ictus and then gradually normalize in approximately 10 days (pseudonormalization time), although the tissue is already infarcted. Since effective treatments improve these indices significantly and in less than the natural pseudonormalization time, a combined analysis of these changes provides an opportunity for objective evaluation on the effectiveness of various treatments for cerebral infarction. Hydroxyl radicals are highly destructive to the tissue and aggravate cerebral infarction. We treated brainstem infarction patients in acute stage with hydroxyl radical scavengers (Edaravone and hydrogen) by intravenous administration and evaluated the effects of the treatment by a serial observation and analysis of these MRI indices. The effects of the treatment were evaluated and compared in two groups, an Edaravone alone group and a combined group with Edaravone and hydrogen, in order to assess beneficial effects of addition of hydrogen. Methods The patients were divided in Edaravone only group (E group. 26 patients) and combined treatment group with Edaravone and hydrogen enriched saline (EH group. 8 patients). The extent of the initial hump of rDWI, the initial dip of rADC and pseudo-normalization time were determined in each patient serially and averages of these data were compared in these two groups and also with the natural course in the literatures. Results The initial hump of rDWI reached 2.0 in the E group which was better than 2.5 of the natural course but was not as good as 1.5 of the EH group. The initial dip of rADC was 0.6 in the E group which was close to the natural course but worse than 0.8 of the EH group. Pseudonormalization time of rDWI and rADC was 9 days only in EH group but longer in other groups. Addition of hydrogen caused no side effects. Conclusions Administration of hydroxyl radical scavengers in acute stage of

  12. Imaging children suffering from lymphoma: an evaluation of different (18)F-FDG PET/MRI protocols compared to whole-body DW-MRI.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Julian; Deuschl, Cornelius; Schweiger, Bernd; Herrmann, Ken; Forsting, Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Umutlu, Lale

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic potential of different PET/MRI reading protocols, entailing non-enhanced / contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted (18)F-FDG PET/MR imaging and whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for lesion detection and determination of the tumor stage in pediatric lymphoma patients. A total of 28 (18)F-FDG PET/MRI datasets were included for analysis of four different reading protocols: (1) PET/MRI utilizing sole unenhanced T2w and T1w imaging, (2) PET/MRI utilizing additional contrast enhanced sequences, (3) PET/MR imaging utilizing unenhanced, contrast enhanced and DW imaging or (4) WB-DW-MRI. Statistical analyses were performed on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis. Follow-up and prior examinations as well as histopathology served as reference standards. PET/MRI correctly identified all 17 examinations with active lymphoma disease, while WB-DW-MRI correctly identified 15/17 examinations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 96.5%, 97%, 95%, and 96% for PET/MRI1; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI2; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI3 and 77%, 96%, 96%, 78.5% and 86% for MRI-DWI. (18)F-FDG PET/MRI is superior to WB-DW-MRI in staging pediatric lymphoma patients. Neither application of contrast media nor DWI leads to a noticeable improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI. Thus, unenhanced PET/MRI may play a crucial role for the diagnostic work-up of pediatric lymphoma patients in the future.

  13. Critical Care Needs in Patients with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Negative MRI after tPA - Does One Size Fit All?

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Patients who receive intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for ischemic stroke are currently monitored in an intensive care unit (ICU) or a comparable stroke unit for at least 24 hours due to the high frequency of neurological exams and vital sign checks. The present study evaluates ICU needs in patients with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) negative MRI after IV tPA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 209 patients who received IV tPA for acute stroke. Data on stroke risk factors, physiologic parameters, stroke severity, MRI characteristics, and final diagnosis were collected. The timing and nature of ICU interventions, if needed, was recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with subsequent ICU needs. Results Patients with cerebral infarct on MRI after tPA had over 9 times higher odds of requiring ICU care compared to patients with DWI negative MRI (OR 9.2, 95% CI 2.49–34.15). All DWI negative patients requiring ICU care did so by the end of tPA infusion (p = 0.006). Among patients with DWI negative MRI, need for ICU interventions was associated with higher NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (p<0.001), uncontrolled hypertension (p<0.001), seizure at onset (p = 0.002), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = 0.010). Conclusions Only a small number of DWI negative patients required ICU care. In patients without critical care needs by the end of thrombolysis, post-tPA MRI may be considered for triaging DWI negative patients to a less resource intense monitoring environment. PMID:26517543

  14. Differentiation of pancreatic carcinoma and mass-forming focal pancreatitis: qualitative and quantitative assessment by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI combined with diffusion-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Li; Liu, Huan-huan; Zhang, Cai-yuan; Li, Xiao-ming; Lu, Jian-ping; Wang, Deng-bin

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between pancreatic carcinoma (PC) and mass-forming focal pancreatitis (FP) is invariably difficult. For the differential diagnosis, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in PC and FP in the present study. This study included 32 PC and 18 FP patients with histological confirmation who underwent DCE-MRI and DWI. The time-signal intensity curve (TIC) of PC and FP were classified into 5 types according to the time of reaching the peak, namely, type I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively, and two subtypes, namely, subtype-a (washout type) and subtype-b (plateau type) according to the part of the TIC profile after the peak. Moreover, the mean and relative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value between PC and FP on DWI were compared. The type V TIC was only recognized in PC group (P < 0.01). Type IV b were more frequently observed in PC (P = 0.036), while type- IIa (P < 0.01), type- Ia (P = 0.037) in FP. We also found a significant difference in the mean and relative ADC value between PC and FP. The combined image set of DCE-MRI and DWI yielded an excellent sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy (96.9%, 94.4%, and 96.0%). The TIC of DCE-MRI and ADC value of DWI for pancreatic mass were found to provide reliable information in differentiating PC from FP, and the combination of DCE-MRI and DWI can achieve a higher sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27661003

  15. MRI brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are expected to be allowed to request MRI scans for adults for selected clinically appropriate indications from November 2013 as part of the expansion of Medicare-funded MRI services announced by the Federal Government in 2011. This article aims to give a brief overview of MRI brain imaging relevant to GPs, which will facilitate explanation of scan findings and management planning with their patients. Basic imaging techniques, common findings and terminology are presented using some illustrative case examples.

  16. Cerebral toxoplasmosis: unusual MRI findings.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Correia, Carolina; Ramos Lacerda, Heloísa; de Assis Costa, Vlaudia Maria; Mertens de Queiroz Brainer, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Single cerebral toxoplasmic lesions are rarely explored. Through magnetic resonance imaging, 10 lesions were analyzed regarding location, signal intensity, contrast enhancement, eccentric target, and meningeal uptake. Five lesions were corticosubcortical and in the deep three (60%) had infratentorial locations. Iso- or hypointense signal predominated in T1 sequence, but in T2, there was variability. Perilesional edema and ring contrast enhancement occurred in 100% of lesions, but eccentric targets and meningeal uptake were less frequent. Even in the presence of single lesions, iso- or hypointense signal in T1, perilesional edema, and ring enhancement are suggestive of