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Sample records for mri dwi findings

  1. Sensitivity of Diffusion-Weighted STEAM MRI and EPI-DWI to Infratentorial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hohenhaus, Marc; Kunze, Claudia; Schmidt, Wolf; Brunecker, Peter; Villringer, Kersten; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Frahm, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the sensitivity of stimulated echo acquisition mode diffusion weighted imaging (STEAM-DWI) to ischemic stroke in comparison to echo-planar imaging diffusion weighted imaging (EPI-DWI) in the infratentorial compartment. Methods Fifty-seven patients presenting with clinical features of infratentorial stroke underwent STEAM-DWI, high-resolution EPI-DWI (HR-DWI, 2.5 mm slice thickness) and low-resolution EPI-DWI (LR-DWI, 5 mm slice thickness). Four readers assessed the presence of ischemic lesions and artifacts. Agreement between sequences and interobserver agreement on the presence of ischemia were calculated. The sensitivities of the DWI sequences were calculated in 45 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of infratentorial stroke. Results Median time from symptom onset to imaging was 24 hours. STEAM-DWI agreed with LR-DWI in 89.5% of cases (kappa = 0.72, p<0.0001) and with HR-DWI in 89.5% of cases (kappa = 0.68, p<0.0001). STEAM-DWI showed fewer intraparenchymal artifacts (1/57) than HR-DWI (44/57) and LR-DWI (41/57). Ischemia was visible in 87% of cases for LR-DWI, 93% of cases for HR-DWI, and 89% of cases for STEAM-DWI. Interobserver agreement was good for STEAM-DWI (kappa = 0.62, p<0.0001). Conclusions Compared to the best currently available MR sequence for detecting ischemia (HR-DWI), STEAM-DWI shows fewer artifacts and a similar sensitivity to infratentorial stroke. PMID:27529697

  2. MRI DWI/ADC signal predicts shrinkage of lumbar disc herniation after O2–O3 discolysis

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Marco; Grattacaso, Giuseppe; Di Tunno, Valeria; Marsecano, Claudia; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the discal morpho-structural changes as a predictive sign in the clinical outcome after ozone therapy in lumbar disc herniation using the T2–shine through effect in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Method One hundred and fifty-four patients suffering from lumbosciatica (89 men and 65 women; age range, 23–62 years) were included, previous MR study performed with FSE-T2 and T2-fat, SE-T1 and DWI sequences, and were randomly assigned to two groups. Seventy-seven patients (control group) underwent conservative treatment with intraforaminal injection of steroid and anaesthetic. The remaining 77 patients (study group) underwent the same treatment with the addition of oxygen–ozone (O2–O3). During the following six months, a MRI follow-up with the same sequences was performed. An intervertebral disc volumetric analysis (IDVA), DWI signal score and post treatment clinical outcome evaluation were performed for an assessment of hernia reduction. χ2 test, Student's t test and analysis of covariance were used for comparison of variables. Results In the study group, 58 of 77 patients had a successful outcome (responders). In the responders group, DWI T2–shine through effect was present during MRI follow-up and in particular in 53 of 77 patients in six months of follow-up (p < 0.05). Moreover, in the same group a statistically significant disc shrinkage was shown by IDVA in sixth months of follow-up (p < 0.05). Conclusions T2–shine through effect in DWI is present before morphological disc reduction and moreover could be considered as a predictive sign of response to oxygen–ozone treatment. PMID:25923680

  3. A greater involvement of posterior brain areas in interhemispheric transfer in autism: fMRI, DWI and behavioral evidences

    PubMed Central

    Barbeau, Elise B.; Lewis, John D.; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Mottron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    A small corpus callosum (CC) is one of the most replicated neurobiological findings in autism spectrum (AS). However, its effect on interhemispheric (IH) communication is unknown. We combined structural (CC area and DWI), functional (task-related fMRI activation and connectivity analyses) as well as behavioral (Poffenberger and Purdue tasks) measures to investigate IH integration in adult AS individuals of typical intelligence. Despite similar behavioral IH transfer time and performances in bimanual tasks, the CC sub-regions connecting frontal and parietal cortical areas were smaller in AS than in non-AS individuals, while those connecting visual regions were similar. The activation of visual areas was lower in AS than in non-AS individuals during the presentation of visual stimuli. Behavioral IH performances were related to the properties of CC subregions connecting motor areas in non-AS individuals, but to the properties of posterior CC regions in AS individuals. Furthermore, there was greater functional connectivity between visual areas in the AS than in the non-AS group. Levels of connectivity were also stronger in visual than in motor regions in the autistic subjects, while the opposite was true for the non-autistic group. Thus, visual IH transfer plays an important role in visuo-motor tasks in AS individuals. These findings extend the well established enhanced role of perception in autistic cognition to visuo-motor IH information transfer. PMID:26106551

  4. Multimodal description of whole brain connectivity: A comparison of resting state MEG, fMRI, and DWI.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Pilar; Pereda, Ernesto; Hernández-Tamames, Juan A; Del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando; Pineda-Pardo, José Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional connectivity (SC and FC) have received much attention over the last decade, as they offer unique insight into the coordination of brain functioning. They are often assessed independently with three imaging modalities: SC using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), FC using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG). DWI provides information about white matter organization, allowing the reconstruction of fiber bundles. fMRI uses blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to indirectly map neuronal activation. MEG and EEG are direct measures of neuronal activity, as they are sensitive to the synchronous inputs in pyramidal neurons. Seminal studies have targeted either the electrophysiological substrate of BOLD or the anatomical basis of FC. However, multimodal comparisons have been scarcely performed, and the relation between SC, fMRI-FC, and MEG-FC is still unclear. Here we present a systematic comparison of SC, resting state fMRI-FC, and MEG-FC between cortical regions, by evaluating their similarities at three different scales: global network, node, and hub distribution. We obtained strong similarities between the three modalities, especially for the following pairwise combinations: SC and fMRI-FC; SC and MEG-FC at theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands; and fMRI-FC and MEG-FC in alpha and beta. Furthermore, highest node similarity was found for regions of the default mode network and primary motor cortex, which also presented the highest hubness score. Distance was partially responsible for these similarities since it biased all three connectivity estimates, but not the unique contributor, since similarities remained after controlling for distance.

  5. MRI findings in aphasic status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Manuel; Munuera, Josep; Sueiras, Maria; Rovira, Rosa; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Rovira, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Ictal-MRI studies including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and MR-angiography (MRA) in patients with aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) are lacking. In this report, we aim to describe the consequences of the ASE on DWIs and its impact on cerebral circulation. We retrospectively studied eight patients with ASE confirmed by ictal-EEG, who underwent ictal-MRI shortly after well-documented onset (mean time delay 3 h). ASE consisted in fluctuating aphasia, mostly associated with other subtle contralateral neurological signs such as hemiparesia, hemianopia, or slight clonic jerks. In MRI, six patients showed cortical temporoparietal hyperintensity in DWI and four of them had also ipsilateral pulvinar lesions. Five patients showed close spatial hyperperfusion areas matching the DWI lesions and an enhanced blow flow in the middle cerebral artery. Parenchymal lesions and hemodynamic abnormalities were not associated with seizure duration or severity in any case. The resolution of DWI lesions at follow-up MRI depended on the length of the MRIs interval. In patients with ASE, lesions on DWI in the temporo-parietal cortex and pulvinar nucleus combined with local hyperperfusion can be observed, even when they appear distant from the epileptic focus or the language areas. PMID:18522643

  6. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Oliveira, M I; Fernandes, T; Madureira, A J

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in a 36-year-old female. She presented with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An MRI scan revealed an 8 cm cystic lesion in the left upper retroperitoneum, with intermediate signal on T2-weighted images, high signal on T1 weighted images, and lack of internal enhancement after gadolinium. After laparoscopic excision, the histology findings were compatible with a bronchogenic cyst, which is extremely uncommon in the retroperitoneum.

  7. Penumbra detection using PWI/DWI mismatch MRI in a rat stroke model with and without comorbidity: comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Emma; Graham, Delyth; Lopez-Gonzalez, M Rosario; Holmes, William M; Macrae, I Mhairi; McCabe, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Perfusion-diffusion (perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI)/diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)) mismatch is used to identify penumbra in acute stroke. However, limitations in penumbra detection with mismatch are recognized, with a lack of consensus on thresholds, quantification and validation of mismatch. We determined perfusion and diffusion thresholds from final infarct in the clinically relevant spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRSP) rat and its normotensive control strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and compared three methods for penumbra calculation. After permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (WKY n=12, SHRSP n=15), diffusion-weighted (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PWI) images were obtained for 4 hours post stroke and final infarct determined at 24 hours on T2 scans. The PWI/DWI mismatch was calculated from volumetric assessment (perfusion deficit volume minus apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-defined lesion volume) or spatial assessment of mismatch area on each coronal slice. The ADC-derived lesion growth provided the third, retrospective measure of penumbra. At 1 hour after MCAO, volumetric mismatch detected smaller volumes of penumbra in both strains (SHRSP: 31±50 mm3, WKY: 22±59 mm3, mean±s.d.) compared with spatial assessment (SHRSP: 36±15 mm3, WKY: 43±43 mm3) and ADC lesion expansion (SHRSP: 41±45 mm3, WKY: 65±41 mm3), although these differences were not statistically significant. Spatial assessment appears most informative, using both diffusion and perfusion data, eliminating the influence of negative mismatch and allowing the anatomical location of penumbra to be assessed at given time points after stroke. PMID:22669479

  8. Imaging anti-angiogenic treatment response with DCE-VCT, DCE-MRI and DWI in an animal model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bäuerle, Tobias; Bartling, Sönke; Berger, Martin; Schmitt-Gräff, Annette; Hilbig, Heidegard; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Delorme, Stefan; Kiessling, Fabian

    2010-02-01

    As current classification systems for the assessment of treatment response in bone metastasis do not meet the needs of oncologists, new imaging biomarkers are desirable. Therefore, the diagnostic impact of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-volumetric computed tomography (VCT) (descriptive analysis), DCE-MRI (two-compartment model) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for monitoring anti-angiogenic therapy effects of the VEGF antibody bevacizumab in breast cancer bone metastases in rats was studied. Nude rats (n=8 animals treated with bevacizumab and n=9 untreated control rats) with site-specific osteolytic bone metastasis of the hind leg were imaged with a 1.5T clinical MRI-scanner in an animal coil as well as in a volumetric CT-scanner at days 30, 40, 50 and 60 after inoculation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. From these data, osteolytic lesion size (OLS), peak enhancement (PE), area under the curve (AUC), amplitude (A), exchange rate constant (k(ep)) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were determined in bone metastases. Prior to changes in OLS (p< or =0.05 at days 50 and 60) there was already a significant decrease in PE, AUC and A (p< or =0.05 at days 40-60) in treated animals compared to controls. However, for k(ep) and ADC there were no significant differences between the groups at any time point (p>0.05 at days 40-60). In conclusion, anti-angiogenic treatment response in osteolytic breast cancer bone metastases can be assessed early with surrogate markers of vascularization, while DWI appears to be insensitive.

  9. MRI findings in cobalamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Kavita K; Arafat, Abou-Sharbin Maher; Ichaporia, Nasli Rustom; Jain, M M

    2003-01-01

    A 55 year old male presented 2 years after a jejuno-iliectomy with weakness of all limbs, paraesthesiae, and difficulty in walking. Clinical examination revealed loss of posterior column sensations. Investigations were suggestive of a deficiency of vitamin B12 and folate. MRI showed a band of hyperintensity on T2 image, in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord.

  10. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia. PMID:25109378

  11. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia.

  12. Multiple nodular lesions in spleen associated with visceral leishmaniasis: a case report of MRI-findings.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guoqun; Yang, Guangzhao; Cheng, Yougen; Zee, Chi S; Huang, Wenmin; Ni, Weiyang; Meng, Guanmin; Chen, Zhilu

    2014-12-01

    The spleen is one of the most commonly involved organs of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, there were few reports about imaging findings of splenic leishmaniasis, especially regarding MRI findings. This case report describes a 45 years old male patient from Zhejiang province of southeastern China, who was admitted for persistent fever of unknown origin, with splenomegaly and multiple hypodense/low echo nodules on CT/ultrasonography (USG) studies. MRI showed multiple nodules with concentric rings in the spleen on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), with no obvious diffusion restriction on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and gradual ring-like enhancement after intravenous administration of contrast medium. So MRI suggested necrotic granulomatous lesion. By reviewing the clinical history and following positive serological leishmania antibody test, the patient was finally confirmed a recent infection with VL. The patient received antimony gluconate therapy intravenously. At 4 months follow-up, the contrast-enhanced abdominal MRI showed that the size of the spleen was returned to normal and the splenic lesions were completely resolved except for reduced infarction compared with the previous MRI. This is the first case which was performed MRI examination completely. Meanwhile, it is the second case which MRI findings were reported. As for the characteristics of MRI in this case, there are several features, which are helpful for giving the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of VL.

  13. Assessment of non-Gaussian diffusion with singly and doubly stretched biexponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) signal attenuation in prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matt G; Bongers, Andre; Sved, Paul; Watson, Geoffrey; Bourne, Roger M

    2015-04-01

    Non-Gaussian diffusion dynamics was investigated in the two distinct water populations identified by a biexponential model of diffusion in prostate tissue. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) signal attenuation was measured ex vivo in two formalin-fixed prostates at 9.4 T with diffusion times Δ = 10, 20 and 40 ms, and b values in the range 0.017-8.2 ms/µm(2) . A conventional biexponential model was compared with models in which either the lower diffusivity component or both of the components of the biexponential were stretched. Models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and a leave-one-out (LOO) test of model prediction accuracy. The doubly stretched (SS) model had the highest LOO prediction accuracy and lowest AIC (highest information content) in the majority of voxels at Δ = 10 and 20 ms. The lower diffusivity stretching factor (α2 ) of the SS model was consistently lower (range ~0.3-0.9) than the higher diffusivity stretching factor (α1 , range ~0.7-1.1), indicating a high degree of diffusion heterogeneity in the lower diffusivity environment, and nearly Gaussian diffusion in the higher diffusivity environment. Stretched biexponential models demonstrate that, in prostate tissue, the two distinct water populations identified by the simple biexponential model individually exhibit non-Gaussian diffusion dynamics.

  14. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient analysis of encephalitis: A comparative study with topographic evaluation and conventional MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Katirag, Ahmet; Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Unlu, Ebru; Demirbas, Hayri; Demirturk, Nese

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to reveal the efficiency of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of encephalitis, and to determine the relation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, the onset of the clinical symptoms, and the lesion extent. Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 17 patients with encephalitis diagnosed on the basis of laboratory, clinical and radiologic findings during 2009 and 2015. Based on the duration between the onset of the symptoms and the brain MRI findings, the patients were divided into three groups. ADC values of the encephalitis lesion, the lesions’ topographic analysis score, deep gray matter involvement, patients’ clinical situation and the duration of the arrival to the clinic was examined. Results: Mean ADC values were 0,988±0,335 x10-3 mm2/s in group I (0-2 days), 1,045±0,347 x10-3 mm2/s in Group-II (3-7 days), 1,451±0,225 x10-3 mm2/s in Group-III (8 days and over). The relation between the ADC values and the duration of the arrival, topographic analysis score, the relation between the patients’ clinical situation and the deep gray matter involvement were found to be statistically significant. The deep gray matter involvement was demonstrated more clearly by FLAIR images when compared with DWI. Conclusion: Conventional MRI sequences may be insufficient in showing the encephalitis lesion. DWI must be added to the imaging modalities immediately in the cases suspected of having encephalitis. PMID:27375722

  15. Scurvy in an autistic child: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gongidi, Preetam; Johnson, Craig; Dinan, David

    2013-10-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C and is rarely seen in the United States. We describe the MRI findings of a case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior. Advanced imaging is rarely performed in clinically well-understood disease entities such as scurvy. Typical radiographic findings are well described leading to definitive diagnosis, although the findings can be missed or misinterpreted given the rarity of scurvy in daily practice. To our knowledge, MRI features of scurvy in children in the US have been described in only one case report. This case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior emphasizes that classic nutritional deficiencies, despite their rarity, must be included in the differential diagnosis of at-risk populations. PMID:23604286

  16. Scurvy in an autistic child: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gongidi, Preetam; Johnson, Craig; Dinan, David

    2013-10-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C and is rarely seen in the United States. We describe the MRI findings of a case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior. Advanced imaging is rarely performed in clinically well-understood disease entities such as scurvy. Typical radiographic findings are well described leading to definitive diagnosis, although the findings can be missed or misinterpreted given the rarity of scurvy in daily practice. To our knowledge, MRI features of scurvy in children in the US have been described in only one case report. This case of scurvy in an autistic child with food-avoidant behavior emphasizes that classic nutritional deficiencies, despite their rarity, must be included in the differential diagnosis of at-risk populations.

  17. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, M E; Maheshwari, S; Shabshin, N

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the MR findings of Hallux Valgus (HV) and Hallux Rigidus (HR). Twenty-four patients (11 with HV, 4 with HR, and 9 with both HV and HR) were studied at 1.5 Tesla MRI. Two separate observers evaluated the first ray blindly for the following signs: sesamoid position, sesamoid proliferation, hypertrophy of the median eminence, presence of a lateral facet, presence of an adventitial bursa, shape of the first metatarsal head, relative length of the first metatarsal, joint space loss, osteophytes (dorsalor lateral), marrow edema, geodes, subchondral sclerosis, intra-articular ossicle, and pes planus. The most common findings observed in HV were a hypertrophic medial eminence (95%), sesamoid proliferation (90%) and adventitial bursitis (70%). The most common findings observed in HR were osteophytes (77% and 69%), geodes, and marrow edema. We conclude that traditional routine radiograph signs of HV and HR may be applied to MR images.

  18. A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shenton, Martha E.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Frumin, Melissa; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    After more than 100 years of research, the neuropathology of schizophrenia remains unknown and this is despite the fact that both Kraepelin (1919/1971: Kraepelin,E., 1919/1971. Dementia praecox. Churchill Livingston Inc., New York) and Bleuler (1911/1950: Bleuler, E., 1911/1950. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. International Universities Press, New York), who first described ‘dementia praecox’ and the ‘ schizophrenias’, were convinced that schizophrenia would ultimately be linked to an organic brain disorder. Alzheimer (1897: Alzheimer, A., 1897. Beitrage zur pathologischen anatomie der hirnrinde und zur anatomischen grundlage einiger psychosen. Monatsschrift fur Psychiarie und Neurologie. 2, 82–120) was the first to investigate the neuropathology of schizophrenia, though he went on to study more tractable brain diseases. The results of subsequent neuropathological studies were disappointing because of conflicting findings. Research interest thus waned and did not flourish again until 1976, following the pivotal computer assisted tomography (CT) finding of lateral ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia by Johnstone and colleagues. Since that time significant progress has been made in brain imaging, particularly with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), beginning with the first MRI study of schizophrenia by Smith and coworkers in 1984 (Smith, R.C., Calderon, M., Ravichandran, G.K., et al. (1984). Nuclear magnetic resonance in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Psychiatry Res. 12, 137–147). MR in vivo imaging of the brain now confirms brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The 193 peer reviewed MRI studies reported in the current review span the period from 1988 to August, 2000. This 12 year period has witnessed a burgeoning of MRI studies and has led to more definitive findings of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia than any other time period in the history of schizophrenia research. Such progress in defining the

  19. MRI findings in Little Leaguer's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Song, James C; Lazarus, Martin L; Song, Alexandra Pae

    2006-02-01

    Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress injury of the proximal humeral physis, should be considered in the differential diagnosis for an adolescent baseball player with shoulder pain, especially if the player is pitching regularly in a competitive environment. While roentgenographs may or may not be helpful, depending on the duration and severity of the injury, we report the MRI appearance of a case of little leaguer's shoulder. We found MRI helpful in diagnosing injury to the growth plate that was radiographically occult; furthermore, we were able to document the patient's progress with a follow-up MRI examination, which showed improvement with treatment.

  20. Conspicuity of Peripheral Zone Prostate Cancer on Computed Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Comparison of cDWI1500, cDWI2000, and cDWI3000

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Metin; Ertaş, Gökhan; Onay, Aslıhan; Sağlıcan, Yeşim; Zengingönül, Hale Pınar; Akpek, Sergin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Objective. Disadvantages associated with direct high b-value measurements may be avoided with use of computed diffusion-weighted imaging (cDWI). The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic performance of cDWI image sets calculated for high b-values of 1500, 2000, and 3000 s/mm2. Materials and Methods. Twenty-eight patients who underwent multiparametric MRI of the prostate and radical prostatectomy consecutively were enrolled in this retrospective study. Using a software developed at our institute, cDWI1500, cDWI2000, and cDWI3000 image sets were generated by fitting a monoexponential model. Index lesions on cDWI image sets were scored by two radiologists in consensus considering lesion conspicuity, suppression of background prostate tissue, distortion, image set preferability, and contrast ratio measurements were performed. Results. Lesion detection rates are the same for computed b-values of 2000 and 3000 s/mm2 and are better than b-values of 1500 s/mm2. Best lesion conspicuity and best background prostate tissue suppression are provided by cDWI3000 image set. cDWI2000 image set provides the best zonal anatomical delineation and less distortion and was chosen as the most preferred image set. Average contrast ratio measured on these image sets shows almost a linear relation with the b-values. Conclusion. cDWI2000 image set with similar conspicuity and the same lesion detection rate, but better zonal anatomical delineation, and less distortion, was chosen as the preferable image set. PMID:25525603

  1. Spectrum of anterior cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Kumral, E; Bayulkem, G; Evyapan, D; Yunten, N

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate and review the clinical spectrum of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory infarction, we studied 48 consecutive patients who admitted to our stroke unit over a 6-year period. We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in all patients, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in 21. In our stroke registry, patients with ACA infarction represented 1.3% of 3705 patients with ischemic stroke. The main risk factors of ACA infarcts was hypertension in 58% of patients, diabetes mellitus in 29%, hypercholesterolemia in 25%, cigarette smoking in 19%, atrial fibrillation in 19%, and myocardial infarct in 6%. Presumed causes of ACA infarct were large-artery disease and cardioembolism in 13 patients each, small-artery disease (SAD) in the territory of Heubner's artery in two and atherosclerosis of large-arteries (<50% stenosis) in 16. On clinico-radiologic analysis there were three main clinical patterns depending on lesion side; left-side infarction (30 patients) consisting of mutism, transcortical motor aphasia, and hemiparesis with lower limb predominance; right side infarction (16 patients) accompanied by acute confusional state, motor hemineglect and hemiparesis; bilateral infarction (two patients) presented with akinetic mutism, severe sphincter dysfunction, and dependent functional outcome. Our findings suggest that clinical and etiologic spectrum of ACA infarction may present similar features as that of middle cerebral artery infarction, but frontal dysfunctions and callosal syndromes can help to make a clinical differential diagnosis. Moreover, at the early phase of stroke, DWI is useful imaging method to locate and delineate the boundary of lesion in the territory of ACA.

  2. Extra-mammary findings on breast MRI: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Karp, Norna L; Price, Elissa R; Wisner, Dorota J; Chang, C Belinda; Hylton, Nola M; Joe, Bonnie N

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in breast coil performance have made detection of extra-mammary findings increasingly common. Some of these findings have important clinical implications. The radiologist should be aware of the spectrum of extra-mammary pathologies found on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and be able to distinguish clinically significant findings from those that are inconsequential. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate various common and uncommon extra-mammary findings encountered while interpreting breast MRI and to detail appropriate management recommendations.

  3. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo.

  4. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  5. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  6. Inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen: CT and MRI findings

    SciTech Connect

    Irie, Hiroyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshiro

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to etucidate the CT and MRI findings of inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen. The CT and MRI findings of three patients with inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen were reviewed and compared with the pathologic findings. On the early phase of CT, the masses were hypodense to the normal spleen, and on the delayed phase, they demonstrated delayed enhancement. On T1-weighted MR images, the masses were isointense to the normal spleen, and on T2-weighted images, the masses had heterogeneous low signal intensities. After administration of Gd-DTPA, the masses showed delayed enhancement. Inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen were characterized by low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and delayed enhancement after contrast material administration on CT and MRI. The fibrous stroma may contribute to these unusual findings. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Membranous lipodystrophy: skeletal findings on CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Schneider, Robert; Bansal, Manjula; Mintz, Douglas N; Lane, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Membranous lipodystrophy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, is a rare hereditary condition with manifestations in the nervous and skeletal systems. The radiographic appearance of skeletal lesions has been well described in the literature. However, CT and MRI findings of lesions in the bone have not been documented to date. This report describes the radiographic, CT, MRI, and histopathologic skeletal findings in a case of membranous lipodystrophy. With corroborative pathologic findings, a diagnosis of membranous lipodystrophy on imaging allows for appropriate clinical management of disease manifestations.

  8. Hypernatraemic dehydration in a neonate: brain MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Musapasaoglu, H; Agildere, A Muhtesem; Teksam, M; Tarcan, A; Gurakan, B

    2008-02-01

    Severe hypernatremic dehydration can cause serious neurological complications in neonates. The most significant problems include brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhage, sinus thrombosis, haemorrhagic infarcts and permanent brain damage. The symptoms of many of these complications are similar. With respect to brain MRI findings in hypernatremic neonates, this is a report that describes linear lesions that represent intracranial haemorrhage at the grey-white matter junction. These MRI findings may be helpful for diagnosing hypernatremic dehydration, and for ruling out differential diagnoses for complications of this disorder.

  9. Added value of diffusion-weighted MRI in detection of cervical cancer recurrence: comparison with morphologic and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Rita; Dias, João Lopes; Cunha, Teresa Margarida

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting post-treatment cervical cancer recurrence. The detection accuracy of T2-weighted (T2W) images was compared with that of T2W MRI combined with either dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI or DWI. METHODS Thirty-eight women with clinically suspected uterine cervical cancer recurrence more than six months after treatment completion were examined with 1.5 Tesla MRI including T2W, DCE, and DWI sequences. Disease was confirmed histologically and correlated with MRI findings. The diagnostic performance of T2W imaging and its combination with either DCE or DWI were analyzed. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. RESULTS Thirty-six women had histologically proven recurrence. The accuracy for recurrence detection was 80% with T2W/DCE MRI and 92.1% with T2W/DWI. The addition of DCE sequences did not significantly improve the diagnostic ability of T2W imaging, and this sequence combination misclassified two patients as falsely positive and seven as falsely negative. The T2W/DWI combination revealed a positive predictive value of 100% and only three false negatives. CONCLUSION The addition of DWI to T2W sequences considerably improved the diagnostic ability of MRI. Our results support the inclusion of DWI in the initial MRI protocol for the detection of cervical cancer recurrence, leaving DCE sequences as an option for uncertain cases. PMID:26200480

  10. Incidental findings on MRI of the temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Makdissi, J; Pawar, R R; Radon, M; Holmes, S B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of incidental findings in MRI of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Methods: MRI reports of 730 patients were assessed. The reports were analysed by one consultant and one clinical lecturer in dental and maxillofacial radiology. The prevalence of intracranial and extracranial incidental findings was recorded and categorized. Results: There were 53 (7.3%) incidental findings, of which 11 (1.5%) were intracranial and 42 (5.7%) were extracranial (divided into paranasal sinuses, mastoid air cells, muscle hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy and salivary glands). A total number of eight intracranial findings needed further dedicated imaging and/or specialist clinical opinion. Only one tumour (a meningioma) was found and required surgical intervention. Conclusions: Incidental findings on TMJ MRI are rare but not unheard of. The clinical relevance of incidental findings can be significant, and it is therefore important to ensure that the full data set of images is inspected, including any scout slices. A close working relationship between the areas of dental and maxillofacial radiology and neuroradiology is essential in expediting a second opinion relating to intracranial findings. All incidental findings should be communicated to referring clinicians in a timely manner, based on their urgency and clinical significance. PMID:24005059

  11. Acute Brain MRI Findings in 120 Malawian Children with Cerebral Malaria: New Insights into an Ancient Disease

    PubMed Central

    Potchen, Michael J.; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Seydel, Karl B.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Hammond, Colleen A.; Bradley, William G.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Glover, Simon J.; Ugorji, Joseph O.; Latourette, Matt; Siebert, James; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been few neuroimaging studies of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM), a common, often fatal tropical condition. We undertook a prospective study of pediatric CM to better characterize the MRI features of this syndrome, comparing findings in children meeting a stringent definition of CM to those in a control group who were infected with malaria but who were likely to have a non-malarial cause of coma. Materials and Methods Consecutive children admitted with traditionally defined CM (parasitemia, coma and no other coma etiology evident) were eligible for this study. The presence or absence of malaria retinopathy was determined. MRI findings in patients with retinopathy-positive (ret+) CM (cases) were compared to those with retinopathy-negative (ret−) CM (controls). Two radiologists blinded to retinopathy status jointly developed a scoring procedure for image interpretation and provided independent reviews. MRI findings were compared between patients with and without retinopathy, to assess the specificity of changes for patients with very strictly defined CM. Results Of 152 children with clinically defined CM, 120 were ret+, and 32 were ret −. Abnormalities were much more common in the ret + cases, and included severe edema, abnormal T2 signal, and DWI abnormalities in the cortical, deep gray and white matter structures. Focal abnormalities rarely respected vascular distributions. Most of the scans in the more clinically heterogeneous ret− group were normal, and none of the abnormalities noted were more prevalent in controls. Conclusions Distinctive MRI findings present in patients meeting a stringent definition of CM may offer insights into disease pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:22517285

  12. MRI Findings of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Duodenal Abnormalities and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Ayse; Ustuner, Evren; Uzun, Caglar; Bektas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and presentation patterns of anatomical variations and various benign and malignant pathologies of the duodenum, including sphincter contraction, major papilla variation, prominent papilla, diverticulum, annular pancreas, duplication cysts, choledochocele, duodenal wall thickening secondary to acute pancreatitis, postbulbar stenosis, celiac disease, fistula, choledochoduodenostomy, external compression, polyps, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ampullary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MRI is a useful imaging tool for demonstrating duodenal pathology and its anatomic relationships with adjacent organs, which is critical for establishing correct diagnosis and planning appropriate treatment, especially for surgery. PMID:26576112

  13. MRI Findings of Talocalcaneal Coalition: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tarsal coalition is abnormal fusion of two or more tarsal bones and is a common cause of foot pain. There are osseous, cartilaginous and fibrous subtypes. Calcaneonavicular and talocalcaneal coalitions are more frequent. Radiography is the primary diagnostic tool, however CT and MRI are precious examinations for differential diagnosis of osseous /non-osseous coalitions separations. Furthermore, cross-sectional imaging methods indicate the extension and secondary degenerative joint changes. Case reports: The detection of bone marrow of edema in the articulation area is valuable for diagnosis Hereby, we present two cases, 24 years old female and 35 years old male, with the diagnosis of talocalcaneal coaliation. We also discuss MRI and radiographic findings. PMID:26483601

  14. Brain CT and MRI: differential diagnosis of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C; Gadhia, Rajan; Faridar, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Following a traditional approach, in Chapters 5 and 14-29 in the previous volume, diverse brain diseases are listed and their imaging findings described in detail. In this chapter the approach is from the imaging finding to the disease: for instance, what list of diseases can give rise to a contrast-enhancing mass in the cerebellopontine angle? Imaging findings that are reviewed in succession include the location of the lesion, its multiplicity and symmetry, its volume, ranging from atrophy to mass effect, its homogeneity, its density, measurable by computed tomography (CT), its appearance on T1, T2, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, finally, its characteristics after the infusion of intravenous contrast. A differential diagnosis for each finding is provided. While the approach adopted in this chapter is unconventional, we hope that it will be most helpful to anyone reading images. Furthermore, it could serve as the basis to create or complete image databases to guide in the interpretation of brain CT and MRI. PMID:27430457

  15. CT and MRI findings in a case of pelvic schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Nasu, K; Arima, K; Yoshimatsu, J; Miyakawa, I

    1998-08-01

    We compared the diagnostic utility of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with a pelvic schwannoma. This 46-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of a retroperitoneal pelvic mass and myoma uteri. The retroperitoneal pelvic mass had been detected by a CT scan at a routine health examination. A CT scan revealed a well-circumscribed cystic tumor (4 x 3 cm) at the right internal obturator muscle portion. The CT number of the inner part of the tumor was 21. Only the cyst wall was enhanced by injection of a contrast medium. MRI showed a 4 x 3 x 3-cm retroperitoneal cystic tumor that demonstrated low-intensity signals on T1-weighted images and high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images. Small areas of low intensity inside the tumor were observed on T2-weighted images. Histological examination revealed a typical schwannoma of mixed Antoni type A and type B. These findings indicate that both MRI and CT are useful for diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannomas.

  16. Pachymeningitis and optic neuritis in rheumatoid arthritis: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Ağildere, A M; Tutar, N U; Yücel, E; Coşkun, M; Benli, S; Aydin, P

    1999-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease in which cerebral and eye involvement is neither common nor fully understood. Although it is rarely the cause of pachymeningitis and optic neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis should always be kept in mind in these two conditions. We present a 52-year-old male with an 8 month history of rheumatoid arthritis who was referred to the neurology department with headache and decreasing vision and was diagnosed as having rheumatoid pachymeningitis and optic neuritis on the basis of MRI findings.

  17. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won Jung; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity. PMID:22563277

  18. Do DWI Courts Work? An Empirical Evaluation of a Texas DWI Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael R.; Franklin, Travis W.

    2012-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts have recently gained traction as a potential solution to the problem of repeat DWI offending. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of peer-reviewed studies that have examined their effectiveness. Thus, the current study compared DWI court graduates to a group of similar offenders who completed probation.…

  19. DWI/ADC in Differentiation of Benign from Malignant Focal Liver Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Elma; Sofic, Amela; Selimovic, Azra Husic

    2016-01-01

    Material and methods: The study was of prospective-retrospective character. It was carried out at the AKH in Vienna (Austria), where 100 patients with focal liver lesions were included in the study. All patients underwent the routine MR sequences on appliances 1,5 and 3T (Siemens, Germany): T1, T2, HASTE, VIBE, and a DWI with three b values (b 50, b 300 b 600 s / mm2) and ADC map with ROI (regions of interest). The numerical value of ADC map was calculated, where n = 100 liver lesions, by two independent radiologists. Results: On the basis of matching the PH finding statistically we get DWI accuracy of 96.8% for the assessment of liver lesions. The average numerical value of ADC in benign hepatic lesions (FNH, Hemangiomas) in our study amounted to 1.88 (1.326 to 2.48) x103 mm2 /s, while the value of malignant liver lesions (HCC, CCC, CRCLM) were significantly lower and amounted to 1.15 (1.024 to 1.343) x10-3 mm2 /s (Figure 2). Differences between the mean ADC of benign and malignant lesions showed a statistically significant difference with p <0.0005. In our research, we get cut-off for the ADC value of 1,341x10-3 mm2 /s, which proved to be the optimal parameter for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Conclusion: Measuring ADC values with DWI as an additional MRI tool can help in oncological practice by distinguishing normal liver parenchyma from focal lesions, and in differentiating benign from malignant liver lesions, particularly in cases where administration of contrast is not possible. PMID:27708485

  20. [Clinical and MRI Findings in Patients with Congenital Anosmia].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takao; Kato, Tomohisa; Ono, Mayu; Shimizu, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    The clinical characteristics of 16 patients with congenital anosmia were examined retrospectively. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) was used to assess the morphological changes in the olfactory bulbs and olfactory sulci according to the method of P. Rombaux (2009). Congenital anosmia was divided into two forms: syndromic forms in association with a syndrome, and isolated forms without evidence of other defects. Only three patients (19%) in our series had syndromic forms of congenital anosmia, such as the Kallmann syndrome. Most cases (13 patients, 81%) had isolated congenital anosmia. Psychophysical testing of the olfactory function included T&T olfactometry and the intravenous Alinamin test, which are widely used in Japan. In T&T olfactometry, detection and recognition thresholds for the five odorants are used to assign a diagnostic category representing the level of olfactory function. Most cases (14 patients, 88%) showed off-scale results on T&T olfactometry, and the Alinamin test resulted in no response in all 11 patients who underwent the test. Abnormal MRI findings of the olfactory bulbs and sulci were detected in 15 of 16 patients (94%). Olfactory bulbs were bilaterally absent in nine patients (56%), and two patients (13%) had unilateral olfactory bulbs. Four patients (25%) had bilateral hypoplastic olfactory bulbs, and only one patient had normal olfactory bulbs (6%). The olfactory sulcus was unilaterally absent in one patient (6%), and nine patients (56%) had bilaterally hypoplastic olfactory sulci. Two patients (13%) had a unilateral normal olfactory sulcus and hypoplastic olfactory sulcus. Three patients (19%) had normal olfactory sulci. Quantitative analysis showed that the volume of olfactory bulbs varied from 0 mm3 to 63.5 mm3, with a mean volume of 10.20 ± 18 mm3, and the mean depth of the olfactory sulcus varied from 0 mm to 12.22 mm, with a mean length of 4.85 ± 4.1 mm. Currently, there is no effective treatment for congenital anosmia. However

  1. [MRI findings in the diagnosis of pseudotumoral humeral hydatid].

    PubMed

    Khadraoui, M B; Arifa-Achour, N; Mhiri-Souei, M; Elouni, F; Jemni, H; Mrad-Dali, K; Mokni, M; Ben Ayeche, M A; Tlili-Graiess, K

    2005-06-01

    Hydatidosis of bone is rare. Vertebral localizations predominate. Standard imaging may be misleading, suggestive of a malignant tumor or infection. We present the case of a patient with a humeral hydatid. This localization is very rare and presents an unusual radiographic aspect. Computed tomography produces an image suggestive of a tumor. The correct diagnosis can be established with MRI, particularly with the STIR sequence. In our patient, MRI enabled us to establish the diagnosis preoperatively and evaluate extension. MRI has been found to be highly contributive to the diagnosis of hydatidosis of bone and for assessment of intra- and peri-osseous extension.

  2. Kernohan's notch phenomenon in chronic subdural hematoma: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kyung-Sub; Lee, Jung-Kil; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Tae-Sun; Jung, Shin; Kim, Jae-Hyoo; Kim, Soo-Han; Kang, Sam-Suk

    2007-10-01

    We report two cases of Kernohan's notch phenomenon secondary to chronic subdural hematoma detected by MRI. In the first case, the patient was drowsy with an oculomotor palsy and a hemiparesis ipsilateral to the chronic subdural hematoma. MRI in the post-operative period showed no abnormal signal or deformity of the crus cerebri. The neurological signs immediately resolved after trephination. In the second case, the patient was admitted with progressive decrease in their level of consciousness and ipsilateral hemiparesis with the chronic subdural hematoma. MRI on admission revealed an abnormal signal in the contralateral crus cerebri against the chronic subdural hematoma. After surgery, the mental state gradually recovered to normal with some degree of residual hemiparesis. In patients with chronic subdural hematoma, a compressive deformity of the crus cerebri, without abnormal signal on MRI, may predict a better neurological recovery in patients with Kernohan's notch phenomenon.

  3. MRI in multiple myeloma: a pictorial review of diagnostic and post-treatment findings.

    PubMed

    Dutoit, Julie C; Verstraete, Koenraad L

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the diagnostic work-up of patients with multiple myeloma. Since 2014, MRI findings are included in the new diagnostic criteria proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group. Patients with smouldering myeloma presenting with more than one unequivocal focal lesion in the bone marrow on MRI are considered having symptomatic myeloma requiring treatment, regardless of the presence of lytic bone lesions. However, bone marrow evaluation with MRI offers more than only morphological information regarding the detection of focal lesions in patients with MM. The overall performance of MRI is enhanced by applying dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion weighted imaging sequences, providing additional functional information on bone marrow vascularization and cellularity.This pictorial review provides an overview of the most important imaging findings in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma and multiple myeloma, by performing a 'total' MRI investigation with implications for the diagnosis, staging and response assessment. Main message • Conventional MRI diagnoses multiple myeloma by assessing the infiltration pattern. • Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI diagnoses multiple myeloma by assessing vascularization and perfusion. • Diffusion weighted imaging evaluates bone marrow composition and cellularity in multiple myeloma. • Combined morphological and functional MRI provides optimal bone marrow assessment for staging. • Combined morphological and functional MRI is of considerable value in treatment follow-up. PMID:27164915

  4. Ethical and Practical Considerations in the Management of Incidental Findings in Pediatric MRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Anderson, Britt; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Kan, Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ethical and practical management issues resulting from the detection of incidental abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research studies in healthy pediatric volunteers. Method: A retrospective examination of the findings from 60 clinical reports of research MRI scans from a cohort of healthy…

  5. Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to subcapsular renal hematoma: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Balci, N C; Sirvanci, M; Tüfek, I; Onat, L; Duran, C

    2001-10-01

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage is a rare intraabdominal bleeding. In this report we present a case of a nontraumatic retroperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to spontaneous subcapsular renal hematoma. A 54-year-old patient who was under warfarin therapy, developed subcapsular right renal hematoma. Subcapsular and retroperitoneal hemorrhage were low signal on T1- and T2-weighted images consistent with acute stage of blood. The source of subcapsular hematoma was shown to be the rupture of hemorrhagic renal cyst on MRI. Extension of hemorrhage into the retroperitoneal space anterior to right psoas muscle was also successfully shown on MRI. Patient underwent nephrectomy and retroperitoneal blood was evacuated.

  6. Clinical, CSF, and MRI findings in Devic's neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed Central

    O'Riordan, J I; Gallagher, H L; Thompson, A J; Howard, R S; Kingsley, D P; Thompson, E J; McDonald, W I; Miller, D H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since Devic's original description of neuromyelitis optica in 1894 there has been much debate regarding its aetiology. A specific cause has been identified in a minority of cases but in most the question has arisen whether or not Devic's neuromyelitis optica is a variant of multiple sclerosis. This study was undertaken to help clarify this issue. METHODS: Neuromyelitis optica was defined as (1) a severe transverse myelitis; (2) an acute unilateral or bilateral optic neuropathy; (3) no clinical involvement beyond the spinal cord or optic nerves, and (4) a monophasic or multiphasic illness. The clinical and autoantibody status was documented. Patients underwent CSF examination and MRI of brain and spinal cord. RESULTS: Twelve patients, with a mean age of presentation of 35.1 years, were seen. Eleven were women; vision was reduced to counting fingers or worse in 10 patients and seven became confined to a wheelchair. Examination of CSF showed local synthesis of oligoclonal bands in only two patients and a neutrophil pleocytosis in two. A possible aetiology was identified in five: a specific connective tissue disorder (two), pulmonary tuberculosis (one), and possible acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (two). Six had non-specific increases in various autoantibodies. Eleven patients underwent MRI of the brain and spinal cord. In 10 there were diffuse abnormalities involving cervical and thoracic cords with extensive swelling in the acute phase. Brain MRI was normal in five; in five there were multiple deep white matter lesions, and one patient had minor age related changes. CONCLUSION: It is proposed that Devic's neuromyelitis optica is a distinctive disorder with some clinical, CSF, and MRI features different from those found in classic multiple sclerosis. In most cases a specific aetiology is not identified, but an immunological mechanism of tissue damage seems likely. Images PMID:8774400

  7. Clinical and MRI findings in spinocerebellar ataxia type 5.

    PubMed

    Stevanin, G; Herman, A; Brice, A; Dürr, A

    1999-10-12

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5), one of the genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, was assigned to chromosome 11 in a single family descending from the grandparents of President Abraham Lincoln. We report a second, apparently unrelated, SCA5 family of French origin. The overall clinical picture was a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome beginning mostly in the third decade (27+/-10 years, range 14 to 40). MRI showed a marked global cerebellar atrophy similar to SCA6.

  8. A prospective study on MRI findings and prognostic factors in athletes with MTSS.

    PubMed

    Moen, M H; Schmikli, S L; Weir, A; Steeneken, V; Stapper, G; de Slegte, R; Tol, J L; Backx, F J G

    2014-02-01

    In medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) bone marrow and periosteal edema of the tibia on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently reported. The relationship between these MRI findings and recovery has not been previously studied. This prospective study describes MRI findings of 52 athletes with MTSS. Baseline characteristics were recorded and recovery was related to these parameters and MRI findings to examine for prognostic factors. Results showed that 43.5% of the symptomatic legs showed bone marrow or periosteal edema. Absence of periosteal and bone marrow edema on MRI was associated with longer recovery (P = 0.033 and P = 0.013). A clinical scoring system for sports activity (SARS score) was significantly higher in the presence of bone marrow edema (P = 0.027). When clinical scoring systems (SARS score and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale) were combined in a model, time to recovery could be predicted substantially (explaining 54% of variance, P = 0.006). In conclusion, in athletes with MTSS, bone marrow or periosteal edema is seen on MRI in 43,5% of the symptomatic legs. Furthermore, periosteal and bone marrow edema on MRI and clinical scoring systems are prognostic factors. Future studies should focus on MRI findings in symptomatic MTSS and compare these with a matched control group.

  9. Cardiac Metastasis from Invasive Thymoma Via the Superior Vena Cava: Cardiac MRI Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Dursun, Memduh Sarvar, Sadik; Cekrezi, Bledi; Kaba, Erkan; Bakir, Baris; Toker, Alper

    2008-07-15

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and metastatic deposits are more common than primary cardiac tumors. We present cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 50-year-old woman with invasive thymoma. Cardiac MRI revealed a heterogeneous, lobulated anterior mediastinal mass invading the superior vena cava and extending to the right atrium. In cine images there was no invasion to the right atrial wall.

  10. 3–5 BI-RADs Microcalcifications: Correlation between MRI and Histological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Pistolese, Chiara Adriana; Perretta, Tommaso; Cossu, Elsa; Arganini, Chiara; Salimbeni, Claudia; Scarano, Angela Lia; Arduini, Silvia; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the correlation between MRI and histopathological findings in patients with mammographically detected 3–5 BI-RAD (Breast Imaging Reporting And Data Systems) microcalcifications and to allow a better surgical planning. Materials and Method. 62 female Patients (age 50 ± 12) with screening detected 3–5 BI-RAD microcalcifications underwent dynamic 3 T contrast-enhanced breast MRI. After 30-day (range 24–36 days) period, 55 Patients underwent biopsy using stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB), 5 Patients underwent stereotactic mammographically guided biopsy, and 2 Patients underwent MRI-guided VAB. Results. Microhistology examination demonstrated 36 malignant lesions and 26 benign lesions. The analysis of MRI findings identified 8 cases of MRI BI-RADS 5, 23 cases of MRI BI-RADS 4, 11 cases of MRI BI-RADS 3, 4 cases type A and 7 cases type B, and 20 cases of MRI BI-RADS 1-2. MRI sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 88.8%, 76.9%, 84.2%, and 83.3%, respectively. PMID:22084735

  11. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Omor, Y.; Dhaene, B.; Grijseels, S.; Alard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper. PMID:26425380

  12. Posterior cortical dementia with alexia: neurobehavioural, MRI, and PET findings.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, L; Selchen, D H; Black, S E; Kaplan, R; Garnett, E S; Nahmias, C

    1991-01-01

    A progressive disorder of relatively focal but asymmetric biposterior dysfunction is described in a 54 year old right handed male. Initial clinical features included letter-by-letter alexia, visual anomia, acalculia, mild agraphia, constructional apraxia, and visuospatial compromise. Serial testing demonstrated relentless deterioration with additional development of transcortical sensory aphasia, Gerstmann's tetrad, and severe visuoperceptual impairment. Amnesia was not an early clinical feature. Judgment, personality, insight, and awareness remained preserved throughout most of the clinical course. Extinction in the right visual field to bilateral stimulation was the sole neurological abnormality. Early CT was normal and late MRI showed asymmetrical bioccipitoparietal atrophy with greater involvement of the left hemisphere. Results from positron emission tomography (PET) showed bilaterally asymmetric (left greater than right) occipitotemporoparietal hypometabolism. The metabolic decrement was strikingly asymmetric with a 50% reduction in glucose consumption confined to the left occipital cortex. The picture of occipitotemporoparietal compromise verified by MRI, PET, and neurobehavioural testing would be unusual for such degenerative dementias as Alzheimer's (AD) and Pick's disease, although atypical AD with predominant occipital lobe involvement cannot be excluded. This case supports the concepts of posterior cortical dementia (PCD) as a clinically distinct entity and for the first time documents its corresponding metabolic deficit using PET. Images PMID:1865209

  13. Thoracic Splenosis after a Gunshot: Diffusion-Weighted MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Tutar, Onur; Bakan, Selim; Samanci, Cesur; Nurili, Fuat; Sayman, Haluk Burcak; Akman, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm after a traumatic event involving the spleen and the diaphragma and is defined as autotransplantation of splenic tissue in thorax. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis in a patient 19 years after penetrating trauma. She has left dorsal side pain and routine chest roentgenogram shows pleural nodular masses. The patient was referred to us for radiologic work up. Conclusions The MRI scans revealed the intrathoracic and subcutan masses as mainly hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and significant restriction in diffusion-weighted images. Scintigraphy revealed abnormal hot spots in subcutaneous tissue and diaphragmatic pleura of the left hemithorax. PMID:25745523

  14. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings.

  15. [Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of gastric cancer: X-ray versus MRI anatomic findings].

    PubMed

    Portnoĭ, L M; Denisova, L B; Stashuk, G A; Nefedova, V O

    2000-01-01

    The paper assesses the present-day role of MRI in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. The authors consider the major prerequisites for the main aim of their study to be: 1) a dramatic incidence of diffuse (endophytic) gastric carcinoma, which requires significant correction of today's approaches to its diagnosis and 2) a rather biased and, in the authors' opinion, present-day mainly negative attitude towards MRI of the stomach as a diagnostic method for its tumor lesions. By applying the X-ray-MRI anatomic principle to the comparative study of MRI findings in 50 patients with predominantly gastric intramural carcinoma and in 25 patients without gastric tumors (controls), the authors present their methods for gastric MRI, the MRI semiotics of gastric cancer by concurrently touching upon a variety of problems that characterize the potentialities of MRI of the stomach in the diagnosis of its tumor lesions, including their differential diagnosis. As a result, the authors highly appreciate gastric MRI and consider this method to be included into the diagnostic algorithm of radiation techniques used in the diagnosis of gastric cancer, which should occupy its definite diagnostic place.

  16. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings. PMID:25597047

  17. False-positive Extra-Mammary Findings in Breast MRI: Another Cause for Concern.

    PubMed

    Padia, Shilpa A; Freyvogel, Mary; Dietz, Jill; Valente, Stephanie; O'Rourke, Colin; Grobmyer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been repeatedly shown to have a high false-positive rate for additional findings in the breast resulting in additional breast imaging and biopsies. We hypothesize that breast MRI is also associated with a high rate of false-positive findings outside of the breast requiring additional evaluation, interventions, and delays in treatment. We performed a retrospective review of all breast MRIs performed on breast cancer patients in 2010 at a single institution. MRI reports were analyzed for extra-mammary findings. The timing and yield of the additional procedures was also analyzed. Three hundred and twenty-seven breast cancer patients (average age = 53.53 ± 11.08 years) had a breast MRI. Incidental, extra-mammary findings were reported in 35/327 patients (10.7%) with a total of 38 incidental findings. The extra-mammary findings were located in the liver (n = 21, 60.0%), thoracic cavity (n = 12, 34.3%), kidneys (n = 1, 2.9%), musculoskeletal system (n = 3, 8.6%), and neck (n = 1, 2.9%). Eighteen of the 35 patients (51.4%) received additional radiographic imaging, 3 (8.6%) received additional laboratory testing, 2 (5.7%) received additional physician referrals and 2 (5.7%) received a biopsy of the finding. The average time to additional procedures in these patients was 14.5 days. None of the incidental, extra-mammary findings were associated with breast cancer or other malignancy. Breast MRI was associated with a high rate (10.7%) of extra-mammary findings, which led to costly additional imaging studies, referrals, and tests. These findings were not associated with breast cancer or other malignancies. Extra-mammary findings highlight an unrecognized adverse consequence of breast MRI.

  18. Fetal diastematomyelia associated with vertebral malformation: ultrasound, MRI, and pathomorphological findings.

    PubMed

    Korostyshevskaya, Aleksandra; Makogon, Arkadiy; Savelov, Andrey; Avdeeva, Darya; Tulupov, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    Using a specific clinical example, we demonstrate the ability of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose associated spine and spinal cord malformations in the group of spinal dysraphisms. Thus, the original ultrasound (US) and MRI results for the affected fetus at week 21 are illustrated and described in detail. The paucity of reports of prenatal MR-semiotic findings of split cord malformation comparing US and pathomorphological findings at a relatively early gestational age makes the present case unique and instructive. The outstanding capability of MRI to diagnose spinal pathologies indicates the necessity of including prenatal MRI in the diagnostic algorithm to determine the severity of the lesions and the appropriate management during pregnancy, childbirth, and the early postnatal period. PMID:26576982

  19. Orbital and Intracranial Effects of Microgravity: 3T MRI Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, L. A.; Sargsyan, A.; Hasan, K. M.; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    Goals and Objectives of this presentation are: 1. To briefly describe a newly discovered clinical entity related to space flight. 2. To describe normal anatomy and pathologic changes of the optic nerve, posterior globe, optic nerve sheath and pituitary gland related to exposure to microgravity. 3. To correlate imaging findings with known signs of intracranial hypertension.

  20. MRI findings in throwing shoulders: abnormalities in professional handball players.

    PubMed

    Jost, Bernhard; Zumstein, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Shoulders of throwing athletes are highly stressed joints and likely to have more structural abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Prevalence and type of structural abnormalities, especially abnormalities of the rotator cuff tendons and the superolateral humeral head, and correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with symptoms and clinical tests, are not well known. Throwing and nonthrowing (symptomatic and asymptomatic) shoulders of 30 fully competitive professional handball players and 20 dominant shoulders of randomly selected volunteers were evaluated for comparison clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging. An average of seven abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings was observed in the throwing shoulders; more than in the nonthrowing and the control shoulders. Although 93% of the throwing shoulders had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings, only 37% were symptomatic. Partial rotator cuff tears and mainly superolateral osteochondral defects of the humeral head were identified as typical throwing lesions. Symptoms correlated poorly with abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans and findings from clinical tests. This suggests that the evaluation of an athlete's throwing shoulder should be done very thoroughly and should not be based mainly on abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  1. Diffusion-weighted MRI findings and clinical correlations in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ting; Lyu, Jin-Hao; Zhang, Jia-Tang; Lou, Xin; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Ming; Yao, Yan; Tan, Qing-Che; Tian, Cheng-Lin; Huang, Xu-Sheng; Ma, Lin; Yu, Sheng-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and its clinical correlation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Patients who suffered from sCJD and followed up at the Department of Neurology at the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army during the period of June 1, 2007 to July 1, 2014 were reviewed. The location of the hyperintense lesions on DWI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the hyperintense lesions were correlated with symptoms and clinical course. A total of 58 sCJD patients and ten healthy controls were included. Hyperintense lesions on DWI were observed in all the patients. The patients with basal ganglia (BG) hyperintense lesions on DWI had shorter disease duration and higher incidence of myoclonus (92 versus 44 %) than those without BG hyperintense lesions. The patients with occipital cortex hyperintense lesions on DWI had shorter disease duration between symptom onset and akinetic mutism than those without these lesions. The lower of the BG ADC value the faster presence of akinetic mutism and the shorter disease duration the patients will have. The presence of BG and occipital cortex hyperintense lesions on DWI and BG ADC values is correlated with the clinical course and clinical symptoms. PMID:25860342

  2. Integration of DCE-MRI and DW-MRI Quantitative Parameters for Breast Lesion Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Amato, Daniela Maria; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Capasso, Immacolata; Rinaldo, Massimo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an imaging protocol combining dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in patients with suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods. A total of 31 breast lesions (15 malignant and 16 benign proved by histological examination) in 26 female patients were included in this study. For both DCE-MRI and DW-MRI model free and model based parameters were computed pixel by pixel on manually segmented ROIs. Statistical procedures included conventional linear analysis and more advanced techniques for classification of lesions in benign and malignant. Results. Our findings indicated no strong correlation between DCE-MRI and DW-MRI parameters. Results of classification analysis show that combining of DCE parameters or DW-MRI parameter, in comparison of single feature, does not yield a dramatic improvement of sensitivity and specificity of the two techniques alone. The best performance was obtained considering a full combination of all features. Moreover, the classification results combining all features are dominated by DCE-MRI features alone. Conclusion. The combination of DWI and DCE-MRI does not show a potential to dramatically increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast MRI. DCE-MRI alone gave the same performance as in combination with DW-MRI. PMID:26339597

  3. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takatoshi; Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically. PMID:27587965

  4. Spinal MRI Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Ozlem; Yildirim, Tulin; Tokmak, Naime; Tan, Meliha

    2009-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is a relatively common, acute, and rapidly progressive, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The diagnosis is usually established on the basis of symptoms and signs, aided by cerebrospinal fluid findings and electrophysiologic criteria. Previously, radiologic examinations have been used only to rule out other spinal abnormalities. We report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome with marked enhancement of nerve roots of the conus medullaris and cauda equina on MR imaging. These MR observations may help confirm the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:22470650

  5. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Takatoshi; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically. PMID:27587965

  6. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings.

  7. DWI of Prostate Cancer: Optimal b-Value in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Manenti, Guglielmo; Vasili, Erald; Bonanno, Elena; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To compare the diagnostic performance of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using b-values of 1000 s/mm2 and 2000 s/mm2 at 3 Tesla (T) for the evaluation of clinically significant prostate cancer. Matherials and Methods. Seventy-eight prostate cancer patients underwent a 3T MRI scan followed by radical prostatectomy. DWI was performed using b-values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm2 and qualitatively analysed by two radiologists. ADC maps were obtained at b-values of 1000 and 2000 s/mm2 and quantitatively analyzed in consensus. Results. For diagnosis of 78 prostate cancers the accuracy of DWI for the young reader was significantly greater at b = 2000 s/mm2 for the peripheral zone (PZ) but not for the transitional zone (TZ). For the experienced reader, DWI did not show significant differences in accuracy between b-values of 1000 and 2000 s/mm2. The quantitative analysis in the PZ and TZ was substantially superimposable between the two b-values, albeit with a higher accuracy with a b-value of 2000 s/mm2. Conclusions. With a b-value of 2000 s/mm2 at 3T both readers differentiated clinical significant cancer from benign tissue; higher b-values can be helpful for the less experienced readers. PMID:24693438

  8. Examining cortical thickness in male and female DWI offenders.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Jens; Tremblay, Jacques; Nadeau, Louise; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Lepage, Martin; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-04-21

    Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI offenders show cortical thickness anomalies that differ from those in female DWI offenders, when compared to their respective controls. Moderating role of sex and alcohol use on DWI status was also investigated. Sixty-one DWI offenders (29 male; 32 female) and 58 controls (29 male; 29 female) completed an anatomical brain scan and assessments on other relevant characteristics. Only male DWI offenders had reduced cortical thickness in the right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region involved in cognitive control. Lower cortical thickness was associated with increased odds of DWI status only among males who have not engaged in very hazardous pattern of alcohol misuse in the previous 12 months. Thus, for these male DWI drivers, interventions that could impact PCC could be most advantageous. Continued multidimensional sex analysis of the neural characteristics of male and female DWI offenders is warranted. PMID:27016386

  9. Examining cortical thickness in male and female DWI offenders.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Katarina; Pruessner, Jens; Tremblay, Jacques; Nadeau, Louise; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Lepage, Martin; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-04-21

    Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI offenders show cortical thickness anomalies that differ from those in female DWI offenders, when compared to their respective controls. Moderating role of sex and alcohol use on DWI status was also investigated. Sixty-one DWI offenders (29 male; 32 female) and 58 controls (29 male; 29 female) completed an anatomical brain scan and assessments on other relevant characteristics. Only male DWI offenders had reduced cortical thickness in the right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region involved in cognitive control. Lower cortical thickness was associated with increased odds of DWI status only among males who have not engaged in very hazardous pattern of alcohol misuse in the previous 12 months. Thus, for these male DWI drivers, interventions that could impact PCC could be most advantageous. Continued multidimensional sex analysis of the neural characteristics of male and female DWI offenders is warranted.

  10. The prevalence of positive imaging findings on MRI scans ordered by chiropractic versus medical providers

    PubMed Central

    Morries, Larry; Yochum, Terry; Barry, Michael; Slizeski, John; Freuden, Donald; Danielson, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if there is a greater yield of pathological findings identified on MRI scans of patients referred by chiropractors as compared to those referred by allopathic providers. Methods MRI reports authored by medical radiologists from two independent MRI centers in the Denver metropolitan area were analyzed retrospectively for pathological data related to the spinal regions studied. A pathological report data sheet was used to record pathological findings in 22 different categories. A total of 150 reports from each provider group were reviewed. Results Of the 22 pathological conditions studied, a statistically significant difference between doctor of chiropractic and medical doctor referrers was identified in 4 categories: central spinal canal stenosis, lateral stenosis, facet arthrosis, and negative report. The most common primary diagnoses given for MRI referral were low back pain/sciatica, neck pain, and extremity pain. Seventy-four percent of the reports evaluated were performed on patients referred with a diagnosis of pain. In 3 of the 22 categories (14%), the medical doctors had a statistically higher pathological yield than the chiropractors. However, in 4 of the 22 categories (18%), the chiropractors had a statistically higher pathological yield. In 18 of the 22 categories (82%), there was no statistical difference between the two provider groups. Conclusion The data presented in this study suggests chiropractic and medical providers are compeer at ordering MRI for suspected pathological findings. PMID:19674677

  11. Role of Percutaneous Image Guided Biopsy in Spinal Lesions: Adequacy and Correlation with MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although, MRI has increased our understanding of spinal pathologies, accurate diagnosis of spinal lesions need biopsy, so that early treatment can be initiated. Aim To evaluate the accuracy of biopsy, safety and yield of percutaneously done image guided spinal biopsy using a large bore needle and correlate between MRI findings and biopsy as well as the importance of various MRI findings in establishing the diagnosis. Materials and Methods All spinal lesions after clinical and MRI evaluation were subjected to Jamshidi Needle biopsy using 11 gauge needles. Biopsy material was sent for culture/sensitivity, AFB smear and histopathological examination. The outcome assessment included percentage of patients in whom diagnosis was changed after biopsy, yield in biopsy and complications of biopsy. MRI findings, biopsy findings and final diagnosis were correlated to know the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and biopsy diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the importance of each of MRI findings in making a diagnosis. Results Forty five patients with spinal lesions underwent biopsy using an 11 gauge Jamshidi needle. Initial biopsy was inconclusive in 4 patients giving a positive yield in about 91.2% of cases and a repeat biopsy ensured conclusive report in all cases. Following biopsy there was a change in diagnosis in 8% cases. MRI showed sensitivity of 85.71% and specificity of 93.54% for the diagnosis of malignancy and sensitivity of 85.71% and specificity of 86.48% for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. In contrast, initial biopsy had sensitivity of 92.85% and specificity of 100% for the diagnosis of malignancy and sensitivity of 71.42% and specificity of 100 % for the diagnosis of infection. Logistic regression analysis showed good correlation between malignancy and posterior bugle in the vertebral body in the absence of a fracture (p = 0.007), involvement of pedicles and posterior elements (p = 0.001) and soft tissue extension (p = 0

  12. Muscle MRI Findings in Childhood/Adult Onset Pompe Disease Correlate with Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bonaparte, Sebastián; Segovia, Sonia; Llauger, Jaume; Belmonte, Izaskun; Pedrosa, Irene; Alejaldre, Aída; Mayos, Mercè; Suárez-Cuartín, Guillermo; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enzyme replacement therapy has shown to be effective for childhood/adult onset Pompe disease (AOPD). The discovery of biomarkers useful for monitoring disease progression is one of the priority research topics in Pompe disease. Muscle MRI could be one possible test but the correlation between muscle MRI and muscle strength and function has been only partially addressed so far. Methods We studied 34 AOPD patients using functional scales (Manual Research Council scale, hand held myometry, 6 minutes walking test, timed to up and go test, time to climb up and down 4 steps, time to walk 10 meters and Motor Function Measure 20 Scale), respiratory tests (Forced Vital Capacity seated and lying, Maximun Inspiratory Pressure and Maximum Expiratory Pressure), daily live activities scales (Activlim) and quality of life scales (Short Form-36 and Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life questionnaire). We performed a whole body muscle MRI using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging centered on thighs and lower trunk region. Results T1w whole body muscle MRI showed a homogeneous pattern of muscle involvement that could also be found in pre-symptomatic individuals. We found a strong correlation between muscle strength, muscle functional scales and the degree of muscle fatty replacement in muscle MRI analyzed using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging studies. Moreover, muscle MRI detected mild degree of fatty replacement in paraspinal muscles in pre-symptomatic patients. Conclusion Based on our findings, we consider that muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful for diagnosis and follow-up in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic patients under treatment. Take home message Muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful to follow-up patients in daily clinic. PMID:27711114

  13. Detailed shoulder MRI findings in manual wheelchair users with shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Melissa M B; Van Straaten, Meegan G; Murthy, Naveen S; Braman, Jonathan P; Zanella, Elia; Zhao, Kristin D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC) users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10 MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS) guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities. PMID:25180192

  14. The Diagnostic Value of MRI in Brucella Spondylitis With Comparison to Clinical and Laboratory Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Ali Baradaran; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Chokan, Niaz Mohamad Jafari; Abbasi, Bita; Akhavan, Reza; Bolvardi, Ehsan; Soroureddin, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease, especially in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions and can involve many organs and tissue. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication. Spondylitis is its most prevalent clinical form in adults, and there may be difficult in diagnosis and treatment. In present study, we aimed to assess these diagnostic value of MRI, in patients with spondylitis due to brucella, comparing with clinical and laboratory findings. Method: Patients with low back pain who were admitted to Sheikhol-raees MRI center were included in this study. None of these patients had any documented infectious disease. Diagnosis of brucellosis was made, based on MRI findings, which would be approved by serology. After confirmation with serology, the group with positive serology were compared with the negative group, in sex, age, MRI findings level of vertebral involvements, signal intensity in T1 weighted and T2 weighted. Results: Among 53 patients with diagnosis of brucella spondylitis, 33 underwent serology study, 20 were positive and 13 were negative and the others consider out of study. From these 20, 3 had tuberculosis spondylitis, whose mean age was 56 and the 67% of them were male. Mean age in the positive brucella spondylitis were 46 and 67% of them were male. In negative group mean age was 55, and of whom 57% were male. There was no statistically significant difference in MRI findings such as changes in signal intensity, disk space narrowing, Intracanalicular mass, Abscess formation. Level of invlovment in vertebrae. Conclusion: The results of this study shows that although MRI is Modality of choice in diagnosis of spondylitis, it is not enough specific to diagnosis the reasons of spondylitis. PMID:27147801

  15. Breast MRI Findings of Radiation Associated Angiosarcoma of the Breast (RAS)

    PubMed Central

    Chikarmane, Sona A.; Gombos, Eva C.; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Raut, Chandrajit; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the breast MRI characteristics of radiation-associated breast angiosarcomas (RAS). Materials and Methods In this institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective study, fifty-six (57) women were diagnosed with pathology confirmed RAS during the study period (January 1999 - May 2013). Seventeen women underwent pre-treatment breast MRI (prior to surgical resection or chemotherapy), of which 16 studies were available for review. Imaging features of these tumors were evaluated by two radiologists and correlated with clinical management and outcomes. Results Median age of patients at original breast cancer diagnosis was 69.3 years (range 42-84 years), with average time from initial radiation therapy to diagnosis of RAS of 7.3 years (range 5.1 – 9.5 years). Nine women had mammogram (9/16, 56%) and five had breast ultrasound (US) (5/16, 31%) prior to MRI, which demonstrated expected, non-suspicious findings of skin thickening in over half the cases. Four patients had distinct intraparenchymal masses on US, mammogram, and MRI. MRI findings included diffuse T2 high signal skin thickening (16/16, 100%). Nearly half (7/16, 44%) of patients had T2 low signal intensity lesions; all lesions rapidly enhanced on post-contrast T1 weighted imaging. All women underwent surgical resection, with 8/16 (50%) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four women died during the study period. Conclusion Clinical, mammographic and sonographic findings of RAS are non-specific and may be occult on conventional breast imaging; MRI findings of RAS include rapidly enhancing dermal and intraparenchymal lesions, some of which are low signal on T2 weighted imaging. PMID:25504856

  16. Characteristic MRI Findings of upper Limb Muscle Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Kazuma; Sugie, Miho; Taoka, Toshio; Tonomura, Yasuyo; Kumazawa, Aya; Izumi, Tesseki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients. PMID:25919300

  17. Low-Functioning Autism and Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Findings.

    PubMed

    Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara; Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Chiapparini, Luisa; Esposito, Silvia; Annunziata, Silvia; Riva, Daria

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroradiologic studies reported a high incidence of abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children. In this population, it is difficult to know which abnormality depends on autism itself and which is related to intellectual disability associated with autism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of neuroradiologic abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children compared to Intellectual Quotient and age-matched nonsyndromic children, using the same set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. MRI was rated as abnormal in 44% of autistic and 54% of children with intellectual disability. The main results were mega cisterna magna in autism and hypoplastic corpus callosum in intellectual disability. These abnormalities are morphologically visible signs of altered brain development. These findings, more frequent than expected, are not specific to the 2 conditions. Although MRI cannot be considered mandatory, it allows an in-depth clinical assessment in nonsyndromic intellectual-disabled and autistic children.

  18. Low-Functioning Autism and Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Findings.

    PubMed

    Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara; Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Chiapparini, Luisa; Esposito, Silvia; Annunziata, Silvia; Riva, Daria

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroradiologic studies reported a high incidence of abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children. In this population, it is difficult to know which abnormality depends on autism itself and which is related to intellectual disability associated with autism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of neuroradiologic abnormalities in low-functioning autistic children compared to Intellectual Quotient and age-matched nonsyndromic children, using the same set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. MRI was rated as abnormal in 44% of autistic and 54% of children with intellectual disability. The main results were mega cisterna magna in autism and hypoplastic corpus callosum in intellectual disability. These abnormalities are morphologically visible signs of altered brain development. These findings, more frequent than expected, are not specific to the 2 conditions. Although MRI cannot be considered mandatory, it allows an in-depth clinical assessment in nonsyndromic intellectual-disabled and autistic children. PMID:25895913

  19. Serial MRI and neurobehavioural findings after mild to moderate closed head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, H S; Williams, D H; Eisenberg, H M; High, W M; Guinto, F C

    1992-01-01

    Fifty patients who sustained mild to moderate closed head injury (CHI) underwent a CT scan, MRI, and neurobehavioural testing. At baseline 40 patients had intracranial hyperintensities detected by MRI which predominated in the frontal and temporal regions, whereas 10 patients had lesions detected by CT. Neurobehavioural data obtained during the first admission to hospital disclosed no distinctive pattern in subgroups of patients characterised by lesions confined to the frontal, temporal, or frontotemporal regions, whereas all three groups exhibited pervasive deficits in relation to normal control subjects. The size of extraparenchymal lesion was significantly related to the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, whereas this relation was not present in parenchymal lesions. One and three month follow up MRI findings showed substantial resolution of lesion while neuropsychological data reflected impressive recovery. The follow up data disclosed a trend from pervasive deficits to more specific impairments which were inconsistently related to the site of brain lesion. These results corroborate and extend previous findings, indicating that intracranial lesions detected by MRI are present in most patients hospitalised after mild to moderate CHI. Individual differences in the relation between site of lesion and the pattern of neuropsychological findings, which persist over one to three months after mild to moderate CHI, remain unexplained. Images PMID:1583509

  20. TRUS, CT and MRI findings of hydatid disease of seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, M; Taşar, M; Bulakbaşi, N; Tayfun, C; Somuncu, I

    1998-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the urogenital system, especially seminal vesicles and prostate, or retroperitoneum is a very rare condition. Secondary dissemination of seminal vesicles has not been described before. We describe the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT and MRI findings of a secondary solitary hydatid cyst of the left seminal vesicle, in a patient with disseminated hydatid disease involving all abdominal organs except for right kidney. We obtained typical findings of hydatid cyst at all modalities. PMID:9683695

  1. THE MRI FINDINGS OF IRIS METASTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Hasan; Akça, Zeki; Büyükçelik, Abdullah; Öztürk, Mustafa; Taşdemir, Mustafa; Kubilay Yazıcıoğlu, Alper; Kaplan, Bünyamin; Uçar, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer and lung cancer are the most common tumors that metastasize to iris. The metastasis of iris was generally diagnosed on ophthalmologic examination. In this case, we reported iris metastasis of patients with adenocarcinoma of breast cancer and MRI findings. We report a case of a 51-year-old. She was diagnosed breast cancer two years ago. After adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and trastuzumab, she was admitted to hospital with the complaints of headache on February 2012. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) revealed multiple brain metastasis. Whole brain radiotherapy and palliative chemotherapy were applied to the patients. In follow-up, on ophthalmological examination, there was a solid lesion on iris. The orbital MRI was performed and it revealed the thickness on iris of left eye. After diagnostic procedure final pathological rewiev reported that invasive ductal carcinom metastasis. Iris metastasis may be considered by MRI findings following: The thickness on iris and contrast enhanced lesion. This reason may be resulted that the fine niddle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis of iris metastasis is not need. PMID:23378695

  2. Post-mortem forensic neuroimaging: correlation of MSCT and MRI findings with autopsy results.

    PubMed

    Yen, Kathrin; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Scheurer, Eva; Ozdoba, Christoph; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Anon, Javier; Frickey, Nathalie; Zwygart, Karin; Weis, Joachim; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-11-15

    Multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly used for forensic purposes. Based on broad experience in clinical neuroimaging, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were performed in 57 forensic cases with the goal to evaluate the radiological methods concerning their usability for forensic head and brain examination. An experienced clinical radiologist evaluated the imaging data. The results were compared to the autopsy findings that served as the gold standard with regard to common forensic neurotrauma findings such as skull fractures, soft tissue lesions of the scalp, various forms of intracranial hemorrhage or signs of increased brain pressure. The sensitivity of the imaging methods ranged from 100% (e.g., heat-induced alterations, intracranial gas) to zero (e.g., mediobasal impression marks as a sign of increased brain pressure, plaques jaunes). The agreement between MRI and CT was 69%. The radiological methods prevalently failed in the detection of lesions smaller than 3mm of size, whereas they were generally satisfactory concerning the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage. Due to its advanced 2D and 3D post-processing possibilities, CT in particular possessed certain advantages in comparison with autopsy with regard to forensic reconstruction. MRI showed forensically relevant findings not seen during autopsy in several cases. The partly limited sensitivity of imaging that was observed in this retrospective study was based on several factors: besides general technical limitations it became apparent that clinical radiologists require a sound basic forensic background in order to detect specific signs. Focused teaching sessions will be essential to improve the outcome in future examinations. On the other hand, the autopsy protocols should be further standardized to allow an exact comparison of imaging and autopsy data. In consideration of these facts, MRI and CT have the power to play an important role in future forensic

  3. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pre-radiographic MRI findings are associated with onset of knee symptoms: the most study

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, M. K.; Lynch, J. A.; Tolstykh, I.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Aliabadi, P.; McCulloch, C.; Curtis, J.; Felson, D.; Lane, N. E.; Torner, J.; Nevitt, M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greater sensitivity to detect osteoarthritis (OA) damage than radiographs but it is uncertain which MRI findings in early OA are clinically important. We examined MRI abnormalities detected in knees without radiographic OA and their association with incident knee symptoms. Method Participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) without frequent knee symptoms (FKS) at baseline were eligible if they also lacked radiographic features of OA at baseline. At 15 months, knees that developed FKS were defined as cases while control knees were drawn from those that remained without FKS. Baseline MRIs were scored at each subregion for cartilage lesions (CARTs); osteophytes (OST); bone marrow lesions (BML) and cysts. We compared cases and controls using marginal logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), previous injury and clinic site. Results 36 case knees and 128 control knees were analyzed. MRI damage was common in both cases and controls. The presence of a severe CART (P = 0.03), BML (P = 0.02) or OST (P = 0.02) in the whole knee joint was more common in cases while subchondral cysts did not differ significantly between cases and controls (P > 0.1). Case status at 15 months was predicted by baseline damage at only two locations; a BML in the lateral patella (P = 0.047) and at the tibial subspinous subregions (P = 0.01). Conclusion In knees without significant symptoms or radiographic features of OA, MRI lesions of OA in only a few specific locations preceded onset of clinical symptoms and suggest that changes in bone play a role in the early development of knee pain. Confirmation of these findings in other prospective studies of knee OA is warranted. PMID:19919856

  5. SU-E-P-33: Critical Role of T2-Weighted Imaging Combined with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of MRI in Diagnosis of Loco-Regional Recurrent Esophageal Cancer After Radical Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, G; Qiao, L; Liang, N; Xie, J; Zhang, J; Luo, H; Zhang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We perform this study to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of T2-weighted MRI (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in confirming local relapses of esophageal cancer in patients highly suspected of recurrence after eradicating surgery. Methods: Forty-two postoperative esophageal cancer patients with clinical suspicions of cancer recurrence underwent 3.0T MRI applying axial, coronal, sagittal T2WI and axial DWI sequences. Two experienced radiologists (R1 and R2) both used two methods (T2WI, T2WI+DWI) to observe the images, and graded the patients ranging from 1 to 5 to represent severity of the disease based on visual signal intensity (patients equal to or more than grade 3 was confirmed as recurrent disease) Results: 27/42patients were verified of recurrent disease by pathologic findings and/or imaging findings during follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of R1 applying T2WI+DWI are 96%, 87% and 93% versus 81%, 80% and 77% on T2WI, these figures by R2 were 96%, 93% and 95% versus 89%, 93% and 90%. The receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses suggest that both of the two readers can obtain better accuracy when adding DWI to T2WI compared with T2WI alone. Kappa test between R1 and R2 indicates excellent inter-observer agreement on T2WI+DWI. Conclusion: Standard T2WI in combination DWI can achieve better accuracy than T2WI alone in diagnosing local recurrence of esophageal cancer, and improve consistency between different readers.

  6. Thickening of the optic nerves in metachromatic leucodystrophy: A new MRI finding.

    PubMed

    Roi, Dylan; Mankad, Kshitij; Kaliakatsos, Marios; Cleary, Maureen; Manzur, Adnan; D'Arco, Felice

    2016-04-01

    Krabbe's disease (KD) and metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD) are both lysosomal storage disorders that share some common MRI features. Amongst the imaging findings useful to distinguish one from the other, optic chiasm/nerves thickening have been described as specific key features for differential diagnosis favouring KD. We report the first case of enlargement of the optic nerves and chiasm described in a patient with genetically confirmed MLD.

  7. Select and Cluster: A Method for Finding Functional Networks of Clustered Voxels in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    DonGiovanni, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Extracting functional connectivity patterns among cortical regions in fMRI datasets is a challenge stimulating the development of effective data-driven or model based techniques. Here, we present a novel data-driven method for the extraction of significantly connected functional ROIs directly from the preprocessed fMRI data without relying on a priori knowledge of the expected activations. This method finds spatially compact groups of voxels which show a homogeneous pattern of significant connectivity with other regions in the brain. The method, called Select and Cluster (S&C), consists of two steps: first, a dimensionality reduction step based on a blind multiresolution pairwise correlation by which the subset of all cortical voxels with significant mutual correlation is selected and the second step in which the selected voxels are grouped into spatially compact and functionally homogeneous ROIs by means of a Support Vector Clustering (SVC) algorithm. The S&C method is described in detail. Its performance assessed on simulated and experimental fMRI data is compared to other methods commonly used in functional connectivity analyses, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or clustering. S&C method simplifies the extraction of functional networks in fMRI by identifying automatically spatially compact groups of voxels (ROIs) involved in whole brain scale activation networks.

  8. Correlation of MRI findings to histology of acetaminophen toxicity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aliza T; Ou, Xiawei; James, Laura P; Jambhekar, Kedar; Pandey, Tarun; McCullough, Sandra; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Borrelli, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is responsible for approximately half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States. The mouse model of APAP toxicity is widely used to examine mechanisms of APAP toxicity. Noninvasive approaches would allow for serial measurements in a single animal to study the effects of experimental interventions on the development and resolution of hepatocellular necrosis. The following study examined the time course of hepatic necrosis using small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following the administration of 200 mg/kg ip APAP given to B6C3F1 male mice. Mice treated with saline served as controls (CON). Other mice received treatment with the clinical antidote N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC). Mouse liver pathology was characterized using T1- and T2-weighted sequences at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h following APAP administration. Standard assays for APAP toxicity [serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) levels and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of liver sections] were examined relative to MRI findings. Overall, T2 sequences had a greater sensitivity for necrosis and hemorrhage than T1 (FLASH) images. Liver injury severity scoring of MR images demonstrated increased scores in the APAP mice at 4, 8 and 24 h compared to the CON mice. APAP+NAC mice had MRI scores similar to the CON mice. Semiquantitative analysis of hepatic hemorrhage strongly correlated with serum ALT. Small animal MRI can be used to monitor the evolution of APAP toxicity over time and to evaluate the response to therapy.

  9. Select and Cluster: A Method for Finding Functional Networks of Clustered Voxels in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    DonGiovanni, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Extracting functional connectivity patterns among cortical regions in fMRI datasets is a challenge stimulating the development of effective data-driven or model based techniques. Here, we present a novel data-driven method for the extraction of significantly connected functional ROIs directly from the preprocessed fMRI data without relying on a priori knowledge of the expected activations. This method finds spatially compact groups of voxels which show a homogeneous pattern of significant connectivity with other regions in the brain. The method, called Select and Cluster (S&C), consists of two steps: first, a dimensionality reduction step based on a blind multiresolution pairwise correlation by which the subset of all cortical voxels with significant mutual correlation is selected and the second step in which the selected voxels are grouped into spatially compact and functionally homogeneous ROIs by means of a Support Vector Clustering (SVC) algorithm. The S&C method is described in detail. Its performance assessed on simulated and experimental fMRI data is compared to other methods commonly used in functional connectivity analyses, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or clustering. S&C method simplifies the extraction of functional networks in fMRI by identifying automatically spatially compact groups of voxels (ROIs) involved in whole brain scale activation networks. PMID:27656202

  10. Neuronal activity significantly reduces water displacement: DWI of a vital rat spinal cord with no hemodynamic effect.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Nitzan; Nevo, Uri

    2013-08-01

    Changes in the diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) signal were observed to be correlated with neuronal activity during chemically induced brain activity, epileptic seizures, or visual stimulation. These changes suggest a possible reduction in water displacement that accompanies neuronal activity, but were possibly affected by other physiological mechanisms such as blood oxygenation level and blood flow. We developed an imaging experiment of an excised and vital newborn rat spinal cord to examine the effect of neuronal function on the displacement of water molecules as measured by DWI signal. This approach provides a DWI experiment of a vital mammalian CNS tissue in the absence of some of the systemic sources of noise. We detected a significant and reproducible drop with an average value of 19.5 ± 1.6% (mean ± SE) upon activation. The drop repeated itself in three orthogonal directions. ADC values corresponded to an oblate anisotropy. This result was validated by high resolution DWI of a fixed tissue, imaged with an ultra-high field MRI. The results support our working hypothesis that water displacement is affected by neuronal activation. These results further imply that water displacement might serve as a potential marker for brain function, and that, although commonly viewed as wholly electrochemical, neuronal activity includes a significant mechanical dimension that affects water displacement.

  11. Driving While Impaired (DWI) Intervention Service Provider Orientations: The Scales of the DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Scott; Wanberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic educator who provides services to driving while impaired (DWI) offenders is a unique professional hybrid, combining education and therapeutic service delivery. In an effort to understand and address this service provider, a 69-item DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI) was constructed. Using principal components and common…

  12. Day of Injury CT and Late MRI Findings: Cognitive Outcome in a Pediatric Sample with Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jantz, Paul B; Farrer, Thomas J.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or cmTBI is based on the presence of visibly identifiable brain pathology on the day-of-injury computed tomography (CT) scan. In a pediatric sample the relation of DOI CT to late MRI findings and neuropsychological outcome was examined. Methods MRI (> 12 months) was obtained in pediatric cmTBI patients and a sample of orthopedically injured (OI) children. Those children with positive imaging findings (MRI+) were quantitatively compared to those without (MRI-) or with the OI sample. Groups were also compared in neurocognitive outcome from WASI subtests and the WISC-IV Processing Speed Index (PSI), along with the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and a parent-rated behavioral functioning measure (ABAS-II). Results Despite the MRI+ group having significantly more DOI CT findings than the MRI-group, no quantitative differences were found. WASI Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning scores were significantly lower, but not PSI, TEA-Ch or ABAS-II scores. MRI+ and MRI-groups did not differ on these measures. Conclusions Heterogeneity in the occurrence of MRI-identified focal pathology was not associated with uniform changes in quantitative analyses of brain structure in cmTBI. Increased number of DOI CT abnormalities was associated with lowered neuropsychological performance. PMID:26186038

  13. [MRI findings in iliotibial band friction syndrome: a report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Isusi, M; Oleaga, L; Campo, M; Grande, D

    2007-01-01

    We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in two males clinically diagnosed with iliotibial band friction syndrome (IBFS), a frequent cause of pain in the lateral compartment of the knee. Coronal T2-weighted images with fat saturation show an ill-defined area of high signal intensity in the soft tissues situated immediately below the iliotibial band lateral to the external condyle of the femur. No thickening of the iliotibial band or changes in its signal intensity were observed. Osseous edema and subchondral osseous erosion in the external condyle of the femur were observed in both cases. Pain in the lateral compartment of the knee might be due to multiple causes that should be included in the differential diagnosis and MRI can play a significant role in reaching the definitive diagnosis.

  14. Late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse: a case report with MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Camara, Massaman; Mbonda, Paul Chimi; Toffa, Dènahin; Touré, Kamadore

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in the world. The relation between marijuana use and epileptic seizures is still controversial. We report a case of late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse, with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. A 44-year-old patient was admitted for 03 isolated episodes of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. He had a history of 26 years regular marijuana smoking. On admission, we found a tachycardia, psychomotor slowing, asymmetric hyperreflexia, bilateral Babinski sign without weakness. Laboratory work-up showed a high level of urine of Δ-9-tétrahydroxycannabinol. Electroencephalogram was normal. Brain MRI revealed abnormal signal intensities in the right frontal lobe and basal ganglia. Seizures cessation was obtained with anti-epileptic treatment. We suggest that marijuana abuse through vascular and toxic mechanisms could explain seizures in this case. PMID:25120871

  15. Structural brain MRI studies in eye diseases: are they clinically relevant? A review of current findings.

    PubMed

    Prins, Doety; Hanekamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2016-03-01

    Many eye diseases reduce visual acuity or are associated with visual field defects. Because of the well-defined retinotopic organization of the connections of the visual pathways, this may affect specific parts of the visual pathways and cortex, as a result of either deprivation or transsynaptic degeneration. For this reason, over the past several years, numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have examined the association of eye diseases with pathway and brain changes. Here, we review structural MRI studies performed in human patients with the eye diseases albinism, amblyopia, hereditary retinal dystrophies, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. We focus on two main questions. First, what have these studies revealed? Second, what is the potential clinical relevance of their findings? We find that all the aforementioned eye diseases are indeed associated with structural changes in the visual pathways and brain. As such changes have been described in very different eye diseases, in our view the most parsimonious explanation is that these are caused by the loss of visual input and the subsequent deprivation of the visual pathways and brain regions, rather than by transsynaptic degeneration. Moreover, and of clinical relevance, for some of the diseases - in particular glaucoma and AMD - present results are compatible with the view that the eye disease is part of a more general neurological or neurodegenerative disorder that also affects the brain. Finally, establishing structural changes of the visual pathways has been relevant in the context of new therapeutic strategies to restore retinal function: it implies that restoring retinal function may not suffice to also effectively restore vision. Future structural MRI studies can contribute to (i) further establish relationships between ocular and neurological neurodegenerative disorders, (ii) investigate whether brain degeneration in eye diseases is reversible, (iii) evaluate the use

  16. Correlation Between Clinical Findings of Temporomandibular Disorders and MRI Characteristics of Disc Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman; Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Sheikh, Soheyl; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sonam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is a common condition that is best evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The first step in MR imaging of the TMJ is to evaluate the articular disk, or meniscus, in terms of its morphologic features and its location relative to the condyle in both closed- and open-mouth positions. Disk location is of prime importance because the presence of a displaced disk is a critical sign of TMJ dysfunction. However, disk displacement is also frequently seen in asymptomatic volunteers. It is important for the maxillofacial radiologist to detect early MR imaging signs of dysfunction, thereby avoiding the evolution of this condition to its advanced and irreversible phase which is characterized by osteoarthritic changes such as condylar flattening or osteophytes. Further the MR imaging techniques will allow a better understanding of the sources of TMJ pain and of any discrepancy between imaging findings and patient symptoms. Henceforth, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether MRI findings of various degrees of disk displacement could be correlated with the presence or absence of clinical signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Materials and Methods : In this clinical study, 44 patients (88 TMJs) were examined clinically and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients with clinical signs and symptoms of TMDs either unilaterally or bilaterally and considered as study group. Group 2 consisted of 22 patients with no signs and symptoms of TMDs and considered as control group. MRI was done for both the TMJs of each patient. Displacement of the posterior band of articular disc in relation to the condyle was quantified as anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDWR), posterior disc displacement (PDD). Results : Disk displacement was found in 18 (81.8%) patients of 22 symptomatic subjects in Group 1

  17. Extraspinal Incidental Findings on Routine MRI of Lumbar Spine: Prevalence and Reporting Rates in 1278 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Çaglı, Bekir; Tekataş, Aslan; Kırıcı, Mehmet Yadigar; Ünlü, Ercüment; Gençhellaç, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. Results A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Conclusion Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports. PMID:26175587

  18. Can MRI Findings Help to Predict Neurological Recovery in Paraplegics With Thoracolumbar Fracture?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonchul; Koh, Seong-Eun; Jung, Heeyoune; Lee, Hye Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the prognosis of neurological recovery in paraplegics with thoracolumbar fracture using association analysis with clinical outcomes and electrodiagnostic features. Methods This retrospective study involved 30 patients treated for paraplegia following thoracolumbar fracture. On axial and sagittal T2-weighted MRI scans, nerve root sedimentation sign, root aggregation sign, and signal intensity changes in the conus medullaris were independently assessed by two raters. A positive sedimentation sign was defined as the absence of nerve root sedimentation. The root aggregation sign was defined as the presence of root aggregation in at least one axial MRI scan. Clinical outcomes including the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale, ambulatory capacity, and electrodiagnostic features were used for association analysis. Results Inter-rater reliability of the nerve root sedimentation sign and the root aggregation sign were κ=0.67 (p=0.001) and κ=0.78 (p<0.001), respectively. A positive sedimentation sign was significantly associated with recovery of ambulatory capacity after a rehabilitation program (χ2=4.854, p=0.028). The presence of the root aggregation sign was associated with reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude of common peroneal and tibial nerves in nerve conduction studies (χ2=5.026, p=0.025). Conclusion A positive sedimentation sign was significantly associated with recovery of ambulatory capacity and not indicative of persistent paralysis. The root aggregation sign suggested the existence of significant cauda equina injuries. PMID:26798606

  19. Incidental optochiasmatic cavernoma: Case report of an unusual finding on 3 Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Trentadue, Mirko; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto; Piovan, Enrico; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta

    2016-08-01

    Cavernoma is a vascular hamartoma, which represents 10-20% of all central nervous system vascular malformations. The majority (80%) of them are supratentorial, while involvement of the cranial nerves and the optic pathways is extremely rare. The main clinical presentation of optochiasmatic cavernomas consists of chiasmatic apoplexy, which is a neurosurgical emergency. Here, we report a case in which the finding was incidentally detected in a 49-year-old man. We describe the imaging characteristics of the lesion in such a rare location, highlighting the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (specifically 3 Tesla) in the management of asymptomatic patients.

  20. Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Eijun Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji

    2006-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

  1. [MRI findings and effectiveness of cyproheptadine in two patients with ophthalmoplegic migraine].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Nobuyoshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Mochizuki, Mika; Nara, Takahiro

    2002-11-01

    We reported the MRI findings and clinical course of two patients with ophthalmoplegic migraine. Both patients presented with unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy. Contrast enhanced MR imaging revealed unilateral enhancement and thickening of the oculomotor nerve in one patient. Prednisolone was effective in both patients, but only could transiently. On the other hand, cyproheptadine hydrochloride could completely prevent recurrent attacks of ophthalmoplegic migraine. Thus, MR imaging with of contrast enhancement is useful in the diagnosis of ophthalmoplegic migraine. Cyproheptadine hydrochloride is better than prednisolone to prevention recurrent attacks and to avoid adverse effects.

  2. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of temporal and occipital lobe dysplasia in a twin with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Pugash, D; Lehman, A M; Langlois, S

    2014-09-01

    Thanatophoric dysplasia, hypochondroplasia and achondroplasia are all caused by FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) mutations. Neuropathological findings of temporal lobe dysplasia are found in thanatophoric dysplasia, and temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities have been described recently in brain imaging studies of children with hypochondroplasia. We describe twins discordant for achondroplasia, in one of whom the prenatal diagnosis was based on ultrasound and fetal MRI documentation of temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities characteristic of hypochondroplasia, in addition to the finding of short long bones. Despite the intracranial findings suggestive of hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia was confirmed following postnatal clinical and genetic testing. These intracranial abnormalities have not been previously described in a fetus with achondroplasia.

  3. Does spinal stenosis correlate with MRI findings and pain, psychologic factor and quality of life?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Su Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate and analyze MRI findings in relation to visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), psychological-factor, sleep-quality, and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores among patients with central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) for the purpose of elucidating a correlation. Methods From July 2013 to May 2014, 117 consecutive patients with central LSS were included in this study. All of the MRIs were evaluated by one of the authors, and the evaluated items were the dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCSA), the number of stenotic levels, and the presence and levels of spondylolisthesis. The ODI, VAS, 36-item SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were used to evaluate the participants. Results There are no correlations between the ODI, VAS, BDI, BAI, PSQI, and SF-36 scores and the minimum DSCSA; however, a significant correlation was found between the ODI scores and multilevel LSS. The BDI, BAI, and PSQI scores are higher for multilevel LSS compared with single-level LSS, but the difference of this mean value is not statistically significant. Conclusions A significant correlation was shown between those patients with multilevel LSS and the ODI scores; however, significant correlations were not found between the MRI findings and the psychological factors pertaining to sleep and life qualities. PMID:26495059

  4. MRI Findings of Otic and Sinus Barotrauma in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Zhai, Zhao-Hua; Li, Pei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To study the MRI findings of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with carbon monoxide(CO) poisoning during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and examine the discrepancies of otic and sinus abnormalities on MRI between barotrauma and acute otitis media with effusion. Materials and Methods Eighty patients with CO-poisoning diagnosed with otic and sinus barotrauma after HBO therapy were recruited. Brain MRI was performed to predict delayed encephalopathy. Over the same period, 88 patients with acute otitis media with effusion on MRI served as control. The abnormalities of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses on MRI were noted and were compared between groups. Nine patients with barotrauma were followed up by MRI. Results In the barotrauma group, 92.5% of patients had bilateral middle ear abnormalities on MRI, and 60% of patients had both middle ear cavity and mastoid cavity abnormalities on MRI in both ears. Both rates were higher than those in the control group (p = 0.000). In the two groups, most abnormalities on MRI were observed in the mastoid cavity. The rate of sinus abnormalities of barotrauma was 66.3%, which was higher than the 50% in the control group (p = 0.033). In the nine patients with barotrauma followed up by MRI, the otic barotrauma and sinus abnormalities had worsened in 2 patients and 5 patients, respectively. Conclusion MRI is able to depict the abnormalities of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with CO-poisoning during HBO therapy and to differentiate these from acute otitis media with effusion. PMID:23776523

  5. MRI

    MedlinePlus

    MRI does not use ionizing radiation. No side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The most common type of contrast (dye) used is gadolinium. It is very safe. Allergic reactions rarely ...

  6. MRI findings in the lumbar spines of asymptomatic, adolescent, elite tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Alyas, F; Turner, M; Connell, D

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the lumbar spine in asymptomatic elite adolescent tennis players, to serve as the baseline for a future prospective longitudinal cohort study. Design Observational study. Setting Institutional, national tennis centre. Participants 33 asymptomatic elite adolescent tennis players, mean (SD) age, 17.3 (1.7) years (18 male, 15 female). Methods Sagittal T1, T2, STIR, and axial T2 weighted MRI images were reviewed for the presence of abnormalities by two radiologists in consensus. Abnormalities included disc degeneration, disc herniation, pars lesions (fracture or stress reaction), and facet joint arthropathy. Results Five players (15.2%) had a normal MRI examination and 28 (84.8%) had an abnormal examination. Nine players showed pars lesions (10 lesions; one at two levels) predominately at the L5 level (9/10, L5; 1/10, L4). Three of the 10 lesions were complete fractures; two showed grade 1 and one grade 2 spondylolisthesis, both of which resulted in moderate narrowing of the L5 exit foramen. There were two acute and five chronic stress reactions of the pars. Twenty three patients showed signs of early facet arthropathy occurring at L5/S1 (15/29 joints) and L4/5 (12/29 joints). These were classified as mild degeneration (20/29) and moderate degeneration (9/29), with 20/29 showing sclerosis and 24/29 showing hypertrophy of the facet joint. Synovial cysts were identified in 14 of the 29 joints. Thirteen players showed disc desiccation and disc bulging (mild in 13; moderate in two) most often at L4/5 and L5/S1 levels (12 of 15 discs). Conclusions Abnormalities were frequent, predominately in the lower lumbar spine, almost exclusively at L4/5 and L5/S1 levels. Pars injuries and facet joint arthroses were relatively common. PMID:17640926

  7. Cervical and lumbar MRI in asymptomatic older male lifelong athletes: Frequency of degenerative findings

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.F.; Healy, B.B.; Wong, W.H.M.; Olson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    The athletic activity of the adult U.S. population has increased markedly in the last 20 years. To evaluate the possible long-term effects of such activity on the cervical and lumbar spine, we studied a group of asymptomatic currently very active lifelong male athletes over age 40 (41-69 years old, av. age 53). Nineteen active, lifelong male athletes were studied with MRI and the results compared with previous imaging studies of other populations. An athletic history and a spine history were also taken. Evidence of asymptomatic degenerative spine disease was similar to that seen in published series of other populations. Degenerative changes including disk protrusion and herniation, spondylosis, and spinal stenosis were present and increased in incidence with increasing patient age. In this group, all MRI findings proved to be asymptomatic and did not limit athletic activity. The incidence of lumbar degenerative changes in our study population of older male athletes was similar to those seen in other populations. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Why Do Some Find it Hard to Disagree? An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez D, Juan F.; Taing, Sreyneth A.; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    People often find it hard to disagree with others, but how this disposition varies across individuals or how it is influenced by social factors like other people's level of expertise remains little understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that activity across a network of brain areas [comprising posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and angular gyrus] was modulated by individual differences in the frequency with which participants actively disagreed with statements made by others. Specifically, participants who disagreed less frequently exhibited greater brain activation in these areas when they actually disagreed. Given the role of this network in cognitive dissonance, our results suggest that some participants had more trouble disagreeing due to a heightened cognitive dissonance response. Contrary to expectation, the level of expertise (high or low) had no effect on behavior or brain activity. PMID:26858629

  9. [The Diagnostic Value of Pre-Biopsy Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Detecting Prostate Cancer].

    PubMed

    Mori, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yoneyama, Shuko; Ishida, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Kondo, Keiichi; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the value of pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting prostate cancer. We analyzed 267 men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3-10 ng/ml who underwent systematic prostate needle biopsy. From April 2009 to March 2011, a total of 98 male patients underwent 16-core prostatic biopsies without pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (nonenforcement group). From April 2011 to March 2013, 169 men underwent pre-biopsy MRI [T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)] (enforcement group). When MRI findings indicated cancer in the latter group, in addition to the systematic 16-core biopsy one or two targeted biopsies were performed. Patients without suspicious MRI findings underwent only systematic 16-core biopsy. Cancer detection rates in the nonenforcement and enforcement groups were 42.9% (48/92) and 46. 2% (78/169), respectively. The difference did not reach significance (p=0.612). Although the cancer detection rates were 39.4% (41/104) in the MRI-negative group and 56. 9% (37/65) in the MRI-positive group (p=0.039), the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection by MRI were relatively low: 47.4% and 69.2%, respectively. By receiver-operating curve analysis, the area under the curve for cancer detection by MRI was only 0.583. There were two study limitations. First, the patient sample size was small. Second, it is unclear whether an adequate sample of the suspicious lesion was obtained by biopsy. We thus demonstrated that it might be improper to base a diagnosis solely on pre-biopsy MRI (T2WI and DWI) findings in men with serum PSA levels of 3-10 ng/ml.

  10. A solitary fibrous tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space, with MRI and FDG-PET findings.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Murono, Shigeyuki; Minato, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2009-06-01

    We present the imaging and pathological features of a 38-year-old man in whom a large parapharyngeal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) on the left side was found. On MRI, the tumor showed a nodule-in-nodule appearance. The inner nodule revealed high signal intensities both on T1- and T2-weighted MR images. The entire tumor showed heterogeneous enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) identified heterogeneous radiotracer uptake of FDG in the inner nodule of the tumor. Histologic examinations revealed an admixture of growth patterns, including a "patternless pattern" and "haemangiopericytoma-like pattern". The tumor was positive for CD34. Imaging features of SFT arising in the parapharyngeal space are discussed with a review of literatures. This is the first report of FDG-PET finding of SFT arising in the head and neck. More cases are needed to achieve diagnostic significance from FDG-PET findings of parapharyngeal SFTs.

  11. Systematic comparison of MRI findings in pediatric ependymoblastoma with ependymoma and CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor not otherwise specified

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Johannes; Seidel, Carolin; Pietsch, Torsten; Alkonyi, Balint; Fuss, Taylor Laura; Friedrich, Carsten; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Warmuth-Metz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background Ependymoblastoma (EBL), ependymoma (EP), and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system not otherwise specified (CNS-PNET NOS) are pediatric brain tumors that can be differentiated by histopathology in the clinical setting. Recently, we described specific MRI features of EBL. In this study, we compare standardized MRI characteristics of EBL with EP and CNS-PNET NOS in a series comprising 22 patients in each group. Methods All 66 centrally reviewed cases were obtained from the database of the German multicenter HIT trials. We systematically analyzed the initial MRI scans at diagnosis according to standardized criteria, and paired comparison was performed for EBL and EP, as well as for EBL and CNS-PNET NOS. Results We found differences between EBL and EP regarding age at diagnosis, MR signal intensity, tumor margin and surrounding edema, presence and size of cysts, and contrast enhancement pattern. Although MRI appearance of EBL shares many features with CNS-PNET NOS, we revealed significant differences in terms of age at diagnosis, tumor volume and localization, tumor margins, edema, and contrast enhancement. Conclusion This is the first study that systematically compares multiple parameters of MRI in pediatric EBL with findings in EP and CNS-PNET NOS. Although a definite differentiation by means of MRI alone might not be feasible in the individual case, we identify significant differences between these tumor entities. PMID:25916887

  12. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  13. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  14. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  15. Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Diffusion-Weighted MRI: Detection and Evaluation of Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Gluskin, Jill S; Chegai, Fabrizio; Monti, Serena; Squillaci, Ettore; Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between cancerous tissue and healthy liver parenchyma could represent a challenge with the only conventional Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) exploits different tissue characteristics to conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences that enhance hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection, characterization, and post-treatment evaluation. Detection of HCC is improved by DWI, infact this technology increases conspicuity of lesions that might otherwise not be identified due to obscuration by adjacent vessels or due to low contrast between the lesion and background liver. It is important to remember that DWI combined with contrast-enhanced MRI has higher sensitivity than DWI alone, and that some patients are not eligible for use of contrast on CT and MRI; in these patients DWI has a prominent role. MRI has advanced beyond structural anatomic imaging to now showing pathophysiologic processes. DWI is a promising way to characterize lesions utilizing the inherent contrast within the liver and has the benefit of not requiring contrast injection. DWI improves detection and characterization of HCC. Proposed clinical uses for DWI include: assessing prognosis, predicting response, monitoring response to therapy, and distinguishing tumor recurrence from treatment effect. Ideally, DWI will help risk stratify patients and will participate in prognostic modeling. PMID:27471573

  16. Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Diffusion-Weighted MRI: Detection and Evaluation of Treatment Response.

    PubMed

    Gluskin, Jill S; Chegai, Fabrizio; Monti, Serena; Squillaci, Ettore; Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between cancerous tissue and healthy liver parenchyma could represent a challenge with the only conventional Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) exploits different tissue characteristics to conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences that enhance hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection, characterization, and post-treatment evaluation. Detection of HCC is improved by DWI, infact this technology increases conspicuity of lesions that might otherwise not be identified due to obscuration by adjacent vessels or due to low contrast between the lesion and background liver. It is important to remember that DWI combined with contrast-enhanced MRI has higher sensitivity than DWI alone, and that some patients are not eligible for use of contrast on CT and MRI; in these patients DWI has a prominent role. MRI has advanced beyond structural anatomic imaging to now showing pathophysiologic processes. DWI is a promising way to characterize lesions utilizing the inherent contrast within the liver and has the benefit of not requiring contrast injection. DWI improves detection and characterization of HCC. Proposed clinical uses for DWI include: assessing prognosis, predicting response, monitoring response to therapy, and distinguishing tumor recurrence from treatment effect. Ideally, DWI will help risk stratify patients and will participate in prognostic modeling. PMID:27471573

  17. Multicentre multiobserver study of diffusion-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reliability and agreement study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Koji; Harada, Masafumi; Sasaki, Makoto; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Sanjo, Nobuo; Shiga, Yusei; Satoh, Katsuya; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Shirabe, Susumu; Nagata, Ken; Maeda, Tetsuya; Murayama, Shigeo; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji; Yamada, Masahito; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the utility of the display standardisation of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and to compare the effectiveness of DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Design A reliability and agreement study. Setting Thirteen MRI observers comprising eight neurologists and five radiologists at two universities in Japan. Participants Data of 1.5-Tesla DWI and FLAIR were obtained from 29 patients with sCJD and 13 controls. Outcome measures Standardisation of DWI display was performed utilising b0 imaging. The observers participated in standardised DWI, variable DWI (the display adjustment was observer dependent) and FLAIR sessions. The observers independently assessed each MRI for CJD-related lesions, that is, hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex or striatum, using a continuous rating scale. Performance was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Results The mean AUC values were 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.87) for standardised DWI, 0.85 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.88) for variable DWI and 0.68 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.72) for FLAIR, demonstrating the superiority of DWI (p<0.05). There was a trend for higher intraclass correlations of standardised DWI (0.74, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.83) and variable DWI (0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.81) than that of FLAIR (0.63, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.74), although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Standardised DWI is as reliable as variable DWI, and the two DWI displays are superior to FLAIR for the diagnosis of sCJD. The authors propose that hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex or striatum on 1.5-Tesla DWI but not FLAIR can be a reliable diagnostic marker for sCJD.

  18. Multicentre multiobserver study of diffusion-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: a reliability and agreement study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Koji; Sasaki, Makoto; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Sanjo, Nobuo; Shiga, Yusei; Satoh, Katsuya; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Shirabe, Susumu; Nagata, Ken; Maeda, Tetsuya; Murayama, Shigeo; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji; Yamada, Masahito; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the utility of the display standardisation of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and to compare the effectiveness of DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD). Design A reliability and agreement study. Setting Thirteen MRI observers comprising eight neurologists and five radiologists at two universities in Japan. Participants Data of 1.5-Tesla DWI and FLAIR were obtained from 29 patients with sCJD and 13 controls. Outcome measures Standardisation of DWI display was performed utilising b0 imaging. The observers participated in standardised DWI, variable DWI (the display adjustment was observer dependent) and FLAIR sessions. The observers independently assessed each MRI for CJD-related lesions, that is, hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex or striatum, using a continuous rating scale. Performance was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Results The mean AUC values were 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.87) for standardised DWI, 0.85 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.88) for variable DWI and 0.68 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.72) for FLAIR, demonstrating the superiority of DWI (p<0.05). There was a trend for higher intraclass correlations of standardised DWI (0.74, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.83) and variable DWI (0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.81) than that of FLAIR (0.63, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.74), although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Standardised DWI is as reliable as variable DWI, and the two DWI displays are superior to FLAIR for the diagnosis of sCJD. The authors propose that hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex or striatum on 1.5-Tesla DWI but not FLAIR can be a reliable diagnostic marker for sCJD. PMID:22290397

  19. Athletic groin pain (part 1): a prospective anatomical diagnosis of 382 patients—clinical findings, MRI findings and patient-reported outcome measures at baseline

    PubMed Central

    Falvey, É C; King, E; Kinsella, S; Franklyn-Miller, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletic groin pain remains a common field-based team sports time-loss injury. There are few reports of non-surgically managed cohorts with athletic groin pain. Aim To describe clinical presentation/examination, MRI findings and patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores for an athletic groin pain cohort. Methods All patients had a history including demographics, injury duration, sport played and standardised clinical examination. All patients underwent MRI and PRO score to assess recovery. A clinical diagnosis of the injured anatomical structure was made based on these findings. Statistical assessment of the reliability of accepted standard investigations undertaken in making an anatomical diagnosis was performed. Result 382 consecutive athletic groin pain patients, all male, enrolled. Median time in pain at presentation was (IQR) 36 (16–75) weeks. Most (91%) played field-based ball-sports. Injury to the pubic aponeurosis (PA) 240 (62.8%) was the most common diagnosis. This was followed by injuries to the hip in 81 (21.2%) and adductors in 56 (14.7%) cases. The adductor squeeze test (90° hip flexion) was sensitive (85.4%) but not specific for the pubic aponeurosis and adductor pathology (negative likelihood ratio 1.95). Analysed in series, positive MRI findings and tenderness of the pubic aponeurosis had a 92.8% post-test probability. Conclusions In this largest cohort of patients with athletic groin pain combining clinical and MRI diagnostics there was a 63% prevalence of PA injury. The adductor squeeze test was sensitive for athletic groin pain, but not specific individual pathologies. MRI improved diagnostic post-test probability. No hernia or incipient hernia was diagnosed. Clinical trial registration number NCT02437942. PMID:26626272

  20. Prediction of background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI using mammography, ultrasonography, and diffusion-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Akiko; Satake, Hiroko; Ishigaki, Satoko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Kimura, Reiko; Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Naganawa, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This retrospective study assessed the effects of menopausal status and menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and investigated whether the degree of BPE can be predicted by findings of mammography, ultrasonography (US), and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). There were 160 study patients (80 premenopausal, 80 postmenopausal). Degree of BPE was classified into minimal, mild, moderate, or marked. Mammographic density was classified into fatty, scattered, heterogeneously dense, and extremely dense. BP echotexture on US and BP intensity on DWI were visually classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal breast tissue were measured. Associations of the degree of BPE with menopausal status, menstrual cycle, or imaging features were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. No significant correlation was found between mammographic density and BPE (p=0.085), whereas menopausal status (p=0.000), BP echotexture (p=0.000), and BP intensity on DWI (p= 0.000), and ADC values (p=0.000) showed significant correlations with BPE. Multivariate analysis showed that postmenopausal status was an independent predictor of minimal BPE (p=0.002, OR=3.743). In premenopausal women, there was no significant correlation between menstrual cycle and BPE, whereas BP echotexture was an independent predictor of whether BPE was less than mild or greater than moderate (p=0.001, OR=26.575). BPE on breast MRI is associated with menopausal status and the findings of US and DWI. Because premenopausal women with heterogeneous BP echotexture may be predicted to show moderate or marked BPE, scheduling of breast MRI should preferentially be adjusted to the menstrual cycle. PMID:26412889

  1. Distribution of Hyperpolarized Xenon in the Brain Following Sensory Stimulation: Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Mary L.; Walvick, Ronn P.; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Yanping; Shah, Niral; Mansour, Joey; Gereige, Jessica; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2011-01-01

    In hyperpolarized xenon magnetic resonance imaging (HP 129Xe MRI), the inhaled spin-1/2 isotope of xenon gas is used to generate the MR signal. Because hyperpolarized xenon is an MR signal source with properties very different from those generated from water-protons, HP 129Xe MRI may yield structural and functional information not detectable by conventional proton-based MRI methods. Here we demonstrate the differential distribution of HP 129Xe in the cerebral cortex of the rat following a pain stimulus evoked in the animal's forepaw. Areas of higher HP 129Xe signal corresponded to those areas previously demonstrated by conventional functional MRI (fMRI) methods as being activated by a forepaw pain stimulus. The percent increase in HP 129Xe signal over baseline was 13–28%, and was detectable with a single set of pre and post stimulus images. Recent innovations in the production of highly polarized 129Xe should make feasible the emergence of HP 129Xe MRI as a viable adjunct method to conventional MRI for the study of brain function and disease. PMID:21789173

  2. The application of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy and changes on MRI findings in a patient with cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Spanos, G; Zounis, M; Natsika, M; May, S

    2013-12-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is an unusual presentation for patients with neck pain. Its diagnosis and management is uncertain. This case report presents an example of a patient with cervical radiculopathy who responded to Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy, and whose MRI findings changed over time. PMID:23127992

  3. Dynamic ultrasound with postural change facilitated the detection of an incisional hernia in a case with negative MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Wongsithichai, Patcharaporn; Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-09-01

    Incisional hernias commonly develop after abdominal surgeries with a lower incidence in patients receiving laparoscopy. Diagnosis through a non-surgical approach is usually made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance images (MRI) but both image modalities require patients to be examined in a supine position. We reported a case noticing a mass over her right lower abdomen after a laparoscopic liver segmentectomy with negative findings of hernia on MRI. A hernia sac was found by ultrasound with the patient being standing, highlighting the utility of dynamic ultrasound with postural change in investigation of incisional hernias.

  4. Analysis of Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction according to the combined injury, degenerative change, and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lee, Yong Seuk; Chang, Moon Jong; Yim, Hyun Seok

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to analyze the results of revision ACL reconstruction, and to determine the effects of pre-revision combined injuries, degenerative changes, and post-revision magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings on clinical results. Forty patients (41 operations) were enrolled in this study. Clinical results and stabilities were evaluated. Radiological results were evaluated using Fairbank scale. For the subgroup analysis, Fairbank scale and preoperative combined injuries were used. Follow-up MRIs were also available for 31(75.6%) patients and we searched for relations between MRI findings and clinical results. Significant improvements in subjective, objective scores (p<0.0001), and stability (p<0.0001) were observed between pre-revision surgery and final follow-up results. In the subgroup analysis according to the degenerative change, the mild group achieved better clinical results than the severe group (p=0.015 and 0.035, respectively). In the subgroup analysis according to the combined injuries, no significant difference was observed between 2 groups in terms of final follow-up Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores (p=0.083 and 0.085, respectively). No relation was found between clinical or stability results and MRI findings (p=0.26~0.99). Our results show that the severities of combined injuries were not correlated with clinical results, but the severities of degenerative changes were correlated with clinical results and that results were better in the no or mildly degenerated group. We also found that MRI is helpful for evaluating revision ACL, but that no relation was found between clinical or stability results and MRI findings of the graft after revision surgery.

  5. [Three siblings with type 3 GM1-gangliosidosis--pathophysiology of dystonia and MRI findings].

    PubMed

    Uyama, E; Terasaki, T; Owada, M; Naito, M; Araki, S

    1990-08-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is a rare neurovisceral storage disease caused by an inherited deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase. The characteristic neurological feature of type 3 (adult or chronic) GM1-gangliosidosis is usually a slowly progressive dystonia with dysarthria due to predominant involvement of basal ganglia. About 20 adult patients with this disorder have been reported in the literature. However, there are no reports of 3 brothers with type 3 GM1-gangliosidosis, and MRI findings. Case 1 (proband): A 28-year-old man was hospitalized because of facial grimace, dysarthria, and generalized dystonia. He was born after normal pregnancy and delivery. His development was normal until 3 years of age when the difficulties of speaking and walking were noticed by his parents. These neurological abnormalities progressed slowly and facial grimace and dystonic movements occurred 7 years later. He could not walk at 22 years of age. On admission, he was bedridden with marked scoliosis and subluxation of the mandibule. The communication was possible only by pointing the words written on the board. Case 2: A 33-year-old man, elder brother of case 1, showed the similar neurological features and clinical course. Slit-lamp examination revealed corneal opacities which were located in the deep stroma. Case 3: A 33-year-old man, elder brother of case 1 or case 2. At age 10-11, he noted similar symptoms as case 1 or case 2. The severity of dystonia was milder than his brothers. A diagnosis of GM1-gangliosidosis in three patients was made on the basis of the following data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Pre-critical MRI findings of an Alzheimer's disease patient with pathologically proven cerebral amyloid angiopathy related lobar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Ide, Toshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideo

    2016-05-31

    An 85-year-old woman with untreated hypertension was admitted with a disturbance of consciousness. On admission, brain CT revealed a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage with a midline shift. An intracranial hematoma was evacuated via a life-saving craniotomy. Definite pathological findings of amyloid-β deposition in the excised hematoma (strong in anti-amyloid β40 immunostain, but weak in anti- amyloid β42) indicated cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). She had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at a regional memory clinic one month before symptom onset based on MRI findings of medial temporal lobe atrophy as well as CAA-related features of multiple strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds in the occipital lobe, cortical superficial siderosis and >20 enlarged perivascular spaces in the centrum semiovale. This experience suggests that comprehensive interpretation of such CAA-related findings on MRI might help to improve the management of cardiovascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27151228

  7. Effect of Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: Analysis According to the Neck Pain Patterns and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Won; Lim, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Won Il; Lee, Eun Kyung; Chang, Choo Hoon; Yang, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that cervical interlaminar steroid injection (CIESI) is more effective in treating radicular pain than axial neck pain, but without direct comparison. And the differences of effect after CIESI according to MRI findings are inconsistent. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the therapeutic response of CIESI according to pain sites, durations, MRI findings, and other predictive factors altogether, unlike previous studies, which evaluated them separately. Methods The medical records of 128 patients who received fluoroscopy guided CIESI were analyzed. We evaluated the therapeutic response (more than a 50% reduction on the visual analog scale [VAS] by their second visit) after CIESI by (1) pain site; neck pain without radicular pain/radicular pain with or without neck pain, (2) pain duration; acute/chronic (more than 6 month), and (3) findings of MRI; herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD)/spinal stenosis, respectively and altogether. Results Eighty-eight patients (68%) responded to CIESI, and there were no significant differences in demographic data, initial VAS score, or laboratory findings. And there were no significant differences in the response rate relating to pain site, pain duration, or MRI findings, respectively. In additional analysis, acute radicular pain with HIVD patients showed significantly better response than chronic neck pain with spinal stenosis (P = 0.04). Conclusions We cannot find any sole predictive factor of therapeutic response to the CIESI. But the patients having acute radicular pain with HIVD showed the best response, and those having other chronic neck pain showed the worst response to CIESI. PMID:27103964

  8. MRI of the athletic knee. Findings in asymptomatic professional basketball and collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Brunner, M C; Flower, S P; Evancho, A M; Allman, F L; Apple, D F; Fajman, W A

    1989-01-01

    For the dedicated athlete in whom minor injuries are frequent and major injuries relatively common, a noninvasive knee assessment could either obviate the need for arthroscopy or focus its direction. The opportunity to study asymptomatic athletes was not feasible before the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this preliminary work, we examined 40 knees in 20 asymptomatic volunteer athletes, including five professional basketball players and 15 collegiate football players. Images were obtained at 0.5 T or 1.5 T. Spin echo sequences were used to obtain 5.0 mm thick coronal and sagittal sections. Fifty percent of asymptomatic athletes (10/20) had significant baseline MRI abnormalities that could have adversely affected scan interpretation in the context of an acute injury. Half of these athletes with MRI abnormalities, or 25% of the total (5/20), had no previous surgery and were unaware of significant injury.

  9. Evaluation of CT and MRI Findings among Patients Presented with Chief Complaint of Headache in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Tina; Jain, Leena; Vyas, Mahendra Mohan; Roshan, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Headache is one of the most common presenting complaints in day to day medical practice however the secondary causes of headache are uncommon. Thus, appropriate selection of headache patient (Pt) is important to determine those that require neuroimaging due to likely secondary cause. Red flags and Clinical warning criterion (CWC) act as a screening tool to help in identifying those who may get benefit from neuroimaging. Aim To evaluate the findings of computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) among patients presented with the chief complaint of headache and to compare the findings between two groups of patients. Materials and Methods This retrospective observational study was carried out in 500 selected patients, who underwent CT or MRI scan of head in Peoples College of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Bhopal, MP during the period of 2 year in between Jan 2013 to Dec 2014. Siemens Somatom sensation 40 slice MDCT and Siemens magnetom 1.5T MRI scanner were used for imaging. Five hundred patients of 10 to 70 year age were selected for the study based on our criterions of selection. Results All 500 patients were divided in to two groups A and B based on presence or absence of red flag signs and CWC signs. Group A consists of 48 patients having one or more red flag or CWC signs and group B consists of 452 patients those don’t have any above signs. 29 cases (60.4%) out of total 48 cases of group A is suffering from chronic headache as compared to 97 cases (21.5%) out of total 452 patients of group B is having positive findings (p-value<0.05). Out of 500 patients, only 29 cases (5.8%) revealed some form of brain parenchymal pathology whereas other associated findings were seen in 97 cases e.g. sinusitis in 58 (11.6%), bone related pathology in 26 (5.2%) and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in 13 (2.6%) patients. Conclusion CT/MRI in patients without red flag or CWC sign yields very low percentage of clinically significant

  10. The Association of MRI Findings and Neuropsychological Functioning after the First Recognized Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Fastenau, Philip S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Egelhoff, John C.; Kalnin, Andrew; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Purpose To explore relationships between MRI abnormalities of the brain and neuropsychological functioning in children who were evaluated following their first recognized seizure. Methods Subjects were children aged 6 to 14 years with a first recognized seizure within the past 3 months who participated in a larger prospective study of child adaptation. The 249 children with neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging were studied. Children underwent neuropsychological examination an average of 2.8 months and MRI examination an average of 1.3 months after the first recognized seizure. On factor analysis four factors were found for neuropsychological function: LANG = Language, PS = Processing Speed, EC = Executive/Construction, VMEM = Verbal Memory and Learning. For analysis, structural abnormalities found on MRI were classified as significant (yes/no) based on whether they were presumed to be related to the seizure condition. Results On MRI, 34 (14%) had structural abnormalities that were judged to be significant in that they were possibly related to their seizures. Children with significant abnormalities had significantly lower estimated IQ scores and significantly lower language, processing speed, executive/constructional ability, and verbal memory and learning factor scores than did children without significant abnormalities. Conclusions Children who have structural brain abnormalities at onset have slightly lower cognitive functioning overall, and all neuropsychological domains seemed to be affected relatively equally. This pattern was apparent even when we restricted the analysis to children with intellectual functioning in the broadly normal range. PMID:17442004

  11. Assessment of Correlation Between MRI and Arthroscopic Pathologic Findings in the Shoulder Joint

    PubMed Central

    Momenzadeh, Omid R; Gerami, Mohamad H; Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Dehghani, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for shoulder joint pathologies and then compare the results with arthroscopy, the standard for joint diagnosis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients with shoulder joint disorders, who underwent final arthroscopy, were studied. Based on patients’ medical history and physical examinations, shoulder MRI was requested if paraclinical investigations were. If non-surgical therapies failed, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder was done and the same structures were inspected. Subsequently, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV) and (NPV) of MRI were determined by arthroscopy comparisons. Results: The highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found in MRI pathology reports that included: Hill-Sach lesion (0.910), infraspinatus tendon (0.985), supraspinatus tendon (0.930), and biceps tendon (0.954), respectively. Rotator interval (0.250), biceps labrum complex (0.805), subscapularis tendon (0.538) and anterior labrum lesions (0.604) had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that MRI can be a useful tool in ruling out possible abnormalities in the shoulder and to give clues to the most probable diagnosis. Although knowing some practical skills in order to successfully perform the procedure and experience of the radiologist with suitable feedback by surgeon is necessary. PMID:26550595

  12. Behçet's Disease Presenting with Acute Transverse Myelitis: MRI Findings and Review of the Nosology. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sanal, H T; Bulakbasi, N; Kocaoglu, M; Tayfun, C

    2007-04-30

    Spinal cord involvement, either isolated or together with brain, in Behçet's disease (BD) has been reported. In these cases the existence of the disease was previously known or the classical triad of disease such as oral and genital ulcers with uveitis/iritis was present. Here we describe a 22-year-old man in whom acute transverse myelitis diagnosed with MRI was the first finding of BD. PMID:24299651

  13. MRI findings of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the mid-sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    D'Arco, Felice; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Romano, Federica; Natella, Valentina; Laccetti, Ettore; Storto, Giovanni; Maurea, Simone; Mainenti, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A remote vaginal metastasis from a colo-rectal carcinoma is extremely rare. Only few cases have been described in the literature. The radiological appearances of a vaginal metastasis from colon-rectal cancer have not been extensively investigated. We report the MRI findings with clinical and pathological correlations of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing a mid-sigmoid adenocarcinoma in a 67 years old woman.

  14. Visual outcome in children with congenital hemiplegia: correlation with MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, E; Spanò, M; Bruccini, G; Frisone, M F; Trombetta, J C; Blandino, A; Longo, M; Guzzetta, F

    1996-08-01

    Fourteen children with congenital hemiplegia were studied with a detailed assessment of various aspects of vision (linear acuity, stereopsis, visual fields) and MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a congenital lesion on visual function. The results showed a very high incidence (78%) of children who had abnormal results on at least one of the visual tests. Visual abnormalities were not correlated with the clinical severity of hemiplegia or with a specific pattern of lesion on MRI. Similarly no constant association could be found between visual structures (optic radiations and primary visual cortex) and visual function. Finally, our results would suggest that all the children with congenital hemiplegia need to be investigated irrespective of the clinical severity or of the type or the extent of the lesion. This would help to identify children with minor visual abnormalities which can affect everyday life performance. PMID:8892366

  15. Using a multidimensional Rasch model approach to measure the police's perceived ability to detect, detain and intercept DWI vehicles when conducting sobriety checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Shih, Chang-Ku

    2012-09-01

    This study developed a scale to measure 502 Taiwan traffic police officers' perceived ability to detect, detain, and intercept those vehicles whose drivers are driving while intoxicated (DWI) when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Through factor analysis, the officers' enforcement ability was found to consist of two component latent traits: detecting ability (DA) and detaining and intercepting ability (DIA). A multidimensional approach of Rasch models was then applied to measure the police officers' perceived abilities and particular difficulties in conducting sobriety checkpoints. The study results indicated that the majority of police officers performed well in detecting DWI vehicles, but half of the study participants lacked confidence in detaining DWI vehicles and intercepting escaping DWI vehicles. DWI with weaving was found to be the most aggressive and threatening behavior to traffic police when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Police officers over age 46 were found to have significantly lower DA and DIA, while branch captains were found to have significantly higher DA than their colleagues. Several strategies and programs are suggested based on the study findings to improve the enforcement ability of police officers.

  16. Using a multidimensional Rasch model approach to measure the police's perceived ability to detect, detain and intercept DWI vehicles when conducting sobriety checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Shih, Chang-Ku

    2012-09-01

    This study developed a scale to measure 502 Taiwan traffic police officers' perceived ability to detect, detain, and intercept those vehicles whose drivers are driving while intoxicated (DWI) when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Through factor analysis, the officers' enforcement ability was found to consist of two component latent traits: detecting ability (DA) and detaining and intercepting ability (DIA). A multidimensional approach of Rasch models was then applied to measure the police officers' perceived abilities and particular difficulties in conducting sobriety checkpoints. The study results indicated that the majority of police officers performed well in detecting DWI vehicles, but half of the study participants lacked confidence in detaining DWI vehicles and intercepting escaping DWI vehicles. DWI with weaving was found to be the most aggressive and threatening behavior to traffic police when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Police officers over age 46 were found to have significantly lower DA and DIA, while branch captains were found to have significantly higher DA than their colleagues. Several strategies and programs are suggested based on the study findings to improve the enforcement ability of police officers. PMID:22664717

  17. Dobutamine-tagged MRI for inotropic reserve assessment in severe CAD: relationship with PET findings.

    PubMed

    Mazzadi, Alejandro N; Janier, Marc F; Brossier, Benjamin; André-Fouët, Xavier; McFadden, Eugene; Revel, Didier; Croisille, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    The impact of blood flow reductions on the intramyocardial inotropic reserve has not yet been established in coronary artery disease (CAD). We therefore evaluated in severe CAD the relationship between positron emission tomography (PET) patterns of perfusion and glucose uptake and the corresponding tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tagged MRI) values of midmyocardial strains under low-dose dobutamine. Eighteen patients underwent tagged MRI (at rest, with dobutamine) and H2(15)O/18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Regional midmyocardial circumferential shortening (Ecc) and PET patterns (normal, match viable, mismatch viable, and infarcted) were assessed in three tagged MRI/PET short-axis slices. Regional Ecc at rest correlated with both perfusion (r = 0.49) and glucose uptake (r = 0.58). The presence of the inotropic reserve was similar in normal, match viable, and infarcted (approximately 40% of regions vs. 52% in mismatch viable, P < 0.05), but the extent of the increase after dobutamine was lower in infarcted regions (P = 0.06). Within each PET pattern, regions were grouped according to their Ecc values at rest into three categories (high, intermediate, and low contractile performance). In mismatch viable (hibernation), the inotropic reserve was similar among the three categories, but in the other PET patterns the presence and extent of the inotropic reserve was higher in those regions with lowest Ecc (without significant differences in perfusion). In severe CAD, the presence of the inotropic reserve assessed by midmyocardial changes under dobutamine does not relate to resting perfusion. At a similar level of perfusion, the presence of the inotropic reserve is inversely related to contractile performance at rest, but our results suggest that it may not be true for hibernating myocardium. PMID:14726299

  18. Efficacy of HGF carried by ultrasound microbubble-cationic nano-liposomes complex for treating hepatic fibrosis in a bile duct ligation rat model, and its relationship with the diffusion-weighted MRI parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shou-hong; Wen, Kun-ming; Wu, Wei; Li, Wen-yan; Zhao, Jian-nong

    2013-12-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a major consequence of liver aggression. Finding novel ways for counteracting this damaging process, and for evaluating fibrosis with a non-invasive imaging approach, represent important therapeutic and diagnostic challenges. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an anti-fibrosis cell growth factor that induces apoptosis in activated hepatic stellate cells, reduces excessive collagen deposition, and stimulates hepatocyte regeneration. Thus, using HGF in gene therapy against liver fibrosis is an attractive approach. The aims of the present study were: (i) to explore the efficacy of treating liver fibrosis using HGF expression vector carried by a novel ultrasound microbubble delivery system; (ii) to explore the diagnostic interest of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI-MRI) in evaluating liver fibrosis. We established a rat model of hepatic fibrosis. The rats were administered HGF linked to novel ultrasound micro-bubbles. Progression of hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology, hydroxyproline content, and DWI-MRI to determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Our targeted gene therapy produced a significant anti-fibrosis effect, as shown by liver histology and significant reduction of hydroxyproline content. Moreover, using DWI-MRI, the b value (diffusion gradient factor) was equal to 300s/mm(2), and the ADC values significantly decreased as the severity of hepatic fibrosis increased. Using this methodology, F0-F2 could be distinguished from F3 and F4 (P<0.01). This is the first in vivo report of using an ultrasound microbubble-cationic nano-liposome complex for gene delivery. The data indicate that, this approach is efficient to counteract the fibrosis process. DWI-MRI appears a promising imaging technique for evaluating liver fibrosis.

  19. Cardiac involvement in Erdheim- Chester disease: MRI findings and literature revision

    PubMed Central

    Puglia, Marta; Barbuto, Luigi; Solla, Raffaele; Altiero, Michele; Lubrano, Valentina; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by the involvement of several organs. The lesions may be skeletal or extra-skeletal: in particular, long bones, skin, lungs, and the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems can be affected. In this report, we describe a case of a 34-year-old man, who came to our observation with symptomatic ECD, for a correct assessment of the degree of cardiac involvement through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:26405559

  20. Interictal Electroencephalography (EEG) Findings in Children with Epilepsy and Bilateral Brain Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Zubcevic, Smail; Milos, Maja; Catibusic, Feriha; Uzicanin, Sajra; Krdzalic, Belma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neuroimaging procedures and electroencephalography (EEG) are basic parts of investigation of patients with epilepsies. Aim: The aim is to try to assess relationship between bilaterally localized brain lesions found in routine management of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy and their interictal EEG findings. Patients and methods: Total amount of 68 patients filled criteria for inclusion in the study that was performed at Neuropediatrics Department, Pediatric Hospital, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, or its outpatient clinic. There were 33 girls (48,5%) and 35 boys (51,5%). Average age at diagnosis of epilepsy was 3,5 years. Results: Both neurological and neuropsychological examination in the moment of making diagnosis of epilepsy was normal in 27 (39,7%) patients, and showed some kind of delay or other neurological finding in 41 (60,3%). Brain MRI showed lesions that can be related to antenatal or perinatal events in most of the patients (ventricular dilation in 30,9%, delayed myelination and post-hypoxic changes in 27,9%). More than half of patients (55,9%) showed bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges on their EEGs, and further 14,7% had other kinds of bilateral abnormalities. Frequency of bilateral epileptic discharges showed statistically significant predominance on level of p<0,05. Cross tabulation between specific types of bilateral brain MRI lesions and EEG finding did not reveal significant type of EEG for assessed brain lesions. Conclusion: We conclude that there exists relationship between bilaterally localized brain MRI lesions and interictal bilateral epileptiform or nonspecific EEG findings in children with newly diagnosed epilepsies. These data are suggesting that in cases when they do not correlate there is a need for further investigation of seizure etiology. PMID:26862242

  1. A CAD system for assessment of MRI findings to track the progression of multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Alexis; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zee, Chi-Shing; Guo, Bing; Liu, Brent J.

    2007-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease affecting myelin pathways. MRI has become the medical imaging study of choice both for the diagnosis and for the follow-up and monitoring of multiple sclerosis. The progression of the disease is variable, and requires routine follow-up to document disease exacerbation, improvement, or stability of the characteristic MS lesions or plaques. The difficulties with using MRI as a monitoring tool are the significant quantities of time needed by the radiologist to actually measure the size of the lesions, and the poor reproducibility of these manual measurements. A CAD system for automatic image analysis improves clinical efficiency and standardizes the lesion measurements. Multiple sclerosis is a disease well suited for automated analysis. The segmentation algorithm devised classifies normal and abnormal brain structures and measures the volume of multiple sclerosis lesions using fuzzy c-means clustering with incorporated spatial (sFCM) information. First, an intracranial structures mask in T1 image data is localized and then superimposed in FLAIR image data. Next, MS lesions are identified by sFCM and quantified within a predefined volume. The initial validation process confirms a satisfactory comparison of automatic segmentation to manual outline by a neuroradiologist and the results will be presented.

  2. Limited Reliability of CT perfusion acute infarct volume measurements compared to DWI in anterior circulation stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Pamela W.; Souza, Leticia; Kamalian, Shervin; Hirsch, Joshua A.; Yoo, Albert J.; Kamalian, Shahmir; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto; Lev, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose DWI can reliably identify critically ischemic tissue (CIT) shortly after stroke onset. We tested if thresholded CT-CBF and CT-CBV maps are sufficiently accurate to substitute for DWI for estimating CIT volume. Methods Ischemic volumes of 55 patients with acute anterior circulation stroke were assessed on DWI by visual segmentation, and CT-CBF and CT-CBV with segmentation using 15% and 30% thresholds, respectively. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of ischemic regions on the DWI and CTP images were measured. Correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess reliability of CTP. Results Mean CNRs for DWI, CT-CBF and CT-CBV were 4.3, 0.9 and 0.4, respectively. CTP and DWI lesion volumes were highly correlated (R2=0.87 for CT-CBF; R2=0.83 for CT-CBV; p<0.001). Bland-Altman analyses revealed little systemic bias (−2.6 ml) but high measurement variability (95% CI ±56.7 ml) between mean CT-CBF and DWI lesion volumes, and systemic bias (−26 ml) and high measurement variability (95% CI ±64.0 ml) between mean CT-CBV and DWI lesion volumes. A simulated treatment study demonstrated that using CTP-CBF instead of DWI for detecting a statistically significant effect would require at least twice as many patients. Conclusions The poor CNRs of CT-CBV and CT-CBF compared to DWI result in large measurement error making it problematic to substitute CTP for DWI in selecting individual acute stroke patients for treatment. CTP could be used for treatment studies of patient groups, but the number of patients needed to identify a significant effect is much higher than if DWI is used. PMID:25550366

  3. POTENTIAL OF MRI FINDINGS TO REFINE CASE DEFINITION FOR MECHANICAL LOW BACK PAIN IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Endean, Alison; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David

    2011-01-01

    Study design Systematic review and meta-analysis Objective To assess how confidently LBP can be attributed to abnormalities on MRI, and thereby explore the potential value of MRI abnormalities in refining case definition for mechanical low back pain (LBP) in epidemiological research. Summary of background data Most epidemiological studies of mechanical LBP have defined cases only by reported symptoms, but it is possible that the potency of causes differs according to whether or not there is demonstrable underlying spinal pathology. Methods We reviewed the published literature on MRI abnormalities, looking for data on the repeatability of their assessment, their prevalence in people free from LBP, and their association with LBP. Where data were sufficient, we calculated a summary estimate of prevalence in people without LBP and a meta-estimate of the odds ratio for the association with LBP. A formula was then applied to estimate the corresponding prevalence rate ratio (PRR), assuming three possible prevalence rates for LBP in the general population. Results Data were most extensive for disc protrusion, nerve root displacement/compression, disc degeneration and high intensity zone (HIZ), all of which could be assessed repeatably. All were associated with LBP, meta-estimates of odds ratios ranging from 2.3 (nerve root displacement/compression) to 3.6 (disc protrusion). However, even for disc protrusion, estimates of the corresponding PRRs were mostly less than two. Conclusion MRI findings of disc protrusion, nerve root displacement/compression, disc degeneration and HIZ are all associated with LBP, but individually, none of these abnormalities provides a strong indication that LBP is attributable to underlying pathology. This limits their value in refining epidemiological case definitions for LBP. PMID:20739918

  4. Avoiding DWI Among Bar-room Drinkers: Strategies and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Barry D.; Rogers, John W.; Howard, Jan; Frissell, Kevin C.; Harding, Wayne M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and predictors of 11strategies to avoid driving when feeling intoxicated among 561 bar-room patrons in two medium-sized Maryland communities. Logistic regression analyses identified demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors of avoidance strategies and interactions among predictors. Overall, 89% reported one or more DWI avoidance actions in the past year, and 38% reported driving intoxicated during that time. Average frequencies of avoidance behavior and intoxicated driving increased significantly as drinking level increased. However, the higher the drinking level, the smaller the ratio of avoidance actions to DWI experiences, highlighting the vulnerability of heavy drinkers who had driven intoxicated. Using a sober driver or one who allegedly drank less than the respondent were the most popular and frequent strategies, but paying for a cab, walking, and using a bus or free cab were relatively unpopular. Higher drinking levels predicted significantly higher odds of using avoidance approaches, as did intoxicated driving. Confidence in driving safely when intoxicated was positively related to drinking level and intoxicated driving, but it tended to predict lower odds of avoidance actions. Similarly, marital status, age, gender, and location influenced the odds of avoidance behaviors. Interventions should be strategically tailored to exploit or counter drinker predilections among avoidance options. PMID:22879742

  5. Prostate MRI based on PI-RADS version 2: how we review and report.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Philipp; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2016-01-01

    Prostate imaging and interpretation is based on prostate imaging reporting and data system version 2 (PI-RADS™ v2) providing clinical guidelines for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate. PI-RADS™ v2 aims to promote global standardisation, to diminish variation in the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of prostate mpMRI examinations and to improve detection, localisation, and risk stratification in patients with suspected cancer in treatment naïve prostate glands. It does not address detection of recurrence, progression during active surveillance and evaluation of other parts of the body.PI-RADS™ v2 improves and standardises communication between radiologists and urologists to detect or exclude the presence of significant prostate cancer with a high likelihood. Findings on mpMRI are assessed on a 5-point category scale based on the probability that a combination of findings on T2-weighted (T2w) sequences, diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) correlates with the presence of a clinically significant prostate cancer at a particular location. PI-RADS assessment categories range from 1 to 5 with 5 being most likely to represent clinically significant prostate cancer. The dominant sequence to detect prostate cancer in the peripheral zone is DWI, whereas for tumour detection in the transition zone T2w is the most important sequence. DCE-MRI has been attributed a minor role and only qualitative assessment with presence or absence of focal enhancement is suggested. Up to four suspicious lesions of category 3, 4 and 5 are assigned on a sector map and the index lesion should be identified. PMID:27067275

  6. The endolymphatic sac in patients with Ménière's disease: correlation between the MRI and the surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Fukaya, T; Noda, M

    2000-10-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is thought to have close relations to pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops. Here is reported a retrospective study of 41 patients (42 ears) with Meniere's disease who underwent MRI prior to endolymphatic sac surgery. Based on proton-density weighted image (PDI) and T2-weighted image (T2), the ES including an endolymphatic duct (ED) were estimated whether it was detectable or not. Fourteen ESs were detected on both images (Group A), 14 ESs were detected only on PDI (Group B), and the remaining 14 ESs were not detected on either image (Group D). The actual shape of the sac, obtained from surgical findings, was classified into three (normoplastic, atrophic, invisible). Seventeen ears showed normoplastic ESs and 14 showed atrophic ESs. ES was not detected in 11 ears during surgery, and these findings were compared with image classification. From the study data, normoplastic ESs tend to be observed on both images whereas atrophic or invisible sacs were hardly observed on T2. This classification of ES on MRI was thought to correlate with surgical findings and this correlation was statistically significant (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. r(s) = 0.58, p < 0.01).

  7. Tenosynovitis of the peroneal tendons associated with a hypertrophic peroneal tubercle: radiography and MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Celikyay, Fatih; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Almus, Ferdag; Bilgic, Erkal

    2014-01-01

    An enlarged peroneal tubercle can cause a peroneal tendon tear and/or tenosynovitis due to chronic friction. We present the case of a 45-year-old man with tenosynovitis in the peroneus longus and brevis tendons associated with a hypertrophic peroneal tubercle. On admission to our facility, the patient presented with pain while walking and had a fixed mass on the lateral aspect of his right foot. In addition, an osseous prominence corresponding to a hypertrophic peroneal tubercle was seen on the lateral side of the right calcaneus on radiography. MRI confirmed the hypertrophic peroneal tubercle and revealed high-signal intensity within the peroneus longus and brevis tendons along with fluid in their sheaths. PMID:24748135

  8. Hot water epilepsy with cerebral lesion: a report of five cases with cranial MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Tezer, F Irsel; Ertas, Nalan; Yalcin, Destina; Saygi, Serap

    2006-05-01

    Hot water epilepsy (HWE) is included in the reflex epilepsies. Although, in general, not common, HWE is concentrated in certain regions of the world. Different bathing habits and genetic factors may be responsible for the high incidence of HWE in these regions. However, the exact pathogenesis of HWE is not known. The facts that complex partial seizures are the most common clinical presentation and EEG recordings show an epileptic focus in the temporal lobe suggested the presence of a structural lesion in the temporal lobe. To our knowledge, however, there were no demonstrable structural changes on MRI and CT scans except in a few case reports. Here, we describe an additional five cases of HWE having an intracranial pathology, for example, hippocampal sclerosis, dysplasia, and a huge cystic lesion. We believe that investigations with new detailed neuroimaging techniques, in addition to experimental and clinical studies, might help us to understand the mechanism of this reflex epilepsy. PMID:16546449

  9. Clinical and MRI findings of cerebellar agenesis in two living adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl Mustafa; Kalaycı, Tuğçe Özlem; Çelebisoy, Mehmet; Karakaş, Levent; Akkurt, Hülya Erdoğan; Koç, Feray

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar agenesis (CA) is an extremely rare entity. We present two adult patients with CA. The 61-year-old man had ataxia, dysarthria, abnormalities in cerebellar tests, severe cognitive impairment, and moderate mental retardation. The 26-year-old woman had dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysarthria as well as mild cognitive impairment and mild mental retardation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed complete absence of the cerebellum with small residual vermis. Brainstem was hypoplastic and structures above tentorium were normal. Supratentorial white matter bundles were unaffected in diffusion tensor tractography. Only few adult patients with CA have so far been published. These cases show that patients with CA present with a variety of developmental, clinical, and mental abnormalities; and emphasize the role of the cerebellum in normal motor, language, and mental development. PMID:27293341

  10. fDWI Evaluation of Hypothalamic Appetite Regulation Pathways in Mice Genetically Deficient in Leptin or Neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Lizarbe, Blanca; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the contribution of leptin-dependent anorexigenic pathways and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-dependent orexigenic pathways to the changes in hypothalamic water diffusion parameters observed in vivo by functional diffusion weighted MRI (fDWI). Mice genetically deficient in leptin (B6.V-Lep (ob) /J) or NPY (129S-Npy (tm1Rpa) /J) and the corresponding wild-type controls, were subjected to sequential isocaloric feeding, fasting and recovery regimes. Non-invasive fDWI measurements were performed under these conditions, and complemented with parallel determinations of food and water consumption, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), locomotor activity and endocrine profiles. Control mice showed significant increases in hypothalamic water diffusion parameters upon fasting, returning to normal values in the recovery period. Leptin deficient mice depicted permanently increased water diffusion parameters under all feeding conditions as compared to wild type controls, without important changes upon fasting or recovery. These results paralleled sustained increases in food and water intake, significantly augmented body weight, and decreased RER values or locomotor activity, thus configuring an obese phenotype. NPY-deficient mice showed significantly reduced increases (or even slight decreases) in the water diffusion parameters upon fasting as compared to wild type controls, paralleled by decreased food and water intake during the recovery period. In conclusion, leptin deficiency results in sustained orexigenic stimulation, leading to increased water diffusion parameters, while NPY deficiency lead to reduced orexigenic stimulation and water diffusion parameters. Diffusion changes are proposed to reflect net astrocytic volume changes induced by the balance between the orexigenic and anorexigenic firings of AgRP/NPY and POMC/CART neurons, respectively. Together, our results suggest that fDWI provides an adequate tool to investigate hypothalamic appetite disorders.

  11. Clinical Applications for Diffusion MRI in Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, Christina; Cao, Yue; Chenevert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review the clinical applications of diffusion MR imaging in the radiotherapy treatment of several key clinical sites, including those of the CNS, the head and neck, the prostate and cervix. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is an imaging technique that is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance due to its ease and wide availability. DWI measures the mobility of water within tissue at the cellular level without the need of any exogenous contrast agent. For radiotherapy treatment planning, DWI improves upon conventional imaging techniques, by better characterization of tumor tissue properties required for tumor grading, diagnosis and target volume delineation. Because diffusion weighted MRI is also a sensitive marker for alterations in tumor cellularity, it has potential clinical applications in the early assessment of treatment response following radiation therapy. PMID:24931097

  12. An Unusual Case of Ascending Pancreatitis with Mediastinal Involvement: A Case Report with CT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Ernesto; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Gennarelli, Antonio; Felli, Valentina; Vellucci, Valentina; Casazza, Ines; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Fluid collections are common findings of pancreatitis and spread, more often, along preferential drainage pathways in the abdomen. In some rare cases, fluid collections may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the mediastinum leading to the formation of mediastinal collections. We present the case of a 52-years-old man with pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and mid-epigastrium lasting for some hours. Laboratory tests suggested a diagnosis of pancreatitis. CT and subsequent MRI revealed changes consistent with acute exacerbation on chronic pancreatitis spreading to the mediastinum and to the greater omentum. The patient received medical treatment and reported gradual improvement in his laboratory results and CT findings. PMID:24955277

  13. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Joan S.; Andersen, Hans; Keseler, Bjarne; Jensen, Troels S.; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion and extension of the cervical spine. Participants were included after rear-end or frontal car collisions. Patients with fractures or dislocations diagnosed by standard procedures at the emergency unit were not included. MRI scans of the cervical spine were performed at baseline and repeated after 3 months. Clinical follow-ups were performed after 3 and 12 months. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, neck disability and working ability. A total of 178 participants had a cervical MRI scan on average 13 days after the injury. Traumatic findings were observed in seven participants. Signs of disc degeneration were common and most frequent at the C5–6 and C6–7 levels. Findings were not associated with outcome after 3 or 12 months. The population had no considerable neck trouble prior to the whiplash injury and the non-traumatic findings represent findings to be expected in the background population. Trauma-related MRI findings are rare in a whiplash population screened for serious injuries in the emergency unit and not related to a specific symptomatology. Also, pre-existing degeneration is not associated with prognosis. PMID:18512085

  14. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  15. Interactive Journaling as a Brief Intervention for Level-II DUI and DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheck, Amy Mary; Hoffmann, Norman G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Couillou,Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief alcohol intervention in increasing basic alcohol-related knowledge, and the intention to change high-risk drinking behaviors, among a sample of DUI and DWI offenders. Pre- and post-test data, in addition to program evaluation data, from 872 Level-II DUI and DWI offenders…

  16. A Comparison of the Social Context for Alcohol Consumption of College Students and Convicted DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Summons, Terry G.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=272) and convicted DWI offenders (N=261). The results revealed that DWI offenders tend to drink in their own home, alone, and to relieve stress; whereas college students are more likely to drink at a party, for the enjoyment of taste, and to get drunk. (JAC)

  17. Do women with fragile X syndrome have problems in switching attention: preliminary findings from ERP and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Kim; Swainson, Rachel; Cunnington, Ross; Wilding, John; Morris, Peter; Jackson, Georgina

    2004-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that represents the most common known cause of developmental delay. Recent neuropsychological findings indicate that females with FXS present with a specific pattern of cognitive deficits and that these difficulties primarily involve skills requiring executive control. The present study is the first to examine the extent to which neural activity of females with FXS can be observed on a task that specifically taps two core deficits, namely switching and response inhibition. Brain activity was measured using both event-related electrical potentials (ERPs) and event-related functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging in separate studies using the same cognitive paradigm. Compared to controls, females with FXS were significantly slower and made more errors on trials that required an immediate response (Go) to stimulus onset but were comparable on trials that required a delayed response (Wait) to stimulus onset. At the brain level, several areas showed significantly greater activation for females with FXS compared with controls, including the cingulate cortex and left and right ventral prefrontal areas. In contrast, no areas were found to show significantly greater activation for controls compared with females with FXS.

  18. MRI and motor evoked potential findings in nondisabled multiple sclerosis patients with and without symptoms of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Colombo, B; Martinelli Boneschi, F; Rossi, P; Rovaris, M; Maderna, L; Filippi, M; Comi, G

    2000-07-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) even in the early phases of the disease, when neurological disability is usually still not present. To investigate the pathophysiology of fatigue we compared neurophysiological (motor evoked potentials of the four limbs, MEPs) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in two groups of nondisabled MS patients, those with (n=15) and those without (n=15) fatigue. Fatigue was assessed by an interview and scored by the Fatigue Severity Scale. The two groups were matched for sex, age, disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale score, pyramidal Functional System (FS) score, and depression score. MEPs were abnormal in five patients with fatigue and in one patient without fatigue. A significant association was found between the patient scores on the Fatigue Severity Scale, and the burden of MRI lesions (r=0.5; P< 0.005). Significantly higher parietal lobe (P< 0.05), internal capsule (P< 0.05), and periventricular trigone (P< 0.05) lesion loads were found in patients with fatigue than in those without. Our results agree with a central nervous system origin of fatigue in MS patients. This symptom might be a consequence either of a functional deafferentation of the cortex due to cortico-subcortical interconnection damage or of a demyelination in critical sites of the CNS, such as the cortico-spinal tract. PMID:10993490

  19. A challenging diagnosis of late-onset tumefactive multiple sclerosis associated to cervicodorsal syringomyelia: doubtful CT, MRI, and bioptic findings

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Renata; Capasso, Raffaella; Galasso, Rosario; Cirillo, Mario; Taglialatela, Gemma; Galasso, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unusual variant of demyelinating disease characterized by lesions with pseudotumoral appearance on radiological imaging mimicking other space-occupying lesions, such as neoplasms, infections, and infarction. Especially when the patient's medical history is incompatible with MS, the differential diagnosis between these lesions constitutes a diagnostic challenge often requiring histological investigation. An older age at onset makes distinguishing tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL) from tumors even more challenging. Methods: We report a case of brain TDL as the initial manifestation of late-onset MS associated with cervico-dorsal syringomyelia. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a 15-day history headache was referred to our hospital because of the acute onset of paraphasia. She suffered from noncommunicating syringomyelia associated to basilar impression and she reported a 10-year history of burning dysesthesia of the left side of the chest extended to the internipple line level. Results: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations revealed a left frontal lesion with features suspicious for a tumor. Given the degree of overlap with other pathologic processes, CT and MRI findings failed to provide an unambiguous diagnosis; furthermore, because of the negative cerebrospinal fluid analysis for oligoclonal bands, the absence of other lesions, and the heightened suspicion of neoplasia, the clinicians opted to perform a stereotactic biopsy. Brain specimen analysis did not exclude the possibility of perilesional reactive gliosis and the patient, receiving anitiedemigen therapy, was monthly followed up. In the meanwhile, the second histological opinion of the brain specimen described the absence of pleomorphic glial cells indicating a tumor. These findings were interpreted as destructive inflammatory demyelinating disease and according to the evolution of MRI lesion burden, MS

  20. A case study of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-related limbic encephalitis with PET/MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Day, Brian K.; Eisenman, Lawrence; Black, Joseph; Maccotta, Luigi; Hogan, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the significance of inflammation and autoantibodies in epilepsy, and the use of immunotherapies in certain situations has become an established practice. Temporal lobe epilepsy can follow paraneoplastic or nonparaneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies directed against brain antigens. Here, we focus on a patient with worsening confusion and temporal lobe seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic medications. Serial brain MRIs did not conclusively reveal structural abnormalities, so the patient underwent brain PET/MRI to simultaneously evaluate brain structure and function, revealing bitemporal abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-related limbic encephalitis based on clinical presentation, imaging findings, and antibody testing. Treatment included the addition of a second antiepileptic agent and oral steroids. His seizures and cognitive deficits improved and stabilized. PMID:26106579

  1. Gray Matter Alterations in Schizophrenia High-Risk Youth and Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Review of Structural MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Benjamin K.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on structural MRI findings in pediatric and young adult populations at clinical or genetic high-risk for schizophrenia, as well as in early-onset schizophrenia. The authors discuss the implications of this research for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and for early intervention strategies for prevention of the illness. The evidence linking brain structural changes in pre-psychosis development and early-onset schizophrenia with disruptions of normal neurodevelopmental processes during childhood and/or adolescence are described. In addition, the authors outline future directions for research to address current knowledge gaps regarding the neurobiological basis of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and to help improve the utility of these abnormalities for preventative interventions. PMID:24012081

  2. Infantile Type Sandhoff Disease with Striking Brain MRI Findings and a Novel Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Elmas, Muhsin; Koken, Resit; Unlu, Ebru; Bukulmez, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by β-hexosaminidase deficiency in which the ganglioside GM2 and other glycolipids accumulate intracellularly within lysosomes. This process results in progressive motor neuron manifestations, death from respiratory failure and infections in infantiles. Case Report This report presents a 22-month-old girl with infantile type Sandhoff disease that was hospitalized for generalized seizures and psychomotor retardation. She was diagnosed with a genetically proven novel mutation and by demonstrating it’s specific imaging findings. Conclusions Determination of spesific changes in neuroimaging which are initial findings for GM2 gangliosidosis is important from the point of diagnosis and follow-up in infants suspected of having a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26985245

  3. MRI findings and sleep apnea in children with Chiari I malformation.

    PubMed

    Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-04-01

    Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation.

  4. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) in Locoregional Therapy Outcome Prediction and Response Assessment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): The New Era of Functional Imaging Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Johannes M.; Camacho, Juan C.; Kokabi, Nima; Xing, Minzhi; Kim, Hyun S.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable response criteria are critical for the evaluation of therapeutic response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current response assessment is mainly based on: (1) changes in size, which is at times unreliable and lag behind the result of therapy; and (2) contrast enhancement, which can be difficult to quantify in the presence of benign post-procedural changes and in tumors presenting with a heterogeneous pattern of enhancement. Given these challenges, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been recently investigated, aiding specificity to locoregional therapy response assessment and outcome prediction. Briefly, DWI quantifies diffusion of water occurring naturally at a cellular level (Brownian movement), which is restricted in multiple neoplasms because of high cellularity. Disruption of cellular integrity secondary to therapy results in increased water diffusion across the injured membranes. This review will provide an overview of the current literature on DWI therapy response assessment and outcome prediction in HCC following treatment with locoregional therapies. PMID:26854170

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma: conventional MRI findings including gadolinium-enhanced dynamic imaging.

    PubMed

    Ito, Katsuyoshi

    2006-05-01

    A great variety of MR pulse sequences for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are now available. In this article, we reviewed the current MR imaging techniques that are routinely used for hepatic imaging, and described the optimization of these sequences as well as the utility and characteristics of each sequence for the accurate diagnosis of HCCs. Then, we reviewed various MR imaging findings of advanced and early HCCs with emphasis on signal intensity and hemodynamic patterns. Finally, we described the value of multi-arterial-phase contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging of the whole liver with excellent temporal resolution for evaluating transitional hemodynamics of hepatic lesions during the six arterial phases.

  6. CT and MRI Findings in a Rare Case of Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Zehra; Peker, Elif; Gulpinar, Basak; Karadag, Hale; Erden, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor/extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma (PNET/EES) is a very rare renal tumor. Case Report We report a case of primary renal PNET/EES of the kidney in an adult patient and describe its computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including diffusion weighted images along with a review of the current medical literature. Conclusions Although very rare, a relatively large renal mass which shows very infiltrative growth pattern on CT and MR imaging and striking diffusion restriction should raise the suspicion of a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor, in a young adult. PMID:27635170

  7. Early MRI and intraoperative findings in rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Kiyokazu; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Fukushima, Mana; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is still unclear. Also, there have been only few reports on the initial stage of the disease. We report a case of an initial-stage rapidly destructive hip OA, documented by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative findings. Presentation of case A 77-year-old woman reported left hip pain without any antecedent trauma. Initial radiographs showed no obvious abnormality. After 4 months of conservative therapy, radiographs showed progressive joint-space narrowing and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a bone-marrow edema pattern not only on the femoral head but also on the lateral side of the acetabulum. Then during total hip arthroplasty, we found extensive inversion of the anterosuperior portion of the acetabular labrum, and the location was mostly consistent with the bone-marrow edema lesions in the femoral head and acetabulum. Discussion Several theories for the etiology of rapidly destructive hip OA have been proposed, including idiopathic chondrolysis, abnormal immunoreaction, intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and subchondral insufficiency fracture. One of the reasons rapidly destructive hip OA is still considered idiopathic is the lack of reports regarding the initial stage of the disease. Our report is the first to demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging for initial-stage disease with intraoperative findings before collapse of the femoral head. Conclusion Inversion of the acetabular labrum may be a mechanism of rapidly destructive hip OA. PMID:25603485

  8. Evolving role of MRI in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Obara, Piotr; Oto, Aytekin

    2013-06-01

    MR enterography is playing an evolving role in the evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). Standard MR enterography includes a combination of rapidly acquired T2 sequence, balanced steady-state acquisition, and contrast enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. The diagnostic performance of these sequences has been shown to be comparable, and in some respects superior, to other small bowel imaging modalities. The findings of CD on MR enterography have been well described in the literature. New and emerging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), cinematography, and magnetization transfer, may lead to improved accuracy in characterizing the disease. These advanced techniques can provide quantitative parameters that may prove to be useful in assessing disease activity, severity, and response to treatment. In the future, MR enterography may play an increasing role in management decisions for patients with small bowel CD; however, larger studies are needed to validate these emerging MRI parameters as imaging biomarkers. PMID:23712842

  9. The Human Likeness Dimension of the “Uncanny Valley Hypothesis”: Behavioral and Functional MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates “uncanny” research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis’ dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori’s DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future “uncanny” studies consider CP and the DOH’s category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects. PMID:22131970

  10. Imaging and pathology findings after an initial negative MRI-US fusion-guided and 12-core extended sextant prostate biopsy session

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheng William; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Hoang, Anthony N.; Türkbey, Barış; Stamatakis, Lambros; Xu, Sheng; Amalou, Hayet; Minhaj Siddiqui, M.; Nix, Jeffrey W.; Vourganti, Srinivas; Merino, Maria J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE A magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasonography (MRI-US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy increases detection rates compared to an extended sextant biopsy. The imaging characteristics and pathology outcomes of subsequent biopsies in patients with initially negative MRI-US fusion biopsies are described in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed 855 biopsy sessions of 751 patients (June 2007 to March 2013). The fusion biopsy consisted of two cores per lesion identified on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and a 12-core extended sextant transrectal US (TRUS) biopsy. Inclusion criteria were at least two fusion biopsy sessions, with a negative first biopsy and mpMRI before each. RESULTS The detection rate on the initial fusion biopsy was 55.3%; 336 patients had negative findings. Forty-one patients had follow-up fusion biopsies, but only 34 of these were preceded by a repeat mpMRI. The median interval between biopsies was 15 months. Fourteen patients (41%) were positive for cancer on the repeat MRI-US fusion biopsy. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density, digital rectal exam findings, lesion diameter, and changes on imaging were comparable between patients with negative and positive rebiopsies. Of the patients with positive rebiopsies, 79% had a positive TRUS biopsy before referral (P = 0.004). Ten patients had Gleason 3+3 disease, three had 3+4 disease, and one had 4+4 disease. CONCLUSION In patients with a negative MRI-US fusion prostate biopsy and indications for repeat biopsy, the detection rate of the follow-up sessions was lower than the initial detection rate. Of the prostate cancers subsequently found, 93% were low grade (≤3+4). In this low risk group of patients, increasing the follow-up time interval should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:24509182

  11. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sophia; Keeser, Daniel; Samson, Andrea C; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  12. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Andrea C.; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration. PMID:23825652

  13. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. Patients and methods. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results. Gross intratumoral hemorrhage on T2WI was absent in 15 patients (79%) with primary central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P < 0.001), irrespective of gross intratumoral hemorrhage. Conclusions. Low intratumoral susceptibility signal grades can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal. PMID:26029023

  14. Are Nonlinguistic Functions in ''Broca's Area'' Prerequisites for Language Acquisition? fMRI Findings from an Ontogenetic Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ralph-Axel; Basho, Surina

    2004-01-01

    There is incomplete consensus on the anatomical demarcation of Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus and its functional characterization remains a matter of debate. Exclusive syntactic specialization has been proposed, but is overall inconsistent with the neuroimaging literature. We examined three functional MRI (fMRI) datasets on…

  15. Image-Guided High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Boost Localization Using MRI/MR Spectroscopy: A Correlation Study with Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Mbodji, Khaly; Racine, Louis G; Chevrette, Eric; Lavallee, Marie C; Martin, André-Guy; Despres, Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the blind interpretations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mapping, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the prostate, in comparison to prostate biopsy to identify a valid dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) for dose escalation using high-dose rate brachytherapy. Methods: MRI/MRS were performed on 20 patients with intermediate risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate. T1W, T2W, DWI-ADC, and MRS sequences were performed at 1.5 T with pelvic and endorectal coils. An experienced radiologist rated the presence of cancer in each sextant by using a dichotomic approach, first on MR standard acquisitions (T1W and T2W), then on DWI-ADC mapping, and later on MRS images. Areas under the receiver’s operating characteristic curve were calculated using a sextant as the unit of analysis. The transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy results were used as the reference standard. A table summarizing the MRI/MRS findings was made and compared to the corresponding area in the prostate biopsy report. A perfect match was defined to be the presence of cancer in the same sextant of the MRI/MRS exam and the prostate biopsy. Results: The interpretation of the MRI/MRS exams per sextant was compared to the diagnostic biopsy report. MRI readings were compared with the biopsy as a surrogate for the complete pathology specimen of the prostate. A sensitivity (Sn) of 98.6% (95% confidence interval, 92.2% - 99.9%) and specificity (Sp) of 60.8% (46.1% - 74.2%) were found. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were 77.3% (67.1% - 85.5%) and 96.9% (83.8% - 99.9%), respectively. When MRS readings were compared with biopsy, we found a Sn of 96.4% (87.7% - 99.6%) and Sp of 54.8% (38.7% - 70.2%). The PPV and NPV were 74% (62.4% - 83.6%) and 92% (74% - 99%), respectively. DWI-ADC mapping results were also compared with biopsy. We found a Sn and Sp of

  16. Limitations and Prospects for Diffusion-Weighted MRI of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Roger; Panagiotaki, Eleftheria

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the most effective component of the modern multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scan for prostate pathology. DWI provides the strongest prediction of cancer volume, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlates moderately with Gleason grade. Notwithstanding the demonstrated cancer assessment value of DWI, the standard measurement and signal analysis methods are based on a model of water diffusion dynamics that is well known to be invalid in human tissue. This review describes the biophysical limitations of the DWI component of the current standard mpMRI protocol and the potential for significantly improved cancer assessment performance based on more sophisticated measurement and signal modeling techniques. PMID:27240408

  17. Diagnostic significance of diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bo; Xiang, Shi-Feng; Yao, Gen-Dong; Yang, Su-Jun; Wang, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to demonstrate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) could assist in the precise diagnosis of cervical cancer or not. Both English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for potential relevant studies followed by a comprehensive literature search without any language restriction. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included trials. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated in this meta-analysis. We chose Version 12.0 STATA statistical software to analyze our statistical data. Thirteen eligible cohort studies were selected for statistical analysis, including 645 tumor tissues and 504 normal tissues. Combined SMD of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) suggested that the ADC value in cervical cancer tissues was significantly lower than that of normal tissue (SMD = 2.80, 95 % CI = 2.64 ~ 2.96, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity indicated a higher ADC value in the normal tissues compared to the cancer tissues in both the Asian and Caucasian subgroups (Asians: SMD = 2.83, 95 % CI = 2.64 ~ 3.02, P < 0.001; Caucasians: SMD = 2.73, 95 % CI = 2.45 ~ 3.01, P < 0.001, respectively). The results from the subgroup analysis by MRI machine type revealed a statistically significant difference in ADC value between normal cervical tissue and tumor tissues among all of the six MRI machine type subgroups (all P < 0.05). The main finding from our meta-analysis revealed that increased signal intensity on DWI and decreased signal on ADC seem to be useful in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. DWI could therefore be an important imaging tool in potentially identifying patients with cervical cancer.

  18. Primary central nervous system lymphoma with lymphomatosis cerebri in an immunocompetent child: MRI and 18F-FDG PET-CT findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun K; Sharma, Punit; Suman, Sudhir K C; Faizi, Nauroze A; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is extremely rare in immunocompetent children. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings of such a case in a 14-year old immunocompetent boy. In this patient, PCNSL was associated with lymphomatosis cerebri. Familiarity with the findings of this rare condition will improve the diagnostic confidence of the nuclear radiologist and avoid misdiagnosis.

  19. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  20. Association of computerized texture features on MRI with early treatment response following laser ablation for neuropathic cancer pain: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar F; Jiang, Benjamin; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-10-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has recently emerged as a new treatment modality for cancer pain management that targets the cingulum (pain center in the brain) and has shown promise over radio frequency (RF)-based ablation, due to magnetic resonance image (MRI) guidance that allows for precise ablation. Since laser ablation for pain management is currently exploratory and is only performed at a few centers worldwide, its short- and long-term effects on the cingulum are currently unknown. Traditionally, treatment effects for neurological conditions are evaluated by monitoring changes in intensities and/or volume of the ablation zone on post-treatment Gadolinium-contrast T1-w (Gd-T1) MRI. However, LITT introduces subtle localized changes corresponding to tissues response to treatment, which may not be appreciable on visual inspection of volumetric or intensity changes. Additionally, different MRI protocols [Gd-T1, T2w, gradient echo sequence (GRE), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)] are known to capture complementary diagnostic information regarding the patient's response to treatment; the utility of these MRI protocols has so far not been investigated to evaluate early and localized response to LITT treatment in the context of neuropathic cancer pain. In this work, we present the first attempt at (a) examining early treatment-related changes on a per-voxel basis via quantitative comparison of computer-extracted texture descriptors across pre- and post-LITT multiparametric (MP-MRI) (Gd-T1, T2w, GRE, FLAIR), subtle microarchitectural texture changes that may not be appreciable on original MR intensities or volumetric differences, and (b) investigating the efficacy of different MRI protocols in accurately capturing immediate post-treatment changes reflected (1) within and (2) outside the ablation zone. A retrospective cohort of four patient studies comprising pre- and immediate (24 h) post-LITT 3 Tesla Gd-T1, T2w, GRE, and FLAIR acquisitions

  1. Correlation of lateral stenosis in MRI with symptoms, walking capacity and EMG findings in patients with surgically confirmed lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the clinical significance of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LLSCS), found by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), through correlating the imaging findings with patient symptoms, walking capacity and electromyography (EMG) measurements. Method 102 patients with symptoms of LSS referred for operative treatment were studied in this uncontrolled study. Of these patients, subjects with distinct only lateral LSS were included. Accordingly, 140 roots in 14 patients (mean age 58, range 48-76 years, male 43%) were evaluated. In MR images the entrance and mid zones of the lateral lumbar nerve root canal were graded as normal, narrowed but not compressed, or compressed. In quantitative analysis, the minimal widths of the lateral recess and mid zone area were measured. Clinical symptoms were recorded with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), specific low back pain (LBP; NRS-11), specific leg pain (LP NRS-11), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and walking distance in the treadmill test. Lumbar paraspinal (L2- L5) and lower limb (L3 – S1) needle EMG studies were performed. The findings were classified root by root as 1 = normal, 2 = abnormal. The associations between radiological, EMG and clinical findings were tested with each other. Results EMG findings were normal in 92 roots and abnormal in 48 roots. All of the patients had at least one abnormal nerve root finding. Severity of the mid zone stenosis in MRI correlated with abnormal EMG findings (p = 0.015). Patients with abnormal EMG had also higher scores in the VAS (41.9 ± 25.7 vs 31.5 ± 18.1; p = 0.018), NRS leg pain (7.5 ± 1.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.1; p = 0.000) and BDI (9.8 ± 3.8 vs 8.0 ± 3.9; p = 0.014). However, no statistically significant correlations between MRI findings and clinical symptoms or walking capacity were found. Conclusions Among persons previously selected for surgery, lateral stenosis seen on MRI correlates with EMG, and thus may be a clinically

  2. Infarction of Uterine Fibroids After Embolization: Relationship Between Postprocedural Enhanced MRI Findings and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumori, Tetsuya Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Kin, Yoko; Nozaki, Taiki

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the degree of infarction of uterine fibroids on enhanced MRI after embolization and long-term clinical outcomes. Methods. During 92 months, 290 consecutive patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated with embolization; 221 who underwent enhanced MRI before embolization and 1 week after embolization were included in this study. The infarction rates of all fibroid tissue were assessed using enhanced MRI after embolization. Patients were divided into three groups according to the infarction rates: group A (100% infarction, n 142), group B (90-99% infarction, n = 74), group C (<90% infarction, n = 5). The cumulative rates of clinical outcomes were compared among groups using the Kaplan-Meier limited method. Results. Group A had a significantly higher rate of symptom control than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of symptom control at 5 years were 93%, 71%, and 60% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Group A had a significantly lower rate of gynecologic intervention after embolization than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of additional gynecologic intervention at 5 years were 3%, 15%, and 20% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions. The degree of infarction of uterine fibroids after embolization on enhanced MRI was related to long-term clinical outcomes. Complete infarction of all fibroid tissue can induce a higher rate of symptom control, with a lower rate of additional gynecologic intervention in the long term compared with incomplete infarction of fibroid tissue.

  3. Design and construction of a realistic DWI phantom for filtering performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Tristán-Vega, Antonio; Aja-Fernández, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to build a realistic phantom for the assessment of filtering performance in Diffusion Weighted Images (DWI) is presented. From a real DWI data-set, a regularization process is carried out taking into account the diffusion model. This process drives to a model which accurately preserves the structural characteristics of actual DWI volumes, being in addition regular enough to be considered as a noise-free data-set and therefore to be used as a ground-truth. We compare our phantom with a kind of simplified phantoms commonly used in the literature (those based on homogeneous cross sections), concluding that the latter may introduce important biases in common quality measures used in the filtering performance assessment, and even drive to erroneous conclusions in the comparison of different filtering techniques.

  4. An Evaluation of Three Intensive Supervision Programs for Serious DWI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Wiliszowski, Connie H.; Fell, James C.; McKnight, A. Scott; Tippetts, A. Scott; Ciccel, J. DeCarlo

    2010-01-01

    There are many variations of supervision and probation programs for driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders. These programs include case-specific restrictions (e.g., individualized conditions to probation), unsupervised probation, basic supervision probation (e.g., regularly scheduled visits to probation services with varying frequency), and intensive supervision probation (which may involve many program components and close monitoring). Offenders who receive monitoring through intensive supervision programs (ISPs) have more contact with probation officers, a judge, or other designated authorities compared to standard (nonintensive) probation programs. Three ISPs were evaluated: the Minnesota Staggered Sentencing Program, the Westchester County New York DWI Enforcement Program, and the Oregon Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants (DUII) Intensive Supervision Program (DISP). The Minnesota program appeared to be successful in reducing offender recidivism in a relatively small ISP (n=200 offenders in the program). Compared to a similar matched group of DWI offenders, the staggered sentencing offenders had a significant 30.6% lower recidivism rate (p=.017) up to 4 years postoffense. The program prevented an estimated 15 to 23 re-arrests for DWI. Compared to a matched group of offenders, the Westchester County program appeared to be effective in the short term (18.1% lower recidivism in 5 years postoffense [p<.001]) but not in the long term (only 5.4% [p=.171] lower recidivism in 15 years postoffense). This program resulted in an estimated 78 fewer re-arrests for DWI in the first 5 years. The Oregon DISP intervention group had 54.1% lower recidivism up to 8 years postindex offense than both of the stratified matched-sample comparison groups, adjusting for the demographic covariates (Wald=51.50; p>.001). The program prevented 67 re-arrests for DWI in the first 8 years. The benefit/cost of ISPs appears to be very good for the prevention of re-arrests. PMID:21050620

  5. Traffic safety effects of sobriety checkpoints and other local DWI programs in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Levy, D; Shea, D; Asch, P

    1989-03-01

    We examined the efficacy of three Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) programs in New Jersey from 1980 through 1985, using covariance analysis of county data. Road blocks, the major component of the Strike Force program, were associated with a drop of 10-15 per cent in the single vehicle nighttime crash rate and showed a relatively stable effect over time. DWI Task Force, an education program, was associated with a 6-10 per cent total decline in the crash rate and declining impact over time. SOBER, another education program, was associated with a small effect in the first year and little or no effect thereafter.

  6. Incidental Intracranial Findings and Their Clinical Impact; The HUNT MRI Study in a General Population of 1006 Participants between 50-66 Years

    PubMed Central

    Håberg, Asta Kristine; Hammer, Tommy Arild; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Rydland, Jana; Müller, Tomm B.; Eikenes, Live; Gårseth, Mari; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate types and prevalence of all, incidental, and clinically relevant incidental intracranial findings, i.e. those referred to primary physician or clinical specialist, in a cohort between 50 and 66 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) study. Types of follow-up, outcome of repeated neuroimaging and neurosurgical treatment were assessed. Material and Methods 1006 participants (530 women) underwent MRI of the head at 1.5T consisting of T1 weighted sagittal IR-FSPGR volume, axial T2 weighted, gradient echo T2* weighted and FLAIR sequences plus time of flight cerebral angiography covering the circle of Willis. The nature of a finding and if it was incidental were determined from previous radiological examinations, patient records, phone interview, and/or additional neuroimaging. Handling and outcome of the clinically relevant incidental findings were prospectively recorded. True and false positives were estimated from the repeated neuroimaging. Results Prevalence of any intracranial finding was 32.7%. Incidental intracranial findings were present in 27.1% and clinically relevant findings in 15.1% of the participants in the HUNT MRI cohort. 185 individuals (18.4%) were contacted by phone about their findings. 40 participants (6.2%) underwent ≥ 1 additional neuroimaging session to establish etiology. Most false positives were linked to an initial diagnosis of suspected glioma, and overall positive predictive value of initial MRI was 0.90 across different diagnoses. 90.8% of the clinically relevant incidental findings were developmental and acquired cerebrovascular pathologies, the remaining 9.2% were intracranial tumors, of which extra-axial tumors predominated. In total, 3.9% of the participants were referred to a clinical specialist, and 11.7% to their primary physician. 1.4% underwent neurosurgery/radiotherapy, and 1 (0.1%) experienced a procedure related postoperative deficit. Conclusions In a general population between 50 and 66 years most

  7. Whole-Body MRI Screening in Asymptomatic Subjects; Preliminary Experience and Long-Term Follow-Up Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, Sila; Suleyman, Erdogan; Ozcan, Umit Aksoy; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study is to describe the technique and to evaluate the results of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in an asymptomatic population. Material/Methods Between March 2009 and December 2011, 118 consecutive subjects undergoing thorough medical check-up were prospectively included in the study. MRI was performed with a 205-cm moving table, parallel imaging and automatic image composing software. Results In 83 subjects (70%), 103 benign lesions were detected. Two malignant (adrenal and renal carcinoma) lesions and one precancerous (pancreatic mucinous carcinoma) lesion were detected. The most common lesions were renal cysts, liver hemangiomas, liver cysts, thyroid nodules, and uterine leiomyomas. Conclusions WB-MRI is able to cover area from head to toes in one diagnostic work-up, and besides the anatomic regions evaluated by conventional radiological modalities, i.e. brain parenchyma, bones and extremities, can be evaluated in one examination.

  8. Whole-Body MRI Screening in Asymptomatic Subjects; Preliminary Experience and Long-Term Follow-Up Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, Sila; Suleyman, Erdogan; Ozcan, Umit Aksoy; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study is to describe the technique and to evaluate the results of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in an asymptomatic population. Material/Methods Between March 2009 and December 2011, 118 consecutive subjects undergoing thorough medical check-up were prospectively included in the study. MRI was performed with a 205-cm moving table, parallel imaging and automatic image composing software. Results In 83 subjects (70%), 103 benign lesions were detected. Two malignant (adrenal and renal carcinoma) lesions and one precancerous (pancreatic mucinous carcinoma) lesion were detected. The most common lesions were renal cysts, liver hemangiomas, liver cysts, thyroid nodules, and uterine leiomyomas. Conclusions WB-MRI is able to cover area from head to toes in one diagnostic work-up, and besides the anatomic regions evaluated by conventional radiological modalities, i.e. brain parenchyma, bones and extremities, can be evaluated in one examination. PMID:27635171

  9. Breast cancer and bone metastases: the association of axial skeleton MRI findings with skeletal-related events and survival.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Christian B; Schweitzer, Mark E; Di Primio, Gina; Sampaio, Marcos L; Kielar, Ania; Clemons, Mark; Jaberi, Arash

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if bone metastasis characteristics on axial skeleton MRI are associated with either skeletal-related events (SREs) or survival in breast cancer patients. A retrospective review was performed on 247 breast cancer patients with bone metastases identified on axial skeleton MRI. MRI studies were reviewed for metastases T1 signal, signal uniformity, complete vertebral metastatic marrow replacement, metastases quantity, and distribution. Odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated, with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI), to determine association with either future SREs or survival. At the time of analysis, 174 (70 %) patients had developed SREs and 176 (71 %) patients were dead. Features of skeletal metastases associated with SREs included the presence of complete metastatic marrow replacement within any vertebra; OR 2.363 (95 % CI 1.240-4.504, P = 0.0090), and more widely distributed metastases; OR 1.239 (95 % CI 1.070-1.435, P = 0.0040). Features associated with shorter survival included the presence of complete metastatic marrow replacement within any vertebra; HR 1.500 (95 % CI 1.105-2.036, P = 0.0093), and more widely distributed metastases; HR 1.141 (95 % CI 1.047-1.243, P = 0.0027). Metastases T1 signal, signal uniformity, and surprisingly quantity were not associated with SREs or survival. Axial skeleton MRI was able to identify characteristics predictive of future SREs and survival. These characteristics could be used for risk stratification for future trials if prospectively validated.

  10. Robust optimization of diffusion-weighted MRI protocols used for fiber reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S.; Udpa, S. S.; Raguin, L. G.

    2008-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that employs diffusion-encoding gradients to sensitize the signal to the diffusion of water molecules. DWI allows the noninvasive and quantitative probing of opaque structures such as fibrous soft tissues. Model-based DWI post-processing algorithms, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), solve an inverse problem to estimate from a series of DWI data a set of model parameters representing the diffusion process and the environment of the water molecules. DWI models connect the model parameters (e.g., fiber orientations for fibrous soft tissues) with the experimental parameters (e.g., strengths and directions of the 3-D diffusion-encoding gradients). For spinal cord injuries and skeletal muscle characterization, the fiber orientations within the imaged region can be approximately known a priori using localizer images. Then, we propose and implement a model-based robust optimization framework for two axisymmetric diffusion models, producing robust DWI protocols with respect to the approximate knowledge of the fiber orientations within the images, thereby reducing the uncertainty in the parameter estimates caused by experimental noise. Our goal is to improve the yield of quantitative DWI diagnostics used in clinical and preclinical trials by minimizing the experimental uncertainty.

  11. Quantifying Post- Laser Ablation Prostate Therapy Changes on MRI via a Domain-Specific Biomechanical Model: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Robert; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Focal laser ablation destroys cancerous cells via thermal destruction of tissue by a laser. Heat is absorbed, causing thermal necrosis of the target region. It combines the aggressive benefits of radiation treatment (destroying cancer cells) without the harmful side effects (due to its precise localization). MRI is typically used pre-treatment to determine the targeted area, and post-treatment to determine efficacy by detecting necrotic tissue, or tumor recurrence. However, no system exists to quantitatively evaluate the post-treatment effects on the morphology and structure via MRI. To quantify these changes, the pre- and post-treatment MR images must first be spatially aligned. The goal is to quantify (a) laser-induced shape-based changes, and (b) changes in MRI parameters post-treatment. The shape-based changes may be correlated with treatment efficacy, and the quantitative effects of laser treatment over time is currently poorly understood. This work attempts to model changes in gland morphology following laser treatment due to (1) patient alignment, (2) changes due to surrounding organs such as the bladder and rectum, and (3) changes due to the treatment itself. To isolate the treatment-induced shape-based changes, the changes from (1) and (2) are first modeled and removed using a finite element model (FEM). A FEM models the physical properties of tissue. The use of a physical biomechanical model is important since a stated goal of this work is to determine the physical shape-based changes to the prostate from the treatment, and therefore only physical real deformations are to be allowed. A second FEM is then used to isolate the physical, shape-based, treatment-induced changes. We applied and evaluated our model in capturing the laser induced changes to the prostate morphology on eight patients with 3.0 Tesla, T2-weighted MRI, acquired approximately six months following treatment. Our results suggest the laser treatment causes a decrease in prostate volume

  12. Quantifying Post- Laser Ablation Prostate Therapy Changes on MRI via a Domain-Specific Biomechanical Model: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Toth, Robert; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Focal laser ablation destroys cancerous cells via thermal destruction of tissue by a laser. Heat is absorbed, causing thermal necrosis of the target region. It combines the aggressive benefits of radiation treatment (destroying cancer cells) without the harmful side effects (due to its precise localization). MRI is typically used pre-treatment to determine the targeted area, and post-treatment to determine efficacy by detecting necrotic tissue, or tumor recurrence. However, no system exists to quantitatively evaluate the post-treatment effects on the morphology and structure via MRI. To quantify these changes, the pre- and post-treatment MR images must first be spatially aligned. The goal is to quantify (a) laser-induced shape-based changes, and (b) changes in MRI parameters post-treatment. The shape-based changes may be correlated with treatment efficacy, and the quantitative effects of laser treatment over time is currently poorly understood. This work attempts to model changes in gland morphology following laser treatment due to (1) patient alignment, (2) changes due to surrounding organs such as the bladder and rectum, and (3) changes due to the treatment itself. To isolate the treatment-induced shape-based changes, the changes from (1) and (2) are first modeled and removed using a finite element model (FEM). A FEM models the physical properties of tissue. The use of a physical biomechanical model is important since a stated goal of this work is to determine the physical shape-based changes to the prostate from the treatment, and therefore only physical real deformations are to be allowed. A second FEM is then used to isolate the physical, shape-based, treatment-induced changes. We applied and evaluated our model in capturing the laser induced changes to the prostate morphology on eight patients with 3.0 Tesla, T2-weighted MRI, acquired approximately six months following treatment. Our results suggest the laser treatment causes a decrease in prostate volume

  13. The Efficacy of the Use of Coercion in Getting DWI Offenders into Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) offenders (N=151) identified as alcoholics were coerced to seek treatment for their alcoholism. A follow-up study six months later revealed that these coerced alcoholics did no better or no worse than other alcoholics entering treatment without coercion. (Author/RC)

  14. Clinical features and neuroimaging (CT and MRI) findings in presumed Zika virus related congenital infection and microcephaly: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Coeli, Regina Ramos; Rocha, Maria Angela; Sobral da Silva, Paula; Durce Costa Gomes de Carvalho, Maria; van der Linden, Ana; Cesario de Holanda, Arthur; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report radiological findings observed in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the first cases of congenital infection and microcephaly presumably associated with the Zika virus in the current Brazilian epidemic. Design Retrospective study with a case series. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children (AACD), Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants 23 children with a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Types of abnormalities and the radiological pattern of lesions identified on CT and MRI brain scans. Results Six of the 23 children tested positive for IgM antibodies to Zika virus in cerebrospinal fluid. The other 17 children met the protocol criteria for congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus, even without being tested for IgM antibodies to the virus—the test was not yet available on a routine basis. Of the 23 children, 15 underwent CT, seven underwent both CT and MRI, and one underwent MRI. Of the 22 children who underwent CT, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, 21 (95%) had malformations of cortical development, 20 (91%) had a decreased brain volume, 19 (86%) had ventriculomegaly, and 11 (50%) had hypoplasia of the cerebellum or brainstem. Of the eight children who underwent MRI, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, malformations of cortical development occurring predominantly in the frontal lobes, and ventriculomegaly. Seven of the eight (88%) children had enlarged cisterna magna, seven (88%) delayed myelination, and six each (75%) a moderate to severe decrease in brain volume, simplified gyral pattern, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (38% hypogenesis and 38% hypoplasia). Malformations were symmetrical in 75% of the cases. Conclusion Severe cerebral damage was

  15. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  16. Pilot Study of the Use of Hybrid Multidimensional T2-Weighted Imaging–DWI for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Evaluation of Gleason Score

    PubMed Central

    Sadinski, Meredith; Karczmar, Gregory; Peng, Yahui; Wang, Shiyang; Jiang, Yulei; Medved, Milica; Yousuf, Ambereen; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of a hybrid T2-weighted imaging–DWI sequence for prostate cancer diagnosis and differentiation of aggressive prostate cancer from nonaggressive prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-one patients with prostate cancer who underwent preoperative 3-T MRI and prostatectomy were included in this study. Patients underwent a hybrid T2-weighted imaging–DWI examination consisting of DW images acquired with TEs of 47, 75, and 100 ms and b values of 0 and 750 s/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 were calculated for cancer and normal prostate ROIs at each TE and b value. Changes in ADC and T2 as a function of increasing the TE and b value, respectively, were analyzed. A new metric termed “PQ4” was defined as the percentage of voxels within an ROI that has increasing T2 with increasing b value and has decreasing ADC with increasing TE. RESULTS ADC values were significantly higher in normal ROIs than in cancer ROIs at all TEs (p < 0.0001). With increasing TE, the mean ADC increased 3% in cancer ROIs and increased 12% in normal ROIs. T2 was significantly higher in normal ROIs than in cancer ROIs at both b values (p ≤ 0.0002). The mean T2 decreased with increasing b value in cancer ROIs (ΔT2 = −17 ms) and normal ROIs (ΔT2 = −52 ms). PQ4 clearly differentiated normal ROIs from prostate cancer ROIs (p = 0.0004) and showed significant correlation with Gleason score (ρ = 0.508, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION Hybrid MRI measures the response of ADC and T2 to changing TEs and b values, respectively. This approach shows promise for detecting prostate cancer and determining its aggressiveness noninvasively. PMID:27352026

  17. MRI-induced heating of selected thin wire metallic implants-- laboratory and computational studies-- findings and new questions raised.

    PubMed

    Bassen, H; Kainz, W; Mendoza, G; Kellom, T

    2006-01-01

    We performed experiments and computer modeling of heating of a cardiovascular stent and a straight, thin wire by RF fields in a 1.5 T MRI birdcage coil at 64 MHz. We used ASTM F2182-02a standard and normalized results to 4 W/kg whole body average. We used a rectangular saline-gel filled phantom and a coiled, double stent (Intracoil by ev3 Inc) 11 cm long. The stent had thin electrical insulation except for bare ends (simulating drug eluting coating). The stent and phantom were placed close to the wall of the RF Coil and had approximately 0.5 degrees C initial temperature rise at the ends (local SAR = 320 W/kg). We exposed a wire (24.1 cm, 0.5 mm diameter) with 0.5 mm insulation and saw an 8.6 degrees C temperature rise (local SAR = 5,680 W/kg) at the bare ends. All heating was within 1 mm3 of the ends, so the position of our fiber optic temperature probe was critical for repeatability. Our computational study used finite difference time domain software with a thermodynamics solver. We modeled a coiled bare-wire stent as a spiral with a rectangular cross section and found a maximum increase of 0.05 degrees C induced at the tips for plane wave exposures. A maximum local SAR of up to 200 W/kg occurred in a volume of only 8 x 10(-3) mm. We developed improved computational exposure sources-- optimized birdcage coils and quasi-MRI fields that may eliminate the need to model an RF coil. We learned that local (point) SAR (initial linear temperature rise) is the most reliable indicator of the maximum heating of an implant. Local SAR depends greatly on implant length, insulation and shape, and position in the MRI coil. Accurate heating must be measured with sensors or software having millimeter resolution. Many commercially available fiber optic temperature probes do meet this requirement.

  18. MRI for Assessing Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using DCE-MR and DW-MR Data Sets: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, Mario; Fusco, Roberta; Catalano, Orlando; Sansone, Mario; Avallone, Antonio; Delrio, Paolo; Pecori, Biagio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate MRI for neoadjuvant therapy response assessment in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), we have compared magnetic resonance volumetry based on DCE-MRI (V(DCE)) and on DWI (V(DWI)) scans with conventional T2-weighted volumetry (V(C)) in LARC patients after neoadjuvant therapy. Twenty-nine patients with LARC underwent MR examination before and after neoadjuvant therapy. A manual segmentation was performed on DCE-MR postcontrast images, on DWI (b-value 800 s/mm(2)), and on conventional T2-weighted images by two radiologists. DCE-MRI, DWI, and T2-weigthed volumetric changes before and after treatment were evaluated. Nonparametric sample tests, interobserver agreement, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were performed. Diagnostic performance linked to DCE-MRI volumetric change was superior to T2-w and DW-MRI volumetric changes performance (specificity 86%, sensitivity 93%, and accuracy 93%). Area Under ROC (AUC) of V(DCE) was greater than AUCs of V(C) and V(DWI) resulting in an increase of 15.6% and 11.1%, respectively. Interobserver agreement between two radiologists was 0.977, 0.864, and 0.756 for V(C), V(DCE), and V(DWI), respectively. V(DCE) seems to be a promising tool for therapy response assessment in LARC. Further studies on large series of patients are needed to refine technique and evaluate its potential value. PMID:26413528

  19. MRI for Assessing Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using DCE-MR and DW-MR Data Sets: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Mario; Fusco, Roberta; Catalano, Orlando; Sansone, Mario; Avallone, Antonio; Delrio, Paolo; Pecori, Biagio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate MRI for neoadjuvant therapy response assessment in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), we have compared magnetic resonance volumetry based on DCE-MRI (V(DCE)) and on DWI (V(DWI)) scans with conventional T2-weighted volumetry (V(C)) in LARC patients after neoadjuvant therapy. Twenty-nine patients with LARC underwent MR examination before and after neoadjuvant therapy. A manual segmentation was performed on DCE-MR postcontrast images, on DWI (b-value 800 s/mm2), and on conventional T2-weighted images by two radiologists. DCE-MRI, DWI, and T2-weigthed volumetric changes before and after treatment were evaluated. Nonparametric sample tests, interobserver agreement, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were performed. Diagnostic performance linked to DCE-MRI volumetric change was superior to T2-w and DW-MRI volumetric changes performance (specificity 86%, sensitivity 93%, and accuracy 93%). Area Under ROC (AUC) of V(DCE) was greater than AUCs of V(C) and V(DWI) resulting in an increase of 15.6% and 11.1%, respectively. Interobserver agreement between two radiologists was 0.977, 0.864, and 0.756 for V(C), V(DCE), and V(DWI), respectively. V(DCE) seems to be a promising tool for therapy response assessment in LARC. Further studies on large series of patients are needed to refine technique and evaluate its potential value. PMID:26413528

  20. Non-sclerotic bone involvement in Erdheim-Chester: PET/CT and MRI findings in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa V; Silvester, Nicholas C; Otero, Hansel J

    2016-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multi-organ infiltration that occurs mainly in adults. Pediatric cases are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multisystemic Erdheim-Chester disease in a 15-year-old boy with central nervous system involvement and skeletal findings. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were used to demonstrate characteristic bilateral, symmetrical medullary involvement of the metadiaphyses of long bones in the absence of the classic sclerotic radiographic appearance. This illustrates the potential for earlier diagnosis and visualization of therapeutic response in children.

  1. Non-sclerotic bone involvement in Erdheim-Chester: PET/CT and MRI findings in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa V; Silvester, Nicholas C; Otero, Hansel J

    2016-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multi-organ infiltration that occurs mainly in adults. Pediatric cases are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multisystemic Erdheim-Chester disease in a 15-year-old boy with central nervous system involvement and skeletal findings. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were used to demonstrate characteristic bilateral, symmetrical medullary involvement of the metadiaphyses of long bones in the absence of the classic sclerotic radiographic appearance. This illustrates the potential for earlier diagnosis and visualization of therapeutic response in children. PMID:27028532

  2. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool.

  3. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool. PMID:26496803

  4. Carpal boss in chronic wrist pain and its association with partial osseous coalition and osteoarthritis - A case report with focus on MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Poh, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The carpal boss is a bony prominence at the dorsal aspect of the 2(nd) and/or 3(rd) carpometacarpal joint, which has been linked to various etiologies, including trauma, os styloideum, osteophyte formation, and partial osseous coalition. It may result in symptoms through secondary degeneration, ganglion formation, bursitis, or extensor tendon abnormalities by altered biomechanics of wrist motion. We present a case of symptomatic carpal boss with the finding of a partial osseous coalition at the 2(nd) carpometacarpal (metacarpal-trapezoid) joint and highlight the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of carpal boss impingement and secondary osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature describing the imaging findings of partial osseous coalition and degenerative osteoarthritis in relation to carpal boss.

  5. Brain MRI abnormalities and spectrum of neurological and clinical findings in three patients with proximal 16p11.2 microduplication.

    PubMed

    Filges, Isabel; Sparagana, Steven; Sargent, Michael; Selby, Kathryn; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; Lueder, Gregg T; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Shimony, Joshua S; Shinawi, Marwan

    2014-08-01

    The phenotype of recurrent ∼600 kb microdeletion and microduplication on proximal 16p11.2 is characterized by a spectrum of neurodevelopmental impairments including developmental delay and intellectual disability, epilepsy, autism and psychiatric disorders which are all subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. A variety of brain MRI abnormalities were reported in patients with 16p11.2 rearrangements, but no systematic correlation has been studied among patients with similar brain anomalies, their neurodevelopmental and clinical phenotypes. We present three patients with the proximal 16p11.2 microduplication exhibiting significant developmental delay, anxiety disorder and other variable clinical features. Our patients have abnormal brain MRI findings of cerebral T2 hyperintense foci (3/3) and ventriculomegaly (2/3). The neuroradiological or neurological findings in two cases prompted an extensive diagnostic work-up. One patient has exhibited neurological regression and progressive vision impairment and was diagnosed with juvenile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis. We compare the clinical course and phenotype of these patients in regard to the clinical significance of the cerebral lesions and the need for MRI surveillance. We conclude that in all three patients the lesions were not progressive, did not show any sign of malignant transformation and could not be correlated to specific clinical features. We discuss potential etiologic mechanisms that may include overexpression of genes within the duplicated region involved in control of cell proliferation and complex molecular mechanisms such as the MAPK/ERK pathway. Systematic studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm our observation and to establish the prevalence and clinical significance of these neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with 16p11.2 duplications. PMID:24891046

  6. Investigating effective brain connectivity from fMRI data: past findings and current issues with reference to Granger causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between brain regions have been recognized as a critical ingredient required to understand brain function. Two modes of interactions have held prominence-synchronization and causal influence. Efforts to ascertain causal influence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have relied primarily on confirmatory model-driven approaches, such as dynamic causal modeling and structural equation modeling, and exploratory data-driven approaches such as Granger causality analysis. A slew of recent articles have focused on the relative merits and caveats of these approaches. The relevant studies can be classified into simulations, theoretical developments, and experimental results. In the first part of this review, we will consider each of these themes and critically evaluate their arguments, with regard to Granger causality analysis. Specifically, we argue that simulations are bounded by the assumptions and simplifications made by the simulator, and hence must be regarded only as a guide to experimental design and should not be viewed as the final word. On the theoretical front, we reason that each of the improvements to existing, yet disparate, methods brings them closer to each other with the hope of eventually leading to a unified framework specifically designed for fMRI. We then review latest experimental results that demonstrate the utility and validity of Granger causality analysis under certain experimental conditions. In the second part, we will consider current issues in causal connectivity analysis-hemodynamic variability, sampling, instantaneous versus causal relationship, and task versus resting states. We highlight some of our own work regarding these issues showing the effect of hemodynamic variability and sampling on Granger causality. Further, we discuss recent techniques such as the cubature Kalman filtering, which can perform blind deconvolution of the hemodynamic response robustly well, and hence enabling wider application of

  7. Investigating Effective Brain Connectivity from fMRI Data: Past Findings and Current Issues with Reference to Granger Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Interactions between brain regions have been recognized as a critical ingredient required to understand brain function. Two modes of interactions have held prominence—synchronization and causal influence. Efforts to ascertain causal influence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have relied primarily on confirmatory model-driven approaches, such as dynamic causal modeling and structural equation modeling, and exploratory data-driven approaches such as Granger causality analysis. A slew of recent articles have focused on the relative merits and caveats of these approaches. The relevant studies can be classified into simulations, theoretical developments, and experimental results. In the first part of this review, we will consider each of these themes and critically evaluate their arguments, with regard to Granger causality analysis. Specifically, we argue that simulations are bounded by the assumptions and simplifications made by the simulator, and hence must be regarded only as a guide to experimental design and should not be viewed as the final word. On the theoretical front, we reason that each of the improvements to existing, yet disparate, methods brings them closer to each other with the hope of eventually leading to a unified framework specifically designed for fMRI. We then review latest experimental results that demonstrate the utility and validity of Granger causality analysis under certain experimental conditions. In the second part, we will consider current issues in causal connectivity analysis—hemodynamic variability, sampling, instantaneous versus causal relationship, and task versus resting states. We highlight some of our own work regarding these issues showing the effect of hemodynamic variability and sampling on Granger causality. Further, we discuss recent techniques such as the cubature Kalman filtering, which can perform blind deconvolution of the hemodynamic response robustly well, and hence enabling wider

  8. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  9. Diffusion-weighted MRI of breast lesions: a prospective clinical investigation of the quantitative imaging biomarker characteristics of reproducibility, repeatability, and diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Spick, Claudio; Bickel, Hubert; Pinker, Katja; Bernathova, Maria; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Woitek, Ramona; Clauser, Paola; Polanec, Stephan H; Rudas, Margaretha; Bartsch, Rupert; Helbich, Thomas H; Baltzer, Pascal A

    2016-10-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) provides insights into tissue microstructure by visualization and quantification of water diffusivity. Quantitative evaluation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained from DWI has been proven helpful for differentiating between malignant and benign breast lesions, for cancer subtyping in breast cancer patients, and for prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, to further establish DWI of breast lesions it is important to evaluate the quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) characteristics of reproducibility, repeatability, and diagnostic accuracy. In this intra-individual prospective clinical study 40 consecutive patients with suspicious findings, scheduled for biopsy, underwent an identical 3T breast MRI protocol of the breast on two consecutive days (>24 h). Mean ADC of target lesions was assessed (two independent readers) in four separate sessions. Reproducibility, repeatability, and diagnostic accuracy between examinations (E1, E2), readers (R1, R2), and measurements (M1, M2) were assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficients of variation (CVs), Bland-Altman plots, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with calculation of the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The standard of reference was either histopathology (n = 38) or imaging follow-up of up to 24 months (n = 2). Eighty breast MRI examinations (median E1-E2, 2 ± 1.7 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1-2 days, range 1-11 days) in 40 patients (mean age 56, standard deviation (SD) ±14) were evaluated. In 55 target lesions (mean size 25.2 ± 20.8 (SD) mm, range 6-106 mm), mean ADC values were significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in benign (1.38, 95% CI 1.27-1.49 × 10(-3)  mm(2) /s) compared with malignant (0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.91 × 10(-) (3)  mm(2) /s) lesions. Reproducibility and repeatability showed high agreement for repeated examinations, readers, and measurements (all ICCs >0.9, CVs 3

  10. Relationship between diffusion parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion MRI and perfusion measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Simona; Stefanetti, Linda; Sperati, Francesca; Anelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the link between diffusion parameters measured by intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the perfusion metrics obtained with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in soft tissue tumors (STTs). Twenty-eight patients affected by histopathologically confirmed STT were included in a prospective study. All patients underwent both DCE MRI and IVIM DWI. The perfusion fraction f, diffusion coefficient D and perfusion-related diffusion coefficient D* were estimated using a bi-exponential function to fit the DWI data. DCE MRI was acquired with a temporal resolution of 3-5 s. Maps of the initial area under the gadolinium concentration curve (IAUGC), time to peak (TTP) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were derived using commercial software. The relationships between the DCE MRI and IVIM DWI measurements were assessed by Spearman's test. To exclude false positive results under multiple testing, the false discovery rate (FDR) procedure was applied. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the differences between all variables in patients with non-myxoid and myxoid STT. No significant relationship was found between IVIM parameters and any DCE MRI parameters. Higher f and D*f values were found in non-myxoid tumors compared with myxoid tumors (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). MSI was significantly higher in non-myxoid tumors than in myxoid tumors (p = 0.029). From the visual assessments of single clinical cases, both f and D*f maps were in satisfactory agreement with DCE maps in the extreme cases of an avascular mass and a highly vascularized mass, whereas, for tumors with slight vascularity or with a highly heterogeneous perfusion pattern, this association was not straightforward. Although IVIM DWI was demonstrated to be feasible in STT, our data did not support evident relationships between perfusion-related IVIM parameters and perfusion measured by DCE MRI.

  11. Exome sequencing reveals a novel WDR45 frameshift mutation and inherited POLR3A heterozygous variants in a female with a complex phenotype and mixed brain MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Naffaa, Lena

    2015-08-01

    WDR45 and POLR3A are newly recognized genes; each is associated with a distinct neurodegenerative disease. WDR45 is an X-linked gene associated with a dominant form of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), manifested by progressive disabilities, dystonia, cognitive decline, spastic paraplegia, neuropsychiatric abnormalities and iron deposition in the basal ganglia on brain imaging. POLR3A, on the other hand, is an autosomal gene, and its mutations cause a recessive form of a hypomyelination with leukodystrophy disease, also known as 4H syndrome, characterized by congenital Hypomyelination with thinning of the corpus callosum, Hypodontia and Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism. We report on a female child with severe intellectual disability, aphasia, short stature, ataxia, failure to thrive and structural brain abnormalities. Brain MRI obtained in late infancy showed hypomyelination involving the central periventricular white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum with no evidence of iron accumulation. Brain MRI obtained in childhood showed stable hypomyelination, with progressive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia, in particular in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) identified a novel WDR45 frameshift deleterious mutation in Exon 9 (c.587-588del) and also revealed three POLR3A missense heterozygous variants. The first is a maternally inherited novel missense variant in exon 4 (c.346A > G). Exon 13 carried two heterozygous missense variants, a maternally inherited variant (c.1724A > T) and a paternally inherited variant (1745G > A). These variants are considered likely damaging. The patient's complex clinical phenotype and mixed brain MRI findings might be attributed to the confounding effects of the expression of these two mutant genes.

  12. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  13. Associations between the properties of the cartilage matrix and findings from quantitative MRI in human osteoarthritic cartilage of the knee.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Du, Xiaotao; Liu, Jun; Mao, Fengyong; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Shuai; Xu, Yan; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the properties of the cartilage matrix and the results of T2 mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dGEMRIC) in human knee osteoarthritic cartilage. Osteochondral samples were harvested from the middle part of the femoral condyle and tibial plateaus of 20 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) during total knee arthroplasty. Sagittal T2 mapping, T1pre, and T1Gd were performed using 7.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution was evaluated by OARSI, collagen anisotropy was assessed by polarized light microscopy (PLM), and biochemical analyses measured water, GAG, and collagen content. Associations between properties of the cartilage matrix and T2 and ΔR1 (1/T1Gd-1/T1pre) values were explored using correlation analysis. T2 and ΔR1 values were significantly correlated with the degree of cartilage degeneration (OARSI grade; Ρ = 0.53 and 0.77). T2 values were significantly correlated with water content (r = 0.69; P < 0.001), GAG content (r = -0.43; P < 0.001), and PLM grade (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), but not with collagen content (r = -0.02; P = 0.110). ΔR1 values were significantly correlated with GAG content (r = -0.84; P < 0.001) and PLM grade (r = 0.41; P < 0.001). Taken together, T2 mapping and dGEMRIC results were correlated with the properties of the cartilage matrix in human knee osteoarthritic cartilage. Combination T2 mapping and dGEMRIC represents a potential non-invasive monitoring technique to detect the progress of knee OA. PMID:26097577

  14. DWI based thermometry: the effects of b-values, resolutions, signal-to-noise ratio, and magnet strength.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Koji; Sakamoto, Ryo; Okada, Tomohisa; Sugimoto, Naozo; Togashi, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    Among MR methods, the most clinically applicable temperature measurement method at deep brain might be the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) thermometry. Although only applicable to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), it is thought to be potentially useful in assessing the thermal pathophysiology of the brain in both patients and healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of b-value, pixel resolution, magnet strength and signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the DWI-thermometry with healthy volunteer. Formerly, an ADC from b=0 and b=1000 has been thought to be useful for diffusion thermometry, this study revealed b=200 to 800 was more appropriate for DWI thermometry. The SNR was strongly affected the results of DWI thermometry.

  15. High b value DWI in evaluation of the hyperacute cerebral ischemia at 3T: A comparative study in an embolic canine stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qiguang; Xu, Xiaoquan; Zu, Qingquan; Lu, Shanshan; Yu, Jing; Liu, Xinglong; Wang, Bin; Shi, Haibin; Teng, Gaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the temporal change of relative diffusion weighted imaging (rDWI) signal intensity may help to determine the onset time of a stroke. Furthermore, several studies have indicated that high b value DWI offered improved detection rates for hyper-acute ischemic lesions compared with standard b value DWI. However, the temporal changes of the rDWI on high b value DWI remain unclear. Therefore, based on our embolic canine stroke model, we evaluated the temporal evolution of rDWI on high b value DWI, and further compared its diagnostic value in predicting the onset time of ischemic stroke with rDWI on standard b value DWI. Twelve canine MCAO models were established, and DWI was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after MCAO, with 3 b values of 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000. High b value DWI detected all ischemic lesions after 1 h, while standard b value did not detect the ischemic lesions in one dog at 1 h. With all three of the tested b values, rDWIs increased continuously within 6 h, while relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) values rapidly decreased in 1 h, then became relatively stable. The area under the curve values for rDWI with b value of 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000, in predicting ischemic lesions within 3 h were 0.897, 0.929 and 0.938, while for rADC were 0.645, 0.583 and 0.599, respectively. Therefore, the results indicated that the rDWI was helpful in aging hyper-acute ischemic stroke, while rADC appeared not to be. High b value DWI had a higher detection rate for ischemic lesions and better predictive efficacy in determining the onset time of hyper-acute stroke. PMID:27446301

  16. Do Women with Fragile X Syndrome Have Problems in Switching Attention: Preliminary Findings from ERP and fMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Swainson, Rachel; Cunnington, Ross; Wilding, John; Morris, Peter; Jackson, Georgina

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that represents the most common known cause of developmental delay. Recent neuropsychological findings indicate that females with FXS present with a specific pattern of cognitive deficits and that these difficulties primarily involve skills requiring executive control. The present study is…

  17. An unusual case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a previously healthy pregnant patient: radiographic, CT, and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Paruthikunnan, Samir; Shankar, Balasubramanyam; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Jain, Harshwardhan

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous protozoal infection that during pregnancy commonly affects the fetus severely, with maternal infection usually being mild self-limiting. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a healthy pregnant woman has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. We present a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis involving pulmonary, central nervous system, and lymph nodes in a pregnant woman and imaging findings on radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Evaluation of three inverse problem models to quantify skin microcirculation using diffusion-weighted MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, G.; Choi, J.; Raguin, L. G.

    2008-11-01

    Skin microcirculation plays an important role in diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency and diabetes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide quantitative information with a better penetration depth than other noninvasive methods, such as laser Doppler flowmetry or optical coherence tomography. Moreover, successful MRI skin studies have recently been reported. In this article, we investigate three potential inverse models to quantify skin microcirculation using diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), also known as q-space MRI. The model parameters are estimated based on nonlinear least-squares (NLS). For each of the three models, an optimal DWI sampling scheme is proposed based on D-optimality in order to minimize the size of the confidence region of the NLS estimates and thus the effect of the experimental noise inherent to DWI. The resulting covariance matrices of the NLS estimates are predicted by asymptotic normality and compared to the ones computed by Monte-Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed models and corresponding DWI sampling schemes as compared to conventional approaches.

  19. Relation of behavior problems with findings of cranial diffusion tensor MRI and MR spectroscopy in autistic children

    PubMed Central

    Ogur, Torel; Boyunaga, Oznur Leman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate any relation of behavior problems with cranial Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) findings in autism spectrum disorders. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 males children (12 autistic patients and 8 healthy controls) was examined by cranial DTI and MRS. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was used to calculate the irritability, lethargy-social withdrawal, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity, and speech disorder scores for each patient. The results of MRS and DTI were evaluated together with the ABC scores. Results: Fractional anisotropy (FA) values demonstrated significant decreases in the left frontoparietal white matter, anterior limb of the right internal capsule, and left middle cerebellar peduncle as the behavior problem scores elevated (P < 0.05). With the exception of social withdrawal, as the behavior problem scores increased, metabolite levels increased, as well. Conclusion: The positive correlation between the MRS findings, behavior problem scores, and metabolite levels suggests the presence of a dysfunction leading to hypo and hyper neuronal function in various locations. Reduced FA values in DTI and negative correlation of behavior problems with FA values in the contralateral hemisphere, may indicate reduced myelination and abnormal axonal organization. PMID:26131145

  20. Focal and Generalized Patterns of Cerebral Cortical Veins Due to Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus or Prolonged Seizure Episode after Convulsive Status Epilepticus – A MRI Study Using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajeev Kumar; Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar; Krestel, Heinz; Springer, Elisabeth; Huber, Adrian; Weisstanner, Christian; Hauf, Martinus; Gralla, Jan; Wiest, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate variant patterns of cortical venous oxygenation during status epilepticus (SE) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 26 patients with clinically witnessed prolonged seizures and/or EEG-confirmed SE. All MRI exams encompassed SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (MRI-DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We aimed to identify distinct patterns of SWI signal alterations that revealed regional or global increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and DWI restrictions. We hypothesized that SWI-related oxygenation patterns reflect ictal or postictal patterns that resemble SE or sequelae of seizures. Results Sixteen patients were examined during nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) as confirmed by EEG, a further ten patients suffered from witnessed and prolonged seizure episode ahead of imaging without initial EEG. MRI patterns of 15 of the 26 patients revealed generalized hyperoxygenation by SWI in keeping with either global or multifocal cortical hyperperfusion. Eight patients revealed a focal hyperoxygenation pattern related to focal CBF increase and three patients showed a focal deoxygenation pattern related to focal CBF decrease. Conclusions SWI-related hyper- and deoxygenation patterns resemble ictal and postictal CBF changes within a range from globally increased to focally decreased perfusion. In all 26 patients the SWI patterns were in keeping with ictal hyperperfusion (hyperoxygenation patterns) or postictal hypoperfusion (deoxygenation patterns) respectively. A new finding of this study is that cortical venous patterns in SWI can be not only focally, but globally attenuated. SWI may thus be considered as an alternative contrast-free MR sequence to identify perfusion changes related to ictal or postictal conditions. PMID:27486662

  1. Encephalopathy and Neuropathy due to Glue, Paint Thinner, and Gasoline Sniffing in Trinidad and Tobago-MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Ramesar, Amrit; Ramdath, Moshanti; Teelucksingh, Joel; Gosein, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old male petrol station pump attendant was admitted with ataxia and clinical evidence of a sensorimotor polyneuropathy which developed over the preceding 3 months. He had cognitive dysfunction, hearing loss, and cerebellar clinical abnormalities that came on slowly over the three years. He had a fifteen-year history of sniffing mostly glue, occasionally paint thinners, and, in the recent two years, gasoline. Magnetic resonance brain imaging showed abnormalities of the cerebral cortex, cerebral white matter, corpus callosum, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, hypointensities of basal ganglia, red nuclei, and substantia nigra as previously described in toluene sniffing. Abstinence for six months led to partial clinical improvement. Clinicians need to be aware of this preventable entity which has peculiar radiological findings which are being increasingly accepted as typical. PMID:25045557

  2. The role of diffusion-weighted echo planar MRI in central nervous system infections regarding etiopathogeneses.

    PubMed

    Kıroğlu, Yılmaz; Karabulut, Nevzat; Alkan, Alpay

    2010-12-01

    Neuroimaging constitutes an important component in the diagnosis of the underlying infectious agents in central nervous system (CNS) infections. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS diseases remains a challenge. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used in routine practice to identify abnormal areas involved in CNS infections. More recent MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), provide additional helpful information in the assessment of CNS infectious lesions compared with conventional MRI. This pictorial essay summarizes the clinical role of DWI in the demonstration of CNS infections including meningitis, encephalitis and pyogenic infections, and determination of the lesions compared with conventional MRI on the basis of physiopathologic phases of the infections.

  3. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  4. Prevalence of adjacent segment disc degeneration in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion based on pre-operative MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Lundine, Kristopher M; Davis, Gavin; Rogers, Myron; Staples, Margaret; Quan, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical treatment for symptomatic cervical spondylosis. Some patients develop symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration, occasionally requiring further treatment. The cause and prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration and disease is unclear at present. Proponents for motion preserving surgery such as disc arthroplasty argue that this technique may decrease the "strain" on adjacent discs and thus decrease the incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of this study was to assess the pre-operative prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration in patients undergoing ACDF. A database review of three surgeons' practice was carried out to identify patients who had undergone a one- or two-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease. Patients were excluded if they were operated on for recent trauma, had an inflammatory arthropathy (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), or had previous spine surgery. The pre-operative MRI of each patient was reviewed and graded using a standardised methodology. One hundred and six patient MRI studies were reviewed. All patients showed some evidence of intervertebral disc degeneration adjacent to the planned operative segment(s). Increased severity of disc degeneration was associated with increased age and operative level, but was not associated with sagittal alignment. Disc degeneration was more common at levels adjacent to the surgical level than at non-adjacent segments, and was more severe at the superior adjacent level compared with the inferior adjacent level. These findings support the theory that adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF is due in part to the natural history of cervical spondylosis.

  5. [Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome with a Pro102Leu mutation in the prion protein gene and atypical MRI findings, hyperthermia, tachycardia, and hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Imaiso, Y; Mitsuo, K

    1998-01-01

    A 64-year-old Japanese woman with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is reported. She was admitted to our hospital for progressive amnesia, twitching of the right upper limb, and difficulty in speaking and walking for 5 months. Physical examination revealed a fever, tachycardia, and hyperhidrosis without any evidence of inflammation or infection. Neurological examinations demonstrated dementia, frontal lobe signs, and spontaneous myoclonus. She developed akinetic mutism 4 months later. The levels of neuron-specific enolase and 14-3-3 protein were elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid, and serial EEG showed periodic synchronous discharges. DNA analysis of the prion protein gene revealed a Pro102Leu mutation and therefore she was diagnosed as GSS102. Head MRI showed abnormal high signal intensity by T2 weighted image in bilateral caudate nuclei, putamen, frontal lobes, and white matter around the posterior horn of lateral ventricles at admission, and extension to global cerebral cortex and diffuse deep white matter with marked atrophy of bilateral frontal and cerebellar cortices 4 months later. In 123I-IMP SPECT study, uptake of RI decreased slightly only in left frontal region at admission, but decreased markedly in bilateral frontal region 4 months later. Analysis of autonomic function (analysis of noradrenarine in plasma and urine, coefficient of variation of R-R intervals before and after giving atenolol, Aschner's eyeball pressure test, intracutaneous atropine and adrenaline injection test) revealed sympathetic hyperactivity but normal parasympathetic activity. This is a very rare case of GSS102 with atypical MRI findings and clinical features like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease rather than GSS102, presenting hyperthermia, tachycardia, and hyperhidrosis caused presumably by sympathetic hyperactivity as well as fatal familial insomnia. Therefore it is suggested that some factors besides the codon mutation in the prion protein gene may influence clinical

  6. Prostate MRI can reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Taneja, Samir S

    2015-08-01

    The contemporary management of prostate cancer (PCa) has been criticized as fostering overdetection and overtreatment of indolent disease. In particular, the historical inability to identify those men with an elevated PSA who truly warrant biopsy, and, for those needing biopsy, to localize aggressive tumors within the prostate, has contributed to suboptimal diagnosis and treatment strategies. This article describes how modern multi-parametric MRI of the prostate addresses such challenges and reduces both overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The central role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in contributing to MRI's current impact is described. Prostate MRI incorporating DWI achieves higher sensitivity than standard systematic biopsy for intermediate-to-high risk tumor, while having lower sensitivity for low-grade tumors that are unlikely to impact longevity. Particular applications of prostate MRI that are explored include selection of a subset of men with clinical suspicion of PCa to undergo biopsy as well as reliable confirmation of only low-risk disease in active surveillance patients. Various challenges to redefining the standard of care to incorporate solely MRI-targeted cores, without concomitant standard systematic cores, are identified. These include needs for further technical optimization of current systems for performing MRI-targeted biopsies, enhanced education and expertise in prostate MRI among radiologists, greater standardization in prostate MRI reporting across centers, and recognition of the roles of pre-biopsy MRI and MRI-targeted biopsy by payers. Ultimately, it is hoped that the medical community in the United States will embrace prostate MRI and MRI-targeted biopsy, allowing all patients with known or suspected prostate cancer to benefit from this approach.

  7. Quantification of diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC) in the detection of acute stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulipano, P. Karina; Millar, William S.; Imielinska, Celina; Liu, Xin; Rosiene, Joel; D'Ambrosio, Anthony L.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an imaging modality that is used in the management and diagnosis of acute stroke. Common MR imaging techniques such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC) are used routinely in the diagnosis of acute infarcts. However, advances in radiology information systems and imaging protocols have led to an overload of image information that can be difficult to manage and time consuming. Automated techniques to assist in the identification of acute ischemic stroke can prove beneficial to 1) the physician by providing a mechanism for early detection and 2) the patient by providing effective stroke therapy at an early stage. We have processed DW images and ADC maps using a novel automated Relative Difference Map (RDM) method that was tailored to the identification and delineation of the stroke region. Results indicate that the technique can delineate regions of acute infarctions on DW images and ADC maps. A formal evaluation of the RDM algorithm was performed by comparing accuracy measurements between 1) expert generated ground truths with the RDM delineated DWI infarcts and 2) RDM delineated DWI infarcts with RDM delineated ADC infarcts. The accuracy measurements indicate that the RDM delineated DWI infarcts are comparable to the expert generated ground truths. The true positive volume fraction value (TPVF), between RDM delineated DWI and ADC infarcts, is nonzero for all cases with an acute infarct while the value for non-acute cases remains zero.

  8. MRI brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are expected to be allowed to request MRI scans for adults for selected clinically appropriate indications from November 2013 as part of the expansion of Medicare-funded MRI services announced by the Federal Government in 2011. This article aims to give a brief overview of MRI brain imaging relevant to GPs, which will facilitate explanation of scan findings and management planning with their patients. Basic imaging techniques, common findings and terminology are presented using some illustrative case examples.

  9. Additional Value of Diffusion-weighted MRI to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Hepatic MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastasis: the Difference Depending on the Experience of the Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Higaki, Toru; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Iida, Makoto; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study was to investigate whether adding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) improved the detection of liver metastasis in radiology resident and board-certified radiologist groups. It was approved by our institutional review board. We selected 18 patients with 35 liver metastases and 12 patients without liver tumors. Five board-certified radiologists and 5 radiology residents participated in the observer performance study. Each observer first interpreted T1- and T2-weighted-, plain-, arterial phase-, and hepatobiliary phase images and specified the location of the liver metastases. The software subsequently displayed the DWI images simultaneously and all participants repeated the reading. We used Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis to compare the observer performance in detecting liver metastases. The mean values for the area under the curve (AUC) for EOB-MRI without and with DWI were 0.78 ± 0.13 [standard deviation: SD] and 0.87 ± 0.09, respectively, for the radiology residents, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.045). For the board- certified radiologists these values were 0.92 ± 0.02 and 0.96 ± 0.01, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.092). EOB-MRI with DWI significantly improved the performance of radiology residents in the identification of liver metastases.

  10. Additional Value of Diffusion-weighted MRI to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Hepatic MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastasis: the Difference Depending on the Experience of the Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Higaki, Toru; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Iida, Makoto; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study was to investigate whether adding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) improved the detection of liver metastasis in radiology resident and board-certified radiologist groups. It was approved by our institutional review board. We selected 18 patients with 35 liver metastases and 12 patients without liver tumors. Five board-certified radiologists and 5 radiology residents participated in the observer performance study. Each observer first interpreted T1- and T2-weighted-, plain-, arterial phase-, and hepatobiliary phase images and specified the location of the liver metastases. The software subsequently displayed the DWI images simultaneously and all participants repeated the reading. We used Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis to compare the observer performance in detecting liver metastases. The mean values for the area under the curve (AUC) for EOB-MRI without and with DWI were 0.78 ± 0.13 [standard deviation: SD] and 0.87 ± 0.09, respectively, for the radiology residents, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.045). For the board- certified radiologists these values were 0.92 ± 0.02 and 0.96 ± 0.01, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.092). EOB-MRI with DWI significantly improved the performance of radiology residents in the identification of liver metastases. PMID:26211220

  11. Gradient echo MRI

    PubMed Central

    Copenhaver, B R.; Shin, J; Warach, S; Butman, J A.; Saver, J L.; Kidwell, C S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that gradient echo (GRE) MRI sequences are as accurate as CT for the detection of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the context of acute stroke. However, many physicians who currently read acute stroke imaging studies may be unfamiliar with interpretation of GRE images. Methods: An NIH Web-based training program was developed including a pretest, tutorial, and posttest. Physicians involved in the care of acute stroke patients were encouraged to participate. The tutorial covered acute, chronic, and mimic hemorrhages as they appear on CT, diffusion-weighted imaging, and GRE sequences. Ability of users to identify ICH presence, type, and age on GRE was compared from the pretest to posttest timepoint. Results: A total of 104 users completed the tutorial. Specialties represented included general radiology (42%), general neurology (16%), neuroradiology (15%), stroke neurology (14%), emergency medicine (1%), and other (12%). Median overall score improved pretest to posttest from 66.7% to 83.3%, p < 0.001. Improvement by category was as follows: acute ICH, 66.7%–100%, p < 0.001; chronic ICH, 33.3%–66.7%, p < 0.001; ICH negatives/mimics, 100%–100%, p = 0.787. Sensitivity for identification of acute hemorrhage improved from 68.2% to 96.4%. Conclusions: Physicians involved in acute stroke care achieved significant improvement in gradient echo (GRE) hemorrhage interpretation after completing the NIH GRE MRI tutorial. This indicates that a Web-based tutorial may be a viable option for the widespread education of physicians to achieve an acceptable level of diagnostic accuracy at reading GRE MRI, thus enabling confident acute stroke treatment decisions. GLOSSARY AHA/ASA = American Heart Association/American Stroke Association; CME = continuing medical education; DWI = diffusion-weighted imaging; GRE = gradient echo; ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage; tPA = tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:19414724

  12. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential-functional MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan K; Jimenez, Amy M; Roach, Brian J; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Ford, Judith M; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26448909

  13. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential–functional MRI analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan K.; Jimenez, Amy M.; Roach, Brian J.; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P.; Ford, Judith M.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26448909

  14. Computer Aided Detection of Prostate Cancer Using T2, DWI and DCE MRI: Methods and Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Henkjan; Vos, Pieter; Litjens, Geert; Hambrock, Thomas; Barentsz, Jelle

    One in 10 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their life. PSA screening in combination with MR is likely to save lifes at low biopsy and overtreatment rates. Computer Aided Diagnosis for prostate MR will become mandatory in a high volume screening application. This paper presents an overview including our recent work in this area. It includes screening MR setup, quantitative imaging features, prostate segmentation, and pattern recognition.

  15. Randomized Comparison of Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) with Surgical Treatment in Patients with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids (REST Trial): Subanalysis of 5-Year MRI Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; Murray, Lilian; Ritchie, Moira; Murray, Gordon; Bryden, Fiona; Lassman, Sue; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Moss, Jon G.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To report 5-year contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings of the REST trial recruits who underwent either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. Methods. A total of 157 patients were randomized to UAE or surgery (hysterectomy or myomectomy). Ninety-nine patients who had UAE and eight patients who had myomectomy were analyzed. MRI scans at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years were independently interpreted by two radiologists. Dominant fibroid diameter, uterine volume, total fibroid infarction (complete 100 %, almost complete 90-99 %, partial <90 %), and new fibroid formation were the main parameters assessed and related to the need for reintervention. Results. In the UAE group, mean {+-} standard deviation uterine volume was 670 {+-} 503, 422 {+-} 353, and 292 {+-} 287 mL at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years, respectively. Mean dominant fibroid diameter was 7.6 {+-} 3.0, 5.8 {+-} 2.9, and 5 {+-} 2.9 cm at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years. Fibroid infarction at 6 months was complete in 35 % of women, almost complete in 29 %, and partial in 36 %. Need for reintervention was 19, 10, and 33 % in these groups, respectively (p = 0.123). No myomectomy cases had further intervention. At 5 years, the prevalence of new fibroid was 60 % in the myomectomy group and 7 % in the UAE group (p = 0.008). Conclusion. There is a further significant reduction in both uterine volume and dominant fibroid diameter between 6 months and 5 years after UAE. Complete fibroid infarction does not translate into total freedom from a subsequent reintervention. New fibroid formation is significantly higher after myomectomy.

  16. Radiologic Findings and Risk Factors of Adjacent Segment Degeneration after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion : A Retrospective Matched Cohort Study with 3-Year Follow-Up Using MRI

    PubMed Central

    So, Wan-Soo; Ku, Min-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Byung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to figure out the radiologic findings and risk factors related to adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using 3-year follow-up radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance image (MRI). Methods A retrospective matched comparative study was performed for 64 patients who underwent single-level ACDF with a cage and plate. Radiologic parameters, including upper segment range of motion (USROM), lower segment range of motion (LSROM), upper segment disc height (UDH), and lower segment disc height (LDH), clinical outcomes assessed with neck and arm visual analogue scale (VAS), and risk factors were analyzed. Results Patients were categorized into the ASD (32 patients) and non-ASD (32 patients) group. The decrease of UDH was significantly greater in the ASD group at each follow-up visit. At 36 months postoperatively, the difference for USROM value from the preoperative one significantly increased in the ASD group than non-ASD group. Preoperative other segment degeneration was significantly associated with the increased incidence of ASD at 36 months. However, pain intensity for the neck and arm was not significantly different between groups at any post-operative follow-up visit. Conclusion The main factor affecting ASD is preoperative other segment degeneration out of the adjacent segment. In addition, patients over the age of 50 are at higher risk of developing ASD. Although there was definite radiologic degeneration in the ASD group, no significant difference was observed between the ASD and non-ASD groups in terms of the incidence of symptomatic disease. PMID:26962418

  17. MRI and low back pain

    MedlinePlus

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  18. Analysis of factors influencing the degree of detectability on diffusion-weighted MRI and diffusion background signals in patients with invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Soo Yeon; Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Lim, Yaeji; Gu, Seonhye; Ko, Eun Young

    2016-07-01

    To determine the factors influencing the degree of detectability of lesions and diffusion background signals on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in invasive breast cancer.Institutional review board approval was obtained and patient consent was waived. Patients with newly diagnosed invasive ductal carcinoma, who underwent preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging with DWI were included in this study (n = 167). Lesion detectability on DWI and contrast-enhanced subtracted T1-weighted images, the degree of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and diffusion background signal were qualitatively rated. Detectability of lesions on DWI was compared with clinicopathological findings including menopausal status, mammographic density, and molecular subtype of breast cancer. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine variables independently associated with detectability of lesions on DWI and diffusion background signals.Univariate analysis showed that the detectability of lesions on DWI was significantly associated with lesion size (P = 0.001), diffuse background signal (P < 0.0001), and higher detectability scores for contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images (P = 0.000). The degree of diffusion background signal was significantly affected by age (P < 0.0001), BPE (P < 0.0001), mammographic density (P = 0.002), and menopausal status (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the diffusion background signal (P < 0.0001) and histologic grade (P < 0.0001) were correlated with the detectability on DWI of invasive breast cancer. Only BPE was correlated with the amount of diffusion background signal on DWI (P < 0.0001).For invasive breast cancers, detectability on DWI was significantly affected by the diffusion background signal. BPE, menopausal status, menstrual cycle, or mammographic density did not show statistically significant correlation with the diffusion detectability of lesions on DWI. PMID

  19. Detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with diffusion weighted MRI after (chemo)radiotherapy: Correlation between radiologic and histopathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Vandecaveye, Vincent; Keyzer, Frederik de; Nuyts, Sandra; Deraedt, Karen; Dirix, Piet; Hamaekers, Pascal; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Delaere, Pierre; Hermans, Robert . E-mail: Robert.Hermans@uzleuven.be

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating persistent or recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from nontumoral postradiotherapeutic alterations. Methods and Materials: In 26 patients with suspicion of persistent or recurrent HNSCC, MRI of the head and neck was performed, including routine turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences and an additional echo-planar DW-MRI sequence, using a large range of b-values (0-1000 s/mm{sup 2}). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated. In the suspect areas at the primary site and in the suspect lymph nodes, signal intensity was measured on the native b0 and b1000 images and ADC values were calculated for these tissues. The same was done for surrounding irradiated normal tissue. Imaging results were correlated to histopathology. Results: Signal intensity on native b0 images was significantly lower for HNSCC than for nontumoral postradiotherapeutic tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 66.2%, specificity of 60.8%, and accuracy of 62.4%. Signal intensity on native b1000 images was significantly higher for HNSCC than for nontumoral tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 71.6%, specificity of 71.3%, and accuracy of 71.4%. ADC values were significantly lower for HNSCC than for nontumoral tissue (p < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 94.6%, specificity of 95.9%, and accuracy of 95.5%. When compared with computed tomography, TSE-MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, DW-MRI yielded fewer false-positive results in persistent primary site abnormalities and in persistent adenopathies, and aided in the detection of subcentimetric nodal metastases. Conclusions: Diffusion weighted-MRI accurately differentiates persistent or recurrent HNSCC from nontumoral tissue changes after (chemo)radiotherapy.

  20. Differentiation of Reactive and Tumor Metastatic Lymph Nodes with Diffusion-weighted and SPIO Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Xinglu; Niu, Gang; Chen, Siouan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determination of lymphatic metastasis is of great importance for both treatment planning and patient prognosis. We aim to distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes (TLNs) and reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) with diffusion-weighted and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods Ipsilateral popliteal lymph node metastasis or lymphadenitis model was established by hock injection of either luciferase-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) in male Balb/C mice. At different time points after inoculation, bioluminescence imaging, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI were performed. Imaging findings were confirmed by histopathological staining. Results Size enlargement was observed in both TLNs and RLNs. At day 28, TLNs showed strong bioluminescence signal and bigger size than RLNs (p < 0.01). At early stages up to day 21, both TLNs and RLNs appeared homogeneous on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). At day 28, TLNs showed heterogeneous apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with significantly higher average ADC value of 0.41 ± 0.03 × 10−3 mm2/s than that of RLNs (0.34 ± 0.02 10−3 mm2/s, p < 0.05). On SPIO enhanced MRI, both TLNs and RLNs showed distinct T2 signal reduction at day 21 after inoculation. At day 28, TLNs demonstrated partial uptake of the iron oxide particles, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Conclusions Both diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI can distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes. However, neither method is able to detect tumor metastasis to the draining lymph nodes at early stages. PMID:22588595

  1. [Intravenous administration of a tissue plasminogen activator beyond 3 hours of the onset of acute ischemic stroke--MRI-based decision making].

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro

    2008-10-01

    After large CT-based clinical trials have failed to prove the benefits of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration for ischemic stroke patients beyond 3 hours of the onset of the concept of PWI/DWI mismatch which is the volume difference between a PWI lesion and DWI lesion on MRI scans, has been proposed to facilitate the selection of patients with a salvageable area. PWI/DWI mismatch is considered to represent the tissue that is not irreversibly injured and can respond to early reperfusion therapy. When an ischemic lesion is divided into 4 regions, namely, ischemic core, reversible DWI lesion, penumbra and benign oligemia, both the reversible DWI lesion and penumbra are considered to be an optimal targets for thrombolysis. In order to clarify the clinical significance of PWI/DWI mismatch in the selection of candidates for tPA therapy, some multicenter trials were performed. The results of DIAS (desmoteplase in acute ischemic stroke)/DEDAS (dose escalation of desmoteplase for acute ischemic stroke)/DIAS-2 did not difinitly demonstrate the clinical benefits of desmoteplase administration in patients with PWI/DWI mismatch between 3 to 9 hours of onset; in fact, DIAS-2 could not prove any effect of the drug. DEFUSE (diffusion and perfusion imaging evaluation for understanding stroke evolution), in which tPA was administered to all participants between 3 to 6 hours of stroke onset, showed that the occurrence of early reperfusion led to a favorable clinical response in patients with PWI/DWI mismatch. In contrast, early reperfusion was not beneficial in patients without PWI/DWI mismatch. In EPITHET (echoplanar imaging thrombolysis evaluation trial), stroke patients who showed PWI/DWI mismatch after 3 to 6 hours of the onset were assigned to receive either alteplase or placebo administration: lesion growth was lesser in patients with alteplase than in those who received placebo, although the difference was not statistically significant because of a

  2. [Depiction of the cranial nerves around the cavernous sinus by 3D reversed FISP with diffusion weighted imaging (3D PSIF-DWI)].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Go; Oishi, Makoto; Jinguji, Shinya; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Sato, Mitsuya; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the anatomy of cranial nerves running in and around the cavernous sinus, we employed three-dimensional reversed fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) with diffusion weighted imaging (3D PSIF-DWI) on 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) system. After determining the proper parameters to obtain sufficient resolution of 3D PSIF-DWI, we collected imaging data of 20-side cavernous regions in 10 normal subjects. 3D PSIF-DWI provided high contrast between the cranial nerves and other soft tissues, fluid, and blood in all subjects. We also created volume-rendered images of 3D PSIF-DWI and anatomically evaluated the reliability of visualizing optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, and abducens nerves on 3D PSIF-DWI. All 20 sets of cranial nerves were visualized and 12 trochlear nerves and 6 abducens nerves were partially identified. We also presented preliminary clinical experiences in two cases with pituitary adenomas. The anatomical relationship between the tumor and cranial nerves running in and around the cavernous sinus could be three-dimensionally comprehended by 3D PSIF-DWI and the volume-rendered images. In conclusion, 3D PSIF-DWI has great potential to provide high resolution "cranial nerve imaging", which visualizes the whole length of the cranial nerves including the parts in the blood flow as in the cavernous sinus region.

  3. The dilemma of re-licensing DWI offenders: The offenders' point of view.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Louise; Vanlaar, Ward; Jarvis, Juliette; Brown, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    In many jurisdictions, drivers convicted for the first-time of driving while impaired by alcohol undertake a risk assessment that will determine the severity of sanctions and the remedial measures they must follow as requisites for re-licensing. There is uncertainty inherent in the assessment of risk for recidivism, however, many offenders feel unfairly assessed and discommoded by the decision-making process and its consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into the perspectives of offenders regarding re-licensing decision making and sanctioning. Specifically, in focus groups first-time offenders and recidivists were probed as to whether they favoured erring on the side of road safety in decision making, with its consequent greater risk of false positive assessments, or erring on the side of maintaining driving privileges, with its consequent greater risk of false negative assessments. In general, participants preferred a higher probability of false negative vs. false positive assessments. Most cited the consequences of sanctions and remedial measures as too severe to impose them on potentially low-risk drivers, as the assessment and monitoring protocols' limitations could lead to non-equitable treatment. At the same time, recidivists evoked a greater preference for a higher probability of false positive assessments compared to first-time offenders, as they believed that recidivism was more likely to follow a first conviction than did first-time offenders. This information can be useful for a more comprehensive and societally coherent exercise of DWI prevention policies. PMID:26647015

  4. Interrelations of muscle functional MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and (31) P-MRS in exercised lower back muscles.

    PubMed

    Hiepe, Patrick; Gussew, Alexander; Rzanny, Reinhard; Anders, Christoph; Walther, Mario; Scholle, Hans-Christoph; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-08-01

    Exercise-induced changes of transverse proton relaxation time (T2 ), tissue perfusion and metabolic turnover were investigated in the lower back muscles of volunteers by applying muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before and after as well as dynamic (31) P-MRS during the exercise. Inner (M. multifidus, MF) and outer lower back muscles (M. erector spinae, ES) were examined in 14 healthy young men performing a sustained isometric trunk-extension. Significant phosphocreatine (PCr) depletions ranging from 30% (ES) to 34% (MF) and Pi accumulations between 95% (left ES) and 120%-140% (MF muscles and right ES) were observed during the exercise, which were accompanied by significantly decreased pH values in all muscles (∆pH ≈ -0.05). Baseline T2 values were similar across all investigated muscles (approximately 27 ms at 3 T), but revealed right-left asymmetric increases (T2 ,inc ) after the exercise (right ES/MF: T2 ,inc  = 11.8/9.7%; left ES/MF: T2 ,inc  = 4.6/8.9%). Analyzed muscles also showed load-induced increases in molecular diffusion D (p = .007) and perfusion fraction f (p = .002). The latter parameter was significantly higher in the MF than in the ES muscles both at rest and post exercise. Changes in PCr (p = .03), diffusion (p < .01) and perfusion (p = .03) were strongly associated with T2,inc , and linear mixed model analysis revealed that changes in PCr and perfusion both affect T2,inc (p < .001). These findings support previous assumptions that T2 changes are not only an intra-cellular phenomenon resulting from metabolic stress but are also affected by increased perfusion in loaded muscles.

  5. Multiparametric MRI of solid renal masses: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, N K; Moosavi, B; McInnes, M D F; Flood, T A; Schieda, N

    2015-03-01

    Functional imaging [diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE)] techniques combined with T2-weighted (T2W) and chemical-shift imaging (CSI), with or without urography, constitutes a comprehensive multiparametric (MP) MRI protocol of the kidneys. MP-MRI of the kidneys can be performed in a time-efficient manner. Breath-hold sequences and parallel imaging should be used to reduce examination time and improve image quality. Increased T2 signal intensity (SI) in a solid renal nodule is specific for renal cell carcinoma (RCC); whereas, low T2 SI can be seen in RCC, angiomyolipoma (AML), and haemorrhagic cysts. Low b-value DWI can replace conventional fat-suppressed T2W. DWI can be performed free-breathing (FB) with two b-values to reduce acquisition time without compromising imaging quality. RCC demonstrates restricted diffusion; however, restricted diffusion is commonly seen in AML and in chronic haemorrhage. CSI must be performed using the correct echo combination at 3 T or T2* effects can mimic intra-lesional fat. Two-dimensional (2D)-CSI has better image quality compared to three-dimensional (3D)-CSI, but volume averaging in small lesions can simulate intra-lesional fat using 2D techniques. SI decrease on CSI is present in both AML and clear cell RCC. Verification of internal enhancement with MRI can be challenging and is improved with image subtraction. Subtraction imaging is prone to errors related to spatial misregistration, which is ameliorated with expiratory phase imaging. SI ratios can be used to confirm subtle internal enhancement and enhancement curves are predictive of RCC subtype. MR urography using conventional extracellular gadolinium must account for T2* effects; however, gadoxetic acid enhanced urography is an alternative. The purpose of this review it to highlight important technical and interpretive pearls and pitfalls encountered with MP-MRI of solid renal masses.

  6. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla-Dave, A; Lu, Y; Hatzoglou, V; Stambuk, H; Mazaheri, Y; Banerjee, S; Shankaranarayanan, A; Deasy, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting.

  7. Biparametric versus multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logager, Vibeke; Baslev, Ingerd; Møller, Jakob M; Hansen, Rasmus Hvass; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2016-01-01

    Background Since multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) of the prostate exceeds 30 min, minimizing the evaluation time of significant (Gleason scores > 6) prostate cancer (PCa) would be beneficial. A reduced protocol might be sufficient for the diagnosis. Purpose To study whether a short unenhanced biparametric MRI (bp-MRI) matches mp-MRI in detecting significant PCa. Material and Methods A total of 204 men (median age, 65 years; mean ± SD, 64.1; range 45–75 years; median serum PSA level, 14 ng/mL; range, 2.2–120 ng/mL; median prostate volume, 60 mL; range, 23–263 mL) fulfilled the criteria for being enrolled. They underwent mp-MRI and prostate biopsy from January through June 2014. Of the included patients, 9.3% underwent prostatectomy, 90.7% had TRUS-bx, and 10.8 had MRI-targeted TRUS-bx. Two radiologists separately assessed the mp-MRI examination (T2-weighted [T2W] imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], apparent diffusion coefficient map [ADC-map] and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging [DCE]). Two months later, the bp-MRI version (T2W imaging, DWI, and ADC-map) was evaluated. Results Reader 1: Assessing mp-MRI: 0 false negatives, sensitivity of 1, and specificity 0.04. Assessing bp-MRI: four false negatives, sensitivity of 0.94, and specificity 0.15. Reader 2: Assessing mp-MRI: five false negatives, sensitivity of 0.93, and specificity 0.16. Assessing bp-MRI: three false negatives, sensitivity of 0.96, and specificity 0.15. Intra-reader agreement Cohen’s Kappa (κ) was 0.87 for reader 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.92) and 0.84 for reader 2 (95% CI 0.78–0.89). Conclusion Bp-MRI is as good as mp-MRI at detecting PCa. A large prospective study seems to be strongly warranted. PMID:27583170

  8. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  9. MRI and (1)H MRS findings of hepatobilary changes and cholangiocarcinoma development in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Hanpanich, Petcharakorn; Pinlaor, Somchai; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Mairiang, Eimorn

    2015-11-01

    3 T MRI and (1)H MRS were useful for quantitative investigation of the serial development of hepatobiliary changes in Opisthorchis viverrini infection in hamsters, and the differential diagnosis of cholangiocacinoma (CCA) development from bile duct changes and normal condition is unclear. In this study, we investigated the serial development of hepatobiliary changes and CCAgenesis in O. viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) treated hamsters (ON group) using 3 T MRI and (1)H MRS and the results were compared with those either in the O. viverrini-infected group (OV group) and uninfected normal controls. In the ON group, CCAs were first found at 9 weeks post-infection, with sizes of ~2 mm. The typical MR signal characteristics of CCA were hypo- and occasionally isointensity signal on T1-weighted images, and mild-moderate to hyper-intensity signal on T2-weighted images compared to the liver parenchyma. T2-weighted images with fat suppression revealed dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, and often defined the anatomical level of biliary obstruction, cystic lesions, liver abscesses, and CCA which was starting seen of these noticeable abnormalities at 5 weeks onwards. The results of fibrosis grading using MR images showed a positive correlation (r=0.90, P<0.038 by Spearman's rank correlation test) with those of the histopathological grading. In addition, 3.0 T (1)H MRS showed elevated choline and decreased lipids levels in the liver tissues of the ON group. In conclusion, MRI and (1)H MRS are useful for the quantitative investigation of the serial development of hepatobilary changes and CCA in hamsters, and are potentially useful as early diagnostic tools for CCA. PMID:26117689

  10. MRI and (1)H MRS findings of hepatobilary changes and cholangiocarcinoma development in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini and treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Hanpanich, Petcharakorn; Pinlaor, Somchai; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Mairiang, Eimorn

    2015-11-01

    3 T MRI and (1)H MRS were useful for quantitative investigation of the serial development of hepatobiliary changes in Opisthorchis viverrini infection in hamsters, and the differential diagnosis of cholangiocacinoma (CCA) development from bile duct changes and normal condition is unclear. In this study, we investigated the serial development of hepatobiliary changes and CCAgenesis in O. viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) treated hamsters (ON group) using 3 T MRI and (1)H MRS and the results were compared with those either in the O. viverrini-infected group (OV group) and uninfected normal controls. In the ON group, CCAs were first found at 9 weeks post-infection, with sizes of ~2 mm. The typical MR signal characteristics of CCA were hypo- and occasionally isointensity signal on T1-weighted images, and mild-moderate to hyper-intensity signal on T2-weighted images compared to the liver parenchyma. T2-weighted images with fat suppression revealed dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, and often defined the anatomical level of biliary obstruction, cystic lesions, liver abscesses, and CCA which was starting seen of these noticeable abnormalities at 5 weeks onwards. The results of fibrosis grading using MR images showed a positive correlation (r=0.90, P<0.038 by Spearman's rank correlation test) with those of the histopathological grading. In addition, 3.0 T (1)H MRS showed elevated choline and decreased lipids levels in the liver tissues of the ON group. In conclusion, MRI and (1)H MRS are useful for the quantitative investigation of the serial development of hepatobilary changes and CCA in hamsters, and are potentially useful as early diagnostic tools for CCA.

  11. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D∗, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (Ktrans, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively). IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  12. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D*, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (K, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups.None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively).IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  13. Comparison of CT and MRI in Diagnosis of Laryngeal Carcinoma with Anterior Vocal Commissure Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-hui; Zhao, Jing; Li, Zeng-hong; Yang, Wei-qiang; Liu, Qi-hong; Yang, Zhi-yun; Liao, Bing; Li, Xiao-ling; Wang, Bin; Qin, Hao; Luo, Jie; Lv, Ke-xing; Wen, Wei-ping; Lei, Wen-bin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of CT and MRI in determining the invasion of thyroid cartilage by and the T staging of laryngeal carcinoma with anterior vocal commissure (AVC) involvement. A total of 26 cases of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement from May 2012 to January 2014 underwent enhanced CT and MRI scan, out of whom 6 patients also underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging(DWI). T staging and thyroid cartilage involvement were evaluated. All the surgical specimens underwent serial section and were reviewed by two senior pathologists independently. When compared with pathologic staging, the accuracy was 88.46% (23/26) of MRI scan (with a 95% confidence interval 37~77%) and 57.69% (15/26) of CT scan (with a 95% confidence interval 70~98%), respectively (P < 0.01). We also reported three cases who were misdiagnosed on CT or MRI about either the thyroid cartilage was involved or not, and one case of preliminary study of DWI. Compared to CT, MRI exhibited a higher accuracy rate on T staging of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement. Combined utility of CT and MRI could help improve the accuracy of assessment of thyroid cartilage involvement and T staging of laryngeal carcinomas with AVC involvement. PMID:27480073

  14. Retrospective multicenter evaluation of the "fly-catching syndrome" in 24 dogs: EEG, BAER, MRI, CSF findings and response to antiepileptic and antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, Marcin; Płonek, Marta; Nicpoń, Józef; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Pakozdy, Akos

    2015-12-01

    The fly-catching syndrome (FCS) is a rare canine condition of sudden, occasional, or constant episodes of biting the air. It may be accompanied by jumping, licking, and swallowing. The etiology of FCS is unknown and controversial. Various explanations for its occurrence have included epileptoid disorders such as visual cortex epileptiform disturbances and simple and complex partial seizures as well as compulsive disorders, hallucinatory behavior, and stereotypy. A retrospective multicenter analysis of 24 dogs with clinical symptoms of FCS is presented. Clinical signs at the time of presentation, the mean age at onset of the disease, the response to treatment, and the clinical outcome were recorded and analyzed in all patients. All dogs underwent clinical, neurological, and otoscopic examinations. Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) and serum chemistry panels were obtained from each dog. Diagnostic testing included MRI and EEG examinations in 21 cases, BAER in 19 cases, and CSF analysis in 20 cases. The EEG revealed spike activity in 8 (38%) of the 21 cases, 7 of which had activity in the occipital lobes. The brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) revealed three cases of bilateral deafness. The MRI revealed six cases of Chiari malformation (CM), one case of syringohydromyelia (SM), and one case of a falx cerebri meningioma. The dogs were divided into groups according to their treatment protocol. Group A included dogs treated with phenobarbital (PB), and group B consisted of dogs treated with fluoxetine (FLX). Thirty-six percent of the dogs in group A responded to PB, while 100% of the dogs in group B responded to FLX. The results suggest that FCS is more responsive to FLX than PB. However, the etiology of this behavior remains unclear in most cases.

  15. Rotationally invariant clustering of diffusion MRI data using spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptrot, Matthew; Lauze, François

    2016-03-01

    We present a simple approach to the voxelwise classification of brain tissue acquired with diffusion weighted MRI (DWI). The approach leverages the power of spherical harmonics to summarise the diffusion information, sampled at many points over a sphere, using only a handful of coefficients. We use simple features that are invariant to the rotation of the highly orientational diffusion data. This provides a way to directly classify voxels whose diffusion characteristics are similar yet whose primary diffusion orientations differ. Subsequent application of machine-learning to the spherical harmonic coefficients therefore may permit classification of DWI voxels according to their inferred underlying fibre properties, whilst ignoring the specifics of orientation. After smoothing apparent diffusion coefficients volumes, we apply a spherical harmonic transform, which models the multi-directional diffusion data as a collection of spherical basis functions. We use the derived coefficients as voxelwise feature vectors for classification. Using a simple Gaussian mixture model, we examined the classification performance for a range of sub-classes (3-20). The results were compared against existing alternatives for tissue classification e.g. fractional anisotropy (FA) or the standard model used by Camino.1 The approach was implemented on both two publicly-available datasets: an ex-vivo pig brain and in-vivo human brain from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). We have demonstrated how a robust classification of DWI data can be performed without the need for a model reconstruction step. This avoids the potential confounds and uncertainty that such models may impose, and has the benefit of being computable directly from the DWI volumes. As such, the method could prove useful in subsequent pre-processing stages, such as model fitting, where it could inform about individual voxel complexities and improve model parameter choice.

  16. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    SciTech Connect

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M.

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  17. The Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy With Cognitive Function and Brain MRI Findings: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, James F.; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Bryan, R. Nick; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Horowitz, Karen R.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Murray, Anne M.; Chew, Emily Y.; Danis, Ronald P.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Miller, Michael E.; Ding, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Longitudinal evidence linking diabetic retinopathy with changes in brain structure and cognition is sparse. We used data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial to determine whether diabetic retinopathy at baseline predicted changes in brain structure or cognition 40 months later. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants from the ACCORD-MIND and ACCORD-Eye substudies were included in analyses of cognition (n = 1,862) and MRI-derived brain variables (n = 432). Retinopathy was categorized as none, mild nonproliferative, or moderate/severe. Tests of cognition included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Stroop test. Primary brain outcomes were gray matter and abnormal white matter volumes. RESULTS Baseline retinopathy was associated with lower gray matter volume (adjusted means of 470, 466, and 461 cm3 for none, mild, and moderate/severe retinopathy, respectively; P = 0.03). Baseline retinopathy also predicted a greater change in MMSE and DSST scores at 40 months in each retinopathy category (MMSE: −0.20, −0.57, and −0.42, respectively [P = 0.04]; DSST: −1.30, −1.84, and −2.89, respectively[P = 0.01]). CONCLUSIONS Diabetic retinopathy is associated with future cognitive decline in people with type 2 diabetes. Although diabetic retinopathy is not a perfect proxy for diabetes-related brain and cognitive decline, patients with type 2 diabetes and retinopathy represent a subgroup at higher risk for future cognitive decline. PMID:25193529

  18. Tissue characterization in cerebral ischemia using multiparameter MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Hammoud, Rabih; Jacobs, Michael A.; Patel, Suresh C.; Mitsias, Panayiotis D.; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Knight, Robert; Zheng, Zhang G.; Lu, Mei; Chopp, Michael

    2001-05-01

    After pre-processing and segmentation, the proposed method scores tissue regions between 1 and N. Score 1 is assigned to normal white matter and score N to CSF. Lesion zones are assigned a score based on their relative levels of similarities to white matter and CSF. To evaluate the method, 15 rats were imaged by a 7T MRI system at one of the three time points (acute, sub-acute, chronic) after MCA occlusion. Then, they were sacrificed and their brains were sliced and prepared for histological studies. MRI of 2 or 3 slices of each rat brain, using 2 DWI (b equals 400, b equals 800), 1 PDWI, 1 T2WI, and 1 T1WI, was used and an MRI score between 1 and 100 (N equals 100) was found for each region. Segmented regions were mapped onto the histology images and were scored by an experienced pathologist, from 1 to 10. MRI scores were validated using histology scores. To this end, correlation coefficients between the two scores (MRI and histology) were found. The results showed excellent correlations between MRI and histology scores at different time points.

  19. Prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): multidisciplinary standpoint

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Feng, Zhaoyan; Hu, Zhiquan; Wang, Guoping; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, He; Hu, Daoyu

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men and a leading cause of death. Accurate assessment is a prerequisite for optimal clinical management and therapy selection of prostate cancer. There are several parameters and nomograms to differentiate between patients with clinically insignificant disease and patients in need of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique which provides more detailed anatomical images due to high spatial resolution, superior contrast resolution, and multiplanar capability. State-of-the-art MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), improve interpretation of prostate cancer imaging. In this article, we review the major role of MRI in the advanced management of prostate cancer to noninvasively improve tumor staging, biologic potential, treatment planning, therapy response, local recurrence, and to guide target biopsy for clinical suspected cancer with previous negative biopsy. Finally, future challenges and opportunities in prostate cancer management in the area of functional MRI are discussed as well. PMID:23630657

  20. Improving tumour heterogeneity MRI assessment with histograms

    PubMed Central

    Just, N

    2014-01-01

    By definition, tumours are heterogeneous. They are defined by marked differences in cells, microenvironmental factors (oxygenation levels, pH, VEGF, VPF and TGF-α) metabolism, vasculature, structure and function that in turn translate into heterogeneous drug delivery and therapeutic outcome. Ways to estimate quantitatively tumour heterogeneity can improve drug discovery, treatment planning and therapeutic responses. It is therefore of paramount importance to have reliable and reproducible biomarkers of cancerous lesions' heterogeneity. During the past decade, the number of studies using histogram approaches increased drastically with various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques (DCE-MRI, DWI, SWI etc.) although information on tumour heterogeneity remains poorly exploited. This fact can be attributed to a poor knowledge of the available metrics and of their specific meaning as well as to the lack of literature references to standardised histogram methods with which surrogate markers of heterogeneity can be compared. This review highlights the current knowledge and critical advances needed to investigate and quantify tumour heterogeneity. The key role of imaging techniques and in particular the key role of MRI for an accurate investigation of tumour heterogeneity is reviewed with a particular emphasis on histogram approaches and derived methods. PMID:25268373

  1. Gauging MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, Ison; Goodman, Jeremy

    2009-11-01

    Axisymmetric stability of viscous resistive magnetized Couette flow is re-examined, with emphasis on flows that would be hydrodynamically stable according to Rayleigh's criterion: opposing gradients of angular velocity and specific angular momentum. A uniform axial magnetic field permeates the fluid. In this regime, magnetorotational instability (MRI) may occur. It is proved that MRI is suppressed, in fact no instability at all occurs, with insulating boundary conditions, when the magnetic resistivity is sufficiently large. This shows conclusively that small magnetic dissipation is a feature of this instability for all magnetic Prandtl numbers. A criterion is provided for the onset of MRI.

  2. Musculoskeletal MRI.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jaime E; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    MRI has the unique ability to detect abnormal fluid content, and is therefore unparalleled in its role of detection, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning and follow-up evaluation of musculoskeletal disease. MRI in companion animals should be considered in the following circumstances: a definitive diagnosis cannot be made on radiographs; a patient is nonresponsive to medical or surgical therapy; prognostic information is desired; assessing surgical margins and traumatic and/or infectious joint and bone disease; ruling out subtle developmental or early aggressive bone lesions. The MRI features of common disorders affecting the shoulder, elbow, stifle, carpal, and tarsal joints are included in this chapter.

  3. Radiologic-pathologic findings of solitary fibrous tumor of the prostate presenting as a large mass with delayed filling-in on MRI.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Puneet; Lee, Jean Hwa; Gupta, Saurabh; Seyal, Adeel Rahim; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Moshiri, Mariam; Dighe, Manjiri Kiran

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a solitary fibrous tumor of prostate presenting with urinary retention and a large prostate mass. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and histopathology of this rare, benign tumor. Although clinical and radiologic appearances embrace various differential diagnoses including sarcoma, this mass was confirmed by histologic analysis following surgical resection. We report this rare, benign tumor to help the radiologist suggest the diagnosis when presented with a similar case.

  4. Perspectives on Porous Media MR in Clinical MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, E. E.

    2011-03-01

    Many goals and challenges of research in natural or synthetic porous media are mirrored in quantitative medical MRI. This review will describe examples where MR techniques used in porous media (particularly diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)) are applied to physiological pathologies. Tissue microstructure is one area with great overlap with porous media science. Diffusion-weighting (esp. in neurological tissue) has motivated models with explicit physical dimensions, statistical parameters, empirical descriptors, or hybrids thereof. Another clinically relevant microscopic process is active flow. Renal (kidney) tissue possesses significant active vascular / tubular transport that manifests as "pseudodiffusion." Cancerous lesions involve anomalies in both structure and flow. The tools of magnetic resonance and their interpretation in porous media has had great impact on clinical MRI, and continued cross-fertilization of ideas can only enhance the progress of both fields.

  5. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Onat, Elif; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakın, Akın; Urgun, Kamran; Kılıç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  6. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging findings of medulloblastoma in 3.0T MRI: A retrospective analysis of 17 cases☆

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guangyao; Pang, Haopeng; Ghimire, Prasanna; Liu, Guobing

    2012-01-01

    1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging features of the cerebellar vermis in 17 medulloblastoma patients were retrospectively analyzed, and 17 healthy volunteers were selected as controls. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that in all 17 medulloblastoma patients, N-acetyl aspartate and creatine peaks were significantly decreased, the choline peak was significantly increased, and there was evidence of a myo-inositol peak. Further, 11 patients showed a low taurine peak at 3.4 ppm, five patients showed a lipid peak at 0.9–1.3 ppm, and three patients showed a negative lactic acid peak at 1.33 ppm. Compared with the control group, the ratios of N-acetyl aspartate/choline and N-acetyl aspartate/creatine were significantly decreased, and the ratio of choline/creatine was increased, in medulloblastoma patients. Diffusion weighted imaging displayed hyperintensity and decreased apparent diffusion coefficient in medulloblastoma patients. These findings indicate that 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging are useful for qualitative diagnosis of medulloblastoma. PMID:25337109

  7. Portable MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle A.

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  8. The Correlations Between MRI Perfusion, Diffusion Parameters, and 18F-FDG PET Metabolic Parameters in Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Miran; Kim, Sun Yong; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Jin Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the relationships among parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET in patients with primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A total of 34 patients with primary HNSCC underwent DCE-MRI, DWI, and 18F-FDG PET before treatment. The perfusion parameters (Ktrans, Ktransmax, Kep, Ve, Vp, and AUC60) from DCE-MRI and ADC (ADCmean, ADCmin) values from DWI were calculated within the manually placed ROI around the main tumor. Standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG = SUVmean × MTV) were calculated with thresholds of 3.0 SUV. The associations between parameters were evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis. Significant correlations were identified between Ktrans and Kep (r = 0.631), Ktrans and Ve (r = 0.603), Ktrans and ADCmean (r = 0.438), Ktransmax and Kep (r = 0.667), Ktransmax and Vp (r = 0.351), Ve and AUC60 (r = 0.364), Ve and ADCmean (r = 0.590), and Ve and ADCmin (r = 0.361). ADCmin was reversely correlated with TLG (r = –0.347). Tumor volume was significantly associated with Ktransmax (r = 0.348). The demonstrated relationships among parameters from DCE, DWI, and 18F-FDG PET suggest complex interactions among tumor biologic characteristics. Each diagnostic technique may provide complementary information for HNSCC. PMID:26632740

  9. Comparison of transcranial ultrasound and cranial MRI in evaluations of brain injuries from neonatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Pan, Jia-Hua; Chen, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full-term infants with early-stage brain injuries from asphyxia were examined with two-dimensional ultrasound and color Doppler to assess the use of ultrasound in evaluating early brain injuries after neonatal asphyxia. The sonographic features of ultrasound and color Doppler were compared to those of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound was used to monitor the brain parenchyma, lateral ventricles, and cerebral hemodynamics in the asphyxia group and full-term control group 24, 48, and 72 h after birth. MRI and diffusion-weight imaging (DWI) were performed within 72 h. Cerebral edema changes were most obvious with ultrasound within 48 h of asphyxia, while the cerebral hemodynamic changes were most obvious within 24 h. These results suggested that ultrasound detected early cerebral edema better than MRI did. PMID:26770434

  10. Battlefield MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  11. Quantitative MRI techniques of cartilage composition

    PubMed Central

    Matzat, Stephen J.; van Tiel, Jasper; Gold, Garry E.

    2013-01-01

    Due to aging populations and increasing rates of obesity in the developed world, the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is continually increasing. Decreasing the societal and patient burden of this disease motivates research in prevention, early detection of OA, and novel treatment strategies against OA. One key facet of this effort is the need to track the degradation of tissues within joints, especially cartilage. Currently, conventional imaging techniques provide accurate means to detect morphological deterioration of cartilage in the later stages of OA, but these methods are not sensitive to the subtle biochemical changes during early disease stages. Novel quantitative techniques with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide direct and indirect assessments of cartilage composition, and thus allow for earlier detection and tracking of OA. This review describes the most prominent quantitative MRI techniques to date—dGEMRIC, T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, and sodium imaging. Other, less-validated methods for quantifying cartilage composition are also described—Ultrashort echo time (UTE), gagCEST, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). For each technique, this article discusses the proposed biochemical correlates, as well its advantages and limitations for clinical and research use. The article concludes with a detailed discussion of how the field of quantitative MRI has progressed to provide information regarding two specific patient populations through clinical research—patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture and patients with impingement in the hip. While quantitative imaging techniques continue to rapidly evolve, specific challenges for each technique as well as challenges to clinical applications remain. PMID:23833729

  12. Pelvis MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    MRI - pelvis; MRI - hips; Pelvic MRI with prostate probe; Magnetic resonance imaging - pelvis ... care provider if you are afraid of close spaces (have claustrophobia). You may be given a medicine ...

  13. Breast MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... the same breast or the other breast after breast cancer has been diagnosed Distinguish between scar tissue and ...

  14. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MRI for detection of pelvic metastatic lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, G; Zhou, H; Jia, Z; Deng, H

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI has emerged as a new technique for detecting the pelvic lymph metastases in patients with cervical cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the diagnostic value of DW imaging (DWI) for benign/malignant discrimination of pelvic lymph nodes (LNs). Studies about DWI for the detection of metastatic LNs were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese databases. Based on the extracted data, we determined pooled sensitivities, specificities and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) across studies, calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) and Q* obtained. We also analysed the heterogeneity between studies based on subgroup analysis, threshold effect and publication bias. In total, 15 studies involving 1021 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and DOR of DWI were 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-0.89], 0.84 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86) and 47.21 (95% CI, 25.67-86.81), respectively. LR syntheses yielded overall positive LR of 6.55 (95% CI, 4.77-9.01) and negative LR of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12-0.23). The AUC and Q* index were 0.9384 and 0.8754, respectively. The heterogeneity was relatively high between studies; however, there was no evidence for threshold effect and publication bias. DWI is beneficial in the pelvic nodal assessment in patients with cervical cancer. Large-scale, high-quality trials with standard protocols are required to evaluate its clinical value for discrimination of metastatic from non-metastatic pelvic LNs in patients with cervical cancer. Advances in knowledge include providing evidence to assess the role of DWI in nodal staging of cervical cancer.

  15. Cranial MRI in neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, A; Yiğit, S; Firat, M; Oran, O

    2000-05-01

    Severe neonatal hypernatraemia is a life-threatening electrolyte disorder because of its neurological complications. These are brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhages, haemorrhagic infarcts and thromboses. There are few reports concerning the radiological findings in the central nervous system in severe neonatal hypernatraemia. Cranial MRI findings in hypernatraemia have been reported in an older child, but have not been described in newborn infants. We report the cranial MRI findings in a newborn infant with acute renal failure and severe hypernatraemia.

  16. Imaging strategies in the evaluation of soft-tissue hemangiomas of the extremities: correlation of the findings of plain radiography, angiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasonography in 12 histologically proven cases.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A; McGahan, J P; Vogelsang, P; Szabo, R M

    1992-01-01

    Twelve patients with the histologic diagnosis of soft-tissue hemangioma of the extremities (nine intramuscular, two subcutaneous, and one synovial) were evaluated in a retrospective study using plain film radiography (n = 12), angiography (n = 8), computed tomography (CT; n = 4), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 3), and ultrasonography (US; n = 2). In eight of nine intramuscular lesions, the plain film demonstration of phleboliths suggested the diagnosis, while the plain radiographs were normal in three. Angiograms showed the pathognomonic features of soft-tissue hemangioma in six patients. MRI was characteristic in all three patients: The lesion demonstrated intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted spin echo images and extremely bright signal on T2-weighting. US showed a hypoechoic soft-tissue mass in one case and a mixed echo pattern in the other. In one case, a central echogenic focus with acoustic shadowing consistent with a calcified phlebolith was identified, and one lesion exhibited increased color flow and low resistance arterial Doppler signal. CT showed a nonspecific mass in one of four cases and a mass with phleboliths in three. If a deep hemangioma is suspected, we recommend initial imaging with plain radiography followed by MRI. US may be useful in confirming the presence of a mass in doubtful cases or if MRI is unavailable. CT offers no distinct advantage over the combined use of plain radiography and MRI. Although angiography demonstrated the pathognomonic features in all six deeply situated lesions, because of its invasiveness it should be reserved chiefly for those patients undergoing surgical resection. PMID:1546331

  17. Applicable apparent diffusion coefficient of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer by improved clinical MRI diffusion weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Xiao-Ting; Tang, Lei; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Ying-Shi

    2014-01-01

    In vivo imaging studies in animal models are hindered by variables that contribute to poor image quality and measurement reliability. As such we sought to improve the diffusion coefficient (ADC) of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer in diffusion-weighted images (DWI) using alginate moulding and Ultrasonic coupling medium. BGC-823 human gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into the abdomen of nude mice and 1 mm3 primary tumour was orthotopically transplanted. Alginate and coupling medium were applied to the mice and MRI (T2 and DWI) was performed for 6 weeks. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn and liver and tumour ADC were evaluated. Using alginate moulding, the mean quality total score of DW imaging was 8.53; however, in control animals this value was 5.20 (p < 0.001). The coefficient of variation of ADC of liver in experimental and control groups were 0.071 and 0.270 (p < 0.001), respectively, suggesting this method may be helpful for DWI studies of important human diseases such as gastric cancer. PMID:25123166

  18. [Effect of vibration caused by time-varying magnetic fields on diffusion-weighted MRI].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Akio; Maeda, Fumie; Miyai, Akira; Hayashi, Kohji; Hongoh, Takaharu

    2006-04-20

    Diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) with high b-factor in the body are often used to detect and diagnose cancer at MRI. The echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence and high motion probing gradient pulse are used at diffusion weighted imaging, causing high table vibration. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the diffusion signal and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are influenced by this vibration because of time-varying magnetic fields. Two DWIs were compared. In one, phantoms were fixed on the MRI unit's table transmitting the vibration. In the other, phantoms were supported in air, in the absence of vibration. The phantoms called "solution phantoms" were made from agarose of a particular density. The phantoms called "jelly phantoms" were made from agarose that was heated. The diffusion signal and ADC value of each image were compared. The results showed that the signal of DWI units using the solution phantom was not affected by vibration. However, the signal of DWI and ADC were increased in the low-density jelly phantom as a result of vibration, causing the jelly phantom to vibrate. The DWIs of vibrating regions such as the breast maybe be subject to error. A countermeasure seems to be to support the region adequately.

  19. Toward Distinguishing Recurrent Tumor From Radiation Necrosis: DWI and MTC in a Gamma Knife–Irradiated Mouse Glioma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Torres, Carlos J.; Engelbach, John A.; Cates, Jeremy; Thotala, Dinesh; Yuan, Liya; Schmidt, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M.; Drzymala, Robert E.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Garbow, Joel R.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive diagnosis is vital for effective treatment planning. Presently, standard anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is incapable of differentiating recurring tumor from delayed radiation injury, as both lesions are hyperintense in both postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. Further studies are therefore necessary to identify an MRI paradigm that can differentially diagnose these pathologies. Mouse glioma and radiation injury models provide a powerful platform for this purpose. Methods and Materials: Two MRI contrasts that are widely used in the clinic were chosen for application to a glioma/radiation-injury model: diffusion weighted imaging, from which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is obtained, and magnetization transfer contrast, from which the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is obtained. These metrics were evaluated longitudinally, first in each lesion type alone–glioma versus irradiation – and then in a combined irradiated glioma model. Results: MTR was found to be consistently decreased in all lesions compared to nonlesion brain tissue (contralateral hemisphere), with limited specificity between lesion types. In contrast, ADC, though less sensitive to the presence of pathology, was increased in radiation injury and decreased in tumors. In the irradiated glioma model, ADC also increased immediately after irradiation, but decreased as the tumor regrew. Conclusions: ADC is a better metric than MTR for differentiating glioma from radiation injury. However, MTR was more sensitive to both tumor and radiation injury than ADC, suggesting a possible role in detecting lesions that do not enhance strongly on T1-weighted images.

  20. The Impact of Diffusion-Weighted MRI on the Definition of Gross Tumor Volume in Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Jelden, Michael; Kremp, Stephanie; Jagoda, Philippe; Stroeder, Jonas; Khreish, Fadi; Ezziddin, Samer; Buecker, Arno; Rübe, Christian; Schneider, Guenther K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study was designed to evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) vs. PET-CT of the thorax in the determination of gross tumor volume (GTV) in radiotherapy planning of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods Eligible patients with NSCLC who were supposed to receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy were prospectively recruited. For MRI, a respiratory gated T2-weighted sequence in axial orientation and non-gated DWI (b = 0, 800, 1,400 and apparent diffusion coefficient map [ADC]) were acquired on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Primary tumors were delineated on FDG-PET/CT (stGTV) and DWI images (dwGTV). The definition of stGTV was based on the CT and visually adapted to the FDG-PET component if indicated (e.g., in atelectasis). For DWI, dwGTV was visually determined and adjusted for anatomical plausibility on T2w sequences. Beside a statistical comparison of stGTV and dwGTB, spatial agreement was determined with the “Hausdorff-Distance” (HD) and the “Dice Similarity Coefficient” (DSC). Results Fifteen patients (one patient with two synchronous NSCLC) were evaluated. For 16 primary tumors with UICC stages I (n = 4), II (n = 3), IIIA (n = 2) and IIIB (n = 7) mean values for dwGTV were significantly larger than those of stGTV (76.6 ± 84.5 ml vs. 66.6 ± 75.2 ml, p<0.01). The correlation of stGTV and dwGTV was highly significant (r = 0.995, p<0.001). Yet, some considerable volume deviations between these two methods were observed (median 27.5%, range 0.4–52.1%). An acceptable agreement between dwGTV and stGTV regarding the spatial extent of primary tumors was found (average HD: 2.25 ± 0.7 mm; DC 0.68 ± 0.09). Conclusion The overall level of agreement between PET-CT and MRI based GTV definition is acceptable. Tumor volumes may differ considerably in single cases. DWI-derived GTVs are significantly, yet modestly, larger than their PET-CT based counterparts. Prospective studies to assess the safety and efficacy of DWI

  1. Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N

    2014-09-01

    MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state free-precession (SSFP), are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies. PMID:25685519

  2. MRI of Little Leaguer's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Stephen F; Recht, Michael P; Profitt, Brad

    2006-02-01

    The MRI appearance of 'Little Leaguer's shoulder' has not been previously reported in the radiology literature. Purported etiologies include proximal humeral epiphyseolysis, osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis, stress fracture of the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate, and rotational stress fracture of the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in four patients and review the literature.

  3. Effects of magnetic field strength and b value on the sensitivity and specificity of quantitative breast diffusion-weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Eghtedari, Mohammad; Fox, Patricia; Guvenc, Inanc; Yang, Wei T.; Dogan, Basak E.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of b value or the magnetic field strength (B0) on the sensitivity and specificity of quantitative breast diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Methods A total of 126 patients underwent clinical breast MRI that included pre-contrast DWI imaging using b values of both 1,000 and 1,500 s/mm2 at either 1.5 T (n=86) or 3.0 T (n=40). Quantitative apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured and compared for 18 benign, 33 malignant lesions, and 126 normal breast tissues. Optimal ADCmean threshold for differentiating benign and malignant lesions was estimated and the effect of b values and B0 were examined using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) model. Results The optimal ADCmean threshold was 1.235×10–3 mm2/s for b value of 1,000 and 0.934×10–3 mm2/s for b value of 1,500. Using these thresholds, the sensitivities and specificities were 96% and 89% (b value =1,000, B0 =1.5 T), 89% and 98% (b value =1,000, B0 =3.0 T), 88% and 96% (b value =1,500, B0 =1.5 T), and 67% and 100% (b value =1,500, B0 =3.0 T). No significant difference was found between different B0 (P=0.26) or b values (P=0.28). Conclusions Better sensitivity is achieved with DWI of b value =1,000 than with b value =1,500. However, b value and B0 do not significantly impact diagnostic performance of DWI when using appropriate thresholds. PMID:27709073

  4. Temporal Evolution of MRI Characteristics in Dogs with Collagenase-Induced Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    An, Daegi; Park, Junyong; Shin, Jong-Il; Kim, Hyung-Joong; Jung, Dong-In; Kang, Ji-Houn; Kim, Gonhyung; Chang, Dong-Woo; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Lee, Chulhyun; Kang, Byeong-Teck

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most lethal types of stroke. Neuroimaging techniques, particularly MRI, have improved the diagnostic accuracy of ICH. The MRI characteristics of the evolving stages of ICH in humans-but not those in dogs-have been described. In this study, we document the temporal MRI characteristics in a canine model of collagenase-induced ICH. Specifically, ICH was induced in 5 healthy beagles by injecting 500 U of bacterial collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum, which was delivered into the parietal lobe over 5 min by using a microinfusion pump. T1- and T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, gradient-echo (GRE), and diffusion-weighted (DWI) imaging and measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were performed serially at 6 different time points (before and 12 h, 3 d, 5 d, 10 d and 24 d after hemorrhage) by using a 3-T MR system. The temporal changes of T1 signal intensity (SI) corresponded well with the reported human data. The temporal changes of T2 and GRE sequences, with the exception of T2 and GRE hyperintensities at the early subacute stage, also matched. ADC measurements were high at the early subacute stage, and DWI-SI positively correlated with T2- and GRE-SI from the early subacute stage onward. In conclusion, MRI is an ideal method for characterizing the temporal evolution of parenchymal alterations after ICH in dogs. These data might be useful for differentiating clinical stages of ICH in dogs. PMID:26678369

  5. Unsupervised nonlinear dimensionality reduction machine learning methods applied to multiparametric MRI in cerebral ischemia: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Vishwa S.; Jacobs, Jeremy R.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation and treatment of acute cerebral ischemia requires a technique that can determine the total area of tissue at risk for infarction using diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. Typical MRI data sets consist of T1- and T2-weighted imaging (T1WI, T2WI) along with advanced MRI parameters of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) methods. Each of these parameters has distinct radiological-pathological meaning. For example, DWI interrogates the movement of water in the tissue and PWI gives an estimate of the blood flow, both are critical measures during the evolution of stroke. In order to integrate these data and give an estimate of the tissue at risk or damaged; we have developed advanced machine learning methods based on unsupervised non-linear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) techniques. NLDR methods are a class of algorithms that uses mathematically defined manifolds for statistical sampling of multidimensional classes to generate a discrimination rule of guaranteed statistical accuracy and they can generate a two- or three-dimensional map, which represents the prominent structures of the data and provides an embedded image of meaningful low-dimensional structures hidden in their high-dimensional observations. In this manuscript, we develop NLDR methods on high dimensional MRI data sets of preclinical animals and clinical patients with stroke. On analyzing the performance of these methods, we observed that there was a high of similarity between multiparametric embedded images from NLDR methods and the ADC map and perfusion map. It was also observed that embedded scattergram of abnormal (infarcted or at risk) tissue can be visualized and provides a mechanism for automatic methods to delineate potential stroke volumes and early tissue at risk.

  6. Temporal Evolution of MRI Characteristics in Dogs with Collagenase-Induced Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    An, Daegi; Park, Junyong; Shin, Jong-Il; Kim, Hyung-Joong; Jung, Dong-In; Kang, Ji-Houn; Kim, Gonhyung; Chang, Dong-Woo; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Lee, Chulhyun; Kang, Byeong-Teck

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most lethal types of stroke. Neuroimaging techniques, particularly MRI, have improved the diagnostic accuracy of ICH. The MRI characteristics of the evolving stages of ICH in humans—but not those in dogs—have been described. In this study, we document the temporal MRI characteristics in a canine model of collagenase-induced ICH. Specifically, ICH was induced in 5 healthy beagles by injecting 500 U of bacterial collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum, which was delivered into the parietal lobe over 5 min by using a microinfusion pump. T1- and T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, gradient-echo (GRE), and diffusion-weighted (DWI) imaging and measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were performed serially at 6 different time points (before and 12 h, 3 d, 5 d, 10 d and 24 d after hemorrhage) by using a 3-T MR system. The temporal changes of T1 signal intensity (SI) corresponded well with the reported human data. The temporal changes of T2 and GRE sequences, with the exception of T2 and GRE hyperintensities at the early subacute stage, also matched. ADC measurements were high at the early subacute stage, and DWI-SI positively correlated with T2- and GRE-SI from the early subacute stage onward. In conclusion, MRI is an ideal method for characterizing the temporal evolution of parenchymal alterations after ICH in dogs. These data might be useful for differentiating clinical stages of ICH in dogs. PMID:26678369

  7. Infantile Refsum disease: serial evaluation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakirer, Sinan; Savas, Mahmut R

    2005-02-01

    Refsum disease is a rare metabolic disorder, which is characterized by the accumulation of phytanic acid in the blood and tissues, including the brain. A variant of this condition that occurs in young children is called infantile Refsum disease. The MRI findings of symmetrical signal change involving the corticospinal tracts, cerebellar dentate nuclei, and corpus callosum are characteristic. We report the serial MRI findings of a child with this rare metabolic disorder.

  8. Evaluation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Spinal Tuberculosis by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Primal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spinal tuberculosis presents a radiological challenge in many cases when it presents with atypical pattern of involvement and has to be distinguished from various differentials, which include metastases. In such cases Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) with Apparent Diffusion Co-efficient (ADC) value may play a role in reaching towards a conclusion, thereby preventing unnecessary biopsy in such patients. Aim Measurement of mean ADC values in tubercular vertebrae and associated collection. Materials and Methods The study was comprised of 55 patients and was conducted on 3.0 TESLA Siemens machine Magnetom Verio. Patients either known to have tuberculosis or those with classic tuberculous findings were included in the study. All these patients were followed up for post-treatment confirmation and ADC value. All the patients underwent routine MRI along with DW-MRI sequence, ADC values and FNAC/ Biopsy if required. The ADC values were calculated from the involved vertebral bodies and surrounding soft tissue and also from normal vertebrae preferably from one above and below the affected vertebrae to establish ADC of normal vertebrae, which was helpful in treatment response in patients with antitubercular therapy. At least six ADC value was taken from affected vertebrae and soft tissue. Results The mean ADC value of tubercular vertebrae was found out to be 1.47 ± 0.25 x 10-3 mm2/sec, of adjacent soft tissue collection (abscess) was 1.94 ± 0.30 x 10-3 mm2/sec and normal vertebrae was 0.48 ± 0.16 x 10-3 mm2/sec. ADC value of post treated vertebrae decreased and complete resolution showed ADC near normal vertebrae. Conclusion Normal range of the ADC values in spinal tuberculosis and associated paravertebral collection may be helpful in the differentiation of spinal tuberculosis from lesions with spinal involvement which are not proven to be tuberculosis and who did not have the classical appearance of either tuberculosis or metastasis. But there exists a zone of

  9. Breast MRI after bilateral mastectomy: is it indicated?

    PubMed

    Vanderwalde, Lindi H; Dang, Catherine M; Tabrizi, Robert; Saouaf, Rola; Phillips, Edward H

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the use of breast MRI as a diagnostic or surveillance tool in patients after bilateral mastectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate breast MRI after bilateral mastectomy. Participants consisted of 48 women with prior bilateral mastectomy who underwent breast MRI between 2003 and 2009. Seventy-nine breast MRIs were obtained. The median time between mastectomy and first MRI was 36 months. MRI was ordered most often by a medical oncologist (71%). Median age at bilateral mastectomy was 49 years (range, 33 to 72 years). Reasons for obtaining MRI included surveillance in 60 (76%), mass in eight (10%), lymph nodes in four (5%), pain in three (4%), and abscess in one (1%). Overall, 68 (86%) MRIs showed benign imaging findings only. Within the surveillance group, six patients had MRIs with findings that changed management; four patients had some residual breast tissue, and two patients had findings outside the breast that were better evaluated by CT or bone scan and were ultimately benign. MRI confirmed locoregional recurrence in two patients with highly suspicious physical findings. Overall, postmastectomy breast MRI had limited use, finding no unsuspected recurrences within our study group. Although MRI can be helpful to establish the presence of residual breast tissue after bilateral mastectomy, subsequent routine screening breast MRI should be questioned if no residual breast tissue is identified. PMID:21337876

  10. Oligoclonal banding of IgG in CSF, blood-brain barrier function, and MRI findings in patients with sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Behçet's disease involving the nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, B N; Miller, D; Thompson, E J

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of CSF and serum analysis from a total of 43 patients with sarcoidosis, 20 with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 12 with Behçet's disease with neurological involvement found local synthesis of oligoclonal IgG using isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting in 51%, 25%, and 8% respectively at some stage in their disease. Blood-brain barrier breakdown, when assessed with an albumin ratio found 47% of patients with sarcoidosis, 30% of those with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 42% of patients with Behçet's disease exhibiting abnormal barrier function at some time. Serial CSF analysis showed that clinical relapses were associated with worsening barrier function and in some patients the development of local oligoclonal IgG synthesis; conversely steroid treatment led to a statistically significant improvement in barrier function, and in two patients a loss of oligoclonal IgG bands. A higher proportion of patients had MRI abnormalities than oligoclonal IgG or blood-brain barrier breakdown, MRI being abnormal in 16 of 19 patients with sarcoidosis, three of four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and seven of nine patients with Behçet's disease, although this may have been due to temporal factors. In the differential diagnosis of chronic neurological disorders, locally synthesised oligoclonal IgG cannot distinguish between diseases, but the loss of bands seen in two patients contrasts with what is seen in multiple sclerosis, and thus may be a useful diagnostic clue. PMID:7745401

  11. Getting an MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una resonancia magnética, RM (video) An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan creates detailed ...

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI, DWI MRI, FDG-PET/CT and FEC PET/CT in the Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Surgically Staged Endometrial and Cervical Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-21

    Surgically Staged Endometrial and Cervical Carcinoma; Cervical Cancer: Invasive Disease, FIGO Stage 1B1 or Higher; Endometrial Cancer:; Stage 1A With Myometrial Invasion or Any Higher Stage and Grade 3; Stage 1A With Myometrial Invasion or Any Other Higher Stage and Serous Papillary or Clear Cell Sub-types; Stage II Disease or Above and Any Histology Grade

  13. Update of diagnostic preoperative images using low-field interventional MRI for navigation in neurosurgery: rigid-body registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavec, Martin; Wikler, David; Phillips, Christophe L. M.; Vigneron, Lara M.; Levivier, Marc; Verly, Jacques G.

    2005-04-01

    This study looks into the rigid-body registration of pre-operative anatomical high field and interventional low field magnetic resonance images (MRI). The accurate 3D registration of these modalities is required to enhance the content of interventional images with anatomical (CT, high field MRI, DTI), functional (DWI, fMRI, PWI), metabolic (PET) or angiography (CTA, MRA) pre-operative images. The specific design of the interventional MRI scanner used in the present study, a PoleStar N20, induces image artifacts, such as ellipsoidal masking and intensity inhomogeneities, which affect registration performance. On MRI data from eleven patients, who underwent resection of a brain tumor, we quantitatively evaluated the effects of artifacts in the image registration process based on a normalized mutual information (NMI) metric criterion. The results show that the quality of alignment of pre-operative anatomical and interventional images strongly depends on pre-processing carried out prior to registration. The registration results scored the highest in visual evaluation only if intensity variations and masking were considered in image registration. We conclude that the alignment of anatomical high field MRI and PoleStar interventional images is the most accurate when the PoleStar's induced image artifacts are corrected for before registration.

  14. Revisiting the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Evidence for Prion Type Variability Influencing Clinical Course and Laboratory Findings.

    PubMed

    Baiardi, Simone; Capellari, Sabina; Ladogana, Anna; Strumia, Silvia; Santangelo, Mario; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Parchi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The Heidenhain variant defines a peculiar clinical presentation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) characterized by isolated visual disturbances at disease onset and reflecting the early targeting of prions to the occipital cortex. Molecular and histopathological typing, thus far performed in 23 cases, has linked the Heidenhain variant to the MM1 sCJD type. To contribute a comprehensive characterization of cases with the Heidenhain variant, we reviewed a series of 370 definite sCJD cases. Eighteen patients (4.9%) fulfilled the selection criteria. Fourteen of them belonging to sCJD types MM1 or MM1+2C had a short duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, a high prevalence of periodic sharp-wave complexes in EEG, and a marked increase of cerebrospinal fluid proteins t-tau and 14-3-3 levels. In contrast, three cases of the MM 2C or MM 2+1C types showed a longer duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, non-specific EEG findings, and cerebrospinal fluid concentration below threshold for the diagnosis of "probable" CJD of both 14-3-3 and t-tau. However, a brain DWI-MRI disclosed an occipital cortical hyperintensity in the majority of examined cases of both groups. While confirming the strong linkage with the methionine genotype at the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene, our results definitely establish that the Heidenhain variant can also be associated with the MM 2C sCJD type in addition to the more common MM1 type. Likewise, our results highlight the significant differences in clinical evolution and laboratory findings between cases according to the dominant PrPSc type (type 1 versus type 2). PMID:26682685

  15. Revisiting the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Evidence for Prion Type Variability Influencing Clinical Course and Laboratory Findings

    PubMed Central

    Baiardi, Simone; Capellari, Sabina; Ladogana, Anna; Strumia, Silvia; Santangelo, Mario; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Parchi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The Heidenhain variant defines a peculiar clinical presentation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) characterized by isolated visual disturbances at disease onset and reflecting the early targeting of prions to the occipital cortex. Molecular and histopathological typing, thus far performed in 23 cases, has linked the Heidenhain variant to the MM1 sCJD type. To contribute a comprehensive characterization of cases with the Heidenhain variant, we reviewed a series of 370 definite sCJD cases. Eighteen patients (4.9%) fulfilled the selection criteria. Fourteen of them belonging to sCJD types MM1 or MM1+2C had a short duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, a high prevalence of periodic sharp-wave complexes in EEG, and a marked increase of cerebrospinal fluid proteins t-tau and 14-3-3 levels. In contrast, three cases of the MM 2C or MM 2+1C types showed a longer duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, non-specific EEG findings, and cerebrospinal fluid concentration below threshold for the diagnosis of “probable” CJD of both 14-3-3 and t-tau. However, a brain DWI-MRI disclosed an occipital cortical hyperintensity in the majority of examined cases of both groups. While confirming the strong linkage with the methionine genotype at the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene, our results definitely establish that the Heidenhain variant can also be associated with the MM 2C sCJD type in addition to the more common MM1 type. Likewise, our results highlight the significant differences in clinical evolution and laboratory findings between cases according to the dominant PrPSc type (type 1 versus type 2). PMID:26682685

  16. Magnetostimulation in MRI.

    PubMed

    Irnich, W; Schmitt, F

    1995-05-01

    In national and international bodies, there is active discussion of appropriate safety regulations of levels of magnetic field strength in MRI. Present limits are usually expressed in terms of the switching rate dB/dt, but the validity of this is open to debate. Application of the fundamental law of electrostimulation is well-established, both on theoretical and experimental grounds. Application of this law, in combination with Maxwell's law, yields a very simple equation that we call the fundamental law of magnetostimulation. This law has the hyperbolic form of a strength-duration curve and allows an estimation of the lowest possible value of the magnetic flux density capable of stimulating nerves and muscles. Calculations prove that the threshold for heart excitation is much higher than those for nerve and muscle stimulations. Experimental results from us and other authors confirm the correctness of the derived laws for magnetostimulation. In light of these findings, proposed safety limits should be reconsidered. PMID:7596265

  17. Multiparametric Functional MRI: Non-Invasive Imaging of Inflammation and Edema Formation after Kidney Transplantation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gutberlet, Marcel; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Jang, Mi-Sun; Thorenz, Anja; Chen, Rongjun; Hertel, Barbara; Barrmeyer, Amelie; Schmidbauer, Martina; Meier, Martin; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Khalifa, Abedalrazag; Hartung, Dagmar; Haller, Hermann; Wacker, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation (ktx) in mice is used to learn about rejection and to develop new treatment strategies. Past studies have mainly been based on histological or molecular biological methods. Imaging techniques to monitor allograft pathology have rarely been used. Methods Here we investigated mice after isogenic and allogenic ktx over time with functional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and mapping of T2-relaxation time (T2-mapping) to assess graft inflammation and edema formation. To characterize graft pathology, we used PAS-staining, counted CD3-positive T-lymphocytes, analyzed leukocytes by means flow cytometry. Results DWI revealed progressive restriction of diffusion of water molecules in allogenic kidney grafts. This was paralleled by enhanced infiltration of the kidney by inflammatory cells. Changes in tissue diffusion were not seen following isogenic ktx. T2-times in renal cortex were increased after both isogenic and allogenic transplantation, consistent with tissue edema due to ischemic injury following prolonged cold ischemia time of 60 minutes. Lack of T2 increase in the inner stripe of the inner medulla in allogenic kidney grafts matched loss of tubular autofluorescence and may result from rejection-driven reductions in tubular water content due to tubular dysfunction and renal functional impairment. Conclusions Functional MRI is a valuable non-invasive technique for monitoring inflammation, tissue edema and tubular function. It permits on to differentiate between acute rejection and ischemic renal injury in a mouse model of ktx. PMID:27632553

  18. Quantitative MRI Measures in SIV-Infected Macaque Brains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Chunxia

    2013-01-01

    Multiple MRI modalities including Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), perfusion MRI, in vivo MR Spectroscopy (MRS), volumetric MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and functional MRI have demonstrated abnormalities of the structural and functional integrity as well as neurochemical alterations of the HIV-infected central nervous system (CNS). MRI has been proposed as a robust imaging approach for the characterization of the stage of progression in HIV infection. However, the interpretation of the MRI findings of HIV patients is complicated by the fact that these clinical studies cannot readily be controlled. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected macaques exhibit neuropathological symptoms similar to those of HIV patients, and are an important model for studying the course of CNS infection, cognitive impairment, and neuropathology of HIV disease as well as treatment efficacy. MRI of non-human primates (NHPs) is of limited benefit on most clinical scanners operating at or below 1.5 Tesla because this low field strength does not produce high-quality images of the relatively small NHP brain. Contemporary high field MRI (3T or more) for clinical use provides impressive sensitivity for magnetic resonance signal detection and is now accessible in many imaging centers and hospitals, facilitating the use of various MRI techniques in NHP studies. In this article, several high field MRI techniques and applications in macaque models of neuroAIDS are reviewed and the relation between quantitative MRI measures and blood T-cell alterations is discussed. PMID:24244892

  19. MRI features of pediatric cerebral paragonimiasis in the active stage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin Song; Huan, Yi; Sun, Li Jun; Zhang, Guang Yun; Ge, Ya Li; Zhao, Hai Tao

    2006-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of the brains of six children (age = 5-13 years) who had cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage. Diagnosis was based on a positive antibody test enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for paragonimiasis in serum. The most common finding (in five patients) was irregular hemorrhage of various degrees. Moreover, in three cases some multiple irregular lesions with surrounding edema appeared to be conglomerated and aggregated. The rare appearance (in one patient) was a "tunnel sign," which showed the migrating track of the adult worm. In one patient with abscess and minimal hemorrhage, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed a heterogeneous high signal of lesions. Other findings included slight (one patient) or marked (one patient) irregular contrast enhancement, and large edematous areas surrounding small centers of hemorrhage (two patients). MR findings of conglomerated lesions with hemorrhage or tunnel sign may help to establish the diagnosis of active-stage cerebral paragonimiasis.

  20. Is 3-Tesla Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Superior to 64-Slice Contrast-Enhanced CT for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Maiwald, Bettina; Lobsien, Donald; Kahn, Thomas; Stumpp, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare 64-slice contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in this setting. Methods 3-phase-liver-CT was performed in fifty patients (42 male, 8 female) with suspected or proven HCC. The patients were subjected to a 3-Tesla-MRI-examination with Gd-EOB-DTPA and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) at b-values of 0, 50 and 400 s/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-value was determined for each lesion detected in DWI. The histopathological report after resection or biopsy of a lesion served as the gold standard, and a surrogate of follow-up or complementary imaging techniques in combination with clinical and paraclinical parameters was used in unresected lesions. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were evaluated for each technique. Results MRI detected slightly more lesions that were considered suspicious for HCC per patient compared to CT (2.7 versus 2.3, respectively). ADC-measurements in HCC showed notably heterogeneous values with a median of 1.2±0.5×10−3 mm2/s (range from 0.07±0.1 to 3.0±0.1×10−3 mm2/s). MRI showed similar diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared to CT (AUC 0.837, sensitivity 92%, PPV 80% and NPV 90% for MRI vs. AUC 0.798, sensitivity 85%, PPV 79% and NPV 82% for CT; not significant). Specificity was 75% for both techniques. Conclusions Our study did not show a statistically significant difference in detection in detection of HCC between MRI and CT. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI tended to detect more lesions per patient compared to contrast-enhanced CT; therefore, we would recommend this modality as the first-choice imaging method for the detection of HCC and therapeutic decisions. However, contrast-enhanced CT was not inferior in our study, so

  1. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, Xavier; Amat-Roldan, Iván; Tudela, Raúl; Castañé, Anna; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Planas, Anna M.; Farr, Tracy D.; Soria, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory, and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in two different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, DTI scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and gray matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional three-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent. PMID:25100993

  2. Characteristic lesion pattern and echocardiographic findings in extra-cardiac shunt-related stroke.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jun Kyu; Park, Sung Ji; Kim, Suk Jae; Bang, Oh Young; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Gyeong-Moon

    2016-10-15

    Among embolic strokes of undetermined source, under-recognized etiology such as extra-cardiac shunt could be a potential risk factor. We sought to characterize infarction patterns on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) findings in extra-cardiac shunt-related stroke. We enrolled 96 consecutive patients with cryptogenic stroke who had an extra- or intra-cardiac shunt. Diagnosis of the shunt was performed using TEE with agitated saline contrast and pulmonary vein isolation. Infarction patterns on DWI and total lesion volume were analyzed. Bubble amounts through the shunt were classified via the International Consensus Criteria (ICC). Short-term prognosis, patterns and size of DWI lesions, and involved vascular territories were not significantly different between two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that extra-cardiac shunt group has a smaller total infarct volume (odds ratio [OR]=0.427, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.228-0.799, p=0.008), and significantly higher bubble grade during resting state and lower grade during the Valsalva maneuver (OR= 0.539, 95% CI 0.438-0.663, p<0.001). Stroke related to an extra-cardiac shunt presented smaller infarct volume, favorable clinical outcomes and characteristic finding on TEE with agitated saline contrast. Further study is needed to confirm whether the extra-cardiac shunt is an independent risk factor. PMID:27653885

  3. Imaging of prostate cancer: a platform for 3D co-registration of in-vivo MRI ex-vivo MRI and pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczyk, Clément; Mikheev, Artem; Rosenkrantz, Andrew; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Rusinek, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Multi-parametric MRI is emerging as a promising method for prostate cancer diagnosis. prognosis and treatment planning. However, the localization of in-vivo detected lesions and pathologic sites of cancer remains a significant challenge. To overcome this limitation we have developed and tested a system for co-registration of in-vivo MRI, ex-vivo MRI and histology. Materials and Methods: Three men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (ages 54-72, PSA levels 5.1-7.7 ng/ml) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 3T multi-parametric MRI that included T2W, DCEMRI, and DWI prior to robotic-assisted prostatectomy. Ex-vivo multi-parametric MRI was performed on fresh prostate specimen. Excised prostates were then sliced at regular intervals and photographed both before and after fixation. Slices were perpendicular to the main axis of the posterior capsule, i.e., along the direction of the rectal wall. Guided by the location of the urethra, 2D digital images were assembled into 3D models. Cancer foci, extra-capsular extensions and zonal margins were delineated by the pathologist and included in 3D histology data. A locally-developed software was applied to register in-vivo, ex-vivo and histology using an over-determined set of anatomical landmarks placed in anterior fibro-muscular stroma, central. transition and peripheral zones. The mean root square distance across corresponding control points was used to assess co-registration error. Results: Two specimens were pT3a and one pT2b (negative margin) at pathology. The software successfully fused invivo MRI. ex-vivo MRI fresh specimen and histology using appropriate (rigid and affine) transformation models with mean square error of 1.59 mm. Coregistration accuracy was confirmed by multi-modality viewing using operator-guided variable transparency. Conclusion: The method enables successful co-registration of pre-operative MRI, ex-vivo MRI and pathology and it provides initial evidence

  4. Diagnostic capability of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with multi-detector CT.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yuko; Hieda, Masashi; Akiyama, Naoko; Terada, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Noriaki; Nishiki, Masayo; Kono, Hirotaka; Kohno, Hiroshi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Yoshikawa, Yukinobu; Kuraoka, Kazuya; Taniyama, Kiyomi; Awai, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capability of gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB)-MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with multidetector CT (MDCT). Fifty patients with 57 surgically proven HCCs who underwent Gd-EOB-MRI and MDCT from March 2008 to June 2011 were evaluated. Two observers evaluated MR and CT on a lesion-by-lesion basis. We analyzed sensitivity by grading on a 5-point scale, the degree of arterial enhancement and the differences in histological grades in the diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The results showed that the sensitivity of Gd-EOB-MRI was higher than that of MDCT especially for HCCs that were 1 cm in diameter or smaller. The hepatobiliary phase was useful for the detecting of small HCC. We had few cases in which it was difficult to judge HCC in the arterial enhancement between MRI and MDCT. In the diffusion-weighted image, well differentiated HCC tended to show a low signal intensity, and poorly differentiated HCC tended to show a high signal intensity. In moderately differentiated HCC's, the mean diameter of the high signal intensity group was larger than that of the low signal intensity group (24.5 mm vs. 15.8 mm). In conclusion, Gd-EOB-MRI tended to show higher sensitivity compared to MDCT in the detection of HCC.

  5. Can Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and Diffusion-Weighted MRI (DW-MRI) Evaluate Inflammation Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianguo; Zhang, Faming; Luan, Yun; Cao, Peng; Liu, Fei; He, Wenwen; Wang, Dehang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate diagnosis efficacy of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in Crohn's disease (CD). To find out the correlations between functional MRI parameters including Ktrans, Kep, Ve, Vp, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with a serologic biomarker. The relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and ADC were also studied. Thirty-two patients with CD (22 men, 10 women; mean age: 30.5 years) and 18 healthy volunteers without any inflammatory disease (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 34.11 years) were enrolled into this approved prospective study. Pearson analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Ktrans, Kep, Ve, Vp, and C-reactive protein (CRP), ADC, and CRP respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the functional MRI parameters in terms of sensitivity and specificity were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Optimal cut-off values of each functional MRI parameters for differentiation of inflammatory from normal bowel were determined according to the Youden criterion. Mean value of Ktrans in the CD group was significantly higher than that of normal control group. Similar results were observed for Kep and Ve. On the contrary, the ADC value was lower in the CD group than that in the control group. Ktrans and Ve were shown to be correlated with CRP (r = 0.725, P < 0.001; r = 0.533, P = 0.002), meanwhile ADC showed negative correlation with CRP (r = −0.630, P < 0.001). There were negative correlations between the pharmacokinetic parameters and ADC, such as Ktrans to ADC (r = −0.856, P < 0.001), and Ve to ADC (r = −0.451, P = 0.01). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.994 for Ktrans (P < 0.001), 0.905 for ADC (P < 0.001), 0.806 for Ve (P < 0.001), and 0.764 for Kep (P = 0.002). The cut-off point of the Ktrans was found to be 0.931 min–1. This value provided the best trade-off between

  6. TH-A-BRF-05: MRI of Individual Lymph Nodes to Guide Regional Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Heijst, T van; Asselen, B van; Lagendijk, J; Bongard, D van den; Philippens, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In regional radiotherapy (RT) for breast-cancer patients, direct visualization of individual lymph nodes (LNs) may reduce target volumes and Result in lower toxicity (i.e. reduced radiation pneumonitis, arm edema, arm morbidity), relative to standard CT-based delineations. To this end, newly designed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were optimized and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Methods: In ten healthy female volunteers, a scanning protocol was developed and optimized. Coronal images were acquired in supine RT position positioned on a wedge board on a 1.5 T Ingenia (Philips) wide-bore MRI. In four volunteers the optimized MRI protocol was applied, including a 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1w) fast-field-echo (FFE). T2w sequences, including 3D FFE, 3D and 2D fast spin echo (FSE), and diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging (DWI) were also performed. Several fatsuppression techniques were used. Qualitative evaluation parameters included LN contrast, motion susceptibility, visibility of anatomical structures, and fat suppression. The number of visible axillary and supraclavicular LNs was also determined. Results: T1 FFE, insensitive to motion, lacked contrast of LNs, which often blended in with soft tissue and blood. T2 FFE showed high contrast, but some LNs were obscured due to motion. Both 2D and 3D FSE were motion-insensitive having high contrast, although some blood remained visible. 2D FSE showed more anatomical details, while in 3D FSE, some blurring occurred. DWI showed high LN contrast, but suffered from geometric distortions and low resolution. Fat suppression by mDixon was the most reliable in regions with magnetic-field inhomogeneities. The FSE sequences showed the highest sensitivity for LN detection. Conclusion: MRI of regional LNs was achieved in volunteers. The FSE techniques were robust and the most sensitive. Our optimized MRI sequences can facilitate direct delineation of individual LNs. This can Result

  7. CEST MRI reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanshu; Bulte, Jeff W M; Gilad, Assaf A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several reporter genes have been developed that can serve as a beacon for non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we provide a brief summary of recent advances in MRI reporter gene technology, as well as detailed "hands-on" protocols for cloning, expression, and imaging of reporter genes based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST).

  8. Identifying Quantitative In Vivo Multi-Parametric MRI Features For Treatment Related Changes after Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Satish; Toth, Robert; Rusu, Mirabela; Sperling, Dan; Lepor, Herbert; Futterer, Jurgen; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a new therapeutic strategy being explored in prostate cancer (CaP), which involves focal ablation of organlocalized tumor via an interstitial laser fiber. While little is known about treatment-related changes following LITT, studying post-LITT changes via imaging is extremely significant for enabling early image-guided intervention and follow-up. In this work, we present the first attempt at examining focal treatment-related changes on a per-voxel basis via quantitative comparison of MRI features pre- and post-LITT, and hence identifying computerized MRI features that are highly sensitive as well as specific to post-LITT changes within the ablation zone in the prostate. A retrospective cohort of 5 patient datasets comprising both pre- and post-LITT T2-weighted (T2w) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) acquisitions was considered, where DWI MRI yielded an Apparent Diffusion Co-efficient (ADC) map. Our scheme involved (1) inter-protocol registration of T2w and ADC MRI, as well as inter-acquisition registration of pre- and post-LITT MRI, (2) quantitation of MRI parameters by correcting for intensity drift in order to examine tissuespecific response, and (3) quantification of the information captured by T2w MRI and ADC maps via texture and intensity features. Correction of parameter drift resulted in visually discernible improvements in highlighting tissue-specific response in different MRI features. Quantitative, voxel-wise comparison of the changes in different MRI features indicated that steerable and non-steerable gradient texture features, rather than the original T2w intensity and ADC values, were highly sensitive as well as specific in identifying changes within the ablation zone pre- and post-LITT. The highest ranked texture feature yielded a normalized percentage change of 186% within the ablation zone and 43% in a spatially distinct normal region, relative to its pre-LITT value. By comparison, both the original T2w

  9. White Matter Development during Adolescence as Shown by Diffusion MRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing…

  10. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Bent, C L; Sahdev, A; Rockall, A G; Singh, N; Sohaib, S A; Reznek, R H

    2009-04-01

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm(3)) and mucinous (6358.2 cm(3)) subtypes (p=0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  11. Lesion patterns and etiology of ischemia in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory involvement: a clinical - diffusion weighted - MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kumral, E; Kisabay, A; Ataç, C

    2006-04-01

    The topography and mechanism of stroke in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory are delineated before, but the detailed clinical spectrum of lesions involving AICA territory was not studied by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). We reviewed 1350 patients with posterior circulation ischemic stroke in our registry. We included patients if the diagnosis of AICA territory involvement was confirmed, and DWI, and magnetic resonance angiography were obtained in the 3 days of symptoms onset. The potential feeding arteries of the AICA territory were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a three-dimensional rotating cineoangiographic method. There were 23 consecutive patients with lesion involving AICA territory, six with isolated lesion in the AICA territory, six with posterior inferior cerebellar artery, 11 with multiple posterior circulation infarcts (MPCIs). The clinical feature of isolated AICA infarct was vertigo, tinnitus, dysmetria, ataxia, facial weakness, facial sensory deficits, lateral gaze palsy, and sensory-motor deficits in patients with pontine involvement. Patients with largest lesion extending to the anterior and inferolateral cerebellum showed mixed symptomatology of the lateral medullary (Wallenberg's syndrome) and AICA territory involvement. Patients with MPCIs presented various clinical pictures with consciousness disturbances and diverse clinical signs because of involvement of different anatomical structures. Large-artery atherosclerotic disease in the vertebrobasilar system was the main cause of stroke in 12 (52%) patients, cardioembolism (CE) in one (4%), and coexisting large-artery disease and a source of CE in four (17%). The main cause of stroke was atheromatous vertebrobasilar artery disease either in the distal vertebral or proximal basilar artery. The outcome was usually good except those with multiple lesions. The new MRI techniques and clinical correlations allow better definition of the diverse topographical

  12. Inferring functional connectivity in MRI using Bayesian network structure learning with a modified PC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Swathi P; Shafran, Izhak; Grayson, David; Gates, Kathleen; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2013-07-15

    Resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a popular technique used to gauge the functional relatedness between regions in the brain for typical and special populations. Most of the work to date determines this relationship by using Pearson's correlation on BOLD fMRI timeseries. However, it has been recognized that there are at least two key limitations to this method. First, it is not possible to resolve the direct and indirect connections/influences. Second, the direction of information flow between the regions cannot be differentiated. In the current paper, we follow-up on recent work by Smith et al. (2011), and apply PC algorithm to both simulated data and empirical data to determine whether these two factors can be discerned with group average, as opposed to single subject, functional connectivity data. When applied on simulated individual subjects, the algorithm performs well determining indirect and direct connection but fails in determining directionality. However, when applied at group level, PC algorithm gives strong results for both indirect and direct connections and the direction of information flow. Applying the algorithm on empirical data, using a diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) structural connectivity matrix as the baseline, the PC algorithm outperformed the direct correlations. We conclude that, under certain conditions, the PC algorithm leads to an improved estimate of brain network structure compared to the traditional connectivity analysis based on correlations.

  13. Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

    2013-08-01

    Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the

  14. Correlations between the MR Diffusion-weighted Image (DWI) and the bone mineral density (BMD) as a function of the soft tissue thickness-focus on phantom and patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Sam; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Cheol-Soo; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong; Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Yeo, Hwa-Yeon

    2013-02-01

    In this study we used lumbar phantoms to determine if the BMD (bone mineral density) changes when only the thickness of soft tissue is increased. Second, we targeted osteoporosis patients to analyze the dependences of the changes in the SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) on changes in T-score. We used a bone mineral densitometer, phantoms such as an aluminum spine phantom (ASP), a Hologic spine phantom (HSP), and a European spine phantom (ESP), five sheets of acrylic panel, and a water bath to study the effects of changes in the thickness of soft tissue. First, we measured the ASP, the HSP and the ESP. For the measurement of the ASP, we filled it with water to increase the height by 0.5 cm starting from the baseline height. We then did three measurements for each height. For the measurements of the HSP and the ESP, we placed an acrylic panel on the phantom and then did three measurements at each height. We used the ASP to calculate the degree of precision of the standard mode and the thick mode at the maximum height of the water bath. To assess the degree of precision in the measurements of the three types of phantoms, we calculated precision errors and analyzed the correlation between the change in the thickness of soft tissue and the variables of the BMD. Using DWIs (diffusion weighted images), we targeted 30 healthy persons without osteoporosis and 30 patients with a finding of osteoporosis and measured the T-scores for the L1 — L4 (lumbar spine) segments of by the spine using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before classifying the measurement at each part of the spine as osteopenia or osteoporosis. We measured the signal intensity on all four parts of L1-L4 in the DWIs obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner and measured the ADC in the ADC map image. We compared changes in the SNR and the ADC for each group. The study results confirmed that an increase in the thickness of the soft tissue had a significant correlation

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  16. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  17. Shoulder MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... an imaging test that uses energy from powerful magnets and to create pictures of the shoulder area. ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed in the room ...

  18. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... some MRI exams, intravenous (IV) drugs, such as gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used to change the contrast of the MR image. Gadolinium-based contrast agents are rare earth metals that ...

  19. MRI of the Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a supplemental tool to breast screening with mammography or ultrasound. It may be used to screen ... following diagnosis, or further evaluate abnormalities seen on mammography. Breast MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and ...

  20. Abdominal MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen ... used to look at: Blood flow in the abdomen Blood vessels in the abdomen The cause of ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  2. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  3. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... have been no reported side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves. The most common type of ... health care provider before the test. The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers ...

  4. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... have been no reported side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves. The most common type of ... tell your provider before the test. The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers ...

  5. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... have been no reported side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves. The most common type of ... tell your provider before the test The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers ...

  6. Molecular fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Bartelle, Benjamin B.; Barandov, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of brain function depends on understanding the dynamics of diverse neural signaling processes over large tissue volumes in intact animals and humans. Most existing approaches to measuring brain signaling suffer from limited tissue penetration, poor resolution, or lack of specificity for well-defined neural events. Here we discuss a new brain activity mapping method that overcomes some of these problems by combining MRI with contrast agents sensitive to neural signaling. The goal of this “molecular fMRI” approach is to permit noninvasive whole-brain neuroimaging with specificity and resolution approaching current optical neuroimaging methods. In this article, we describe the context and need for molecular fMRI as well as the state of the technology today. We explain how major types of MRI probes work and how they can be sensitized to neurobiological processes, such as neurotransmitter release, calcium signaling, and gene expression changes. We comment both on past work in the field and on challenges and promising avenues for future development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain researchers currently have a choice between measuring neural activity using cellular-level recording techniques, such as electrophysiology and optical imaging, or whole-brain imaging methods, such as fMRI. Cellular level methods are precise but only address a small portion of mammalian brains; on the other hand, whole-brain neuroimaging techniques provide very little specificity for neural pathways or signaling components of interest. The molecular fMRI techniques we discuss have particular potential to combine the specificity of cellular-level measurements with the noninvasive whole-brain coverage of fMRI. On the other hand, molecular fMRI is only just getting off the ground. This article aims to offer a snapshot of the status and future prospects for development of molecular fMRI techniques. PMID:27076413

  7. Optogenetic Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peter; Fang, Zhongnan; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the functional connectivity of precise neural circuits across the entire intact brain can be achieved through optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), which is a novel technique that combines the relatively high spatial resolution of high-field fMRI with the precision of optogenetic stimulation. Fiber optics that enable delivery of specific wavelengths of light deep into the brain in vivo are implanted into regions of interest in order to specifically stimulate targeted cell types that have been genetically induced to express light-sensitive trans-membrane conductance channels, called opsins. fMRI is used to provide a non-invasive method of determining the brain's global dynamic response to optogenetic stimulation of specific neural circuits through measurement of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which provides an indirect measurement of neuronal activity. This protocol describes the construction of fiber optic implants, the implantation surgeries, the imaging with photostimulation and the data analysis required to successfully perform ofMRI. In summary, the precise stimulation and whole-brain monitoring ability of ofMRI are crucial factors in making ofMRI a powerful tool for the study of the connectomics of the brain in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:27167840

  8. Fetal and maternal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex: Value of fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Goel, Reema; Aggarwal, Nishant; Lemmon, Monica E; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by benign hamartomas in various organ systems of the body. Prenatal screening of fetuses of mothers affected with TSC using ultrasonography (US) may detect cardiac lesions. Fetal US is not sensitive for evaluation of the brain. We describe brain MRI findings in a fetus with cardiac rhabdomyomas identified on prenatal screening US. Postnatal brain MRI at 5 days of age demonstrated fetal MRI findings without significant added information. Fetal MRI is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of cerebral manifestations of TSC. Maternal manifestations of TSC in the abdomen or pelvis may also be demonstrated on fetal MRI. PMID:26838171

  9. Outcome of Adult Brain Tumor Consortium (ABTC) prospective dose-finding trials of I-125 balloon brachytherapy in high-grade gliomas: challenges in clinical trial design and technology development when MRI treatment effect and recurrence appear similar

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, V.; Mikkelsen, T.; Judy, K.; Weingart, J.; Barnett, G.; Olson, J.; Desideri, S.; Ye, X.; Grossman, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to define the maximal safe radiation dose to guide further study of the GliaSite balloon brachytherapy (GSBT) system in untreated newly diagnosed glioblastoma (NEW-GBM) and recurrent high-grade glioma (REC-HGG). GBST is a balloon placed in the resection cavity and later filled through a subcutaneous port with liquid I-125 Iotrex, providing radiation doses that diminish uniformly with distance from the balloon surface. Methods The Adult Brain Tumor Consortium initiated prospective dose-finding studies to determine maximum tolerated dose in NEW-GBM treated before standard RT or after surgery for REC-HGG. Patients were inevaluable if there was progression before the 90-day posttreatment toxicity evaluation point. Results Ten NEW-GBM patients had the balloon placed, and 2/10 reached the 90 day timepoint. Five REC-HGG enrolled and two were assessable at the 90-day evaluation endpoint. Imaging progression occurred before 90-day evaluation in 7/12 treated patients. The trials were closed as too few patients were assessable to allow dose escalation, although no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed. Median survival from treatment was 15.3 months (95 % CI 7.1–23.6) for NEW-GBM and 12.8 months (95 % CI 4.2–20.9) for REC-HGG. Conclusion These trials failed to determine a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for further testing as early imaging changes, presumed to be progression, were common and interfered with the assessment of treatment-related toxicity. The survival outcomes in these and other related studies, although based on small populations, suggest that GSBT may be worthy of further study using clinical and survival endpoints, rather than standard imaging results. The implications for local therapy development are discussed.

  10. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  11. Structural Neuroimaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy J; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Black, Garrett; Christensen, Zachary P; Huff, Trevor; Wood, Dawn-Marie G; Hesselink, John R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Max, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Common neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC), are reviewed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common abnormalities radiologically identified on the day of injury, typically a computed tomographic scan, are in the form of contusions, small subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhages as well as subdural and epidural collections, edema, and skull fractures. Common follow-up neuroimaging findings with MRI include white matter hyperintensities, hypointense signal abnormalities that reflect prior hemorrhage, focal encephalomalacia, presence of atrophy and/or dilated Virchow-Robins perivascular space. The MRI findings from a large pediatric mTBI study show low frequency of positive MRI findings at 6 months postinjury. The review concludes with an examination of some of the advanced MRI-based image analysis methods that can be performed in the patient who has sustained an mTBI. PMID:27482782

  12. Structural Neuroimaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy J; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Black, Garrett; Christensen, Zachary P; Huff, Trevor; Wood, Dawn-Marie G; Hesselink, John R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Max, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Common neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC), are reviewed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common abnormalities radiologically identified on the day of injury, typically a computed tomographic scan, are in the form of contusions, small subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhages as well as subdural and epidural collections, edema, and skull fractures. Common follow-up neuroimaging findings with MRI include white matter hyperintensities, hypointense signal abnormalities that reflect prior hemorrhage, focal encephalomalacia, presence of atrophy and/or dilated Virchow-Robins perivascular space. The MRI findings from a large pediatric mTBI study show low frequency of positive MRI findings at 6 months postinjury. The review concludes with an examination of some of the advanced MRI-based image analysis methods that can be performed in the patient who has sustained an mTBI.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of treatment related changes on multi-parametric MRI after laser interstitial thermal therapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Satish; Toth, Robert; Rusu, Mirabela; Sperling, Dan; Lepor, Herbert; Futterer, Jurgen; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has recently shown great promise as a treatment strategy for localized, focal, low-grade, organ-confined prostate cancer (CaP). Additionally, LITT is compatible with multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) which in turn enables (1) high resolution, accurate localization of ablation zones on in vivo MP-MRI prior to LITT, and (2) real-time monitoring of temperature changes in vivo via MR thermometry during LITT. In spite of rapidly increasing interest in the use of LITT for treating low grade, focal CaP, very little is known about treatment-related changes following LITT. There is thus a clear need for studying post-LITT changes via MP-MRI and consequently to attempt to (1) quantitatively identify MP-MRI markers predictive of favorable treatment response and longer term patient outcome, and (2) identify which MP-MRI markers are most sensitive to post-LITT changes in the prostate. In this work, we present the first attempt at examining focal treatment-related changes on a per-voxel basis (high resolution) via quantitative evaluation of MR parameters pre- and post-LITT. A retrospective cohort of MP-MRI data comprising both pre- and post- LITT T2-weighted (T2w) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) acquisitions was considered, where DWI MRI yielded an Apparent Diffusion Co-efficient (ADC) map. A spatially constrained affine registration scheme was implemented to first bring T2w and ADC images into alignment within each of the pre- and post-LITT acquisitions, following which the pre- and post-LITT acquisitions were aligned. Pre- and post-LITT MR parameters (T2w intensity, ADC value) were then standardized to a uniform scale (to correct for intensity drift) and then quantified via the raw intensity values as well as via texture features derived from T2w MRI. In order to quantify imaging changes as a result of LITT, absolute differences were calculated between the normalized pre- and post-LITT MRI parameters. Quantitatively

  14. Radiological Findings of Michel Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayse; Demirtas, Hakan; Celik, Ahmet Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital abnormalities of the inner ear is the most common cause of neurosensory hearing loss. Michel inner ear deformity is a rare developmental anomaly refers to the total aplasia of the inner ear. It is caused by developmental arrest of otic placode early during the third week of gestational age. Case report: We have discussed here that three year old girl diagnosed Michel aplasia with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. PMID:27482139

  15. MRI of nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Ryl, Ina; Bartel-Friedrich, Sylvia; Wienke, Andreas; Kösling, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal adenoid hypertrophy (NAH) is a typical benign lesion. Due to involution, nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue usually is not found in adults beyond the 30th to 40th year of life. However, occasionally NAH has been recognized after the 50th or 60th year. The aim of this study is to identify the frequency of NAH and to analyze its MRI findings in different age groups. From 2007 to 2011, 6693 MR investigations of the head were performed at our institution. MRI was obtained with a 1.5 T MRI device. NAH was identified in 18.0% of the patients. The frequency of NAH varied from 60.3% to 1.0% in the different age groups. The mean size of NAH was 23.2 ± 4.5 mm in cranio-caudal, 31.1 ± 5.2 mm in left-right, and 14.2 ± 4.1 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The left-right and cranio-caudal sizes of NAH were largest in the 0-9 age group and decreased with age. On T1-w images most lesions (95.4%) were hypointense in comparison to the adjacent musculature. On T2-w fat-saturated images 82.4% of the lesions were hyperintense. After intravenous administration of contrast medium most lesions showed a slight enhancement (58.6%). Moderate enhancement was seen in 32.4% and a marked enhancement was identified in 9.0%. In the 0-9 age group most lesions showed a slight enhancement. Cysts within NAH were identified in 433 cases (35.9%). The frequency of cysts increased continuously with age, namely from 10.9% to 65.2%.

  16. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Haesung; Yoon, Dahye; Yun, Mijin; Choi, Ji Soo; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Joon; Koo, Ja Seung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Suhkmann; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters. Materials and methods Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32–75 years) with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1) were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US), 2) were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) 3) underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and 4) had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER), maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters. Results In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in

  17. PACS: effect on incidental findings.

    PubMed

    Green, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have addressed the increased volume of incidental findings when interpreting MRI lumbar spine studies after the implementation of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The purpose of this study is to confirm prior findings and contribute additional knowledge that supports the use of technology in complimenting the quality of patient care. Lumbar spine interpretations were reprinted from 900 studies and individually reviewed. These lumbar spine studies were performed on a 1.5-tesla magnet. Included were 300 consecutive lumbar spine reports over a two year period: four months prior to PACS introduction, four months during the transition to PACS, and four months post PACS implementation. Reports stating incidental findings were tabulated, along with the frequency patient gender, age, location (outpatient, inpatient or emergency room), reporting radiologist, specific finding and radiologist recommendations in each case were documented. The number of incidental findings increased from five pre-PACS to nine during the transition phase to PACS, followed by 11 post-PACS. This results in a maximum increase of 120 percent from pre- to post-PACS. The most common incidental findings include renal mass, cyst or lesions, aortic aneurysms and lymph node abnormalities. Statistical data confirms that the implementation of PACS into a radiology practice for MRI lumbar spine imaging appears to have a beneficial impact on the number of reported incidental findings and recommended follow-up studies.

  18. Polarized noble gas MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Brookeman, James R.; Mugler, John P. III; Lange, Eduard E. de; Knight-Scott, Jack; Maier, Therese; Bogorad, Paul; Driehuys, Bastiaan; Cates, Gordon; Happer, William; Daniel, Thomas M.; Truwit, Jonathon D.

    1998-01-20

    The development of convenient methods to polarize liter quantities of the noble gases helium-3 and xenon-129 has provided the opportunity for a new MRI method to visualize the internal air spaces of the human lung. These spaces are usually poorly seen with hydrogen-based MRI, because of the limited water content of the lung and the low thermal polarization of the water protons achieved in conventional magnets. In addition, xenon, which has a relatively high solubility and a sufficiently persistent polarization level in blood and biological tissue, offers the prospect of providing perfusion images of the lung, brain and other organs.

  19. Brain MRI Findings in Neurological Complications of Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Cabaj, Astra; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Duczkowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The amount of people living with cancer is increasing; they live longer and have thus a higher risk of developing neurological complications. Magnetic resonance as a diagnostic procedure of choice in detecting the reasons of neurological/psychiatric symptoms in oncological patients is nowadays relatively easily accessible. Early diagnosis established by radiologists familiar with neurological entities that may follow cancer treatment allow clinicians to provide proper treatment, even if the diagnosis seems unbelievable. The review of MR images of acute and chronic neurological complications of cancer treatment from the authors' own archive is the focus of this report. Neurological complications of cancer can be metastatic and non-metastatic; the first cannot be considered as a treatment complication, the latter can be chemoor radiotherapy-induced, acute, chronic and delayed. In our material we dealt with complications with dramatic course (stroke, PRES, acute leukoencephalopathy, Wernicke's encephalopathy) and with cases with milder and/or longer course (neuro-infections, chronic leukoencephalopathy, telangiectasias and/or cavernous hemangiomas, second tumors: glioma and meningioma after irradiation). The central nervous system is very susceptible to complications of systemic cancer and its treatment. Even though the first thought of clinicians and radiologists after a patient's first neurological/psychiatric symptoms appears concerns the metastatic spread of the disease, they need to have an understanding that there are a number of other causes of such symptoms. The knowledge of entities which can be expected and diagnostic experience prevent clinicians from making wrong diagnosis. PMID:27629856

  20. MRI of the brain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain creates a detailed image of the complex structures in the brain. An MRI can give a three-dimensional depiction of the brain, making location of problems such ...

  1. High-resolution MRI analysis of breast cancer xenograft on the chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhi; Syrovets, Tatiana; Genze, Felicitas; Abaei, Alireza; Ma, Genshan; Simmet, Thomas; Rasche, Volker

    2015-04-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model has been successfully used to study angiogenesis, cancer progression and its pharmacological treatment, tumor pharmacokinetics, and properties of novel nanomaterials. MRI is an attractive technique for non-invasive and longitudinal monitoring of physiological processes and tumor growth. This study proposes an age-adapted cooling regime for immobilization of the chick embryo, enabling high-resolution MRI of the embryo and the CAM tumor xenograft. 64 chick embryos were enrolled in this study. The novel immobilization and imaging protocol was optimized in 29 embryos. From d7 to d18 immobilization of the embryo up to 90 min was achieved by cooling at 4 °C pre-imaging, with cooling times adapted to age. Its application to tumor growth monitoring was evaluated in 15 embryos after xenotransplantation of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells on CAM. Tumor volumes were monitored from d4 to d9 after grafting (d11 to d16 after incubation) applying a T2 -weighted multislice RARE sequence. At d9 after grafting, the tumors were collected and compared with the MRI-derived data by histology and weight measurements. Additional imaging methods comprising DWI, T2 mapping, and the bio-distribution of contrast agents were tested at d9 after grafting in 20 further embryos. With the adaptive cooling regime, motion artifacts could be completely avoided for up to 90 min scan time, enabling high-resolution in ovo imaging. Excellent anatomical details could be obtained in the embryo and tumors. Tumor volumes could be quantified over time. The results prove the feasibility of high-resolution MRI for longitudinal tumor and organ growth monitoring. The suggested method is promising for future applications such as testing tailored and/or targeted treatment strategies, longitudinal monitoring of tumor development, analysis of therapeutic efficacies of drugs, or assessment of tumor pharmacokinetics. The method provides an alternative to animal

  2. Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catie; Leopold, David A.; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Mandelkow, Hendrik; Picchioni, Dante; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Frank Q.; Turchi, Janita N.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in brain activity accompanying shifts in vigilance and arousal can interfere with the study of other intrinsic and task-evoked characteristics of brain function. However, the difficulty of tracking and modeling the arousal state during functional MRI (fMRI) typically precludes the assessment of arousal-dependent influences on fMRI signals. Here we combine fMRI, electrophysiology, and the monitoring of eyelid behavior to demonstrate an approach for tracking continuous variations in arousal level from fMRI data. We first characterize the spatial distribution of fMRI signal fluctuations that track a measure of behavioral arousal; taking this pattern as a template, and using the local field potential as a simultaneous and independent measure of cortical activity, we observe that the time-varying expression level of this template in fMRI data provides a close approximation of electrophysiological arousal. We discuss the potential benefit of these findings for increasing the sensitivity of fMRI as a cognitive and clinical biomarker. PMID:27051064

  3. In vivo isotropic 3D diffusion tensor mapping of the rat brain using diffusion-weighted 3D MP-RAGE MRI.

    PubMed

    Numano, Tomokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Hyodo, Koji; Nitta, Naotaka; Hirose, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of diffusion-weighted (DW) three-dimensional (3D) MP-RAGE MRI for diffusion-tensor mapping of the rat brain in vivo. A DW-3D-MP-RAGE (3D-DWI) sequence was implemented at 2.0 T using six gradient orientations and a b value of 1000 s/mm2. In this sequence, the preparation sequence with a "90 degrees RF-motion proving gradient (MPG): MPG-180 degrees RF-MPG-90 degrees RF" pulse train (DW driven equilibrium Fourier transform) was used to sensitize the magnetization to diffusion. A centric k-space acquisition order was necessary to minimize saturation effects (T1 contamination) from tissues with short relaxation time. The image matrix was 128x128x128 (interpolated from 64x64x64 acquisitions), which resulted in small isotropic DW image data (voxel size: 0.273x0.273x0.273 mm3). Moreover, 3D-DWI-derived maps of the fractional anisotropy (FA), relative anisotropy (RA) and main-diffusion direction were completely free of susceptibility-induced signal losses and geometric distortions. Two well-known commissural fibers, the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, were indicated and shown to be in agreement with the locations of these known stereotaxic atlases. The experiment took 45 min, and shorter times should be possible in clinical application. The 3D-DWI sequence allows for in vivo 3D diffusion-tensor mapping of the rat brain without motion artifacts and susceptibility to distortion. PMID:16563958

  4. Radiomics Analysis on FLT-PET/MRI for Characterization of Early Treatment Response in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Jacob; Viswanath, Satish; Rusu, Mirabela; Valls, Laia; Hoimes, Christopher; Avril, Norbert; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-04-01

    Studying early response to cancer treatment is significant for patient treatment stratification and follow-up. Although recent advances in positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for evaluation of tumor response, a quantitative objective assessment of treatment-related effects offers localization and quantification of structural and functional changes in the tumor region. Radiomics, the process of computerized extraction of features from radiographic images, is a new strategy for capturing subtle changes in the tumor region that works by quantifying subvisual patterns which might escape human identification. The goal of this study was to demonstrate feasibility for performing radiomics analysis on integrated PET/MRI to characterize early treatment response in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing sunitinib therapy. Two patients with advanced RCC were imaged using an integrated PET/MRI scanner. [18 F] fluorothymidine (FLT) was used as the PET radiotracer, which can measure the degree of cell proliferation. Image acquisitions included test/retest scans before sunitinib treatment and one scan 3 weeks into treatment using [18 F] FLT-PET, T2-weighted (T2w), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) protocols, where DWI yielded an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. Our framework to quantitatively characterize treatment-related changes involved the following analytic steps: 1) intraacquisition and interacquisition registration of protocols to allow voxel-wise comparison of changes in radiomic features, 2) correction and pseudoquantification of T2w images to remove acquisition artifacts and examine tissue-specific response, 3) characterization of information captured by T2w MRI, FLT-PET, and ADC via radiomics, and 4) combining multiparametric information to create a map of integrated changes from PET/MRI radiomic features. Standardized uptake value (from FLT-PET) and ADC textures ranked highest for reproducibility in a

  5. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated.

  6. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated. PMID:26614136

  7. MRI in decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, J; Tempka, A; Stroszczynski, C; Amodio, F; Hosten, N; Haas, J; Felix, R

    2000-05-01

    We report a case of decompression illness in which the patient developed paraparesis during scuba diving after rapid ascent. MRI of the spine revealed a focal intramedullary lesion consistent with the symptoms. The pathophysiological and radiological aspects of spinal decompression illness are discussed.

  8. Accuracy of pelvic multiparametric MRI in diagnosing local recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Case report and revision of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Pietro; Garufi, Antonio; Priolo, Giandomenico; Pennisi, Michele

    2015-12-01

    A Caucasian man (73 years old) six years from radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (PCa) showed biochemical recurrence (BCR); the follow up based on PSA evaluated every 6 months was negative (0.1 ng/ml) for 5 years, but in the last year PSA increased to 0.3 vs 0.5 ng/ml. The patient was asymptomatic and underwent 3.0 Tesla mpMRI equipped with surface 16 channels phased-array coil placed around the pelvic area; multiplanar turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (T2W), axial diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), axial dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and spectroscopy were performed. Pelvic mpMRI demonstrated the presence of a nodular tissue with a diameter of 10 mm. located on the left of the prostatic fossa near the rectum that was higly sospicious for local PCa recurrence. The patient underwent salvage RT (64 Gy); one year from RT PSA was 0.1 ng/ml suggesting that the patient was free from recurrence. In conclusion, mpMRI could be combined with PSA kinetics in the evaluation of men with BRC also in the presence of PSA values < 1 ng/ml. PMID:26766811

  9. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B{sub 1} inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment

  10. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentationa

    PubMed Central

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B1 inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment both

  11. Giant Lipomatosis of the Sciatic Nerve: Unique Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Sarp, Ali Firat; Pekcevik, Yeliz

    2016-04-01

    Lipomatosis of the nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is characterized by the infiltration of the nerve by fibro-fatty tissue. The affected nerve becomes thicker, and it simulates a mass lesion. Lipomatosis usually affects the median nerve and lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve is extremely rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the key to diagnosis, and it is usually pathognomonic. In this report, MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI findings of a case of a giant sciatic nerve lipomatosis without macrodactyly are presented. The MRI findings are unique, and awareness of the MRI features of this rare soft tissue mass may prevent unnecessary biopsies and surgeries. PMID:27679695

  12. Giant Lipomatosis of the Sciatic Nerve: Unique Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sarp, Ali Firat; Pekcevik, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    Lipomatosis of the nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is characterized by the infiltration of the nerve by fibro-fatty tissue. The affected nerve becomes thicker, and it simulates a mass lesion. Lipomatosis usually affects the median nerve and lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve is extremely rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the key to diagnosis, and it is usually pathognomonic. In this report, MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI findings of a case of a giant sciatic nerve lipomatosis without macrodactyly are presented. The MRI findings are unique, and awareness of the MRI features of this rare soft tissue mass may prevent unnecessary biopsies and surgeries.

  13. Giant Lipomatosis of the Sciatic Nerve: Unique Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sarp, Ali Firat; Pekcevik, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    Lipomatosis of the nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is characterized by the infiltration of the nerve by fibro-fatty tissue. The affected nerve becomes thicker, and it simulates a mass lesion. Lipomatosis usually affects the median nerve and lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve is extremely rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the key to diagnosis, and it is usually pathognomonic. In this report, MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI findings of a case of a giant sciatic nerve lipomatosis without macrodactyly are presented. The MRI findings are unique, and awareness of the MRI features of this rare soft tissue mass may prevent unnecessary biopsies and surgeries. PMID:27679695

  14. Stability of MRI Turbulent Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H. R.; Masada, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We study the stability of geometrically thin accretion disks with non-standard α parameter, which characterizes the efficiency of the angular momentum transport. Following recent results of numerical simulations of the Magnetorotational instability (MRI) driven turbulence, we assume that α increases with the magnetic Prandtl number. By adopting Spitzer's microscopic diffusivities, we obtain local structures of geometrically thin accretion disks consistently including effects of MRI-driven turbulence. Since the magnetic Prandtl number increases with the temperature, the efficiency of the angular momentum transport and thus viscous heating rate are smaller for a larger radius when δ > 0. We find that such disks can be unstable to gravitational, thermal, and secular instabilities. It is most remarkable feature that the thermal and secular instabilities can grow in the middle part of accretion disks even when the radiation pressure is negligible, while the standard Shakura & Sunyaev's accretion disk (constant α) is stable to these instabilities. We conclude that it would be difficult to maintain the steady mass accretion state unless the Pm-dependence of the MRI-driven turbulence is weak. Consideration of Pm dependence of α due to the MRI-driven turbulence may make the phase transition of accretion disks less mysterious.

  15. Diffusion-MRI in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Goveas, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Mascalchi, Mario; Cosottini, Mirco; Diciotti, Stefano; De Santis, Silvia; Passamonti, Luca; Tessa, Carlo; Toschi, Nicola; Giannelli, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The ability to image the whole brain through ever more subtle and specific methods/contrasts has come to play a key role in understanding the basis of brain abnormalities in several diseases. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), "diffusion" (i.e. the random, thermally-induced displacements of water molecules over time) represents an extraordinarily sensitive contrast mechanism, and the exquisite structural detail it affords has proven useful in a vast number of clinical as well as research applications. Since diffusion-MRI is a truly quantitative imaging technique, the indices it provides can serve as potential imaging biomarkers which could allow early detection of pathological alterations as well as tracking and possibly predicting subtle changes in follow-up examinations and clinical trials. Accordingly, diffusion-MRI has proven useful in obtaining information to better understand the microstructural changes and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying various neurodegenerative disorders. In this review article, we summarize and explore the main applications, findings, perspectives as well as challenges and future research of diffusion-MRI in various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and degenerative ataxias. PMID:25917917

  16. MRI characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Friedemann; Lana-Peixoto, Marco A.; Tenembaum, Silvia; Asgari, Nasrin; Palace, Jacqueline; Klawiter, Eric C.; Sato, Douglas K.; de Seze, Jérôme; Wuerfel, Jens; Banwell, Brenda L.; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert; Fujihara, Kazuo; Kim, Su-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Since its initial reports in the 19th century, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) had been thought to involve only the optic nerves and spinal cord. However, the discovery of highly specific anti–aquaporin-4 antibody diagnostic biomarker for NMO enabled recognition of more diverse clinical spectrum of manifestations. Brain MRI abnormalities in patients seropositive for anti–aquaporin-4 antibody are common and some may be relatively unique by virtue of localization and configuration. Some seropositive patients present with brain involvement during their first attack and/or continue to relapse in the same location without optic nerve and spinal cord involvement. Thus, characteristics of brain abnormalities in such patients have become of increased interest. In this regard, MRI has an increasingly important role in the differential diagnosis of NMO and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD), particularly from multiple sclerosis. Differentiating these conditions is of prime importance because early initiation of effective immunosuppressive therapy is the key to preventing attack-related disability in NMOSD, whereas some disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis may exacerbate the disease. Therefore, identifying the MRI features suggestive of NMOSD has diagnostic and prognostic implications. We herein review the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord MRI findings of NMOSD. PMID:25695963

  17. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  18. THE IMPACT OF BREAST MRI ON SURGICAL DECISION-MAKING: ARE PATIENTS AT RISK FOR MASTECTOMY?

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Kelli; Swatske, Mary Ellen; Gao, Feng; Salavaggione, Lorena; Gillanders, William E.; Aft, Rebecca L.; Monsees, Barbara S.; Eberlein, Timothy J.; Margenthaler, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The goal of the current study was to determine whether MRI impacts multidisciplinary treatment planning and if it leads to increased mastectomy rates. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of 441 patients treated for breast cancer between January 2005 and May 2008 who underwent breast MRI. Data included number of additional findings and their imaging and pathologic work-up. This was analyzed to determine impact of MRI on treatment planning. Results Of 441 patients, 45% had ≥1 additional finding on MRI. Of 410 patients with complete records, 29% had changes in the treatment plan, including 36 patients who were initially considered for breast conservation but proceeded directly to mastectomy based on MRI findings of suspected multicentricity. Twenty-three of those patients did not have a biopsy of the MRI lesion, with 87% having unicentric disease on final pathology. Overall, the mastectomy rate was 44%, which was significantly increased compared to patients not undergoing MRI (32%, p<0.05). Conclusions Breast MRI alters the treatment planning for many patients with newly-diagnosed breast cancer. Mastectomy rates are increased when MRI results alone direct surgical planning. Biopsy of MRI-identified lesions should be performed to avoid over-treatment. PMID:19757442

  19. Eosinophilic granuloma: MRI manifestations.

    PubMed

    Beltran, J; Aparisi, F; Bonmati, L M; Rosenberg, Z S; Present, D; Steiner, G C

    1993-01-01

    The appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 16 cases of pathologically proven eosinophilic granuloma were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with the radiographic appearance of the lesion. The most common MR appearance (ten cases) was a focal lesion, surrounded by an extensive, ill-defined bone marrow and soft tissue reaction with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, considered to represent bone marrow and soft tissue edema (the flare phenomenon). The MRI manifestations of eosinophilic granuloma, especially during the early stages, are nonspecific, and may stimulate an aggressive lesion such as osteomyelitis or Ewings sarcoma, or other benign bone tumors such as osteoid osteoma or chondroblastoma. PMID:8480200

  20. MRI of the penis.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, A

    2012-11-01

    MRI of the penis is an expensive test that is not always superior to clinical examination or ultrasound. However, it shows many of the important structures, and in particular the combination of tumescence from intracavernosal alprostadil, and high-resolution T(2) sequences show the glans, corpora and the tunica albuginea well. In this paper we summarise the radiological anatomy and discuss the indications for MRI. For penile cancer, it may be useful in cases where the local stage is not apparent clinically. In priapism, it is an emerging technique for assessing corporal viability, and in fracture it can in most cases make the diagnosis and locate the injury. In some cases of penile fibrosis and Peyronie's disease, it may aid surgical planning, and in complex pelvic fracture may replace or augment conventional urethrography. It is an excellent investigation for the malfunctioning penile prosthesis.

  1. Combined 3 Tesla MRI Biomarkers Improve the Differentiation between Benign vs Malignant Single Ring Enhancing Brain Masses

    PubMed Central

    Salice, Simone; Esposito, Roberto; Ciavardelli, Domenico; delli Pizzi, Stefano; di Bastiano, Rossella; Tartaro, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether the combination of imaging biomarkers obtained by means of different 3 Tesla (3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) advanced techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation between benign and malignant single ring-enhancing brain masses. Materials and Methods 14 patients presenting at conventional 3T MRI single brain mass with similar appearance as regard ring enhancement, presence of peri-lesional edema and absence of hemorrhage signs were included in the study. All lesions were histologically proven: 5 pyogenic abscesses, 6 glioblastomas, and 3 metastases. MRI was performed at 3 Tesla and included Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast -Perfusion Weighted Imaging (DSC-PWI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Imaging biomarkers derived by those advanced techniques [Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV), relative Main Transit Time (rMTT), Choline (Cho), Creatine (Cr), Succinate, N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA), Lactate (Lac), Lipids, relative Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (rADC), and Fractional Anisotropy (FA)] were detected by two experienced neuroradiologists in joint session in 4 areas: Internal Cavity (IC), Ring Enhancement (RE), Peri-Lesional edema (PL), and Contralateral Normal Appearing White Matter (CNAWM). Significant differences between benign (n = 5) and malignant (n = 9) ring enhancing lesions were tested with Mann-Withney U test. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI biomarkers taken alone and MRI biomarkers ratios were tested with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) ≥ 0.9 indicating a very good diagnostic accuracy of the variable. Results Five MRI biomarker ratios achieved excellent accuracy: IC-rADC/PL-NAA (AUC = 1), IC-rADC/IC-FA (AUC = 0.978), RE-rCBV/RE-FA (AUC = 0.933), IC-rADC/RE-FA (AUC = 0.911), and IC-rADC/PL-FA (AUC = 0.911). Only IC-rADC achieved a very good

  2. Does MRI Increase the Diagnostic Confidence of Physicians in an Outpatient Memory Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Boelaarts, Leo; Scheltens, Philip; de Jonghe, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Data showing the usefulness of MRI to improve the accuracy of the diagnostic process in cognitive disorders were derived from studies in tertiary referral centers. MRI is widely used as a diagnostic tool in everyday practice, but it is unknown what the actual added value of MRI is. We studied the usefulness of MRI in the diagnostic process by measuring the change of confidence of the physician. Methods Physicians indicated confidence in their diagnosis before and after presentation of MR images using a visual analogue scale from 0-100%. Results Use of MRI increased the level of confidence by 3% in experienced clinicians and by 9% in inexperienced physicians. In 2/125 cases, MRI showed an unexpected finding. Conclusion MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in everyday practice of diagnosing cognitive disorders. PMID:27489558

  3. Superconducting magnets for MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    Three types of magnets are currently used to provide the background field required for magnet resonance imaging (MRI). (i) Permanent magnets produce fields of up to 0.3 T in volumes sufficient for imaging the head or up to 0.15 T for whole body imaging. Cost and simplicity of operation are advantages, but relatively low field, weight (up to 100 tonnes) and, to a small extent, instability are limitations. (ii) Water-cooled magnets provide fields of up to 0.25 T in volumes suitable for whole body imaging, but at the expense of power (up to 150 kW for 0.25 T) and water-cooling. Thermal stability of the field requires the maintenance of constant temperature through periods both of use and of quiescence. (iii) Because of the limitations imposed by permanent and resistive magnets, particularly on field strength, the superconducting magnet is now most widely used to provide background fields of up to 2 T for whole body MRI. It requires very low operating power and that only for refrigeration. Because of the constant low temperature, 4.2 K, at which its stressed structure operates, its field is stable. The following review deals principally with superconducting magnets for MRI. However, the sections on field analysis apply to all types of magnet and the description of the source terms of circular coils and of the principals of design of solenoids apply equally to resistive solenoidal magnets.

  4. The impact of MRI on the treatment of DCIS.

    PubMed

    Chung, Alice; Saouaf, Rola; Scharre, Karen; Phillips, Edward

    2005-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to detect occult invasive breast cancers with a sensitivity of 97 per cent to 100 per cent. Mammography and ultrasonography does not accurately assess the extent of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which results in a high reoperation rate. Breast MRI can improve the surgical planning in women with DCIS, improving the adequacy of initial treatment while reducing reoperation. We examined 54 patients with predominantly DCIS (> 50%) who underwent breast MRI from January 2003 to November 2004. MRI altered the surgical management in 14 (26%) patients: unilateral changed to bilateral mastectomy (5); lumpectomy or reexcision to mastectomy (3); unilateral lumpectomy or mastectomy had additional biopsies for lesions detected by MRI in the ipsilateral or contralateral breast (6). There were 8 true-positives and 7 false-positives: sensitivity 86 per cent, positive predictive value 84 per cent. MRI changed the surgical management to more appropriate therapy in 15 per cent of patients avoiding additional surgery, while 11 per cent underwent negative surgical interventions. Breast MRI is a sensitive diagnostic imaging tool in patients with DCIS. However, any suspicious finding should be biopsied before a definitive operation is planned. PMID:16468502

  5. Intraoperative MRI and functional mapping.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Thomas; Szelenyi, Andrea; Senft, Christian; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Sandalcioglu, I Erol; Sure, Ulrich; Nimsky, Christopher; Seifert, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The integration of functional and anatomical data into neuronavigation is an established standard of care in many neurosurgical departments. Yet, this method has limitations as in most cases the data are acquired prior to surgery. Due to brain-shift the accurate presentation of functional as well as anatomical structures declines in the course of surgery. In consequence, the acquisition of information during surgery about the brain's current functional state is of specific interest. The advancement of imaging technologies (e.g. fMRI, MEG, Intraoperative Optical Intrinsic Signal Imaging--IOIS) and neurophysiological techniques and the advent of intraoperative MRI all had a major impact on neurosurgery. The combination of modalities such as neurophysiology and intraoperative MRI (ioMRI), as well as the acquisition of functional MRI during surgery (ifMRI) are in the focus of this work. Especially the technical aspects and safety issues are elucidated.

  6. Cerebral tissue repair and atrophy after embolic stroke in rat: an MRI study of Erythropoietin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Guangliang; Jiang, Quan; Li, Lian; Zhang, Li; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Lu, Mei; Panda, Swayamprava; Li, Qingjiang; Ewing, James R.; Chopp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols of T2-, T2*-, diffusion- and susceptibility-weighted imaging (T2WI, T2*WI, DWI and SWI) with a 7T system, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of embolic stroke with Erythropoietin (EPO) initiated at 24 hours and administered daily for 7 days after stroke onset has benefit on repairing ischemic cerebral tissue. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to embolic stroke by means of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly assigned to a treatment (n=11) or a control group (n=11). The treated group was given EPO intraperitoneally at a dose of 5,000 IU/kg daily for 7 days starting 24h after MCAO. Controls were given an equal volume of saline. MRI was performed at 24h and then weekly for 6 weeks. MRI and histological measurements were compared between groups. Serial T2WI images demonstrated that expansion of the ipsilateral ventricle was significantly reduced in the EPO treated rats. The volume ratio of ipsilateral parenchymal tissue relative to the contralateral hemisphere was significantly increased after EPO treatment compared with control animals, indicating that EPO significantly reduces atrophy of the ipsilateral hemisphere, although no significant differences in ischemic lesion volume were observed between the two groups. Angiogenesis and white matter remodeling were significantly increased and occurred earlier in EPO treated animals than in the controls, as evident from T2*WI and diffusion anisotropy maps, respectively. These data indicate that EPO treatment initiated 24h post stroke promotes angiogenesis and axonal remodeling in the ischemic boundary, which may potentially reduce atrophy of the ipsilateral hemisphere. PMID:20722071

  7. In vivo MRI based prostate cancer localization with random forests and auto-context model.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chunjun; Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Yousuf, Ambereen; Yang, Xiaoping; Oto, Aytekin; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death for men. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is being increasingly used as an important modality to localize prostate cancer. Therefore, localizing prostate cancer in MRI with automated detection methods has become an active area of research. Many methods have been proposed for this task. However, most of previous methods focused on identifying cancer only in the peripheral zone (PZ), or classifying suspicious cancer ROIs into benign tissue and cancer tissue. Few works have been done on developing a fully automatic method for cancer localization in the entire prostate region, including central gland (CG) and transition zone (TZ). In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based multi-source integration framework to directly localize prostate cancer regions from in vivo MRI. We employ random forests to effectively integrate features from multi-source images together for cancer localization. Here, multi-source images include initially the multi-parametric MRIs (i.e., T2, DWI, and dADC) and later also the iteratively-estimated and refined tissue probability map of prostate cancer. Experimental results on 26 real patient data show that our method can accurately localize cancerous sections. The higher section-based evaluation (SBE), combined with the ROC analysis result of individual patients, shows that the proposed method is promising for in vivo MRI based prostate cancer localization, which can be used for guiding prostate biopsy, targeting the tumor in focal therapy planning, triage and follow-up of patients with active surveillance, as well as the decision making in treatment selection. The common ROC analysis with the AUC value of 0.832 and also the ROI-based ROC analysis with the AUC value of 0.883 both illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. PMID:27048995

  8. Analysis of the Metabolic and Structural Brain Changes in Patients With Torture-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) Using ¹⁸F-FDG PET and MRI.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Knoll, Peter; Wenzel, Thomas; Hittmair, Karl; Haller, Joerg; Hergan, Klaus; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-04-01

    Many people exposed to torture later suffer from torture-related post-traumatic stress disorder (TR-PTSD). The aim of this study was to analyze the morphologic and functional brain changes in patients with TR-PTSD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). This study evaluated 19 subjects. Thirteen subcortical brain structures were evaluated using FSL software. On the T1-weighted images, normalized brain volumes were measured using SIENAX software. The study compared the volume of the brain and 13 subcortical structures in 9 patients suffering from TR-PTSD after torture and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the transverse plane. In addition, the 18F-FDG PET data were evaluated to identify the activity of the elected regions. The mean left hippocampal volume for the TR-PTSD group was significantly lower than in the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the gray matter volume of the patients with TR-PTSD and the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). The TR-PTSD group showed low significant expansion of the ventricles in contrast to the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed significant differences in the right frontal lobe and the left occipital lobe between the TR-PTSD and HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Moderate hypometabolism was noted in the occipital lobe in 6 of the 9 patients with TR-PTSD, in the temporal lobe in 1 of the 9 patients, and in the caudate nucleus in 5 of the 9 patients. In 2 cases, additional hypometabolism was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex and in the parietal and frontal lobes. The findings from this study show that TR-PTSD might have a deleterious influence on a set of specific brain structures. This study also demonstrated that PET combined with MRI is sensitive in detecting possible metabolic and structural

  9. Analysis of the Metabolic and Structural Brain Changes in Patients With Torture-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) Using 18F-FDG PET and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Knoll, Peter; Wenzel, Thomas; Hittmair, Karl; Haller, Joerg; Hergan, Klaus; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many people exposed to torture later suffer from torture-related post-traumatic stress disorder (TR-PTSD). The aim of this study was to analyze the morphologic and functional brain changes in patients with TR-PTSD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). This study evaluated 19 subjects. Thirteen subcortical brain structures were evaluated using FSL software. On the T1-weighted images, normalized brain volumes were measured using SIENAX software. The study compared the volume of the brain and 13 subcortical structures in 9 patients suffering from TR-PTSD after torture and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the transverse plane. In addition, the 18F-FDG PET data were evaluated to identify the activity of the elected regions. The mean left hippocampal volume for the TR-PTSD group was significantly lower than in the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the gray matter volume of the patients with TR-PTSD and the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). The TR-PTSD group showed low significant expansion of the ventricles in contrast to the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed significant differences in the right frontal lobe and the left occipital lobe between the TR-PTSD and HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Moderate hypometabolism was noted in the occipital lobe in 6 of the 9 patients with TR-PTSD, in the temporal lobe in 1 of the 9 patients, and in the caudate nucleus in 5 of the 9 patients. In 2 cases, additional hypometabolism was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex and in the parietal and frontal lobes. The findings from this study show that TR-PTSD might have a deleterious influence on a set of specific brain structures. This study also demonstrated that PET combined with MRI is sensitive in detecting possible metabolic and

  10. Analysis of the Metabolic and Structural Brain Changes in Patients With Torture-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) Using ¹⁸F-FDG PET and MRI.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Knoll, Peter; Wenzel, Thomas; Hittmair, Karl; Haller, Joerg; Hergan, Klaus; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-04-01

    Many people exposed to torture later suffer from torture-related post-traumatic stress disorder (TR-PTSD). The aim of this study was to analyze the morphologic and functional brain changes in patients with TR-PTSD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). This study evaluated 19 subjects. Thirteen subcortical brain structures were evaluated using FSL software. On the T1-weighted images, normalized brain volumes were measured using SIENAX software. The study compared the volume of the brain and 13 subcortical structures in 9 patients suffering from TR-PTSD after torture and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the transverse plane. In addition, the 18F-FDG PET data were evaluated to identify the activity of the elected regions. The mean left hippocampal volume for the TR-PTSD group was significantly lower than in the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the gray matter volume of the patients with TR-PTSD and the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). The TR-PTSD group showed low significant expansion of the ventricles in contrast to the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed significant differences in the right frontal lobe and the left occipital lobe between the TR-PTSD and HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Moderate hypometabolism was noted in the occipital lobe in 6 of the 9 patients with TR-PTSD, in the temporal lobe in 1 of the 9 patients, and in the caudate nucleus in 5 of the 9 patients. In 2 cases, additional hypometabolism was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex and in the parietal and frontal lobes. The findings from this study show that TR-PTSD might have a deleterious influence on a set of specific brain structures. This study also demonstrated that PET combined with MRI is sensitive in detecting possible metabolic and structural

  11. Performance Comparison of 1.5 T Endorectal Coil MRI with Non-Endorectal Coil 3.0 T MRI in Patients with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Zarine K.; Elias, Saba N.; Abaza, Ronney; Zynger, Debra L.; DeRenne, Lawrence A.; Knopp, Michael V.; Guo, Beibei; Schurr, Ryan; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Jia, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To compare prostate morphology, image quality, and diagnostic performance of 1.5 T endorectal coil MRI and 3.0 T non-endorectal coil MRI in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods MR images obtained of 83 patients with prostate cancer using 1.5 T MRI systems with an endorectal coil were compared to images collected from 83 patients with a 3.0 T MRI system. Prostate diameters were measured and image quality was evaluated by one ABR-certified radiologist (Reader 1) and one ABR-certified diagnostic medical physicist (Reader 2). The likelihood of the peripheral zone cancer presence in each sextant and local extent were rated and compared with histopathologic findings. Results Prostate anterior-posterior diameter measured by both readers was significantly shorter with 1.5 T endorectal MRI than with 3.0 T MRI. The overall image quality score difference was significant only for Reader 1. Both readers found that the two MRI systems provided similar diagnostic accuracy in cancer localization, extraprostatic extension, and seminal vesicle involvement. Conclusion Non-endorectal coil 3.0 T MRI provides prostate images that are natural in shape and that have comparable image quality to those obtained at 1.5 T with an endorectal coil, but not superior diagnostic performance. These findings suggest an opportunity exists for improving technical aspects of 3.0 T prostate MRI. PMID:25579637

  12. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  13. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Toma, Keiichiro; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2002-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals created by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  14. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s−1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  15. Nanoformulations for molecular MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chuqiao; Louie, Angelique Y.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale contrast agents have shown the ability to increase the detection sensitivity of MRI by several orders of magnitude, endowing this traditionally macroscopic modality with the ability to observe unique molecular signatures. Herein, we describe three types of nanoparticulate contrast agents: iron oxide nanoparticles, gadolinium-based nanoparticles, and bio-essential manganese, cobalt, nickel, and copper ion-containing nanoformulations. Some of these agents have been approved for clinical use, but more are still under development for medical imaging. The advantages and disadvantages of each nanoformulation, in terms of intrinsic magnetism, ease of synthesis, and biodistribution, etc. are discussed. PMID:22488901

  16. Outcome of MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy – initial experience at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Zebic-Sinkovec, Marta; Hertl, Kristijana; Kadivec, Maksimiljan; Cavlek, Mihael; Podobnik, Gasper; Snoj, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Background Like all breast imaging modalities MRI has limited specificity and the positive predictive value for lesions detected by MRI alone ranges between 15 and 50%. MRI guided procedures (needle biopsy, presurgical localisation) are mandatory for suspicious findings visible only at MRI, with potential influence on therapeutic decision. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate our initial clinical experience with MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy as an alternative to surgical excision and to investigate the outcome of MRI-guided breast biopsy as a function of the MRI features of the lesions. Patients and methods. In 14 women (median age 51 years) with 14 MRI-detected lesions, MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy was performed. We evaluated the MRI findings that led to biopsy and we investigated the core and postoperative histology results and follow-up data. Results The biopsy was technically successful in 14 (93%) of 15 women. Of 14 biopsies in 14 women, core histology revealed 6 malignant (6/14, 43%), 6 benign (6/14, 43%) and 2 high-risk (2/14, 14%) lesions. Among the 6 cancer 3 were invasive and 3 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The probability of malignancy in our experience was higher for non-mass lesion type and for washout and plateau kinetics. Conclusions Our initial experience confirms that MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy is fast, safe and accurate alternative to surgical biopsy for breast lesions detected at MRI only. PMID:23077445

  17. Hyperoxia and Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Bulte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen plays a fundamental role in functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging is the foundation stone of all FMRI and is still the essential workhorse of the vast majority of FMRI procedures. Hemoglobin may provide the magnetic properties that allow the technique to work, but it is oxygen that allows the contrast to effectively be switched on or off, and it is oxygen that we are interested in tracking in order to observe the oxygen metabolism changes. In general the changes in venous oxygen saturation are observed in order to infer changes in the correlated mechanisms, which can include changes in cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and the fraction of inspired oxygen. By independently manipulating the fraction of inspired oxygen it is possible to alter the amount of dissolved oxygen in the plasma, the venous saturation, or even the blood flow. The effects that these changes have on the observed MRI signal can be either a help or a hindrance depending on how well the changes induced are understood. The administration of supplemental inspired oxygen is in a unique position to provide a flexible, noninvasive, inexpensive, patient-friendly addition to the MRI toolkit to enable investigations to look beyond statistics and regions of interest, and actually produce calibrated, targeted measurements of blood flow, metabolism or pathology. PMID:27343097

  18. Temporal evolution on MRI of successful treatment of rabies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shah, Paarth; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Latchaw, Richard; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a nearly uniformly fatal disease for individuals who develop clinical symptoms. We report a case of a patient with paralytic rabies who survived after being treated with what is now known as Milwaukee protocol. This is only the third known case of rabies survival after being treated with the protocol. We present sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain and lumbar spine throughout the course of her treatment. In doing so, we provide insight into the temporal evolution of MRI findings in the brain and lumbar spine.

  19. Assessment of Treatment Response by Total Tumor Volume and Global Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Patients with Metastatic Bone Disease: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Matthew D.; Collins, David J.; Tunariu, Nina; Orton, Matthew R.; Padhani, Anwar R.; Leach, Martin O.; Koh, Dow-Mu

    2014-01-01

    We describe our semi-automatic segmentation of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WBDWI) using a Markov random field (MRF) model to derive tumor total diffusion volume (tDV) and associated global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC); and demonstrate the feasibility of using these indices for assessing tumor burden and response to treatment in patients with bone metastases. WBDWI was performed on eleven patients diagnosed with bone metastases from breast and prostate cancers before and after anti-cancer therapies. Semi-automatic segmentation incorporating a MRF model was performed in all patients below the C4 vertebra by an experienced radiologist with over eight years of clinical experience in body DWI. Changes in tDV and gADC distributions were compared with overall response determined by all imaging, tumor markers and clinical findings at serial follow up. The segmentation technique was possible in all patients although erroneous volumes of interest were generated in one patient because of poor fat suppression in the pelvis, requiring manual correction. Responding patients showed a larger increase in gADC (median change = +0.18, range = −0.07 to +0.78×10−3 mm2/s) after treatment compared to non-responding patients (median change = −0.02, range = −0.10 to +0.05×10−3 mm2/s, p = 0.05, Mann-Whitney test), whereas non-responding patients showed a significantly larger increase in tDV (median change = +26%, range = +3 to +284%) compared to responding patients (median change = −50%, range = −85 to +27%, p = 0.02, Mann-Whitney test). Semi-automatic segmentation of WBDWI is feasible for metastatic bone disease in this pilot cohort of 11 patients, and could be used to quantify tumor total diffusion volume and median global ADC for assessing response to treatment. PMID:24710083

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging in musculoskeletal radiology—clinical applications and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Bhojwani, Nicholas; Szpakowski, Peter; Partovi, Sasan; Maurer, Martin H.; Grosse, Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Zipp-Partovi, Lisa; Fergus, Nathan; Kosmas, Christos; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an established diagnostic tool with regards to the central nervous system (CNS) and research into its application in the musculoskeletal system has been growing. It has been shown that DWI has utility in differentiating vertebral compression fractures from malignant ones, assessing partial and complete tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), monitoring tumor response to therapy, and characterization of soft-tissue and bone tumors. DWI is however less useful in differentiating malignant vs. infectious processes. As of yet, no definitive qualitative or quantitative properties have been established due to reasons ranging from variability in acquisition protocols to overlapping imaging characteristics. Even with these limitations, DWI can still provide clinically useful information, increasing diagnostic accuracy and improving patient management when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are inconclusive. The purpose of this article is to summarize recent research into DWI applications in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26682143

  1. Motion prediction in MRI-guided radiotherapy based on interleaved orthogonal cine-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seregni, M.; Paganelli, C.; Lee, D.; Greer, P. B.; Baroni, G.; Keall, P. J.; Riboldi, M.

    2016-01-01

    In-room cine-MRI guidance can provide non-invasive target localization during radiotherapy treatment. However, in order to cope with finite imaging frequency and system latencies between target localization and dose delivery, tumour motion prediction is required. This work proposes a framework for motion prediction dedicated to cine-MRI guidance, aiming at quantifying the geometric uncertainties introduced by this process for both tumour tracking and beam gating. The tumour position, identified through scale invariant features detected in cine-MRI slices, is estimated at high-frequency (25 Hz) using three independent predictors, one for each anatomical coordinate. Linear extrapolation, auto-regressive and support vector machine algorithms are compared against systems that use no prediction or surrogate-based motion estimation. Geometric uncertainties are reported as a function of image acquisition period and system latency. Average results show that the tracking error RMS can be decreased down to a [0.2; 1.2] mm range, for acquisition periods between 250 and 750 ms and system latencies between 50 and 300 ms. Except for the linear extrapolator, tracking and gating prediction errors were, on average, lower than those measured for surrogate-based motion estimation. This finding suggests that cine-MRI guidance, combined with appropriate prediction algorithms, could relevantly decrease geometric uncertainties in motion compensated treatments.

  2. Motion prediction in MRI-guided radiotherapy based on interleaved orthogonal cine-MRI.

    PubMed

    Seregni, M; Paganelli, C; Lee, D; Greer, P B; Baroni, G; Keall, P J; Riboldi, M

    2016-01-21

    In-room cine-MRI guidance can provide non-invasive target localization during radiotherapy treatment. However, in order to cope with finite imaging frequency and system latencies between target localization and dose delivery, tumour motion prediction is required. This work proposes a framework for motion prediction dedicated to cine-MRI guidance, aiming at quantifying the geometric uncertainties introduced by this process for both tumour tracking and beam gating. The tumour position, identified through scale invariant features detected in cine-MRI slices, is estimated at high-frequency (25 Hz) using three independent predictors, one for each anatomical coordinate. Linear extrapolation, auto-regressive and support vector machine algorithms are compared against systems that use no prediction or surrogate-based motion estimation. Geometric uncertainties are reported as a function of image acquisition period and system latency. Average results show that the tracking error RMS can be decreased down to a [0.2; 1.2] mm range, for acquisition periods between 250 and 750 ms and system latencies between 50 and 300 ms. Except for the linear extrapolator, tracking and gating prediction errors were, on average, lower than those measured for surrogate-based motion estimation. This finding suggests that cine-MRI guidance, combined with appropriate prediction algorithms, could relevantly decrease geometric uncertainties in motion compensated treatments.

  3. MRI of brain disease in veterinary patients part 1: Basic principles and congenital brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in veterinary patients and is quickly becoming the imaging modality of choice in evaluation of brain and intracranial disease. This article provides an overview of the basic principles of MRI, a description of sequences and their applications in brain imaging, and an approach to interpretation of brain MRI. A detailed discussion of imaging findings in general intracranial disorders including hydrocephalus, vasogenic edema, brain herniation, and seizure-associated changes, and the MR diagnosis of congenital brain disorders is provided. MRI evaluation of acquired brain disorders is described in a second companion article.

  4. [MRI of the temporomandibular joint--the gold standard].

    PubMed

    Barmeir, E; Teich, S; Gutmcher, Z

    2014-04-01

    MRI has been established as the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), as it allows for a noninvasive detailed evaluation of the joint that is not otherwise available. During the last decade, the introduction of dynamic (cine-mode) MR imaging has made functional evaluation feasible in addition to the morphologic study of the joint. The major advantage of MRI is its ability to study the articular disc and its congruity as well as its location relative to the condyle in both closed- and open-mouth positions. Due to its high contrast resolution, MRI is unique in demonstrating joint effusion, bone edema and sclerosis, rupture of the retrodiscal layers and impairment of the lateral pterigoid muscle. In Mor-Mar Imaging Center we performed during the last two years MRI studies of the TMJ in 234 subjects, 172 (74%) female and 62 (26%) male patients. The average age of the patients was 29 years. In this article we present our experience in the evaluation of TMD and review the main indications and findings. In addition, our experience in optimizing the MRI sequence protocols in both static and dynamic modes are discussed. MRI examinations provide the clinician with anatomic and physiologic information that can guide treatment decisions. It has a special role in monitoring and evaluating treatment results, both conservative and surgical. PMID:25252468

  5. Stability of MRI-turbulent Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Masada, Youhei

    2011-02-01

    Based on the characteristics of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and the MRI-driven turbulence, we construct a steady model for a geometrically thin disk using "non-standard" α-prescription. The efficiency of the angular momentum transport depends on the magnetic Prandtl number, Pm = ν/η, where ν and η are the microscopic viscous and magnetic diffusivities. In our disk model, Shakura-Sunyaev's α-parameter has a power-law dependence on the magnetic Prandtl number, that is α vprop Pm δ, where δ is the constant power-law index. Adopting Spitzer's microscopic diffusivities, the magnetic Prandtl number becomes a decreasing function of the disk radius when δ>0. The transport efficiency of the angular momentum and the viscous heating rate are thus smaller in the outer part of the disk, while these are impacted by the size of index δ. We find that the disk becomes more unstable to the gravitational instability for a larger value of index δ. The most remarkable feature of our disk model is that the thermal and secular instabilities can grow in its middle part even if the radiation pressure is negligibly small in the condition δ>2/3. In the realistic disk systems, it would be difficult to maintain the steady mass accretion state unless the Pm dependence of MRI-driven turbulence is relatively weak.

  6. DT-MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2007-03-01

    An important problem in medical image analysis is the segmentation of anatomical regions of interest. Once regions of interest are segmented, one can extract shape, appearance, and structural features that can be analyzed for disease diagnosis or treatment evaluation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a relatively new medical imaging modality that captures unique water diffusion properties and fiber orientation information of the imaged tissues. In this paper, we extend the interactive multidimensional graph cuts segmentation technique to operate on DT-MRI data by utilizing latest advances in tensor calculus and diffusion tensor dissimilarity metrics. The user interactively selects certain tensors as object ("obj") or background ("bkg") to provide hard constraints for the segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate information about both regional tissue diffusion as well as boundaries between tissues of different diffusion properties. Graph cuts are used to find globally optimal segmentation of the underlying 3D DT-MR image among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. We develop a graph structure from the underlying DT-MR image with the tensor voxels corresponding to the graph vertices and with graph edge weights computed using either Log-Euclidean or the J-divergence tensor dissimilarity metric. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both obj and bkg segments may consist of several isolated parts. We test our method on synthetic DT data and apply it to real 2D and 3D MRI, providing segmentations of the corpus callosum in the brain and the ventricles of the heart.

  7. Quantitative Histological Validation of Diffusion MRI Fiber Orientation Distributions in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    de Crespigny, Alex; Bolstad, Ingeborg; D'Arceuil, Helen; Bjaalie, Jan G.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is widely used to measure microstructural features of brain white matter, but commonly used dMRI measures have limited capacity to resolve the orientation structure of complex fiber architectures. While several promising new approaches have been proposed, direct quantitative validation of these methods against relevant histological architectures remains missing. In this study, we quantitatively compare neuronal fiber orientation distributions (FODs) derived from ex vivo dMRI data against histological measurements of rat brain myeloarchitecture using manual recordings of individual myelin stained fiber orientations. We show that accurate FOD estimates can be obtained from dMRI data, even in regions with complex architectures of crossing fibers with an intrinsic orientation error of approximately 5–6 degrees in these regions. The reported findings have implications for both clinical and research studies based on dMRI FOD measures, and provide an important biological benchmark for improved FOD reconstruction and fiber tracking methods. PMID:20062822

  8. [Wilm's tumor. Diagnostic capacities of magnetic resonance imaging. MRI-pathomorphological comparison].

    PubMed

    Dombrovskii, V

    2001-01-01

    The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of Wilms' tumor (WT) and in the evaluation of preoperative chemotherapy (PCH) efficiency was investigated and compared with histopathological data of 56 children and infants with proven retroperitoneum neoplasma (WT--49, neuroblastoma--6, congenital mesoblastic nephroma--1). The author described the WT MRI-semiotics in general and in particular for its changes during the preoperative chemotherapy. The formula for calculation of tumor reduction index is suggested. The MRI sensitivity (100%), specificity (77.8%) and accuracy (91.1%) are detected. The high positive correlation level between the MRI and pathologic findings, concerning WT dimensions, pseudocapsule presence and safety, tumor structure secondary alterations and tumor spreading was found. At the same time, the specific MRI criteria for the different histological types of WT were not found. MRI is confirmed to be an accurate tool for diagnostic monitoring of patients with WT and other retroperitoneum neoplasms.

  9. Broca's area and its striatal and thalamic connections: a diffusion-MRI tractography study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Anastasia A.; Triplett, William; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Gullett, Joseph; McGregor, Keith; FitzGerald, David B.; Mareci, Thomas; White, Keith; Crosson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In the recent decades structural connectivity between Broca's area and the basal ganglia has been postulated in the literature, though no direct evidence of this connectivity has yet been presented. The current study investigates this connectivity using a novel diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) fiber tracking method in humans in vivo. Our findings suggest direct connections between sub-regions of Broca's area and the anterior one-third of the putamen, as well as the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. Thus, we are the first to provide a detailed account of inferred circuitry involving basal ganglia, thalamus, and Broca's area, which would be a prerequisite to substantiate their support of language processing. PMID:23675324

  10. Progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood: prenatal diagnosis by MRI.

    PubMed

    de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Roffi, Fabio; Audibert, François; Guis, Françoise; Lacroix, Catherine; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Landrieu, Pierre; Labrune, Philippe

    2005-04-01

    We report two cases in the same family of progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood--Alpers syndrome--with prenatal MRI findings in one case. The first infant presented at birth with severe microcephaly, then rapidly evolved to progressive encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy, leading to death at 10 months. Biochemical investigations including liver function tests were normal. CT and MRI showed severe diffuse brain atrophy. The diagnosis of progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood was made on the clinical and imaging data. The second pregnancy was marked by gradual decrease of fetal cerebral biometry and a prenatal MRI performed at 32 weeks showed diffuse cortical atrophy, as observed in the sibling. The infant died at 5 months. Neuropathological findings were consistent with Alpers syndrome. PMID:15852481

  11. fMRI adaptation revisited.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jonas; Solomon, Samuel G; Kohn, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation has been widely used in functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies to infer neuronal response properties in human cortex. fMRI adaptation has been criticized because of the complex relationship between fMRI adaptation effects and the multiple neuronal effects that could underlie them. Many of the longstanding concerns about fMRI adaptation have received empirical support from neurophysiological studies over the last decade. We review these studies here, and also consider neuroimaging studies that have investigated how fMRI adaptation effects are influenced by high-level perceptual processes. The results of these studies further emphasize the need to interpret fMRI adaptation results with caution, but they also provide helpful guidance for more accurate interpretation and better experimental design. In addition, we argue that rather than being used as a proxy for measurements of neuronal stimulus selectivity, fMRI adaptation may be most useful for studying population-level adaptation effects across cortical processing hierarchies.

  12. MRI of plants and foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  13. Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction: an analytical EAP reconstruction using multiple shell acquisitions in diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Hosseinbor, Ameer Pasha; Chung, Moo K; Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of the ensemble average propagator (EAP) directly from q-space DWI signals is an open problem in diffusion MRI. Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) is one common technique to compute the EAP directly from the diffusion signal, but it is burdened by the large sampling required. Recently, several analytical EAP reconstruction schemes for multiple q-shell acquisitions have been proposed. One, in particular, is Diffusion Propagator Imaging (DPI) which is based on the Laplace's equation estimation of diffusion signal for each shell acquisition. Viewed intuitively in terms of the heat equation, the DPI solution is obtained when the heat distribution between temperatuere measurements at each shell is at steady state. We propose a generalized extension of DPI, Bessel Fourier Orientation Reconstruction (BFOR), whose solution is based on heat equation estimation of the diffusion signal for each shell acquisition. That is, the heat distribution between shell measurements is no longer at steady state. In addition to being analytical, the BFOR solution also includes an intrinsic exponential smootheing term. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by showing results on both synthetic and real MR datasets.

  14. On the feasibility of concurrent human TMS-EEG-fMRI measurements.

    PubMed

    Peters, Judith C; Reithler, Joel; Schuhmann, Teresa; de Graaf, Tom; Uludag, Kâmil; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneously combining the complementary assets of EEG, functional MRI (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) within one experimental session provides synergetic results, offering insights into brain function that go beyond the scope of each method when used in isolation. The steady increase of concurrent EEG-fMRI, TMS-EEG, and TMS-fMRI studies further underlines the added value of such multimodal imaging approaches. Whereas concurrent EEG-fMRI enables monitoring of brain-wide network dynamics with high temporal and spatial resolution, the combination with TMS provides insights in causal interactions within these networks. Thus the simultaneous use of all three methods would allow studying fast, spatially accurate, and distributed causal interactions in the perturbed system and its functional relevance for intact behavior. Concurrent EEG-fMRI, TMS-EEG, and TMS-fMRI experiments are already technically challenging, and the three-way combination of TMS-EEG-fMRI might yield additional difficulties in terms of hardware strain or signal quality. The present study explored the feasibility of concurrent TMS-EEG-fMRI studies by performing safety and quality assurance tests based on phantom and human data combining existing commercially available hardware. Results revealed that combined TMS-EEG-fMRI measurements were technically feasible, safe in terms of induced temperature changes, allowed functional MRI acquisition with comparable image quality as during concurrent EEG-fMRI or TMS-fMRI, and provided artifact-free EEG before and from 300 ms after TMS pulse application. Based on these empirical findings, we discuss the conceptual benefits of this novel complementary approach to investigate the working human brain and list a number of precautions and caveats to be heeded when setting up such multimodal imaging facilities with current hardware.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Small Patella Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Chang, Jun-Hee; Ban, Yun-Seong; Song, Sang-Heon

    2016-03-01

    Small patella syndrome (SPS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella and pelvic girdle abnormalities, including bilateral absence or delayed ossification of the ischiopubic junction and infra-acetabular axe-cut notches. Here, we report a case of SPS in a 26-year-old female. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a small patella with thick eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage and femoral trochlear dysplasia with hypoplastic patellar undersurface. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings in SPS. MRI findings could be clinically relevant because elongation of the medial patellofemoral ligament and trochlear dysplasia with eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage might lead to patellofemoral maltracking with an osteochondral lesion or acute dislocation or an extensor mechanism injury. Though the patient presented in this case report only had a gastrocnemius injury at the origin site, physicians should carefully examine abnormalities with MRI when an SPS patient has a trauma to the knee. PMID:26955616

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Small Patella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Chang, Jun-Hee; Ban, Yun-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Small patella syndrome (SPS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella and pelvic girdle abnormalities, including bilateral absence or delayed ossification of the ischiopubic junction and infra-acetabular axe-cut notches. Here, we report a case of SPS in a 26-year-old female. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a small patella with thick eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage and femoral trochlear dysplasia with hypoplastic patellar undersurface. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings in SPS. MRI findings could be clinically relevant because elongation of the medial patellofemoral ligament and trochlear dysplasia with eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage might lead to patellofemoral maltracking with an osteochondral lesion or acute dislocation or an extensor mechanism injury. Though the patient presented in this case report only had a gastrocnemius injury at the origin site, physicians should carefully examine abnormalities with MRI when an SPS patient has a trauma to the knee. PMID:26955616

  17. MRI characteristics of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Bazelle, Julien; Caine, Abby; Palus, Viktor; Summers, Brian A; Cherubini, Giunio B

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial arachnoid diverticula (cysts) are rare accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the arachnoid membrane. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula in a group of dogs. The hospital's medical records were searched for dogs with MRI studies of the brain and a diagnosis of fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticulum. Clinical characteristics were recorded from medical records and MRI studies were reinterpreted by a board-certified veterinary radiologist. Five pediatric dogs fulfilled inclusion criteria. Clinical signs included cervical hyperaesthesia, obtundation, tetraparesis, and/or central vestibular syndrome. In all five dogs, MRI findings were consistent with obstructive hydrocephalus, based on dilation of all ventricles and compression of the cerebellum and brainstem. All five dogs also had cervical syringohydromyelia, with T2-weighted hyperintensity of the gray matter of the cord adjacent to the syringohydromyelia. A signal void, interpreted as flow disturbance, was observed at the mesencephalic aqueduct in all dogs. Four dogs underwent surgical treatment with occipitalectomy and durotomy. A cystic lesion emerging from the fourth ventricle was detected in all four dogs during surgery and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of arachnoid diverticula. Three dogs made excellent recovery but deteriorated shortly after surgery and were euthanized. Repeat MRI in two dogs revealed improved hydrocephalus but worsening of the syringohydromyelia. Findings from the current study supported theories that fourth ventricle arachnoid diverticula are secondary to partial obstruction of the central canal or lateral apertures and that arachnoid diverticula are developmental lesions in dogs.

  18. Metalloprotein-based MRI probes

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Jasanoff, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Metalloproteins have long been recognized as key determinants of endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of biological subjects. More recently, both natural and engineered metalloproteins have been harnessed as biotechnological tools to probe gene expression, enzyme activity, and analyte concentrations by MRI. Metalloprotein MRI probes are paramagnetic and function by analogous mechanisms to conventional gadolinium or iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents. Compared with synthetic agents, metalloproteins typically offer worse sensitivity, but the possibilities of using protein engineering and targeted gene expression approaches in conjunction with metalloprotein contrast agents are powerful and sometimes definitive strengths. This review summarizes theoretical and practical aspects of metalloprotein-based contrast agents, and discusses progress in the exploitation of these proteins for molecular imaging applications. PMID:23376346

  19. Metalloprotein-based MRI probes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Jasanoff, Alan

    2013-04-17

    Metalloproteins have long been recognized as key determinants of endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of biological subjects. More recently, both natural and engineered metalloproteins have been harnessed as biotechnological tools to probe gene expression, enzyme activity, and analyte concentrations by MRI. Metalloprotein MRI probes are paramagnetic and function by analogous mechanisms to conventional gadolinium or iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents. Compared with synthetic agents, metalloproteins typically offer worse sensitivity, but the possibilities of using protein engineering and targeted gene expression approaches in conjunction with metalloprotein contrast agents are powerful and sometimes definitive strengths. This review summarizes theoretical and practical aspects of metalloprotein-based contrast agents, and discusses progress in the exploitation of these proteins for molecular imaging applications.

  20. High success rates of sedation-free brain MRI scanning in young children using simple subject preparation protocols with and without a commercial mock scanner–the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) experience

    PubMed Central

    Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy W.; Marzelli, Matt J.; Mazaika, Paul K.; Aye, Tandy; White, Neil H.; Tsalikian, Eva; Fox, Larry; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to lie still in an MRI scanner is essential for obtaining usable image data. To reduce motion, young children are often sedated, adding significant cost and risk. Objective We assessed the feasibility of using a simple and affordable behavioral desensitization program to yield high-quality brain MRI scans in sedation-free children. Materials and methods 222 children (4–9.9 years), 147 with type 1 diabetes and 75 age-matched non-diabetic controls, participated in a multi-site study focused on effects of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI scans were performed. All children underwent behavioral training and practice MRI sessions using either a commercial MRI simulator or an inexpensive mock scanner consisting of a toy tunnel, vibrating mat, and video player to simulate the sounds and feel of the MRI scanner. Results 205 children (92.3%), mean age 7±1.7 years had high-quality T1-W scans and 174 (78.4%) had high-quality diffusion-weighted scans after the first scan session. With a second scan session, success rates were 100% and 92.5% for T1-and diffusion-weighted scans, respectively. Success rates did not differ between children with type 1 diabetes and children without diabetes, or between centers using a commercial MRI scan simulator and those using the inexpensive mock scanner. Conclusion Behavioral training can lead to a high success rate for obtaining high-quality T1-and diffusion-weighted brain images from a young population without sedation. PMID:24096802

  1. Investigating the experiences of New Zealand MRI technologists: Exploring intra-orbital metallic foreign body safety practices

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Philippa K; Henwood, Suzanne

    2013-12-15

    Qualitative research is lacking regarding the experiences of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists and their involvement in workplace safety practices. This article provides a gateway to explore, describe and document experiences of MRI technologists in New Zealand (NZ) pertaining to intra-orbital metallic foreign body (IMFB) safety practices. This phenomenological study describes the experiences of seven MRI technologists all with a minimum of 5 years' NZ work experience in MRI. The MRI technologists were interviewed face-to-face regarding their professional IMFB workplace experiences in order to explore historical, current and potential issues. Findings demonstrated that aspects of organization and administration are fundamentally important to MRI technologists. Varying levels of education and knowledge, as well as experience and skills gained, have significantly impacted on MRI technologists’ level of confidence and control in IMFB practices. Participants’ descriptions of their experiences in practice regarding decision-making capabilities further highlight the complexity of these themes. A model was developed to demonstrate the interrelated nature of the themes and the complexity of the situation in totality. Findings of this study have provided insight into the experiences of MRI technologists pertaining to IMFB safety practices and highlighted inconsistencies. It is hoped that these findings will contribute to and improve the level of understanding of MRI technologists and the practices and protocols involved in IMFB safety screening. The scarcity of available literature regarding IMFB safety practices highlights that more research is required to investigate additional aspects that could improve MRI technologists’ experiences.

  2. MRI and intraocular tamponade media.

    PubMed

    Manfrè, L; Fabbri, G; Avitabile, T; Biondi, P; Reibaldi, A; Pero, G

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen patients who underwent surgery for retinal detachment and injection of intraocular tamponade media (silicone oil, fluorosilicone oil, or perfluorocarbon liquid) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted images. The ophthalmic tamponade media showed different signal intensity, according to their chemical structure. Unlike ophthalmoscopy or ultrasonography, MRI showed no oil-related artefact, making possible recognition of recurrent retinal detachment.

  3. Hybrid-SPRITE MRI.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2013-10-01

    In a FID based frequency encoding MRI experiment the central part of k-space is not generally accessible due to the probe dead time. This portion of k-space is however crucial for image reconstruction. SPRITE (Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement), SPI with a linearly ramped phase encode gradient, has been employed to image short relaxation time systems for many years with great success. It is a robust imaging method in significant measure because it provides acquisition of high quality k-space origin data. We propose a new sampling scheme, termed hybrid-SPRITE, combining phase and frequency encoding to ensure high quality images with reduced acquisition times, reduced gradient duty cycle and increased sensitivity. In hybrid-SPRITE, numerous time domain points are collected to assist image reconstruction. An Inverse Non-uniform Discrete Fourier Transform (INDFT) is employed in 1D applications. A pseudo-polar grid is exploited in 2D hybrid-SPRITE for rapid and accurate image reconstruction. PMID:23916990

  4. Seronegative spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis: CT, MRI features and differentials

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Daya; Prabhu, Shailesh M; Irodi, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Seronegative spondyloarthropathy is a group of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that predominantly affect the axial skeleton. Involvement of sacroiliac joint is considered a hallmark for diagnosis of seronegative spondyloarthropathy and is usually the first manifestation of this condition. It is essential for the radiologist to know the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis as imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and evaluation of response to treatment. We present a pictorial essay of CT and MRI imaging findings in seronegative spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis in various stages and highlight common differentials that need to be considered. PMID:25114391

  5. Lesions of the Seminal Vesicles and their MRI Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mahati N; Verma, Sadhna

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, MRI of the prostate has made great strides in improving cancer detection and is being embraced by more clinicians each day. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common and uncommon, but consequential lesions involving the seminal vesicles (SV), as seen predominantly on MRI. Many of these findings are seen incidentally during imaging of the prostate. Anatomy and embryology of the SV will be described which will help illustrate the associations of abnormalities seen. Congenital, infectious, neoplastic, and tumor mimics will be explored in detail, with discussion on clinical presentation and treatment strategies.

  6. Correlation between MRI and Arthroscopy in Diagnosis of Shoulder Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bhonsle, Sachin; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Shoulder pain can cause significant pain, discomfort and reduce the ability to perform activities of daily living, thus making it the third most common cause of musculoskeletal consultation. The current gold standard diagnostic investigation is arthroscopy. MRI is a proved sensitive and accurate non-invasive tool in investigating shoulder pathology, but false and misleading results are equally reported. Aim The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of MRI in diagnosing shoulder pathologies in comparison to arthroscopy, considering arthroscopy as the gold standard. Materials and Methods Thirty nine consecutive patients, between 18-80 years of age, presenting with chronic shoulder pain or instability of more than 6 weeks, or with clinical signs of impingement or tear were included in the study. MRI of the shoulder joint was done followed by shoulder arthroscopy. The data collected was analysed for the significant correlation between MRI of shoulder and arthroscopic findings by kappa statistics. Results Out of 39 patients, Rotator cuff (RC) tear was the most common pathology. MRI showed excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears (0.91) and osteochondral defects (OCD), very good sensitivity for Bankart’s lesion (0.8) and had poor sensitivity to detect SLAP tear (0.15). MRI was specific for all shoulder pathologies. MRI detected RC tears with kappa score of 0.73, Bankart’s tear and OCD’s with kappa score of 0.83 and 1.0 respectively and SLAP lesion with kappa score of 0.14. The accuracy of MRI was highest in diagnosing OCD’s (1.0), followed by RC tear (0.9), Bankart’s tear (0.9) and accuracy was least in diagnosing SLAP lesion (0.7). False negative results were more than false positives. Conclusion The present study supports that MRI is effective in diagnosing rotator cuff tears, Bankart’s tear and ostechondral defects but was not found to be helpful in diagnosing SLAP lesions. MRI and arthroscopy have complimentary roles

  7. Experience with 7.0 T MRI in Patients with Supratentorial Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Woo; Son, Young Don; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas are typically diagnosed by their characteristic appearance on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, detailed image findings regarding peri- and intra-tumoral anatomical structures, tumor consistency and vascularity are very important in pre-surgical planning and surgical outcomes. At the 7.0 T MRI achieving ultra-high resolution, it could be possible to obtain more useful information in surgical strategy. Four patients who were radiologically diagnosed with intracranial meningioma in 1.5 T MRI underwent a 7.0 T MRI. Three of them underwent surgery afterwards, and one received gamma knife radiosurgery. In our study, the advantages of 7.0 T MRI over 1.5 T MRI were a more detailed depiction of the peri- and intra-tumoral vasculature and a clear delineation of tumor-brain interface. In the safety issues, all patients received 7.0 T MRI without any adverse event. One disadvantage of 7.0 T MRI was the reduced image quality of skull base lesions. 7.0 T MRI in patients with meningiomas could provide useful information in surgical strategy, such as the peri-tumoral vasculature and the tumor-brain interface. PMID:27446524

  8. MRI with and without a high-density EEG cap--what makes the difference?

    PubMed

    Klein, Carina; Hänggi, Jürgen; Luechinger, Roger; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-02-01

    Besides the benefit of combining electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), much effort has been spent to develop algorithms aimed at successfully cleaning the EEG data from MRI-related gradient and ballistocardiological artifacts. However, there are also studies showing a negative influence of the EEG on MRI data quality. Therefore, in the present study, we focused for the first time on the influence of the EEG on morphometric measurements of T1-weighted MRI data (voxel- and surfaced-based morphometry). Here, we demonstrate a strong influence of the EEG on cortical thickness, surface area, and volume as well as subcortical volumes due to local EEG-related inhomogeneities of the static magnetic (B0) and the gradient field (B1). In a second step, we analyzed the signal-to-noise ratios for both the anatomical and the functional data when recorded simultaneously with EEG and MRI and compared them to the ratios of the MRI data without simultaneous EEG measurements. These analyses revealed consistently lower signal-to-noise ratios for anatomical as well as functional MRI data during simultaneous EEG registration. In contrast, further analyses of T2*-weighted images provided reliable results independent of whether including the individuals' T1-weighted image with or without the EEG cap in the fMRI preprocessing stream. Based on our findings, we strongly recommend against using the structural images obtained during simultaneous EEG-MRI recordings for further anatomical data analysis. PMID:25482268

  9. MRI with and without a high-density EEG cap--what makes the difference?

    PubMed

    Klein, Carina; Hänggi, Jürgen; Luechinger, Roger; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-02-01

    Besides the benefit of combining electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), much effort has been spent to develop algorithms aimed at successfully cleaning the EEG data from MRI-related gradient and ballistocardiological artifacts. However, there are also studies showing a negative influence of the EEG on MRI data quality. Therefore, in the present study, we focused for the first time on the influence of the EEG on morphometric measurements of T1-weighted MRI data (voxel- and surfaced-based morphometry). Here, we demonstrate a strong influence of the EEG on cortical thickness, surface area, and volume as well as subcortical volumes due to local EEG-related inhomogeneities of the static magnetic (B0) and the gradient field (B1). In a second step, we analyzed the signal-to-noise ratios for both the anatomical and the functional data when recorded simultaneously with EEG and MRI and compared them to the ratios of the MRI data without simultaneous EEG measurements. These analyses revealed consistently lower signal-to-noise ratios for anatomical as well as functional MRI data during simultaneous EEG registration. In contrast, further analyses of T2*-weighted images provided reliable results independent of whether including the individuals' T1-weighted image with or without the EEG cap in the fMRI preprocessing stream. Based on our findings, we strongly recommend against using the structural images obtained during simultaneous EEG-MRI recordings for further anatomical data analysis.

  10. Widespread inflammation in CLIPPERS syndrome indicated by autopsy and ultra-high-field 7T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Ruprecht, Klemens; Sinnecker, Tim; Kondziella, Daniel; Niendorf, Thoralf; Kerrn-Jespersen, Bjørg Morell; Lindelof, Mette; Lassmann, Hans; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. Methods: We performed a detailed neuropathologic examination in 4 cases, including 1 autopsy case, and studied 2 additional patients by MRI at 7.0T to examine (1) extension of inflammation to areas appearing normal on 3.0T MRI, (2) potential advantages of 7.0T MRI compared to 3.0T MRI in reflecting widespread inflammation, perivascular pathology, and axonal damage, and (3) the possibility of lymphoma. Results: In the autopsy case, perivascular inflammation dominated by CD4+ T cells was not only detected in the brainstem and cerebellum but also in brain areas with normal appearance on 3.0T MRI, including supratentorial regions and cranial nerve roots. There was no evidence of lymphoma in any of the 4 patients. The 7.0T MRI in clinical remission also revealed supratentorial lesions and perivascular pathology in vivo with contrast-enhancing lesions centered around a small venous vessel. Ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T disclosed prominent T1 hypointensities in the brainstem, which were not seen on 3.0T MRI. This corresponded to neuropathologic detection of axonal injury in the autopsy case. Conclusion: Our findings suggest more widespread perivascular inflammation and postinflammatory axonal injury in patients with CLIPPERS. PMID:27144217

  11. MRI Abnormalities Are Common In Little League Player’s Elbows

    PubMed Central

    Pennock, Andrew T.; Roocroft, Joanna Helena; Bastrom, Tracey P.; Kruk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Youth baseball is extremely popular, but it has been associated with elbow pain and pathology. The purpose of this study was to examine pre- and post-season Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) changes in Little League baseball players and correlate these findings with the players’ throwing history and physical exams. Methods: A prospective study of Little League players age 10 -13 years was performed. Players were recruited prior to the start of the season and underwent bilateral elbow MRI. All players underwent a physical exam and responded to a questionnaire addressing their playing history and arm pain. At the end of the season, the players underwent repeat physical exam and MRI of their throwing arm. MRIs were read by two blinded radiologists. During the season, player statistics including innings played and pitch counts were recorded. Physical exam findings and players statistics were compared between subjects with and without MRI changes utilizing chi-square and ANOVA techniques. Results: Twenty-six players were enrolled. On pre-season MRI, nine players (35%) had 12 positive MRI findings; edema of the medial epicondyle (ME) apophysis (7), fragmentation of ME (2), and edema of the sublime tubercle (3). The two factors associated with a positive MRI were year round play (47% vs 11%, p<0.01) and working with a private coach (71% vs 21%, p=0.02). A history of pain was also associated with year round play and a private coach (p<0.05). Loss of internal rotation was associated with an abnormal MRI (p = 0.04). Post-season, 25 players returned for follow-up. Ten players (40%) had an abnormal MRI of which 8 (32%) had new/worsening findings. There was a significant difference in distal humeral physeal width measured pre- to post-season (1.54 mm vs 2.31 mm p<0.001). There was a significant decrease in internal rotation measured pre- to post-season of the shoulder in all patients regardless of MRI findings (62° vs 43°, p=0.001). Pitch counts, player position

  12. Typical CT and MRI signs of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    GAN, LU; CHANG, RUIPING; JIN, HUALAN; YANG, LI

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) features of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH), the CT and MRI findings of 14 histopathologically confirmed cases of HEH were retrospectively analyzed. Non-contrast and dynamic contrast-enhanced scans were conducted in all cases. A total of 229 lesions were detected in the 14 cases. All cases were classified as one of three types: (i) Solitary nodular type (1 case, 7%); (ii) multifocal nodular type (11 cases, 79%); or (iii) diffuse type (2 cases, 14%). The diameter of the lesions ranged from 5 to 105 mm. For the first two types (solitary and multifocal nodular types), the CT findings included low density lesions with clear margins on non-contrast scans, centripetal enhancement in arterial phase, and homogeneous enhancement in the portal venous and delay phases. The findings of non-contrast MRI scans for these two types included low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and heterogeneous high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted images. The lesions were predominantly located in submarginal areas. On contrast-enhanced MRI, the findings for the first two types included peripheral ring-like enhancement with a central low signal intensity (‘black target-like’ sign) and a central enhanced core surrounded by a low signal intensity halo (‘white target-like’ sign). The findings for the third HEH type (diffuse type) on CT and MRI scans included low density or heterogeneous signal intensity lesions involving regions of part or the whole liver, coalescent lesions (‘strip-like’ sign), and gradual enhancement along central vessels (‘lollipop’ sign). Collectively, these findings indicate that the ‘white target-like’ sign, ‘black target-like’ sign, ‘lollipop’ sign and ‘strip-like’ sign, in addition to capsular contraction and submarginal location, on CT and MRI imaging may have

  13. 7-Tesla MRI demonstrates absence of structural lesions in patients with vestibular paroxysmia.

    PubMed

    Rommer, Paulus S; Wiest, Gerald; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Zach, Heidemarie; Loader, Benjamin; Elwischger, Kirsten; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular parxoysmia (VP) is a rare vestibular disorder. A neurovascular cross-compression (NVCC) between the vestibulochochlear nerve and an artery seems to be responsible for short attacks of vertigo in this entity. An NVCC can be seen in up to every fourth subject. The significance of these findings is not clear, as not all subjects suffer from symptoms. The aim of the present study was to assess possible structural lesions of the vestibulocochlear nerve by means of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and whether high field MRI may help to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic subjects. 7 Tesla MRI was performed in six patients with VP and confirmed NVCC seen on 1.5 and 3.0 MRI. No structural abnormalities were detected in any of the patients in 7 Tesla MRI. These findings imply that high field MRI does not help to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic NVCC and that the symptoms of VP are not caused by structural nerve lesions. This supports the hypothesis that the nystagmus associated with VP has to be conceived pathophysiologically as an excitatory vestibular phenomenon, being not related to vestibular hypofunction. 7 Tesla MRI outperforms conventional MRI in image resolution and may be useful in vestibular disorders.

  14. Simultaneous EEG-Correlated Ictal fMRI.

    PubMed

    Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Merschhemke, Martin; Lemieux, Louis; Fish, David R

    2002-05-01

    The ability to continuously acquire simultaneous EEG and fMRI data during seizures presents a formidable challenge both clinically and technically. Published ictal fMRI reports have so far been unable to benefit from simultaneous electrographic recordings and remain largely assumptive. Unique findings from a Continuous EEG-correlated fMRI experiment are presented in which a focal subclinical seizure was captured in its entirety. For the first time dynamic and biphasic Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal changes are shown using statistical parametric mapping time-locked to the ictal EEG activity localizing seizure generation and propagation sites, with millimeter resolution, to electroclinically concordant gray matter structures. Though presently of limited clinical applicability, a new avenue is opened for further research.

  15. A decision aid for diagnosis of liver lesions on MRI.

    PubMed Central

    Tombropoulos, R.; Shiffman, S.; Davidson, C.

    1993-01-01

    Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the evaluation of liver abnormalities. The interpretation of MR images requires expert training in a rapidly changing field. DAFODILL (Decision Aid for Diagnosing Liver Lesions) is a decision-support tool designed to aid radiologists in the diagnosis of hepatic lesions seen on MRI. DAFODILL uses a knowledge base of MRI findings and a belief-network inference engine to generate probabilistic differential diagnoses of the most commonly encountered hepatic lesions. DAFODILL performs limited image processing to identify clinically relevant features, which are presented to the user for confirmation before they are used by the network. Preliminary evaluation of an initial version of the system suggests that DAFODILL may be a useful tool for radiology residents and nonexpert radiologists in interpreting MR images of the liver. PMID:8130512

  16. Who gets afraid in the MRI-scanner? Neurogenetics of state-anxiety changes during an fMRI experiment.

    PubMed

    Mutschler, Isabella; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Meyer, Andrea H; Schweizer, Tina; Klarhöfer, Markus; Wilhelm, Frank H; Seifritz, Erich; Ball, Tonio

    2014-11-01

    Experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) play a fundamental role in affective neuroscience. When placed in an MR scanner, some volunteers feel safe and relaxed in this situation, while others experience uneasiness and fear. Little is known about the basis and consequences of such inter-individually different responses to the general experimental fMRI setting. In this study emotional stimuli were presented during fMRI and subjects' state-anxiety was assessed at the onset and end of the experiment while they were within the scanner. We show that Val/Val but neither Met/Met nor Val/Met carriers of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism-a prime candidate for anxiety vulnerability-became significantly more anxious during the fMRI experiment (N=97 females: 24 Val/Val, 51 Val/Met, and 22 Met/Met). Met carriers demonstrated brain responses with increased stability over time in the right parietal cortex and significantly better cognitive performances likely mediated by lower levels of anxiety. Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met did not significantly differ in state-anxiety at the beginning of the experiment. The exposure of a control group (N=56 females) to the same experiment outside the scanner did not cause a significant increase in state-anxiety, suggesting that the increase we observe in the fMRI experiment may be specific to the fMRI setting. Our findings reveal that genetics may play an important role in shaping inter-individual different emotional, cognitive and neuronal responses during fMRI experiments.

  17. Building an EEG-fMRI Multi-Modal Brain Graph: A Concurrent EEG-fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qingbao; Wu, Lei; Bridwell, David A.; Erhardt, Erik B.; Du, Yuhui; He, Hao; Chen, Jiayu; Liu, Peng; Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    The topological architecture of brain connectivity has been well-characterized by graph theory based analysis. However, previous studies have primarily built brain graphs based on a single modality of brain imaging data. Here we develop a framework to construct multi-modal brain graphs using concurrent EEG-fMRI data which are simultaneously collected during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) resting states. FMRI data are decomposed into independent components with associated time courses by group independent component analysis (ICA). EEG time series are segmented, and then spectral power time courses are computed and averaged within 5 frequency bands (delta; theta; alpha; beta; low gamma). EEG-fMRI brain graphs, with EEG electrodes and fMRI brain components serving as nodes, are built by computing correlations within and between fMRI ICA time courses and EEG spectral power time courses. Dynamic EEG-fMRI graphs are built using a sliding window method, versus static ones treating the entire time course as stationary. In global level, static graph measures and properties of dynamic graph measures are different across frequency bands and are mainly showing higher values in eyes closed than eyes open. Nodal level graph measures of a few brain components are also showing higher values during eyes closed in specific frequency bands. Overall, these findings incorporate fMRI spatial localization and EEG frequency information which could not be obtained by examining only one modality. This work provides a new approach to examine EEG-fMRI associations within a graph theoretic framework with potential application to many topics. PMID:27733821

  18. Neuronal or Hemodynamic? Grappling with the Functional MRI Signal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) continue to advance because creative physicists, engineers, neuroscientists, clinicians, and physiologists find new ways for extracting more information from the signal. Innovations in pulse sequence design, paradigm design, and processing methods have advanced the field and firmly established fMRI as a cornerstone for understanding the human brain. In this article, the field of fMRI is described through consideration of the central problem of separating hemodynamic from neuronal information. Discussed here are examples of how pulse sequences, activation paradigms, and processing methods are integrated such that novel, high-quality information can be obtained. Examples include the extraction of information such as activation onset latency, metabolic rate, neuronal adaptation, vascular patency, vessel diameter, vigilance, and subvoxel activation. Experimental measures include time series latency, hemodynamic shape, MR phase, multivoxel patterns, ratios of activation-related R2* to R2, metabolic rate changes, fluctuation correlations and frequencies, changes in fluctuation correlations and frequencies over time, resting correlation states, echo time dependence, and more. PMID:25093397

  19. Network Connectivity in Epilepsy: Resting State fMRI and EEG–fMRI Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Maria; Carmichael, David W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence pointing toward large-scale networks underlying the core phenomena in epilepsy, from seizure generation to cognitive dysfunction or response to treatment. The investigation of networks in epilepsy has become a key concept to unlock a deeper understanding of the disease. Functional imaging can provide valuable information to characterize network dysfunction; in particular resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI), which is increasingly being applied to study brain networks in a number of diseases. In patients with epilepsy, network connectivity derived from RS-fMRI has found connectivity abnormalities in a number of networks; these include the epileptogenic, cognitive and sensory processing networks. However, in majority of these studies, the effect of epileptic transients in the connectivity of networks has been neglected. EEG–fMRI has frequently shown networks related to epileptic transients that in many cases are concordant with the abnormalities shown in RS studies. This points toward a relevant role of epileptic transients in the network abnormalities detected in RS-fMRI studies. In this review, we summarize the network abnormalities reported by these two techniques side by side, provide evidence of their overlapping findings, and discuss their significance in the context of the methodology of each technique. A number of clinically relevant factors that have been associated with connectivity changes are in turn associated with changes in the frequency of epileptic transients. These factors include different aspects of epilepsy ranging from treatment effects, cognitive processes, or transition between different alertness states (i.e., awake–sleep transition). For RS-fMRI to become a more effective tool to investigate clinically relevant aspects of epilepsy it is necessary to understand connectivity changes associated with epileptic transients, those associated with other clinically relevant factors and the interaction between them

  20. Estimating Motion From MRI Data

    PubMed Central

    OZTURK, CENGIZHAN; DERBYSHIRE, J. ANDREW; MCVEIGH, ELLIOT R.

    2007-01-01

    Invited Paper Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an ideal imaging modality to measure blood flow and tissue motion. It provides excellent contrast between soft tissues, and images can be acquired at positions and orientations freely defined by the user. From a temporal sequence of MR images, boundaries and edges of tissues can be tracked by image processing techniques. Additionally, MRI permits the source of the image signal to be manipulated. For example, temporary magnetic tags displaying a pattern of variable brightness may be placed in the object using MR saturation techniques, giving the user a known pattern to detect for motion tracking. The MRI signal is a modulated complex quantity, being derived from a rotating magnetic field in the form of an induced current. Well-defined patterns can also be introduced into the phase of the magnetization, and could be thought of as generalized tags. If the phase of each pixel is preserved during image reconstruction, relative phase shifts can be used to directly encode displacement, velocity and acceleration. New methods for modeling motion fields from MRI have now found application in cardiovascular and other soft tissue imaging. In this review, we shall describe the methods used for encoding, imaging, and modeling motion fields with MRI. PMID:18958181

  1. Iron accumulation in deep cortical layers accounts for MRI signal abnormalities in ALS: correlating 7 tesla MRI and pathology.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Justin Y; Jeong, Suh Young; Van Gelderen, Peter; Deng, Han-Xiang; Quezado, Martha M; Danielian, Laura E; Butman, John A; Chen, Lingye; Bayat, Elham; Russell, James; Siddique, Teepu; Duyn, Jeff H; Rouault, Tracey A; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2)-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To investigate the utility of this MR signal change as a marker of cortical motor neuron degeneration, signal abnormalities on 3T and 7T MR images of the brain were compared, and pathology was obtained in two ALS patients to determine the origin of the motor cortex hypointensity. Nineteen patients with clinically probable or definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 19 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. A 7T MRI scan was carried out on five ALS patients who had motor cortex hypointensity on the 3T FLAIR sequence and on three healthy controls. Postmortem 7T MRI of the brain was performed in one ALS patient and histological studies of the brains and spinal cords were obtained post-mortem in two patients. The motor cortex hypointensity on 3T FLAIR images was present in greater frequency in ALS patients. Increased hypointensity correlated with greater severity of upper motor neuron impairment. Analysis of 7T T(2)(*)-weighted gradient echo imaging localized the signal alteration to the deeper layers of the motor cortex in both ALS patients. Pathological studies showed increased iron accumulation in microglial cells in areas corresponding to the location of the signal changes on the 3T and 7T MRI of the motor cortex. These findings indicate that the motor cortex hypointensity on 3T MRI FLAIR images in ALS is due to increased iron accumulation by microglia.

  2. Restricted Diffusion of Pus in the Subarachnoid Space: MRSA Meningo-Vasculitis and Progressive Brainstem Ischemic Strokes – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rose, David Z.; Parra-Herran, Carlos; Petito, Carol K.; Post, M. Judith D.

    2010-01-01

    Extra-axial restriction on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is an unusual finding on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intra-axial restriction on DWI, however, is common, and can represent brain parenchymal infarction, tumor, abscess, or toxic-metabolic process. The infrequency of extra-axial DWI restriction and the paucity of clinico-pathological correlation in the literature limit its differential diagnosis. Scant case reports suggest that extra-axial DWI restriction could be a lymphoma, neurenteric cyst, or, in one patient, subdural empyema [1,2,3]. We postulate that pus formation must be excluded first, because it can provoke an aggressive meningo-vasculitis with rapidly fatal, intra-axial infarctions. Our patient was a 45-year-old man, presenting to our hospital with left facial droop and right (contralateral) arm and leg weakness. Initial MRI revealed DWI restriction in the left lateral pons, consistent with a classic Millard-Gubler stroke. Also noted was a subtle, extra-axial area of curvilinear diffusion restriction in the left cerebellar-pontine angle's subarachnoid space. Days later, the patient had a headache, and repeat MRI revealed extension of the two DWI lesions – both the intra-axial pontine infarction and the extra-axial area of restricted diffusion in the subarachnoid space. The patient became comatose, a third MRI revealed more extensive DWI restrictions, and he expired despite aggressive care. Autopsy revealed massive brainstem infarcts, a thick lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, copious Gram-Positive cocci (likely MRSA) and arteries partially occluded with fibrointimal proliferation. This emphasizes the concept that extra-axial DWI restriction can represent pus development in the subarachnoid space – a radiographic marker to identify a patient at risk for demise due to septic, meningo-vasculitic infarctions. PMID:21045937

  3. MRI artefacts after Bonebridge implantation.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, C; Mader, I; Arndt, S; Aschendorff, A; Laszig, R; Hassepass, F

    2014-07-01

    The new transcutaneous bone conduction implant (BCI) Bonebridge (BB, MED-EL) allows the skin to remain intact and therefore overcomes some issues related to percutaneous systems, such as skin reaction around the external screw and cosmetic complaints. According to manufacturer, BB is MRI conditional up to 1,5 Tesla (T). The artefact of the neurocranium after BB implantation is extensive as shown in the present report. This has to be taken into account when patients suffering conductive, mixed or single-sided hearing loss with candidacy for a BCI are counselled. In patients with comorbid intracranial tumour or other diseases of the brain that require imaging control scans with MRI percutaneous, BCI should be the implant of choice considering the very small artefact of the percutaneous screw in MRI.

  4. Role of MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Pugmire, Brian S; Shailam, Randheer; Gee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a significant cause of morbidity in children throughout the world. Multiple imaging modalities can be used to evaluate for suspected osteomyelitis, however magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has distinct advantages over other modalities given its ability to detect early changes related to osteomyelitis, evaluate the true extent of disease, depict extraosseous spread of infection, and help guide surgical management. MRI has assumed a greater role in the evaluation of osteomyelitis with the increase in musculoskeletal infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus which have unique imaging features that are well-demonstrated with MRI. This review focuses primarily on the use of MRI in the evaluation of osteomyelitis in children and will include a discussion of the clinically important and characteristic findings on MRI of acute bacterial osteomyelitis and related conditions. PMID:25170391

  5. Normal Rates of Neuroradiological Findings in Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasa, Roma A.; Ranta, Marin; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Pinto, Pedro S.; Tillman, Rachael M.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to analyze highly specific volumetric and morphological features of the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, there are few comprehensive studies examining the prevalence of neuroradiologic findings seen on routine MRI scans in children with ASD. This study examined the…

  6. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included.

  7. MRI EVALUATION OF KNEE CARTILAGE

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo; Camanho, Gilberto Luís

    2015-01-01

    Through the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize soft tissue noninvasively, it has become an excellent method for evaluating cartilage. The development of new and faster methods allowed increased resolution and contrast in evaluating chondral structure, with greater diagnostic accuracy. In addition, physiological techniques for cartilage assessment that can detect early changes before the appearance of cracks and erosion have been developed. In this updating article, the various techniques for chondral assessment using knee MRI will be discussed and demonstrated. PMID:27022562

  8. The Raven MRI teaching file

    SciTech Connect

    Lufkin, R.B.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents individually bound guides for each section of the body, the 1,000 concise and clearly illustrated case files cover neoplastic, non-neoplastic, degenerative, inflammatory, congenital, and acquired disease of the brain, head and neck, spine, musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, chest, abdomen, and male and female pelvis. It focuses on specific body regions; one is devoted to pediatric MRI; and one reviews the principles of MRI and identifies frequently encountered artifacts. It contains 100 completed case studies, with high-resolution MR images.

  9. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included. PMID:27081224

  10. Label-free CEST MRI Detection of Citicoline-Liposome Drug Delivery in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanling; Jablonska, Anna; Li, Yuguo; Cao, Suyi; Liu, Dexiang; Chen, Hanwei; Van Zijl, Peter Cm; Bulte, Jeff W M; Janowski, Miroslaw; Walczak, Piotr; Liu, Guanshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Citicoline (CDPC) is a natural supplement with well-documented neuroprotective effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we sought to exploit citicoline as a theranostic agent with its inherent chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI signal, which can be directly used as an MRI guidance in the citicoline drug delivery. Our in vitro CEST MRI results showed citicoline has two inherent CEST signals at +1 and +2 ppm, attributed to exchangeable hydroxyl and amine protons, respectively. To facilitate the targeted drug delivery of citicoline to ischemic regions, we prepared liposomes encapsulating citicoline (CDPC-lipo) and characterized the particle properties and CEST MRI properties. The in vivo CEST MRI detection of liposomal citicoline was then examined in a rat brain model of unilateral transient ischemia induced by a two-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion. The results showed that the delivery of CPDC-lipo to the brain ischemic areas could be monitored and quantified by CEST MRI. When administered intra-arterially, CDPC-lipo clearly demonstrated a detectable CEST MRI contrast at 2 ppm. CEST MRI revealed that liposomes preferentially accumulated in the areas of ischemia with a disrupted blood-brain-barrier. We furthermore used CEST MRI to detect the improvement in drug delivery using CDPC-lipo targeted against vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in the same animal model. The MRI findings were validated using fluorescence microscopy. Hence, liposomal citicoline represents a prototype theranostic system, where the therapeutic agent can be detected directly by CEST MRI in a label-free fashion. PMID:27446492

  11. Using fMRI to study reward processing in humans: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kainan S; Smith, David V; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2016-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive tool used to probe cognitive and affective processes. Although fMRI provides indirect measures of neural activity, the advent of fMRI has allowed for1) the corroboration of significant animal findings in the human brain, and2) the expansion of models to include more common human attributes that inform behavior. In this review, we briefly consider the neural basis of the blood oxygenation level dependent signal to set up a discussion of how fMRI studies have applied it in examining cognitive models in humans and the promise of using fMRI to advance such models. Specifically, we illustrate the contribution that fMRI has made to the study of reward processing, focusing on the role of the striatum in encoding reward-related learning signals that drive anticipatory and consummatory behaviors. For instance, we discuss how fMRI can be used to link neural signals (e.g., striatal responses to rewards) to individual differences in behavior and traits. While this functional segregation approach has been constructive to our understanding of reward-related functions, many fMRI studies have also benefitted from a functional integration approach that takes into account how interconnected regions (e.g., corticostriatal circuits) contribute to reward processing. We contend that future work using fMRI will profit from using a multimodal approach, such as combining fMRI with noninvasive brain stimulation tools (e.g., transcranial electrical stimulation), that can identify causal mechanisms underlying reward processing. Consequently, advancements in implementing fMRI will promise new translational opportunities to inform our understanding of psychopathologies.

  12. Influence of BOLD Contributions to Diffusion fMRI Activation of the Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Reutens, David C; Hocking, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on the hemodynamic response as a surrogate marker of neural activity imposes an intrinsic limit on the spatial specificity of functional MRI. An alternative approach based on diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) has been reported as a contrast less reliant on hemodynamic effects, however current evidence suggests that both hemodynamic and unique neural sources contribute to the diffusion signal. Here we compare activation patterns obtained with the standard blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to DfMRI in order to gain a deeper understanding of how the BOLD proportion contributes to the observable diffusion signal. Both individual and group-level activation patterns obtained with DfMRI and BOLD to a visual field stimulation paradigm were analyzed. At the individual level, the DfMRI contrast showed a strong, positive relationship between the volumes of cortex activated in response to quadrant- and hemi-field visual stimulation. This was not observed in the corresponding BOLD experiment. Overall, the DfMRI response indicated less between-subject variability, with random effects analyses demonstrating higher statistical values at the peak voxel for DfMRI. Furthermore, the spatial extent of the activation was more restricted to the primary visual region for DfMRI than BOLD. However, the diffusion signal was sensitive to the hemodynamic response in a manner dependent on experimental manipulation. It was also limited by its low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), demonstrating lower sensitivity than BOLD. Together these findings both support DfMRI as a contrast that bears a closer spatial relationship to the underlying neural activity than BOLD, and raise important caveats regarding its utilization. Models explaining the DfMRI signal change need to consider the dynamic vascular contributions that may vary with neural activity. PMID:27445654

  13. Influence of BOLD Contributions to Diffusion fMRI Activation of the Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca J.; Reutens, David C.; Hocking, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on the hemodynamic response as a surrogate marker of neural activity imposes an intrinsic limit on the spatial specificity of functional MRI. An alternative approach based on diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) has been reported as a contrast less reliant on hemodynamic effects, however current evidence suggests that both hemodynamic and unique neural sources contribute to the diffusion signal. Here we compare activation patterns obtained with the standard blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to DfMRI in order to gain a deeper understanding of how the BOLD proportion contributes to the observable diffusion signal. Both individual and group-level activation patterns obtained with DfMRI and BOLD to a visual field stimulation paradigm were analyzed. At the individual level, the DfMRI contrast showed a strong, positive relationship between the volumes of cortex activated in response to quadrant- and hemi-field visual stimulation. This was not observed in the corresponding BOLD experiment. Overall, the DfMRI response indicated less between-subject variability, with random effects analyses demonstrating higher statistical values at the peak voxel for DfMRI. Furthermore, the spatial extent of the activation was more restricted to the primary visual region for DfMRI than BOLD. However, the diffusion signal was sensitive to the hemodynamic response in a manner dependent on experimental manipulation. It was also limited by its low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), demonstrating lower sensitivity than BOLD. Together these findings both support DfMRI as a contrast that bears a closer spatial relationship to the underlying neural activity than BOLD, and raise important caveats regarding its utilization. Models explaining the DfMRI signal change need to consider the dynamic vascular contributions that may vary with neural activity. PMID:27445654

  14. Label-free CEST MRI Detection of Citicoline-Liposome Drug Delivery in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huanling; Jablonska, Anna; Li, Yuguo; Cao, Suyi; Liu, Dexiang; Chen, Hanwei; Van Zijl, Peter CM; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Janowski, Miroslaw; Walczak, Piotr; Liu, Guanshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Citicoline (CDPC) is a natural supplement with well-documented neuroprotective effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we sought to exploit citicoline as a theranostic agent with its inherent chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI signal, which can be directly used as an MRI guidance in the citicoline drug delivery. Our in vitro CEST MRI results showed citicoline has two inherent CEST signals at +1 and +2 ppm, attributed to exchangeable hydroxyl and amine protons, respectively. To facilitate the targeted drug delivery of citicoline to ischemic regions, we prepared liposomes encapsulating citicoline (CDPC-lipo) and characterized the particle properties and CEST MRI properties. The in vivo CEST MRI detection of liposomal citicoline was then examined in a rat brain model of unilateral transient ischemia induced by a two-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion. The results showed that the delivery of CPDC-lipo to the brain ischemic areas could be monitored and quantified by CEST MRI. When administered intra-arterially, CDPC-lipo clearly demonstrated a detectable CEST MRI contrast at 2 ppm. CEST MRI revealed that liposomes preferentially accumulated in the areas of ischemia with a disrupted blood-brain-barrier. We furthermore used CEST MRI to detect the improvement in drug delivery using CDPC-lipo targeted against vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in the same animal model. The MRI findings were validated using fluorescence microscopy. Hence, liposomal citicoline represents a prototype theranostic system, where the therapeutic agent can be detected directly by CEST MRI in a label-free fashion. PMID:27446492

  15. Influence of BOLD Contributions to Diffusion fMRI Activation of the Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Reutens, David C; Hocking, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on the hemodynamic response as a surrogate marker of neural activity imposes an intrinsic limit on the spatial specificity of functional MRI. An alternative approach based on diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) has been reported as a contrast less reliant on hemodynamic effects, however current evidence suggests that both hemodynamic and unique neural sources contribute to the diffusion signal. Here we compare activation patterns obtained with the standard blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to DfMRI in order to gain a deeper understanding of how the BOLD proportion contributes to the observable diffusion signal. Both individual and group-level activation patterns obtained with DfMRI and BOLD to a visual field stimulation paradigm were analyzed. At the individual level, the DfMRI contrast showed a strong, positive relationship between the volumes of cortex activated in response to quadrant- and hemi-field visual stimulation. This was not observed in the corresponding BOLD experiment. Overall, the DfMRI response indicated less between-subject variability, with random effects analyses demonstrating higher statistical values at the peak voxel for DfMRI. Furthermore, the spatial extent of the activation was more restricted to the primary visual region for DfMRI than BOLD. However, the diffusion signal was sensitive to the hemodynamic response in a manner dependent on experimental manipulation. It was also limited by its low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), demonstrating lower sensitivity than BOLD. Together these findings both support DfMRI as a contrast that bears a closer spatial relationship to the underlying neural activity than BOLD, and raise important caveats regarding its utilization. Models explaining the DfMRI signal change need to consider the dynamic vascular contributions that may vary with neural activity.

  16. PLANTAR THROMBOPHLEBITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Frederico Celestino; Carneiro, Renato Duarte; Longo, Carlos Henrique; Fernandes, Túlio Diniz; Rosemberg, Laércio Alberto; de Gusmão Funari, Marcelo Buarque

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in plantar thrombophlebitis. Methods: Retrospective review of twenty patients with pain in the plantar region of the foot, in which the MRI findings indicated plantar thrombophlebitis. Results: A total of fourteen men and six women, mean age 46.7 years were evaluated. Eight of these patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography, which confirmed the thrombophlebitis. The magnetic resonance images were evaluated in consensus by two radiologists with experience in musculoskeletal radiology (more than 10 years each), showing perivascular edema in all twenty patients (100%) and muscle edema in nineteen of the twenty patients (95%). All twenty patients had intraluminal intermediate signal intensity on T2-weighted (100%) and venous ectasia was present in seventeen of the twenty cases (85%). Collateral veins were visualized in one of the twenty patients (5%). All fourteen cases (100%), in which intravenous contrast was administered, showed perivenular tissues enhancement and intraluminal filling defect. Venous ectasia, loss of compressibility and no flow on Doppler ultrasound were also observed in all eight cases examined by the method. Conclusion: MRI is a sensitive in the evaluation of plant thrombophlebitis in patients with plantar foot pain. PMID:27047898

  17. Neuroethics and fMRI: mapping a fledgling relationship.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Alex; Whiteley, Louise; Piwowar, Heather; Rasmussen, Edie; Illes, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) informs the understanding of the neural basis of mental function and is a key domain of ethical enquiry. It raises questions about the practice and implications of research, and reflexively informs ethics through the empirical investigation of moral judgments. It is at the centre of debate surrounding the importance of neuroscience findings for concepts such as personhood and free will, and the extent of their practical consequences. Here, we map the landscape of fMRI and neuroethics, using citation analysis to uncover salient topics. We find that this landscape is sparsely populated: despite previous calls for debate, there are few articles that discuss both fMRI and ethical, legal, or social implications (ELSI), and even fewer direct citations between the two literatures. Recognizing that practical barriers exist to integrating ELSI discussion into the research literature, we argue nonetheless that the ethical challenges of fMRI, and controversy over its conceptual and practical implications, make this essential. PMID:21526115

  18. fMRI analysis software tools: an evaluation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedoia, Valentina; Colli, Vittoria; Strocchi, Sabina; Vite, Cristina; Binaghi, Elisabetta; Conte, Leopoldo

    2011-03-01

    Performance comparison of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) software tools is a very difficult task. In this paper, a framework for comparison of fMRI analysis results obtained with different software packages is proposed. An objective evaluation is possible only after pre-processing steps that normalize input data in a standard domain. Segmentation and registration algorithms are implemented in order to classify voxels belonging to brain or not, and to find the non rigid transformation that best aligns the volume under inspection with a standard one. Through the definitions of intersection and union of fuzzy logic an index was defined which quantify information overlap between Statistical Parametrical Maps (SPMs). Direct comparison between fMRI results can only highlight differences. In order to assess the best result, an index that represents the goodness of the activation detection is required. The transformation of the activation map in a standard domain allows the use of a functional Atlas for labeling the active voxels. For each functional area the Activation Weighted Index (AWI) that identifies the mean activation level of whole area was defined. By means of this brief, but comprehensive description, it is easy to find a metric for the objective evaluation of a fMRI analysis tools. Trough the first evaluation method the situations where the SPMs are inconsistent were identified. The result of AWI analysis suggest which tool has higher sensitivity and specificity. The proposed method seems a valid evaluation tool when applied to an adequate number of patients.

  19. The circuitry of abulia: Insights from functional connectivity MRI

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, J.S.; Snyder, A.Z.; Metcalf, N.V.; Fucetola, R.P.; Hacker, C.D.; Shimony, J.S.; Shulman, G.L.; Corbetta, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional imaging and lesion studies have associated willed behavior with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Abulia is a syndrome characterized by apathy and deficiency of motivated behavior. Abulia is most frequently associated with ACC damage, but also occurs following damage to subcortical nuclei (striatum, globus pallidus, thalamic nuclei). We present resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) data from an individual who suffered a stroke leading to abulia. We hypothesized that, although structural imaging revealed no damage to the patient's ACC, fcMRI would uncover aberrant function in this region and in the relevant cortical networks. Methods Resting state correlations in the patient's gray matter were compared to those of age-matched controls. Using a novel method to identify abnormal patterns of functional connectivity in single subjects, we identified areas and networks with aberrant connectivity. Results Networks associated with memory (default mode network) and executive function (cingulo-opercular network) were abnormal. The patient's anterior cingulate was among the areas showing aberrant functional connectivity. In a rescan 3 years later, deficits remained stable and fcMRI findings were replicated. Conclusions These findings suggest that the aberrant functional connectivity mapping approach described may be useful for linking stroke symptoms to disrupted network connectivity. PMID:25379445

  20. Bridging the Gap between MRI and Postmortem Research in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Cynthia Mills; Nordahl, Christine Wu

    2010-01-01

    Autism is clearly a disorder of neural development, but when, where, and how brain pathology occurs remains elusive. Typical brain development is comprised of several stages, including the proliferation and migration of neurons, creation of dendritic arbors and synaptic connections, and eventually dendritic pruning and programmed cell death. Any deviation at one or more of these stages could produce catastrophic downstream effects. MRI studies of autism have provided important clues, describing an aberrant trajectory of growth during early childhood that is both present in total brain and marked in specific structures such as the amygdala. However, given the coarse resolution of MRI, the field must also look towards postmortem human brain research to help elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of MRI volumetric findings. Likewise, studies of postmortem tissue may benefit by looking to findings from MRI studies to narrow hypotheses and target specific brain regions. In this review, we discuss the strengths, limitations, and major contributions of each approach to autism research. We then describe how they relate and what they can learn from each other. Only by integrating these approaches will we be able to fully explain the neuropathology of autism. PMID:20869352

  1. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Agents: Quantum Chemistry and MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Jikun; Feng, Xinxin; Zhu, Wei; Oskolkov, Nikita; Zhou, Tianhui; Kim, Boo Kyung; Baig, Noman; McMahon, Michael T; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents offer an alternative to Gd(3+) -based contrast agents for MRI. They are characterized by containing protons that can rapidly exchange with water and it is advantageous to have these protons resonate in a spectral window that is far removed from water. Herein, we report the first results of DFT calculations of the (1) H nuclear magnetic shieldings in 41 CEST agents, finding that the experimental shifts can be well predicted (R(2) =0.882). We tested a subset of compounds with the best MRI properties for toxicity and for activity as uncouplers, then obtained mice kidney CEST MRI images for three of the most promising leads finding 16 (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) to be one of the most promising CEST MRI contrast agents to date. Overall, the results are of interest since they show that (1) H NMR shifts for CEST agents-charged species-can be well predicted, and that several leads have low toxicity and yield good in vivo MR images.

  2. Creating 3D visualizations of MRI data: A brief guide

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is itself 3D, it is often difficult to adequately present the results papers and slides in 3D. As a result, findings of MRI studies are often presented in 2D instead. A solution is to create figures that include perspective and can convey 3D information; such figures can sometimes be produced by standard functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis packages and related specialty programs. However, many options cannot provide functionality such as visualizing activation clusters that are both cortical and subcortical (i.e., a 3D glass brain), the production of several statistical maps with an identical perspective in the 3D rendering, or animated renderings. Here I detail an approach for creating 3D visualizations of MRI data that satisfies all of these criteria. Though a 3D ‘glass brain’ rendering can sometimes be difficult to interpret, they are useful in showing a more overall representation of the results, whereas the traditional slices show a more local view. Combined, presenting both 2D and 3D representations of MR images can provide a more comprehensive view of the study’s findings. PMID:26594340

  3. Patch-based generation of a pseudo CT from conventional MRI sequences for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Andreasen, Daniel; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Andersen, Jon A. L.; Edmund, Jens M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, the information on electron density must be derived from the MRI scan by creating a so-called pseudo computed tomography (pCT). This is a nontrivial task, since the voxel-intensities in an MRI scan are not uniquely related to electron density. To solve the task, voxel-based or atlas-based models have typically been used. The voxel-based models require a specialized dual ultrashort echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization and the atlas-based models require deformable registrations of conventional MRI scans. In this study, we investigate the potential of a patch-based method for creating a pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI scans without using deformable registrations. We compare this method against two state-of-the-art methods within the voxel-based and atlas-based categories. Methods: The data consisted of CT and MRI scans of five cranial RT patients. To compare the performance of the different methods, a nested cross validation was done to find optimal model parameters for all the methods. Voxel-wise and geometric evaluations of the pCTs were done. Furthermore, a radiologic evaluation based on water equivalent path lengths was carried out, comparing the upper hemisphere of the head in the pCT and the real CT. Finally, the dosimetric accuracy was tested and compared for a photon treatment plan. Results: The pCTs produced with the patch-based method had the best voxel-wise, geometric, and radiologic agreement with the real CT, closely followed by the atlas-based method. In terms of the dosimetric accuracy, the patch-based method had average deviations of less than 0.5% in measures related to target coverage. Conclusions: We showed that a patch-based method could generate an accurate pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI sequences and without deformable registrations. In our evaluations, the method performed better than existing voxel-based and

  4. Paramagnetic lanthanide chelates for multicontrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakić, Nevenka; Savić, Tanja; Stricker-Shaver, Janice; Truffault, Vincent; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Mirkes, Christian; Pohmann, Rolf; Scheffler, Klaus; Angelovski, Goran

    2016-07-28

    The preparation of a paramagnetic chelator that serves as a platform for multicontrast MRI, and can be utilized either as a T1-weighted, paraCEST or (19)F MRI contrast agent is reported. Its europium(iii) complex exhibits an extremely slow water exchange rate which is optimal for the use in CEST MRI. The potential of this platform was demonstrated through a series of MRI studies on tube phantoms and animals. PMID:27291157

  5. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  6. MRI and Ultrasound Injury in Preterm Infants with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Sullivan, Joseph; Rogers, Elizabeth; Ferriero, Donna M.; Goldstein, Ruth; Barkovich, A. James

    2010-01-01

    The utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a universal screening tool in preterm infants has been contested; however, MR is increasingly used in investigation of neonatal seizures. We evaluated 236 infants <34 weeks gestation at birth. Seizures were documented according to clinical standard of care. Infants were imaged using MRI and head ultrasound during the neonatal period. A neuroradiologist and ultrasonologist performed detailed reviews of the images. Nine infants (3.8%) had clinical suspicion of seizures during the hospital course. MRI was abnormal in each case (three with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular hemorrhagic infarct, two with findings of hypoxia-ischemia, three with white matter injury (WMI) and one each with schizencephaly and dysplasia –one infant had two lesions). Periventricular hemorrhagic infarct was more common in infants with seizures (33% vs 6% of those without seizures, OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.8-36.7). Infants with seizures were more likely to have WMI, though the difference was not significant (RR 2.4, 95% CI 0.54-11.1, P=0.3). Head ultrasound failed to detect the extent of brain abnormality in eight (89%) of the infants. In this large cohort, infants with clinical suspicion of seizures had a high rate of MRI abnormalities that were not as well characterized by head ultrasound. MRI may be the study of choice for evaluating preterm infants with seizures. Further studies using better seizure monitoring are necessary to evaluate electrographic seizures and their relationship to brain injury on MRI. PMID:19745086

  7. MRI and ultrasonography in Morton's neuroma: Diagnostic accuracy and correlation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Claramunt, R; Ginés, A; Pidemunt, G; Puig, Ll; de Zabala, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Morton's neuroma is based primarily on clinical findings. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) studies are considered complementary diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to establish the correlation and sensitivity of both techniques used to diagnose Morton's neuroma. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven patients (43 intermetatarsal spaces) with Morton's neuroma operated were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases MRI or ultrasound was performed to complement clinical diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. In all cases, a histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Estimates of sensitivity were made and correlation (kappa statistics) was assessed for both techniques. Results: Twenty seven women and 10 men participated with a mean age of 60 years. Double lesions presented in six patients. The second intermetatarsal space was affected in 10 patients and the third in 33 patients. An MRI was performed in 41 cases and a US in 23 cases. In 21 patients, both an MRI and a US were performed. With regard to the 41 MRIs performed, 34 were positive for Morton's neuroma and 7 were negative. MRI sensitivity was 82.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.679–0.929]. Thirteen out of 23 US performed were positive and 10 US were negative. US sensitivity was 56.5% (95% CI: 0.345–0.768). Relative to the 21 patients on whom both techniques were carried out, the agreement between both techniques was poor (kappa statistics 0.31). Conclusion: Although ancillary studies may be required to confirm the clinical diagnosis in some cases, they are probably not necessary for the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. MRI had a higher sensitivity than US and should be considered the technique of choice in those cases. However, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis (false negative 17%). PMID:22719120

  8. Segmentation precision of abdominal anatomy for MRI-based radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Camille E.; Zhu, Fan; Lee, Andrew Y.; Yanle, Hu; Parikh, Parag J.

    2014-10-01

    The limited soft tissue visualization provided by computed tomography, the standard imaging modality for radiotherapy treatment planning and daily localization, has motivated studies on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for better characterization of treatment sites, such as the prostate and head and neck. However, no studies have been conducted on MRI-based segmentation for the abdomen, a site that could greatly benefit from enhanced soft tissue targeting. We investigated the interobserver and intraobserver precision in segmentation of abdominal organs on MR images for treatment planning and localization. Manual segmentation of 8 abdominal organs was performed by 3 independent observers on MR images acquired from 14 healthy subjects. Observers repeated segmentation 4 separate times for each image set. Interobserver and intraobserver contouring precision was assessed by computing 3-dimensional overlap (Dice coefficient [DC]) and distance to agreement (Hausdorff distance [HD]) of segmented organs. The mean and standard deviation of intraobserver and interobserver DC and HD values were DC{sub intraobserver} = 0.89 ± 0.12, HD{sub intraobserver} = 3.6 mm ± 1.5, DC{sub interobserver} = 0.89 ± 0.15, and HD{sub interobserver} = 3.2 mm ± 1.4. Overall, metrics indicated good interobserver/intraobserver precision (mean DC > 0.7, mean HD < 4 mm). Results suggest that MRI offers good segmentation precision for abdominal sites. These findings support the utility of MRI for abdominal planning and localization, as emerging MRI technologies, techniques, and onboard imaging devices are beginning to enable MRI-based radiotherapy.

  9. Segmentation precision of abdominal anatomy for MRI-based radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noel, Camille E; Zhu, Fan; Lee, Andrew Y; Yanle, Hu; Parikh, Parag J

    2014-01-01

    The limited soft tissue visualization provided by computed tomography, the standard imaging modality for radiotherapy treatment planning and daily localization, has motivated studies on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for better characterization of treatment sites, such as the prostate and head and neck. However, no studies have been conducted on MRI-based segmentation for the abdomen, a site that could greatly benefit from enhanced soft tissue targeting. We investigated the interobserver and intraobserver precision in segmentation of abdominal organs on MR images for treatment planning and localization. Manual segmentation of 8 abdominal organs was performed by 3 independent observers on MR images acquired from 14 healthy subjects. Observers repeated segmentation 4 separate times for each image set. Interobserver and intraobserver contouring precision was assessed by computing 3-dimensional overlap (Dice coefficient [DC]) and distance to agreement (Hausdorff distance [HD]) of segmented organs. The mean and standard deviation of intraobserver and interobserver DC and HD values were DC(intraobserver) = 0.89 ± 0.12, HD(intraobserver) = 3.6mm ± 1.5, DC(interobserver) = 0.89 ± 0.15, and HD(interobserver) = 3.2mm ± 1.4. Overall, metrics indicated good interobserver/intraobserver precision (mean DC > 0.7, mean HD < 4mm). Results suggest that MRI offers good segmentation precision for abdominal sites. These findings support the utility of MRI for abdominal planning and localization, as emerging MRI technologies, techniques, and onboard imaging devices are beginning to enable MRI-based radiotherapy.

  10. MRI Biosensors: A Short Primer

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Angelique

    2013-01-01

    Interest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents for molecular imaging of biological function experienced a surge of excitement approximately 20 years ago with the development of the first activatable contrast agents that could act as biosensors and turn “on” in response to a specific biological activity. This brief tutorial, based on a short course lecture from the 2011 ISMRM meeting, provides an overview of underlying principles governing the design of biosensing contrast agents. We describe mechanisms by which a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent can be made into a sensor for both T1 and T2 types contrast agents. Examples of biological activities that can interact with a contrast agent are discussed using specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate the primary mechanisms of action that have been utilized to achieve activation. MRI sensors for pH, ion binding, enzyme cleavage, and oxidation-reduction are presented. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review, but an illustrative primer to explain how activation can be achieved for an MRI contrast agent. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is not covered as these agents were covered in a separate lecture. PMID:23996662

  11. Radiological-Pathological Analysis of WHO, RECIST, EASL, mRECIST and DWI: Imaging Analysis from a Prospective Randomized Trial of Y90 +/− Sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Vouche, Michael; Kulik, Laura; Atassi, Rohi; Memon, Khairuddin; Hickey, Ryan; Ganger, Daniel; Miller, Frank H.; Yaghmai, Vahid; Abecassis, Michael; Baker, Talia; Mulcahy, Mary; Nayar, Ritu; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare radiological and pathological changes and test the adjunct efficacy of Sorafenib to Y90 as a bridge to transplantation in HCC. Methods 15 patients with 16 HCC lesions randomized to Y90 without (Group A, n=9) or with Sorafenib (Group B, n=7). Size (WHO, RECIST), enhancement (EASL, mRECIST) and diffusion-weighted imaging criteria (ADC) measurements were obtained at baseline, 1 and every 3 months after treatment until transplantation. Percentage necrosis in explanted tumors was correlated with imaging findings. Results 100%, 50-99% and <50% pathological necrosis was observed in 6 (67%), 1 (11%) and 2 (22%) tumors in Group A and 3 (42%), 2 (28%) and 2 (28%) in Group B, respectively (p=0.81). While ADC (p=0.46) did not change after treatment, WHO (p=0.06) and RECIST (p=0.08) response at 1 month failed to reach significance, but significant responses by EASL (p<0.01/0.03) and mRECIST (p<0.01/0.03) at 1 and 3 months were observed. Response was equivalent by EASL or mRECIST. No difference in response rates were observed between groups A and B at 1 and 3 months by WHO, RECIST, EASL, mRECIST or ADC measurements. Despite failing to reach significance, smaller baseline size was associated with CPN (RECIST: p=0.07; WHO: p=0.05). However, a cut-off size of 35 mm was predictive of CPN (p=0.005). CPN could not be predicted by WHO (p=0.25 and 0.62), RECIST (p=0.35 and 0.54), EASL (p=0.49 and 0.46), mRECIST (p=0.49 and 0.60) or ADC (p=0.86 and 0.93). Conclusion The adjunct of Sorafenib did not augment radiological or pathological response to Y90 therapy for HCC. Equivalent significant reduction in enhancement at 1 and 3 months by EASL/mRECIST were noted. Neither EASL nor mRECIST could reliably predict CPN. PMID:23703789

  12. fMRI data from Korean, Chinese and English subjects in a word rhyming judgment task.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan

    2016-06-01

    This article includes the description of data information from a visual word rhyming judgment task in native Korean, native Chinese and native English speakers. You will find fMRI data information including experimental design, MRI protocol, and brain activation results from a conjunction analysis of the three groups of subjects. Other results from the same study were published in "How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals" (Kim et al., 2015 [1]).

  13. MRI of paraganglioma of the filum terminale

    SciTech Connect

    Boncoeur-Martel, M.P.; Lesort, A.; Moreau, J.J.; Labrousse, F.; Roche, I.; Bouillet, P.; Pascaud, J.L.; Dupuy, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Paragangliomas are benign tumors arising from paraganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system. They are of neuroectodermal derivation, with the majority occurring in the adrenal medulla. Extraadrenal locations are usually nonfunctioning and mostly observed (90%) in the head and neck region (carotid body or glomus jugulare tumors). Rare reported locations include the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, lungs, duodenum, and bladder. Within the CNS, paragangliomas have been observed in the pineal region, petrous ridge, sella turcica, and spinal canal. Paraganglioma of the cauda equina was first reported, but not recognized as such, in 1970. We know of 10 reports that describe MRI appearance. We present a new case and review the imaging findings of a paraganglioma of the filum terminale. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Serial MRI and CSF analysis in a dog treated with intrathecal amphotericin B for protothecosis.

    PubMed

    Young, Martin; Bush, William; Sanchez, Melissa; Gavin, Pat; Williams, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    A 3 yr old female spayed English setter mixed-breed dog presented with diarrhea, weight loss, side stepping to the right, and a right head tilt. Rectal and cerebrospinal fluid cytology and culture confirmed a diagnosis of Prototheca zopfii. MRI of the brain showed inflammation of the brain and meninges, ventriculomegaly, and syringomyelia. Treatment with prednisone, itraconazole, and amphotericin B lipid complex administered intrathecally yielded transient improvement. Progressive brainstem signs were noted, and a repeat MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analysis documented persistent disease. This is the first description of the MRI findings and treatment with intrathecal amphoteracin B lipid complex for protothecosis of the central nervous system. Protothecosis should be considered in dogs with chronic diarrhea and compatible MRI findings. PMID:22267176

  15. Fetal MRI Characteristics of Exencephaly: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Ali; Zhou, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    We present the fetal MRI characteristics of exencephaly, a rare malformation of the cranium. The fetus was initially misdiagnosed as anencephaly at 14 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) and later mislabeled as acrania at 20 weeks of EGA by ultrasound. A confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 29 weeks of EGA demonstrated findings consistent with exencephaly, which was confirmed after birth. To our knowledge, no full fetal MRI characteristics have been described. We hope to use this case to review the key MRI findings in differentiating exencephaly from other cranial vault defects and to help early diagnosis of exencephaly as the appropriate use of correct nomenclature allows better research while giving parents the most accurate and appropriate counseling. PMID:26955498

  16. Fetal MRI Characteristics of Exencephaly: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We present the fetal MRI characteristics of exencephaly, a rare malformation of the cranium. The fetus was initially misdiagnosed as anencephaly at 14 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) and later mislabeled as acrania at 20 weeks of EGA by ultrasound. A confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 29 weeks of EGA demonstrated findings consistent with exencephaly, which was confirmed after birth. To our knowledge, no full fetal MRI characteristics have been described. We hope to use this case to review the key MRI findings in differentiating exencephaly from other cranial vault defects and to help early diagnosis of exencephaly as the appropriate use of correct nomenclature allows better research while giving parents the most accurate and appropriate counseling. PMID:26955498

  17. MRI and ultrasonography for diagnosis and monitoring of psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Coates, Laura C; Hodgson, Richard; Conaghan, Philip G; Freeston, Jane E

    2012-12-01

    Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) have been increasingly used in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) providing additional clues to the pathogenesis of this peripheral, axial and dermatologic disease. This has improved our understanding of the disease and can be used to aid diagnosis and then to follow outcomes of treatment. Both imaging modalities have highlighted the differing involvement of PsA when compared with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a significant burden of entheseal disease, flexor tenosynovitis (occurring alone or as part of dactylitis) and other extra-capsular inflammatory changes. MRI scanning has also highlighted the link between the nail and the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint confirming previous clinical observations. Imaging studies in psoriasis patients have discovered a high level of subclinical inflammatory change but the clinical importance of such findings has not yet been defined. The potential use of MRI and US to monitor treatment outcomes has encouraged research in this field. In MRI, the PsA MRI Score (PsAMRIS) has been developed with promising initial validation. In US, work is ongoing with the OMERACT group to define key pathologies and to develop scoring systems. A few scoring systems are available for enthesitis scoring using US which are further being developed and refined. Further improvements in technologies in both of these fields offer exciting possibilities for future research. New MRI techniques offer the chance to image previously 'dark' structures such as tendons which is key in spondyloarthritides (SpA). Sonoelastography may also improve our understanding of tendon involvement in SpA. Whole-body multi-joint MRI allows a 'snapshot' of inflammation in PsA including joints, entheses and spinal involvement. Three-dimensional US should improve reliability and comparability of US scoring reducing inter-operator variability. The latest machines offer real-time fusion imaging employing US

  18. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils.

  19. Intraoperative, real-time, functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Gering, D T; Weber, D M

    1998-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) methods have been demonstrated to noninvasively identify motor-sensory, visual, and other areas of eloquent cortex for guiding surgical intervention. Typically, fMRI data are acquired preoperatively during a conventional surgical planning MRI examination. Unlike direct cortical stimulation at the time of surgery, however, preoperative fMRI methods do not account for the potential movement of tissues (relative to the time of functional imaging) that may occur in the surgical suite as a direct result of the intervention. Recently, an MRI device has been demonstrated for use in the surgical suite that has the potential to reduce the extent of cortical exposure required for the intervention. However, the invasive requirements of cortical mapping may supersede the invasive requirements of the surgical intervention itself. Consequently, we demonstrate here a modification to the intraoperative MRI device that facilitates a noninvasive, real-time, functional MR examination in the surgical suite.

  20. MRI of Perianal Fistulas: Bridging the radiologic-surgical divide

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Kenneth L.; Deshmukh, Swati; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Zaheer, Atif

    2013-01-01

    Perianal fistula is a clinical entity with multiple surgical treatment options. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as an important imaging modality in the management of perianal fistulas. It provides accurate description of the fistula within the anal canal in relation to the sphincter complex and other pelvic floor structures as well as the associated complications such as abscess. By understanding the surgical viewpoint, the appearance of perianal fistulas, associated complications, and post-treatment findings of commonly used surgical interventions can more accurately be interpreted to aid clinicians. The objective of the article is to review MRI indications and findings, radiological versus surgical classification schemes, and surgical treatment options for perianal fistulas. PMID:23242265

  1. Chédiak-Higashi syndrome: brain MRI and MR spectroscopy manifestations.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Valentina; Soto Ares, Gustavo; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Abou Chahla, Wadih; Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice

    2015-07-01

    Chédiak-Higashi syndrome is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and neurological dysfunction. We present the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings obtained during the accelerated phase of the disorder in an 8-year-old. The brain MRI manifestations at recurrences 15 months and 24 months later are reported as well. PMID:25875633

  2. Prostate cancer detection using multiparametric 3 – tesla MRI and fusion biopsy: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Mussi, Thais Caldara; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; de Queiroz, Marcos Roberto Gomes; Lemos, Gustavo Caserta; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of transrectal ultrasonography (US) biopsy with imaging fusion using multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa), with an emphasis on clinically significant tumors according to histological criteria. Materials and Methods: A total of 189 consecutive US/MRI fusion biopsies were performed obtaining systematic and guided samples of suspicious areas on mpMRI using a 3 Tesla magnet without endorectal coil. Clinical significance for prostate cancer was established based on Epstein criteria. Results: In our casuistic, the average Gleason score was 7 and the average PSA was 5.0ng/mL. Of the 189 patients that received US/MRI biopsies, 110 (58.2%) were positive for PCa. Of those cases, 88 (80%) were clinically significant, accounting for 46.6% of all patients. We divided the MRI findings into 5 Likert scales of probability of having clinically significant PCa. The positivity of US/MRI biopsy for clinically significant PCa was 0%, 17.6% 23.5%, 53.4% and 84.4% for Likert scores 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of biopsy results between different levels of suspicion on mpMRI and also when biopsy results were divided into groups of clinically non-significant versus clinically significant between different levels of suspicion on mpMRI (p-value <0.05 in both analyzes). Conclusion: We found that there is a significant difference in cancer detection using US/MRI fusion biopsy between low-probability and intermediate/high probability Likert scores using mpMRI. PMID:27532112

  3. Multimodal classification of prostate tissue: a feasibility study on combining multiparametric MRI and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashab, Hussam Al-Deen; Haq, Nandinee Fariah; Nir, Guy; Kozlowski, Piotr; Black, Peter; Jones, Edward C.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Moradi, Mehdi

    2015-03-01

    The common practice for biopsy guidance is through transrectal ultrasound, with the fusion of ultrasound and MRI-based targets when available. However, ultrasound is only used as a guidance modality in MR-targeted ultrasound-guided biopsy, even though previous work has shown the potential utility of ultrasound, particularly ultrasound vibro-elastography, as a tissue typing approach. We argue that multiparametric ultrasound, which includes B-mode and vibro-elastography images, could contain information that is not captured using multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and therefore play a role in refining the biopsy and treatment strategies. In this work, we combine mpMRI with multiparametric ultrasound features from registered tissue areas to examine the potential improvement in cancer detection. All the images were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy and cancer detection was validated based on 36 whole mount histology slides. We calculated a set of 24 texture features from vibro-elastography and B-mode images, and five features from mpMRI. Then we used recursive feature elimination (RFE) and sparse regression through LASSO to find an optimal set of features to be used for tissue classification. We show that the set of these selected features increases the area under ROC curve from 0.87 with mpMRI alone to 0.94 with the selected mpMRI and multiparametric ultrasound features, when used with support vector machine classification on features extracted from peripheral zone. For features extracted from the whole-gland, the area under the curve was 0.75 and 0.82 for mpMRI and mpMRI along with ultrasound, respectively. These preliminary results provide evidence that ultrasound and ultrasound vibro-elastography could be used as modalities for improved cancer detection in combination with MRI.

  4. A comparative quantitative analysis of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in echo planar and PROPELLER diffusion-weighted images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Yang, Han-Joon; Lee, Gui-Won; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether periodically-rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can remove magnetic susceptibility artifacts and compared apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for PROPELLER DWI and the common echo planar (EP) DWI. Twenty patients that underwent brain MRI with a metal dental implant were selected. A 3.0T MR scanner was then used to obtain EP DWI, PROPELLER DWI, and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for a b-value of 0 and 1,000 s/mm2. The frequencies of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in four parts of the brain (bilateral temporal lobes, pons, and orbit) were selected. In the ADC maps, we measured the ADC values of both sides of the temporal lobe and the pons. According to the study results, the frequency of magnetic susceptibility artifacts in PROPELLER DW images was lower than it was in EP DW images. In ADC maps, the ADC values of the bilateral temporal lobes and the pons were all higher in PROPELLER ADC maps than in EP ADC maps. Our findings show that when a high-field MRI machine is used, magnetic susceptibility artifacts can distort anatomical structures and produce high-intensity signals. Furthermore, our findings suggest that in many cases, PROPELLER DWI would be helpful in terms of achieving a correct diagnosis.

  5. Structural MRI connectome in development: challenges of the changing brain

    PubMed Central

    Hess, C P; Xu, D; Barkovich, A J

    2014-01-01

    MRI connectomics is an emerging approach to study the brain as a network of interconnected brain regions. Understanding and mapping the development of the MRI connectome may offer new insights into the development of brain connectivity and plasticity, ultimately leading to improved understanding of normal development and to more effective diagnosis and treatment of developmental disorders. In this review, we describe the attempts made to date to map the whole-brain structural MRI connectome in the developing brain and pay a special attention to the challenges associated with the rapid changes that the brain is undergoing during maturation. The two main steps in constructing a structural brain network are (i) choosing connectivity measures that will serve as the network “edges” and (ii) finding an appropriate way to divide the brain into regions that will serve as the network “nodes”. We will discuss how these two steps are usually performed in developmental studies and the rationale behind different strategies. Changes in local and global network properties that have been described during maturation in neonates and children will be reviewed, along with differences in network topology between typically and atypically developing subjects, for example, owing to pre-mature birth or hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Finally, future directions of connectomics will be discussed, addressing important steps necessary to advance the study of the structural MRI connectome in development. PMID:24827379

  6. Fetal MRI on a multi-element digital coil platform.

    PubMed

    Serai, Suraj D; Merrow, Arnold C; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2013-09-01

    Fetal MRI has an increasing list of indications and is most commonly employed when anomalies detected by prenatal ultrasonography require further characterization. This may occur when sonography is technically challenging or where specific MRI findings will determine pre- and postnatal management, including critical in utero and/or peripartum interventions. In these circumstances, there are high expectations for MRI to sort out complex diagnostic dilemmas through exquisite anatomical imaging that fetal surgeons and obstetricians can comprehend and relay to their patients. These expectations, in light of evolving clinical innovations, continue to drive advances in fetal imaging. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is fundamental to improving MR image quality, and proper coil selection is a key component of this pursuit. Since the introduction of parallel imaging techniques, the numbers of elements in phased-array coils have been continuously increased to achieve high SNR and shorter scan times. With the invention of a digital coil platform, it is now possible to connect combinations of multiple coil elements to enhance SNR beyond the capabilities of the adult eight-channel torso-coil routinely used in fetal imaging. This paper describes the application of multi-element radiofrequency coils on a digital broadband imaging platform with unique coil combinations to perform dedicated fetal MRI. PMID:23649206

  7. When learning and remembering compete: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Willem; Pennartz, Cyriel M; Cabeza, Roberto; Daselaar, Sander M

    2009-01-13

    Recent functional neuroimaging evidence suggests a bottleneck between learning new information and remembering old information. In two behavioral experiments and one functional MRI (fMRI) experiment, we tested the hypothesis that learning and remembering compete when both processes happen within a brief period of time. In the first behavioral experiment, participants intentionally remembered old words displayed in the foreground, while incidentally learning new scenes displayed in the background. In line with a memory competition, we found that remembering old information was associated with impaired learning of new information. We replicated this finding in a subsequent fMRI experiment, which showed that this behavioral effect was coupled with a suppression of learning-related activity in visual and medial temporal areas. Moreover, the fMRI experiment provided evidence that left mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in resolving the memory competition, possibly by facilitating rapid switching between learning and remembering. Critically, a follow-up behavioral experiment in which the background scenes were replaced with a visual target detection task provided indications that the competition between learning and remembering was not merely due to attention. This study not only provides novel insight into our capacity to learn and remember, but also clarifies the neural mechanisms underlying flexible behavior.

  8. Temporal and spatial MRI responses to subsecond visual activation.

    PubMed

    Fransson, P; Krüger, G; Merboldt, K D; Frahm, J

    1999-01-01

    The temporal and spatial characteristics of oxygenation-sensitive MRI responses to very brief visual stimuli (five Hz reversing black and white checkerboard pattern versus darkness) were investigated (nine subjects) by means of serial single-shot gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (2.0 T, TR=400 ms, mean TE=54 ms, flip angle 30 degrees). The use of a 0.2-s stimulus and a 90-s control phase resulted in an initial latency phase (about 2 s, no signal change), a positive MRI response (2.5% signal increase peaking at 5 s after stimulus onset), and a post-stimulus undershoot (1% signal decrease peaking at 15 s after stimulus onset) lasting for about 50-60 s. The finding that a subsecond visual stimulus elicits both a strong positive MRI response and a long-lasting undershoot provides further evidence for the neuronal origin of slow signal fluctuations seen in the absence of functional challenge and their utility for mapping functional connectivity. The additional observation that a reduction of the inter-stimulus control phase from 90 s to 9.8 s does not seem to affect the spatial extent of cortical activation in pertinent maps is of major relevance for the design and analysis of "event-related" MRI studies. PMID:9888393

  9. Pre-Uterine Artery Embolization MRI: Beyond Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Petra L.; Coote, Jacky M.; Watkinson, Anthony F.

    2011-12-15

    Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, although benign, cause debilitating symptoms in many women. Symptoms are often nonspecific and may be the presenting complaint in a number of other conditions. Furthermore, because the presence of fibroids may be coincident with other symptomatic conditions that result in similar complaints, there may be diagnostic difficulty and consequent difficulty in planning therapeutic strategy. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic fibroids and is increasingly being performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation before and after treatment is routine practice with the potential to significantly alter management in up to a fifth of patients. It is well recognized that significant incidental findings may be demonstrated during imaging investigations, and in particular that abnormalities that are not directly related to the clinical question may be overlooked. Radiologists evaluating pre-UAE MRI studies must be aware of the MRI appearances of gynecological pathologies that may cause similar symptoms or that may affect the success or complication rates of UAE, and they must also be wary of 'satisfaction of search,' reviewing imaging thoroughly so that relevant other pathologies are not missed. We demonstrate the appearances of coincidental pathologies found on pre-UAE MRI, with the potential to change patient management.

  10. Evidence-based guideline: The role of diffusion and perfusion MRI for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schellinger, P.D.; Bryan, R.N.; Caplan, L.R.; Detre, J.A.; Edelman, R.R.; Jaigobin, C.; Kidwell, C.S.; Mohr, J.P.; Sloan, M.; Sorensen, A.G.; Warach, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the evidence for the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) in the diagnosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We systematically analyzed the literature from 1966 to January 2008 to address the diagnostic and prognostic value of DWI and PWI. Results and Recommendations: DWI is established as useful and should be considered more useful than noncontrast CT for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke within 12 hours of symptom onset. DWI should be performed for the most accurate diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (Level A); however, the sensitivity of DWI for the diagnosis of ischemic stroke in a general sample of patients with possible acute stroke is not perfect. The diagnostic accuracy of DWI in evaluating cerebral hemorrhage is outside the scope of this guideline. On the basis of Class II and III evidence, baseline DWI volumes probably predict baseline stroke severity in anterior territory stroke (Level B) but possibly do not in vertebrobasilar artery territory stroke (Level C). Baseline DWI lesion volumes probably predict (final) infarct volumes (Level B) and possibly predict early and late clinical outcome measures (Level C). Baseline PWI volumes predict to a lesser degree the baseline stroke severity compared with DWI (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the value of PWI in diagnosing acute ischemic stroke (Level U). GLOSSARY ADC = apparent diffusion coefficient; ASPECTS = Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CI = confidence interval; DWI = diffusion-weighted imaging; ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage; MR = magnetic resonance; NIHSS = National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; PWI = perfusion-weighted imaging; tPA = tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:20625171

  11. MRI morphometry in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    MRI based evaluation of brain atrophy is regarded as a valid method to stage the disease and to assess progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Volumetric software programs have made it possible to quantify gray matter in the human brain in an automated fashion. At present, voxel based morphometry (VBM) is easily applicable to the routine clinical procedure with a short execution time. The importance of the VBM approach is that it is not biased to one particular structure and is able to assess anatomical differences throughout the brain. Stand-alone VBM software running on Windows, Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for AD (VSRAD), has been widely used in the clinical diagnosis of AD in Japan. On the other hand, recent application of graph theory to MRI has made it possible to analyze changes in structural connectivity in AD.

  12. Liver isolation in abdominal MRI.

    PubMed

    Rajasvaran, Logeswaran; Haw, Tan Wooi; Sarker, Shakowat Zaman

    2008-08-01

    This work presents a method for liver isolation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abdomen images. It is based on a priori statistical information about the shape of the liver obtained from a training set using the segmentation approach. Morphological watershed algorithm is used as a key technique as it is a simple and intuitive method, producing a complete division of the image in separated regions even if the contrast is poor, and it is fast, with possibility for parallel implementation. To overcome the over-segmentation problem of the watershed process, image preprocessing and postprocessing are applied. Morphological smoothing, Gaussian smoothing, intensity thresholding, gradient computation and gradient thresholding are proposed for preprocessing with morphological and graph based region adjacent list constructed for region merging. A new integrated region similarity function is also defined for region merging control. The proposed method produces good isolation of liver in axial MRI images of the abdomen, as is shown in this paper.

  13. Polycatechol Nanoparticle MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Huang, Yuran; Wang, Zhao; Carniato, Fabio; Xie, Yijun; Patterson, Joseph P; Thompson, Matthew P; Andolina, Christopher M; Ditri, Treffly B; Millstone, Jill E; Figueroa, Joshua S; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Scadeng, Miriam; Botta, Mauro; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2016-02-01

    Amphiphilic triblock copolymers containing Fe(III) -catecholate complexes formulated as spherical- or cylindrical-shaped micellar nanoparticles (SMN and CMN, respectively) are described as new T1-weighted agents with high relaxivity, low cytotoxicity, and long-term stability in biological fluids. Relaxivities of both SMN and CMN exceed those of established gadolinium chelates across a wide range of magnetic field strengths. Interestingly, shape-dependent behavior is observed in terms of the particles' interactions with HeLa cells, with CMN exhibiting enhanced uptake and contrast via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with SMN. These results suggest that control over soft nanoparticle shape will provide an avenue for optimization of particle-based contrast agents as biodiagnostics. The polycatechol nanoparticles are proposed as suitable for preclinical investigations into their viability as gadolinium-free, safe, and effective imaging agents for MRI contrast enhancement. PMID:26681255

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis for prostate cancer detection in the peripheral zone via multisequence MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaf, Emilie; Rouvière, Olivier; Lartizien, Carole

    2011-03-01

    We propose a Computer Assisted Diagnosis Interview (CADi) scheme for determining a likelihood measure of prostate cancer presence in the peripheral zone (PZ) based on multisequence magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted (T2w), diffusion-weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 1.5 Tesla (T). Based on a feature set derived from the gray level images, including first order statistics, Haralick's features, gradient features, semi-quantitative and quantitative (pharmacokinetic modeling) dynamic parameters, we trained and compared four kinds of classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), k-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) and Naïve Bayes (NB). The aim is twofold: we try to discriminate between the relevant features as well as creating an efficient classifier using these features. The database consists of 23 radical prostatectomy patients. Using histologic sections as the gold standard, both cancers and non-malignant tissues (suspicious and clearly benign) were annotated in consensus on all MR images by two radiologists, a histopathologist and a researcher. Diagnostic performances were evaluated based on a ROC curves analysis. From the outputs of all evaluated feature selection methods on the test bench, we discriminated a restrictive set of about 20 highly informative features. Quantitative evaluation of the diagnostic performance yielded to a maximal Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.89. Moreover, the optimal CADi scheme outperformed, in terms of specificity, our human experts in differentiating malignant from suspicious tissues, thus demonstrating its potential for assisting cancer identification in the PZ.

  15. cMRI-BED: A novel informatics framework for cardiac MRI biomarker extraction and discovery applied to pediatric cardiomyopathy classification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a rare, yet heterogeneous group of pathologies of the myocardium that are routinely examined clinically using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (cMRI). This gold standard powerful non-invasive tool yields high resolution temporal images that characterize myocardial tissue. The complexities associated with the annotation of images and extraction of markers, necessitate the development of efficient workflows to acquire, manage and transform this data into actionable knowledge for patient care to reduce mortality and morbidity. Methods We develop and test a novel informatics framework called cMRI-BED for biomarker extraction and discovery from such complex pediatric cMRI data that includes the use of a suite of tools for image processing, marker extraction and predictive modeling. We applied our workflow to obtain and analyze a dataset of 83 de-identified cases and controls containing cMRI-derived biomarkers for classifying positive versus negative findings of cardiomyopathy in children. Bayesian rule learning (BRL) methods were applied to derive understandable models in the form of propositional rules with posterior probabilities pertaining to their validity. Popular machine learning methods in the WEKA data mining toolkit were applied using default parameters to assess cross-validation performance of this dataset using accuracy and percentage area under ROC curve (AUC) measures. Results The best 10-fold cross validation predictive performance obtained on this cMRI-derived biomarker dataset was 80.72% accuracy and 79.6% AUC by a BRL decision tree model, which is promising from this type of rare data. Moreover, we were able to verify that mycocardial delayed enhancement (MDE) status, which is known to be an important qualitative factor in the classification of cardiomyopathies, is picked up by our rule models as an important variable for prediction. Conclusions Preliminary results show the feasibility of our framework

  16. Parallel MRI at microtesla fields.

    PubMed

    Zotev, Vadim S; Volegov, Petr L; Matlashov, Andrei N; Espy, Michelle A; Mosher, John C; Kraus, Robert H

    2008-06-01

    Parallel imaging techniques have been widely used in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple receiver coils have been shown to improve image quality and allow accelerated image acquisition. Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-low fields (ULF MRI) is a new imaging approach that uses SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensors to measure the spatially encoded precession of pre-polarized nuclear spin populations at microtesla-range measurement fields. In this work, parallel imaging at microtesla fields is systematically studied for the first time. A seven-channel SQUID system, designed for both ULF MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG), is used to acquire 3D images of a human hand, as well as 2D images of a large water phantom. The imaging is performed at 46 mu T measurement field with pre-polarization at 40 mT. It is shown how the use of seven channels increases imaging field of view and improves signal-to-noise ratio for the hand images. A simple procedure for approximate correction of concomitant gradient artifacts is described. Noise propagation is analyzed experimentally, and the main source of correlated noise is identified. Accelerated imaging based on one-dimensional undersampling and 1D SENSE (sensitivity encoding) image reconstruction is studied in the case of the 2D phantom. Actual threefold imaging acceleration in comparison to single-average fully encoded Fourier imaging is demonstrated. These results show that parallel imaging methods are efficient in ULF MRI, and that imaging performance of SQUID-based instruments improves substantially as the number of channels is increased.

  17. Parallel MRI at microtesla fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotev, Vadim S.; Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Espy, Michelle A.; Mosher, John C.; Kraus, Robert H.

    2008-06-01

    Parallel imaging techniques have been widely used in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple receiver coils have been shown to improve image quality and allow accelerated image acquisition. Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-low fields (ULF MRI) is a new imaging approach that uses SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensors to measure the spatially encoded precession of pre-polarized nuclear spin populations at microtesla-range measurement fields. In this work, parallel imaging at microtesla fields is systematically studied for the first time. A seven-channel SQUID system, designed for both ULF MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG), is used to acquire 3D images of a human hand, as well as 2D images of a large water phantom. The imaging is performed at 46 μT measurement field with pre-polarization at 40 mT. It is shown how the use of seven channels increases imaging field of view and improves signal-to-noise ratio for the hand images. A simple procedure for approximate correction of concomitant gradient artifacts is described. Noise propagation is analyzed experimentally, and the main source of correlated noise is identified. Accelerated imaging based on one-dimensional undersampling and 1D SENSE (sensitivity encoding) image reconstruction is studied in the case of the 2D phantom. Actual threefold imaging acceleration in comparison to single-average fully encoded Fourier imaging is demonstrated. These results show that parallel imaging methods are efficient in ULF MRI, and that imaging performance of SQUID-based instruments improves substantially as the number of channels is increased.

  18. Abnormal findings on knee magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic NBA players.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Brian E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kang, Richard W; Zelazny, Anthony; Tedeschi, Fred; Cole, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic National Basketball Association (NBA) players via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirm or dispute findings reported in the previous literature. It is thought that a variety of significant abnormalities affecting the knee exist in asymptomatic patients and that these findings can be accurately identified on MRI. Two months prior to the 2005 season, bilateral knee MRI examinations of 14 asymptomatic NBA players (28 knees) were evaluated for abnormalities of the articular cartilage, menisci, and patellar and quadriceps tendons. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral edema, and cystic lesions and the integrity of the collateral and cruciate ligaments were also assessed.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognostication in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury: a vignette-based study of Canadian specialty physicians.

    PubMed

    Bell, Emily; Rasmussen, Lisa Anne; Mazer, Barbara; Shevell, Michael; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne; Yager, Jerome Y; Majnemer, Annette; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chouinard, Isabelle; Racine, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve prognostication in neonatal brain injury; however, factors beyond technical or scientific refinement may impact its use and interpretation. We surveyed Canadian neonatologists and pediatric neurologists using general and vignette-based questions about the use of MRI for prognostication in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was inter- and intra-vignette variability in prognosis and in ratings about the usefulness of MRI. Severity of predicted outcome correlated with certainty about the outcome. A majority of physicians endorsed using MRI results in discussing prognosis with families, and most suggested that MRI results contribute to end-of-life decisions. Participating neonatologists, when compared to participating pediatric neurologists, had significantly less confidence in the interpretation of MRI by colleagues in neurology and radiology. Further investigation is needed to understand the complexity of MRI and of its application. Potential gaps relative to our understanding of the ethical importance of these findings should be addressed.

  20. Whole-Body Pediatric Neuroblastoma Imaging: 123I-mIBG and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S; Coleman, Jamie; Shulkin, Barry

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric cancer imaging stands to benefit from higher tumor detection sensitivity without ionizing radiation exposure. A prospective protocol compared diagnostic I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-mIBG) with whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to validate adjunctive methods of identifying small-volume oligometastatic neuroblastoma tumor deposits. Dual-modality imaging (I-mIBG and DWI) was obtained within a 3- and 25-day window at baseline and again at one year in the first enrolled patient. MRI was able to define the full extent of metastatic disease foci with improved resolution. These findings may provide critical information for definitive locoregional surgery and radiotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma treatment.

  1. Quantitative MRI Assessment of Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Langston, James W.; Helton, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative MRI assessment of leukoencephalopathy is difficult because the MRI properties of leukoencephalopathy significantly overlap those of normal tissue. This report describes the use of an automated procedure for longitudinal measurement of tissue volume and relaxation times to quantify leukoencephalopathy. Images derived by using this procedure in patients undergoing therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are presented. Five examinations from each of five volunteers (25 examinations) were used to test the reproducibility of quantitated baseline and subsequent, normal-appearing images; the coefficients of variation were less than 2% for gray and white matter. Regions of leukoencephalopathy in patients were assessed by comparison with manual segmentation. Two radiologists manually segmented images from 15 randomly chosen MRI examinations that exhibited leukoencephalopathy. Kappa analyses showed that the two radiologists’ interpretations were concordant (κ = 0.70) and that each radiologist’s interpretations agreed with the results of the automated procedure (κ = 0.57 and 0.55).The clinical application of this method was illustrated by analysis of images from sequential MR examinations of two patients who developed leukoencephalopathy during treatment for ALL. The ultimate goal is to use these quantitative MR imaging measures to better understand therapy-induced neurotoxicity, which can be limited or even reversed with some combination of therapy adjustments and pharmacological and neurobehavioral interventions. PMID:11979570

  2. MRI characteristics of midbrain tumours.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Wang, C C; Wang, J

    1999-03-01

    We diagnosed 60 cases of midbrain tumours by MRI between 1993 to 1997. There were 39 males and 21 females, aged 2-64 years, mean 25.6 years. We found 38 patients with true intramedullary mid-brain tumours, 11 predominantly in the tectum, 20 in the tegmentum and 7 with a downward extension to the pons; there were 7 within the cerebral aqueduct. There were 22 patients with infiltrating midbrain tumours extending from adjacent structures, 11 cases each from the thalamus and pineal region. All patients received surgical treatment. Gross total resection was achieved in 42 cases, subtotal (> 75 %) resection in 18. Pathological diagnoses included 16 low-grade and 15 high-grade astrocytomas; 5 oligodendroastrocytomas; 2 ependymomas; 11 glioblastomas; and 11 pineal parenchymal or germ-cell tumours. Midbrain tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with wide variation in clinical and MRI features, related to the site and type of tumour. MRI not only allows precise analysis of their growth pattern, but also can lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis in the majority of cases.

  3. MRI Based Preterm White Matter Injury Classification: The Importance of Sequential Imaging in Determining Severity of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Biarge, Miriam; Groenendaal, Floris; Kersbergen, Karina J.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Foti, Francesca; Cowan, Frances M.; de Vries, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The evolution of non-hemorrhagic white matter injury (WMI) based on sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been well studied. Our aim was to describe sequential MRI findings in preterm infants with non-hemorrhagic WMI and to develop an MRI classification system for preterm WMI based on these findings. Methods Eighty-two preterm infants (gestation ≤35 weeks) were retrospectively included. WMI was diagnosed and classified based on sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS) and confirmed on MRI. Results 138 MRIs were obtained at three time-points: early (<2 weeks; n = 32), mid (2–6 weeks; n = 30) and term equivalent age (TEA; n = 76). 63 infants (77%) had 2 MRIs during the neonatal period. WMI was non-cystic in 35 and cystic in 47 infants. In infants with cystic-WMI early MRI showed extensive restricted diffusion abnormalities, cysts were already present in 3 infants; mid MRI showed focal or extensive cysts, without acute diffusion changes. A significant reduction in the size and/or extent of the cysts was observed in 32% of the infants between early/mid and TEA MRI. In 4/9 infants previously seen focal cysts were no longer identified at TEA. All infants with cystic WMI showed ≥2 additional findings at TEA: significant reduction in WM volume, mild-moderate irregular ventriculomegaly, several areas of increased signal intensity on T1-weighted-images, abnormal myelination of the PLIC, small thalami. Conclusion In infants with extensive WM cysts at 2–6 weeks, cysts may be reduced in number or may even no longer be seen at TEA. A single MRI at TEA, without taking sequential cUS data and pre-TEA MRI findings into account, may underestimate the extent of WMI; based on these results we propose a new MRI classification for preterm non-hemorrhagic WMI. PMID:27257863

  4. Joint brain connectivity estimation from diffusion and functional MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Lenglet, Christophe; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2015-03-01

    flow is introduced and used to model the propagation of information between GM areas through WM fiber bundles. The link capacity, i.e., ability to transfer information, is characterized by the relative strength of fiber bundles, e.g., fiber count gathered from the tractography of dMRI data. The node information demand is considered to be proportional to the correlation between neural activity at various cortical areas involved in a particular functional mode (e.g. visual, motor, etc.). These two properties lead to the link capacity and node demand constraints in the proposed model. Moreover, the information flow of a link cannot exceed the demand from either end node. This is captured by the feasibility constraints. Two different cost functions are considered in the optimization formulation in this paper. The first cost function, the reciprocal of fiber strength represents the unit cost for information passing through the link. In the second cost function, a min-max (minimizing the maximal link load) approach is used to balance the usage of each link. Optimizing the first cost function selects the pathway with strongest fiber strength for information propagation. In the second case, the optimization procedure finds all the possible propagation pathways and allocates the flow proportionally to their strength. Additionally, a penalty term is incorporated with both the cost functions to capture the possible missing and weak anatomical connections. With this set of constraints and the proposed cost functions, solving the network optimization problem recovers missing and weak anatomical connections supported by the functional information and provides the functional-associated anatomical subnetworks. Feasibility is demonstrated using realistic diffusion and functional MRI phantom data. It is shown that the proposed model recovers the maximum number of true connections, with fewest number of false connections when compared with the connectivity derived from a joint

  5. Joint brain connectivity estimation from diffusion and functional MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Lenglet, Christophe; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2015-03-01

    flow is introduced and used to model the propagation of information between GM areas through WM fiber bundles. The link capacity, i.e., ability to transfer information, is characterized by the relative strength of fiber bundles, e.g., fiber count gathered from the tractography of dMRI data. The node information demand is considered to be proportional to the correlation between neural activity at various cortical areas involved in a particular functional mode (e.g. visual, motor, etc.). These two properties lead to the link capacity and node demand constraints in the proposed model. Moreover, the information flow of a link cannot exceed the demand from either end node. This is captured by the feasibility constraints. Two different cost functions are considered in the optimization formulation in this paper. The first cost function, the reciprocal of fiber strength represents the unit cost for information passing through the link. In the second cost function, a min-max (minimizing the maximal link load) approach is used to balance the usage of each link. Optimizing the first cost function selects the pathway with strongest fiber strength for information propagation. In the second case, the optimization procedure finds all the possible propagation pathways and allocates the flow proportionally to their strength. Additionally, a penalty term is incorporated with both the cost functions to capture the possible missing and weak anatomical connections. With this set of constraints and the proposed cost functions, solving the network optimization problem recovers missing and weak anatomical connections supported by the functional information and provides the functional-associated anatomical subnetworks. Feasibility is demonstrated using realistic diffusion and functional MRI phantom data. It is shown that the proposed model recovers the maximum number of true connections, with fewest number of false connections when compared with the connectivity derived from a joint

  6. Bone Scintigraphic Findings in MRSA Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Patricia; Mandell, Gerald A

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis is a severe form of infection characterized by multifocal or multiple segmental osseous involvement and subperiosteal abscess formation with increased frequency of extraosseous complications including pyomyositis, septic thrombus, and septic arthritis. Bone scan showed long segment and/or multifocal involvement in 4 of 5 patients with areas of abnormal increased and decreased uptake. The clinical presentations included limp and/or pain. Joint involvement was seen in 4 cases. Bone scan abnormalities correlated well with MRI findings of severe and extensive bone disease, abscess formation, muscle, as well as joint and soft tissue involvement.

  7. Cine MRI of swallowing in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kreeft, Anne Marijn; Rasch, Coen R N; Muller, Sara H; Pameijer, Frank A; Hallo, Eeke; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-06-01

    Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer may cause dysphagia. Purpose is to examine whether cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields additional information compared to standard examination in the evaluation of posttreatment dysphagia and mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures. Thirty-four cine MRIs were made in 23 patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer, consisting of an MR image every 800 ms during swallowing which is compared to videofluoroscopy and quality of life questionnaires. A scoring system was applied to assess mobility on cine MR and videofluoroscopy leading to a score ranging from 9 to 17. Cine MRI of the swallowing in a midsagittal plane visualized the tumor (if located in the same plane), important anatomic structures and surgical reconstructions. Posttreatment mobility on cine MRI and videofluoroscopy was significantly diminished compared to pretreatment, mean pretreatment cine MRI score was 10.8 and posttreatment 12.4 (p = 0.017). Impaired mobility on cine MRI was significantly correlated to more swallowing problems (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.73, p = 0.04), on videofluoroscopy not. Cine MRI is a promising new technique as an adjunct to standard examinations for evaluation of swallowing in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cine MRI directly visualizes the dynamics of swallowing and allows evaluation of pre- and posttreatment differences. Abnormal findings are significantly correlated with subjective swallowing complaints of patients.

  8. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker.

    PubMed

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M; Shellock, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or "MR Conditional" (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less.

  9. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker

    PubMed Central

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M.; Shellock, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or “MR Conditional” (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less. PMID:26266051

  10. Severe bone marrow edema on sacroiliac joint MRI increases the risk of low BMD in patients with axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Neul; Jung, Joon-Yong; Hong, Yeon Sik; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Kwi Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between inflammatory and structural lesions on sacroiliac joint (SIJ) MRI and BMD and to identify risk factors for low BMD in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Seventy-six patients who fulfilled the ASAS axSpA criteria were enrolled. All underwent SIJ MRI and BMD measurement at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Inflammatory and structural lesions on SIJ MRI were scored. Laboratory tests and assessment of radiographic and disease activity were performed at the time of MRI. The association between SIJ MRI findings and BMD was evaluated. Among the 76 patients, 14 (18%) had low BMD. Patients with low BMD showed significantly higher bone marrow edema (BME) and deep BME scores on MRI than those with normal BMD (p < 0.047 and 0.007, respectively). Inflammatory lesions on SIJ MRI correlated with BMD at the femoral neck and total hip. Multivariate analysis identified the presence of deep BME on SIJ MRI, increased CRP, and sacroiliitis on X-ray as risk factors for low BMD (OR = 5.6, 14.6, and 2.5, respectively). The presence of deep BME on SIJ MRI, increased CRP levels, and severity of sacroiliitis on X-ray were independent risk factors for low BMD. PMID:26931505

  11. MRI Evaluation of Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupal; Mehta, Chetan; Patel, Narrotam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lower back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease is a condition that affects young to middle-aged persons with peak incidence at approximately 40 y. MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the characterization, extent, and changes associated with the degenerative lumbar disc disease by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Study Design: Cross-sectional and observational study. Materials and Methods: A total 109 patients of the lumbar disc degeneration with age group between 17 to 80 y were diagnosed & studied on 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine. MRI findings like lumbar lordosis, Schmorl’s nodes, decreased disc height, disc annular tear, disc herniation, disc bulge, disc protrusion and disc extrusion were observed. Narrowing of the spinal canal, lateral recess and neural foramen with compression of nerve roots observed. Ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was observed. Result: Males were more commonly affected in Degenerative Spinal Disease & most of the patients show loss of lumbar lordosis. Decreased disc height was common at L5-S1 level. More than one disc involvement was seen per person. L4 – L5 disc was the most commonly involved. Annular disc tear, disc herniation, disc extrusion, narrowing of spinal canal, narrowing of lateral recess, compression of neural foramen, ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was common at the L4 –L5 disc level. Disc buldge was common at L3 – L4 & L4 – L5 disc level. Posterior osteophytes are common at L3 - L4 & L5 –S1 disc level. L1- L2 disc involvement and spondylolisthesis are less common. Conclusion: Lumbar disc degeneration is the most common cause of low back pain. Plain radiograph can be helpful in visualizing gross anatomic changes in

  12. Evidential value of postmortem MRI in forensic pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Wolf; Schaepman, Michael E.; Ith, Michael; Bruegger, Karin; Thali, Michael J.; Doernhofer, Tanya; Tiefenthaler, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva; Vock, Peter; Boesch, Chris; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2001-05-01

    We currently evaluate MRI as add-on to dissection. Cases can only build on high evidential values of morphological findings as estimated using Bayesian likelihood-ratios. These values may vary among different cases depending on the quality of the morphology and the discrete hypotheses to be discerned. After scanning 20 bodies using MRI admitted to our institute for autopsy, we reconstructed selected imaging findings from a couple of illustrative cases according to a geometrical model ('Pink Box') designed as an object oriented bridging protocol to enable comparison of autopsy and MRI data. Although it appears obvious that 'three-dimensional imaging yields relevant diagnoses,' comparison of selected findings suggests, that the real evidential value of a postmortem scan depends on basic geometrical features of tissue structures examined. (1) Tissue surfaces are difficult to examine in