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Sample records for mrt bei patientinnen

  1. Azelainsäure 20 % Creme: Auswirkung auf Lebensqualität und Krankheitsaktivität bei erwachsenen Patientinnen mit Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kainz, Julius Thomas; Berghammer, Gabriele; Auer-Grumbach, Piet; Lackner, Verena; Perl-Convalexius, Sylvia; Popa, Rodica; Wolfesberger, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Zur Wirksamkeit von Aknetherapien und deren Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität erwachsener Patienten liegen kaum Daten vor. ZIEL: Erhebung der Wirkung von Azelainsäure 20 % Creme (Skinoren(®) ) auf Akne-Schweregrad und krankheitsbedingte Lebensqualität. Nichtinterventionelle Studie bei erwachsenen Patientinnen mit leichter bis mittelschwerer Akne. Wirksamkeitsparameter waren DLQI sowie Akne-Schweregrad im Gesicht, am Dekolleté sowie am Rücken im Gesamturteil des Prüfarztes (IGA-Skala: Grad 1 = annähernd reine Haut; 2 = leichte Akne; 3 = mittelschwere Akne). Visiten waren zu Studienbeginn sowie nach 4-8 und zwölf Wochen geplant. Von den 251 eingeschlossenen Patientinnen lag zu Studienbeginn bei 59 %, 31 % bzw. 10 % ein IGA-Grad von 1, 2 bzw. 3 vor; die am häufigsten betroffene Hautpartie war das Gesicht (IGA-Grad 2 oder 3: 79 %). Nach zwölf Behandlungswochen war eine signifikante Besserung der Acne vulgaris im Gesicht (IGA-Grad 0 oder 1: 82 %) sowie auf Dekolleté und Rücken feststellbar. Der mediane DLQI-Wert sank von neun zu Studienbeginn auf fünf nach zwölf Behandlungswochen. Neunzig Prozent der behandelnden Ärzte und Patientinnen beurteilten die Verträglichkeit der Behandlung als sehr gut oder gut. Die Anwendung von 20%iger Azelainsäure-Creme führt bei erwachsenen Frauen zu einer signifikanten Besserung der Acne vulgaris und der krankheitsbedingten Lebensqualität. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Generierung korrespondierender Schichtbilder zur verbesserten lokalen Analyse des linken Ventrikels in 4D-MRT-Bildsequenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säring, D.; Müllerleile, K.; Groth, M.; Handels, H.

    Die genaue Erfassung lokaler Veränderungen des linken Ventrikels insbesondere bei der Verlaufskontrolle nach einem Infarkt erfordert die Extraktion lokaler Form- und Funktionsparameter. Die für den Inter- und Intrapatientenvergleich notwendige räumliche Korrespondenz der MRT-Schichtbilder ist durch die manuelle Planung der Schichtpositionen beim Aufnahmeverfahren i.A. nicht gewährleistet. In dieser Arbeit wird daher ein Verfahren vorgestellt, das unter Berücksichtigung der anatomischen Grenzen des linken Ventrikels räumlich korrespondierende Positionen bestimmt, zu denen anschließend unter Verwendung der originären Daten und der strukturerhaltenden Interpolation neue Schichtbilder generiert werden. Dadurch wird eine bessere Übereinstimmung der räumlichen Position der zu vergleichenden Schichten erzielt. Das Verfahren wurde an zu Evaluationszwecken generierten Probandendatensätzen getestet. Dabei konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Generierung korrespondierender Kurzachsen-MRT-Schichtbilder zu einer verbesserten Extraktion lokaler Parameter führt.

  3. Vorhersage des Krankheitsverlaufes von leichten kognitiven Beeinträchtigungen durch automatisierte MRT Morphometrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die leichte kognitive Beeinträchtigung (LKB) gilt als Anzeichen für ein erhöhtes Risiko der Entwicklung einer Alzheimerdemenz. Eine fundierte klinische Prognose für den Krankheitsverlauf kann aber bis dato nicht gegeben werden. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit besteht darin, eine möglichst präzise Vorhersage mittels automatisierter Morphometrie des Hippokampus im MRT-Bild zu treffen. In einer Studie mit 18 Probanden mit LKB wurde eine Prädiktionsgenauigkeit für die Entwicklung einer späteren Demenz von 83.3% erzielt. Eine manuelle Vergleichsmethode erreichte mit 55.6% Trefferquote keine signifikante Vorhersagegenauigkeit. Das automatische Verfahren erfüllt viele wichtige Voraussetzungen für den routinemäßigen klinischen Einsatz mit dem Potential, die klinische Vorhersage des Krankheitsverlaufes bei der LKB zu verbessern.

  4. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  5. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.

    2010-07-23

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy

  6. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  7. Homography-Based Correction of Positional Errors in MRT Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, A.; Daiboo, S.; Udaya Shankar, N.

    2009-09-01

    The Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT) images show systematics in the positional errors of sources when compared to source positions in the Molonglo Reference Catalogue (MRC). We have applied two-dimensional homography to correct positional errors in the image domain and avoid re-processing the visibility data. Positions of bright (above 15 σ) sources, common to MRT and MRC catalogues, are used to set up an over-determined system to solve for the 2-D homography matrix. After correction, the errors are found to be within 10% of the beamwidth for these bright sources and the systematics are eliminated from the images.

  8. Identification and mechanism of action of the acylguanidine MRT-83, a novel potent Smoothened antagonist.

    PubMed

    Roudaut, Hermine; Traiffort, Elisabeth; Gorojankina, Tatiana; Vincent, Ludwig; Faure, Helene; Schoenfelder, Angele; Mann, Andre; Manetti, Fabrizio; Solinas, Antonio; Taddei, Maurizio; Ruat, Martial

    2011-03-01

    There is a clear need to develop novel pharmacological tools to improve our understanding of Smoothened (Smo) function in normal and pathological states. Here, we report the discovery, the mechanism of action, and the in vivo activity of N-(2-methyl-5-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)guanidino)phenyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide (MRT-83), a novel potent antagonist of Smo that belongs to the acylguanidine family of molecules. MRT-83 fits to a proposed pharmacophoric model for Smo antagonists with three hydrogen bond acceptor groups and three hydrophobic regions. MRT-83 blocks Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in various assays with an IC50 in the nanomolar range, showing greater potency than the reference Smo antagonist cyclopamine. MRT-83 inhibits Bodipy-cyclopamine binding to human and mouse Smo but does not modify Wnt signaling in human embryonic kidney 293 transiently transfected with a Tcf/Lef-dependent Firefly luciferase reporter together with a Renilla reniformis luciferase control reporter. MRT-83 abrogates the agonist-induced trafficking of endogenous mouse or human Smo to the primary cilium of C3H10T1/2 or NT2 cells that derive from a pluripotent testicular carcinoma. Stereotaxic injection into the lateral ventricle of adult mice of MRT-83 but not of a structurally related compound inactive at Smo abolished up-regulation of Patched transcription induced by Sonic Hedgehog in the neighboring subventricular zone. These data demonstrate that MRT-83 efficiently antagonizes Hh signaling in vivo. All together, these molecular, functional and biochemical studies provide evidence that MRT-83 interacts with Smo. Thus, this novel Smo antagonist will be useful for manipulating Hh signaling and may help develop new therapies against Hh-pathway related diseases.

  9. Trajektoriendichte bei Magnetic Particle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Tobias; Sattel, Timo; Biederer, Sven; Weizenecker, Jürgen; Gleich, Bernhard; Borgert, Jörn; Buzug, Thorsten M.

    Magnetic Particle Imaging ist ein neues bilgebendes Verfahren zur Darstellung der räumlichen Verteilung von magnetisierbaren Nanopartikeln. In einer Simulationsstudie wurde zuletzt das Auflösungsvermögen und die Sensitivität dieser Methode untersucht. Die Abtast-trajektorie wurde dabei so gewählt, dass der Messbereich deutlich überabgetastet wurde. In dieser Arbeit wird in einer Simulationsstudie untersucht, welchen Einfluss die Dichte der Trajektorie auf die Bildqualität der rekonstruierten Bilder hat. Es wird gezeigt, dass die Auflösung in den rekonstruierten Bildern durch die Feldstärke des angelegten Magnetfeldes und die Trajektoriendichte beschränkt ist. Die Trajektorie kann bei konstanter Feldstärke bis zu einem gewissen Grad ausgedünnt werden. Der Simulation liegt dabei ein Model zu Grunde, welches das Signal entsprechend der Langevin-Theorie des Paramagnetismus approximiert.

  10. Frequencies of Six (Five Novel) STR Markers Linked to TUSC3 (MRT7) or NSUN2 (MRT5) Genes Used for Homozygosity Mapping of Recessive Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Ghadami, Shirin; Mohammadi, Hossein Malek; Malbin, Jamileh; Masoodifard, Mahboobeh; Sarhaddi, Amene Bandehi; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Zeinali, Sirous

    2015-01-01

    Non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (NS-ARID) is an extremely heterogeneous genetic disorder. Therefore, to investigate these genes, more research is required. One approach to investigate the NS-ARID loci is homozygosity mapping which requires appropriate STR markers within or flanking the gene/s of interest. In this research, we aimed to find novel STRs for two common NS-ARID genes (TUSC3 and NSUN2) and, in addition, to identify allele frequencies of those STR markers. The study group included 119 unrelated healthy individuals. STR markers were investigated using the UCSC genome browser web site and SERV software. Genotyping was determined by multiplex PCR. Data were evaluated using Gene Mapper software. Allele frequencies and observed heterozygosity rates were calculated using PowerStatV12. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and expected heterozygosity were assessed using the DNAView software. In total, 56 alleles were detected. According to our research, D8TUSC3SU8.3 and D5NSUN2SU0.5 were the most informative STR markers in MRT7 and MRT5 loci, respectively and showed a high percentage of heterozygosity in Iranian population. The observed range of allele frequencies was from 3.4% to 32.4% and 0.8% to 18.9% for MRT5 and MRT7 loci, respectively. Further, we have evaluated other statistical surveys of these STR markers and discovered that all of the six listed STRs were informative and five meet the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the tester group. Finding novel STRs, with high allele heterozygosity, is one of the most significant current finding in the present study for the two common NSARID genes. The recognized heterozygosity of these markers make MRT flanking STR markers very efficient to be used in diagnostic medical genetics labs or homozygosity mapping on NS-ARID.

  11. Alignment and position visualization methods for the biomedical imaging and therapy (BMIT) MRT lift

    SciTech Connect

    Bree, Michael Miller, Denise; Kerr, Graham; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Dolton, Wade

    2016-07-27

    The Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) Lift is an eight stage positioning and scanning system at the Canadian Light Source’s BMIT Facility. Alignment of the sample with the beam using the MRT Lift is a time consuming and challenging task. The BMIT Group has developed a Python-based MRT Lift positioning and control program that uses a combination of computational and iterative methods to independently adjust the sample’s X, Y, Z, pitch and roll positions. The program offers “1-Click” alignment of the sample to the beam. Use of a wireframe visualization technique enables even minute movements to be illustrated. Proposed movements and the resulting MRT Lift position can be manually verified before being applied. Optional integration with the SolidWorks modelling platform allows high quality renderings of the MRT Lift in its current or proposed position to be displayed in real time. Human factors principles are incorporated into the program with the objective of delivering easy to use controls for this complex device.

  12. The BEI hydrolysis process and reactor system refined engineering proto-type. BEI pilot-plant improvement and operations demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Brelsford, Donald L.

    1999-10-01

    This BEI project involves BEI-HP and RS's applications toward potential commercial validity demonstrations for dilute-acid corn-fiber cellulose-hydrolysis processing with an aim toward fuel ethanol production.

  13. Segmentierung des Femurs aus MRT-Daten mit Shape-Based Level-Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekomien, Claudia; Busch, Martin; Teske, Wolfram; Winter, Susanne

    Inhalt dieser Arbeit ist die Segmentierung des Femurs aus MRT-Datensätzen mit einem Shape-based Level-Set-Ansatz. Der Algorithmus besteht aus zwei Phasen, der Modellerstellung und der Segmentierungsphase. In der Segmentierungsphase wurde ein kantenbasiertes und ein auf Intensitäten basierendes Optimierungskriterium mit einander kombiniert. Für eine lokale Verbesserung des Ergebnisses wurde zusätzlich ein Laplacian Level-Set-Verfahren angewendet. Der Femur konnte mit diesem Ansatz in drei verschiedenen MRT-Sequenzen und einem Fusionsdatensatz gut segmentiert werden.

  14. Validation of BeiDou Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Hu, Congwei

    2014-06-01

    This study presents validation of BeiDou measurements in un-differenced standalone mode and experimental results of its application for real data. A reparameterized form of the unknowns in a geometry-free observation model was used. Observations from each satellite are independently screened using a local modeling approach. Main advantages include that there is no need for computation of inter-system biases and no satellite navigation information are needed. Validation of the triple-frequency BeiDou data was performed in static and kinematic modes, the former at two continuously operating reference stations in Australia using data that span two consecutive days and the later in a walking mode for three hours. The use of the validation method parameters for numerical and graphical diagnostics of the multi-frequency BeiDou observations are discussed. The precision of the system’s observations was estimated using an empirical method that utilizes the characteristics of the validation statistics. The capability of the proposed method is demonstrated in detection and identification of artificial errors inserted in the static BeiDou data and when implemented in a single point positioning processing of the kinematic test.

  15. Mrt, a gene unique to fungi, encodes an oligosaccharide transporter and facilitates rhizosphere competency in Metarhizium robertsii.

    PubMed

    Fang, Weiguo; St Leger, Raymond J

    2010-11-01

    The symbiotic associations between rhizospheric fungi and plants have enormous environmental impact. Fungi are crucial to plant health as antagonists of pathogens and herbivores and facilitate the uptake of soil nutrients. However, little is known about the plant products obtained by fungi in exchange or how they are transported through the symbiotic interface. Here, we demonstrate that sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides in root exudates are important for rhizosphere competence in the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii (formerly known as Metarhizium anisopliae). We identified mutants in the Metarhizium raffinose transporter (Mrt) gene of M. robertsii that grew poorly in root exudate and were greatly reduced in rhizosphere competence on grass roots. Studies on sugar uptake, including competition assays, revealed that MRT was a sucrose and galactoside transporter. Disrupting MRT resulted in greatly reduced or no growth on sucrose and galactosides but did not affect growth on monosaccharides or oligosaccharides composed entirely of glucose subunits. Consistent with this, expression of Mrt is exclusively up-regulated by galactosides and sucrose. Expressing a green fluorescent protein gene under the control of the Mrt promoter confirmed that MRT was expressed by germlings in the vicinity of grass roots but not in surrounding bulk soil. Disrupting Mrt did not reduce virulence to insects, demonstrating that Mrt is exclusively involved in M. robertsii's interactions with plants. To our knowledge, MRT is the first oligosaccharide transporter identified and characterized in a fungus and is unique to filamentous fungi, but homologous genes in Magnaporthe, Ustilago, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Epichloe, and Penicillium species indicate that oligosaccharide transport is of widespread significance.

  16. The GEANT4 toolkit for microdosimetry calculations: application to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT).

    PubMed

    Spiga, J; Siegbahn, E A; Bräuer-Krisch, E; Randaccio, P; Bravin, A

    2007-11-01

    Theoretical dose distributions for microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) are computed in this paper using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation toolkit. MRT is an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique carried out using an array of parallel microbeams of synchrotron-wiggler-generated x rays. Although the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of microbeams are still largely unknown, the effectiveness of MRT can be traced back to the natural ability of normal tissues to rapidly repair small damages to the vasculature, and on the lack of a similar healing process in tumoral tissues. Contrary to conventional therapy, in which each beam is at least several millimeters wide, the narrowness of the microbeams allows a rapid regeneration of the blood vessels along the beams' trajectories. For this reason the calculation of the "valley" dose is of crucial importance and the correct use of MC codes for such purposes must be understood. GEANT4 offers, in addition to the standard libraries, a specialized package specifically designed to deal with electromagnetic interactions of particles with matter for energies down to 250 eV. This package implements two different approaches for electron and photon transport, one based on evaluated data libraries, the other adopting analytical models. These features are exploited to cross-check theoretical computations for MRT. The lateral and depth dose profiles are studied for the irradiation of a 20 cm diameter, 20 cm long cylindrical phantom, with cylindrical sources of different size and energy. Microbeam arrays are simulated with the aid of superposition algorithms, and the ratios of peak-to-valley doses are computed for typical cases used in preclinical assays. Dose profiles obtained using the GEANT4 evaluated data libraries and analytical models are compared with simulation results previously obtained using the PENELOPE code. The results show that dose profiles computed with GEANT4's analytical model are almost

  17. SU-C-BRE-04: Microbeam-Radiation-Therapy (MRT): Characterizing a Novel MRT Device Using High Resolution 3D Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q; Juang, T; Bache, S; Chang, S; Oldham, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of MRT has recently been demonstrated utilizing a new technology of Carbon-Nano-Tube(CNT) field emission x-ray sources.This approach can deliver very high dose(10's of Gy) in narrow stripes(sub-mm) of radiation which enables the study of novel radiation treatment approaches. Here we investigate the application of highresolution (50um isotropic) PRESAGE/Optical-CT 3D dosimetry techniques to characterize the radiation delivered in this extremely dosimetrically challenging scenario. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source irradiator comprises of a linear cathode array and a novel collimator alignment system. This allows a precise delivery of high-energy small beams up to 160 kVp. A cylindrical dosimeter (∼2.2cm in height ∼2.5cm in diameter) was irradiated by CNT MRT delivering 3 strips of radiation with a nominal entrance dose of 32 Gy.A second dosimeter was irradiated with similar entrance dose, with a regular x-ray irradiator collimated to microscopical strip-beams. 50um (isotropic) 3D dosimetry was performed using an in-house optical-CT system designed and optimized for high resolution imaging (including a stray light deconvolution correction).The percentage depth dose (PDD), peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and beam width (FWHM) data were obtained and analyzed in both cases. Results: High resolution 3D images were successfully achieved with the prototype system, enabling extraction of PDD and dose profiles. The PDDs for the CNT irradiation showed pronounced attenuation, but less build-up effect than that from the multibeam irradiation. The beam spacing between the three strips has an average value of 0.9mm while that for the 13 strips is 1.5 mm at a depth of 16.5 mm. The stray light corrected image shows line profiles with reduced noise and consistent PVR values. Conclusion: MRT dosimetry is extremely challenging due to the ultra small fields involved.This preliminary application of a novel, ultra-high resolution, optical-CT 3D

  18. Identification of a developmentally-regulated and psychostimulant-inducible novel rat gene mrt3 in the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Muraoka, Shin-ichiro; Kajii, Yasushi; Umino, Asami; Nishikawa, Toru

    2014-10-01

    The psychotomimetic effects of stimulant drugs including amphetamines and cocaine are known to change during the postnatal development in humans and experimental animals. To obtain an insight into the molecular basis of the onset of stimulant-induced psychosis, we have explored the gene transcripts that differentially respond to methamphetamine (MAP) in the developing rat brains using a differential cloning technique, the RNA arbitrarily-primed PCR. We identified from the rat neocortex a novel and developmentally regulated MAP-inducible gene mrt3 (MAP responsive transcript 3) that is transcribed to a presumable non-coding RNA of 3.8kb and is located on the reverse strand of the F-box/LRR-repeat protein 17-like gene mapped on the rat chromosome Xq12. The mrt3 mRNAs are predominantly expressed in the brain and lung. Acute MAP injection upregulated the mrt3 expression in the neocortex at postnatal day 50, but not days 8, 15 and 23, in a D1 receptor antagonist-sensitive manner. This upregulation was mimicked by another stimulant, cocaine, whereas pentobarbital and D1 antagonist failed to alter the mrt3 expression. Moreover, repeated treatment with MAP for 5 days inhibited the ability of the challenge dose of MAP or cocaine to increase the neocortical mrt3 expression without affecting the basal mrt3 mRNA levels on day 14 of withdrawal. These late-developing, cocaine-cross reactive, D1 antagonist-sensitive and long-term regulations of mrt3 by MAP are similar to those of stimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, a model of the onset and relapse of stimulant-induced psychosis and schizophrenia, and therefore may be associated with the pathophysiology of the model.

  19. Health co-benefits in mortality avoidance from implementation of the mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Soo Chen; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    The mass rapid transit (MRT) is the largest transport infrastructure project under the national key economic area (NKEA) in Malaysia. As urban rail is anticipated to be the future spine of public transport network in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city, it is important to mainstream climate change mitigation and public health benefits in the local transport development. This study quantifies the health co-benefits in terms of mortality among the urbanites when the first line of the 150 km MRT system in Kuala Lumpur commences by 2017. Using comparative health risk assessment, we estimated the potential health co-benefits from the establishment of the MRT system. We estimated the reduced CO2 emissions and air pollution (PM2.5) exposure reduction among the general population from the reduced use of motorized vehicles. Mortality avoided from traffic incidents involving motorcycles and passenger cars, and from increased physical activity from walking while using the MRT system was also estimated. A total of 363,130 tonnes of CO2 emissions could be reduced annually from the modal shift from cars and motorcycles to the MRT system. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentration could be reduced 0.61 μg/m3 annually (2%). This could avoid a total of 12 deaths, mostly from cardio-respiratory diseases among the city residents. For traffic injuries, 37 deaths could be avoided annually from motorcycle and passenger cars accidents especially among the younger age categories (aged 15-30). One additional death was attributed to pedestrian walking. The additional daily physical activity to access the MRT system could avoid 21 deaths among its riders. Most of the mortality avoided comes from cardiovascular diseases. Overall, a total of 70 deaths could be avoided annually among both the general population and the MRT users in the city. The implementation of the MRT system in Greater Kuala Lumpur could bring substantial health co-benefits to both the general population and the MRT users mainly from the

  20. [Evaluation of the Marburg Spelling Training (MRT) in 2nd- and 3rd-grade students with spelling difficulties].

    PubMed

    Barkmann, Claus; Kuhlmann, Ester; Rosenboom, Lea; Wessolowski, Nino; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Children with severe dyslexia are substantially impaired because reading and writing are key competencies necessary for a successful academic and occupational career. In this evaluation study, a cohort of 2nd- and 3rd-grade students from a variety of Hamburg primary schools was trained with the Marburger Rechtschreibtraining (MRT) by supervised university graduates. The research questions focused on the feasibility of the MRT as a within-school training, the improvement of spelling and reading skills of the participants, subjective assessments of success, as well as potential predictors. Besides established performance tests, we also considered the subjective appraisals of parents, teachers, and coaches. The results demonstrate that standardized spelling training methods like the MRT can be consistently used during morning hours at schools. Within a year of starting MRT exercises, mean effect sizes in writing and reading were observed in performance tests using test norms. However, parent, teacher, and coach reports failed to replicate these improvements. Changes in writing performance were mainly associated with school class level; improvements in reading ability were dependent on initial writing performance. The results provide starting points for optimizing current training practices in elementary schools and for posing questions regarding the effectiveness of the MRT, as well as for training programs in general.

  1. Two-dimensional homography-based correction of positional errors in widefield MRT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Arvind; Daiboo, Soobash; Shankar, N. Udaya

    2010-10-01

    A steradian of the southern sky has been imaged at 151.5 MHz using the Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT). These images show systematics in the positional errors of sources when compared to source positions in the Molonglo Reference Catalogue (MRC). We have applied two-dimensional homography to correct for systematic positional errors in the image domain and thereby avoid re-processing the visibility data. Positions of bright (above 15σ) point sources, common to the MRT catalogue and MRC, are used to set up an over-determined system to solve for the homography matrix. After correction, the errors are found to be within 10 per cent of the beamwidth for these bright sources and the systematics are eliminated from the images. This technique will be of relevance to the new generation radio telescopes where, owing to huge data rates, only images after a certain integration would be recorded as opposed to raw visibilities. It is also interesting to note how our investigations cued to possible errors in the array geometry. The analysis of positional errors of sources showed that MRT images are stretched in declination by ~1 part in 1000. This translates to compression of the baseline scale in the visibility domain. The array geometry was re-estimated using the astrometry principle. The estimates show an error of ~1 mmm-1, which results in an error of about half a wavelength at 150 MHz for a 1-km north-south baseline. The estimates also indicate that the east-west arm is inclined by an angle of ~40 arcsec to the true east-west direction.

  2. Influence of polarization and a source model for dose calculation in MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lerch, Michael; Petasecca, Marco; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), an alternative preclinical treatment strategy using spatially modulated synchrotron radiation on a micrometer scale, has the great potential to cure malignant tumors (e.g., brain tumors) while having low side effects on normal tissue. Dose measurement and calculation in MRT is challenging because of the spatial accuracy required and the arising high dose differences. Dose calculation with Monte Carlo simulations is time consuming and their accuracy is still a matter of debate. In particular, the influence of photon polarization has been discussed in the literature. Moreover, it is controversial whether a complete knowledge of phase space trajectories, i.e., the simulation of the machine from the wiggler to the collimator, is necessary in order to accurately calculate the dose. Methods: With Monte Carlo simulations in the Geant4 toolkit, the authors investigate the influence of polarization on the dose distribution and the therapeutically important peak to valley dose ratios (PVDRs). Furthermore, the authors analyze in detail phase space information provided byMartínez-Rovira et al. [“Development and commissioning of a Monte Carlo photon model for the forthcoming clinical trials in microbeam radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 39(1), 119–131 (2012)] and examine its influence on peak and valley doses. A simple source model is developed using parallel beams and its applicability is shown in a semiadjoint Monte Carlo simulation. Results are compared to measurements and previously published data. Results: Polarization has a significant influence on the scattered dose outside the microbeam field. In the radiation field, however, dose and PVDRs deduced from calculations without polarization and with polarization differ by less than 3%. The authors show that the key consequences from the phase space information for dose calculations are inhomogeneous primary photon flux, partial absorption due to inclined beam incidence outside

  3. A hydrodynamically-consistent MRT lattice Boltzmann model on a 2D rectangular grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Min, Haoda; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2016-12-01

    A multiple-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model on a D2Q9 rectangular grid is designed theoretically and validated numerically in the present work. By introducing stress components into the equilibrium moments, this MRT-LB model restores the isotropy of diffusive momentum transport at the macroscopic level (or in the continuum limit), leading to moment equations that are fully consistent with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model is derived by an inverse design process which is described in detail. Except one moment associated with the energy square, all other eight equilibrium moments can be theoretically and uniquely determined. The model is then carefully validated using both the two-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green vortex flow and lid-driven cavity flow, with different grid aspect ratios. The corresponding results from an earlier model (Bouzidi et al. (2001) [28]) are also presented for comparison. The results of Bouzidi et al.'s model show problems associated with anisotropy of viscosity coefficients, while the present model exhibits full isotropy and is accurate and stable.

  4. Overcoming the challenges of BeiDou receiver implementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul H; Söderholm, Stefan; Thombre, Sarang; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Kuusniemi, Heidi

    2014-11-21

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based positioning is experiencing rapid changes. The existing GPS and the GLONASS systems are being modernized to better serve the current challenging applications under harsh signal conditions. These modernizations include increasing the number of transmission frequencies and changes to the signal components. In addition, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite system (BDS) and the European Galileo are currently under development for global operation. Therefore, in view of these new upcoming systems the research and development of GNSS receivers has been experiencing a new upsurge. In this article, the authors discuss the main functionalities of a GNSS receiver in view of BDS. While describing the main functionalities of a software-defined BeiDou receiver, the authors also highlight the similarities and differences between the signal characteristics of the BeiDou B1 open service signal and the legacy GPS L1 C/A signal, as in general they both exhibit similar characteristics. In addition, the authors implement a novel acquisition technique for long coherent integration in the presence of NH code modulation in BeiDou D1 signal. Furthermore, a simple phase-preserved coherent integration based acquisition scheme is implemented for BeiDou GEO satellite acquisition. Apart from the above BeiDou-specific implementations, a novel Carrier-to-Noise-density ratio estimation technique is also implemented in the software receiver, which does not necessarily require bit synchronization prior to estimation. Finally, the authors present a BeiDou-only position fix with the implemented software-defined BeiDou receiver considering all three satellite constellations from BDS. In addition, a true multi-GNSS position fix with GPS and BDS systems is also presented while comparing their performances for a static stand-alone code phase-based positioning.

  5. Overcoming the Challenges of BeiDou Receiver Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul H.; Söderholm, Stefan; Thombre, Sarang; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Kuusniemi, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based positioning is experiencing rapid changes. The existing GPS and the GLONASS systems are being modernized to better serve the current challenging applications under harsh signal conditions. These modernizations include increasing the number of transmission frequencies and changes to the signal components. In addition, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite system (BDS) and the European Galileo are currently under development for global operation. Therefore, in view of these new upcoming systems the research and development of GNSS receivers has been experiencing a new upsurge. In this article, the authors discuss the main functionalities of a GNSS receiver in view of BDS. While describing the main functionalities of a software-defined BeiDou receiver, the authors also highlight the similarities and differences between the signal characteristics of the BeiDou B1 open service signal and the legacy GPS L1 C/A signal, as in general they both exhibit similar characteristics. In addition, the authors implement a novel acquisition technique for long coherent integration in the presence of NH code modulation in BeiDou D1 signal. Furthermore, a simple phase-preserved coherent integration based acquisition scheme is implemented for BeiDou GEO satellite acquisition. Apart from the above BeiDou-specific implementations, a novel Carrier-to-Noise-density ratio estimation technique is also implemented in the software receiver, which does not necessarily require bit synchronization prior to estimation. Finally, the authors present a BeiDou-only position fix with the implemented software-defined BeiDou receiver considering all three satellite constellations from BDS. In addition, a true multi-GNSS position fix with GPS and BDS systems is also presented while comparing their performances for a static stand-alone code phase-based positioning. PMID:25421735

  6. Virtual screening-based discovery and mechanistic characterization of the acylthiourea MRT-10 family as smoothened antagonists.

    PubMed

    Manetti, Fabrizio; Faure, Helene; Roudaut, Hermine; Gorojankina, Tatiana; Traiffort, Elisabeth; Schoenfelder, Angele; Mann, Andre; Solinas, Antonio; Taddei, Maurizio; Ruat, Martial

    2010-10-01

    The seven-transmembrane receptor Smoothened (Smo) is the major component involved in signal transduction of the Hedgehog (Hh) morphogens. Smo inhibitors represent a promising alternative for the treatment of several types of cancers linked to abnormal Hh signaling. Here, on the basis of experimental data, we generated and validated a pharmacophoric model for Smo inhibitors constituted by three hydrogen bond acceptor groups and three hydrophobic regions. We used this model for the virtual screening of a library of commercially available compounds. Visual and structural criteria allowed the selection of 20 top scoring ligands, and an acylthiourea, N-(3-benzamidophenylcarbamothioyl)-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide (MRT-10), was identified and characterized as a Smo antagonist. The corresponding acylurea, N-(3-benzamidophenylcarbamoyl)-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide (MRT-14), was synthesized and shown to display, in various Hh assays, an inhibitory potency comparable to or greater than that of reference Smo antagonists cyclopamine and N-((3S,5S)-1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl)-5-(piperazine-1-carbonyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-3,3-dimethylbutanamide (Cur61414). Focused virtual screening of the same library further identified five additional related antagonists. MRT-10 and MRT-14 constitute the first members of novel families of Smo antagonists. The described virtual screening approach is aimed at identifying novel modulators of Smo and of other G-protein coupled receptors.

  7. Precise point positioning with the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Qu, Lizhong; Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Su, Xing; Li, Xiaotao

    2014-01-08

    By the end of 2012, China had launched 16 BeiDou-2 navigation satellites that include six GEOs, five IGSOs and five MEOs. This has provided initial navigation and precise pointing services ability in the Asia-Pacific regions. In order to assess the navigation and positioning performance of the BeiDou-2 system, Wuhan University has built up a network of BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) around the World. The Position and Navigation Data Analyst (PANDA) software was modified to determine the orbits of BeiDou satellites and provide precise orbit and satellite clock bias products from the BeiDou satellite system for user applications. This article uses the BeiDou/GPS observations of the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations to realize the BeiDou and BeiDou/GPS static and kinematic precise point positioning (PPP). The result indicates that the precision of BeiDou static and kinematic PPP reaches centimeter level. The precision of BeiDou/GPS kinematic PPP solutions is improved significantly compared to that of BeiDou-only or GPS-only kinematic PPP solutions. The PPP convergence time also decreases with the use of combined BeiDou/GPS systems.

  8. Precise Point Positioning with the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Qu, Lizhong; Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Su, Xing; Li, Xiaotao

    2014-01-01

    By the end of 2012, China had launched 16 BeiDou-2 navigation satellites that include six GEOs, five IGSOs and five MEOs. This has provided initial navigation and precise pointing services ability in the Asia-Pacific regions. In order to assess the navigation and positioning performance of the BeiDou-2 system, Wuhan University has built up a network of BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) around the World. The Position and Navigation Data Analyst (PANDA) software was modified to determine the orbits of BeiDou satellites and provide precise orbit and satellite clock bias products from the BeiDou satellite system for user applications. This article uses the BeiDou/GPS observations of the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations to realize the BeiDou and BeiDou/GPS static and kinematic precise point positioning (PPP). The result indicates that the precision of BeiDou static and kinematic PPP reaches centimeter level. The precision of BeiDou/GPS kinematic PPP solutions is improved significantly compared to that of BeiDou-only or GPS-only kinematic PPP solutions. The PPP convergence time also decreases with the use of combined BeiDou/GPS systems. PMID:24406856

  9. Medical physics aspects of the synchrotron radiation therapies: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT).

    PubMed

    Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Adam, Jean-Francois; Alagoz, Enver; Bartzsch, Stefan; Crosbie, Jeff; DeWagter, Carlos; Dipuglia, Andrew; Donzelli, Mattia; Doran, Simon; Fournier, Pauline; Kalef-Ezra, John; Kock, Angela; Lerch, Michael; McErlean, Ciara; Oelfke, Uwe; Olko, Pawel; Petasecca, Marco; Povoli, Marco; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Siegbahn, Erik A; Sporea, Dan; Stugu, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy (SSRT) and Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) are both novel approaches to treat brain tumor and potentially other tumors using synchrotron radiation. Although the techniques differ by their principles, SSRT and MRT share certain common aspects with the possibility of combining their advantages in the future. For MRT, the technique uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams between 50 and 600 keV. Important features of highly brilliant Synchrotron sources are a very small beam divergence and an extremely high dose rate. The minimal beam divergence allows the insertion of so called Multi Slit Collimators (MSC) to produce spatially fractionated beams of typically ∼25-75 micron-wide microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns center-to-center(ctc)) spaces with a very sharp penumbra. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are extremely well tolerated by normal tissues and at the same time provide a higher therapeutic index for various tumor models in rodents. The hypothesis of a selective radio-vulnerability of the tumor vasculature versus normal blood vessels by MRT was recently more solidified. SSRT (Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiotherapy) is based on a local drug uptake of high-Z elements in tumors followed by stereotactic irradiation with 80 keV photons to enhance the dose deposition only within the tumor. With SSRT already in its clinical trial stage at the ESRF, most medical physics problems are already solved and the implemented solutions are briefly described, while the medical physics aspects in MRT will be discussed in more detail in this paper. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Instantaneous BeiDou-GPS attitude determination: A performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Raziq, Noor

    2014-09-01

    The advent of modernized and new global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) has enhanced the availability of satellite based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) solutions. Specifically, it increases redundancy and yields operational back-up or independence in case of failure or unavailability of one system. Among existing GNSS, the Chinese BeiDou system (BDS) is being developed and will consist of geostationary (GEO) satellites, inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites, and medium-Earth-orbit (MEO) satellites. In this contribution, a BeiDou-GPS robustness analysis is carried out for instantaneous, unaided attitude determination. Precise attitude determination using multiple GNSS antennas mounted on a platform relies on the successful resolution of the integer carrier phase ambiguities. The constrained Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment (C-LAMBDA) method has been developed for the quadratically constrained GNSS compass model that incorporates the known baseline length. In this contribution the method is used to analyse the attitude determination performance when using the GPS and BeiDou systems. The attitude determination performance is evaluated using GPS/BeiDou data sets from a real data campaign in Australia spanning several days. The study includes the performance analyses of both stand-alone and mixed constellation (GPS/BeiDou) attitude estimation under various satellite deprived environments. We demonstrate and quantify the improved availability and accuracy of attitude determination using the combined constellation.

  11. Development and Evaluation of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model v3.6

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS v3.6. Simulations with BEIS v3.4 and BEIS v3.6 in CMAQ v5.0.2 are compared these changes to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and evaluated the simulations against observati...

  12. Development and Evaluation of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model v3.6

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS v3.6. Simulations with BEIS v3.4 and BEIS v3.6 in CMAQ v5.0.2 are compared these changes to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and evaluated the simulations against observati...

  13. MRT-92 inhibits Hedgehog signaling by blocking overlapping binding sites in the transmembrane domain of the Smoothened receptor.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Lucile; Faure, Helene; Roudaut, Hermine; Schoenfelder, Angele; Mann, Andre; Girard, Nicolas; Bihannic, Laure; Ayrault, Olivier; Petricci, Elena; Taddei, Maurizio; Rognan, Didier; Ruat, Martial

    2015-05-01

    The Smoothened (Smo) receptor, a member of class F G protein-coupled receptors, is the main transducer of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway implicated in a wide range of developmental and adult processes. Smo is the target of anticancer drugs that bind to a long and narrow cavity in the 7-transmembrane (7TM) domain. X-ray structures of human Smo (hSmo) bound to several ligands have revealed 2 types of 7TM-directed antagonists: those binding mostly to extracellular loops (site 1, e.g., LY2940680) and those penetrating deeply in the 7TM cavity (site 2, e.g., SANT-1). Here we report the development of the acylguanidine MRT-92, which displays subnanomolar antagonist activity against Smo in various Hh cell-based assays. MRT-92 inhibits rodent cerebellar granule cell proliferation induced by Hh pathway activation through pharmacologic (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 0.4 nM) or genetic manipulation. Using [(3)H]MRT-92 (Kd = 0.3 nM for hSmo), we created a comprehensive framework for the interaction of small molecule modulators with hSmo and for understanding chemoresistance linked to hSmo mutations. Guided by molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis data, our work convincingly confirms that MRT-92 simultaneously recognized and occupied both sites 1 and 2. Our data demonstrate the existence of a third type of Smo antagonists, those entirely filling the Smo binding cavity from the upper extracellular part to the lower cytoplasmic-proximal subpocket. Our studies should help design novel potent Smo antagonists and more effective therapeutic strategies for treating Hh-linked cancers and associated chemoresistance. © FASEB.

  14. Demonstration of Removal, Separation, and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastestreams Using Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    Treatment Plant”, TM-2123-ENV, April 1995. 3. Ford, K.H., 1996, “ Heavy Metal Adsorption/ Biosorption Studies for Zero Discharge Industrial Wastewater...SEPARATION, AND RECOVERY OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTESTREAMS USING MOLECULAR RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY (MRT) Final Report by Dr. Katherine...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER DEMONSTRATION OF REMOVAL, SEPARATION, AND RECOVERY OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS USING

  15. A multiphase three-dimensional multi-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model with surface tension adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, Sami; Pernaudat, Guillaume; Trépanier, Jean-Yves

    2017-08-01

    The interdependence of surface tension and density ratio is a weakness of pseudo-potential based lattice Boltzmann models (LB). In this paper, we propose a 3D multi-relaxation time (MRT) model for multiphase flows at large density ratios. The proposed model is capable of adjusting the surface tension independently of the density ratio. We also present the 3D macroscopic equations recovered by the proposed forcing scheme. A high order of isotropy for the interaction force is used to reduce the amplitude of spurious currents. The proposed 3D-MRT model is validated by verifying Laplace's law and by analyzing its thermodynamic consistency and the oscillation period of a deformed droplet. The model is then applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a dry surface. Impact dynamics are determined and the maximum spread factor calculated for different Reynolds and Weber numbers. The numerical results are in agreement with data published in the literature. The influence of surface wettability on the spread factor is also investigated. Finally, our 3D-MRT model is applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a wet surface. The propagation of transverse waves is observed on the liquid surface.

  16. Aorta cross-section calculation and 3D visualization from CT or MRT data using VRML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Guenther; Modritsch, Robert; Stiegmaier, Wolfgang; Grasser, Simon; Klinger, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Quantification of vessel diameters of artherosclerotic or congenital stenosis is very important for the diagnosis of vascular diseases. The aorta extraction and cross-section calculation is a software-based application that offers a three-dimensional, platform-independent, colorized visualization of the extracted aorta with augmented reality information of MRT or CT datasets. This project is based on different types of specialized image processing algorithms, dynamical particle filtering and complex mathematical equations. From this three-dimensional model a calculation of minimal cross sections is performed. In user specified distances, the aorta is cut in differently defined directions which are created through vectors with varying length. The extracted aorta and the derived minimal cross-sections are then rendered with the marching cube algorithm and represented together in a three-dimensional virtual reality with a very high degree of immersion. The aim of this study was to develop an imaging software that delivers cardiologists the possibility of (i) furnishing fast vascular diagnosis, (ii) getting precise diameter information, (iii) being able to process exact, local stenosis detection (iv) having permanent data storing and easy access to former datasets, and (v) reliable documentation of results in form of tables and graphical printouts.

  17. Nagelbefall kann bei Patienten mit Psoriasis auf eine Enthesiopathie hinweisen.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-González, Maria; Joven, Beatriz Esther; Sánchez, Julio; Andrés-Esteban, Eva María; Vanaclocha-Sebastián, Francisco; Romero, Pablo Ortiz; Díaz, Raquel Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Obwohl subklinische Enthesiopathie ein gut etabliertes diagnostisches Merkmal der Psoriasisarthritis (PsA) ist, wird sie häufig übersehen, da viele Patienten asymptomatisch sind. Gäbe es klinische Hinweise auf das Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie, würde dies den Klinikern die Möglichkeit eröffnen, eine PsA frühzeitig zu diagnostizieren. Es wurde eine monozentrische prospektive Studie mit insgesamt 90 Psoriasis-Patienten durchgeführt, um mittels Ultraschall das Vorliegen von Enthesenanomalien zu untersuchen und eine Korrelation mit dem Befall der Nägel festzustellen. Enthesenanomalien wurden bei 23 Patienten (25,5 %) gefunden, von denen 19 (82,6 %) Nagelbefall aufwiesen. Bei 4 Patienten waren die Nägel nicht betroffen. Enthesiopathie lag bei 31,1 % (19/61) der Patienten mit Onychopathie vor, von den Patienten ohne Nagelbefall litten nur 13,8 % (4/29) an Enthesiopathie (p = 0,07). Zwischen dem Target-NAPSI-Score und dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie bestand eine signifikante Korrelation. Eine signifikante Korrelation bestand darüber hinaus auch zwischen dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie und der Anzahl der betroffenen Nägel (p = 0,035). Klinische Belege für eine Onychopathie können der Schlüssel für die frühe Diagnose einer Enthesiopathie bei Psoriasis-Patienten sein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Teaching Pablo Neruda and Bei Dao: The Lens of Leaving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Amanda Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the author invites young poets to tromp through the landscape of their minds in search of all things broken by using two of her favorite poems: Pablo Neruda's "Ode to Broken Things" and Bei Dao's "Comet." Outlines how the students write their own poems dealing with loss. Notes that for poets, a heap of broken images becomes an immense…

  19. Teaching Pablo Neruda and Bei Dao: The Lens of Leaving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Amanda Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the author invites young poets to tromp through the landscape of their minds in search of all things broken by using two of her favorite poems: Pablo Neruda's "Ode to Broken Things" and Bei Dao's "Comet." Outlines how the students write their own poems dealing with loss. Notes that for poets, a heap of broken images becomes an immense…

  20. BeiDou Time Transfer With the Standard CGGTTS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Defraigne, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    The R2CGGTTS software tool developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) to provide clock solutions in the standard Common GNSS Generic Time Transfer Standard (CGGTTS) has been extended to BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). The BDS includes satellites in three different orbits: 1) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO); 2) Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO); and 3) Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). This paper presents first results obtained with this upgraded software, and a comparison between common view (CV) time transfer solutions obtained with either BDS, or GPS or Galileo. These preliminary results indicate that the BeiDou MEO satellites give time transfer results with a higher noise than the GPS results. This additional noise is shown to be due to some elevation-dependent delay in the BDS code measurements. Some biases were furthermore pointed out between the CV results obtained with the different BeiDou MEO satellites when the receivers used in the two stations are of different make. These biases may reach some nanoseconds, and find most probably their origin in the receiver hardware or firmware. It is shown additionally that using the BeiDou IGSO satellites and the GEO satellites, although increasing the number of observations, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, introduces a significant time transfer noise in the CV results.

  1. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  2. Epigenetische Aspekte bei Karzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region

    PubMed Central

    Schmezer, Peter; Plass, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Plattenepithelkarzinome der Kopf-Hals-Region (HNSCC) zählen seit Jahren zu den weltweit häufigsten Krebsarten. Trotz vieler Bemühungen hat sich das 5-Jahres-Überleben bei Patienten mit HNSCC kaum verbessert. Um einen Fortschritt zu erzielen, ist es notwendig, die der Erkrankung zugrunde liegenden biologischen Prozesse besser zu verstehen. Neben den bekannten genetischen Veränderungen haben molekular-zytogenetische Untersuchungen bei HNSCC gezeigt, dass es weitere Veränderungen gibt, die mit Vermehrung und Verlust chromosomaler Bereiche einhergehen, für die jedoch die krankheitsverursachenden Gene bisher nicht identifiziert wurden. Darüberhinaus haben jüngste Forschungsergebnisse verdeutlicht, dass epigenetische Modifikationen wie die DNA Methylierung eine wichtige Rolle spielen. So konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei HNSCC eine Reihe von Genen (z.B. das Tumorsuppressorgen CDKN2A sowie DAPK1, MGMT, TIMP3, TCF21, und C/EBPα) hypermethylierte Bereiche in regulatorischen DNA Sequenzen aufweisen, wodurch ihre Expression verringert oder unterbunden wird. Die Hypermethylierung solcher Gene könnte als Biomarker zur Früherkennung von HNSCC genutzt werden und nicht zuletzt dadurch zur Verbesserung von Prävention und Therapieerfolg beitragen. PMID:18483718

  3. "Updates to Model Algorithms & Inputs for the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model"

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS. Simulations with BEIS v3.4 and these updates in CMAQ v5.0.2 are compared these changes to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and evaluated the simulations against observatio...

  4. "Updates to Model Algorithms & Inputs for the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model"

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS. Simulations with BEIS v3.4 and these updates in CMAQ v5.0.2 are compared these changes to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and evaluated the simulations against observatio...

  5. Bedeutung der Informationsqualität bei Kaufentscheidungen im Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfe, Gernot; Maaß, Christian

    Bei Kauf- und Verkaufsentscheidungen ist das Internet eine bedeutende Informationsquelle für Anbieter und Nachfrager. Während Anbieter ihre Produkte und Dienstleistungen sehr gut kennen und dazu Informationen bereitstellen, sehen sich Nachfrager oft mit einem Informationsdefizit konfrontiert. Sie haben unvollständige Kenntnisse über die Anbieter, ihre Produkte, Preise und weitere Geschäftsbedingungen und informieren sich daher im Internet. Die unausgewogene Informationsverteilung zwischen beiden Parteien wird als Informationsasymmetrie bezeichnet [Kaas 1991, S. 360], [Kleinaltenkamp 1992, S. 812], [Rohrbach 1997, S. 49].

  6. Development and validation of a new LBM-MRT hybrid model with enthalpy formulation for melting with natural convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda Fuentes, Johann; Kuznik, Frédéric; Johannes, Kévyn; Virgone, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model to simulate melting with natural convection of a phase change material. For the phase change problem, the enthalpy formulation is used. Energy equation is solved by a finite difference method, whereas the fluid flow is solved by the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method. The model is first verified and validated using the data from the literature. Then, the model is applied to a tall brick filled with a fatty acid eutectic mixture and the results are presented. The main results are (1) the spatial convergence rate is of second order, (2) the new model is validated against data from the literature and (3) the natural convection plays an important role in the melting process of the fatty acid mixture considered in our work.

  7. Completion Report for Multi-Site Incentive MRT 2779 Implement ASC Tripod Initiative by 30SEP08

    SciTech Connect

    East, D; Cerutti, J; Noe, J; Cupps, K; Loncaric, J; Sturtevant, J

    2008-09-22

    This report provides documentation and evidence for the completion of the deployment of the Tripod common operating system (TripodOS, also known as and generally referred to below as TOSS). Background documents for TOSS are provided in Appendices A and B, including the initial TOSS proposal accepted by ASC HQ and Executives in July 2007 and a Governance Model defined by a Tri-Lab working group in September 2007. Appendix C contains a document that clarifies the intent and requirements for the completion criteria associated with MRT 2779. The deployment of TOSS is a Multi-Site Incentive from the ASC FY08-09 Implementation Plan due at the end of Quarter 4 in FY08.

  8. Effective pressure law for permeability of E-bei sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Bernabé, Y.; Xiao, W.-I.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Liu, Z.-Q.

    2009-07-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effective pressure law for permeability of tight sandstone rocks from the E-bei gas reservoir, China. The permeability k of five core samples was measured while cycling the confining pressure pc and fluid pressure pf. The permeability data were analyzed using the response-surface method, a statistical model-building approach yielding a representation of k in (pc, pf) space that can be used to determine the effective pressure law, i.e., peff = pc - κpf. The results show that the coefficient κ of the effective pressure law for permeability varies with confining pressure and fluid pressure as well as with the loading or unloading cycles (i.e., hysteresis effect). Moreover, κ took very small values in some of the samples, even possibly lower than the value of porosity, in contradiction with a well-accepted theoretical model. We also reanalyzed a previously published permeability data set on fissured crystalline rocks and found again that the κ varies with pc but did not observe κ values lower than 0.4, a value much larger than porosity. Analysis of the dependence of permeability on effective pressure suggests that the occurrence of low κ values may be linked to the high-pressure sensitivity of E-bei sandstones.

  9. An intercomparison of biogenic emissions estimates from BEIS2 and BIOME: Reconciling the differences

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, J.G.; Emigh, R.A.; Pierce, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic emissions play a critical role in urban and regional air quality. For instance, biogenic emissions contribute upwards of 76% of the daily hydrocarbon emissions in the Atlanta, Georgia airshed. The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System-Version 2.0 (BEIS2) and the Biogenic Model for Emissions (BIOME) are two models that compute biogenic emissions estimates. BEIS2 is a FORTRAN-based system, and BIOME is an ARC/INFO{reg_sign} - and SAS{reg_sign}-based system. Although the technical formulations of the models are similar, the models produce different biogenic emissions estimates for what appear to be essentially the same inputs. The goals of our study are the following: (1) Determine why BIOME and BEIS2 produce different emissions estimates; (2) Attempt to understand the impacts that the differences have on the emissions estimates; (3) Reconcile the differences where possible; and (4) Present a framework for the use of BEIS2 and BIOME. In this study, we used the Coastal Oxidant Assessment for Southeast Texas (COAST) biogenics data which were supplied to us courtesy of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and we extracted the BEIS2 data for the same domain. We compared the emissions estimates of the two models using their respective data sets BIOME Using TNRCC data and BEIS2 using BEIS2 data.

  10. Berechnung verkehrlicher Substitutionseffekte im Personenverkehr bei Online-Shopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter; Rauh, Jürgen; Breidenbach, Petra

    Für Güter des täglichen, mittelfristigen und langfristigen Bedarfs sowie für das Beispiel Baumarktartikel wird das Potenzial für Personenverkehrsaufwand von Einkaufsaktivtäten quantitativ abgeschätzt. Die entwickelten Algorithmen behandeln die einkaufsvorbereitende Information und den eigentlichen Einkauf, d.h. den Erwerb eines Gutes, separat. Informationsaktivitäten haben insbesondere bei höherwertigen Gütern einen hohen Stellenwert und damit auch verkehrliche Relevanz. Wie Berechnungen zeigen, spart Online-Shopping Informations- und Einkaufsverkehrsaufwand im Pkw-Verkehr ein. Die notwendigen Eingangsdaten wie differenzierte Informations- und Einkaufshäufigkeiten sowie verkehrliche Parameter zu Verkehrsmittelwahl, Entfernungen und Wegekopplungen wurden aus eigenen Erhebungen gewonnen.

  11. Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-3: new-generation navigation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Mingkui; Liu, Wanke; Li, Xingxing; Yu, Shun; Lu, Cuixian; Wickert, Jens

    2017-10-01

    The successful launch of five new-generation experimental satellites of the China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, namely BeiDou I1-S, I2-S, M1-S, M2-S, and M3-S, marks a significant step in expanding BeiDou into a navigation system with global coverage. In addition to B1I (1561.098 MHz) and B3I (1269.520 MHz) signals, the new-generation BeiDou-3 experimental satellites are also capable of transmitting several new navigation signals in space, namely B1C at 1575.42 MHz, B2a at 1176.45 MHz, and B2b at 1207.14 MHz. For the first time, we present an initial characterization and performance assessment for these new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites and their signals. The L1/L2/L5 signals from GPS Block IIF satellites, E1/E5a/E5b signals from Galileo satellites, and B1I/B2I/B3I signals from BeiDou-2 satellites are also evaluated for comparison. The characteristics of the B1C, B1I, B2a, B2b, and B3I signals are evaluated in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudorange multipath and noise, triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, and double-differenced carrier-phase and code residuals. The results demonstrate that the observational quality of the new-generation BeiDou-3 signals is comparable to that of GPS L1/L2/L5 and Galileo E1/E5a/E5b signals. However, the analysis of code multipath shows that the elevation-dependent code biases, which have been previously identified to exist in the code observations of the BeiDou-2 satellites, seem to be not obvious for all the available signals of the new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites. This will significantly benefit precise applications that resolve wide-lane ambiguity based on Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena linear combinations and other applications such as single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) based on the ionosphere-free code-carrier combinations. Furthermore, with regard to the triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, it is found

  12. Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-3: new-generation navigation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Mingkui; Liu, Wanke; Li, Xingxing; Yu, Shun; Lu, Cuixian; Wickert, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The successful launch of five new-generation experimental satellites of the China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, namely BeiDou I1-S, I2-S, M1-S, M2-S, and M3-S, marks a significant step in expanding BeiDou into a navigation system with global coverage. In addition to B1I (1561.098 MHz) and B3I (1269.520 MHz) signals, the new-generation BeiDou-3 experimental satellites are also capable of transmitting several new navigation signals in space, namely B1C at 1575.42 MHz, B2a at 1176.45 MHz, and B2b at 1207.14 MHz. For the first time, we present an initial characterization and performance assessment for these new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites and their signals. The L1/L2/L5 signals from GPS Block IIF satellites, E1/E5a/E5b signals from Galileo satellites, and B1I/B2I/B3I signals from BeiDou-2 satellites are also evaluated for comparison. The characteristics of the B1C, B1I, B2a, B2b, and B3I signals are evaluated in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudorange multipath and noise, triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, and double-differenced carrier-phase and code residuals. The results demonstrate that the observational quality of the new-generation BeiDou-3 signals is comparable to that of GPS L1/L2/L5 and Galileo E1/E5a/E5b signals. However, the analysis of code multipath shows that the elevation-dependent code biases, which have been previously identified to exist in the code observations of the BeiDou-2 satellites, seem to be not obvious for all the available signals of the new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites. This will significantly benefit precise applications that resolve wide-lane ambiguity based on Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena linear combinations and other applications such as single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) based on the ionosphere-free code-carrier combinations. Furthermore, with regard to the triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, it is found

  13. Research Article. Improved Dual Frequency PPP Model Using GPS and BeiDou Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, A.; El-Rabbany, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) model, which combines GPS and BeiDou observations. Combining GPS and BeiDou observations in a PPP model offers more visible satellites to the user, which is expected to enhance the satellite geometry and the overall PPP solution in comparison with GPSonly PPP solution. However, combining different GNSS constellations introduces additional biases, which require rigorous modelling, including GNSS time offset and hardware delays. In this research, ionosphere-free linear combination PPP model is developed. The additional biases, which result from combining the GPS and BeiDou observables, are lumped into a new unknown parameter identified as the inter-system bias. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS/BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets at four IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the IGS-MGEX network are used to correct both of the GPS and BeiDou measurements. It is shown that a sub-decimeter positioning accuracy level and 25% reduction in the solution convergence time can be achieved with combining GPS and Bei-Dou observables in a PPP model, in comparison with the GPS-only PPP solution.

  14. BeiDou Inter-Satellite-Type Bias Evaluation and Calibration for Mixed Receiver Attitude Determination

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Raziq, Noor

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese BeiDou system (BDS), having different types of satellites, is an important addition to the ever growing system of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). It consists of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. This paper investigates the receiver-dependent bias between these satellite types, for which we coined the name “inter-satellite-type bias” (ISTB), and its impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Assuming different receiver types may have different delays/biases for different satellite types, we model the differential ISTBs among three BeiDou satellite types and investigate their existence and their impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Our analyses using the real data sets from Curtin's GNSS array consisting of different types of BeiDou enabled receivers and series of zero-baseline experiments with BeiDou-enabled receivers reveal the existence of non-zero ISTBs between different BeiDou satellite types. We then analyse the impact of these biases on BeiDou-only attitude determination using the constrained (C-)LAMBDA method, which exploits the knowledge of baseline length. Results demonstrate that these biases could seriously affect the integer ambiguity resolution for attitude determination using mixed receiver types and that a priori correction of these biases will dramatically improve the success rate. PMID:23881141

  15. Photochemical modeling of the Ozark isoprene volcano: MEGAN, BEIS, and their impacts on air quality predictions.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Annmarie G; Baker, Kirk R

    2011-05-15

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute substantially to atmospheric carbon, exerting influence on air quality and climate. Two widely used models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) are employed to generate emissions for application in the CMAQ air quality model. Predictions of isoprene, monoterpenes, ozone, formaldehyde, and secondary organic carbon (SOC) are compared to surface and aloft measurements made during an intensive study in the Ozarks, a large isoprene emitting region. MEGAN and BEIS predict spatially similar emissions but magnitudes differ. The total VOC reactivity of the emissions, as developed for the CB05 gas-phase chemical mechanism, is a factor of 2 different between the models. Isoprene estimates by CMAQ-MEGAN are higher and more variable than surface and aloft measurements, whereas CMAQ-BEIS predictions are lower. CMAQ ozone predictions are similar and compare well with measurements using either MEGAN or BEIS. However, CMAQ-MEGAN overpredicts formaldehyde. CMAQ-BEIS SOC predictions are lower than observational estimates for every sample. CMAQ-MEGAN underpredicts SOC ∼ 80% of the time, despite overprediction of precursor VOCs. CMAQ-MEGAN isoprene predictions improve when prognostically predicted solar radiation is replaced with the GEWEX satellite product. CMAQ-BEIS does not exhibit similar photosensitivity.

  16. BeiDou inter-satellite-type bias evaluation and calibration for mixed receiver attitude determination.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Teunissen, Peter J G; Raziq, Noor

    2013-07-22

    The Chinese BeiDou system (BDS), having different types of satellites, is an important addition to the ever growing system of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). It consists of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. This paper investigates the receiver-dependent bias between these satellite types, for which we coined the name "inter-satellite-type bias" (ISTB), and its impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Assuming different receiver types may have different delays/biases for different satellite types, we model the differential ISTBs among three BeiDou satellite types and investigate their existence and their impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Our analyses using the real data sets from Curtin's GNSS array consisting of different types of BeiDou enabled receivers and series of zero-baseline experiments with BeiDou-enabled receivers reveal the existence of non-zero ISTBs between different BeiDou satellite types. We then analyse the impact of these biases on BeiDou-only attitude determination using the constrained (C-)LAMBDA method, which exploits the knowledge of baseline length. Results demonstrate that these biases could seriously affect the integer ambiguity resolution for attitude determination using mixed receiver types and that a priori correction of these biases will dramatically improve the success rate.

  17. TU-F-BRF-09: Feasibility Study of Spatial and Temporal Fractionation Using a Table-Top Image-Guided MRT System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Inscoe, C; Yuan, H; Burk, L; Ger, R; Chtcheprov, P; Lu, J; Chang, S; Zhou, O

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy is a promising experimental radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron studies have shown that MRT can preferentially ablate tumors while mostly preserving the surrounding normal tissues. Our purpose is to develop a compact microbeam irradiator that can be accessible for laboratory research on MRT's therapeutic mechanism, with the ultimate goal of translating this technique for clinical applications. Utilizing a carbon nanotube field emission X-ray source array, our lab has developed a first of its kind table-top microbeam irradiator. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of increasing the total dose to the tumor region using spatial and temporal fractionation. Methods: MRI and CT scans were acquired and registered to locate both the target region and the landmark in the treatment coordinate space. A crossbeam treatment configuration was planned to achieve the desired dosage and tumor coverage. One array of 300 μm-thick microbeams was delivered to the target on the first day. Another array, perpendicular to the first one, was delivered the next day targeting the same region. The feasibility of this image-guided MRT procedure was evaluated using a phantom. Gafchromic EBT2 film was employed to characterize the targeting accuracy and the delivered tumor dose. Results: The preliminary phantom study showed that a cross-pattern of microbeam arrays was successfully delivered with sub-millimeter targeting accuracy. The delivered dose in the target region was doubled. The fraction of tumor volume that received the peak dose was increased. Conclusion: Temporal fractionation of crosspatterned microbeams can be delivered to the same target region. The feasibility of this procedure was investigated with a phantom study. Once implemented, this procedure has the potential of increasing the tumor control effect of MRT and of achieving better normal tissue recovery.

  18. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yidong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Xiuguang; Zheng, Fu

    2014-04-15

    Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is officially operational as a regional constellation with five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Observations from the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) and the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network from 1 January to 31 March 2013 are processed for orbit determination of the BeiDou constellation. Various arc lengths and solar radiation pressure parameters are investigated. The reduced set of ECOM five-parameter model produces better performance than the full set of ECOM nine-parameter model for BeiDou IGSO and MEO. The orbit overlap for the middle days of 3-day arc solutions is better than 20 cm and 14 cm for IGSO and MEO in RMS, respectively. Satellite laser ranging residuals are better than 10 cm for both IGSO and MEO. For BeiDou GEO, the orbit overlap of several meters and satellite laser ranging residuals of several decimetres can be achieved.

  19. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yidong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Xiuguang; Zheng, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is officially operational as a regional constellation with five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Observations from the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) and the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network from 1 January to 31 March 2013 are processed for orbit determination of the BeiDou constellation. Various arc lengths and solar radiation pressure parameters are investigated. The reduced set of ECOM five-parameter model produces better performance than the full set of ECOM nine-parameter model for BeiDou IGSO and MEO. The orbit overlap for the middle days of 3-day arc solutions is better than 20 cm and 14 cm for IGSO and MEO in RMS, respectively. Satellite laser ranging residuals are better than 10 cm for both IGSO and MEO. For BeiDou GEO, the orbit overlap of several meters and satellite laser ranging residuals of several decimetres can be achieved. PMID:24733025

  20. User's guide to the Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, T.E.; Baugues, K.A.

    1991-07-01

    The Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS) has been developed to allow users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbon emissions for any county in the contiguous United States. PC-BEIS has been compiled using Microsoft FORTRAN and tested on IBM-compatible personal computers. The source code was written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and should be transportable to most other computers. Emission rates depend on land use, leaf biomass, and emission factors. PC-BEIS also includes adjustments due to temperature and sunglight. A simple leaf energy balance module is included to allow more refined calculations of leaf temperature and sunlight through forest canopies. The user's guide briefly describes the technical background, provides an overview of computer aspects, and shows an example test case.

  1. Temperature-sensitive mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MRT4, GRC5, SLA2 and THS1 genes result in defects in mRNA turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, D; Belk, J P; Jacobson, A

    1999-01-01

    In a screen for factors involved in mRNA turnover, four temperature-sensitive yeast strains (ts1189, ts942, ts817, and ts1100) exhibited defects in the decay of several mRNAs. Complementation of the growth and mRNA decay defects, and genetic experiments, revealed that ts1189 is mutated in the previously unknown MRT4 gene, ts942 is mutated in GRC5 (encoding the L9 ribosomal protein), ts817 contains a mutation in SLA2 (encoding a membrane protein), and ts1100 contains a mutation in THS1 (encoding the threonyl-tRNA synthetase). Three of the four mutants (mrt4, grc5, and sla2) were not defective in protein synthesis, suggesting that these strains contain mutations in factors that may play a specific role in mRNA decay. The mRNA stabilization observed in the ths1 strain, however, could be due to the significant drop in translation observed in this mutant at 37 degrees. While the three interesting mutants appear to encode novel mRNA decay factors, at least one could be linked to a previously characterized mRNA decay pathway. The growth and mRNA decay defects of ts942 (grc5) cells were suppressed by overexpression of the NMD3 gene, encoding a protein shown to participate in a two-hybrid interaction with the nonsense-mediated decay protein Upf1p. PMID:10471698

  2. Development and Evaluation of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model v3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, J. O.; Baker, K. R.; Pouliot, G.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) influences ozone and organic aerosol formation and can enhance the impact that anthropogenic pollutants have on ambient air-quality and climate. BVOC emissions are estimated to be approximately an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic sources of volatile organic compounds. Despite the importance of BVOC emissions on air-quality and climate, considerable uncertainty remains in the parametrization emission algorithms and emission factors from different land uses and vegetation species. We will present three updates to the the BEIS model. (1) The BEIS canopy model has been updated with explicit estimates of leaf temperature coupled to the driving meteorological model's energy balance implemented in. (2) The Biogenic Emission Landuse Database (BELD) was updated with year specific satellite derrived land use, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) crop survey data, and U.S. Forest Service forest Forest Inventory Analyssis (FIA) survayed tree speceis to develop a tree species specific land use data set. (3) A survey of published flux measurements were used to update the BEIS BVOC normalized emission factors. Incremental updates to the BEIS model are evaluated against surface and aircraft based field campain measurements and network observations in Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v5.0.2 simulations. Prelimilar model simulations result in improvements in model O3, isoprene, oxidized nitrogen, and aerosol performance over the contenental U.S.

  3. Zeitlicher Verlauf der avaskulären Nekrose des Hüftkopfes bei Patienten mit Pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Saeidi, Vahide; Shahpouri, Farzam; Hejazi, Pardis; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

    2016-10-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) wird in der Regel mit systemischen Corticosteroiden und Immunsuppressiva behandelt. Avaskuläre Nekrose (AVN) des Hüftkopfes ist eine gut bekannte schwerere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Therapie. Die Charakteristika dieser schweren Komplikation bei PV sind nach wie vor unbekannt. Nicht kontrollierte, retrospektive Untersuchung aller PV-bedingten AVN-Fälle, die in einer iranischen Klinik für bullöse Autoimmunerkrankungen zwischen 1985 und 2013 diagnostiziert wurden. Anhand der Krankenakten von 2321 untersuchten PV-Patienten wurden 45 Fälle (1,93 %) von femoraler AVN identifiziert. Dreißig davon waren Männer. Das mittlere Alter bei der Diagnose der AVN betrug 47,4 ± 14,2 Jahre. Der mittlere Zeitraum zwischen der Diagnose des PV und dem Einsetzen der AVN lag bei 25,3 ± 18,3 Monaten. Mit Ausnahme von acht Fällen (17,8 %) setzte die AVN bei der Mehrheit der Patienten innerhalb von drei Jahren nach Diagnose des PV ein. Die mittlere kumulative Dosis von Prednisolon bei Patienten mit AVN betrug 13.115,8 ± 7041,1 mg. Zwischen der Prednisolon-Gesamtdosis und dem Zeitraum bis zum Einsetzen der AVN bestand eine starke Korrelation (p = 0,001). Bei Patienten mit Alendronateinnahme in der Vorgeschichte war dieser Zeitraum signifikant kürzer (p = 0,01). Die AVN ist eine schwere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Behandlung bei Patienten mit PV. Sie wird bei 2 % der Patienten beobachtet und tritt vor allem in den ersten drei Behandlungsjahren auf. Bei Patienten, die höhere Dosen von Prednisolon erhalten, setzt die AVN tendenziell früher ein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Stochastic modeling of triple-frequency BeiDou signals: estimation, assessment and impact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bofeng

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic models are important in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) estimation problems. One can achieve reliable ambiguity resolution and precise positioning only by use of a suitable stochastic model. The BeiDou system has received increased research focus, but based only on empirical stochastic models from the knowledge of GPS. In this paper, we will systematically study the estimation, assessment and impacts of a triple-frequency BeiDou stochastic model. In our estimation problem, a single-difference, geometry-free functional model is used to extract pure random noise. A very sophisticated structure of unknown variance matrix is designed to allow the estimation of satellite-specific variances, cross correlations between two arbitrary frequencies, as well as the time correlations for phase and code observations per frequency. In assessing the stochastic models, six data sets with four brands of BeiDou receivers on short and zero-length baselines are processed, and the results are compared. In impact analysis of stochastic model, the performance of integer ambiguity resolution and positioning are numerically demonstrated using a realistic stochastic model. The results from ultrashort (shorter than 10 m) and zero-length baselines indicate that BeiDou stochastic models are affected by both observation and receiver brands. The observation variances have been modeled by an elevation-dependent function, but the modeling errors for geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites are larger than for inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The stochastic model is governed by both the internal errors of the receiver and external errors at the site. Different receivers have different capabilities for resisting external errors. A realistic stochastic model is very important for achieving ambiguity resolution with a high success rate and small false alarm and for determining realistic variances for position estimates. To

  5. Coarse- and fine-grid numerical behavior of MRT/TRT lattice-Boltzmann schemes in regular and random sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khirevich, Siarhei; Ginzburg, Irina; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the intrinsic impact of free-tunable combinations of the relaxation rates controlling viscosity-independent accuracy of the multiple-relaxation-times (MRT) lattice-Boltzmann models. Preserving all MRT degrees of freedom, we formulate the parametrization conditions which enable the MRT schemes to provide viscosity-independent truncation errors for steady state solutions, and support them with the second- and third-order accurate ("linear" and "parabolic", respectively) boundary schemes. The parabolic schemes demonstrate the advanced accuracy with weak dependency on the relaxation rates, as confirmed by the simulations with the D3Q15 model in three regular arrays (SC, BCC, FCC) of touching spheres. Yet, the low-order, bounce-back boundary rule remains appealing for pore-scale simulations where the precise distance to the boundaries is undetermined. However, the effective accuracy of the bounce-back crucially depends on the free-tunable combinations of the relaxation rates. We find that the combinations of the kinematic viscosity rate with the available "ghost" antisymmetric collision mode rates mainly impact the accuracy of the bounce-back scheme. As the first step, we reduce them to the one combination (presented by so-called "magic" parameter Λ in the frame of the two-relaxation-times (TRT) model), and study its impact on the accuracy of the drag force/permeability computations with the D3Q19 velocity set in two different, dense, random packings of 8000 spheres each. We also run the simulations in the regular (BCC and FCC) packings of the same porosity for the broad range of the discretization resolutions, ranging from 5 to 750 lattice nodes per sphere diameter. A special attention is given to the discretization procedure resulting in significantly reduced scatter of the data obtained at low resolutions. The results reveal the identical Λ-dependency versus the discretization resolution in all four packings, regular and random. While very small

  6. Precise Point Positioning Model Using Triple GNSS Constellations: GPS, Galileo and BeiDou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) post-processing model, which combines the observations of three different GNSS constellations, namely GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou and real-time PPP model. A drawback of a single GNSS system such as GPS, however, is the availability of sufficient number of visible satellites in urban areas. Combining GNSS observations offers more visible satellites to users, which in turn is expected to enhance the satellite geometry and the overall positioning solution. However, combining several GNSS observables introduces additional biases, which require rigorous modelling, including the GNSS time offsets and hardware delays. In this paper, a GNSS post-processing PPPP model is developed using ionosphere-free linear combination. The additional biases of the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou combination are accounted for through the introduction of a new unknown parameter, which is identified as the inter-system bias, in the PPP mathematical model. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS / Galileo / BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly inter-system bias. A total of four data sets at four IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the IGS-MGEX network are used to correct of the GPS, Galileo and BeiDou measurements. For the real-time PPP model the corrections of the satellites orbit and clock are obtained through the international GNSS service (IGS) real-time service (RTS). GPS and Galileo Observations are used for the GNSS RTS-IGS PPP model as the RTS-IGS satellite products are not available for BeiDou satellites. This paper provides the GNSS RTS-IGS PPP model using different satellite clock corrections namely: IGS01, IGC01, IGS01, and IGS03. All PPP models results of convergence time and positioning precision are compared to the traditional GPS-only PPP model. It is shown that combining

  7. Sensitivity Enhancement of Bead-based Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (BEIS) biosensor by electric field-focusing in microwells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Ji, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Jun, Seong Chan; Kang, Ji Yoon

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports a novel electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) biosensors that uses magnetic beads trapped in a microwell array to improve the sensitivity of conventional bead-based EIS (BEIS) biosensors. Unloading the previously measured beads by removing the magnetic bar enables the BEIS sensor to be used repeatedly by reloading it with new beads. Despite its recyclability, the sensitivity of conventional BEIS biosensors is so low that it has not attracted much attentions from the biosensor industry. We significantly improved the sensitivity of the BEIS system by introducing of a microwell array that contains two electrodes (a working electrode and a counter electrode) to concentrate the electric field on the surfaces of the beads. We confirmed that the performance of the BEIS sensor in a microwell array using an immunoassay of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in PBS buffer and human plasma. The experimental results showed that a low concentration of PSA (a few tens or hundreds of fg/mL) were detectable as a ratio of the changes in the impedance of the PBS buffer or in human plasma. Therefore, our BEIS sensor with a microwell array could be a promising platform for low cost, high-performance biosensors for applications that require high sensitivity and recyclability.

  8. A new empirical solar radiation pressure model for BeiDou GEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhong; Gu, Defeng; Ju, Bing; Shen, Zhen; Lai, Yuwang; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    Two classic empirical solar radiation pressure (SRP) models, the Extended Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) Orbit Model ECOM 5 and ECOM 9 have been widely used for Global Positioning System (GPS) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites precise orbit determination (POD). However, these two models are not suitable for BeiDou Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites due to their special attitude control mode. With the experimental design method this paper proposes a new empirical SRP model for BeiDou GEO satellites, which is featured by three constant terms in DYX directions, two sine terms in DX directions and one cosine term in the Y direction. It is the first time to reveal that the periodic terms in the D direction are more important than those in YX directions for BeiDou GEO satellites. Compared with ECOM 5 and ECOM 9, the BeiDou GEO satellite orbits are significantly stabilized with the new SRP force model. The average orbit overlapping root mean square (RMS) achieved by the proposed model is 7.5 cm in the radial component, which is evidently improved over those of 37.4 and 13.2 cm for ECOM 5 and ECOM 9, respectively. In addition, the correlation coefficients between GEO orbit overlaps precision and the elevation angle of the Sun have been decreased to -0.12, 0.21, and -0.03 in radial, along-track and cross-track components by using the proposed model, while they are -0.94, -0.79 and -0.29 for ECOM 5 and -0.70, 0.21 and 0.10 for ECOM 9. Moreover, the standard deviation (STD) of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data residuals for the GEO satellite C01 is reduced by 37.4% and 16.1% compared with those of ECOM 5 and ECOM 9 SRP models.

  9. A new analytical solar radiation pressure model for current BeiDou satellites: IGGBSPM

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bingfeng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Hsu, Hou Ze; Ou, Jikun

    2016-01-01

    An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively. Moreover, when IGGBSPM is used as an a priori model to enhance the ECOM (5-parameter) model with stochastic pulses, named ECOM + APR, for precise orbit determination, the SLR RMS residual improves by approximately 20–25 percent over the ECOM-only solution during the yaw-steering period and by approximately 40 percent during the yaw-fixed period. For the BeiDou GEO01 satellite, improvements of 18 and 32 percent can be achieved during the out-of-eclipse season and during the eclipse season, respectively. An investigation of the estimated ECOM D0 parameters indicated that the β-angle dependence that is evident in the ECOM-only solution is no longer present in the ECOM + APR solution. PMID:27595795

  10. Experimental Study on the Precise Orbit Determination of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better. PMID:23529116

  11. A new analytical solar radiation pressure model for current BeiDou satellites: IGGBSPM.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bingfeng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Hsu, Hou Ze; Ou, Jikun

    2016-09-06

    An analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, IGGBSPM (an abbreviation for Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics BeiDou Solar Pressure Model), has been developed for three BeiDou satellite types, namely, geostationary orbit (GEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO), based on a ray-tracing method. The performance of IGGBSPM was assessed based on numerical integration, SLR residuals and analyses of empirical SRP parameters (except overlap computations). The numerical results show that the integrated orbit resulting from IGGBSPM differs from the precise ephemerides by approximately 5 m and 2 m for GEO and non-GEO satellites, respectively. Moreover, when IGGBSPM is used as an a priori model to enhance the ECOM (5-parameter) model with stochastic pulses, named ECOM + APR, for precise orbit determination, the SLR RMS residual improves by approximately 20-25 percent over the ECOM-only solution during the yaw-steering period and by approximately 40 percent during the yaw-fixed period. For the BeiDou GEO01 satellite, improvements of 18 and 32 percent can be achieved during the out-of-eclipse season and during the eclipse season, respectively. An investigation of the estimated ECOM D0 parameters indicated that the β-angle dependence that is evident in the ECOM-only solution is no longer present in the ECOM + APR solution.

  12. Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    PubMed

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-03-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better.

  13. Effects of spin-orbit coupling on laser cooling of BeI and MgI.

    PubMed

    Wan, Mingjie; Huang, Duohui; Shao, Juxiang; Yu, You; Li, Song; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-10-28

    We present the ab initio study of spin-orbit coupling effects on laser cooling of BeI and MgI molecules. Potential energy curves for the X(2)Σ(+)(1/2), A(2)Π(1/2,3/2), and 2(2)Π(3/2,1/2) states are calculated using multi-reference configuration interaction method plus Davidson corrections. Spectroscopic parameters of BeI and MgI are in excellent agreement with available experimental and theoretical values. The A(2)Π(3/2) state of MgI is a repulsive state. It is an unsuitable scheme for the A(2)Π(3/2)(υ')← X(2)Σ(+)(1/2) (υ″) transition for laser cooling of MgI. Highly diagonally distributed Franck-Condon factors f00 for the A(2)Π(1/2,3/2) (υ' = 0) ← X(2)Σ(+)(1/2) (υ″ = 0) transitions and suitable radiative lifetimes τ for the A(2)Π(1/2,3/2) (υ' = 0) of BeI and MgI are obtained. Three laser wavelength drives are required for the A(2)Π(1/2,3/2)(υ')←X(2)Σ(+)(1/2) (υ″) transitions of BeI and MgI. The proposed cooling wavelengths of BeI and MgI are both in the violet region. The results imply the feasibility of laser cooling of BeI and MgI, and that laser cooling of BeI is more possible.

  14. Improving BeiDou real-time precise point positioning with numerical weather models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixian; Li, Xingxing; Zus, Florian; Heinkelmann, Robert; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Precise positioning with the current Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is proven to be of comparable accuracy to the Global Positioning System, which is at centimeter level for the horizontal components and sub-decimeter level for the vertical component. But the BeiDou precise point positioning (PPP) shows its limitation in requiring a relatively long convergence time. In this study, we develop a numerical weather model (NWM) augmented PPP processing algorithm to improve BeiDou precise positioning. Tropospheric delay parameters, i.e., zenith delays, mapping functions, and horizontal delay gradients, derived from short-range forecasts from the Global Forecast System of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) are applied into BeiDou real-time PPP. Observational data from stations that are capable of tracking the BeiDou constellation from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiments network are processed, with the introduced NWM-augmented PPP and the standard PPP processing. The accuracy of tropospheric delays derived from NCEP is assessed against with the IGS final tropospheric delay products. The positioning results show that an improvement in convergence time up to 60.0 and 66.7% for the east and vertical components, respectively, can be achieved with the NWM-augmented PPP solution compared to the standard PPP solutions, while only slight improvement in the solution convergence can be found for the north component. A positioning accuracy of 5.7 and 5.9 cm for the east component is achieved with the standard PPP that estimates gradients and the one that estimates no gradients, respectively, in comparison to 3.5 cm of the NWM-augmented PPP, showing an improvement of 38.6 and 40.1%. Compared to the accuracy of 3.7 and 4.1 cm for the north component derived from the two standard PPP solutions, the one of the NWM-augmented PPP solution is improved to 2.0 cm, by about 45.9 and 51.2%. The positioning accuracy for the up component

  15. Improving BeiDou real-time precise point positioning with numerical weather models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixian; Li, Xingxing; Zus, Florian; Heinkelmann, Robert; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2017-09-01

    Precise positioning with the current Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is proven to be of comparable accuracy to the Global Positioning System, which is at centimeter level for the horizontal components and sub-decimeter level for the vertical component. But the BeiDou precise point positioning (PPP) shows its limitation in requiring a relatively long convergence time. In this study, we develop a numerical weather model (NWM) augmented PPP processing algorithm to improve BeiDou precise positioning. Tropospheric delay parameters, i.e., zenith delays, mapping functions, and horizontal delay gradients, derived from short-range forecasts from the Global Forecast System of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) are applied into BeiDou real-time PPP. Observational data from stations that are capable of tracking the BeiDou constellation from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiments network are processed, with the introduced NWM-augmented PPP and the standard PPP processing. The accuracy of tropospheric delays derived from NCEP is assessed against with the IGS final tropospheric delay products. The positioning results show that an improvement in convergence time up to 60.0 and 66.7% for the east and vertical components, respectively, can be achieved with the NWM-augmented PPP solution compared to the standard PPP solutions, while only slight improvement in the solution convergence can be found for the north component. A positioning accuracy of 5.7 and 5.9 cm for the east component is achieved with the standard PPP that estimates gradients and the one that estimates no gradients, respectively, in comparison to 3.5 cm of the NWM-augmented PPP, showing an improvement of 38.6 and 40.1%. Compared to the accuracy of 3.7 and 4.1 cm for the north component derived from the two standard PPP solutions, the one of the NWM-augmented PPP solution is improved to 2.0 cm, by about 45.9 and 51.2%. The positioning accuracy for the up component

  16. Der Einfluss von Alitretinoin auf die Lebensqualität bei Patienten mit schwerem chronischen Handekzem: FUGETTA - Beobachtungsstudie unter Praxisbedingungen.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Matthias; Thaçi, Diamant; Kamps, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Alitretinoin ist die einzige zugelassene Behandlung für schweres chronisches Handekzem (CHE), das refraktär gegenüber potenten topischen Corticosteroiden ist. Bei dieser Studie (FUGETTA) wurde die Wirksamkeit von leitliniengerecht angewendetem oralem Alitretinoin sowie dessen Einfluss auf die Lebensqualität (LQ) bei Patienten mit schwerem refraktärem CHE beurteilt. Multizentrische, offene, nichtinterventionelle Beobachtungsstudie, durchgeführt in Deutschland. Die Patienten wurden nach Ermessen ihres behandelnden Arztes mit Alitretinoin 10 mg oder 30 mg einmal täglich über maximal 24 Wochen behandelt. Die Wirksamkeit wurde anhand des Physician Global Assessment (PGA) und des Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) bewertet. Zudem wurden unerwünschte Ereignisse (UE) erfasst. Die Studienpopulation bestand aus 658 Patienten (30 mg: n = 581; 10 mg: n = 77). Bei Beobachtungsbeginn litten die meisten Patienten (83 %) gemäß PGA an einem schweren CHE. Bei Beobachtungsende war das Handekzem bei 48 % der Patienten gemäß PGA vollständig oder fast vollständig abgeheilt (30 mg: 49 %; 10 mg: 43 %). Die mittlere Verbesserung des DLQI-Scores in Woche 24 betrug 58 % (30 mg: mittlere [SD] Veränderung gegenüber dem Ausgangswert -10,4 [8,04]) und 70 % (10 mg: mittlere [SD] Veränderung gegenüber dem Ausgangswert -10,8 [7,29]). Die Gesamtinzidenz von NW war niedrig und in den beiden Gruppen ähnlich. Alitretinoin führte zu einer schnellen, deutlichen Verbesserung der LQ bei Patienten mit schwerem CHE. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Retrospektive Analyse von Zufallsbefunden, die bei Patienten mit kutanem malignen Malignom durch (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-PET/CT erhoben wurden.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Franziska; Winkens, Thomas; Kaatz, Martin; Goetze, Steven; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Bei der (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (FDG-PET/CT) ergeben sich häufig Zufallsbefunde. In der vorliegenden Studie konzentrierten wir uns auf mittels FDG-PET/CT erhaltene Zufallsbefunde bei Patienten mit kutanem Melanom und überprüften deren Relevanz hinsichtlich weiterer diagnostischer Maßnahmen und Interventionen. Die Krankenakten von 181 konsekutiven Melanom-Patienten wurden retrospektiv ausgewertet, um das Management von Zufallsbefunden zu dokumentieren. Der Schwerpunkt lag dabei auf den histologischen Befunden. Bei 33 von 181 (18 %) Patienten lagen 39 relevante Zufallsbefunde vor, und zwar im Kolorektalbereich (n = 15 Patienten), in der Schilddrüse (n = 8), der Prostata (n = 2), dem Bewegungsapparat (n = 2), in Lymphknoten (n = 2), der Parotis (n = 1), den Mandeln (n = 1), den Nieren (n = 1) und der Gallenblase (n = 1). Bei 25 Patienten schlossen sich weitere diagnostische Verfahren an, wobei in 21 Fällen ein klinisches Korrelat nachgewiesen wurde. Bei 16 von 21 Patienten ergab sich eine Neoplasie, darunter fünf maligne Läsionen (vier Kolonkarzinome und ein Prostatakarzinom). Die Malignome wurden frühzeitig diagnostiziert und in der Mehrzahl der Fälle erfolgreich entfernt. Der Einsatz der FDG-PET/CT als Routine-Diagnostik wird in den Leitlinien empfohlen und ist indiziert bei malignem Melanom ab Stadium IIC. In dieser Studie wurden auf effektive Weise ansonsten nicht erkannte Krebserkrankungen, insbesondere Kolonkarzinome, detektiert. In den meisten Fällen war eine frühe Intervention möglich. Zufallsbefunde durch FDG-PET/CT sollten, unter Berücksichtigung des Zustands und der Wünsche des Patienten, mit den geeigneten diagnostischen Maßnahmen abgeklärt werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Monte Carlo estimation of uncertainties in BEIS3 emission outputs and their effects on uncertainties in chemical transport model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S. R.; Russell, A. G.; Wilkinson, J. G.; Vukovich, J.; Hansen, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) probabilistic approach is used to estimate uncertainties in the emissions outputs of the Biogenics Emission Inventory System Version 3 (BEIS3) model and subsequent ozone outputs of three Chemical Transport Models (CTMs) due to uncertainties in many key BEIS3 biogenics emissions model parameters and inputs. BEIS3 was developed by the Environmental Protection Agency to estimate emissions of biogenic substances such as isoprene, monoterpenes, oxygenated and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), and biogenic nitric oxide (BNO). Uncertainties are investigated for three time periods, 24-29 May, 11-15 July, and 4-9 September 1995, which are ozone episodes that have been extensively studied by others as part of emissions control planning exercises. In the MC approach, 1000 samples are drawn randomly and independently from seventeen BEIS3 parameters and inputs, whose distribution shapes and variances are determined from literature reviews. The 95% confidence range on the calculated uncertainties in isoprene and BNO emissions cover approximately an order of magnitude. On the other hand, the 95% confidence ranges on the calculated uncertainties in monoterpenes and OVOC emissions are much smaller: about ±20%. Correlations are calculated between the 1000 MC samples of pairs of variations in model parameters or inputs and variations in BEIS3 daily emissions estimates for individual grid squares. A few significant correlations are found for some of the assumed model parameters. The MC uncertainties in the CTM-predicted 1- and 8-hour averaged ozone concentrations were studied by drawing 20 random samples from the 1000 sets of BEIS3 outputs and running each CTM (MAQSIP, UAM-V, and URM) 20 times for the three episodes. The estimated total uncertainties of ±15 to 20% are found to be nearly the same for the three CTMs over the three time periods, for 1- and 8-hour averages.

  19. Performance Analysis of Dual-hop MIMO Relay Systems with MRT&RAS in the Presence of Co-channel Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Cai, Yueming; Yang, Weiwei

    2013-09-01

    This paper focuses on the downlink dual-hop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems that employ the maximal-ratio transmission and receive antenna selection scheme (MRT&RAS) for use in each hop. The system under consideration is equipped with arbitrary NS, NR, and ND antennas at the base station (BS), relay station (RS), and mobile station (MS), respectively. The system performance has been investigated over Nakagami-m fading in presence of independent but not necessarily identically distributed co-channel interferences (CCIs) at both the RS and MS. First, we derive an accurate closed-form approximate expression for the outage probability and a single-integral expression for the average symbol error rate (SER), respectively. Besides, to render direct insights into the combined effect of multiple-antenna and interference on the system performance, the asymptotic expressions for the outage probability and the average SER are also presented. Furthermore, we determine the optimal power allocation (OPA) by using the exact and asymptotic methods, respectively, such that the outage probability is minimized. Finally, numerical results validate the correctness of the derived expressions and show that OPA offers superior performance over uniform power allocation. Our analysis and results provide insights on investigating and optimizing the performance of the downlink MIMO relay transmission in practical interference-limited wireless networks.

  20. Reuse of the NASA LP DAAC MODIS Reprojection Tool (MRT) and the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis) for the Development of the LP DAAC Web-Based MODIS Reprojection Tool (MRTWeb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohre, T.; Sauer, B.; Maiersperger, T.; Macie, M.; Miller, W.

    2007-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) was established as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) initiative to process, archive, and distribute land-related data collected by EOS sensors, thereby promoting the inter-disciplinary study and understanding of the integrated Earth system. The role of the LP DAAC includes the higher-level processing and distribution of ASTER data, and the distribution of MODIS land products derived from data acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites. The LP DAAC anticipated that the community of land data users would need special software tools for handling the Level-3 MODIS land data products that would be distributed in HDF-EOS format and in the ISIN projection. The development of the MODIS Reprojection Tool (MRT) enabled users to read data files in HDF-EOS format (MODIS Level-2G, Level-3, and Level-4 land data products), specify a geographic subset or specific science data sets as input to processing, perform geographic transformation to a different coordinate system/cartographic projection, write the output to file formats other than HDF-EOS. Additional information regarding the MRT including links to download the software can be found at: http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/landdaac/tools/modis/index.asp. The LP DAAC has utilized the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis) as one method of data search and order. GloVis is a quick and easy online search and order tool for selected satellite data. The viewer allows user- friendly access to all available browse images from a number of Landsat data collections as well as ASTER, MODIS, and EO-1 data. Through a graphic map display, the user can select any area of interest and quickly view all available browse images within the USGS inventory for the specified location. GloVis can be run online at http://glovis.usgs.gov/ and the source code and be downloaded from: https://glovis.usgs.gov/distribution/. The LP DAAC saw an opportunity to

  1. Untersuchung der Störwirkung von LTE auf SRD Anwendungen bei 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welpot, M.; Wunderlich, S.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    Moderne Hausautomatisierungssysteme, Alarmanlagen oder auch Funk-Zugangssysteme in Haus und Automobil setzen auf frei nutzbare Frequenzen in ISM/SRD-Bändern. Die rasante Zunahme an privaten und kommerziell genutzten Applikationen im SRD-Band bei 868 MHz und der Ausbau der LTE-Mobilfunknetze im Frequenzbereich unterhalb von 1 GHz ("Digital Dividend") wirft zunehmend die Frage nach der Funkverträglichkeit dieser Systeme untereinander auf. Während die SRD-Funkmodule auf eine geringe Sendeleistung von ~ +14 dBm beschränkt sind (Ralf and Thomas, 2009), beträgt die maximale LTE-Sendeleistung im Uplink nach (ETSI-Norm, 2011) +23 dBm. Zusammen mit der Einführung von LTE im Frequenzbereich unterhalb 1 GHz als DSL-Ersatz vor allem in ländlichen Gebieten, ergibt sich damit als mögliches Störszenario, dass durch die Aussendung des LTE-Endgerätes im Bereich von ca. 850 MHz die SRD-Funkverbindungen bei 868 MHz insbesondere dann gestört werden, wenn die Antennen beider Funksysteme räumlich nahe zueinander angeordnet sind und folglich nur eine geringe zusätzliche Entkopplung der Systeme bieten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das LTE-Störpotential auf SRD-Empfänger praxisnah untersucht.

  2. Global Ionospheric Modelling using Multi-GNSS: BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS and GPS.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Keke; Yuan, Yongqiang; Li, Xingxing

    2016-09-15

    The emergence of China's Beidou, Europe's Galileo and Russia's GLONASS satellites has multiplied the number of ionospheric piercing points (IPP) offered by GPS alone. This provides great opportunities for deriving precise global ionospheric maps (GIMs) with high resolution to improve positioning accuracy and ionospheric monitoring capabilities. In this paper, the GIM is developed based on multi-GNSS (GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo) observations in the current multi-constellation condition. The performance and contribution of multi-GNSS for ionospheric modelling are carefully analysed and evaluated. Multi-GNSS observations of over 300 stations from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and International GNSS Service (IGS) networks for two months are processed. The results show that the multi-GNSS GIM products are better than those of GIM products based on GPS-only. Differential code biases (DCB) are by-products of the multi-GNSS ionosphere modelling, the corresponding standard deviations (STDs) are 0.06 ns, 0.10 ns, 0.18 ns and 0.15 ns for GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo, respectively in satellite, and the STDs for the receiver are approximately 0.2~0.4 ns. The single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) results indicate that the ionospheric modelling accuracy of the proposed method based on multi-GNSS observations is better than that of the current dual-system GIM in specific areas.

  3. Comparison and Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Single-system Precise Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. P.; Hao, J. M.; Deng, K.; Chen, Y. L.

    2016-09-01

    The method of double-difference dynamic precise orbit determination for BeiDou satellites by using both carrier phase and smoothed pseudo-range is presented. The data processing flows of zero-difference and double-difference dynamic precise orbit determination for BeiDou satellites are presented. And the two methods are analyzed. The precision of two methods is compared based on the real data. The results show that in the condition of stations layout and by using the two methods, the three-dimension precision of GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite) can reach about 1 m, and those of IGSO (Inclined Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite) and MEO (Medium Earth Orbit Satellite) can be better than 0.5 m. And the radial precision of the three kinds of orbit satellites can be all better than 10 cm. Compared with the zero-difference dynamic method, the orbit precision of GEO is better with the double-difference dynamic method, and that of IGSO is comparable, but that of MEO is worse.

  4. An improved method for eliminating BeiDou satellite induced code bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohong; Pan, Lin

    2016-04-01

    The BeiDou satellite induced code biases have serious impact on precise positioning which use code measurements. According to the characteristic of code biases which have been confirmed orbit type-, frequency-, and elevation-dependent, an improved method is proposed in this contribution by processing the data from 12 months in 2015 to reduce their adverse effects. Different from the model put forward by Wanninger and Beer (2015),more data sets were used to produce the correction values as weighted least squares and robust estimation were used to build up more accurate model for all IGSO satellites and MEO satellites. The additional method for GEO satellites is applying sidereal filtering to help minimize the code biases. The result of improved method shows that the systematic variations have been eliminated more clearly and the positioning accuracy of PPP solution were better than using traditional model proposed by Wanninger and Beer as well as convergence speed. In addition, the systematic variations in MW combination which serve for ambiguity fixing were removed as well. Morever, after application of the code bias correction method, the convergence time of MW combinations and the fixing rate of DD wide-lane ambiguity resolution have been improved. Key words: BeiDou; code bias; weighted least squares ; robust estimation; Precise Positioning; MW combination; ambiguity resolution

  5. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's guide for an updated Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS2), allowing users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and soil nitrogen oxide emissions for any county in the contig...

  6. A Modified Differential Coherent Bit Synchronization Algorithm for BeiDou Weak Signals with Large Frequency Deviation.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhifeng; Liu, Jianye; Li, Rongbing; Zeng, Qinghua; Wang, Yi

    2017-07-04

    BeiDou system navigation messages are modulated with a secondary NH (Neumann-Hoffman) code of 1 kbps, where frequent bit transitions limit the coherent integration time to 1 millisecond. Therefore, a bit synchronization algorithm is necessary to obtain bit edges and NH code phases. In order to realize bit synchronization for BeiDou weak signals with large frequency deviation, a bit synchronization algorithm based on differential coherent and maximum likelihood is proposed. Firstly, a differential coherent approach is used to remove the effect of frequency deviation, and the differential delay time is set to be a multiple of bit cycle to remove the influence of NH code. Secondly, the maximum likelihood function detection is used to improve the detection probability of weak signals. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to analyze the detection performance of the proposed algorithm compared with a traditional algorithm under the CN0s of 20~40 dB-Hz and different frequency deviations. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional method with a frequency deviation of 50 Hz. This algorithm can remove the effect of BeiDou NH code effectively and weaken the influence of frequency deviation. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, real data tests are conducted. The proposed algorithm is suitable for BeiDou weak signal bit synchronization with large frequency deviation.

  7. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's guide for an updated Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS2), allowing users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and soil nitrogen oxide emissions for any county in the contig...

  8. INTEGRATION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS3) INTO THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of biogenic emissions for regional air quality modeling is generally recognized [Guenther et al., 2000]. Since the 1980s, biogenic emission estimates have been derived from algorithms such as the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) [Pierce et. al., 1998]....

  9. INTEGRATION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS3) INTO THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of biogenic emissions for regional air quality modeling is generally recognized [Guenther et al., 2000]. Since the 1980s, biogenic emission estimates have been derived from algorithms such as the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) [Pierce et. al., 1998]....

  10. [Cardiodoron® bei Patienten mit Schlafstörungen - Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Beobachtungsstudie].

    PubMed

    Rother, Claudia; Schnelle, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Schlafstörungen gehören zu den häufigsten gesundheitlichen Problemen der heutigen Zeit. Stress und die dadurch bedingte innere Anspannung sowie eine unrhythmische Lebensführung z.B. durch Schichtarbeit sind bekannte auslösende Faktoren. Weniger bekannt ist, dass auch funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden zu Störungen des Schlafs führen können und dass deren Behandlung zu einer Verbesserung der Schlafqualität beiträgt. Ganzheitlich betrachtet geht es daher um die Wiederherstellung einer gesunden Rhythmik, insbesondere des Herz-/Atem- sowie des Schlaf-Wach-Rhythmus, die Cardiodoron®, eine Heilpflanzenkomposition aus Primula veris, Hyoscyamus niger und Onopordum acanthium, unterstützt. Patienten und Methoden: Mittels einer prospektiven, multizentrischen Beobachtungsstudie sollte ermittelt werden, wie sich funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden und/oder Schlafstörungen unter der Behandlung mit Cardiodoron® (Dilution) über 3-6 Monate entwickeln. Im Zeitraum von September 2009 bis März 2012 dokumentierten 92 Ärzte 501 Patienten, von denen 380 über Schlafstörungen klagten und deren Daten in dieser Publikation näher betrachtet werden. Nach einer Aufnahmeuntersuchung erfolgte nach 90 Tagen eine Abschlussuntersuchung und bei Fortführung der Therapie nach nochmals 90 Tagen eine Follow-up-Untersuchung. Neben 30 ärztlicherseits bewerteten Symptomen beurteilten die Patienten ihr Befinden mittels Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) nach Buysse und der Beschwerden-Liste nach von Zerssen (B-L und B-L'). Ergebnisse: Unter der Cardiodoron®-Therapie gingen bei guter Verträglichkeit sowohl die Ausprägung der Schlafstörungen (um 65% von 2,0 auf 0,7 Punkte) als auch die erfassten 30 Symptome (um 59% von 24,3 auf 9,9 Punkte) deutlich zurück (p < 0,01). Weiterhin reduzierten sich der PSQI und der Gesamtwert der Beschwerden-Liste signifikant (p < 0,0001) um 60% bzw. 56% (von 12,2 auf 4,8 bzw. von 25,6 auf 11,4 Punkte). Schlussfolgerungen: Bei

  11. Analysis on coverage ability of BeiDou navigation satellite system for manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sihao; Yao, Zheng; Zhuang, Xuebin; Lu, Mingquan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the service ability of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) for manned spacecraft, both the current regional and the future-planned global constellations of BDS are introduced and simulated. The orbital parameters of the International Space Station and China's Tiangong-1 spacelab are used to create the simulation scenario and evaluate the performance of the BDS constellations. The number of visible satellites and the position dilution (PDOP) of precision at the spacecraft-based receiver are evaluated. Simulation and analysis show quantitative results on the coverage ability and time percentages of both the current BDS regional and future global constellations for manned-space orbits which can be a guideline to the applications and mission design of BDS receivers on manned spacecraft.

  12. Preface: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/GNSS+: Recent progress and new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the new China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been developed well. At the end of 2016, over 23 BDS satellites were launched, including five geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites, five inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites and nine medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The current BDS service covers China and most Asia-Pacific regions with accuracy of better than 10 m in positioning, 0.2 m/s in velocity and 50 ns in timing. The BDS with global coverage will be completely established by 2020 with five GEO satellites and 30 MEO satellites. The main function of BDS is the positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) as well as short message communications. Together with the United States' GPS, Russia's GLONASS and the European Union's Galileo system as well as other regional augmentation systems, more new applications of multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) will be exploited and realized in the next decades.

  13. Min Bei Irradiation Center Food and Agriculture Organization project experience Jianou, Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Bruce John; Dan, Xu; Jingzhang, Ren

    1993-07-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), a Unitede Nations Organization, in an effort to increase food supplies by post harvest irradiation treatment participated in the development of the Min Bei Irradiation Center(MBIC) Located in Fujian Province, China. FAO inconjunction with Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research and Design Institute(SNERDI), MBIC staff, and the Ministry of Agriculture completed Project TCP CPR 6763/8961 culminating in the recent comissioning of one of China's nesest irradiation facilities. From the feasibility phase initiated in 1986, through the construction period and the eventual commissioning in 1991 FAO participated in the technical overview of the irradiation center. MBIC was developed both as a research and development center as well as a production irradiation facility for the primary purposes of reduction of post harvest food loss in Fujian Province. This retrospective review of the project provides a hindsight view for the development of MBIC.

  14. The Ionospheric Scintillation Effects on the BeiDou Signal Receiver

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhijun; Zhao, Hongbo; Feng, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Irregularities in the Earth’s ionosphere can make the amplitude and phase of radio signals fluctuate rapidly, which is known as ionospheric scintillation. Severe ionospheric scintillation could affect the performance of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Currently, the Multiple Phase Screen (MPS) technique is widely used in solving problems caused by weak and strong scintillations. Considering that Southern China is mainly located in the area where moderate and intense scintillation occur frequently, this paper built a model based on the MPS technique and discussed the scintillation impacts on China’s BeiDou navigation system. By using the BeiDou B1I signal, this paper analyzed the scintillation effects on the receiver, which includes the acquisition and tracking process. For acquisition process, this paper focused on the correlation peak and acquisition probability. For the tracking process, this paper focused on the carrier tracking loop and the code tracking loop. Simulation results show that under high scintillation intensity, the phase fluctuation could be −1.13 ± 0.087 rad to 1.40 ± 0.087 rad and the relative amplitude fluctuation could be −10 dB to 8 dB. As the scintillation intensity increased, the average correlation peak would decrease more than 8%, which could thus degrade acquisition performance. On the other hand, when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is comparatively lower, the influence of strong scintillation on the phase locked loop (PLL) is much higher than that of weak scintillation. As the scintillation becomes more intense, PLL variance could consequently results in an error of more than 2.02 cm in carrier-phase based ranging. In addition, the delay locked loop (DLL) simulation results indicated that the pseudo-range error caused by strong scintillation could be more than 4 m and the consequent impact on positioning accuracy could be more than 6 m. PMID:27834867

  15. The Ionospheric Scintillation Effects on the BeiDou Signal Receiver.

    PubMed

    He, Zhijun; Zhao, Hongbo; Feng, Wenquan

    2016-11-09

    Irregularities in the Earth's ionosphere can make the amplitude and phase of radio signals fluctuate rapidly, which is known as ionospheric scintillation. Severe ionospheric scintillation could affect the performance of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Currently, the Multiple Phase Screen (MPS) technique is widely used in solving problems caused by weak and strong scintillations. Considering that Southern China is mainly located in the area where moderate and intense scintillation occur frequently, this paper built a model based on the MPS technique and discussed the scintillation impacts on China's BeiDou navigation system. By using the BeiDou B1I signal, this paper analyzed the scintillation effects on the receiver, which includes the acquisition and tracking process. For acquisition process, this paper focused on the correlation peak and acquisition probability. For the tracking process, this paper focused on the carrier tracking loop and the code tracking loop. Simulation results show that under high scintillation intensity, the phase fluctuation could be -1.13 ± 0.087 rad to 1.40 ± 0.087 rad and the relative amplitude fluctuation could be -10 dB to 8 dB. As the scintillation intensity increased, the average correlation peak would decrease more than 8%, which could thus degrade acquisition performance. On the other hand, when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is comparatively lower, the influence of strong scintillation on the phase locked loop (PLL) is much higher than that of weak scintillation. As the scintillation becomes more intense, PLL variance could consequently results in an error of more than 2.02 cm in carrier-phase based ranging. In addition, the delay locked loop (DLL) simulation results indicated that the pseudo-range error caused by strong scintillation could be more than 4 m and the consequent impact on positioning accuracy could be more than 6 m.

  16. Ionenquelle mit Plasma-Anregung durch Mikrowellen bei Elektronen-Zyklotron-Resonanz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, K.; Weissmantel, C.

    Mit der Mikrowellen-Entladung bei Zyklotron-Resonanz ist eine effektive Plasma-Anregung möglich; es lassen sich Ionisationsgrade um 0,1 in Edel- und Reaktivgasen erreichen. Die Nutzung für Ionenquellen bietet gegenüber der unselbständigen Niederdruck-Bogenentladung eine Reihe von Vorteilen, insbesondere durch den Wegfall der Glühkatode. Es wird eine Breitstrahl-Ionenquelle beschrieben, die bei einer Extraktionsspannung von 1 kV Ionenströme bis zu 150 mA liefert. Die Ionenstromdichte läßt sich über einen Strahldurchmesser von 150 mm weitgehend konstant halten. Damit erfüllt die Mikrowellen-Ionenquelle Forderungen, wie sie beim Einsatz von Ionenstrahlverfahren in der Mikroelektronik gestellt werden.Translated AbstractIon Source with Plasma Generation by Microwaves in Electron Cyclotron ResonanceThe microwave discharge operated at cyclotron resonance allows to achieve an effective plasma generation; degrees of ionization of about 0,1 are feasible. The utilization in ion sources offers compared with non-selfsustained are discharges several advantages, in particular because the hot cathode is emitted. A broad-beam ion source is described which yields ion currents up to 150 mA at an extraction voltage of 1 kV. The ion current density could be maintained nearly constant over a beam diameter of 150 mm. Hence, the microwave ion source is shown to match the requirements for applications of ion beam processes in microelectronics.

  17. Global Ionospheric Modelling using Multi-GNSS: BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS and GPS

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Keke; Yuan, Yongqiang; Li, Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of China’s Beidou, Europe’s Galileo and Russia’s GLONASS satellites has multiplied the number of ionospheric piercing points (IPP) offered by GPS alone. This provides great opportunities for deriving precise global ionospheric maps (GIMs) with high resolution to improve positioning accuracy and ionospheric monitoring capabilities. In this paper, the GIM is developed based on multi-GNSS (GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo) observations in the current multi-constellation condition. The performance and contribution of multi-GNSS for ionospheric modelling are carefully analysed and evaluated. Multi-GNSS observations of over 300 stations from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and International GNSS Service (IGS) networks for two months are processed. The results show that the multi-GNSS GIM products are better than those of GIM products based on GPS-only. Differential code biases (DCB) are by-products of the multi-GNSS ionosphere modelling, the corresponding standard deviations (STDs) are 0.06 ns, 0.10 ns, 0.18 ns and 0.15 ns for GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo, respectively in satellite, and the STDs for the receiver are approximately 0.2~0.4 ns. The single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) results indicate that the ionospheric modelling accuracy of the proposed method based on multi-GNSS observations is better than that of the current dual-system GIM in specific areas. PMID:27629988

  18. Real-time retrieval of precipitable water vapor from GPS and BeiDou observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixian; Li, Xingxing; Nilsson, Tobias; Ning, Tong; Heinkelmann, Robert; Ge, Maorong; Glaser, Susanne; Schuh, Harald

    2015-09-01

    The rapid development of the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) brings a promising prospect for the real-time retrieval of zenith tropospheric delays (ZTD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV), which is of great benefit for supporting the time-critical meteorological applications such as nowcasting or severe weather event monitoring. In this study, we develop a real-time ZTD/PWV processing method based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and BDS observations. The performance of ZTD and PWV derived from BDS observations using real-time precise point positioning (PPP) technique is carefully investigated. The contribution of combining BDS and GPS for ZTD/PWV retrieving is evaluated as well. GPS and BDS observations of a half-year period for 40 globally distributed stations from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment and BeiDou Experiment Tracking Network are processed. The results show that the real-time BDS-only ZTD series agree well with the GPS-only ZTD series in general: the RMS values are about 11-16 mm (about 2-3 mm in PWV). Furthermore, the real-time ZTD derived from GPS-only, BDS-only, and GPS/BDS combined solutions are compared with those derived from the Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The comparisons show that the BDS can contribute to real-time meteorological applications, slightly less accurately than GPS. More accurate and reliable water vapor estimates, about 1.3-1.8 mm in PWV, can be obtained if the BDS observations are combined with the GPS observations in the real-time PPP data processing. The PWV comparisons with radiosondes further confirm the performance of BDS-derived real-time PWV and the benefit of adding BDS to standard GPS processing.

  19. Global Ionospheric Modelling using Multi-GNSS: BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Keke; Yuan, Yongqiang; Li, Xingxing

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of China’s Beidou, Europe’s Galileo and Russia’s GLONASS satellites has multiplied the number of ionospheric piercing points (IPP) offered by GPS alone. This provides great opportunities for deriving precise global ionospheric maps (GIMs) with high resolution to improve positioning accuracy and ionospheric monitoring capabilities. In this paper, the GIM is developed based on multi-GNSS (GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo) observations in the current multi-constellation condition. The performance and contribution of multi-GNSS for ionospheric modelling are carefully analysed and evaluated. Multi-GNSS observations of over 300 stations from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and International GNSS Service (IGS) networks for two months are processed. The results show that the multi-GNSS GIM products are better than those of GIM products based on GPS-only. Differential code biases (DCB) are by-products of the multi-GNSS ionosphere modelling, the corresponding standard deviations (STDs) are 0.06 ns, 0.10 ns, 0.18 ns and 0.15 ns for GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo, respectively in satellite, and the STDs for the receiver are approximately 0.2~0.4 ns. The single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) results indicate that the ionospheric modelling accuracy of the proposed method based on multi-GNSS observations is better than that of the current dual-system GIM in specific areas.

  20. Reduktion der Invasivität bei nadelbasierter Bewegungskompensation für navigierte Eingriffe im Abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier-Hein, L.; Tekbas, A.; Franz, A. M.; Tetzlaff, R.; Müller, S. A.; Pianka, F.; Wolf, I.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Schmied, B. M.; Meinzer, H.-P.

    Diese Arbeit stellt eine in-vivo Genauigkeitsstudie über das Kombinieren interner und externer Marker für die Bewegungskompensation bei Leberinterventionen vor. Abhängig von der Anzahl und Anordnung der verwendeten Marker sowie der angewandten Echtzeittransformation wurde bei kontinuierlicher Atmung eine Schätzgenauigkeit der Zielposition zwischen 1 und 5 mm erreicht. Das Hinzufügen einer einzigen Hilfsnadel zu einer Menge von Hautmarkern führte zu einer Fehlerreduktion von über 50%. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie können in der Praxis verwendet werden, um basierend auf dem Tradeoff zwischen geringer Invasivität und hoher Genauigkeit eine geeignete Kombination von internen und externen Markern für eine gegebene Fragestellung zu wählen.

  1. Kombinierte Hoch-/Niedrig-Dosis-Therapie mit systemischen Glukokor-tikoiden bei schweren Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata im Kindesalter.

    PubMed

    Jahn-Bassler, Karin; Bauer, Wolfgang Michael; Karlhofer, Franz; Vossen, Matthias G; Stingl, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Schwere Verlaufsformen der Alopecia areata (AA) im Kindesalter sind aufgrund limitierter Optionen therapeutisch herausfordernd. Systemische, hochdosierte Glukokortikoide weisen die schnellste Ansprechrate auf, nach dem Absetzen kommt es allerdings zu Rezidiven. Eine längerfristige Hochdosis-Anwendung ist aufgrund der zu erwartenden Nebenwirkungen nicht empfehlenswert. Eine dauerhafte Steroiderhaltungstherapie unterhalb der Cushing-Schwellen-Dosis nach Bolustherapie könnte die Krankheitsaktivität ohne Nebenwirkungen längerfristig unterdrücken. Im Rahmen einer offenen Anwendungsbeobachtung wurden 13 Kinder mit schweren Formen der AA in diese Studie eingeschlossen. Bei sieben Kindern lag eine AA totalis/universalis vor, bei sechs eine multifokale AA mit Befall von mehr als 50 % der Kopfhaut. Das Therapieregime sah eine initiale Prednisolon-Dosierung von 2 mg/kg Körpergeweicht (KG) vor und wurde innerhalb von neun Wochen auf eine Erhaltungsdosierung unter der individuellen Cushing-Schwelle reduziert. Der Nachbeobachtungszeitraum betrug ein bis drei Jahre. Wir beobachteten in 62 % aller Fälle ein komplettes Nachwachsen der Haare. Die mittlere Dauer bis zum Ansprechen lag bei 6,6 Wochen und konnte mit der Erhaltungstherapie über den gesamten Beobachtungszeitraum aufrechterhalten werden. An Nebenwirkungen wurden ausschließlich eine Gewichtszunahme (1-3 kg) bei allen Behandelten sowie eine milde Steroidakne in 23 % der Fälle beobachtet. Die kombinierte Hoch-/Niedrig-Dosis-Therapie mit systemischen Glukokortikoiden mittels Prednisolon zeigte eine hohe, dauerhafte Ansprechrate ohne signifikante Nebenwirkungen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of improved land use and canopy representation in BEIS v3.61 with biogenic VOC measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Jesse O.; Baker, Kirk R.; Beaver, Melinda R.

    2016-06-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) participate in reactions that can lead to secondarily formed ozone and particulate matter (PM) impacting air quality and climate. BVOC emissions are important inputs to chemical transport models applied on local to global scales but considerable uncertainty remains in the representation of canopy parameterizations and emission algorithms from different vegetation species. The Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) has been used to support both scientific and regulatory model assessments for ozone and PM. Here we describe a new version of BEIS which includes updated input vegetation data and canopy model formulation for estimating leaf temperature and vegetation data on estimated BVOC. The Biogenic Emission Landuse Database (BELD) was revised to incorporate land use data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land product and 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) land coverage. Vegetation species data are based on the US Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) version 5.1 for 2002-2013 and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2007 census of agriculture data. This update results in generally higher BVOC emissions throughout California compared with the previous version of BEIS. Baseline and updated BVOC emission estimates are used in Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model simulations with 4 km grid resolution and evaluated with measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes taken during multiple field campaigns in northern California. The updated canopy model coupled with improved land use and vegetation representation resulted in better agreement between CMAQ isoprene and monoterpene estimates compared with these observations.

  3. Accuracy and reliability of multi-GNSS real-time precise positioning: GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maorong; Dai, Xiaolei; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-06-01

    In this contribution, we present a GPS+GLONASS+BeiDou+Galileo four-system model to fully exploit the observations of all these four navigation satellite systems for real-time precise orbit determination, clock estimation and positioning. A rigorous multi-GNSS analysis is performed to achieve the best possible consistency by processing the observations from different GNSS together in one common parameter estimation procedure. Meanwhile, an efficient multi-GNSS real-time precise positioning service system is designed and demonstrated by using the multi-GNSS Experiment, BeiDou Experimental Tracking Network, and International GNSS Service networks including stations all over the world. The statistical analysis of the 6-h predicted orbits show that the radial and cross root mean square (RMS) values are smaller than 10 cm for BeiDou and Galileo, and smaller than 5 cm for both GLONASS and GPS satellites, respectively. The RMS values of the clock differences between real-time and batch-processed solutions for GPS satellites are about 0.10 ns, while the RMS values for BeiDou, Galileo and GLONASS are 0.13, 0.13 and 0.14 ns, respectively. The addition of the BeiDou, Galileo and GLONASS systems to the standard GPS-only processing, reduces the convergence time almost by 70 %, while the positioning accuracy is improved by about 25 %. Some outliers in the GPS-only solutions vanish when multi-GNSS observations are processed simultaneous. The availability and reliability of GPS precise positioning decrease dramatically as the elevation cutoff increases. However, the accuracy of multi-GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) is hardly decreased and few centimeter are still achievable in the horizontal components even with 40 elevation cutoff. At 30 and 40 elevation cutoffs, the availability rates of GPS-only solution drop significantly to only around 70 and 40 %, respectively. However, multi-GNSS PPP can provide precise position estimates continuously (availability rate is more than 99

  4. Airborne pseudolite aiding BeiDou system to improve positioning precision in low latitude areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weihua; Yuan, Jianping; Luo, Jianjun

    2005-11-01

    The BeiDou System (BDS), which has three satellites in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), is a regional satellite navigation system of China and its positioning performance is notorious in low latitude areas. The two mending plans using Airborne Pseudolite (APL) aiding BDS to improve navigation precision in such areas are put forward. Plan I uses three BDS satellites and one APS to supply navigation data and Plan II employs two BDS satellites, one APS and altimeter to work. Both of the plans adopt point positioning with code pseudo-range algorithm. Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP), which is calculated by Positioning Error Transfer Coefficient Matrix (PETCM), is used to evaluate the positioning performance of new plans. PETCM is predigested when user is in low latitude areas. The key elements of predigested PETCM that effect the Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) are analyzed. The character of GDOP is forecasted easily with the predigested PETCM. The simulations show that the precision of plans are expected to be hundreds of meters except some region where the latitudes of user and APL are close to each other and Plan II is better than plan I. The phenomenal consists with the theoretical analysis.

  5. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. BeiDou Signal Acquisition with Neumann-Hoffman Code Modulation in a Degraded Channel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Liu, Aimeng; Ding, Jicheng; Wang, Jing

    2017-02-09

    With the modernization of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), secondary codes, also known as the Neumann-Hoffman (NH) codes, are modulated on the satellite signal to obtain a better positioning performance. However, this leads to an attenuation of the acquisition sensitivity of classic integration algorithms because of the frequent bit transitions that refer to the NH codes. Taking weak BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) signals as objects, the present study analyzes the side effect of NH codes on acquisition in detail and derives a straightforward formula, which indicates that bit transitions decrease the frequency accuracy. To meet the requirement of carrier-tracking loop initialization, a frequency recalculation algorithm is proposed based on verified fast Fourier transform (FFT) to mitigate the effect, meanwhile, the starting point of NH codes is found. Then, a differential correction is utilized to improve the acquisition accuracy of code phase. Monte Carlo simulations and real BDS data tests demonstrate that the new structure is superior to the conventional algorithms both in detection probability and frequency accuracy in a degraded channel.

  7. BeiDou Signal Acquisition with Neumann–Hoffman Code Modulation in a Degraded Channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Liu, Aimeng; Ding, Jicheng; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    With the modernization of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), secondary codes, also known as the Neumann–Hoffman (NH) codes, are modulated on the satellite signal to obtain a better positioning performance. However, this leads to an attenuation of the acquisition sensitivity of classic integration algorithms because of the frequent bit transitions that refer to the NH codes. Taking weak BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) signals as objects, the present study analyzes the side effect of NH codes on acquisition in detail and derives a straightforward formula, which indicates that bit transitions decrease the frequency accuracy. To meet the requirement of carrier-tracking loop initialization, a frequency recalculation algorithm is proposed based on verified fast Fourier transform (FFT) to mitigate the effect, meanwhile, the starting point of NH codes is found. Then, a differential correction is utilized to improve the acquisition accuracy of code phase. Monte Carlo simulations and real BDS data tests demonstrate that the new structure is superior to the conventional algorithms both in detection probability and frequency accuracy in a degraded channel. PMID:28208776

  8. Radio Frequency Compatibility Evaluation of S Band Navigation Signals for Future BeiDou.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanbo; Xue, Rui; Zhao, Danfeng; Wang, Dun

    2017-05-05

    With L band frequency allocations for satellite navigation getting more crowded, S band (2483.5-2500 MHz) is already allocated for navigation services, where Globalstar broadcasts downlink communications to user terminals. The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is transmitting navigation signals and Galileo exploits some potential signals in S band. Also, several candidate S band signals based on binary offset carrier (BOC), binary phase shift keying (BPSK), continuous phase modulation (CPM) and minimum shift keying-BOC (MSK-BOC) are suggested for BeiDou system (BDS). In quite narrow S band, mutual interference among these systems is inevitable, thus the compatibility issue is particularly significant for S band signal design. To explore desired S band signals for BDS, the paper firstly describes a comprehensive compatibility evaluation methods based on effective carrier-to-noise ratio degradation for acquisition and code tracking. Then a real simulation is established using space constellations, modulation schemes and received power. Finally, the worst mutual interference of BDS candidate signals with Galileo, IRNSS and Globalstar is calculated and compared. The results indicate that CPM signal is easier to allow peaceful coexistence of other systems with minimal mutual interference in S band compared to other BDS candidates.

  9. Using BeiDou system for precise positioning in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniak, Dawid; Cellmer, Slawomir; Nowel, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    In 2012 the Chinese navigation satellite system called BeiDou System (BDS) has reached the regional operational capabilities over the area of East Asia. Currently the BDS system consists of 5 medium orbit satellites MEO, 6 geosynchronous satellites IGSO and 5 geostationary satellites GEO and provides regional coverage by its navigation signals. Also in Europe BDS satellites can be used to determine position. In 2015 the third phase of BSD system development has started, aimed at providing global coverage and compatibility with other GNSS systems. As a result, BDS will broadcast signals at the same frequency as GPS L1 and L5 and Galileo E1, E5a and E5b. In the presented research we carried out relative positioning using the MAFA method. This was the first time when this method was applied to process BDS signals. The results show that it is possible to obtain precise position in central Europe using BDS signals only. However, with its current constellation, this is not possible 24/7, but in periodic time windows.

  10. Estimating Zenith Tropospheric Delays from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Observations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Aigong; Xu, Zongqiu; Ge, Maorong; Xu, Xinchao; Zhu, Huizhong; Sui, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages. PMID:23552104

  11. Estimating zenith tropospheric delays from BeiDou navigation satellite system observations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aigong; Xu, Zongqiu; Ge, Maorong; Xu, Xinchao; Zhu, Huizhong; Sui, Xin

    2013-04-03

    The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages.

  12. Radio Frequency Compatibility Evaluation of S Band Navigation Signals for Future BeiDou

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanbo; Xue, Rui; Zhao, Danfeng; Wang, Dun

    2017-01-01

    With L band frequency allocations for satellite navigation getting more crowded, S band (2483.5–2500 MHz) is already allocated for navigation services, where Globalstar broadcasts downlink communications to user terminals. The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is transmitting navigation signals and Galileo exploits some potential signals in S band. Also, several candidate S band signals based on binary offset carrier (BOC), binary phase shift keying (BPSK), continuous phase modulation (CPM) and minimum shift keying-BOC (MSK-BOC) are suggested for BeiDou system (BDS). In quite narrow S band, mutual interference among these systems is inevitable, thus the compatibility issue is particularly significant for S band signal design. To explore desired S band signals for BDS, the paper firstly describes a comprehensive compatibility evaluation methods based on effective carrier-to-noise ratio degradation for acquisition and code tracking. Then a real simulation is established using space constellations, modulation schemes and received power. Finally, the worst mutual interference of BDS candidate signals with Galileo, IRNSS and Globalstar is calculated and compared. The results indicate that CPM signal is easier to allow peaceful coexistence of other systems with minimal mutual interference in S band compared to other BDS candidates. PMID:28475142

  13. Assessment of BeiDou differential code bias variations from multi-GNSS network observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. G.; Jin, R.; Li, D.

    2016-02-01

    The differential code bias (DCB) of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) affects precise ionospheric modeling and applications. In this paper, daily DCBs of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) are estimated and investigated from 2-year multi-GNSS network observations (2013-2014) based on global ionospheric maps (GIMs) from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), which are compared with Global Positioning System (GPS) results. The DCB of BDS satellites is a little less stable than GPS solutions, especially for geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites. The BDS GEO observations decrease the precision of inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) and medium Earth orbit (MEO) DCB estimations. The RMS of BDS satellites DCB decreases to about 0.2 ns when we remove BDS GEO observations. Zero-mean condition effects are not the dominant factor for the higher RMS of BDS satellites DCB. Although there are no obvious secular variations in the DCB time series, sub-nanosecond variations are visible for both BDS and GPS satellites DCBs during 2013-2014. For satellites in the same orbital plane, their DCB variations have similar characteristics. In addition, variations in receivers DCB in the same region are found with a similar pattern between BDS and GPS. These variations in both GPS and BDS DCBs are mainly related to the estimated error from ionospheric variability, while the BDS DCB intrinsic variation is in sub-nanoseconds.

  14. Impact of tracking station distribution structure on BeiDou satellite orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Guanwen; Wang, Le; Qu, Wei

    2015-11-01

    The racking station distribution structure plays an important role in GNSS satellite orbit determination. Due to the current satellite distribution of the BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS), the problem how to construct a reasonable distribution of tracking stations to obtain BDS satellite orbits with high precision has become a highly imperative issue. Based on the theory of dynamic orbit determination, two different station distributions were analyzed to study their impact on BDS precise and real-time orbit determination. Subsequently, the impact of Satellite Position Dilution of Precision (SPDOP) values on orbit determination was analyzed. Finally, an improved scheme for the tracking station distribution was designed based on the original scheme. The numerical results show that the SPDOP value can be used to evaluate the contribution of the tracking stations distribution on the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites orbit determination. In addition, the tracking stations which focus on the Asia-Pacific region play a key role in current BDS orbit determination.

  15. User's guide to the Personal Computer Version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS). Final report, June 1989-December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, T.

    1991-01-01

    The Personal Computer Version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS) has been developed to allow users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbon emissions for any county in the contiguous United States. PC-BEIS has been compiled using Microsoft FORTRAN and tested on IBM-compatible personal computers. The source code was written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and should be transportable to most other computers. Emission rates depend on land use, leaf biomass, and emission factors. PC-BEIS also includes adjustments due to temperature and sunlight. A simple leaf energy balance module is included to allow more refined calculations of leaf temperature and sunlight through forest canopies. The user's guide briefly describes the technical background, provides an overview of computer aspects, and shows an example test case.

  16. Improving BeiDou precise orbit determination using observations of onboard MEO satellite receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Haibo; Li, Bofeng; Ge, Maorong; Shen, Yunzhong; Schuh, Harald

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the precise orbit determination (POD) of the regional Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been a hot spot because of its special constellation consisting of five geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites and five inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) satellites besides four medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites since the end of 2012. GEO and IGSO satellites play an important role in regional BDS applications. However, this brings a great challenge to the POD, especially for the GEO satellites due to their geostationary orbiting. Though a number of studies have been carried out to improve the POD performance of GEO satellites, the result is still much worse than that of IGSO and MEO, particularly in the along-track direction. The major reason is that the geostationary characteristic of a GEO satellite results in a bad geometry with respect to the ground tracking network. In order to improve the tracking geometry of the GEO satellites, a possible strategy is to mount global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers on MEO satellites to collect the signals from GEO/IGSO GNSS satellites so as that these observations can be used to improve GEO/IGSO POD. We extended our POD software package to simulate all the related observations and to assimilate the MEO-onboard GNSS observations in orbit determination. Based on GPS and BDS constellations, simulated studies are undertaken for various tracking scenarios. The impact of the onboard GNSS observations is investigated carefully and presented in detail. The results show that MEO-onboard observations can significantly improve the orbit precision of GEO satellites from metres to decimetres, especially in the along-track direction. The POD results of IGSO satellites also benefit from the MEO-onboard data and the precision can be improved by more than 50% in 3D direction.

  17. The use of PSD analysis on BeiDou and GPS 10 Hz dynamic data for change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Gethin Wyn; Tang, Xu

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the use of GPS and BeiDou data to measure the movements of two oscillating platforms in a series of field experiments. Data were gathered from a variety of GNSS receivers at a rate of 10 Hz, and processed in an on the fly manner, resulting in 3D coordinates at a 10 Hz rate with the corresponding precise time. These data were then analysed using a Power Spectral Density (PSD) function to derive the frequency of the movements. The positional data were also compared by matching a 500 epoch section of the data from the start with 190 successive 500 epoch long sections in order to demonstrate whether the movement measured was constant throughout, or whether there were any changes. The results show that the correlation of the positional data over a 30,737 epoch period deviates between 99.8% and 76.7% correlation with RMS values of 89.2%, 87.9% and 77.5% in the Eastings, Northings and Vertical directions respectively when using GPS. The RMS of the Eastings and Northings remain the same when BeiDou is introduced, but the height component improves slightly to 78.9%. The frequency analysis of the same 500 epoch long sections is constantly measured at 0.1172 Hz in all three positional components, illustrating less deviation when analysing the frequencies. The main conclusion is that analysis of the resulting PSD output from GNSS data gathered on an oscillating platform is more constant and precise than analysing the results of the coordinates alone. This suggests that such analysis would be well suited for a Structural Health Monitoring system. The introduction of BeiDou also improves the results slightly, even in its current incomplete constellation. The novelty of this work is the analysis of the movements in such a controlled environment, and the correlation approach of the resulting positional output as well as the frequency derivation from the positions using both GPS and BeiDou.

  18. Evaluation of improved land use data and canopy representation in BEIS with biogenic VOC measurements in California

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The link provided access to all the datasets and metadata used in this manuscript for the model development and evaluation per Geoscientific Model Development's publication guidelines with the exception of the model output due to its size. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Bash , J., K. Baker , and M. Beaver. Evaluation of improved land use and canopy representation in BEIS v3.61 with biogenic VOC measurements in California. Geoscientific Model Development. Copernicus Publications, Katlenburg-Lindau, GERMANY, 9: 2191-2207, (2016).

  19. Applications of two-way satellite time and frequency transfer in the BeiDou navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Hu, XiaoGong; Liu, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhu, LingFeng; Chang, ZhiQiao; Tang, ChengPan; Gong, XiuQiang; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    A two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) device equipped in the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) can calculate clock error between satellite and ground master clock. TWSTFT is a real-time method with high accuracy because most system errors such as orbital error, station position error, and tropospheric and ionospheric delay error can be eliminated by calculating the two-way pseudorange difference. Another method, the multi-satellite precision orbit determination (MPOD) method, can be applied to estimate satellite clock errors. By comparison with MPOD clock estimations, this paper discusses the applications of the BDS TWSTFT clock observations in satellite clock measurement, satellite clock prediction, navigation system time monitor, and satellite clock performance assessment in orbit. The results show that with TWSTFT clock observations, the accuracy of satellite clock prediction is higher than MPOD. Five continuous weeks of comparisons with three international GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers (ACs) show that the reference time difference between BeiDou time (BDT) and golbal positoning system (GPS) time (GPST) realized IGS ACs is in the tens of nanoseconds. Applying the TWSTFT clock error observations may obtain more accurate satellite clock performance evaluation in the 104 s interval because the accuracy of the MPOD clock estimation is not sufficiently high. By comparing the BDS and GPS satellite clock performance, we found that the BDS clock stability at the 103 s interval is approximately 10-12, which is similar to the GPS IIR.

  20. The influence of different types of satellite exiting in system RAIM performance in BeiDou Satellite Navigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-tai; Peng, Jun-huan

    2015-12-01

    The space constellation of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System(BDS)has three main components, Geostationary Earth Orbits (GEOs), Medium Earth Orbits (MEOs) and Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbits(IGSOs).This paper selected 6 satellite respectively in three types to simulate their exiting service, and used the statistical methods to assess receiver autonomous integrity monitoring RAIM availability and fault detection FD capability of BeiDou14 Phase with 14 satellites under the circumstances. This paper assessed RAIM availability performance from satellites and constellation geometry configuration by the number of visible satellites (NVS, NVS>~5) and position dilution of precision (PDOP, PDOP<=6) together. The FD capability of RAIM is assessed by the maximum minimal detectable bias (MDB) and the maximum minimal detectable effect (MDE). The analyses of simulation results testify that the exiting of single MEO or IGSO satellite have no obvious effect on RAIM availability and error detection ability. However GEO satellite's exiting can make the number of points in where the constellation geometry is not available and maximum minimum detectable deviation and maximum minimum detectable influence significantly increase. Relative to other two satellites, GEO satellites' health have a significant impact on the RAIM performance of BDS.

  1. Ground track maintenance for BeiDou IGSO satellites subject to tesseral resonances and the luni-solar perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Jiang, Chao; Hu, Min

    2017-02-01

    Eight inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) satellites in the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) have been put in orbit until now. IGSO is a special class of geosynchronous circular orbit, with the inclination not equal to zero. It can provide high elevation angle coverage to high-latitude areas. The geography longitude of the ground track cross node is the main factor to affect the ground coverage areas of the IGSO satellites. In order to ensure the navigation performance of the IGSO satellites, the maintenance control of the ground track cross node is required. Considering the tesseral resonances and the luni-solar perturbations, a control approach is proposed to maintain the ground track for the long-term evolution. The drifts of the ground track cross node of the IGSO satellites are analyzed, which is formulated as a function of the bias of the orbit elements and time. Based on the derived function, a method by offsetting the semi-major axis is put forward to maintain the longitude of the ground track cross node, and the offset calculation equation is presented as well. Moreover, the orbit inclination is adjusted to maintain the location angle intervals between each two IGSO satellites. Finally, the precision of the offset calculation equation is analyzed to achieve the operational deployment. Simulation results show that the semi-major axis offset method is effective, and its calculation equation is accurate. The proposed approach has been applied to the maintenance control of BeiDou IGSO satellites.

  2. Ambiguity resolved precise point positioning with GPS and BeiDou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Li; Xiaohong, Zhang; Fei, Guo

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contribution of the global positioning system (GPS) and BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) observations to precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR). A GPS + BDS fractional cycle bias (FCB) estimation method and a PPP AR model were developed using integrated GPS and BDS observations. For FCB estimation, the GPS + BDS combined PPP float solutions of the globally distributed IGS MGEX were first performed. When integrating GPS observations, the BDS ambiguities can be precisely estimated with less than four tracked BDS satellites. The FCBs of both GPS and BDS satellites can then be estimated from these precise ambiguities. For the GPS + BDS combined AR, one GPS and one BDS IGSO or MEO satellite were first chosen as the reference satellite for GPS and BDS, respectively, to form inner-system single-differenced ambiguities. The single-differenced GPS and BDS ambiguities were then fused by partial ambiguity resolution to increase the possibility of fixing a subset of decorrelated ambiguities with high confidence. To verify the correctness of the FCB estimation and the effectiveness of the GPS + BDS PPP AR, data recorded from about 75 IGS MGEX stations during the period of DOY 123-151 (May 3 to May 31) in 2015 were used for validation. Data were processed with three strategies: BDS-only AR, GPS-only AR and GPS + BDS AR. Numerous experimental results show that the time to first fix (TTFF) is longer than 6 h for the BDS AR in general and that the fixing rate is usually less than 35 % for both static and kinematic PPP. An average TTFF of 21.7 min and 33.6 min together with a fixing rate of 98.6 and 97.0 % in static and kinematic PPP, respectively, can be achieved for GPS-only ambiguity fixing. For the combined GPS + BDS AR, the average TTFF can be shortened to 16.9 min and 24.6 min and the fixing rate can be increased to 99.5 and 99.0 % in static and kinematic PPP, respectively. Results also show that GPS + BDS PPP AR outperforms

  3. Precise positioning with current multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-02-09

    The world of satellite navigation is undergoing dramatic changes with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). At the moment more than 70 satellites are already in view, and about 120 satellites will be available once all four systems (BeiDou + Galileo + GLONASS + GPS) are fully deployed in the next few years. This will bring great opportunities and challenges for both scientific and engineering applications. In this paper we develop a four-system positioning model to make full use of all available observations from different GNSSs. The significant improvement of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision, convergence, accuracy, continuity and reliability that a combining utilization of multi-GNSS brings to precise positioning are carefully analyzed and evaluated, especially in constrained environments.

  4. Nichtlineare Dynamik kognitiv-motorischer Prozesse : tempoinduzierte Übergänge bei der Produktion von Polyrhythmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engbert, Ralf

    1998-02-01

    Die Produktion von Polyrhythmen ist ein wichtiger experimenteller Zugang für die Untersuchung der menschlichen Motorik. Durch Variation des Tempos (externer Kontrollparameter) bei rhythmischen Bewegungsabläufen können qualitative Übergänge in der Koordinationsdynamik induziert werden. Diese Übergänge lassen sich mit der Methode der symbolischen Dynamik in experimentellen Zeitreihen nachweisen und sind ein wichtiger Hinweis darauf, dass die untersuchten Bewegungsabläufe nichtlinearen Kontrollprozessen unterliegen. Die theoretische Beschreibung bimanueller Rhythmusproduktion mit gekoppelten Differenzengleichungen führt auf ein Modell mit nichtlinearer Fehlerkontrolle. Es ist eine wichtige Eigenschaft der Kontrollprozesse, dass sie mit zeitverzögerter Rückkopplung arbeiten. Neben deterministischen Steuerungsmechanismen ist die Motorik des Menschen ausserdem von Fluktuationen auf zwei Ebenen gekennzeichnet, der kognitiven Kontrollebene und der Ebene der motorischen Systeme. Daher ist die Koordination von Bewegungen das Ergebnis von Wechselwirkungen zwischen nichtlinearen, zeitverzögerten Kontrollprozessen und stochastischen Fluktuationen.

  5. Heavy Metals in Sediment from Bei Shan River: Distribution, Relationship with Soil Characteristics and Multivariate Assessment of Contamination Sources.

    PubMed

    Xun, Yan; Xuegang, Luo

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations and correlation between some heavy metals (Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) measured in sediments in part of Bei shan River near uranium mill tailings were studied. The mean concentration of Cr (57.7 mg/g) was more than the mean values established for uncultivated areas worldwide (46.3 mg/g). Negative correlations with pH and positive correlations with organic matter have been observed for most of elements analyzed in this study. Correlation analysis showed that all metals except Cr are highly correlated (p ≤ 0.01, p ≤ 0.05). This may indicate the different origin or controlling factors of Cr in analyzed sediments. Cluster analysis highlighted the lithogenic origin of heavy metals (Mn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) and pointed out the primary input of Cr from anthropogenic sources.

  6. Carrier-Doppler-based real-time two way satellite frequency transfer and its application in BeiDou system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zengjun; Gong, Hang; Yang, Wenke; Zhu, Xiangwei; Ou, Gang

    2014-09-01

    Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) method is valuable for precise time and frequency transfer. The frequency could be directly transferred by utilizing two-way carrier Doppler measurement. This method requires each station observing both its own and associated station’s transponder signals transferred by satellite. In BeiDou system (BDS), the reference station and the field station construct a two-way link via a GEO satellite, and the field station sends pseudorange and carrier phase information to the reference station by transmission signal, in order to achieve real time TWSTFT. This paper analyzes the theory of carrier Doppler based TWSTFT (called CD-TWSTFT), and validates it by using on line data of BDS. The results demonstrated that the performance of CD TWSTFT is much better than code based TWSTFT in short-term frequency transfer and almost same at long-term frequency transfer.

  7. Precise positioning with current multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The world of satellite navigation is undergoing dramatic changes with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). At the moment more than 70 satellites are already in view, and about 120 satellites will be available once all four systems (BeiDou + Galileo + GLONASS + GPS) are fully deployed in the next few years. This will bring great opportunities and challenges for both scientific and engineering applications. In this paper we develop a four-system positioning model to make full use of all available observations from different GNSSs. The significant improvement of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision, convergence, accuracy, continuity and reliability that a combining utilization of multi-GNSS brings to precise positioning are carefully analyzed and evaluated, especially in constrained environments. PMID:25659949

  8. The contribution of Cu2+, Fe 2+, Fe 3+ to bluish green color of HuBei turquoise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Jin, Lili; Sun, Hongjuan

    2010-11-01

    Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ of 146 pieces of turquoises from ZhuShan, HuBei province are researched of their contribution to the color of bluish green. Without consideration of its mineral water on the effects of color chroma, the content of these three cations are confirmed by chemical composition analysis, and then their specific contribution to lightness, chroma and hue are quantified within the uniform color space CIE L*a*b*. Consequently, it is considered that Cu2+ determines turquoise's vivid blue, and Fe2+ makes color changed to green and improves the chroma slightly, as a result it enhances the visual appearance a little too; while Fe3+ leads to red and yellow tone and makes chroma descended simultaneously, with its increment, the color appears low saturated brown, and then the color quality reduced.

  9. Einsatz und Wirksamkeit von Systemtherapien bei Erwachsenen mit schwerer Neurodermitis: Erste Ergebnisse des deutschen Neurodermitis-Registers TREATgermany.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Trautmann, Freya; Stephan, Victoria; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Homey, Bernhard; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija; Sticherling, Michael; Augustin, Matthias; Kleinheinz, Andreas; Elsner, Peter; Weidinger, Stephan; Werfel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Versorgungsregister dienen der Erfassung des Einsatzes und der Wirksamkeit von Therapien unter realen Versorgungsbedingungen und sind als Basis einer evidenzbasierten Gesundheitsversorgung unverzichtbar. Das deutsche Neurodermitis-Register TREATgermany wurde als weltweit erstes Register für Patienten mit schwerer Neurodermitis 2011 initiiert. Erwachsene mit schwerer Neurodermitis (aktuelle/frühere antientzündliche Systemtherapie und/oder objektiver SCORAD ≥ 40) werden über einen Zeitraum von 24 Monaten prospektiv beobachtet. Anhand validierter Erhebungsinstrumente werden die klinische Erkrankungsschwere (EASI, SCORAD), Lebensqualität (DLQI), Symptome, globale Erkrankungsschwere sowie die Patientenzufriedenheit erfasst und die durchgeführten Therapien dokumentiert. Die vorliegende Analyse beschreibt die Charakteristika, Therapiewahl und Wirksamkeit der eingesetzten antiinflammatorischen Systemtherapien der bis Oktober 2014 eingeschlossenen Patienten. An fünf Zentren wurden insgesamt 78 Patienten (Durchschnittsalter 39 Jahre, 61 % männlich) eingeschlossen. Bei den Patienten besteht eine hohe Inanspruchnahme ambulanter und stationärer Leistungen. Ciclosporin war das am häufigsten eingesetzte Systemtherapeutikum und zeigte die höchste klinische Effektivität (EASI-50-Ansprechrate 51 %; EASI-75-Ansprechrate 34 % nach zwölfwöchiger Therapie). Azathioprin, Methotrexat (MTX), Prednisolon oral, Mycophenolat, Alitretinoin und Leflunomid wurden ebenfalls bei einzelnen Patienten eingesetzt. Die vorliegende Registerauswertung gibt wichtige Hinweise zur derzeitigen Versorgung von Erwachsenen mit schwerer Neurodermitis in Deutschland, dokumentiert die hohe Erkrankungslast, den Nutzen vorhandener Therapien und den Bedarf an weiteren, effektiven und in der Langzeitanwendung sicheren Therapieoptionen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Gebrauch von Komplementärmedizin bei Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom unter Therapie mit Ipilimumab innerhalb einer klinischen Studie.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Jutta; Mohr, Peter; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Fluck, Michael; Berking, Carola; Zimmer, Lisa; Loquai, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    In Deutschland wenden 40-90 % aller Krebspatienten Methoden der komplementären and alternativen Medizin (KAM) an. Bis dato gibt es kein Datenmaterial zum Einsatz der KAM bei Melanompatienten. Das Ziel unserer Studie war es, Daten über den Gebrauch, die Informationsquellen und Ziele von Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom zu erfassen. Einhundertsechsundfünfzig Patienten aus 25 Studienzentren nahmen an der DecOG-MM-PAL Multibasket Studie teil. Die beteiligten Personen wurden auch gebeten, an einer Nebenstudie teilzunehmen, die ihren Gebrauch von KAM erfassen sollte. Dazu wurde während der Behandlung ein standardisierter Fragebogen zu genau festgelegten Zeitpunkten ausgeteilt. Insgesamt gingen 55 Fragebögen von 32 (21 %) Melanompatienten ein. Von diesen gaben 17 (53 %) ein Interesse an KAM an, und sieben (22 %) machten von KAM Gebrauch. Die Hauptinformationsquellen (31 %) waren Familienmitglieder und Freunde, gefolgt von Ärzten (19 %). Die Hauptgründe für die Anwendung von KAM waren die Stärkung des Immunsystems (41 %) und des Körpers (34 %). Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Vitamine und Spurenelemente) wurden am häufigsten angewendet (28 %). Eine relativ hohe Anzahl an Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom machte trotz Teilnahme an einer klinischen Studie von KAM Gebrauch. Wechselwirkungen könnten durch biologisch basierte KAM auftreten, und hier besonders bei immunmodulierenden KAM- Strategien. Um Risiken zu vermeiden, sollte die Kommunikation zwischen den Ärzten und den Patienten verbessert werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Gerbstoffe aus Potentilla officinalis wirken entzündungshemmend im UV-Erythem-Test und bei Anwendung auf atopischer Haut.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wölfle, Ute; Schempp, Christoph M; Casetti, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Das Rhizom von Potentilla officinalis (PO) ist reich an Gerbstoffen und wird traditionell zur äußerlichen Behandlung von Entzündungen der Haut und der Schleimhäute verwendet. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Bestätigung der antiinflammatorischen Eigenschaften von PO mittels eines UV-Erythem-Tests und einer klinischen Anwendungsstudie bei atopischer Haut. Die antiinflammatorische Wirkung eines PO-Extrakts (standardisiert auf 2 % Trockensubstanz) wurde in einer prospektiven, randomisierten, placebokontrollierten Doppelblindstudie mit 40 gesunden Erwachsenen im UV-Erythem-Test im Vergleich zu 1 % Hydrocortisonacetat untersucht. Im Rahmen einer prospektiven nicht kontrollierten Studie wurde die Wirkung und Verträglichkeit der 2 % PO-Creme an zwölf Erwachsenen und zwölf Kindern mit atopischer Haut nach Anwendung über zwei Wochen in einem definierten Testareal anhand eines Teil-SCORAD untersucht. Zusätzlich wurde die Beeinflussung der Hautrötung im Testareal photometrisch gemessen. Im UV-Erythem-Test zeigte die PO-Creme eine signifikante Reduktion des Erythemindex im Vergleich zum Vehikel. Die antiinflammatorische Wirkung des Verums entsprach der der 1 % Hydrocortisonacetat-Creme. Die klinische Studie bei Atopikern zeigte eine signifikante Abnahme des Teil-SCORAD und des Erythems im Testareal. Es wurden keine Unverträglichkeitsreaktionen beobachtet. PO als 2%ige Zubereitung besitzt entzündungshemmende Eigenschaften und ist wirksam und gut verträglich auf atopischer Haut. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Multi-GNSS meteorology: Real-time retrieving of atmospheric parameters from GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Dick, Galina; Lu, Cuixian; Ge, Maorong; Nilsson, Tobias; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The rapid development of multi-constellation GNSSs (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, e.g., BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS, GPS) and the IGS (International GNSS Service) Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) bring great opportunities and challenges for real-time determination of tropospheric zenith total delays (ZTD) and integrated water vapor (IWV) to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP), especially for nowcasting or severe weather event monitoring. The fusion of multiple GNSSs will significantly increase the number of satellites, optimizing the observation geometry. One result is the availability of more tropospheric slant delays, and consequently a more accurate and robust ZTD/IWV monitoring can be expected. This is especially beneficial in areas where satellite signals are blocked, such as urban areas, or in the equatorial latitudes, where the GNSS signals may be disturbed or even lost due to ionospheric scintillations. In this contribution, we develop a multi-system (BeiDou+Galileo+GLONASS+GPS) processing model to fully exploit all the observations from these systems for the derivation of the real-time ZTD/IWV. A prototype multi-GNSS real-time ZTD/IWV monitoring system is also designed and realized at GFZ and runs in PPP mode for all of the globally distributed MGEX stations. The processing results of the first half year of 2014 are carefully analyzed to assess the quality of the ZTD series derived from different constellations and also evaluate the contribution of multi-GNSS fusion to ZTD/IWV estimates. Furthermore, the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique is used for independent validation of the GNSS data products to demonstrate the significant benefits from multi-constellation GNSS in terms of both accuracy and reliability.

  13. Behandlungspräferenzen für Biologika bei Psoriasis: erfahrene Patienten legen Wert auf Nachhaltigkeit.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Christian; Peitsch, Wiebke K; Herr, Raphael; Schmieder, Astrid; Sonntag, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Die Therapiezufriedenheit kann durch die Berücksichtigung von Patientenpräferenzen in der gemeinsamen Entscheidungsfindung verbessert werden. Kürzlich untersuchten wir Patientenpräferenzen für Eigenschaften von Biologika und fanden starke Präferenzen für Sicherheit und Wirksamkeit. Die vorliegende Studie hatte das Ziel, Auswirkungen von Therapieerfahrung auf diese Präferenzen zu erheben. Präferenzen für Ergebnis- (Wahrscheinlichkeit einer 50%igen und 90%igen Verbesserung, Zeit bis zum Ansprechen, Nachhaltigkeit des Erfolgs, Wahrscheinlichkeit von leichten und schweren Nebenwirkungen und Wahrscheinlichkeit eines ACR-20-Ansprechens) und Prozesseigenschaften (Behandlungsort, Behandlungshäufigkeit, Zeitaufwand und Applikationsweise) wurden bei 200 Teilnehmern mit mittelschwerer bis schwerer Psoriasis mit Hilfe von Conjoint-Analyse ermittelt. Der Einfluss aktueller und früherer Therapien, der Krankheitsdauer und der Behandlungszufriedenheit auf die "Relative Importance Scores" wurde durch Varianz-analysen, Post-hoc-Tests und multivariate Regressionen bestimmt. Teilnehmer, die aktuell eine topische Therapie (p = 0,02) oder eine Phototherapie (p = 0,032) erhielten, hielten den Zeitaufwand der Behandlung für wichtiger als andere. Diejenigen, denen zuvor traditionelle Systemtherapien (p = 0,028) oder Biologika (p = 0,044) verordnet worden waren, legten mehr Wert auf die Nachhaltigkeit als andere. Diese Eigenschaft gewann mit steigender Anzahl zuvor verabreichter systemischer Therapien (p = 0,045) und längerer Krankheitsdauer (p = 0,018) an Bedeutung. Patientenpräferenzen für Biologika variieren abhängig von der Therapieerfahrung und Krankheitsdauer. Diese Aspekte sollten bei der gemeinsamen Entscheidungsfindung berücksichtigt werden. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. BeiDou satellite's differential code biases estimation based on uncombined precise point positioning with triple-frequency observable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lei; Li, Min; Wang, Cheng; Shi, Chuang

    2017-02-01

    The differential code bias (DCB) of BeiDou satellite is an important topic to make better use of BeiDou system (BDS) for many practical applications. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the BDS satellite DCBs based on triple-frequency uncombined precise point positioning (UPPP). A general model of both triple-frequency UPPP and Geometry-Free linear combination of Phase-Smoothed Range (GFPSR) is presented, in which, the ionospheric observable and the combination of triple-frequency satellite and receiver DCBs (TF-SRDCBs) are derived. Then the satellite and receiver DCBs (SRDCBs) are estimated together with the ionospheric delay that is modeled at each individual station in a weighted least-squares estimator, and the satellite DCBs are determined by introducing the zero-mean condition of all available BDS satellites. To validate the new method, 90 day's real tracking GNSS data (from January to March in 2014) collected from 9 Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations (equipped with Trimble NETR9 receiver) is used, and the BDS satellite DCB products from German Aerospace Center (DLR) are taken as reference values for comparison. Results show that the proposed method is able to precisely estimate BDS satellite DCBs: (1) the mean value of the day-to-day scattering for all available BDS satellites is about 0.24 ns, which is reduced in average by 23% when compared with the results derived by only GFPSR. Moreover, the mean value of the day-to-day scattering of IGSO satellites is lower than that of GEO and MEO satellites; (2) the mean value of RMS of the difference with respect to DLR DCB products is about 0.39 ns, which is improved by an average of 11% when compared with the results derived by only GFPSR. Besides, the RMS of IGSO and MEO satellites is at the same level which is better than that of GEO satellites.

  15. Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Measurements with Code Multipath and Geometry-Free Ionosphere-Free Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Zhizhao; Hu, Zhigang; Dai, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-01-01

    Using GNSS observable from some stations in the Asia-Pacific area, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and multipath combinations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), as well as their variations with time and/or elevation were investigated and compared with those of GPS and Galileo. Provided the same elevation, the CNR of B1 observables is the lowest among the three BDS frequencies, while B3 is the highest. The code multipath combinations of BDS inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites are remarkably correlated with elevation, and the systematic “V” shape trends could be eliminated through between-station-differencing or modeling correction. Daily periodicity was found in the geometry-free ionosphere-free (GFIF) combinations of both BDS geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and IGSO satellites. The variation range of carrier phase GFIF combinations of GEO satellites is −2.0 to 2.0 cm. The periodicity of carrier phase GFIF combination could be significantly mitigated through between-station differencing. Carrier phase GFIF combinations of BDS GEO and IGSO satellites might also contain delays related to satellites. Cross-correlation suggests that the GFIF combinations’ time series of some GEO satellites might vary according to their relative geometries with the sun. PMID:26805831

  16. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia–Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Chen; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO) as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR) are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia–Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS. PMID:26633406

  17. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Chen; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO) as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR) are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS.

  18. Sea level change from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (BDS-R): First results and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Qian, Xiaodong; Wu, X.

    2017-02-01

    Sea level changes affect human living environments, particularly ocean coasts. The tide gauges (TG) can measure sea level change, while it is the relative variations with respect to the land. Recently, GPS-Reflectometry (GPS-R) has been demonstrated to measure sea level change as an altimetry. With the rapid development of China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), it may provide a new possible opportunity to monitor sea level changes with three frequencies (L2, L6 and L7). In this paper, BDS-Reflectometry (BDS-R) is the first time used to estimate the sea level changes based on Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data and triple-frequency phase and code combinations, which are compared to tide gauge observations. Results show that sea level changes from BDS SNR and phase combination have a good agreement with correlation coefficients of 0.83-0.91 and RMSEs of less than 0.6 m, while BDS code combination is not as good as others. Furthermore, a new negative linear model between phase and code peak frequencies and tide gauge observations is further obtained and analyzed, which improves the results from three-frequency phase and code combinations with the RMSE of about 10 cm and 18 cm.

  19. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-01-01

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. PMID:26703614

  20. Adaptive wavelet denoising unscented Kalman filter for BeiDou signal carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengyue; Tang, Xiaomei; Huang, Yangbo; Chen, Huaming; Sun, Guangfu

    2016-10-01

    Ionospheric scintillation can cause BeiDou system (BDS) signal amplitude fading and phase variation as the radio frequency (RF) signals pass through the ionosphere. With the accidental, sudden, and regional characteristics of ionospheric scintillation, it is difficult to effectively mitigate the impacts of ionospheric scintillation from a system perspective. To overcome this problem, this work addresses the mitigation of scintillation for the BDS signal. We propose an adaptive wavelet denoising unscented Kalman filter (WDUKF)-based carrier tracking algorithm to mitigate the adverse impacts of ionospheric scintillation. First, as WD can better characterize the nonstationary of signal, the non-Gaussian noise caused by scintillation can be filtered by designing a sliding window-based online WD filter. Second, taking the denoised integrations as an input, we employ the phase lock indicator (PLI)-based adaptive UKF carrier phase estimator to reduce the linearization approximate error of conventional KF-based algorithms. Through adjusting the measurement vector of UKF with different scintillation scenarios adaptively, the divergence problem of UKF can be mitigated. Simulation and real data experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, especially in the case of 36 dB-Hz in moderate scintillation, the phase jitter and probability of loss-of-lock decrease about 6 deg (40%) and 71%, respectively.

  1. Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Measurements with Code Multipath and Geometry-Free Ionosphere-Free Combinations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Zhizhao; Hu, Zhigang; Dai, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-01-20

    Using GNSS observable from some stations in the Asia-Pacific area, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and multipath combinations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), as well as their variations with time and/or elevation were investigated and compared with those of GPS and Galileo. Provided the same elevation, the CNR of B1 observables is the lowest among the three BDS frequencies, while B3 is the highest. The code multipath combinations of BDS inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites are remarkably correlated with elevation, and the systematic "V" shape trends could be eliminated through between-station-differencing or modeling correction. Daily periodicity was found in the geometry-free ionosphere-free (GFIF) combinations of both BDS geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and IGSO satellites. The variation range of carrier phase GFIF combinations of GEO satellites is -2.0 to 2.0 cm. The periodicity of carrier phase GFIF combination could be significantly mitigated through between-station differencing. Carrier phase GFIF combinations of BDS GEO and IGSO satellites might also contain delays related to satellites. Cross-correlation suggests that the GFIF combinations' time series of some GEO satellites might vary according to their relative geometries with the sun.

  2. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd`s Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay.

  3. [MRT of the liver in Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Steiner, S; Hammerstingl, R; Schwarz, S; Kraft, E; Weinzierl, M; Felix, R

    1994-01-01

    To show that Wilson's disease is one likely cause of multiple low-intensity nodules of the liver we obtained MR images in 16 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Wilson's disease. Corresponding to morphological changes MRI enabled the subdivision of the patients into two groups. Using a T2-weighted spin-echo sequence (TR/TE = 2000/45-90) liver parenchyma showed multiple tiny low-intensity-nodules surrounded by high-intensity septa in 10 out of 16 patients. 5 patients had also low-intensity nodules in T1-weighted images (TR/TE = 600/20). In patients of this group histopathology revealed liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and fibrosis (n = 2). Common feature of this patient group was marked inflammatory cell infiltration into fibrous septa, increase of copper concentration in liver parenchyma and distinct pathological changes of laboratory data. In the remaining 6 patients no pathological change of liver morphology was demonstrated by MRI corresponding to slight histopathological changes of parenchyma and normal laboratory data. As low-intensity nodules surrounded by high intensity septa can be demonstrated in patients with marked inflammatory infiltration of liver parenchyma MRI may help to define Wilson patients with poorer prognosis. In patients with low-intensity nodules of the liver and unknown cause of liver cirrhosis laboratory data and histopathology should be checked when searching for disorders of copper metabolism.

  4. Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam

    2005-01-01

    On February 1, 2003 the Space Shuttle Columbia, returning to Earth with a crew of seven astronauts, disintegrated along a track extending from California to Louisiana. Observers on the ground filmed breakup of the spacecraft. Debris fell along a 567 statute mile track from Littlefield, Texas to Fort Polk, Louisiana; the largest ever recorded debris field. At the time of the accident the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) flight surgeon on-duty at the Mission Control Center (MCC) in Houston, Texas initiated the medical contingency response. The DOD surgeon at Patrick Air Force Base was notified, NASA medical personnel were recalled and the services of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) were requested. Subsequent to the accident the NASA flight surgeons that had supported the crew on orbit now provided medical support to the crewmember s families. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and numerous other federal, state and local agencies along with the citizens of Texas and Louisiana responded to the disaster. Search and recovery was managed from a Disaster Field Office (DFO) established in Lufkin, Texas. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) medical operations were managed from Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. Accident investigation teams (Columbia Accident Investigation Task Force (CAITF) and Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB)) appointed immediately after the disaster included current and former authorities in space medicine. In August 2003, the CAIB concluded its investigation and released its findings in a report published in February 2004.

  5. Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam

    2005-01-01

    On February 1, 2003 the Space Shuttle Columbia, returning to Earth with a crew of seven astronauts, disintegrated along a track extending from California to Louisiana. Observers on the ground filmed breakup of the spacecraft. Debris fell along a 567 statute mile track from Littlefield, Texas to Fort Polk, Louisiana; the largest ever recorded debris field. At the time of the accident the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) flight surgeon on-duty at the Mission Control Center (MCC) in Houston, Texas initiated the medical contingency response. The DOD surgeon at Patrick Air Force Base was notified, NASA medical personnel were recalled and the services of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) were requested. Subsequent to the accident the NASA flight surgeons that had supported the crew on orbit now provided medical support to the crewmember s families. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and numerous other federal, state and local agencies along with the citizens of Texas and Louisiana responded to the disaster. Search and recovery was managed from a Disaster Field Office (DFO) established in Lufkin, Texas. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) medical operations were managed from Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. Accident investigation teams (Columbia Accident Investigation Task Force (CAITF) and Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB)) appointed immediately after the disaster included current and former authorities in space medicine. In August 2003, the CAIB concluded its investigation and released its findings in a report published in February 2004.

  6. Sexualverhalten, STIs und HIV-Übertragungsrisiken bei HIV-positiven MSM - Ansätze für die ärztliche Präventionsarbeit.

    PubMed

    Esser, Stefan; Krotzek, Judith; Dirks, Henrike; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Steigende Inzidenzen von HIV-Infektionen und STIs (sexually transmitted infections) bei MSM (men having sex with men) seit 2001 in Deutschland erfordern neue Ansätze in der ärztlichen Präventionsarbeit. Diese Studie befasst sich mit geeigneten Parametern für gezielte ärztliche Angebote an HIV-positive MSM mit hohem Risiko für die Übertragung von HIV und STIs. In einem zweijährigen Beobachtungszeitraum wurden 233 HIV-positive MSM in der HIV-Ambulanz des Universitätsklinikums Essen zu ihrem Sexualverhalten, Suchtmittelkonsum und psychischem Befinden im vorhergehenden Jahr systematisch befragt. Die dokumentierten Labordaten und klinische Verläufe wurden von der Erstdiagnose der HIV-Infektion bis zum Januar 2014 ausgewertet. Drogengebrauch, Promiskuität, jüngeres Lebensalter und bekannte STIs in der Vorgeschichte waren bei HIV-positiven MSM mit häufigerem ungeschützten Geschlechtsverkehr und einer höheren STI-Inzidenz assoziiert. Zusätzliche HIV-spezifische Parameter für ein erhöhtes HIV-Transmissionsrisiko waren neben einer nachweisbaren HIViruslast unbehandelte HIV-Infektionen, Therapieadhärenzprobleme, Wechsel der antiretroviralen Therapie in den letzten zwölf Monaten, bekannte HIV-Multiresistenz und ein höherer CD4-Zell-Nadir. Obwohl die HIViruslast in der Routineversorgung quartalsweise bestimmt und anschließend vom Arzt mitgeteilt wird, schätzten nur 60 % der HIV-positiven MSM ihr HIV-Transmissionsrisiko korrekt ein. Aus Routineuntersuchungen ergeben sich bei HIV-positiven MSM Profile, die auf ein Sexualverhalten mit hohem Risiko für die Übertragung von HIV und STIs hinweisen und Ansätze für die ärztliche Präventionsarbeit bieten. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Accuracy analysis of continuous deformation monitoring using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System at middle and high latitudes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiping; Xi, Ruijie; Chen, Hua; Xiao, Yugang

    2017-02-01

    As BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been operational in the whole Asia-Pacific region, it means a new GNSS system with a different satellite orbit structure will become available for deformation monitoring in the future. Conversely, GNSS deformation monitoring data are always processed with a regular interval to form displacement time series for deformation analysis, where the interval can neither be too long from the time perspective nor too short from the precision of determined displacements angle. In this paper, two experimental platforms were designed, with one being at mid-latitude and another at higher latitude in China. BDS data processing software was also developed for investigating the accuracy of continuous deformation monitoring using current in-orbit BDS satellites. Data over 20 days at both platforms were obtained and were processed every 2, 4 and 6 h to generate 3 displacement time series for comparison. The results show that with the current in-orbit BDS satellites, in the mid-latitude area it is easy to achieve accuracy of 1 mm in horizontal component and 2-3 mm in vertical component; the accuracy could be further improved to approximately 1 mm in both horizontal and vertical directions when combined BDS/GPS measurements are employed. At higher latitude, however, the results are not as good as expected due to poor satellite geometry, even the 6 h solutions could only achieve accuracy of 4-6 and 6-10 mm in horizontal and vertical components, respectively, which implies that it may not be applicable to very high-precision deformation monitoring at high latitude using the current BDS. With the integration of BDS and GPS observations, however, in 4-h session, the accuracy can achieve 2 mm in horizontal component and 4 mm in vertical component, which would be an optimal choice for high-accuracy structural deformation monitoring at high latitude.

  8. Mitigating BeiDou Satellite-Induced Code Bias: Taking into Account the Stochastic Model of Corrections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Li, Xin; Liu, Wanke

    2016-01-01

    The BeiDou satellite-induced code biases have been confirmed to be orbit type-, frequency-, and elevation-dependent. Such code-phase divergences (code bias variations) severely affect absolute precise applications which use code measurements. To reduce their adverse effects, an improved correction model is proposed in this paper. Different from the model proposed by Wanninger and Beer (2015), more datasets (a time span of almost two years) were used to produce the correction values. More importantly, the stochastic information, i.e., the precision indexes, were given together with correction values in the improved model. However, only correction values were given while the precision indexes were completely missing in the traditional model. With the improved correction model, users may have a better understanding of their corrections, especially the uncertainty of corrections. Thus, it is helpful for refining the stochastic model of code observations. Validation tests in precise point positioning (PPP) reveal that a proper stochastic model is critical. The actual precision of the corrected code observations can be reflected in a more objective manner if the stochastic model of the corrections is taken into account. As a consequence, PPP solutions with the improved model outperforms the traditional one in terms of positioning accuracy, as well as convergence speed. In addition, the Melbourne-Wübbena (MW) combination which serves for ambiguity fixing were verified as well. The uncorrected MW values show strong systematic variations with an amplitude of half a wide-lane cycle, which prevents precise ambiguity determination and successful ambiguity resolution. After application of the code bias correction models, the systematic variations can be greatly removed, and the resulting wide lane ambiguities are more likely to be fixed. Moreover, the code residuals show more reasonable distributions after code bias corrections with either the traditional or the improved model

  9. Mitigating BeiDou Satellite-Induced Code Bias: Taking into Account the Stochastic Model of Corrections.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Li, Xin; Liu, Wanke

    2016-06-18

    The BeiDou satellite-induced code biases have been confirmed to be orbit type-, frequency-, and elevation-dependent. Such code-phase divergences (code bias variations) severely affect absolute precise applications which use code measurements. To reduce their adverse effects, an improved correction model is proposed in this paper. Different from the model proposed by Wanninger and Beer (2015), more datasets (a time span of almost two years) were used to produce the correction values. More importantly, the stochastic information, i.e., the precision indexes, were given together with correction values in the improved model. However, only correction values were given while the precision indexes were completely missing in the traditional model. With the improved correction model, users may have a better understanding of their corrections, especially the uncertainty of corrections. Thus, it is helpful for refining the stochastic model of code observations. Validation tests in precise point positioning (PPP) reveal that a proper stochastic model is critical. The actual precision of the corrected code observations can be reflected in a more objective manner if the stochastic model of the corrections is taken into account. As a consequence, PPP solutions with the improved model outperforms the traditional one in terms of positioning accuracy, as well as convergence speed. In addition, the Melbourne-Wübbena (MW) combination which serves for ambiguity fixing were verified as well. The uncorrected MW values show strong systematic variations with an amplitude of half a wide-lane cycle, which prevents precise ambiguity determination and successful ambiguity resolution. After application of the code bias correction models, the systematic variations can be greatly removed, and the resulting wide lane ambiguities are more likely to be fixed. Moreover, the code residuals show more reasonable distributions after code bias corrections with either the traditional or the improved model.

  10. [The classification method of syndromes in the Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold)].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaowei; Zheng, Wenjie; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-03-01

    Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold) epitomizes the medical achievements of the Tang Dynasty with an extensive coverage. The classification method of syndromes in this book is derived from Nei jing (Inner Canon), Nan jing (Classic of Questioning), Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases), Zhu bing yuan hou lun (General Treatise on Causes and Manifestations of All Diseases), and enlightens the later generation with many unique characteristics, reflecting the mature recognition of the diseases in the contemporary clinical medicine from one side. It is still of great significance for understanding the diseases and exploring its pathogenesis even today.

  11. Assessment of precipitable water vapor derived from ground-based BeiDou observations with Precise Point Positioning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Wenwen; Shi, Chuang; Zhao, Qile; Su, Xing; Qu, Lizhong; Liu, Zhizhao

    2015-01-01

    Precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) has been extensively studied and used for meteorological applications. However PWV estimation using the emerging BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is very limited. In this paper the PWV estimation strategy and the evaluation of the results inferred from ground-based BDS observations using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method are presented. BDS and GPS data from 10 stations distributed in the Asia-Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions during the year 2013 are processed using the PANDA (Position and Navigation Data Analyst) software package. The BDS-PWV and GPS-PWV are derived from the BDS-only and GPS-only observations, respectively. The PPP positioning differences between BDS-only and GPS-only show a standard deviation (STD) <1 cm in the east and north components and 1-3 cm in vertical component. The BDS-PWV and GPS-PWV at the HKTU station (Hong Kong, China) is compared with PWV derived from a radiosonde station (about 1 km distance) over a 6-month period. The GPS-PWV shows a good agreement with radiosonde-PWV with a bias of 0.002 mm and a STD of 2.49 mm while BDS-PWV has with a bias of -2.04 mm and STD 2.68 mm with respect to radiosonde-PWV. This indicates that the PWV estimated from the BDS can achieve similar precision as PWV from GPS. The BDS-PWV is compared to GPS-PWV at 10 stations. The mean bias and STD of their differences at 10 stations are 0.78 mm and 1.77 mm, respectively. The mean root mean square (RMS) value is 2.00 mm by considering the GPS-PWV as reference truth. This again confirms that the BDS-PWV has a good agreement with the GPS-PWV. It clearly indicates that the BDS is ready for the high precision meteorological applications in the Asia-Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions and that BDS alone can be used for PWV estimation with an accuracy comparable to GPS.

  12. BeiDou phase bias estimation and its application in precise point positioning with triple-frequency observable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shengfeng; Lou, Yidong; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-10-01

    At present, the BeiDou system (BDS) enables the practical application of triple-frequency observable in the Asia-Pacific region, of many possible benefits from the additional signal; this study focuses on exploiting the contribution of zero difference (ZD) ambiguity resolution (AR) to the precise point positioning (PPP). A general modeling strategy for multi-frequency PPP AR is presented, in which, the least squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment (LAMBDA) method is employed in ambiguity fixing based on the full variance-covariance ambiguity matrix generated from the raw data processing model. Because of the reliable fixing of BDS L1 ambiguity faces more difficulty, the LAMBDA method with partial ambiguity fixing is proposed to enable the independent and instantaneous resolution of extra wide-lane (EWL) and wide-lane (WL). This mechanism of sequential ambiguity fixing is demonstrated for resolving ZD satellite phase bias and performing triple-frequency PPP AR with two reference station networks with a typical baseline of up to 400 and 800 km, respectively. Tests show that about of the EWL and WL phase bias of BDS has a consistency of better than 0.1 cycle, and this value decreases to 80 % for L1 phase bias for Experiment I, while all the solutions of Experiment II have a similar RMS of about 0.12 cycles. In addition, the repeatability of the daily mean phase bias agree to 0.093 cycles and 0.095 cycles for EWL and WL on average, which is much smaller than 0.20 cycles of L1. To assess the improvement of fixed PPP brought by applying the third frequency signal as well as the above phase bias, various ambiguity fixing strategy are considered in the numerical demonstration. It is shown that the impact of the additional signal is almost negligible when only float solution involved. It is also shown that by fixing EWL and WL together, as opposed to the single ambiguity fixing, will leads to an improvement in PPP accuracy by about on average. Attributed to the efficient

  13. Comprehensive Comparisons of Satellite Data, Signals, and Measurements between the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and the Global Positioning System †

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) aims to provide global positioning service by 2020. The combined use of BDS and Global Positioning System (GPS) is proposed to provide navigation service with more stringent requirements. Actual satellite data, signals and measurements were collected for more than one month to analyze the positioning service qualities from both BDS and GPS. In addition to the conversions of coordinate and timing system, five data quality analysis (DQA) methods, three signal quality analysis (SQA) methods, and four measurement quality analysis (MQA) methods are proposed in this paper to improve the integrated positioning performance of BDS and GPS. As shown in the experiment results, issues related to BDS and GPS are resolved by the above proposed quality analysis methods. Thus, the anomalies in satellite data, signals and measurements can be detected by following the suggested resolutions to enhance the positioning performance of the combined use of BDS and GPS in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:27187403

  14. Comprehensive Comparisons of Satellite Data, Signals, and Measurements between the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and the Global Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2016-05-13

    The Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) aims to provide global positioning service by 2020. The combined use of BDS and Global Positioning System (GPS) is proposed to provide navigation service with more stringent requirements. Actual satellite data, signals and measurements were collected for more than one month to analyze the positioning service qualities from both BDS and GPS. In addition to the conversions of coordinate and timing system, five data quality analysis (DQA) methods, three signal quality analysis (SQA) methods, and four measurement quality analysis (MQA) methods are proposed in this paper to improve the integrated positioning performance of BDS and GPS. As shown in the experiment results, issues related to BDS and GPS are resolved by the above proposed quality analysis methods. Thus, the anomalies in satellite data, signals and measurements can be detected by following the suggested resolutions to enhance the positioning performance of the combined use of BDS and GPS in the Asia Pacific region.

  15. Nqrs Data for BeH14I4O18 [BeI2O6·2(HIO3)·6(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0389)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for BeH14I4O18 [BeI2O6·2(HIO3)·6(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0389)

  16. The Open Service Signal in Space Navigation Data Comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2014-01-01

    More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS) for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA) mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems' SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance. PMID:25195848

  17. [Effects of compound Zhe-Bei granule (CZBG) combined with doxorubicin on expression of membrane transport proteins in K562/A02 cell xenografts].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Yun; Zheng, Zhi; Hou, Li; Jiang, Miao; Dong, Qing; Tian, Shao-Dan; Ma, Wei; Chen, Ju; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xin-Yi

    2010-02-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the effects of compound Zhe-Bei granule (CZBG) combined with doxorubicin on expressions of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 cell xenografts. Tumor xenograft model were established by injecting the multidrug resistant cell line K562/A02 in the axillary flank of BALB/c-nu-nu mice. CZBG-intragastric administration and doxorubicin-intraperitoneal injection in combination were given to the BALB/c-nu nude mice. The tumor xenografts were made into slice after the dissection, and the expression of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts in mice were investigated by immunohistochemical technique. The integral optical density (IOD) of P-gp, MRP, LRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts were measured by Image Pro Plus 6.0. The results showed that as compared with the doxorubicin alone, the combination of the doxorubicin and CZBG with high, middle and low dosage could decrease IOD of P-gp, MRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts with statistical significance (p < 0.05). The LRP expression in K562/A02 tumor xenografts was not observed in five groups. It is concluded that the combination of CZBG with doxorubicin decreases the expressions of P-gp, MRP in K562/A02 tumor xenografts of mice.

  18. Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von Fumarsäureestern in Kombination mit Phototherapie bei Patienten mit moderater bis schwerer Plaque-Psoriasis (FAST).

    PubMed

    Weisenseel, Peter; Reich, Kristian; Griemberg, Wiebke; Merten, Katharina; Gröschel, Christine; Gomez, Natalie Nunez; Taipale, Kirsi; Bräu, Beate; Zschocke, Ina

    2017-02-01

    Die Behandlung von Psoriasis-Patienten mit einer Kombination aus Fumarsäureestern (FSE, Fumaderm(®) ) und Phototherapie (UV) ist verbreitet, wurde aber im Rahmen von Studien wenig untersucht. Bisher liegen lediglich Daten aus einer kleinen Pilotstudie vor. Intention dieser Studie war, eine FSE/UV-Kombinationsbehandlung an einem größeren Patientenkollektiv mit mittelschwerer bis schwerer Psoriasis zu untersuchen. In dieser prospektiven, multizentrischen, nichtinterventionellen Studie wurden Daten von Patienten mit FSE/UV-Kombinationstherapie hinsichtlich der Wirksamkeit (PGA' PASI, DLQI, EQ-5D), Sicherheit und Dosierung über einen Zeitraum von zwölf Monaten erfasst und mit Daten einer retrospektiven Studie mit FSE-Monotherapie verglichen. Es wurden Daten von 363 Patienten ausgewertet. Unter der Kombinationstherapie verbesserten sich alle Wirksamkeitsparameter deutlich. Im Vergleich zur Monotherapie mit FSE konnte durch die Kombination mit UV ein schnellerer Wirkeintritt erzielt werden, wobei nach zwölf Monaten kein Unterschied in der Wirksamkeit bestand. Die Dauer und Art der Phototherapie zeigte keinen Einfluss auf die Wirksamkeitsparameter. Allgemein wurde die Kombinationstherapie gut vertragen. Unerwünschte Ereignisse wurden bei 7 % der Patienten berichtet. Die FSE/UV Kombinationstherapie zeigt eine gute Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit und kann zu einem schnelleren Wirkeintritt führen. Eine Kombinationstherapie erscheint vor allem in den ersten drei Monaten der FSE Behandlung sinnvoll. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Real-Time seismic waveforms monitoring with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) observations for the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays more and more high-rate Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data become available in real time, which provide more opportunities to monitor the seismic waveforms. China's GNSS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), has already satisfied the requirement of stand-alone precise positioning in Asia-Pacific region with 14 in-orbit satellites, which promisingly suggests that BDS could be applied to the high-precision earthquake monitoring as GPS. In the present paper, real-time monitoring of seismic waveforms using BDS measurements is assessed. We investigate a so-called "variometric" approach to measure real-time seismic waveforms with high-rate BDS observations. This approach is based on time difference technique and standard broadcast products which are routinely available in real time. The 1HZ BDS data recorded by Beidou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake is analyzed. The results indicate that the accuracies of velocity estimation from BDS are 2-3 mm/s in horizontal components and 8-9 mm/s in vertical component, respectively, which are consistent with GPS. The seismic velocity waveforms during earthquake show good agreement between BDS and GPS. Moreover, the displacement waveforms is reconstructed by an integration of velocity time series with trend removal. The displacement waveforms with the accuracy of 1-2 cm are derived by comparing with post-processing GPS precise point positioning (PPP).

  20. The open service signal in space navigation data comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2014-08-19

    More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS) for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA) mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems' SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance.

  1. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  2. Efficacy risks of the minimal-invasive plastic and reconstructive neovagina Vecchietti technique in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cezar, Cristina; Devassy, Rajesh; Larbig, Angelika; De Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2014-01-01

    Einleitung: Das Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH)-Syndrom ist eine angeborene Fehlbildung, klinisch charakterisiert durch primäre Amenorrhö und Infertilität, kongenitale Aplasie des Uterus und der oberen Vagina. Die Patientinnen haben einen weiblichen Karyotyp (46, XX), normale ovarielle Funktion und reguläre Entwicklung der sekundären Geschlechtsmerkmale. Das erste Anzeichen des Syndroms ist normalerweise, dass der Menstruationszyklus nicht einsetzt. Die psychische Belastung des Syndroms kann überwältigend sein, die körperlichen Störungen können aber durch chirurgische Intervention erfolgreich behandelt werden. Der chirurgische Eingriff ermöglicht eine normale sexuelle Funktion. Es ist auch eine assistierte Reproduktion möglich. Das Studienziel ist die Überprüfung der Effizienzrisiken bei der traditionellen laparoskopischen Vecchietti-Methode in der plastischen und rekonstruktiven Chirurgie der vaginalen Agenesie. Es wurde eine prospektive, single-center, single-arm Studie durchgeführt, und Komplikationen sowie anatomische und funktionelle Ergebnisse wurden dokumentiert. Material und Methodik: Die Studie wurde zwischen 2003 und 2011 in der gynäkologischen Klinik von Kochi’s Lakshmi Hospital, Kerala in Indien durchgeführt, an der 53 Patientinnen mit dem MRKH Syndrom teilnahmen. Alle Patientinnen hatten primäre Amenorrhö und der Karyotyp war (46, XX). Die klinische Verdachtsdiagnose wurde ultrasonographisch und operativ bestätigt: Agenesie des Uterus oder rudimentäre Uterushörner und normale Eierstöcke. Alle Patientinnen haben eine plastische laparoskopische Konstruktion einer Neovagina erhalten. Wir führten eine kombinierte Behandlungsstrategie durch: eine präoperative psychologische Beratung, gefolgt von einem chirurgischen Eingriff und postoperativen Follow-up. Es wurde eine laparoskopisch modifizierte Vecchietti-Methode durchgeführt. Alle Patientinnen wurden bei der Entlassung über die Notwendigkeit sexueller vaginaler Aktivit

  3. High Altitude Platforms Mobile Robotic Telesurgery (HAPsMRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    widely available. Dr. Jacques Marescaux’s original and our recent basic science and clinical telesurgical experience demonstrated the applicability of... applications , communication latency is of primary importance. Satellite communication latency is a function of orbital altitude or position of the...successfully tested the prototype communication link independent of the Puma platform. However, once the DDL was this integrated into the aircraft , the unit

  4. A Geometry-Based Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Method with Time-Differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP) for a Single Frequency Global Position System (GPS) + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Receiver.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chuang; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Ming; Shu, Bao; Xu, Longwei; Zhang, Rufei

    2016-12-05

    As the field of high-precision applications based on carriers continues to expand, the development of low-cost, small, modular receivers and their application in diverse scenarios and situations with complex data quality has increased the requirements of carrier-phase data preprocessing. A new geometry-based cycle slip detection and repair method based on Global Position System (GPS) + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is proposed. The method uses a Time-differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP) model, which eliminates the Inner-System Bias (ISB) between GPS and BDS, and it is conducive to the effective combination of GPS and BDS. It avoids the interference of the noise of the pseudo-range with cycle slip detection, while the cycle slips are preserved as integers. This method does not limit the receiver frequency number, and it is applicable to single-frequency data. The process is divided into two steps to detect and repair cycle slip. The first step is cycle slip detection, using the Improved Local Analysis Method (ILAM) to find satellites that have cycle slips; The second step is to repair the cycle slips, including estimating the float solution of changes in ambiguities at the satellites that have cycle slips with the least squares method and the integer solution of the cycle slips by rounding. In the process of rounding, in addition to the success probability, a decimal test is carried out to validate the result. Finally, experiments with filed test data are carried out to prove the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the detectable cycle slips number with GPS + BDS is much greater than that with GPS. The method can also detect the non-integer outliers while fixing the cycle slip. The maximum decimal bias in repair is less than that with GPS. It implies that this method takes full advantages of multi-system.

  5. A Geometry-Based Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Method with Time-Differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP) for a Single Frequency Global Position System (GPS) + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Receiver

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chuang; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Ming; Shu, Bao; Xu, Longwei; Zhang, Rufei

    2016-01-01

    As the field of high-precision applications based on carriers continues to expand, the development of low-cost, small, modular receivers and their application in diverse scenarios and situations with complex data quality has increased the requirements of carrier-phase data preprocessing. A new geometry-based cycle slip detection and repair method based on Global Position System (GPS) + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is proposed. The method uses a Time-differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP) model, which eliminates the Inner-System Bias (ISB) between GPS and BDS, and it is conducive to the effective combination of GPS and BDS. It avoids the interference of the noise of the pseudo-range with cycle slip detection, while the cycle slips are preserved as integers. This method does not limit the receiver frequency number, and it is applicable to single-frequency data. The process is divided into two steps to detect and repair cycle slip. The first step is cycle slip detection, using the Improved Local Analysis Method (ILAM) to find satellites that have cycle slips; The second step is to repair the cycle slips, including estimating the float solution of changes in ambiguities at the satellites that have cycle slips with the least squares method and the integer solution of the cycle slips by rounding. In the process of rounding, in addition to the success probability, a decimal test is carried out to validate the result. Finally, experiments with filed test data are carried out to prove the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the detectable cycle slips number with GPS + BDS is much greater than that with GPS. The method can also detect the non-integer outliers while fixing the cycle slip. The maximum decimal bias in repair is less than that with GPS. It implies that this method takes full advantages of multi-system. PMID:27929390

  6. [Experiences of Austrian nursing staff in dealing with advance directives].

    PubMed

    Heindl, Patrik; Ruppert, Sabine; Kozon, Vlastimil

    2014-10-01

    Hintergrund: Die Patientenverfügung ist aufgrund der Betonung der Autonomie der PatientInnen und des zunehmenden medizinischen Fortschritts ein aktuelles Thema. Dabei zeigen sich Probleme sowohl in der Verfassung als auch bei der Umsetzung von Patientenverfügungen in den Institutionen. Die Aufgaben und der Einfluss der Pflege in diesem Zusammenhang sind noch kaum Gegenstand der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen. Dies ist der erste Artikel, der sich mit dieser Thematik auseinandersetzt. Ziel: Ziel der Untersuchung ist die Darstellung der Erfahrungen von österreichischen Pflegepersonen im Umgang mit Patientenverfügungen im Universitätskrankenhaus. Methode: Es wurde ein deskriptiv-exploratives Querschnittdesign angewendet. Die Datenerfassung erfolgte mittels Fragebögen im Jahr 2009. Insgesamt wurden 266 Pflegepersonen in einem österreichischen Universitätskrankenhaus befragt. Ergebnisse: Bei den Pflegepersonen zeigte sich eine große Unsicherheit bei gleichzeitigem Vorhandensein von ausreichendem theoretischen Fachwissen und fehlenden Strukturen von Seiten der Organisation. Dadurch entstanden einige interdisziplinäre Konflikte im Zusammenhang mit der Umsetzung der Patientenverfügung. Schlussfolgerungen: Um Konflikte zu vermeiden und den Umgang sowie die Umsetzung von Patientenverfügungen in der Praxis zu verbessern, ist die Etablierung einer klinischen Ethikberatung empfehlenswert. Aufgaben einer solchen Ethikberatung sind die Erstellung von Richtlinien in der Institution, die Durchführung von individuellen Fallbesprechungen und die Fort- und Weiterbildung der betroffenen Gesundheitsberufe.

  7. Unverstandene Horaz-Zitate bei Nicolaus Copernicus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, F.

    Being a Renaissance Humanist, Copernicus takes care to demonstrate his education also by quotations from classical authors which however are concealed in a way that they are recognized and understood in their meaning only by equally educated persons. Three such quotations from the Ars poetica by Horace are represented. These not only enable completely new insights into the dating of certain phases of his writing the main work De revolutionibus (especially book III) but also mark his characterization of "good" and "bad" astronomers (and astronomies). Furthermore they give evidence that T.S. Kuhn's "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" cannot apply to the Copernican turning point of astronomy called revolution.

  8. Kompressionstherapie bei Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum.

    PubMed

    Dissemond, Joachim; Assenheimer, Bernd; Bültemann, Anke; Gerber, Veronika; Gretener, Silvia; Kohler-von Siebenthal, Elisabeth; Koller, Sonja; Kröger, Knut; Kurz, Peter; Läuchli, Severin; Münter, Christian; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Probst, Sebastian; Protz, Kerstin; Riepe, Gunnar; Strohal, Robert; Traber, Jürg; Partsch, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Wund-D.A.CH. ist der Dachverband deutschsprachiger Fachgesellschaften, die sich mit den Thematiken der Wundbehandlung beschäftigen. Experten verschiedener Fachgesellschaften aus Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz haben nun einen aktuellen Konsens der Kompressionstherapie für Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum erstellt. In Europa ist das Ulcus cruris venosum eine der häufigsten Ursachen für chronische Wunden. Neben der konservativen und interventionellen Wund- und Venentherapie, ist die Kompressionstherapie die Basis der Behandlungsstrategien. Die Kompressionstherapie kann heute mit sehr unterschiedlichen Materialien und Systemen durchgeführt werden. Während in der Entstauungsphase insbesondere Verbände mit Kurzzugbinden oder Mehrkomponentensysteme zur Anwendung kommen, sind es anschließend überwiegend Ulkus-Strumpfsysteme. Eine weitere, bislang wenig verbreitete Alternative sind adaptive Kompressionsbandagen. Insbesondere für die Rezidivprophylaxe werden medizinische Kompressionsstrümpfe empfohlen. Durch die Vielzahl der heute zur Verfügung stehenden Behandlungsoptionen, kann für nahezu alle Patienten ein Konzept entwickelt werden, dass sich an den individuellen Bedürfnissen und Fähigkeiten orientiert und daher auch akzeptiert und durchgeführt wird. Die Kompressionstherapie ist für die Behandlung von Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum essentiell. In den letzten Jahren sind viele verschiedene Therapieoptionen verfügbar, die in den deutschsprachigen Ländern unterschiedlich angewendet oder durchgeführt werden. Daher soll dieser Expertenkonsens dazu beitragen, konkrete Empfehlungen für die praktische Durchführung der Kompressionstherapie von Patienten mit Ulcus cruris venosum darzustellen. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Why do - or don't - patients with urinary tract infection participate in a clinical trial? A qualitative study in German family medicine.

    PubMed

    Bleidorn, Jutta; Bucak, Sermin; Gágyor, Ildikó; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Dierks, Marie-Luise

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund: Die Durchführung vieler klinischer Studien wird beeinträchtigt durch ungenügenden Patienteneinschluss, nicht zuletzt aufgrund einer nennenswerten Anzahl infrage kommender Patienten, die eine Studienteilnahme ablehnen. Auch wenn Barrieren und motivierende Faktoren für eine Studienteilnahme von Patienten mit onkologischen Erkrankungen oder chronischen Krankheiten bereits untersucht wurden, ist wenig bekannt über die diesbezügliche Einstellung hausärztlicher Patienten, die mit einer unkomplizierten Erkrankung ihren Hausarzt aufsuchen. Die vorliegende Studie hat zum Ziel, Motivationsfaktoren und Barrieren hausärztlicher Patienten für eine Studienteilnahme zu untersuchen, und Faktoren zu identifizieren, die die Patientenrekrutierung in zukünftigen Studien erleichtern. Methode: Diese Studie war eingebettet in eine Arzneimittelstudie, in der zwei Behandlungsstrategien bei Frauen mit unkompliziertem Harnwegsinfekt im hausärztlichen Setting untersucht wurden. Semistrukturierte telefonische Interviews wurden sowohl mit Studienteilnehmerinnen wie auch mit Ablehnerinnen durchgeführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fokussierte auf den persönlichen motivierenden oder hinderlichen Faktoren der Patientinnen. Weitere Aspekte umfassten das Studienthema, die Rolle des Hausarztes, Randomisierung, Studienabläufe und potentielle motivierende/hinderliche Faktoren für andere Patientinnen. Die Analyse der Transskripte erfolgte mittels zusammenfassender qualitativer Inhaltsanalyse.Ergebnisse: 20 Interviews mit Studienteilnehmerinnen und 5 Interviews mit Ablehnerinnen wurden durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen unterschiedliche Gründe für eine Studienteilnahme aus den drei Bereichen: persönliche Aspekte, studienbezogene Aspekte und Beziehung zum Hausarzt. Ein relevantes Studienthema und ein wahrgenommener persönlicher Benefit fördert die Studienteilnahme ebenso wie der generelle Wunsch, Forschung zu unterstützen. Die Gewissheit, dass in jedem Fall mit einer

  10. [Hydro-MRT with fast sequences in Crohn's disease: a comparison with fractionated gastrointestinal passage].

    PubMed

    Schunk, K; Kern, A; Heussel, C P; Kalden, P; Orth, T; Wanitschke, R; Thelen, M

    1999-04-01

    To compare the value of hydro-MRI with that of barium studies in patients with Crohn's disease. After an oral bowel opacification using 1000 ml of a 2.5% mannitol solution, axial and coronal breath-hold sequences (T2W HASTE +/- FS, contrast-enhanced T1W FLASH FS) were acquired in 46 patients with Crohn's disease at 1.0 T. The findings of hydro-MRI were compared with those of barium studies. In the stomach and the small bowel, hydro-MRI and barium studies demonstrated similar numbers of Crohn's involvements (39 vs. 36); in the colon, hydro-MRI showed clearly more affections (23 vs. 10). Hydro-MRI showed 12.7 cm of inflamed bowel per patient, on average (barium studies: 10.4 cm; p = 0.004). There was a good agreement between the two methods regarding the assessment of the extent of Crohn's disease and the severity of bowel stenoses (r = 0.89 and 0.88, respectively). For the assessment of Crohn's disease, hydro-MRI is preferable to the barium study because of the superior imaging quality and the lack of radiation exposure.

  11. MRT letter: An extended scanning probe microscopy system for macroscopic topography imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin

    2014-10-01

    Enlightened by the principle of scanning probe microscopy or atomic force microscope (AFM), we proposed a novel surface topography imaging system based on the scanning of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever. The height of sample surface can be obtained by recording the cantilever's strain using an ultra-sensitive strain gauge and the Z-axis movement is realized by electric bending of the cantilever. This system can be operated in the way similar to the contact mode in AFM, with the practical height detection resolution better than 100 nm. Imaging of the inner surface of a steel tube and on a transparent wing of a honey bee were conducted and the obtained results showed that this proposed system is a very promising solution for in situ topography mapping.

  12. MRT letter: light sheet based imaging flow cytometry on a microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Raju; Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha P

    2013-11-01

    We propose a light sheet based imaging flow cytometry technique for simultaneous counting and imaging of cells on a microfluidic platform. Light sheet covers the entire microfluidic channel and thus omits the necessity of flow focusing and point scanning based technology. Another advantage lies in the orthogonal detection geometry that totally cuts-off the incident light, thereby substantially reducing the background in the detection. Compared to the existing state-of-art techniques the proposed technique shows marked improvement. Using fluorescently-coated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells we have recorded cell counting with throughput as high as 2,090 cells/min in the low flow rate regime and were able to image the individual cells on-the-go. Overall, the proposed system is cost-effective and simple in channel geometry with the advantage of efficient counting in operational regime of low laminar flow. This technique may advance the emerging field of microfluidic based cytometry for applications in nanomedicine and point of care diagnostics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Fetal lung development on MRT. Normal course and impairment due to premature rupture of membranes].

    PubMed

    Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Helmer, H; Langer, M; Balassy, C; Prayer, D

    2006-02-01

    A well-organized interplay between many molecular factors as well as mechanical forces influence fetal lung development. At the end of this complex process a sufficiently sized and structurally mature organ should ensure the postnatal survival of the newborn. Besides prenatal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now be used to investigate normal and pathological human lung growth in utero. Oligohydramnios, due to premature rupture of membranes (PROM), is an important risk factor for compromised fetal lung growth. In these situations MR volumetry can be used to measure the size of the fetal lung quite accurately. Together with the evaluation of lung signal intensities on T2-weighted sequences, fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia can be readily detected.

  14. Removal, Separation, and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastestreams Using Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    footprint and ancillary equipment is minimal, ion exchange would require additional equipment such as electrowinning or electrodialysis (ref. 5). The...system using embedded membranes , the payback could be ə year. Previous efforts by DoD have been to reduce the volume of IWTP sludge, and not to eliminate...Superlig® materials may be embedded in membranes , replaceable cartridges or as the more tradition packed bed column configuration as demonstrated at

  15. [Comparison of noninvasive MRT procedures for temperature measuremnt for the application of medical heat therapies].

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Guido; Jenne, Jürgen W; Rastert, Ralf; Röder, Daniel; Schad, Lothar

    2003-01-01

    Novel methods for hyperthermia tumor therapy, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), require accurate non-invasive temperature monitoring. Non-invasive temperature measurement using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is based on the analysis of changes in longitudinal relaxation time (T1), diffusion coefficient (D), or water proton resonance frequency (PRF). The purpose of this study was the development and comparative analysis of the three different approaches of MRI temperature monitoring (T1, D, and PRF). Measurements in phantoms (e.g., ultrasound gel) resulted in the following percent changes: T1-relaxation time: 1.98%/degree C; diffusion coefficient: 2.22%/degree C; and PRF: -0.0101 ppm/degree C. All measurements were in good agreement with the literature. Temperature resolutions could also be measured from the inverse correlation of the data over the whole calibration range: T1: 2.1 +/- 0.6 degrees C; D: 0.93 +/- 0.2 degree C; and PRF: 1.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C. The diffusion and PRF methods were not applicable in fatty tissue. The use of the diffusion method was restricted due to prolonged echo time and anisotropic diffusion in tissue. Initial tests with rabbit muscle tissue in vivo indicated that MR thermometry via T1 and PRF procedures is feasible to monitor the local heating process induced by HIFU. The ultrasound applicators in the MR scanner did not substantially interfere with image quality.

  16. Manual for the psychotherapeutic treatment of acute and post-traumatic stress disorders following multiple shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jochen; Titscher, Georg; Peregrinova, Ludmila; Kirsch, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund: Angesichts der ständig steigenden Zahl implantierter Defibrillatoren steigt auch die Zahl der Menschen, die sog. Mehrfachschocks erleben. Fünf oder mehr Schocks (adäquate oder inadäquate) innerhalb von 12 Monaten oder drei und mehr Schocks innerhalb einer Episode (24 Stunden) führen nach derzeitigem Kenntnisstand zu einem Anstieg von psychopathologischen Symptomen (Angststörung, Panikstörung, Anpassungsstörung und posttraumatische Belastungsstörung). Unbehandelt führt dies zu einer Chronifizierung bei niedriger Spontanremission und zu einer Erhöhung der Morbidität und Mortalität. Es gibt nur wenige Publikationen zur psychotherapeutischen Behandlung dieser PatientInnen.Ziel: Ziel der Studie war die Entwicklung und Erprobung einer multimodalen psychotherapeutischen Intervention für Menschen nach Defi-Mehrfachschocks und einer Anpassungsstörung oder posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung.Design: Es handelt sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie: PatientInnen wurden in einem naturalistischen Design (unausgewählt, ohne Randomisierung und ohne Kontrollgruppe) stationär behandelt. Der Einschluss der PatientInnen erfolgte zwischen März 2007 bis März 2010. Die Studie bestand aus zwei Phasen. In der ersten Phase der Pilotstudie entwickelten und erprobten wir verschiedene Behandlungskomponenten und die Behandlungsdosis variierte. In der zweiten Phase (Follow-up-Studie) fand eine postalische Nachuntersuchung mittels Fragebögen statt. Der Nachbefragungszeitraum variierte zwischen 12 und 30 Monaten.Stichprobe: Im Untersuchungszeitraum wurden 31 PatientInnen in die Klinik für Psychokardiologie der Kerckhoff Klinik überwiesen. Die von uns behandelte Gruppe bestand am Ende aus 22 Personen, die eine Anpassungsstörung oder posttraumatische Störung hatten und die in der Lage und Willens waren, an der Studie teilzunehmen. In die Follow-up-Studie konnten wir 18 von diesen 22 PatientInnen einschließen.Methoden: Zu Beginn und am Ende der station

  17. Astronomen bei der Arbeit - Live-Konferenz mit La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Paul G.

    2012-02-01

    "Wie kann man sich die nächtliche Arbeit eines Astronomen am Teleskop vorstellen?" Diese Frage stellen sich viele wissenschaftlich interessierte Menschen, die noch kein professionelles Observatorium besuchen konnten. Das multimediale Experiment "Call a Scientist" verband Besucher einer österreichischen Amateursternwarte live mit dem Großobservatorium in La Palma und brachte damit einer interessierten Öffentlichkeit seltene Einblicke in die Arbeitsweise der modernen Astronomie nahe.

  18. Kalkbohrende Mikrothalli bei Helminthocladia und Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, P.; Sahling, P.-H.

    1980-03-01

    Shell-boring microthalli in Helminthocladia and Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta). Spores shed from pink mussel shells were shown to develop into branched monosiphonous thalli, their filaments penetrating into shell fragments. Isolates from four single germlings were cultivated. Two of these produced gametophytes of Helminthocladia and Scinaia; the others have so far only reproduced by tetraspores or monospores. Evidently the microthalli of some genera of the Nemaliales — which are, with the exception of Nemalion multifidum, known only from cultures — are shell-inhabiting and have therefore not been found in nature. The adult algae occur mainly on shells and CaCO3 substrates. Until the beginning of the century, Helminthocladia and Scinaia frequently occurred at Helgoland, but they have not been found there for more than 50 years. Their microthalli, however, are still present as shell-boring algae. This study is intended to stimulate similar ones in other genera of the Nemaliales so as to obtain a broader basis for discussion of systematic and phylogenetic relationships.

  19. 78 FR 16680 - Shu Bei Yuan: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... debarment to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane... between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday. Dated: February 28, 2013. Melinda K. Plaisier,...

  20. Langfristige Performance mit Thin Clients bei HSBC Trinkaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HSBC Trinkaus nutzt Thin Clients als grafikstarke Desktops einer Citrix-basierenden Server Based Computing-Umgebung. Die neuen Dualview-Arbeitsplätze sind zuverlässiger, pflegeleichter und stromsparender als die bisherigen Terminal-PCs. Selbst die Administration erfolgt im Zweibildschirmbetrieb.

  1. Bei: Intraclausal Coherence Relations Illustrated with a German Preposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabski, Michael; Stede, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Coherence relations are typically taken to link two clauses or larger units and to be signaled at the text surface by conjunctions and certain adverbials. Relations, however, also can hold within clauses, indicated by prepositions like despite, due to, or in case of, when these have an internal argument denoting an eventuality. Although these…

  2. Radio occultation based on BeiDou satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hu; Hu, Haiying; Shen, Xue-min; Gong, Wenbin; Zhang, Yonghe

    2014-11-01

    With the development of GNSS systems, it has become a tendency that radio occultation is used to sense the Earth's atmosphere. By this means, the moisture, temperature, pressure, and total electron content can be derived. Based on the sensing results, more complicated models for atmosphere might come into being. Meteorology well benefits from this technology. As scheduled, the BD satellite navigation system will have a worldwide coverage by the end of 2020. Radio occultation studies in China have been highlighted in the recent decade. More and more feasibilities reports have been published in either domestic or international journals. Herein, some scenarios are proposed to assess the coverage of radio occultation based on two different phases of BD satellite navigation system. Phase one for BD is composed of GEO,IGSO and several MEO satellites. Phase two for BD consists mostly of 24 MEO satellites, some GEO and IGSO satellites. The characteristics of radio occultation based on these two phases are presented respectively.

  3. MRT letter: Auto-fluorescence by human alveolar macrophages after in vitro exposure to air pollution particles.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Sangani, Rahul G; Brighton, Luisa E; Carson, John L

    2010-06-01

    Macrophages from smokers demonstrate an increased auto-fluorescence. Similarly, auto-fluorescence follows in vitro exposure of macrophages to cigarette smoke condensate (i.e., the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke). The composition of particles in cigarette smoke can be comparable to air pollution particles. We tested the postulate that macrophages exposed to air pollution particles could demonstrate auto-fluorescence. Healthy nonsmoking and healthy smoking volunteers (both 18-40 years of age) underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and alveolar macrophages isolated. Macrophages were incubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) with either PBS or 100 microg/mL particle for both 1 and 24 h. Particles included a residual oil fly ash, Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash, and ambient air particles collected from St. Louis, Missouri and Salt Lake City, Utah. At the end of incubation, 50 microL of the cell suspension was cytocentrifuged and examined at modes for viewing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine fluorescence. Both emission source air pollution particles demonstrated FITC and rhodamine auto-fluorescence at 1 and 24 h, but the signal following incubation of the macrophages with oil fly ash appeared greater. Similarly, the ambient particles were associated with auto-fluorescence by the alveolar macrophages and this appeared to be dose-dependent. We conclude that exposure of macrophages to air pollution particles can be associated with auto-fluorescence in the FITC and rhodamine modes.

  4. MRT letter: Two-photon excitation-based 2pi light-sheet system for nano-lithography.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2015-01-01

    We propose two-photon excitation-based light-sheet technique for nano-lithography. The system consists of 2π-configured cylindrical lens system with a common geometrical focus. Upon superposition, the phase-matched counter-propagating light-sheets result in the generation of identical and equi spaced nano-bump pattern. Study shows a feature size of as small as few tens of nanometers with a inter-bump distance of few hundred nanometers. This technique overcomes some of the limitations of existing nano-lithography techniques, thereby, may pave the way for mass-production of nano-structures. Potential applications can also be found in optical microscopy, plasmonics, and nano-electronics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of Speech Intensity on the Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) Presented in Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University 1601 E. Market Street, Greensboro, North...Department of Management, North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University 1601 E. Market Street, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411, USA; e...to-noise ratio. 1. Introduction Speech intelligibility (SI) is defined as the percent- age of speech units (i.e., phonemes, syllables, words, phrases

  6. Fielding the magnetically applied pressure-shear technique on the Z accelerator (completion report for MRT 4519).

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C. Scott; Haill, Thomas A.; Dalton, Devon Gardner; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Lamppa, Derek C.

    2013-09-01

    The recently developed Magnetically Applied Pressure-Shear (MAPS) experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms was fielded on August 16, 2013 on shot Z2544 utilizing hardware set A0283A. Several technical and engineering challenges were overcome in the process leading to the attempt to measure the dynamic strength of NNSA Ta at 50 GPa. The MAPS technique relies on the ability to apply an external magnetic field properly aligned and time correlated with the MHD pulse. The load design had to be modified to accommodate the external field coils and additional support was required to manage stresses from the pulsed magnets. Further, this represents the first time transverse velocity interferometry has been applied to diagnose a shot at Z. All subsystems performed well with only minor issues related to the new feed design which can be easily addressed by modifying the current pulse shape. Despite the success of each new component, the experiment failed to measure strength in the samples due to spallation failure, most likely in the diamond anvils. To address this issue, hydrocode simulations are being used to evaluate a modified design using LiF windows to minimize tension in the diamond and prevent spall. Another option to eliminate the diamond material from the experiment is also being investigated.

  7. [Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) of the scrotum--initial results and comparison with sonography. II: Intratesticular pathology].

    PubMed

    Hajek, P C

    1987-11-01

    The wide differences in signal intensity in the scrotum provide an excellent background for the assessment of intratesticular pathology. Besides hemorrhage, all intratesticular pathologic changes have lower signal intensities than surrounding normal testicular tissue. Proton density- and T1-weighted images are essential for the characterization of hematomas, abscesses and hydroceles. Clear delineation of the tunica albuginea is necessary for precise assessment of trauma and tumors. Because a ruptured tunica albuginea can be visualized and because of its high sensitivity, MRI is superior to sonography in the diagnosis of trauma and orchitis. In addition, MRI is the imaging modality of choice for characterization and precise assessment of tumor size as well as for the exclusion of pathologic changes.

  8. [Homöopathisch-phytotherapeutische Behandlung des Reizdarmsyndroms mit Magen-Darm-Entoxin N®: Eine Anwendungsbeobachtung].

    PubMed

    Märtens, Diane; Range, Natasha; Günnewich, Nils; Gruber, Nicola; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: In dieser Anwendungsbeobachtung wird zum ersten Mal die Behandlung des Reizdarmsyndroms (RDS) mit einem homöopathisch-phytotherapeutischen Komplexpräparat beschrieben. Methodik: Ziel der 6-wöchigen Therapie mit dem Magen-Darm-Entoxin N® war die Reduzierung der RDS-Symptomatik sowie die Verbesserung der Lebensqualität. Zielkriterien waren die Veränderungen in der Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) und der Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Quality-of-Life Scale (IBS-QoL). Die Patient/innen (N = 41; Alter 44,0 ± 15,74 Jahre) wurden zu gleichen Teilen in einer Hausarztpraxis (N = 20) und einer Heilpraktikerpraxis (N = 21) rekrutiert. Ergebnisse: Der IBS-QoL-Score verringerte sich signifikant (prä: 35,9 ± 16,3; post: 20,1 ± 13,4; t = 8,504; p < 0,001). Die Effektstärke betrug 1,34 (Cohens d). Der IBS-SSS-Score verringerte sich ebenfalls signifikant (prä: 239,4 ± 83,4; post: 123,7 ± 80,9; t = 7,825; p < 0,001) mit einer Effektstärke von d = 1,24. Die Neben- und Wechselwirkungen waren minimal und signifikante Unterschiede zwischen beiden Praxen wurden nicht gefunden. Schlussfolgerungen: Magen-Darm-Entoxin N® ist eine sichere und sinnvolle Therapieoption bei der Behandlung des RDS. Allerdings sollten randomisierte kontrollierte Studien folgen, um die Spezifizität der Ergebnisse dieser Anwendungsbeobachtung zu stützen. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. [The value of magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) for evaluating ventricular and anastomotic functions in patients with an extra- or intracardiac total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC)-modified Fontan operation].

    PubMed

    Gutberlet, M; Hosten, N; Abdul-Khaliq, H; Rechter, S; Vojtovic, P; Oellinger, H; Ehrenstein, T; Vogel, M; Alexi-Meshkishvili, V; Hetzer, R; Felix, R

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate different MR methods (ventricle and flow measurements) for the postoperative follow-up of hemodynamics in patients with extra- or intracardial TCPC. Twenty-eight consecutive patients (14 female, 14 male) within the ages of two to thirty-eight years were examined using a 1.5 T Gyroscan ACS-NT scanner (Philips, Best, Netherlands). 7 patients had an extracardial (eTCPC), and 21 an intracardial (iTCPC) tunnel. The calculation of the ventricular function and muscle mass was performed using "multislice-multiphase" technique by summing up the end-diastolic and end-systolic areas; the flow measurements were evaluated by phase shift velocity mapping in the superior vena cava (SVC), inferior vena cava (IVC), right (RPA) and left (LPA) pulmonary artery. Besides peak and mean velocity, the mean and maximal flow volumes (ml/min) were calculated. Ejection fraction (EF) of the functionally single ventricle was within the normal range (mean 57%) in 22/28 patients while mean muscle mass was elevated in the group with eTCPC (mean 121 g/m2). The mean flow volumes and the peak velocities in all vessels were higher in the group with iTCPC as compared to the one with eTCPC. Clinically relevant retrograde flows in the IVC were only found in the group with iTCPC (7/21), as well as a significant predominant flow distribution towards the RPA (p < 0.05; Wilcoxon signed-rank test); in the group with eTCPC towards the LPA (n.s.). MRI is a useful method for the assessment of ventricular function and muscle mass in the follow-up after the modified Fontan operation. MRI flow measurements additionally provided clinically relevant information about the hemodynamics in Fontan patients.

  10. [Imaging techniques in the preoperative diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. A comparison of MRT, CT, sonography, angiography and conventional x-rays].

    PubMed

    Roeren, T; Gindele, A; Grosspietsch, C; Dueck, M; Kauffmann, G W

    1992-12-01

    In a study on 51 patients with histologically confirmed soft tissue tumors (STT), we retrospectively evaluated the preoperative use of imaging procedures (MRI, CT, ultrasound, angiography, plain film) for identification of tumor size, delineation, and determination of malignancy and tissue type. The findings were correlated with intraoperative findings and histological diagnosis. The overall diagnostic method of choice for preoperative imaging of STT is MRI, followed by CT. Ultrasound, although sensitive, lacks the required specificity. Angiography and plain film can only be used for specific indications, as they generally do not make it possible to stage the tumor. Combining our results with those from the more recent literature, we propose a diagnostic algorithm according to which MRI would generally be performed for preoperative staging of STT. CT and plain film should only be used if bony infiltration is suspected; angiography is indicated for planning intraarterial chemotherapy or embolization or if vascular infiltration is probable.

  11. Misunderstood citations of Horace by Nicolaus Copernicus. (German Title: Unverstandene Horaz-Zitate bei Nicolaus Copernicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Fritz

    Being a Renaissance humanist, Copernicus takes care to demonstrate his education also by quotations from classical authors which however are concealed in a way that they are recognized and understood in their meaning only by equally educated persons. Three such quotations from the Ars poetica by Horace are represented. These not only enable completely new insights into the dating of certain phases of his writing the main work De revolutionibus (especially book III) but also mark his characterization of 'good' and 'bad' astronomers (and astronomies). Furthermore they give evidence that T.S. Kuhn's ``Structure of Scientific Revolutions'' cannot apply to the Copernican turning point of astronomy called revolution.

  12. Johann Christoph Sturm's universal mathematics and metaphysics (German Title: Universalmathematik und Metaphysik bei Johann Christoph Sturm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinsle, Ulrich G.

    In order to understand Sturm's concept of a universal mathematics as a replacement or complement of metaphysics, one first has to examine the evolution of the idea of a mathesis universalis up to Sturm, and his concept of metaphysics. According to the understanding of those times, natural theology belongs to metaphysics. The last section is concerned with Sturm's statements on the existence of God and his assessments for a physico-theology.

  13. Die Aufnahme partikulärer Nahrung bei Reniera sp. (Porifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbruch, Paul-Friedrich

    1985-09-01

    The choanocyte chambers of the marine sponge Reniera sp. protrude with their curved outer surface free into the incurrent canals. The water is sucked into the chambers by cavities between the choanocytes. Particles up to 1 µm in diameter may enter the chambers with the water current. These particles are trapped on the outer surface of the choanocyte collars and are ingested by the choanocytes and processes of the pinacocyte epithelium of the incurrent canal system, which project into the chambers. Bigger particles are retained in the incurrent canals mainly on the outer surface of the choanocyte chambers. They are ingested by pinacocytes of the canal wall and transported to cells of the mesenchyme. The present investigation shows the great importance of the pinacocyte epithelium of the incurrent canal system for suspension feeding in Reniera sp.

  14. Oszillationen der reaktionsgeschwindigkeit bei der reaktion von NO MIT CO an platin im Knudsengebiet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlhoch, Wolfgang; Lintz, Hans-Günther; Weisker, Tilman

    1981-02-01

    The reduction of NO by CO on a polycrystalline platinum ribbon is studied in a open system at pressures less than 5 × 10 -4Torr (6.7 × 10 -2Pa). In the temperature range 440 < T/K < 520 one can initiate sustained oscillations of the reaction rate in an oxidizing atmosphere (1 < pNO/ pCO < 4). At constant feed of gas to the reactor this can be obtained by a temperature jump, at constant temperature of the catalyst these oscillations may be created by the variation of the partial pressure of one of the reactants. As the oscillations arise isothermally under Knudsen conditions they cannot be due to the coupling of transport phenomena and reactions at the catalyst surface. The interaction between adsorbed gases and the surface structure must play the determinant roll.

  15. "Hirnsymptome bei Carcinomatose" - Hermann Oppenheim and an Early Description of a Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Paulina; Prüss, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes belong to the most enigmatic and fascinating disorders. Their remarkable clinical spectrum ranges from sensory neuronopathy to cerebellar degeneration or limbic encephalitis. We retrace the clinical and pathological description of a forgotten case published by Hermann Oppenheim in 1888, which to our knowledge represents the first report of a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. The young Oppenheim used thorough observation and good clinical judgment to suggest a causal link between the seemingly mere association of an underlying malignancy and a neurological syndrome, decades before Denny-Brown's identification of sensory neuronopathy in 1948 and a century before the discovery of "anti-Hu" antibodies. Oppenheim anticipated that scientific progress was required to prove this link, and he indicated his finding as "a pointer for future observers." In this way, he leaves the reader with the fascinating question of which observations during our current neurology practice could be the next "pointers" in medical research.

  16. Dominierende Prozesse bei der thermischen In-situ-Sanierung (TISS) kontaminierter Geringleiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiester, Uwe; Bieber, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Contaminants such as chlorinated, aromatic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CHC, BTEX, PAH) or mineral oil hydrocarbons (TPH) constitute a prevalent threat to water resources. The significant storage capacity of low permeable soils (aquitards) leads to their long-term contamination. In situ thermal remediation (ISTR) proved to work successfully in treating these soils. Thus, the area of ISTR application grew continuously over the past 10 years. The dominating processes during the remediation can vary considerably, depending on hydrogeological and geological boundary conditions and the contamination itself. This article summarizes the application for in-situ thermal remediation (ISTR) in low permeable soils and aquitards for soil and groundwater treatment. Dominating remediation processes during volatile organic compound (VOC) and residual oil phase recovery are presented. The processes are illustrated by project examples.

  17. Kundenfokus: Startpunkt für die digitale Transformation bei Stadtwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fett, Perry; Küller, Philipp

    Big Data, Internet der Dinge, Mobile Computing und soziale Medien - die modernen Informationstechnologien durchdringen den Alltag der meisten Menschen und lösen hierdurch eine digitale Transformation aus. Im Unternehmenskontext manifestiert sich die Digitalisierung durch eine neue Qualität der wissensbasierten Entscheidungsunterstützung und der Automatisierung bzw. Autonomisierung der Geschäftsprozesse. Für Stadtwerke gilt es nun, die Chancen der Digitalisierung zu ihren Gunsten zu nutzen. Ein Startpunkt könnte hierbei sein, wie Stadtwerke zukünftig mit ihren Kunden interagieren. Ausgelöst durch die Liberalisierung der Märkte rückt der Kunde heute stärker in den Mittelpunkt - die Energiewirtschaft steht nun vor der Herausforderung, dem Wettbewerb einen Schritt voraus zu sein und dem Kunden ein absolut positives Kundenerlebnis (Customer Experience) sowohl als Maßnahme zur Kundenbindung als auch zum Kundenaufbau zu bieten. Das vorliegende Kapitel zeigt hierfür die Erfolgskriterien für die gelungene Etablierung des Kundenfokus im eigenen Unternehmen auf. Mit dem Customer-Focus-Cycle-Modell von Fujitsu, angelehnt an den Deming-Kreislauf, wird ein allgemeingültiger Ansatz für ein mögliches Vorgehen beim Aufbau des Kundenfokus vorgestellt. Die sechs Phasen werden dabei anhand praktischer Beispiele erläutert und geben zudem Hinweise zu Methoden und Tools. Aus dem vorgestellten "Werkzeugkasten" wird ferner die Customer-Journey-Methode im Detail erläutert. Weiter soll das präsentierte Reifegradmodell Unternehmen dabei unterstützen, den eigenen Status quo festzustellen und die persönlichen Ziele auf dem Weg zur kundenzentrierten Organisation festzulegen.

  18. The third stage of the Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is bei

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-03

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, a technician mates the AIM spacecraft, at left, to the Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket, at right. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch from the Pegasus XL rocket is scheduled for April 25.

  19. The third stage of the Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is bei

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-03

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, technicians prepare to mate the AIM spacecraft (at left) to the SoftRide isolation system on the Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket. The Cosmic Dust Experiment surfaces can be clearly seen as 12 rectangular areas on the aft portion of the spacecraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch from the Pegasus XL rocket is scheduled for April 25.

  20. Keim oder kein Keim: Herausforderungen bei der Diagnose mykobakterieller Infektionen der Haut.

    PubMed

    Peters, Franziska; Batinica, Marina; Plum, Georg; Eming, Sabine A; Fabri, Mario

    2016-12-01

    Kutane Mykobakteriosen sind in Deutschland selten. Dennoch ist es für eine frühzeitige Diagnose und anschließende wirksame Behandlung erforderlich, dass diese Krankheitsbilder im ärztlichen Bewusstsein verankert sind. Darüber hinaus stehen Infektionen mit Mykobakterien auf der Liste der Differentialdiagnosen vieler Hautkrankheiten. Diagnosen kutaner Mykobakteriosen beruhen auf klinischen Merkmalen und auf Laboruntersuchungen, einschließlich bakterieller Kulturen, histopathologischer Untersuchungen und PCR-basierten Verfahren. Das Wissen um Möglichkeiten und Grenzen dieser Laboruntersuchungen ist von zentraler Bedeutung, um eine angemessene klinische Entscheidung zu treffen. In diesem Beitrag diskutieren wir die aktuellen diagnostischen Möglichkeiten, die in Verdachtsfällen kutaner Mykobakteriosen zur Verfügung stehen. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Verminderte Tiefbrunnenergiebigkeit durch Versandung und Versinterung bei Veränderung der Grundwasserchemie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Christoph; Wisotzky, Frank; Becke, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    In three deep wells of a water works in the Lower Rhine Valley (Germany) decreasing well yield has been observed. To investigate the reasons for this decline, solids analysis (microscopy, Cinorg measurements, XRD-, SEM-analysis) was completed and hydrogeochemical calculations were carried out. The samples examined from the bottom of the wells indicate both hydromechanical entry of sand from the aquifer into the well, and formation of incrustations in the form of calcite within the well. The water analysis results show that almost all measured ion concentrations have increased over the past 10 years, which indicates a general change of the hydrochemical conditions of the aquifer. Hydrogeochemical models suggest that oversaturation exists regarding the mineral phases iron hydroxide and calcium carbonate, and therefore the formation of incrustations is possible.

  2. Erfahrungen bei der Arbeit am russischen Wortschatz (Experiences in Work on the Russian Vocabulary)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruechten, Christa von

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiences with vocabulary booklets written by the students from Grade 5 through Grade 10. These included vocabularies grouped as to subject matter; special attention was given to vocabularies which would have a bearing on the whole school career and on developing free speaking ability. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  3. Timing group delay and differential code bias corrections for BeiDou positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Jinling

    2015-05-01

    This article first clearly figures out the relationship between parameters of timing group delay (TGD) and differential code bias (DCB) for BDS, and demonstrates the equivalence of TGD and DCB correction models combining theory with practice. The TGD/DCB correction models have been extended to various occasions for BDS positioning, and such models have been evaluated by real triple-frequency datasets. To test the effectiveness of broadcast TGDs in the navigation message and DCBs provided by the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX), both standard point positioning (SPP) and precise point positioning (PPP) tests are carried out for BDS signals with different schemes. Furthermore, the influence of differential code biases on BDS positioning estimates such as coordinates, receiver clock biases, tropospheric delays and carrier phase ambiguities is investigated comprehensively. Comparative analysis show that the unmodeled differential code biases degrade the performance of BDS SPP by a factor of two or more, whereas the estimates of PPP are subject to varying degrees of influences. For SPP, the accuracy of dual-frequency combinations is slightly worse than that of single-frequency, and they are much more sensitive to the differential code biases, particularly for the B2B3 combination. For PPP, the uncorrected differential code biases are mostly absorbed into the receiver clock bias and carrier phase ambiguities and thus resulting in a much longer convergence time. Even though the influence of the differential code biases could be mitigated over time and comparable positioning accuracy could be achieved after convergence, it is suggested to properly handle with the differential code biases since it is vital for PPP convergence and integer ambiguity resolution.

  4. Materials Data on BeI2 (SG:142) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on BeI2 (SG:72) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. The third stage of the Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is bei

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-03

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is ready for mating to the AIM spacecraft. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch from the Pegasus XL rocket is scheduled for April 25.

  7. The third stage of the Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is bei

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-03

    At Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the third stage of the Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is being mated to the AIM spacecraft, at right. AIM, which stands for Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, is being prepared for integrated testing and a flight simulation. The AIM spacecraft will fly three instruments designed to study polar mesospheric clouds located at the edge of space, 50 miles above the Earth's surface in the coldest part of the planet's atmosphere. The mission's primary goal is to explain why these clouds form and what has caused them to become brighter and more numerous and appear at lower latitudes in recent years. AIM's results will provide the basis for the study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global climate change. Launch from the Pegasus XL rocket is scheduled for April 25.

  8. Identifikationsverfahren zur Analyse von EEG-Signalen bei Epilepsie mit Reaktions-Diffusions Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollas, F.; Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Partielle Differentialgleichungen des Reaktions-Diffusions-Typs beschreiben Phänomene wie Musterbildung, nichtlineare Wellenausbreitung und deterministisches Chaos und werden oft zur Untersuchung komplexer Vorgänge auf den Gebieten der Biologie, Chemie und Physik herangezogen. Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke (CNN) sind eine räumliche Anordnung vergleichsweise einfacher dynamischer Systeme, die eine lokale Kopplung untereinander aufweisen. Durch eine Diskretisierung der Ortsvariablen können Reaktions-Diffusions-Gleichungen häufig auf CNN mit nichtlinearen Gewichtsfunktionen abgebildet werden. Die resultierenden Reaktions-Diffusions-CNN (RD-CNN) weisen dann in ihrer Dynamik näherungsweise gleiches Verhalten wie die zugrunde gelegten Reaktions-Diffusions-Systeme auf. Werden RD-CNN zur Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen herangezogen, so besteht die Möglichkeit festzustellen, ob das gefundene Netzwerk lokale Aktivität aufweist. Die von Chua eingeführte Theorie der lokalen Aktivität Chua (1998); Dogaru und Chua (1998) liefert eine notwendige Bedingung für das Auftreten von emergentem Verhalten in zellularen Netzwerken. Änderungen in den Parametern bestimmter RD-CNN könnten auf bevorstehende epileptische Anfälle hinweisen. In diesem Beitrag steht die Identifikation neuronaler Strukturen anhand von EEG-Signalen durch Reaktions-Diffusions-Netzwerke im Vordergrund der dargestellten Untersuchungen. In der Ergebnisdiskussion wird insbesondere auch die Frage nach einer geeigneten Netzwerkstruktur mit minimaler Komplexität behandelt.

  9. Verminderte Tiefbrunnenergiebigkeit durch Versandung und Versinterung bei Veränderung der Grundwasserchemie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Christoph; Wisotzky, Frank; Becke, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    In three deep wells of a water works in the Lower Rhine Valley (Germany) decreasing well yield has been observed. To investigate the reasons for this decline, solids analysis (microscopy, Cinorg measurements, XRD-, SEM-analysis) was completed and hydrogeochemical calculations were carried out. The samples examined from the bottom of the wells indicate both hydromechanical entry of sand from the aquifer into the well, and formation of incrustations in the form of calcite within the well. The water analysis results show that almost all measured ion concentrations have increased over the past 10 years, which indicates a general change of the hydrochemical conditions of the aquifer. Hydrogeochemical models suggest that oversaturation exists regarding the mineral phases iron hydroxide and calcium carbonate, and therefore the formation of incrustations is possible.

  10. Vernetzen - koordinieren - beraten. Verkehrsgeographische Aufgaben bei der NVBW - Nahverkehrsgesellschaft Baden-Württemberg mbH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Juliane; Rasch, Günter; Lenz, Sebastian; Hussinger, Anna; Schiefelbusch, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The Nahverkehrsgesellschaft Baden-Württemberg (NVBW) is the mobility agency for the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg. The article shows how the agency has become a key multimodal service provider in the field of sustainable mobility. Activities include the support of walking policies at state level through a dedicated coordination unit, for example through the so-called "Fußverkehrs-Checks" (walkability checks). Cycling in Baden-Württemberg is promoted through several measures, such as a new procedure for bike-to-school plans (Radschulwegpläne) that focuses on students' involvement in preparing the plan. The bike route planner is a popular and effective means of promoting cycling. Behind its self-explanatory surface, a complex system of stakeholders has to work together to provide this service. The NVBW also hosts the office of the Association of Bike-Friendly Communities of Baden-Württemberg (AGFK-BW), a network of local authorities providing a wide range of materials and activities in support of cycling. Last but not least, the NVBW promotes the development of new approaches for maintaining and improving the accessibility of rural areas. As part of this, various community-based transport solutions have been proposed to complement traditional public transport. All in all, there is a growing range of tasks in the field of transport for which geographical perspectives and experiences can be put to good use.

  11. Neck Rhabdoid Tumors: Clinical Features and Consideration of Autologous Stem Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Adam D; Capitini, Christian M; Salamat, Shahriar M; DeSantes, Kenneth; Bradley, Kristin A; Kennedy, Tabassum; Dehner, Louis P; Patel, Neha J

    2017-04-03

    Extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) have a poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. Adding high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDC-ASCR) as consolidative therapy for MRT is controversial. We describe 2 patients, age 13 years and 19 months, with unresectable neck MRT. After chemotherapy and radiotherapy, both underwent HDC-ASCR and remain in remission over 4 years later. We reviewed all published cases of neck MRT, and found poorer outcomes and more variable age of presentation and time to progression than MRT at other sites. Neck MRT may represent a higher-risk subset of MRT, and addition of HDC-ASCR merits consideration.

  12. Looking for simple correction functions between the mean radiant temperature from the "standard black globe" and the "six-directional" techniques in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) values were calculated and compared to each other in Taiwan based on the six-directional and globe techniques. In the case of the six-directional technique (measurements with pyranometers and pyrgeometers), two different T mrt values were calculated: one representing the radiation load on a standing man [ T mrt(st)] and the other which refers to a spherical reference shape [ T mrt(sp)]. Moreover, T mrt( T g ) was obtained through the globe thermometer technique applying the standard black globe. Comparing T mrt values based on the six-directional technique but with different reference shapes revealed that the difference was always in the +/-5 °C domain. Of the cases, 75 % fell into the +/-5 °C Delta Tmrt range when we compared different techniques with similar reference shapes [ T mrt(sp) and T mrt( T g )] and only 69 % when we compared the different techniques with different reference shapes [ T mrt(st) and T mrt( T g )]. Based on easily accessible factors, simple correction functions were determined to make the T mrt( T g ) values of already existing outdoor thermal comfort databases comparable with other databases which involve sixdirectional T mrt. The corrections were conducted directly between the T mrt( T g ) and T mrt(sp) values and also indirectly, i.e., by using the values of T g to reduce the differences between T mrt(sp) and T mrt( T g ). Both correction methods resulted in considerable improvement and reduced the differences between the T mrt(sp) and the T mrt( T g ) values. However, validations with an independent database from Hungary revealed that it is not suggested to apply the correction functions under totally different background climate conditions.

  13. Sensitivity of malignant rhabdoid tumor cell lines to PD 0332991 is inversely correlated with p16 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumi, Yoshiki; Iehara, Tomoko; Miyachi, Mitsuru; Yagyu, Shigeki; Tsubai-Shimizu, Satoko; Kikuchi, Ken; Tamura, Shinichi; Kuwahara, Yasumichi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Houghton, Peter J.; Hosoi, Hajime

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} PD 0332991 (PD) could suppress four of five malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) cell lines. {yields} The sensitivity of the MRT cell lines to PD was inversely correlated with p16 expression (r = 0.951). {yields} p16 expression in MRT could be used to predict its sensitivity to PD. {yields} PD may be an attractive agent for patients with MRT whose tumors express low levels of p16. -- Abstract: Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm of young children. MRT is characterized by inactivation of integrase interactor 1 (INI1). Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), which acts downstream of INI1, is required for the proliferation of MRT cells. Here we investigated the effects of PD 0332991 (PD), a potent inhibitor of CDK4, against five human MRT cell lines (MP-MRT-AN, KP-MRT-RY, G401, KP-MRT-NS, KP-MRT-YM). In all of the cell lines except KP-MRT-YM, PD inhibited cell proliferation >50%, (IC{sub 50} values 0.01 to 0.6 {mu}M) by WST-8 assay, and induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest, as shown by flow cytometry and BrdU incorporation assay. The sensitivity of the MRT cell lines to PD was inversely correlated with p16 expression (r = 0.951). KP-MRT-YM cells overexpress p16 and were resistant to the growth inhibitory effect of PD. Small interfering RNA against p16 significantly increased the sensitivity of KP-MRT-YM cells to PD (p < 0.05). These results suggest that p16 expression in MRT could be used to predict its sensitivity to PD. PD may be an attractive agent for patients with MRT whose tumors express low levels of p16.

  14. Sellar reconstruction without intrasellar packing after endoscopic surgery of pituitary macroadenomas is better than its reputation.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mostafa; Fares, Abd Alla; Abdelhak, Balegh; D'Haens, Jean; Michel, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Ziele: Die Rekonstruktion der Sella mit intrasellärer Tamponade nach endoskopischer Resektion von Hypophysenmakroadenomen bleibt in der klinischen und radiologischen Diskussion umstritten, besonders wenn keine Liquorfistel vorhanden ist. Diese Studie wurde durchgeführt, um unsere Erfahrungen mit der Sellarekonstruktion nach einer endoskopischen Standardresektion von Hypophysenmakroadenomen ohne intraoperative Liquorfistel zur laufenden Diskussion über Techniken mit und ohne intrasellärer Tamponade beizutragen.Methoden: Eine konsekutive Serie von 47 Hypophysenmakroadenomen, die in einem chirurgischen Standardverfahren endoskopisch über einen endonasalen transsphenoidalen Zugang ohne ersichtliche intraoperative Liquorfistel entfernt wurden, wurde nachträglich während einer durchschnittlich zehnmonatigen Nachbeobachtungszeit ausgewertet. Bezüglich der sellären Rekonstuktionstechnik konnten drei Gruppen identifiziert werden: Gruppe A – ohne intraselläre Tamponade, Gruppe B – mit Tamponade aus hämostatischen Materialien und Gruppe C – mit Bauchfetttamponade. Die postoperative klinische und radiologische Bewertung der drei Gruppen wurde dokumentiert und auf Unterschiede in den Ergebnissen hin analysiert.Ergebnisse: Die postoperative klinische Beurteilung ergab keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen den drei Gruppen. In der Gruppe A wurden postoperativ weder Liquorfistel noch Keilbeinhöhlenentzündung oder Empty-Sella-Syndrom beobachtet. Allerdings konnte ein signifikanter Unterschied in der radiologischen Bewertung identifiziert werden: die Interpretation von sellären Inhalten bei der postoperativen MRT der Gruppe A gelang früher und zuverlässiger als in anderen Gruppen mit intrasellärer Tamponade.Schlussfolgerung: Es gibt keinen Unterschied in der Inzidenz von postoperativen Liquorfisteln und Empty-Sella-Syndromen bei den verschiedenen rekonstruktiven Techniken mit und ohne intrasellärer Tamponade, unabhängig von Größe und Ausdehnung des

  15. Abschätzung des Einflusses von Parameterunsicherheiten bei der Planung und Auswertung von Tracertests unter Verwendung von Ensembleprognosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzsch, Stephan; Binder, Martin; Händel, Falk

    2017-06-01

    While planning tracer tests, uncertainties in geohydraulic parameters should be considered as an important factor. Neglecting these uncertainties can lead to missing the tracer breakthrough, for example. One way to consider uncertainties during tracer test design is the so called ensemble forecast. The applicability of this method to geohydrological problems is demonstrated by coupling the method with two analytical solute transport models. The algorithm presented in this article is suitable for prediction as well as parameter estimation. The parameter estimation function can be used in a tracer test for reducing the uncertainties in the measured data which can improve the initial prediction. The algorithm was implemented into a software tool which is freely downloadable from the website of the Institute for Groundwater Management at TU Dresden, Germany.

  16. Evaluation of improved land use and canopy representation in BEIS v3.61 with biogenic VOC measurements in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) participate in reactions that can lead to secondarily formed ozone and particulate matter (PM) impacting air quality and climate. BVOC emissions are important inputs to chemical transport models applied on local to global scales but cons...

  17. Evaluation of improved land use and canopy representation in BEIS v3.61 with biogenic VOC measurements in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) participate in reactions that can lead to secondarily formed ozone and particulate matter (PM) impacting air quality and climate. BVOC emissions are important inputs to chemical transport models applied on local to global scales but cons...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of ADHD among adolescents in a Beirut community sample: results from the BEI-PSY Study.

    PubMed

    Ghossoub, Elias; Ghandour, Lilian A; Halabi, Fadi; Zeinoun, Pia; Shehab, Al Amira Safa; Maalouf, Fadi T

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking behavior related to ADHD among adolescents from Lebanon. Five hundred and ten adolescents were recruited through multistage stratified cluster sampling of households in Beirut, and separately interviewed along with one parent/legal guardian, using the DAWBA. All adolescents completed the PRQ and the SDQ; the parent/legal guardian also completed the SDQ and provided basic demographic information, including attitudes towards seeking mental health services. 10.20% of the adolescents were diagnosed with ADHD. Having ADHD was associated with having academic difficulties and being involved in bullying. Adolescents with ADHD also had higher odds of drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and having comorbid emotional and conduct disorders (compared to those without ADHD). Adolescents with ADHD and their parents reported a higher burden of illness and were more likely to consider seeing a mental health professional than healthy adolescents and their parents. ADHD among adolescents in Lebanon warrants closer attention, mainly increased awareness in the larger public, and stronger commitment to increase treatment resources to the community.

  19. Zum Einsatz von Bildergeschichten bei der Weiterentwicklung der Gespraechsfaehigkeit (Using Picture Stories in the Further Development of Ability in Conversation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusensky, Helmuth

    1975-01-01

    In continuation courses for teachers, discussion of a picture course was found valuable, providing: nearness to actual teaching practice, expansion and solidifying of a topical vocabulary, possibility of guiding conversation, a favorable climate for conversation, and little financial (and technological) outlay. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Divergence in Global Policy.

    PubMed

    Schandera, Johanna; Mackey, Tim K

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the UK became the first country permitting the clinical application of mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT). Here, we explore how MRT have led to diverging international policy. In response, we recommend focused regulatory efforts coupled with United Nations (UN) leadership to build international consensus on the future of MRT.

  1. Evaluation of Baroreflex Effectiveness Index during Real and Simulated Microgravity: Relation to Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Rachel; Stenger, Michael; Platts, Steven; Lee, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Bed Rest and Space Flight cause a significant decrease in BEI. BR causes similar changes to BEI as SF. BEI may not correlate with subjects experiencing presyncope, but error is high and n is low. Compression Garments have the potential to restore BEI after short duration BR, but do not prevent recovery.

  2. Die Temperaturabhängigkeit semilunarer und diurnaler Schlüpfrhythmen bei der intertidalen Mücke Clunio marinus (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, M.; Neumann, D.

    1983-12-01

    On Helgoland (North Sea), the imagines of Clunio emerge during two seasonal periods (late spring and summer) from water temperatures of 8° 18 °C. The temperature dependence of the known semilunar eclosion rhythm of Clunio (correlated in nature with the spring tides every 14 15 days) was tested in the laboratory. Between 15° and 23 °C the semilunar eclosion maxima varied by only one day within the artifical 15-day zeitgebercycle, below 15 °C they were delayed up to 8 days at 8 °C. However, the days of pupation were approximately independent of the temperature level. One can conclude the existence of a temperature-independent physiological switch inducing the pupation only within a few days of the semilunar zeitgeber-cycle. Moreover, a semilunar synchronized differentiation of the imaginal discs already starts in the preceding larval instar, indicating an additional physiological switch. A model is suggested in which the semilunar eclosion rhythm and its relatively slight temperature dependence is explained by the action of two physiological switches which are coupled with the endogenous temperature-compensated lunar timing mechanism on the same days of the 15-day zeitgeber-cycle. In the laboratory, the diurnal eclosion and its underlying circadian timing mechanism (correlated on Helgoland with the time of spring low water in the late afternoon) also proved to be temperature independent between 12° and 20 °C. A comparison of field and laboratory data showed very similar results at temperatures around 18 °C (summer swarming period). In contrast, the midges emerged on all days of the semimonthly cycle of springs and neaps during the spring swarming period. This lack of semilunar synchronization may be the consequence of fluctuating temperatures during the larval and pupal development in spring time due to a general rise in the water temperature (4° 8 °C) and to short temperature rises up to 18 °C during exposure of the intertidal habitat at about low tide. Since some higher parts of the Clunio habitat suitable for egg deposition are exposed on almost every day of the semimonthly cycle, even such animals that undergo lunar unsynchronized metamorphosis can reproduce within the short imaginal life duration (ca 2 h) if they emerge just about the time of low water. In correspondence with the daily delay in the times of low water by about 50 min, the diurnal eclosion rhythm was in fact modified with the tides during the spring period resulting in shifts of the diurnal eclosion time of up to 12 hours within the semimonthly cycle of springs and neaps.

  3. Eichfunktion und analysenfehler in der spektrochemischen Analytik—I. Regression bei konstanter standardabweichung für die meßgröße

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klockenkämper, R.; Bubert, H.

    For spectrochemical analyses, calibration is a basic operation generally necessary for quantitative determinations. It yields the calibration function and by inversion the analytical function which is not directly accessible.—In the following, a scheme is developed in order to find-according to different methods of analysis-the respective suitable calibration function: it should give an expectable standard deviation as small as possible for the estimated content, it should, if possible, be linear and it should be applicable in a range of content as large as possible. The condition of Part I of this paper is the constant standard deviation for the measuring quantity in this range.-The scheme is examined by five analytical examples: for trace analyses (OES-ICP and AAS) the simple relationship between the intensity I and the concentration c is linear anyhow and yields a constant absolute standard deviation not dependent on the trace content. For analyses over a large range of concentration, a double-logarithmic transformation leads to linearity and constant relative standard deviation (OES with Laser). If physical matrix effects are existing, for example in surface analysis (ISS) the 'binary-ratio method' is recommended; in this case, the relative standard deviation is proportional to (1 - c). For XRF of main and additional components, the non-linear regression of the equation of Beattie and Brissey is to be realized with √ I-values.

  4. Implementierung eines Rolling Horizon Ansatzes zur Anwendung bei der Lokomotiveneinsatzoptimierung (Implementation of a Rolling Horizon Approach to its Application for Locomotive Scheduling)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Kooperationspartners Deutsche Bahn 1 1.2. Motivation und Ziel der Arbeit 2 1.3. Aufbau der Arbeit . . . . 3 2. Mathematischen Grundlagen 4 2.1...RHH Tfz VR VRP VSP Aircraft Sequencing Problem Baureihe Deutsche Bahn First In First Out Abteilung Verkehrsnetzentwicklung und Verkehrsmodelle...zuerst der Kooperationspartner vorgestellt und im Anschluss auf die Problemstellung eingegangen. 1.1. Vorstellen des Kooperationspartners Deutsche

  5. Sozialindex und gewichtenregeling . Berücksichtigung von sozialräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen bei der Mittelvergabe an Schulen am Beispiel Nordrhein-Westfalens und den Niederlanden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpoorten, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    In Germany and the Netherlands spatial information about the social structure of the inhabitants is used for the coordination of financial and human resources in the local school-system. The aim is to reduce educational inequalities by taking the social context of the schools into account. The article explains two approaches. In North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) a so called Sozialindex is used to distribute additional teachers to municipalities with difficult social surroundings. The Dutch government uses an instrument to give each pupil a weight (gewichtenregeling) depending on the specific educational background. Combined with an evaluation of the school location an additional budget, if necessary, will be payed.

  6. Molekülinterne Dipolorientierung und dielektrische Absorption in verdünnter Lösung bei Mikro-und Submillimeterwellen. V.Acetyl-Verbindungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, Gerhard

    1989-09-01

    The dielectric loss of sixteen molecules, eleven with the acetyle group in aromatic bonds and five in aliphatic bonds, has been measured in very dilute solutions of cyclohexene at 20 °C. Five of these molecules are investigated in decalene solutions, too. The measurements have been made at wavenumbers in the range 0.08 to 140 cm -1 above 8 cm -1 making use of a pumped molecular laser. They are supplemented by the data of a Fourier transform spectrometer up to 300 cm -1. All microwave spectra of loss factor ɛ″ are analysed in terms of three absorption areas using the two variable Mori formalism. On the other hand, Lorentz curves are fitted to the FIR absorption spectra of α(v¯). The fast relaxation process of the aliphatic compounds is suggested to be due to intramolecular reorientation of the acetyle group itself, since in acetyle cyclohexene the remaining part of the molecule is rigid. To the contrary, the acetyle group is not able to reorientate swiftly, if bounded to aromatic rings. Presumably, it is fixed by mesomeric interaction with the dipole in the plain of the ring. However, 2-methyl acetophenone and 1-acetyle naphthone show some quick dipole reorientation, which coincides with a steric hindrance of the group in entering the plain of the ring.

  7. A Robust Method to Detect BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Orbit Maneuvering/Anomalies and Its Applications to Precise Orbit Determination

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fei; Yuan, Yunbin; Tan, Bingfeng; Ou, Jikun

    2017-01-01

    The failure to detect anomalies and maneuvering of the orbits of navigation satellite sensors will deteriorate the performance of positioning and orbit determination. Motivated by the influence of the frequent maneuvering of BDS GEO and IGSO satellites, this paper analyzes the limitations of existing methods, where BDS orbit maneuvering and anomalies can be detected, and develops a method to solve this problem based on the RMS model of orbit mutual differences proposed in this paper. The performance of this method was assessed by comparison with the health flag of broadcast ephemeris, precise orbit products of GFZ, the O-C values of a GNSS station and a conventional method. The results show that the performance of the method developed in this paper is better than that of the conventional method when the periodicity and trend items are obvious. Meanwhile, three additional verification results show that the method developed in this paper can find error information in the merged broadcast ephemeris provided by iGMAS. Furthermore, from the testing results, it can be seen that the detection of anomaly and maneuvering items do not affect each other based on the robust thresholds constructed in this paper. In addition, the precise orbit of the maneuvering satellites can be determined under the circumstances that the maneuver information detected in this paper is used, and the root mean square (RMS) of orbit overlap comparison for GEO-03/IGSO-03 in Radial, Along, Cross, 1D-RMS are 0.7614/0.4460 m, 1.8901/0.3687 m, 0.3392/0.2069 m, 2.0657/0.6145 m, respectively. PMID:28509847

  8. A Robust Method to Detect BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Orbit Maneuvering/Anomalies and Its Applications to Precise Orbit Determination.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Yuan, Yunbin; Tan, Bingfeng; Ou, Jikun

    2017-05-16

    The failure to detect anomalies and maneuvering of the orbits of navigation satellite sensors will deteriorate the performance of positioning and orbit determination. Motivated by the influence of the frequent maneuvering of BDS GEO and IGSO satellites, this paper analyzes the limitations of existing methods, where BDS orbit maneuvering and anomalies can be detected, and develops a method to solve this problem based on the RMS model of orbit mutual differences proposed in this paper. The performance of this method was assessed by comparison with the health flag of broadcast ephemeris, precise orbit products of GFZ, the O-C values of a GNSS station and a conventional method. The results show that the performance of the method developed in this paper is better than that of the conventional method when the periodicity and trend items are obvious. Meanwhile, three additional verification results show that the method developed in this paper can find error information in the merged broadcast ephemeris provided by iGMAS. Furthermore, from the testing results, it can be seen that the detection of anomaly and maneuvering items do not affect each other based on the robust thresholds constructed in this paper. In addition, the precise orbit of the maneuvering satellites can be determined under the circumstances that the maneuver information detected in this paper is used, and the root mean square (RMS) of orbit overlap comparison for GEO-03/IGSO-03 in Radial, Along, Cross, 1D-RMS are 0.7614/0.4460 m, 1.8901/0.3687 m, 0.3392/0.2069 m, 2.0657/0.6145 m, respectively.

  9. Limitierungen bei der Ermittlung der Grundwasserfließrichtung in tiefen Aquiferen am Beispiel des Malms im Süddeutschen Molassebecken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvatis, Alexandros; Steiner, Ulrich; Huber, Bernhard; Fritzer, Thomas; Schneider, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The groundwater flow direction in deep inclined aquifers is generally determined from contour maps based on the conversion of the reservoir pressure from deep wells to standardized groundwater levels. The standardizing is done with a representative water column of constant density in which an increasing depth of the aquifer has an increasing influence on the calculated groundwater levels. However, integration of new pressure data from recently drilled geothermal wells in the Malm of the South German Molasse Basin in the greater area of Munich led to a hydrogeologically unrealistic groundwater flow direction below the Alps. The present work demonstrates the applied method for standardization, performs an error analysis, and shows the limits of the applicability of this method. An alternative approach is introduced along with a concrete example where the local flow direction is determined by neighboring wells (cluster method). A sensitivity analysis with respect to the uncertainty in temperature shows that this approach provides realistic results from realistic input scenarios. The presented cluster method is therefore able to provide pilot points for calibration/verification of a basin-scale groundwater flow model.

  10. Drei Wochen bei den Internationalen Sommerkursen in Erfurt, 22. Juli-11. August 1968 (Three Weeks at the International Summer Courses in Erfurt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Elizabeth M.

    This paper discusses life in East Germany as observed by the author during a three-week program of summer courses in Erfurt. Background information includes a description of Erfurt, a brief review of its history, and analysis of the daily life of East Germans--their attitudes towards the state, physical appearance, salary structure, and…

  11. Die Wirkung als Naturkraft und die Herkunft von Zeit, Raum, Dimensionen, Naturkräften, und Gesetzen von Logik, Geometrie und Physik bei der Entstehung der Welt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2011-02-01

    Das Wirkungs-Welt-Modell enthält eine einfache Beschreibung des Anfanges der Welt, wonach, ausgehend vom einfachsten Zustand der logisch notwendigen Bejahung ihrer Existenz innerhalb ihr selbst, alles sukzessiv bewirkt wird, und ihre logischen, geometrischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften Aspekte der Verkörperung und Fortwirkung primordialer Fakten darstellen, ohne externe Schöpfung auszuschließen. Die ersten Dimensionen und sie formal und subjektiv charakterisierenden Größen sind: Informationsmenge und Wirkung, mit abzählbarem Ereignis und Wirkungsquantum; Zeit und Energie, mit deren Planck-Einheiten; Geschwindigkeit oder Strecke und Impuls, mit Lichtgeschwindigkeit oder Planck-Länge; Krümmung oder zwei räumliche Richtungen, mit Gravitationskonstanten, und aus den ihnen entsprechenden primären Naturkräften setzen sich die uns geläufigen zusammen.

  12. [Qualitätsmessung bei der Behandlung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Entwicklungsstörungen - Eine Machbarkeitsstudie am Beispiel ADHS].

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Marta; Borusiak, Peter; Hameister, Karin A; Geraedts, Max

    2017-04-03

    The question of a possible presence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is raised with increasing frequency in pediatric practice. There are guidelines and expert recommendations for diagnostic approaches. But there are no instruments available to evaluate the structural, process and outcome quality. In this pilot study, a set of quality indicators on the treatment quality of ADHD was analyzed in terms of their feasibility in tertiary referral centers.A set of 39 quality indicators (QI) on ADHD developed in advance in a multistage procedure was assessed at 9 tertiary referral centers, with a focus on process verifiability and feasibility. QI values were calculated as ratios for individual centers as well as across centers, followed by an explorative analysis to assess feasibility under due consideration of possible influencing factors.QI assessment is possible but highly complex and expensive in practice. Calculated QI values showed a high degree of heterogeneity between facilities as well as between institutions, which was mainly due to a lack of standardization in the documentation of required data.Basically, it is possible to assess the quality of ADHD treatment via QIs. The approach described here in assessing QIs may be also applied to other types of developmental disorders.

  13. Predicting mass rapid transit noise levels on an elevated station.

    PubMed

    Pamanikabud, Pichai; Paoprayoon, Suwajchai

    2003-04-01

    This study developed a noise prediction model for elevated mass rapid transit (MRT) platforms. Relevant physical and operational parameters (e.g. cruise speed, acceleration and deceleration rates for trains, building façade setbacks and so on) were collected from the Bangkok mass transit system (BTS), the first elevated MRT system operated in Bangkok, Thailand. The equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (L(Aeq)) were collected from both sides of the MRT stations at the center of each platform. The relevant parameters were collected on both platforms and ground level, on both sides of MRT stations. These parameters were statistically tested to determine their correlation with MRT noise. The final model was built from highly correlated parameters using multiple regression analysis with a stepwise regression technique. Statistical evaluation showed a high degree of goodness-of-fit test for the model to the observed data. Therefore, it can be efficiently used for the projection of MRT noise in the affected areas.

  14. High resolution 3D dosimetry for microbeam radiation therapy using optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McErlean, C.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Adamovics, J.; Leach, M. O.; Doran, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Optical Computed Tomography (CT) is a promising technique for dosimetry of Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), providing high resolution 3D dose maps. Here different MRT irradiation geometries are visualised showing the potential of Optical CT as a tool for future MRT trials. The Peak-to-Valley dose ratio (PVDR) is calculated to be 7 at a depth of 3mm in the radiochromic dosimeter PRESAGE®. This is significantly lower than predicted values and possible reasons for this are discussed.

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Yue Ying; Gilgenbach, Ronald

    2013-07-07

    Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) is important to magnetized target fusion, wire-array z-pinches, and equation-of-state studies using flyer plates or isentropic compression. It is also important to the study of the crab nebula. The investigators performed MRT experiments on thin foils, driven by the mega-ampere linear transformer driver (LTD) facility completed in their laboratory. This is the first 1-MA LTD in the USA. Initial experiments on the seeding of MRT were performed. Also completed was an analytic study of MRT for a finite plasma slab with arbitrary magnetic fields tangential to the interfaces. The effects of magnetic shear and feedthrough were analyzed.

  16. Causation and Validation of Nursing Diagnoses: A Middle Range Theory.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Herdman, T Heather

    2017-01-01

    To describe a predictive middle range theory (MRT) that provides a process for validation and incorporation of nursing diagnoses in clinical practice. Literature review. The MRT includes definitions, a pictorial scheme, propositions, causal relationships, and translation to nursing practice. The MRT can be a useful alternative for education, research, and translation of this knowledge into practice. This MRT can assist clinicians in understanding clinical reasoning, based on temporal logic and spectral interaction among elements of nursing classifications. In turn, this understanding will improve the use and accuracy of nursing diagnosis, which is a critical component of the nursing process that forms a basis for nursing practice standards worldwide. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  17. ENGINEERED MODULAR RECOMBINANT TRANSPORTERS: APPLICATION OF NEW PLATFORM FOR TARGETED RADIOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS TO α-PARTICLE EMITTING 211At

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Pozzi, Oscar R.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To generate and evaluate a modular recombinant transporter (MRT) for targeting 211At to cancer cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods and Materials The MRT was produced with four functional modules: (1) human epidermal growth factor as the internalizable ligand, (2) the optimized nuclear localization sequence of simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen, (3) a translocation domain of diphtheria toxin as an endosomolytic module, and (4) the Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein (HMP) as a carrier module. MRT was labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astato-5-guanidinomethylbenzoate (SAGMB), its 125I analogue SGMIB, or with 131I using Iodogen. Binding, internalization, and clonogenic assays were performed with EGFR-expressing A431, D247 MG, and U87MG.wtEGFR human cancer cell lines. Results The affinity of SGMIB-MRT binding to A431 cells, determined by Scatchard analysis, was 22 nM, comparable to that measured before labeling. The binding of SGMIB-MRT and its internalization by A431 cancer cells was 96% and 99% EGFR specific, respectively. Paired label assays demonstrated that compared with Iodogen-labeled MRT, SGMIB-MRT and SAGMB-MRT exhibited more than threefold greater peak levels and durations of intracellular retention of activity. SAGMB-MRT was 10–20 times more cytotoxic than [211At]astatide for all three cell lines. Conclusion The results of this study have demonstrated the initial proof of principle for the MRT approach for designing targeted α-particle emitting radiotherapeutic agents. The high cytotoxicity of SAGMB-MRT for cancer cells overexpressing EGFR suggests that this 211At-labeled conjugate has promise for the treatment of malignancies, such as glioma, which overexpress this receptor. PMID:18722270

  18. Engineered Modular Recombinant Transporters: Application of New Platform for Targeted Radiotherapeutic Agents to {alpha}-Particle Emitting {sup 211}At

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Pozzi, Oscar R.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Zalutsky, Michael R. Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To generate and evaluate a modular recombinant transporter (MRT) for targeting {sup 211}At to cancer cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods and Materials: The MRT was produced with four functional modules: (1) human epidermal growth factor as the internalizable ligand, (2) the optimized nuclear localization sequence of simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen, (3) a translocation domain of diphtheria toxin as an endosomolytic module, and (4) the Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein (HMP) as a carrier module. MRT was labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[{sup 211}At]astato-5-guanidinomethylbenzoate (SAGMB), its {sup 125}I analogue SGMIB, or with {sup 131}I using Iodogen. Binding, internalization, and clonogenic assays were performed with EGFR-expressing A431, D247 MG, and U87MG.wtEGFR human cancer cell lines. Results: The affinity of SGMIB-MRT binding to A431 cells, determined by Scatchard analysis, was 22 nM, comparable to that measured before labeling. The binding of SGMIB-MRT and its internalization by A431 cancer cells was 96% and 99% EGFR specific, respectively. Paired label assays demonstrated that compared with Iodogen-labeled MRT, SGMIB-MRT and SAGMB-MRT exhibited more than threefold greater peak levels and durations of intracellular retention of activity. SAGMB-MRT was 10-20 times more cytotoxic than [{sup 211}At]astatide for all three cell lines. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated the initial proof of principle for the MRT approach for designing targeted {alpha}-particle emitting radiotherapeutic agents. The high cytotoxicity of SAGMB-MRT for cancer cells overexpressing EGFR suggests that this {sup 211}At-labeled conjugate has promise for the treatment of malignancies, such as glioma, which overexpress this receptor.

  19. Assessment of Valvular Disorders in Survivors of Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated by Mediastinal Radiotherapy ± Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bijl, Jesse M; Roos, Marleen M; van Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M; Vos, Josephine M; Bos, Willem-Jan W; Biesma, Douwe H; Post, Marco C

    2016-02-15

    As the number of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) survivors grows, understanding long-term complications becomes more important. Mediastinal radiotherapy (MRT) seems to cause valvular disease, and the prevalence might increase during follow-up. In this cross-sectional study 82 HL survivors participated (52% men, mean age 47.8 years, 50 treated with MRT). Valvular disease was diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography and compared between HL survivors treated with and without MRT. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for valvular disease. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years (range 2 to 39 years), ≥ mild valvular disease was present in 61.2% of HL survivors with MRT (n = 30), compared with 31.0% of HL survivors without MRT (n = 9; odds ratio [OR] 3.51, 95% CI 1.32 to 9.30, p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, only current age remained predictive for ≥ mild valvular disease (OR 1.08 per year, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14, p = 0.023). Aortic regurgitation (AR) was most prevalent and irradiated patients had significantly more ≥ mild AR (38.2% vs 6.8%, p = 0.007). Within the MRT subgroup, time after radiation of >15 years was associated with AR (OR 4.70, 95% CI 1.05 to 21.03, p = 0.043), after adjusting for current age and hypertension. Severe valvular disease was present in 24.5% of HL survivors with MRT compared with 3.4% without MRT (p = 0.016). Valvular surgery was performed in 9 HL survivors (18.0%) with MRT and in none without MRT. In conclusion, the prevalence of valvular disease in HL survivors treated with MRT is high and increases with time after irradiation. Long-time screening for valvular disease by transthoracic echocardiography might be worthwhile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain tumor vessel response to synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy: a short-term in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serduc, Raphaël; Christen, Thomas; Laissue, Jean; Farion, Régine; Bouchet, Audrey; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Segebarth, Christoph; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; LeDuc, Géraldine; Bravin, Alberto; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work focuses on the description of the short-term response of a 9L brain tumor model and its vasculature to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rat 9L gliosarcomas implanted in nude mice brains were irradiated by MRT 13 days after tumor inoculation using two orthogonal arrays of equally spaced 28 planar microbeams (25 µm width, 211 µm spacing and dose 500 Gy). At 1, 7 and 14 days after MRT, apparent diffusion coefficient, blood volume and vessel size index were mapped by MRI. Mean survival time after tumor inoculation increased significantly between MRT-treated and untreated groups (23 and 28 days respectively, log-rank test, p < 0.0001). A significant increase of apparent diffusion coefficient was observed 24 h after MRT in irradiated tumors versus non-irradiated ones. In the untreated group, both tumor size and vessel size index increased significantly (from 7.6 ± 2.2 to 19.2 ± 4.0 mm2 and +23%, respectively) between the 14th and the 21st day after tumor cell inoculation. During the same period, in the MRT-treated group, no difference in tumor size was observed. The vessel size index measured in the MRT-treated group increased significantly (+26%) between 14 and 28 days of tumor growth. We did not observe the significant difference in blood volume between the MRT-treated and untreated groups. MRT slows 9L tumor growth in a mouse brain but MRI results suggest that the increase in survival time after our MRT approach may be rather due to a cytoreduction than to early direct effects of ionizing radiation on tumor vessels. These results suggest that MRT parameters need to be optimized to further damage tumor vessels.

  1. Sparing of tissue by using micro-slit-beam radiation therapy reduces neurotoxicity compared with broad-beam radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mukumoto, Naritoshi; Nakayama, Masao; Akasaka, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Osuga, Saki; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kenji; Ejima, Yasuo; Miura, Yasushi; Umetani, Keiji; Kondoh, Takeshi; Sasaki, Ryohei

    2017-01-01

    Micro-slit-beam radiation therapy (MRT) using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams allows for extremely high-dose irradiation. However, the toxicity of MRT in central nervous system (CNS) use is still unknown. To gather baseline toxicological data, we evaluated mortality in normal mice following CNS-targeted MRT. Male C57BL/6 J mice were head-fixed in a stereotaxic frame. Synchrotron X-ray-beam radiation was provided by the SPring-8 BL28B2 beam-line. For MRT, radiation was delivered to groups of mice in a 10 × 12 mm unidirectional array consisting of 25-μm-wide beams spaced 100, 200 or 300 μm apart; another group of mice received the equivalent broad-beam radiation therapy (BRT) for comparison. Peak and valley dose rates of the MRT were 120 and 0.7 Gy/s, respectively. Delivered doses were 96–960 Gy for MRT, and 24–120 Gy for BRT. Mortality was monitored for 90 days post-irradiation. Brain tissue was stained using hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate neural structure. Demyelination was evaluated by Klüver–Barrera staining. The LD50 and LD100 when using MRT were 600 Gy and 720 Gy, respectively, and when using BRT they were 80 Gy and 96 Gy, respectively. In MRT, mortality decreased as the center-to-center beam spacing increased from 100 μm to 300 μm. Cortical architecture was well preserved in MRT, whereas BRT induced various degrees of cerebral hemorrhage and demyelination. MRT was able to deliver extremely high doses of radiation, while still minimizing neuronal death. The valley doses, influenced by beam spacing and irradiated dose, could represent important survival factors for MRT. PMID:27422939

  2. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  3. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  4. Successful treatment of malignant rhabdoid tumor of the vulva in an older patient: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tzilinis, Argyrios; Clarke, Leon E; Affuso, Cristina; Fessenden, John

    2002-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) of the vulva is a rare and very aggressive neoplasm. Only 7 cases have been reported thus far in the English literature. This case reports the oldest patient to date with MRT. This 63 year old was successfully treated with surgery and radiation therapy. The current literature is reviewed, and different treatment modalities are considered and evaluated.

  5. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  6. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  7. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  8. Master Resilience Training in the U.S. Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; McBride, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Army Master Resilience Trainer (MRT) course, which provides face-to-face resilience training, is one of the foundational pillars of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program. The 10-day MRT course is the foundation for training resilience skills to sergeants and for teaching sergeants how to teach these skills to their soldiers. The…

  9. Genome-wide approach to identify second gene targets for malignant rhabdoid tumors using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Takita, Junko; Chen, Yuyan; Kato, Motohiro; Ohki, Kentaro; Sato, Yusuke; Ohta, Shigeru; Sugita, Kanji; Nishimura, Riki; Hoshino, Noriko; Seki, Masafumi; Sanada, Masashi; Oka, Akira; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Ogawa, Seishi

    2014-03-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare and highly lethal cancer that mainly affects infants and young children. The majority of MRT are characterized by loss of function of SMARCB1 on chromosome 22q11.2. However, little is known about genetic changes other than SMARCB1 alterations that are responsible for the development and/or progression of MRT. To explore additional gene targets in MRT, we analyzed 21 MRT specimens (12 fresh tumors and 9 MRT-derived cell lines) using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarrays. Although MRT genomes are characterized by common 22q11.2 deletions, affecting the SMARCB1 locus with a frequency of 95.2% (20/21 specimens), other genetic changes have been less frequent. Of the 20 specimens with deletions of 22q11.2, eight specimens showed uniparental disomy of the SMARCB1 locus with homozygous deletions or gene mutations. High-resolution analysis also disclosed the recurrent hemizygous/homozygous deletions of 7q35-q36.1, involving the CNTNAP2 locus in three specimens. Mutations analysis of CNTNAP2 showed a novel R157C missense mutation in a primary case, and methylation analysis showed recurrent hypermethylation of CNTNAP2 in three of nine cell lines. These results demonstrated that CNTNAP2 is one of the additional gene targets, other than SMARCB1, in MRT. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Tumor Cell Response to Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy Differs Markedly From Cells in Normal Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, Robin L.; Rothkamm, Kai; Restall, Christina M.; Cann, Leonie; Ruwanpura, Saleela; Meachem, Sarah; Yagi, Naoto; Svalbe, Imants; Lewis, Robert A.; Williams, Bryan R.G.; Rogers, Peter A.W.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) can be effective at destroying tumors in animal models while causing very little damage to normal tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular processes behind this observation of potential clinical importance. Methods and Materials: MRT was performed using a lattice of 25 {mu}m-wide, planar, polychromatic, kilovoltage X-ray microbeams, with 200-{mu}m peak separation. Inoculated EMT-6.5 tumor and normal mouse skin tissues were harvested at defined intervals post-MRT. Immunohistochemical detection of {gamma}-H2AX allowed precise localization of irradiated cells, which were also assessed for proliferation and apoptosis. Results: MRT significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation by 24 h post-irradiation (p = 0.002). An unexpected finding was that within 24 h of MRT, peak and valley irradiated zones were indistinguishable in tumors because of extensive cell migration between the zones. This was not seen in MRT-treated normal skin, which appeared to undergo a coordinated repair response. MRT elicited an increase in median survival times of EMT-6.5 and 67NR tumor-inoculated mice similar to that achieved with conventional radiotherapy, while causing markedly less normal tissue damage. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of a differential response at a cellular level between normal and tumor tissues after synchrotron MRT.

  11. Sex-Specific Response Strategies in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the marked sex difference in the original mental rotation test (MRT) is simply a result of sex differences in response strategies. Thirty-four participants (17 males, 17 females) completed the revised Vandenberg and Kuse MRT [Peters, M., Laeng, B., Latham, K., Jackson, M., Zaiyouna, R., & Richardson, C.…

  12. The Impact of Sesame Street on Reading Readiness of Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Judith Haber

    To determine the effects of Sesame Street on reading readiness, the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) scores of children who had attended kindergarten in the two years prior to the first broadcast season were compared with the scores of children attending kindergarten in 1970, the year of the first season of Sesame Street. The MRT scores were…

  13. Constructive Play: Building Symbolic Competence through Physical Activity and Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Linda

    Whether physical activity and verbal communication would affect kindergarten students' scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) was investigated. Twenty subjects were administered Level I of the MRT when they entered kindergarten. For 5 days per week for 4 weeks, the 10 subjects in the experimental group worked at constructive play tasks…

  14. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  15. Master Resilience Training in the U.S. Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; McBride, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Army Master Resilience Trainer (MRT) course, which provides face-to-face resilience training, is one of the foundational pillars of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program. The 10-day MRT course is the foundation for training resilience skills to sergeants and for teaching sergeants how to teach these skills to their soldiers. The…

  16. A Mitochondrial Story: Mitochondrial Replacement, Identity and Narrative.

    PubMed

    Scully, Jackie Leach

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT) are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity (i) directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (ii) indirectly through changing the child's experience of disease, and by generating novel intrafamilial relationships that shape the sense of self. In this article I consider the plausibility and ethical implications of these proposed identity effects, but I focus instead on a third way in which identity may be affected, through the mediating influence of the wider social world on MRT effects on identity. By taking a narrative approach, and examining the nature and availability of identity narratives, I conclude that while neither direct genetic nor indirect experiential effects can be excluded, social responses to MRT are more likely to have a significant and potentially damaging influence on the generation of MRT children's narratives of identity. This conclusion carries some implications for the collective moral responsibility we hold to ensure that MRT, if implemented, are practised in ethically justifiable ways.

  17. Comments on "A modified reachability tree approach to analysis of unbounded Petri nets".

    PubMed

    Ru, Yu; Wu, Weimin; Hadjicostis, Christoforos N

    2006-10-01

    The above paper introduced the construction of a modified reachability tree (MRT) for (unbounded) Petri nets and its application to reachability, liveness, and deadlock analysis. This note shows via a counterexample that some of the MRT properties claimed in the above paper are incorrect.

  18. Sex-Specific Response Strategies in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the marked sex difference in the original mental rotation test (MRT) is simply a result of sex differences in response strategies. Thirty-four participants (17 males, 17 females) completed the revised Vandenberg and Kuse MRT [Peters, M., Laeng, B., Latham, K., Jackson, M., Zaiyouna, R., & Richardson, C.…

  19. Fast electron accumulation and its mechanism in a harmonic trap under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, T.; Imao, H.; Mohri, A.; Oshima, N.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2011-03-15

    We present here a fast and efficient electron accumulation in a multiring trap (MRT) in a superconducting solenoid of 5 T. More than 10{sup 10} electrons were accumulated within a fraction of a second for an electron beam in the range of 10{sup -7} A. The MRT was installed in a cryogenic bore tube cooled down to {approx}10 K. Electron accumulation as a function of various parameters such as the beam intensity, the MRT depth, and the MRT length was studied. We succeeded in extracting a consistent picture of the electron accumulation mechanisms, which consist of interactions of the incoming electron beam with the reflected beam and with the electrons trapped in the MRT.

  20. "Mitochondrial Replacement" Technologies and Human Germline Nuclear Modification.

    PubMed

    Lane, Alyssa; Nisker, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    In 2015 the United Kingdom became the first jurisdiction to approve "mitochondrial replacement techniques" (MRT), thereby dropping prohibitions against creating human embryos with a permanently altered genetic make-up for purposes of reproduction. MRT is a misnomer because in fact it is the nucleus of the oocyte of the woman who wants a genetically related child that is transferred to the enucleated oocyte of a woman paid to undergo IVF to provide the oocyte. MRT thus constitutes nuclear transfer, which is prohibited by criminal sanctions under sections of laws on reproductive cloning in Canada, the United States, Australia, and European countries that regulate assisted reproduction. By adopting policies permitting the use of MRT, the United Kingdom has become the first jurisdiction to counteract an international consensus prohibiting germline modification. Analyses of the legal, ethical, and societal implications of MRT in assisted human reproduction are essential.

  1. Anisotropy and feedthrough in magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Y. Y.; Zier, J. C.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Weis, M. R.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2011-06-15

    The magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) of a finite slab is studied analytically using the ideal MHD model. The slab may be accelerated by an arbitrary combination of magnetic pressure and fluid pressure, thus allowing an arbitrary degree of anisotropy intrinsic to the acceleration mechanism. The effect of feedthrough in the finite slab is also analyzed. The classical feedthrough solution obtained by Taylor in the limit of zero magnetic field, the single interface MRT solution of Chandrasekhar in the limit of infinite slab thickness, and Harris' stability condition on purely magnetic driven MRT, are all readily recovered in the analytic theory as limiting cases. In general, we find that MRT retains robust growth if it exists. However, feedthrough may be substantially reduced if there are magnetic fields on both sides of the slab, and if the MRT mode invokes bending of the magnetic field lines.

  2. Anisotropy and feedthrough in magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

    PubMed

    Lau, Y Y; Zier, J C; Rittersdorf, I M; Weis, M R; Gilgenbach, R M

    2011-06-01

    The magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) of a finite slab is studied analytically using the ideal MHD model. The slab may be accelerated by an arbitrary combination of magnetic pressure and fluid pressure, thus allowing an arbitrary degree of anisotropy intrinsic to the acceleration mechanism. The effect of feedthrough in the finite slab is also analyzed. The classical feedthrough solution obtained by Taylor in the limit of zero magnetic field, the single interface MRT solution of Chandrasekhar in the limit of infinite slab thickness, and Harris' stability condition on purely magnetic driven MRT, are all readily recovered in the analytic theory as limiting cases. In general, we find that MRT retains robust growth if it exists. However, feedthrough may be substantially reduced if there are magnetic fields on both sides of the slab, and if the MRT mode invokes bending of the magnetic field lines.

  3. WAIS-III Matrix Reasoning test performance in a mixed clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Dugbartey, A T; Sanchez, P N; Rosenbaum, J G; Mahurin, R K; Davis, J M; Townes, B D

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between the Matrix Reasoning subtest (MRT) of the WAIS-III and a selected number of neuropsychological tests in a heterogeneous clinical sample of English-speaking American (n = 41), and non-English-speaking immigrant (n = 14) adults. A moderate association between the Halstead Category Test and the MRT (-.58) was found in the English-speaking sample. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between measures of verbal abstract reasoning and verbal fluency, and performance on the MRT. Among the immigrant sample, the MRT was also found to be significantly associated with verbal fluency task performance, as well as with the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. Correlational analyses therefore suggest a strong verbal mediation element in the MRT, and that labeling it a nonverbal task may be misleading.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Partial α2 -Adrenoceptor Agonist and Pure α2 -Adrenoceptor Antagonist on the Behavioural Symptoms of Withdrawal after Chronic Alcohol Administration in Mice.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shivani; Vohora, Divya

    2016-08-01

    As an addictive drug, alcohol produces withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after chronic use. Clonidine (CLN), a partial α2 -adrenergic agonist, and mirtazapine (MRT), an antagonist of α2 -adrenoceptor, both clinically aid alcohol withdrawal. Considering different mechanisms of action of the two drugs, this study was designed to see how far these two mechanistically different drugs differ in their ability to decrease the severity of ethanol withdrawal syndrome. The effect of CLN and MRT on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression and memory impairment was analysed using EPM, FST and PAR tests, respectively. Animals received distilled water, ethanol and/or either of the drugs (CLN and MRT) in different doses. Relapse to alcohol use was analysed by CPP test. Animals received ethanol as a conditioning drug and distilled water, CLN or MRT as test drug. CLN and MRT both alleviated anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. MRT (4 mg/kg) was more effective than CLN (0.1 mg/kg) in ameliorating the anxiogenic effect of alcohol withdrawal. However, CLN treatment increased depression. It significantly decreased swimming time and increased immobility time, whereas MRT treatment decreased immobility time and increased climbing and swimming time during abstinence. The effect was dose dependent for both drugs. The results of PAR test show that CLN treatment worsens working memory. Significant increase in SDE and TSZ and decrease in SDL were observed in CLN-treated animals. MRT treatment, on the other hand, improved working memory at both doses. Further, both CLN and MRT alleviated craving. A significant decrease in time spent in the ethanol-paired chamber was seen. MRT treatment at both doses showed better effect than CLN in preventing the development of preference in CPP test. These findings indicate a potential therapeutic use and better profile of mirtazapine over clonidine in improving memory, as well as in alleviating depression, anxiety and craving associated

  5. Manual Resistance versus Conventional Resistance Training: Impact on Strength and Muscular Endurance in Recreationally Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Rial, Tamara; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M.; Alakhdar, Yasser; La Scala Teixeira, Caue V.; Masiá-Tortosa, Laura; Dorgo, Sandor

    2017-01-01

    Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recreationally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the perceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differences were not significant between the groups. Neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. Despite the statistically non-significant pre- to post differences, a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES) calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown (g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is similar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions. Key points Resistance training promotes improvement in muscular strength and endurance MRT is an effective alternative form of resistance training for recreationally trained men. MRT can be effective to improve muscular strength and endurance in recreationally trained men. MRT should be considered as alternative form of resistance training by personal trainers and coaches. PMID:28912651

  6. Validation of the mean radiant temperature simulated by the RayMan software in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjung; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    The RayMan software is worldwide applied in investigations on different issues in human-biometeorology. However, only the simulated mean radiant temperature (T mrt) has been validated so far in a few case studies. They are based on T mrt values, which were experimentally determined in urban environments by use of a globe thermometer or applying the six-directional method. This study analyses previous T mrt validations in a comparative manner. Their results are extended by a recent validation of T mrt in an urban micro-environment in Freiburg (southwest Germany), which can be regarded as relatively heterogeneous due to different shading intensities by tree crowns. In addition, a validation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) simulated by RayMan is conducted for the first time. The validations are based on experimentally determined T mrt and PET values, which were calculated from measured meteorological variables in the daytime of a clear-sky summer day. In total, the validation results show that RayMan is capable of simulating T mrt satisfactorily under relatively homogeneous site conditions. However, the inaccuracy of simulated T mrt is increasing with lower sun elevation and growing heterogeneity of the simulation site. As T mrt represents the meteorological variable that mostly governs PET in the daytime of clear-sky summer days, the accuracy of simulated T mrt is mainly responsible for the accuracy of simulated PET. The T mrt validations result in some recommendations, which concern an update of physical principles applied in the RayMan software to simulate the short- and long-wave radiant flux densities, especially from vertical building walls and tree crowns.

  7. Validation of the mean radiant temperature simulated by the RayMan software in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunjung; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    The RayMan software is worldwide applied in investigations on different issues in human-biometeorology. However, only the simulated mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) has been validated so far in a few case studies. They are based on T mrt values, which were experimentally determined in urban environments by use of a globe thermometer or applying the six-directional method. This study analyses previous T mrt validations in a comparative manner. Their results are extended by a recent validation of T mrt in an urban micro-environment in Freiburg (southwest Germany), which can be regarded as relatively heterogeneous due to different shading intensities by tree crowns. In addition, a validation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) simulated by RayMan is conducted for the first time. The validations are based on experimentally determined T mrt and PET values, which were calculated from measured meteorological variables in the daytime of a clear-sky summer day. In total, the validation results show that RayMan is capable of simulating T mrt satisfactorily under relatively homogeneous site conditions. However, the inaccuracy of simulated T mrt is increasing with lower sun elevation and growing heterogeneity of the simulation site. As T mrt represents the meteorological variable that mostly governs PET in the daytime of clear-sky summer days, the accuracy of simulated T mrt is mainly responsible for the accuracy of simulated PET. The T mrt validations result in some recommendations, which concern an update of physical principles applied in the RayMan software to simulate the short- and long-wave radiant flux densities, especially from vertical building walls and tree crowns.

  8. WE-EF-BRA-09: Microbeam Radiation Therapy Enhances Tumor Drug Uptake of PEGylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (PLD) in a Triple Negative Breast Cancer GEM Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, SX; Madden, AJ; Rivera, JN; Santos, CM; Hunter, LM; Darr, DB; Zamboni, WC

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Overcoming low anti-cancer drug uptake in tumors is a key challenge limiting its clinical use. We propose to enhance the drug delivery using upfront Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT). MRT is a preclinical cancer therapy that utilizes microplanar beams to deliver spatially oscillating planes of high and low doses. Animal studies have demonstrated that ultrahigh dose (100s Gy) MRT eradicates tumors without damaging the function of normal tissue exposed to the same radiation. Our previous study indicated that MRT induces intense angiogenesis in tumor rim and surrounding normal tissue 1–2 days post radiation. We hypothesize that the tumor microenvironment modulation induced by MRT may enhance carrier-mediated agent drug delivery to tumors with inherent poor drug uptake. We thus investigated MRT-induced pharmacokinetics (PK) of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), a nano-scale doxorubicin, in T11 genetically engineered mouse model of triple negative breast cancer. Methods: A research irradiator (160kVp, RadSource Technologies) with a customized collimator was used to produce the MRT microbeam of in average 390µm width and 1190µm peak-to-peak distance. The peak dose rate of 1–2Gy/min. Dosimetry is by EBT3 film cross-calibrated with ion chamber at large fields. All mice were administered PLD at 6mg/kg IV x1 at 16h post MRT and sacrificed at 5min, 6h, 24h, and 96h post PLD administration (n=3 or 4 per group). Results: The MRT(28Gy)+PLD group mice had a total doxorubicin tumor concentration (area-under-the concentration-curve, AUC) of 206,040ng/mL•h, 3.71 times the concentration of the PLD-alone group. The MRT(34Gy)+PLD group had a higher mean total doxorubicin concentration in tumor (20,779ng/ml) than the MRT(28Gy)+PLD group (10,665ng/ml). Conclusion: Our preliminary results indicate that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) can enhance nano-scale anti-cancer drug delivery to tumors approximately 4-fold. The exact working mechanism, the comparison with

  9. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  10. [Effect of dietary fiber content reduction on digestive transit in the rabbit. Comparison and validation of models fitted to fecal marker excretion kinetics].

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T

    1994-01-01

    The rate of passage (RP) in several digestive compartments was studied in 4 adult female rabbits cannulated at ileum, and receiving ad libitum 3 diets with decreasing fibre content (40, 30 and 22% NDF). The RP values in the whole digestive tract and between ileum and rectum were simultaneously measured by following the fecal kinetics of 2 markers (169Yb and 141Ce adsorbed on the NDF fraction of the diets) given as single doses. The mean retention time (MRT) in the whole tract provided by modelling methods (models: Grovum and Williams or Ellis) were similar to those obtained by reference method (numeric integration). MRT values in the caecum and the stomach were provided by models and were in good agreement with those deduced from reference measurements. Compared with the Ellis model, the Grovum and Williams model estimated more precisely the RP in tubular compartments (ie small intestine and distal colon); but the increasing part of the kinetics was better fitted using the Ellis model, particularly for low-fibre diets. The decrease in fibre intake (-50%) led to a 12 h increase (+72%) of the whole tract MRT, originating mainly from a 2-fold increase of ileo-rectal MRT. The MRT in the stomach decreased from 3 to 1 h, whereas the RP in the small intestine increased. Therefore, the oro-ileal MRT (mean 5 h) was not affected. A low dietary fibre induces a longer cecal MRT of large particles, without significant change for fine particles.

  11. Manual Resistance versus Conventional Resistance Training: Impact on Strength and Muscular Endurance in Recreationally Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Rial, Tamara; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Alakhdar, Yasser; La Scala Teixeira, Caue V; Masiá-Tortosa, Laura; Dorgo, Sandor

    2017-09-01

    Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recreationally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the perceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differences were not significant between the groups. Neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. Despite the statistically non-significant pre- to post differences, a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES) calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown (g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is similar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions.

  12. A mutant cell line resistant to Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH): its potential in identification of putative receptor for TDH.

    PubMed

    Tang, G; Iida, T; Inoue, H; Yutsudo, M; Yamamoto, K; Honda, T

    1997-05-24

    Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), a pore-forming toxin produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is cytotoxic to Rat-1, a fibroblast cell line derived from rat embryo. Through mutagenesis of Rat-1 with nitrosoguanidine, we established a mutant cell line, MR-T1. MR-T1 was over 200 times more resistant to the cytotoxic activity of TDH than Rat-1. TDH increased membrane permeability of Rat-1 but not of MR-T1. Binding analysis showed that, while being able to bind to Rat-1. TDH failed to bind to MR-T1, indicating that MR-T1 is deficient in the putative receptor for TDH. Somatic hybrid cells between Rat-1 and MR-T1 were similarly sensitive to TDH as Rat-1. Moreover, TDH could bind to the hybrid cells as well as to Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that MR-T1 is promising for complementation cloning of a gene related to the putative receptor for TDH.

  13. Retention of fluid and particles in captive tapirs (Tapirus sp.).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Lang-Deuerling, Stefanie; Müller, Dennis W H; Kienzle, Ellen; Steuer, Patrick; Hummel, Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    The retention of ingesta in the digestive tract is a major characteristic of herbivorous animals. We measured particle and fluid mean retention times (MRT) in 13 lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) and 5 Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) from five zoological institutions on their usual zoo diet and 2 lowland and 4 Malayan tapirs additionally on roughage-only diets (total n of trials=24) with cobalt-EDTA as fluid and chromium-mordanted fibre (<2 mm) as particle markers. MRT for fluid and particles averaged 42+/-16 h and 55+/-18 h in lowland and 40+/-13 h and 56+/-14 h in Malayan tapirs. In a General Linear Model, neither Tapir species, body mass or diet (characterised by the proportion of roughage) was significantly related to MRT, but dry matter intake was, with a steep decline in MRT with higher intake levels. Compared to other hindgut fermenters, tapirs have a low defecation frequency, which might be linked to their comparatively low food intake. Their gastrointestinal capacity (in dry matter: 1.63+/-0.63% of body mass) is similar to that calculated for horses. A comparison of the difference in fluid and particle MRT in large hindgut fermenters (horses, rhinoceroses, elephants, and the tapirs of this study) shows that longer absolute particle MRT are linked to shorter relative fluid MRT, possibly indicating a more thorough 'washing' of particulate ingesta with digestive fluids at longer particle MRT. The only outlier to this general pattern, with an exceptionally high difference between fluid and particle MRT, indicating a particularly efficient ingesta washing, is the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). If possible, results of this study should be compared to findings in tapirs on natural diets.

  14. Master resilience training in the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Reivich, Karen J; Seligman, Martin E P; McBride, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Army Master Resilience Trainer (MRT) course, which provides face-to-face resilience training, is one of the foundational pillars of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program. The 10-day MRT course is the foundation for training resilience skills to sergeants and for teaching sergeants how to teach these skills to their soldiers. The curriculum is based on materials developed by the University of Pennsylvania, the Penn Resilience Program (PRP), and other empirically validated work in the field of positive psychology. This "train the trainer model" is the main vehicle for the dissemination of MRT concepts to the entire force. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Metrological Issues in Molecular Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Solc, Jaroslav; Bobin, Christophe; Rabus, Hans; Joulaeizadeh, Leila

    2014-08-01

    The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project "Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT)" is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided.

  16. A modified reachability tree approach to analysis of unbounded Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Gao, Yanqing; Zhou, MengChu

    2004-02-01

    Reachability trees, especially the corresponding Karp-Miller's finite reachability trees generated for Petri nets are fundamental for systematically investigating many characteristics such as boundedness, liveness, and performance of systems modeled by Petri nets. However, too much information is lost in a FRT to render it useful for many applications. In this paper, modified reachability trees (MRT) of Petri nets are introduced that extend the capability of Karp-Miller's FRTs in solving the liveness, deadlock, and reachability problems, and in defining or determining possible firing sequences. The finiteness of MRT is proved and several examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of MRT over FRT.

  17. Wiederholungswochen bei integriertem Fernsehkurs Englisch. Dargestellt an Beispielen aus English for you 2 (Review Weeks in the Integrated Television Course in English. Presented through Examples from "English for You 2")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festag, Ewald

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the following: designing the review for the end of the school year using the example of "English for You 2," lessons 61 and 62; exercises in vocabulary review and orthography; and hints on written language practice and grammar review. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Kongenitale Chagas. Einfluss einer Trypanosoma Cruzi-Infektion auf die Embryonalentwicklung bei Traechtigen Maeusen (Congenital Chagas Diseases. Effect of ’Trypanosoma cruzi’ Infection on Embryogeny in Gravid Mice),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Congenital Chagas’ disease in man and animals entailing abortion , premature delivery and deformation has been reported in the literature, although...the effect of T. cruzi infection on the fetal development of mice has been investigated after inoculating three different strains of T. cruzi in...in either early death or retarded growth of the embryos and fetuses, although trypanosomes were not demonstrable in injured fetuses (however

  19. Development of Multiple-Frequency Ultrasonic Imaging System Using Multiple Resonance Piezoelectric Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Iwaki; Yoshizumi, Natsuki; Saito, Shigemi; Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    The authors have developed a multiple frequency imaging system using a multiple resonance transducer (MRT) consisting of 1-3 composite materials with a low mechanical quality factor Q bonded together. The MRT has a structure consisting of thin and thick piezoelectric plates, two matching layers, and a backing layer. This makes it possible to obtain B-mode images of satisfactory resolution using ultrasonic pulses owing to their short duration. In this paper, the vibration property of the MRT derived through equivalent-circuit analysis is first shown. By utilizing the result, an MRT capable of transmitting ultrasonic pulses for generation of the images of biological tissues with satisfactory resolution is designed and prototyped. Setting the prototype transducer in the mechanical sector probe of commercial ultrasonic diagnosis equipment, the speckle reduction effect is demonstrated using images of various phantoms to mimic biological tissues and a human thyroid.

  20. 77 FR 55492 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... of Pennsylvania; failed to ensure that only principal owners or corporate officers submit the annual... Mortgage, Inc., Jonesboro, AR [Docket No. 12-1642- MRT]. 2. HCL Finance Inc., San Jose, CA . 3. Ikon...

  1. Fine root heterogeneity by branch order: exploring the discrepancy in root turnover estimates between minirhizotron and carbon isotopic methods

    Treesearch

    Dali Guo; Harbin Li; Robert J. Mitchell; Han Wenxuan; Joseph J. Hendricks; Timothy J. Fahey; Ronald L. Hendrick

    2008-01-01

    Fine roots constitute a large and dynamic component of the carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. The reported fivefold discrepancy in turnover estimates between median longevity (ML) from minirhizotrons and mean residence time (MRT) using carbon isotopes may have global consequences.

  2. 75 FR 81287 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Corporation, Mission Viejo, CA 106. Prime Alliance Bank, Wood Cross, UT 107. Prime Source Mortgage, Inc.... American Capital Mortgage Bankers, Ltd., Floral Park, NY, 10-1348- MRT 3. Apex Mortgage, LLC, Meridian, ID...

  3. Tazemetostat Rollover Study (TRuST): An Open-Label Rollover Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-11

    Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors (MRT); Rhabdoid Tumors of the Kidney (RTK); Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors (ATRT); Synovial Sarcoma; Epitheliod Sarcoma; Mesothelioma; Advanced Solid Tumors

  4. SU-E-T-45: Antibody Mean Residence Time in Blood and Its Correlation with Protein Molecular Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, C; Williams, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve) divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results.

  5. An Evaluation of Dose Equivalence between Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy and Conventional Broadbeam Radiation Using Clonogenic and Cell Impedance Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ibahim, Mohammad Johari; Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Yang, Yuqing; Zaitseva, Marina; Stevenson, Andrew W.; Rogers, Peter A. W.; Paiva, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Background High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) has shown the potential to deliver improved outcomes over conventional broadbeam (BB) radiation therapy. To implement synchrotron MRT clinically for cancer treatment, it is necessary to undertake dose equivalence studies to identify MRT doses that give similar outcomes to BB treatments. Aim To develop an in vitro approach to determine biological dose equivalence between MRT and BB using two different cell-based assays. Methods The acute response of tumour and normal cell lines (EMT6.5, 4T1.2, NMuMG, EMT6.5ch, 4T1ch5, SaOS-2) to MRT (50–560 Gy) and BB (1.5–10 Gy) irradiation was investigated using clonogenic and real time cell impedance sensing (RT-CIS)/xCELLigence assays. MRT was performed using a lattice of 25 or 50 µm-wide planar, polychromatic kilovoltage X-ray microbeams with 200 µm peak separation. BB irradiations were performed using a Co60 teletherapy unit or a synchrotron radiation source. BB doses that would generate biological responses similar to MRT were calculated by data interpolation and verified by clonogenic and RT-CIS assays. Results For a given cell line, MRT equivalent BB doses identified by RT-CIS/xCELLigence were similar to those identified by clonogenic assays. Dose equivalence between MRT and BB were verified in vitro in two cell lines; EMT6.5ch and SaOS-2 by clonogenic assays and RT-CIS/xCELLigence. We found for example, that BB doses of 3.4±0.1 Gy and 4.40±0.04 Gy were radiobiologically equivalent to a peak, microbeam dose of 112 Gy using clonogenic and RT-CIS assays respectively on EMT6.5ch cells. Conclusion Our data provides the first determination of biological dose equivalence between BB and MRT modalities for different cell lines and identifies RT-CIS/xCELLigence assays as a suitable substitute for clonogenic assays. These results will be useful for the safe selection of MRT doses for future veterinary and clinical trials. PMID:24945301

  6. Sustaining Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness: Critical for Army 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    showing that the MRT skills are having a positive effect on Soldier-reported resilience and psychological health (R/ PH). The evaluation shows that MRT...operational commanders.”91 Resilience programs are about training, education, and culture, and therefore are best positioned outside of health and medical...The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the

  7. Hydraulic Geometry Analysis of the Lower Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-28

    the Mississippi River and Tributaries (MR&T) Project, the Lower Mississippi River was free to adjust its energy gradient through a combination of...surveys taken ten or more years apart. For this reason it is important to investigate changes in channel form based on analysis of annual... energy slope through planform adjustments, but instead is, instead, restricted to making adjustments to its longitudinal profile. MR&T work, as the

  8. A report of renal artery embolization for hematuria facilitating neoadjuvant chemotherapy in an unresectable malignant renal rhabdoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchika; Kitchen, Brenda J; Mody, Rajen; Chamdin, Aghiad; Bruch, Steven; Jasty, Rama

    2013-05-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) of the kidney is a rare pediatric tumor characterized by its aggressive nature and chemoresistance. Our patient had MRT of the right kidney with tumor thrombus in the renal vein, inferior vena cava, and right atrium. He developed transfusion-resistant hematuria. This was successfully controlled with right renal artery embolization allowing completion of his neoadjuvant chemotherapy. He then underwent complete resection of the tumor and thrombus avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass.

  9. The Effect of Visual-Spatial Ability on the Learning of Robot-Assisted Surgical Skills.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashige; Raison, Nicholas; Shinohara, Nobuo; Shamim Khan, M; Ahmed, Kamran; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2017-09-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of visual-spatial ability with progression along the learning curve for robotic surgical skills training. A total of 21 novice participants were recruited. All participants completed a training program consisting of 5 training sessions of 30 minutes of virtual reality (VR) simulation and 30 minutes of dry laboratory training. The VR simulation part was the subject of the present study. During VR simulation training, participants performed the basic skill exercises of Camera Targeting 1, Pick and Place, and Peg Board 1 followed by advanced skill exercises of Suture Sponge 1 and Thread the Rings. The visual-spatial ability was assessed using a mental rotation test (MRT). Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between the MRT score and simulator score for the aforementioned 5 tasks. Student t test was used to compare the simulator score between high- and low-MRT score groups. A median MRT score of 26/40 (range: 13-38) was observed. Approximately 19 participants completed the full curriculum but 2 did not complete "Thread the Rings" during the study period. A significant correlation was observed between the MRT score and simulator score only in "Suture Sponge 1" over the first 3 attempts (first: r = 0.584, p = 0.0054; second: r = 0.443, p = 0.0443; third: r = 0.4458, p = 0.0428). After the third attempt, this significant correlation was lost. Comparison of the score for "Suture Sponge 1" between the high-MRT and low-MRT scoring participants divided by a median MRT score of 26 also showed a significant difference in the score until the third trial. Our observations suggest that the spatial cognitive ability influences the initial learning of robotic suturing skills. Further studies are necessary to verify the usefulness of an individual's spatial ability to tailor the surgical training program. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of the mean radiant temperature in high latitude cities--implications for sensitive climate planning applications.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of how the mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is affected by factors such as location, climate and urban setting contributes to the practice of climate sensitive planning. This paper examines how T mrt varies within an urban setting and how it is influenced by cloudiness. In addition, variations of T mrt in three high latitude cities are investigated in order to analyse the impact of geographical context and climate conditions. Results showed large spatial variations between sunlit and shaded areas during clear weather conditions, with the highest values of T mrt close to sunlit walls and the lowest values in the areas shaded by buildings and vegetation. As cloudiness increases, the spatial pattern is altered and the differences are reduced. The highest T mrt under cloudy conditions is instead found in open areas where the proportion of shortwave diffuse radiation from the sky vault is high. A regional comparison between three Swedish coastal cities showed that T mrt during summer is similar regardless of latitudinal location. On the other hand, large differences in T mrt during winter were found. Shadows, both from buildings and vegetation are the most effective measure to reduce extreme values of T mrt. However, extensive areas of shadow are usually not desired within outdoor urban environments at high latitude cities. One solution is to create diverse outdoor urban spaces in terms of shadow and also ventilation. This would provide individuals with access to a choice of thermal environments which they can use to assist their thermal regulation, based on personal needs and desires.

  11. Fluid and particle retention in the digestive tract of the addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus)--adaptations of a grazing desert ruminant.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jürgen; Steuer, Patrick; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Hammer, Sven; Hammer, Catrin; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-02-01

    Retention time of food in the digestive tract is a major aspect describing the digestive physiology of herbivores. Differences in feed retention times have been described for different ruminant feeding types. In this study, a dominantly grazing desert ruminant, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), was investigated in this respect. Eight animals with a body weight (BW) of 87+/-5.3 kg on an ad libitum grass hay (Chloris gayana) diet were available. Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibers (<2 mm) were used as pulse-dose markers. Mean retention time (MRT) in the digestive tract was calculated from faecal marker excretion. Average daily intake of the addax was found to be 1.7 kg dry matter (DM) or 60+/-8.3 g DM/kg BW(0.75). The MRT of fluid and particles in the reticulo-rumen (MRT(fluid)RR and MRT(particle)RR) were quantified to be 20+/-5.8 and 42+/-7.0 h respectively. When compared to literature data, MRT(fluid)RR was significantly longer than in cattle species, and MRT(particle)RR was significantly longer than in 11 taxa of all feeding types. The ratio of MRT(particle)RR/MRT(fluid)RR (2.3+/-0.5) was found to be within the range described for grazing ruminants. The long retention times found in the addax can be interpreted as an adaptation to a diet including a high proportion of slow fermenting grasses, while the long retention time of the fluid phase can be interpreted as a consequence of water saving mechanisms of the desert-adapted addax with a potentially low water turnover and capacious water storing rumen.

  12. Mental rotation: cross-task training and generalization.

    PubMed

    Stransky, Debi; Wilcox, Laurie M; Dubrowski, Adam

    2010-12-01

    It is well established that performance on standard mental rotation tasks improves with training (Peters et al., 1995), but thus far there is little consensus regarding the degree of transfer to other tasks which also involve mental rotation. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of mental rotation training on participants' Mental Rotation Test (MRT) scores. Twenty-eight participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a "One-Day Training," "Spaced Training," or "No Training" group. Participants who received training achieved higher scores on the MRT, an advantage that was still evident after 1 week. Distribution of training did not affect performance. Experiment 2 assessed generalization of mental rotation training to a more complex mental rotation task, laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic surgical skills were assessed using Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) tasks. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to a "Full Mental Rotation Training, MRT and FLS," "MRT and FLS," or "FLS-only" group. MRT results from Experiment 1 were replicated and mental rotation training was found to elicit higher scores on the MRT. Further, mental rotation training was found to generalize to certain laparoscopic surgical tasks. Participants who obtained mental rotation training performed significantly better on mental-rotation dependent surgical tasks than participants who did not receive training. Therefore, surgical training programs can use simple computer or paper-based mental rotation training instead of more expensive materials to enhance certain aspects of surgical performance of trainees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The shoulder medial rotation test: an intertester and intratester reliability study in overhead athletes with chronic shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Lluch, Enrique; Benítez, Josep; Dueñas, Lirios; Casaña, José; Alakhdar, Yasser; Nijs, Jo; Struyf, Filip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine intertester and intratester reliability of the shoulder medial rotation test (MRT) and reliability differences depending on examiner expertise. Seventeen athletes with chronic shoulder pain participated in the study. Four independent observers with different experience levels simultaneously rated MRT performance as "correct" or "incorrect," after a standardized assessment protocol, the same day (for intertester reliability) and in a 7-day interval (for intratester reliability). The intrarater reliability was admissible for 2 experts and one novice, with κ values ranging between 0.32 to 0.76 and poor for one novice (κ <0). Interrater agreement for all 4 assessors demonstrated slight agreement (κ = 0.06; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.47), increasing to fair agreement (κ = 0.33; 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.69) when comparing the MRT findings between the 2 experienced assessors. Practice with the MRT in novices only marginally improved their level of agreement. Reliability of the MRT for detecting movement control of the shoulder girdle was fair at best for experienced examiners and poor overall. Dexterity and repetitive performance of the test is necessary for correct interpretation of the MRT. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of electro-thermal and electro-choric instabilities and material strength on MagLIF liner stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecover, James; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) is a promising route to controlled thermonuclear fusion. The concept involves magnetically imploding a metal liner containing fuel with an azimuthal magnetic field (Bz) ; a key limitation of such systems is the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. MagLIF relevant liner implosions with Bz = 0 carried out at SNL showed high amplitude MRT growth; we present a quantitative comparison between experimental results and 3D results from our MHD code Gorgon, demonstrating closer agreement for the MRT properties with the inclusion of electro-thermal and electro-choric instabilities (ETI and ECI) and material strength. The ETI and ECI result in early time azimuthally correlated structures which provide a seed for the MRT. Material strength increases the ETI amplitude due to positive feedback during the solid phase of the liner. Similar liner implosions with Bz exhibited a re-orientation of the MRT into helical structures, which are yet to be reproduced by simulations without an artificial helical initialisation. Our 3D Gorgon results with Bz show helices prior to vapourisation; these occur at initially positive angles before changing sign, tending to zero later in time. This angle does not follow the relative magnitudes of Bz and Bθ as would be expected for the MRT. The angle instead follows the ratio of axial and azimuthal currents (induced by compression or rarefaction of the initial Bz) , indicating an electro-thermal origin.

  15. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann simulation for flow, mass transfer, and adsorption in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qiang; Chen, Zhenqian; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, to predict the dynamics behaviors of flow and mass transfer with adsorption phenomena in porous media at the representative elementary volume (REV) scale, a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for the convection-diffusion equation is developed to solve the transfer problem with an unsteady source term in porous media. Utilizing the Chapman-Enskog analysis, the modified MRT-LB model can recover the macroscopic governing equations at the REV scale. The coupled MRT-LB model for momentum and mass transfer is validated by comparing with the finite-difference method and the analytical solution. Moreover, using the MRT-LB method coupled with the linear driving force model, the fluid transfer and adsorption behaviors of the carbon dioxide in a porous fixed bed are explored. The breakthrough curve of adsorption from MRT-LB simulation is compared with the experimental data and the finite-element solution, and the transient concentration distributions of the carbon dioxide along the porous fixed bed are elaborated upon in detail. In addition, the MRT-LB simulation results show that the appearance time of the breakthrough point in the breakthrough curve is advanced as the mass transfer resistance in the linear driving force model increases; however, the saturation point is prolonged inversely.

  16. Medical training therapy in lumbar syndromes.

    PubMed

    Broll-Zeitvogel, E; Grifka, J; Bauer, J; Roths, P H; Degryse, P

    1999-11-01

    Chronic low back pain can be considered to be one of the most frequently treated and most costly diseases in modern industrial societies. Dysfunctions and imbalances of the spine-supporting muscles increase the risk of low back pain. Consequently preventive treatment and rehabilitation have to aim at preserving and restoring the full capacity of the spine-supporting muscles as well as training coordination and spine-friendly behaviour. In addition to various measures of pain therapy, physiotherapeutic treatment including neuro-physiotherapy, physical treatment (eg electrotherapy), balneotherapy and supportive behavioural training, medical rehabilitation therapy (MRT) ranks among the most effective ways of treating low back pain. MRT applies guidelines and methods of exercise methodology within medically indicated programmes of preventive treatment and rehabilitation. Various objectives of MRT are outlined with special regard to the stages of MRT treatment, emphasizing positive adaptation of the neuro-muscular system in the course of rehabilitation. Physicians are responsible for MRT diagnosis and control. Taking into account the base disorder and the progress of therapy physiotherapists and the physicians in charge determine MRT objectives and treatment strategies.

  17. [Medical training therapy in lumbar syndromes].

    PubMed

    Broll-Zeitvogel, E; Grifka, J; Bauer, J; Roths, P H; Degryse, P

    1999-11-01

    Chronic low back pain can be considered to be one of the most frequently treated and most costly diseases in modern industrial societies. Dysfunctions and imbalances of the spine-supporting muscles increase the risk of low back pain. Consequently preventive treatment and rehabilitation have to aim at preserving and restoring the full capacity of the spine-supporting muscles as well as training coordination and spine-friendly behaviour. In addition to various measures of pain therapy, physiotherapeutic treatment including neuro-physiotherapy, physical treatment (eg electrotherapy), balneotherapy and supportive behavioural training, medical rehabilitation therapy (MRT) ranks among the most effective ways of treating low back pain. MRT applies guidelines and methods of exercise methodology within medically indicated programmes of preventive treatment and rehabilitation. Various objectives of MRT are outlined with special regard to the stages of MRT treatment, emphasizing positive adaptation of the neuro-muscular system in the course of rehabilitation. Physicians are responsible for MRT diagnosis and control. Taking into account the base disorder and the progress of therapy physiotherapists and the physicians in charge determine MRT objectives and treatment strategies.

  18. Is there an influence of body mass on digesta mean retention time in herbivores? A comparative study on ungulates.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Patrick; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Müller, Dennis W H; Franz, Ragna; Kaandorp, Jacques; Clauss, Marcus; Hummel, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    The relation between body mass (BM) and digesta mean retention time (MRT) in herbivores was the focus of several studies in recent years. It was assumed that MRT scaled with BM(0.25) based on the isometric scaling of gut capacity (BM(1.0)) and allometric scaling of energy intake (BM(0.75)). Literature studies that tested this hypothesis produced conflicting results, arriving sometimes at higher or lower exponents than the postulated 0.25. This study was conducted with 8 ruminants (n=2-6 per species) and 6 hindgut fermenting species/breeds (n=2-6, warthog n=1) with a BM range of 60-4000 kg. All animals received a ration of 100% grass hay with ad libitum access. Dry matter intake was measured and the MRT was estimated by the use of a solute and a particle (1-2 mm) marker. No significant scaling of MRT(particle) with BM was observed for all herbivores (32 BM(0.04), p=0.518) and hindgut fermenters (32 BM(0.00), p=1.00). The scaling exponent for ruminants only showed a tendency towards significance (29 BM(0.12), p=0.071). Ruminants on average had an MRT(particle) 1.61-fold longer than hindgut fermenters. Whereas an exponent of 0.25 is reasonable from theoretical considerations, much lower exponents were found in this and other studies. The energetic benefit of increasing MRT is by no means continuous, since the energy released from a given food unit via digestion decreases over time. The low and non-significant scaling factors for both digestion types suggest that in ungulates, MRT is less influenced by BM (maximal allometric exponent ≤0.1) than often reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Manual Resistance Training on Fitness in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dorgo, Sandor; King, George A.; Candelaria, Norma; Bader, Julia O.; Brickey, Gregory D.; Adams, Carolyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Manual Resistance Training (MRT), an alternative to traditional resistance training, requires minimal equipment and may be effective when applied in school-based physical education (PE) classes. The purpose of this study was to document the physical changes in adolescents (N = 222) using MRT in school-based PE settings. Six fitness tests from the Fitnessgram assessment tool were selected to assess students' cardiovascular and muscular fitness and skin-fold tests were used to assess body composition. One Control and two Experimental Groups were defined. The Control group of students (N = 129) attended regular PE classes. One Experimental group (N = 63) attended PE that was complemented by the MRT system. A second Experiment group (N = 30) attended PE complemented by MRT and cardiovascular endurance training. Using the selected Fitnessgram tests post-test measurements were done after 9 and 18 weeks of PE. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the three groups for most measures. Compared to baseline, experimental groups improved significantly in all six fitness measures and showed more improvements than the Control group in most fitness measures both at 9 and 18 weeks. None of the groups showed significant improvement in body composition. The results documented that an MRT complemented PE program was effective in improving adolescents' muscular fitness. An 18-week combined MRT and cardiovascular endurance training program effectively improved cardiovascular and muscular fitness but was ineffective in improving adolescent body composition. An MRT based exercise session requires minimal equipment and set-up, and can be performed in a short period of time, therefore it is suitable for application in regular PE settings. PMID:19826296

  20. Magnetic resonance therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gökşen, Nurgül; Çaliş, Mustafa; Doğan, Serap; Çaliş, Havva T; Özgöçmen, Salih

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (MRT) works based on the electromagnetic fields. To investigate efficacy of MRT in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients who had mild to moderate knee OA at a single knee joint and between 30-75-years-old were randomized by blinded chip cards (1:1). The treatment group received ten sessions of one hour daily MRT, controls received placebo MRT. All patients underwent clinical examination at baseline, after 2 weeks, and 12 weeks. Imaging included blindly assessed ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) of the knee. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. Both groups improved significantly but the average change from baseline in outcome parameters was similar in MRT group (on VAS-pain,-2.6; WOMAC-pain, -2.09; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.81; WOMAC-physical, -1.96) compared to placebo after two weeks (VAS-pain,-1.6; WOMAC-pain, -1.91; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.27; WOMAC-physical, -1.54). Also changes were quite similar at the 12th week after the treatment. SF-36 components at 12th week improved but changes were not significant. Imaging arm also failed to show significant differences between groups in terms of cartilage thickness on US and MR scores. No adverse events were recorded. MRT is safe, but not superior to placebo in terms of improvement in clinical or imaging parameters after a 10-day course of treatment in mild to moderate knee OA. The present study does not promote use of a 10-day course of MRT in mild to moderate knee OA.

  1. Is mean residence time a useful tool to evaluate carbon sequestration in soils? Limits and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiven, Samuel; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Beatriz; Studer, Mirjam

    2017-04-01

    Soils are increasingly recognized as a serious candidate to store large amounts of carbon. International efforts, like the 4 per mil initiative, are promoting soil-related solutions to retain carbon at long timescales. The options are quite diverse, from biochar or root promoting agricultural techniques to existing large vulnerable soil organic matter stock conservation policies. However, the evaluation of these techniques is not easy. The changes of soil organic carbon stocks are difficult to detect on the short term: carbon stock estimations suffer from technical hurdles, like bulk density estimation or access to the subsoil carbon; the soil is by nature heterogeneous, and generalization of results for a given situation are difficult to upscale. The evaluation of soil organic matter mean residence time (MRT) may be used to describe the potential of these solutions. In soils, MRT is calculated by isotopic techniques (i.e. stable or radioactive isotopes) or by mass balances (i.e. measured or calculated based in CO2 emissions). Depending on the method applied, results may vary greatly and may also describe different facets of the soil organic matter continuum. For example, MRT calculated with 14C data depends on molecules with long residence time while MRT based on mass balance calculations are triggered by fresh inputs that may decompose relatively fast in soils. Based on a comprehensive Swiss forest soils dataset allowing us to calculate soil organic matter MRT by different approaches and a series of recent literature considerations about the MRT, we will discuss the potential of MRT to be applied for carbon storage evaluation.

  2. Optimizing dose enhancement with Ta2O5 nanoparticles for synchrotron microbeam activated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Engels, Elette; Corde, Stéphanie; McKinnon, Sally; Incerti, Sébastien; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Tehei, Moeava; Lerch, Michael; Guatelli, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) exploits tumour selectivity and normal tissue sparing with spatially fractionated kilovoltage X-ray microbeams through the dose volume effect. Experimental measurements with Ta2O5 nanoparticles (NPs) in 9L gliosarcoma treated with MRT at the Australian Synchrotron, increased the treatment efficiency. Ta2O5 NPs were observed to form shells around cell nuclei which may be the reason for their efficiency in MRT. In this article, our experimental observation of NP shell formation is the basis of a Geant4 radiation transport study to characterise dose enhancement by Ta2O5 NPs in MRT. Our study showed that NP shells enhance the physical dose depending microbeam energy and their location relative to a single microbeam. For monochromatic microbeam energies below ∼70keV, NP shells show highly localised dose enhancement due to the short range of associated secondary electrons. Low microbeam energies indicate better targeted treatment by allowing higher microbeam doses to be administered to tumours and better exploit the spatial fractionation related selectivity observed with MRT. For microbeam energies above ∼100keV, NP shells extend the physical dose enhancement due to longer-range secondary electrons. Again, with NPs selectively internalised, the local effectiveness of MRT is expected to increase in the tumour. Dose enhancement produced by the shell aggregate varied more significantly in the cell population, depending on its location, when compared to a homogeneous NP distribution. These combined simulation and experimental data provide first evidence for optimising MRT through the incorporation of newly observed Ta2O5 NP distributions within 9L cancer cells.

  3. The effects of manual resistance training on improving muscular strength and endurance.

    PubMed

    Dorgo, Sandor; King, George A; Rice, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a manual resistance training (MRT) program on muscular strength and endurance and to compare these effects with those of an identically structured weight resistance training (WRT) program. To do this, 84 healthy college students were randomly assigned to either an MRT (n = 53, mean +/- SD: age 25.6 +/- 6.0 years, height 170.1 +/- 8.1 cm, body mass 73.9 +/- 16.0 kg, and body fat 24.6 +/- 8.7%) or WRT (n = 31, mean +/- SD: age 25.5 +/- 5.2 years; height 169.6 +/- 10.1 cm, body mass 75.0 +/- 17.4 kg, and body fat 24.7 +/- 8.5%) group and engaged in a 14-week training program. Each participant's performance was assessed before and immediately after the 14-week training period. Muscular strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test and the 1RM squat test. Muscular endurance was recorded as the maximum number of repetitions performed with 70% of pretraining 1RM for the bench press and squat exercises. There were no significant differences between the MRT and WRT groups at baseline for muscular strength (p > 0.36) or muscular endurance (p > 0.46). Compared with baseline values, the 14-week training programs produced significant (p < 0.001) improvements in muscular strength and muscular endurance of the MRT and WRT groups. However, no significant difference was observed between the MRT and WRT groups for muscular strength (p > 0.22) or for muscular endurance (p > 0.09) after training. The improvements in muscular strength and muscular endurance after a 14-week MRT program in the present study were similar to those produced by a WRT program, and well-designed MRT exercises seem to be effective for improving muscular fitness.

  4. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  5. Implementation of a Biomass Energy Island for a Forested Air Force Installation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    pine (CSP) plantations on Eglin AFB to establish Eglin as a Biomass Energy Island (BEI). Previous studies have demonstrated: (1) the feasibility of...AFB as a Biomass Energy Island (BEI). As such, Eglin would satisfy all energy needs of the facility by using 540,000 green tons of wood chips harvested

  6. A case of non-scaling in mammalian physiology? Body size, digestive capacity, food intake, and ingesta passage in mammalian herbivores.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Streich, W Jürgen; Hummel, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    As gut capacity is assumed to scale linearly to body mass (BM), and dry matter intake (DMI) to metabolic body weight (BM(0.75)), it has been proposed that ingesta mean retention time (MRT) should scale to BM(0.25) in herbivorous mammals. We test these assumptions with the most comprehensive literature data collations (n=74 species for gut capacity, n=93 species for DMI and MRT) to date. For MRT, only data from studies was used during which DMI was also recorded. Gut capacity scaled to BM(1.06). In spite of large differences in feeding regimes, absolute DMI (kg/d) scaled to BM(0.76) across all species tested. Regardless of this allometry inherent in the dataset, there was only a very low allometric scaling of MRT with BM(0.14) across all species. If species were divided according to the morphophysiological design of their digestive tract, there was non-significant scaling of MRT with BM(0.04) in colon fermenters, BM(0.08) in non-ruminant foregut fermenters, BM(0.06) in browsing and BM(0.04) in grazing ruminants. In contrast, MRT significantly scaled to BM(0.24) (CI 0.16-0.33) in the caecum fermenters. The results suggest that below a certain body size, long MRTs cannot be achieved even though coprophagy is performed; this supports the assumption of a potential body size limitation for herbivory on the lower end of the body size range. However, above a 500 g-threshold, there is no indication of a substantial general increase of MRT with BM. We therefore consider ingesta retention in mammalian herbivores an example of a biological, time-dependent variable that can, on an interspecific level, be dissociated from a supposed obligatory allometric scaling by the morphophysiological design of the digestive tract. We propose that very large body size does not automatically imply a digestive advantage, because long MRTs do not seem to be a characteristic of very large species only. A comparison of the relative DMI (g/kg(0.75)) with MRT indicates that, on an interspecific

  7. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for rat brain tumor palliation—influence of the microbeam width at constant valley dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serduc, Raphaël; Bouchet, Audrey; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Laissue, Jean A.; Spiga, Jenny; Sarun, Sukhéna; Bravin, Alberto; Fonta, Caroline; Renaud, Luc; Boutonnat, Jean; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Estève, François; Le Duc, Géraldine

    2009-11-01

    To analyze the effects of the microbeam width (25, 50 and 75 µm) on the survival of 9L gliosarcoma tumor-bearing rats and on toxicity in normal tissues in normal rats after microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), 9L gliosarcomas implanted in rat brains, as well as in normal rat brains, were irradiated in the MRT mode. Three configurations (MRT25, MRT50, MRT75), each using two orthogonally intersecting arrays of either 25, 50 or 75 µm wide microbeams, all spaced 211 µm on center, were tested. For each configuration, peak entrance doses of 860, 480 and 320 Gy, respectively, were calculated to produce an identical valley dose of 18 Gy per individual array at the center of the tumor. Two, 7 and 14 days after radiation treatment, 42 rats were killed to evaluate histopathologically the extent of tumor necrosis, and the presence of proliferating tumors cells and tumor vessels. The median survival times of the normal rats were 4.5, 68 and 48 days for MRT25, 50 and 75, respectively. The combination of the highest entrance doses (860 Gy per array) with 25 µm wide beams (MRT25) resulted in a cumulative valley dose of 36 Gy and was excessively toxic, as it led to early death of all normal rats and of ~50% of tumor-bearing rats. The short survival times, particularly of rats in the MRT25 group, restricted adequate observance of the therapeutic effect of the method on tumor-bearing rats. However, microbeams of 50 µm width led to the best median survival time after 9L gliosarcoma MRT treatment and appeared as the better compromise between tumor control and normal brain toxicity compared with 75 µm or 25 µm widths when used with a 211 µm on-center distance. Despite very high radiation doses, the tumors were not sterilized; viable proliferating tumor cells remained present at the tumor margin. This study shows that microbeam width and peak entrance doses strongly influence tumor responses and normal brain toxicity, even if valley doses are kept constant in all groups. The use of

  8. Pilot study for compact microbeam radiation therapy using a carbon nanotube field emission micro-CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Hadsell, Mike; Cao, Guohua; Zhang, Jian; Burk, Laurel; Schreiber, Torsten; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2014-06-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is defined as the use of parallel, microplanar x-ray beams with an energy spectrum between 50 and 300 keV for cancer treatment and brain radiosurgery. Up until now, the possibilities of MRT have mainly been studied using synchrotron sources due to their high flux (100s Gy/s) and approximately parallel x-ray paths. The authors have proposed a compact x-ray based MRT system capable of delivering MRT dose distributions at a high dose rate. This system would employ carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission technology to create an x-ray source array that surrounds the target of irradiation. Using such a geometry, multiple collimators would shape the irradiation from this array into multiple microbeams that would then overlap or interlace in the target region. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of attaining a high dose rate and parallel microbeam beams using such a system. The microbeam dose distribution was generated by our CNT micro-CT scanner (100 μm focal spot) and a custom-made microbeam collimator. An alignment assembly was fabricated and attached to the scanner in order to collimate and superimpose beams coming from different gantry positions. The MRT dose distribution was measured using two orthogonal radiochromic films embedded inside a cylindrical phantom. This target was irradiated with microbeams incident from 44 different gantry angles to simulate an array of x-ray sources as in the proposed compact CNT-based MRT system. Finally, phantom translation in a direction perpendicular to the microplanar beams was used to simulate the use of multiple parallel microbeams. Microbeams delivered from 44 gantry angles were superimposed to form a single microbeam dose distribution in the phantom with a FWHM of 300 μm (calculated value was 290 μm). Also, during the multiple beam simulation, a peak to valley dose ratio of ~10 was found when the phantom translation distance was roughly 4x the beam width. The first prototype CNT

  9. Pilot study for compact microbeam radiation therapy using a carbon nanotube field emission micro-CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Hadsell, Mike Cao, Guohua; Zhang, Jian; Burk, Laurel; Schreiber, Torsten; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is defined as the use of parallel, microplanar x-ray beams with an energy spectrum between 50 and 300 keV for cancer treatment and brain radiosurgery. Up until now, the possibilities of MRT have mainly been studied using synchrotron sources due to their high flux (100s Gy/s) and approximately parallel x-ray paths. The authors have proposed a compact x-ray based MRT system capable of delivering MRT dose distributions at a high dose rate. This system would employ carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission technology to create an x-ray source array that surrounds the target of irradiation. Using such a geometry, multiple collimators would shape the irradiation from this array into multiple microbeams that would then overlap or interlace in the target region. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of attaining a high dose rate and parallel microbeam beams using such a system. Methods: The microbeam dose distribution was generated by our CNT micro-CT scanner (100μm focal spot) and a custom-made microbeam collimator. An alignment assembly was fabricated and attached to the scanner in order to collimate and superimpose beams coming from different gantry positions. The MRT dose distribution was measured using two orthogonal radiochromic films embedded inside a cylindrical phantom. This target was irradiated with microbeams incident from 44 different gantry angles to simulate an array of x-ray sources as in the proposed compact CNT-based MRT system. Finally, phantom translation in a direction perpendicular to the microplanar beams was used to simulate the use of multiple parallel microbeams. Results: Microbeams delivered from 44 gantry angles were superimposed to form a single microbeam dose distribution in the phantom with a FWHM of 300μm (calculated value was 290 μm). Also, during the multiple beam simulation, a peak to valley dose ratio of ∼10 was found when the phantom translation distance was roughly 4x the beam width

  10. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for rat brain tumor palliation-influence of the microbeam width at constant valley dose.

    PubMed

    Serduc, Raphaël; Bouchet, Audrey; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Laissue, Jean A; Spiga, Jenny; Sarun, Sukhéna; Bravin, Alberto; Fonta, Caroline; Renaud, Luc; Boutonnat, Jean; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Estève, François; Le Duc, Géraldine

    2009-11-07

    To analyze the effects of the microbeam width (25, 50 and 75 microm) on the survival of 9L gliosarcoma tumor-bearing rats and on toxicity in normal tissues in normal rats after microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), 9L gliosarcomas implanted in rat brains, as well as in normal rat brains, were irradiated in the MRT mode. Three configurations (MRT25, MRT50, MRT75), each using two orthogonally intersecting arrays of either 25, 50 or 75 microm wide microbeams, all spaced 211 microm on center, were tested. For each configuration, peak entrance doses of 860, 480 and 320 Gy, respectively, were calculated to produce an identical valley dose of 18 Gy per individual array at the center of the tumor. Two, 7 and 14 days after radiation treatment, 42 rats were killed to evaluate histopathologically the extent of tumor necrosis, and the presence of proliferating tumors cells and tumor vessels. The median survival times of the normal rats were 4.5, 68 and 48 days for MRT25, 50 and 75, respectively. The combination of the highest entrance doses (860 Gy per array) with 25 microm wide beams (MRT25) resulted in a cumulative valley dose of 36 Gy and was excessively toxic, as it led to early death of all normal rats and of approximately 50% of tumor-bearing rats. The short survival times, particularly of rats in the MRT25 group, restricted adequate observance of the therapeutic effect of the method on tumor-bearing rats. However, microbeams of 50 microm width led to the best median survival time after 9L gliosarcoma MRT treatment and appeared as the better compromise between tumor control and normal brain toxicity compared with 75 microm or 25 microm widths when used with a 211 microm on-center distance. Despite very high radiation doses, the tumors were not sterilized; viable proliferating tumor cells remained present at the tumor margin. This study shows that microbeam width and peak entrance doses strongly influence tumor responses and normal brain toxicity, even if valley doses are

  11. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability: Theory and simulation in planar and cylindrical pulsed power targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Matthew R.

    Cylindrical liner implosions in the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept are susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT). The danger of MRT enters in two phases, (1) during the main implosion, the outer surface of the liner is MRT unstable, and (2) during the short time period when the liner decelerates onto hot fuel, the inner surface becomes unstable. Growth of MRT on the outer surface may also feedthrough, which may seed the inner surface leading to high MRT growth in the second phase. If MRT growth becomes large enough, confinement of the fuel is lost. To characterize MRT we solve the linearized, ideal MHD equations in both planar and cylindrical geometries, including the presence of an axial magnetic field and the effects of sausage and kink modes (present in cylindrical coordinates only). In general, the total instability growth rates in cylindrical geometry are found to be larger than those in planar geometry. MRT and feedthrough is shown to be suppressed by strong magnetic field line bending (tension). However, for the same amount of field line bending, feedthrough is the most stabilized. Application of the planar and the cylindrical model to results from the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Analytic MRT growth rates for a typical magnetized MagLIF-like implosion show the kink mode to be the fastest growing early and very late in the liner implosion (during deceleration). 1D HYDRA MHD simulations are used to generate realistic, evolving profiles (in density, pressure, and magnetic field) during the implosion from which instantaneous growth rates can be computed exactly, using either the planar or cylindrical analytic formulae developed in this thesis. Sophisticated 2D HYDRA MHD simulations were also performed to compare with the analytic theory and experimental results. In 2D, highly compressed axial magnetic fields can reduce the growth of perturbations at the fuel/liner interface during the implosion

  12. New 3D Silicon detectors for dosimetry in Microbeam Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, M. L. F.; Dipuglia, A.; Cameron, M.; Fournier, P.; Davis, J.; Petasecca, M.; Cornelius, I.; Perevertaylo, V.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) involves the use of a spatially fractionated beam of synchrotron generated X-rays to treat tumours. MRT treatment is delivered via an array of high dose ‘peaks’ separated by low dose ‘valleys’. A good Peak to Valley Dose Ratio (PVDR) is an important indicator of successful treatment outcomes. MRT dosimetry requires a radiation hard detector with high spatial resolution, large dynamic range, which is ideally real-time and tissue equivalent. We have developed a Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and very recently, a new 3D MESA SSD to meet the very stringent requirements of MRT dosimetry. We have compared these detectors through the characterisation of the MRT radiation field at the Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline. The EPI SSD was able to measure the microbeam profiles and PVDRs, however the effective spatial resolution was limited by the detector alignment options available at the time. The geometry of the new 3D MESA SSD is less sensitive to this alignment restriction was able to measure the microbeam profiles within 2 μm of that expected. The 3D MESA SSD measured PVDRs were possibly affected by undesired and slow charge collection outside the sensitive volume and additional scattering from the device substrate.

  13. Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Schmit, P. F.; Peterson, K. J.; Hess, M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kink and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode.

  14. Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y. Gilgenbach, R. M.; Schmit, P. F.; Peterson, K. J.; Hess, M.

    2015-03-15

    This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kink and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode.

  15. All things rhabdoid and SMARC: An enigmatic exploration with Dr. Louis P. Dehner.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christine E

    2016-11-01

    Over the past several decades, our understanding of malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) and the central nervous system equivalent atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) has undergone considerable refinement, particularly in terms of genetic characterization. MRT (both renal and extra-renal) and ATRT share phenotypic similarities and a common genetic signature, that being inactivating alterations of the SWI/SNF complex component SMARCB1 (or rarely SMARCA4). Unfortunately, a wide array of tumors bears significantly overlapping phenotypic characteristics to MRT/ATRT, posing a formidable diagnostic challenge. Likewise, the list of tumors bearing SMARC-related alterations has grown at a dizzying pace, and the original assumption that SMARCB1 alterations were unique to MRT/ATRT has been essentially negated. It should come as no surprise that Dr. Louis P. Dehner, no stranger to enigmatic lesions, participated significantly in this pathologic controversy, and the circuitous journey of entity discovery and clarification. This review aims to (1) summarize our current knowledge of MRT and ATRT with an emphasis on genetic characterization, (2) present insight into so-called "composite rhabdoid tumors" (CRTs), and (3) and provide an updated account of others tumors bearing SMARC alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of microbeam radiation therapy on normal and tumoral blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Audrey; Serduc, Raphäel; Laissue, Jean Albert; Djonov, Valentin

    2015-09-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new form of preclinical radiotherapy using quasi-parallel arrays of synchrotron X-ray microbeams. While the deposition of several hundred Grays in the microbeam paths, the normal brain tissues presents a high tolerance which is accompanied by the permanence of apparently normal vessels. Conversely, the efficiency of MRT on tumor growth control is thought to be related to a preferential damaging of tumor blood vessels. The high resistance of the healthy vascular network was demonstrated in different animal models by in vivo biphoton microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and histological studies. While a transient increase in permeability was shown, the structure of the vessels remained intact. The use of a chick chorioallantoic membrane at different stages of development showed that the damages induced by microbeams depend on vessel maturation. In vivo and ultrastructural observations showed negligible effects of microbeams on the mature vasculature at late stages of development; nevertheless a complete destruction of the immature capillary plexus was found in the microbeam paths. The use of MRT in rodent models revealed a preferential effect on tumor vessels. Although no major modification was observed in the vasculature of normal brain tissue, tumors showed a denudation of capillaries accompanied by transient increased permeability followed by reduced tumor perfusion and finally, a decrease in number of tumor vessels. Thus, MRT is a very promising treatment strategy with pronounced tumor control effects most likely based on the anti-vascular effects of MRT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Psychological treatment of comorbid asthma and panic disorder in Latino adults: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jonathan M; Matte, Lynne; Interian, Alejandro; Lehrer, Paul M; Lu, Shou-En; Scheckner, Bari; Steinberg, Dara M; Oken, Tanya; Kotay, Anu; Sinha, Sumita; Shim, Chang

    2016-12-01

    Confusion between panic and asthma symptoms can result in serious self-management errors. A cognitive behavior psychophysiological therapy (CBPT) intervention was culturally adapted for Latinos consisting of CBT for panic disorder (PD), asthma education, differentiation between panic and asthma symptoms, and heart rate variability biofeedback. An RCT compared CBPT to music and relaxation therapy (MRT), which included listening to relaxing music and paced breathing at resting respiration rates. Fifty-three Latino (primarily Puerto Rican) adults with asthma and PD were randomly assigned to CBPT or MRT for 8 weekly sessions. Both groups showed improvements in PD severity, asthma control, and several other anxiety and asthma outcome measures from baseline to post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. CBPT showed an advantage over MRT for improvement in adherence to inhaled corticosteroids. Improvements in PD severity were mediated by anxiety sensitivity in CBPT and by depression in MRT, although earlier levels of these mediators did not predict subsequent improvements. Attrition was high (40%) in both groups, albeit comparable to CBT studies targeting anxiety in Latinos. Additional strategies are needed to improve retention in this high-risk population. Both CBPT and MRT may be efficacious interventions for comorbid asthma-PD, and CBPT may offer additional benefits for improving medication adherence.

  18. The application of matrix rhythm therapy as a new clinical modality in burn physiotherapy programmes.

    PubMed

    Sarı, Zübeyir; Polat, Mine Gülden; Özgül, Bahar; Aydoğdu, Onur; Camcıoğlu, Burcu; Acar, Ahmet Hakan; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of matrix rhythm therapy (MRT) as one of the electrotherapeutic modalities in clinics. This study was carried out in the Burn and Wound Treatment Department of Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital in Istanbul between October 2010 and August 2011. A treatment protocol including whirlpool, MRT and exercise was applied to a group of patients who had burn injury of upper extremity. The evaluation of each patient included assessment of pain, range of motion, muscle strength, skin flexibility and sensory function at pre- and post-treatment. There was no significant difference in values of pain, muscle strength and flexibility between pre- and post-treatment assessments (p>0.05). A significant increase was found in the range of motion and sensory function at pre-treatment according to post-treatment (p<0.01). The usage of MRT in order to maintain and improve the range of motion and to minimise the development of scar tissue was investigated in this study. We suggest conducting randomised controlled studies that carry out a comparison of the MRT with other treatment modalities with more cases and investigate the long-term effects of MRT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Astrophysical results of the Mauritius radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somanah, R.; Issur, N.; Oozeer, N.

    2013-04-01

    One of the first scientific justifications of building the Mauritius Radio Telescope (hereafter referred to as MRT) was to complement the Cambridge 6C survey, which is a radio map of most of the northern sky at 150 MHz [1]; the MRT would then be the equivalent of the 6C survey for the southern sky and together we would obtain a whole sky radio map at 150 MHz. When the MRT was built, there were no radio surveys of the southern sky at frequencies less than 408 MHz; the frequency of 150 MHz was also chosen to complement the other radio surveys of the southern sky, which have been done at higher frequencies. Furthermore low radio frequencies like 150 MHz are bound to see new sources that would have been missed at higher frequencies due to the form of their spectra. Interesting features of resolved objects can also be studied in more details. In this paper, a brief description of the MRT will be made as well as the observations and imaging with the MRT data, and some astrophysical results obtained since its commissioning in 1992 (20 years of existence this year 2012).

  20. Pulsed power driven Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Sefkow, Adam B.; Peterson, Kyle J.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Slutz, Stephen A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Vesey, Roger Alan; Herrmann, Mark C.; Sinars, Daniel Brian

    2010-03-01

    Numerical simulations indicate that significant fusion yields (>100 kJ) may be obtained by pulsed-power-driven implosions of cylindrical metal liners onto magnetized and preheated deuterium-tritium fuel. The primary physics risk to this approach is the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability, which operates during both the acceleration and deceleration phase of the liner implosion. We have designed and performed some experiments to study the MRT during the acceleration phase, where the light fluid is purely magnetic. Results from our first series of experiments and plans for future experiments will be presented. According to simulations, an initial axial magnetic field of 10 T is compressed to >100 MG within the liner during the implosion. The magnetic pressure becomes comparable to the plasma pressure during deceleration, which could significantly affect the growth of the MRT instability at the fuel/liner interface. The MRT instability is also important in some astronomical objects such as the Crab Nebula (NGC1962). In particular, the morphological structure of the observed filaments may be determined by the ratio of the magnetic to material pressure and alignment of the magnetic field with the direction of acceleration [Hester, ApJ, 456, 225 1996]. Potential experiments to study this MRT behavior using the Z facility will be presented.

  1. Developing a methodology for estimating the drag in front-crawl swimming at various velocities.

    PubMed

    Narita, Kenzo; Nakashima, Motomu; Takagi, Hideki

    2017-02-10

    We aimed to develop a new method for evaluating the drag in front-crawl swimming at various velocities and at full stroke. In this study, we introduce the basic principle and apparatus for the new method, which estimates the drag in swimming using measured values of residual thrust (MRT). Furthermore, we applied the MRT to evaluate the active drag (Da) and compared it with the passive drag (Dp) measured for the same swimmers. Da was estimated in five-stages for velocities ranging from 1.0 to 1.4ms(-1); Dp was measured at flow velocities ranging from 0.9 to 1.5ms(-1) at intervals of 0.1ms(-1). The variability in the values of Da at MRT was also investigated for two swimmers. According to the results, Da (Da=32.3 v(3.3), N=30, R(2)=0.90) was larger than Dp (Dp=23.5 v(2.0), N=42, R(2)=0.89) and the variability in Da for the two swimmers was 6.5% and 3.0%. MRT can be used to evaluate Da at various velocities and is special in that it can be applied to various swimming styles. Therefore, the evaluation of drag in swimming using MRT is expected to play a role in establishing the fundamental data for swimming.

  2. Comparison of the dot-immunobinding assay with the serum agglutination test, the rose bengal plate test and the milk ring test for the detection of Brucella antibodies in bovine sera and milk.

    PubMed

    Gürtürk, K; Boynukara, B; Ilhan, Z; Hakki Ekin, I; Gülhan, T

    1999-05-01

    In this study, Brucella antibodies in bovine sera and milk were detected using the dot-immunobinding assay (DIA), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and the milk ring test (MRT). For this purpose, a total of 116 paired blood and milk samples collected at the same time from 56 aborted and from 60 healthy dairy cows was examined. In DIA, a nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) was used as the solid phase. Antigen adsorbed on the NCM was extracted from Brucella abortus S99 by heat treatment. The results obtained by DIA were compared with those of SAT, RBPT and MRT. Of the 116 paired blood and milk samples, 24 were positive and 72 were negative by all tests used. Serum samples of six aborted cows were positive by DIA, SAT and RBPT but the milk samples were negative by DIA and MRT. Serum and milk samples of four aborted cows gave positive reaction only by DIA tests. The remaining six aborted cows were negative only by MRT and two of them were negative by both RBPT and MRT. Four sera of healthy cows were found to be positive only by SAT.

  3. Communicating astronomy in a small island state: The unique role of the Mauritius Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddul-Hauzaree, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT) is a 2 km x 1 km T-shaped aperture synthesis array that can generate radio images of the southern sky at 151.6 MHz. The sky surveyed can be in the declination range of -70o to -10o. It is located at Bras d'Eau, northeast of Mauritius at latitude 20oS and longitude 60oE. The MRT is a joint project of the University of Mauritius, the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and the Raman Research Institute. One of the main objectives of the MRT is to generate public interest in astronomy. Thus, it is involved in a wide range of onsite outreach activities for young school children. More mature students visiting the telescope learn about sky observation with a radio telescope, get to explore some sets of data, interact with the scientific personnel, get the opportunity to have hands-on experience with image manipulation and can ask a lot of questions on astronomy. This poster gives an overview of the Mauritius Radio Telescope and the attempts of MRT ito communicate astronomy to students as a process and not just as a vast expanse of knowledge. The challenges and dilemmas faced by MRT in conveying astronomy to the general public in a small island state are investigated and presented.

  4. Simulation and mitigation of the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in Z-pinch gas discharge extreme ultraviolet plasma radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.; Tomizuka, T.; Xie, B.; Sakai, Y.; Zhu, Q.; Song, I.; Okino, A.; Xiao, F.; Watanabe, M.; Hotta, E.

    2013-11-15

    The development and use of a single-fluid two-temperature approximated 2-D Magneto-Hydrodynamics code is reported. Z-pinch dynamics and the evolution of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities in a gas jet type Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) source are investigated with this code. The implosion and stagnation processes of the Z-pinch dynamics and the influence of initial perturbations (single mode, multi- mode, and random seeds) on MRT instability are discussed in detail. In the case of single mode seeds, the simulation shows that the growth rates for mm-scale wavelengths up to 4 mm are between 0.05 and 0.065 ns{sup −1}. For multi-mode seeds, the mode coupling effect leads to a series of other harmonics, and complicates MRT instability evolution. For perturbation by random seeds, the modes evolve to longer wavelengths and finally converge to a mm-scale wavelength approximately 1 mm. MRT instabilities can also alter the pinch stagnation state and lead to temperature and density fluctuations along the Z axis, which eventually affects the homogeneity of the EUV radiation output. Finally, the simulation results are related to experimental results to discuss the mitigations of MRT instability.

  5. Modification of Vernon's globe thermometer and its calibration in terms of physiological strain.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, H G; Forsthoff, A

    1989-01-01

    Six men wearing shorts performed treadmill work in about 150 climatic chamber experiments at several temperatures of Vernon's globe thermometer (tg) from 25 to 50 degrees C. Each tg was produced partly by an equal air temperature (ta) and a mean radiant temperature (MRT), partly by a lowered ta (minimum 5 degrees C) and an MRT elevated up to about 80 degrees C above the ta. With an increasing MRT and lowered ta, respectively, body temperature, heart rates, and sweat losses decreased significantly. In another 55 experiments physiologically equivalent combinations of ta and MRT were derived. According to the results a modified globe thermometer was built. It reduced the errors of Vernon's instrument by about 75%. The remaining error of 25% was due to changes in air velocity between 0.5 and 2 m.s-1. The applicability of simple instruments like globe thermometers is obviously limited for the description of physiologically equivalent conditions of unequal ta and MRT at various air velocities.

  6. Does photoparoxysmal response in children represent provoked seizure? Evidence from simultaneous motor task during EEG.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Aria; RamachandranNair, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Acute cognitive changes during epileptiform discharges have been studied using computer assisted cognitive tasks. We aimed to demonstrate acute behavioral change (using a simple motor response task MRT) during photoparoxysmal response (PPR) in children below 18 years. Children performed a simple repetitive motor task during intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). All episodes of PPR not associated with obvious clinical change (as observed by the technologist or reported by the patient) were analyzed for this study. The average time interval between two successive motor responses across a PPR (test time) was compared to the average time interval between two successive motor responses during IPS not associated with PPR (control time) using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. 21 children who had PPR successfully completed the MRT. The difference between the mean durations was 0.894 s (p=0.002). More than 50% increase compared to the control time was considered a delay in MRT during PPR. 10 children showed slowing of MRT during PPR. By definition, acute behavioral change during generalized epileptiform discharges represent provoked seizures. Detecting subclinical seizures can have important safety implications in children (skiing, skating and driving) with PPR on EEG, but no clinical seizures. We recommend MRT during IPS.

  7. 2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of SATURN imploding Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Springer, P.T.

    1995-11-06

    Z-pinch implosions driven by the SATURN device at Sandia National Laboratory are modeled with a 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, showing strong growth of magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Modeling of the linear and nonlinear development of MRT modes predicts growth of bubble-spike structures that increase the time span of stagnation and the resulting x-ray pulse width. Radiation is important in the pinch dynamics keeping the sheath relatively cool during the run-in and releasing most of the stagnation energy. The calculations give x-ray pulse widths and magnitudes in reasonable agreement with experiments, but predict a radiating region that is too dense and radially localized at stagnation. We also consider peaked initial density profiles with constant imploding sheath velocity that should reduce MRT instability and improve performance. 2D krypton simulations show an output x-ray power > 80 TW for the peaked profile.

  8. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice-Boltzmann model for multiphase flow.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Michael E; Abraham, John

    2005-03-01

    The lattice-Boltzmann method has shown promise in simulating multiphase flows. However, when using the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision operator and polynomial equilibria, numerical stability problems have been shown to occur as the relaxation time is decreased. Some authors have suggested the use of multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) models in lieu of the BGK collision operator, which employs a single relaxation time, to enhance numerical stability. In this paper, a MRT lattice-Boltzmann model for multiphase flow is developed and evaluated for accuracy in several test problems including oscillating liquid cylinders and capillary waves. It is shown that the MRT model is able to achieve numerically stable results at lower viscosities relative to the corresponding BGK model.

  9. Calculations of first passage time of delayed tree-like networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Sun, Weigang; Zheng, Song

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we study random walks in a family of delayed tree-like networks controlled by two network parameters, where an immobile trap is located at the initial node. The novel feature of this family of networks is that the existing nodes have a time delay to give birth to new nodes. By the self-similar network structure, we obtain exact solutions of three types of first passage time (FPT) measuring the efficiency of random walks, which includes the mean receiving time (MRT), mean sending time (MST) and mean first passage time (MFPT). The obtained results show that the MRT, MST and MFPT increase with the network parameters. We further show that the values of MRT, MST and MFPT are much shorter than the nondelayed counterpart, implying that the efficiency of random walks in delayed trees is much higher.

  10. Studies on Morphological and Physio-Ecological Variations of the Reniform Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira, 1940 with an Emphasis on Differential Geographical Distribution of Amphimictic and Parthenogenetic Populations in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakasono, Kazutoshi

    2004-01-01

    The geographical distribution and polymorphism in morphological and biological characters of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, in Japan were studied. The northern limit of habitat of this nematode was found on the 14 °C isothermal line of annual average-air temperature. Three morphologically different groups were ascertained which corresponded to three biological types based on male frequency. Incidence of males was consistent within populations and was not affected by environmental factors. Sexual attraction of males by females indicated reproductive isolation between the male-numerous type (MNT) and male-rare type (MRT) or male-absent type (MAT). Reproduction was amphimictic in the MNT and parthenogenetic in the MRT and MAT. Larval development in both MRT and MAT, but not that of MNT popula-tions, was inhibited at 34 °C. Differences in host preference were also observed among populations. PMID:19262821

  11. Electrothermal instability growth in magnetically driven pulsed power liners

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kyle J.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Yu, Edmund P.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Smith, Ian C.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Nakhleh, Charles

    2012-09-15

    This paper explores the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. Comparatively little is known about these types of instabilities compared to the well known Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. We present simulations that show electrothermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent MRT instability growth. We also present the results of several experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electrothermal instability growth on well characterized initially solid aluminum and copper rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These experiments show excellent agreement with electrothermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone.

  12. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann modeling of incompressible flows in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional eight-velocity multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for incompressible porous flows at the representative elementary volume scale based on the Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model. In the model, the porosity is included into the pressure-based equilibrium moments, and the linear and nonlinear drag forces of the porous matrix are incorporated into the model by adding a forcing term to the MRT-LB equation in the moment space. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, the incompressible generalized Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered. Numerical simulations of several typical porous flows are carried out to validate the present MRT-LB model. It is found that the present numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions and/or other numerical results reported in the literature.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of convection heat transfer in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling

    2017-01-01

    A non-orthogonal multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is developed to study convection heat transfer in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale based on the generalized non-Darcy model. In the method, two different LB models are constructed: one is constructed in the framework of the double-distribution-function approach, and the other is constructed in the framework of the hybrid approach. In particular, the transformation matrices used in the MRT-LB models are non-orthogonal matrices. The present method is applied to study mixed convection flow in a porous channel and natural convection flow in a porous cavity. It is found that the numerical results are in good agreement with the analytical solutions and/or other results reported in previous studies. Furthermore, the non-orthogonal MRT-LB method shows better numerical stability in comparison with the BGK-LB method.

  14. Prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis in Organized Dairy Farms, Using Milk ELISA, in Quetta City, Balochistan, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shafee, Muhammad; Rabbani, Masood; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Ahmad, Mansoor din; Razzaq, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (n = 86) and buffalo (n = 114) were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance. PMID:21331157

  15. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in organized dairy farms, using milk ELISA, in quetta city, balochistan, pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shafee, Muhammad; Rabbani, Masood; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Ahmad, Mansoor Din; Razzaq, Abdul

    2011-01-24

    A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (n = 86) and buffalo (n = 114) were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance.

  16. Deadlock checking for one-place unbounded Petri nets based on modified reachability trees.

    PubMed

    Ding, ZhiJun; Jiang, ChangJun; Zhou, MengChu

    2008-06-01

    A deadlock-checking approach for one-place unbounded Petri nets is presented based on modified reachability trees (MRTs). An MRT can provide some useful information that is lost in a finite reachability tree, owing to MRT's use of the expression a + bn(i) rather than symbol omega to represent the value of the components of a marking. The information is helpful to property analysis of unbounded Petri nets. For the deadlock-checking purpose, this correspondence paper classifies full conditional nodes in MRT into two types: true and fake ones. Then, an algorithm is proposed to determine whether a full conditional node is true or not. Finally, a necessary and sufficient condition of deadlocks is presented. Examples are given to illustrate the method.

  17. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion

    PubMed Central

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Kellawan, J. Mikhail; Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Proctor, Lester T.; Sebranek, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To account for group differences in blood pressure and forearm size, and to assess vasodilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC = FBF/mean arterial blood pressure/lean forearm mass) was calculated. We examined the time to achieve steady-state FVC (mean response time, MRT) and the rise in FVC from rest to steady-state exercise (Δ, exercise − rest) before and during acute AA infusion. The MRT (P = 0.26) and steady-state vasodilator responses to exercise (ΔFVC, P = 0.31) were not different between groups. Intra-arterial infusion of AA resulted in a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (174 ± 37%). AA infusion did not alter MRT or steady-state FVC in any group (P = 0.90 and P = 0.85, respectively). Interestingly, higher levels of C-reactive protein predicted longer MRT (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and a greater reduction in MRT with AA infusion (r = −0.43, P = 0.02). We concluded that AA infusion during moderate-intensity, rhythmic forearm exercise does not alter the time course or magnitude of exercise-mediated vasodilation in groups of young lean, obese, or MetSyn adults. However, systemic inflammation may limit the MRT to exercise, which can be improved with AA. PMID:25038148

  18. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Harrell, John W; Johansson, Rebecca E; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-15

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To account for group differences in blood pressure and forearm size, and to assess vasodilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC = FBF/mean arterial blood pressure/lean forearm mass) was calculated. We examined the time to achieve steady-state FVC (mean response time, MRT) and the rise in FVC from rest to steady-state exercise (Δ, exercise - rest) before and during acute AA infusion. The MRT (P = 0.26) and steady-state vasodilator responses to exercise (ΔFVC, P = 0.31) were not different between groups. Intra-arterial infusion of AA resulted in a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (174 ± 37%). AA infusion did not alter MRT or steady-state FVC in any group (P = 0.90 and P = 0.85, respectively). Interestingly, higher levels of C-reactive protein predicted longer MRT (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and a greater reduction in MRT with AA infusion (r = -0.43, P = 0.02). We concluded that AA infusion during moderate-intensity, rhythmic forearm exercise does not alter the time course or magnitude of exercise-mediated vasodilation in groups of young lean, obese, or MetSyn adults. However, systemic inflammation may limit the MRT to exercise, which can be improved with AA. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Absorbed dose-to-water protocol applied to synchrotron-generated x-rays at very high dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, P.; Crosbie, J. C.; Cornelius, I.; Berkvens, P.; Donzelli, M.; Clavel, A. H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.

    2016-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new radiation treatment modality in the pre-clinical stage of development at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. MRT exploits the dose volume effect that is made possible through the spatial fractionation of the high dose rate synchrotron-generated x-ray beam into an array of microbeams. As an important step towards the development of a dosimetry protocol for MRT, we have applied the International Atomic Energy Agency’s TRS 398 absorbed dose-to-water protocol to the synchrotron x-ray beam in the case of the broad beam irradiation geometry (i.e. prior to spatial fractionation into microbeams). The very high dose rates observed here mean the ion recombination correction factor, k s , is the most challenging to quantify of all the necessary corrections to apply for ionization chamber based absolute dosimetry. In the course of this study, we have developed a new method, the so called ‘current ramping’ method, to determine k s for the specific irradiation and filtering conditions typically utilized throughout the development of MRT. Using the new approach we deduced an ion recombination correction factor of 1.047 for the maximum ESRF storage ring current (200 mA) under typical beam spectral filtering conditions in MRT. MRT trials are currently underway with veterinary patients at the ESRF that require additional filtering, and we have estimated a correction factor of 1.025 for these filtration conditions for the same ESRF storage ring current. The protocol described herein provides reference dosimetry data for the associated Treatment Planning System utilized in the current veterinary trials and anticipated future human clinical trials.

  20. WE-G-BRE-01: A High Power Nanotube X-Ray Microbeam Irradiator for Preclinical Brain Tumor Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chtcheprov, P; Inscoe, C; Zhang, L; Lu, J; Zhou, O; Chang, S; Sprenger, F; Laganis, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new type of cancer treatment undergoing studies at various synchrotron facilities. The principle of MRT is using arrays of microscopically small, low-energy X-radiation for the treatment of various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. Our motivation is to develop a compact and inexpensive image guided MRT irradiator to use in the research lab setting. After a successful initial demonstration, here we report a second generation carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based MRT tube, capable of producing multiple microbeam lines with an anticipated dose rate of 11 Gy/min per line. Methods: The system uses multiple line CNT source arrays to generate multiple focal lines on the anode. The increase in dose-rate, compared to our first generation system, is achieved by increasing the operating voltage from 160 kVp to 225kVp, adding multiple simultaneous focal lines on the anode, and a more efficient cooling mechanism using a 6kW oil-cooled anode. Results: This work will present the design and development process, challenges and solutions to meeting operating specifications, and the final design of the tube and collimator, along with optimization and stabilization of its use. A detailed characterization of its capabilities will be included with a comprehensive measurement of its X-ray focal line dimensions, an evaluation of its collimator alignment and microbeam dimensions, and phantom-based quantification of its dosimetric output. Conclusion: The development of a second generation, compact, multiple line MRT device using carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based X-ray technology and a novel oil cooled anode design is presented here. With this new source, we are capable of delivering a total microbeam radiation dose comparable to the low end of the synchrotron based MRT systems for small animal brain tumor models.

  1. High resolution X-ray fluorescence imaging for a microbeam radiation therapy treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Inscoe, Christina; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Yuan, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses an array of high-dose, narrow (~100 μm) beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. MRT has been shown to spare normal tissue up to 1000 Gy of entrance dose while still being highly tumoricidal. Current methods of tumor localization for our MRT treatments require MRI and X-ray imaging with subject motion and image registration that contribute to the measurement error. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel form of imaging to quickly and accurately assist in high resolution target positioning for MRT treatments using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The key to this method is using the microbeam to both treat and image. High Z contrast media is injected into the phantom or blood pool of the subject prior to imaging. Using a collimated spectrum analyzer, the region of interest is scanned through the MRT beam and the fluorescence signal is recorded for each slice. The signal can be processed to show vascular differences in the tissue and isolate tumor regions. Using the radiation therapy source as the imaging source, repositioning and registration errors are eliminated. A phantom study showed that a spatial resolution of a fraction of microbeam width can be achieved by precision translation of the mouse stage. Preliminary results from an animal study showed accurate iodine profusion, confirmed by CT. The proposed image guidance method, using XRF to locate and ablate tumors, can be used as a fast and accurate MRT treatment planning system.

  2. Preferential Effect of Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy on Intracerebral 9L Gliosarcoma Vascular Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, Audrey; Lemasson, Benjamin; Le Duc, Geraldine; Maisin, Cecile; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Renaud, Luc; Khalil, Enam; Remy, Chantal; Poillot, Cathy; Bravin, Alberto; Laissue, Jean A.; Barbier, Emmanuel L.; Serduc, Raphael

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) relies on spatial fractionation of the incident photon beam into parallel micron-wide beams. Our aim was to analyze the effects of MRT on normal brain and 9L gliosarcoma tissues, particularly on blood vessels. Methods and Materials: Responses to MRT (two arrays, one lateral, one anteroposterior (2 x 400 Gy), intersecting orthogonally in the tumor region) were studied during 6 weeks using MRI, immunohistochemistry, and vascular endothelial growth factor Western blot. Results: MRT increased the median survival time of irradiated rats (x3.25), significantly increased blood vessel permeability, and inhibited tumor growth; a cytotoxic effect on 9L cells was detected 5 days after irradiation. Significant decreases in tumoral blood volume fraction and vessel diameter were measured from 8 days after irradiation, due to loss of endothelial cells in tumors as detected by immunochemistry. Edema was observed in the normal brain exposed to both crossfired arrays about 6 weeks after irradiation. This edema was associated with changes in blood vessel morphology and an overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Conversely, vascular parameters and vessel morphology in brain regions exposed to one of the two arrays were not damaged, and there was no loss of vascular endothelia. Conclusions: We show for the first time that preferential damage of MRT to tumor vessels versus preservation of radioresistant normal brain vessels contributes to the efficient palliation of 9L gliosarcomas in rats. Molecular pathways of repair mechanisms in normal and tumoral vascular networks after MRT may be essential for the improvement of such differential effects on the vasculature.

  3. 21-cm Observations with the Morehead Radio Telescope: Involving Undergraduates in Observing Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2000-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made by undergraduate students with the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The MRT, located at Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, is small aperture (44-ft.) instrument designed by faculty, students, and industrial partners to provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. Small aperture telescopes like the MRT have numerous advantages as active laboratories and as research instruments. The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Students are provided design and research challenges and are allowed to pursue their own solutions. Problem-solving abilities and research design skills are cultivated by this approach. Additionally, there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make. The MRT operates over a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm), which corresponds to the hyperfine transition of atomic hydrogen (HI). The HI spatial distribution and flux density associated with cosmic phenomena can be observed and mapped. The dynamics and kinematics of celestial objects can be investigated by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena, including supernova remnants, emission and planetary nebulae, extended HI emission from the Milky Way, quasars, radio galaxies, and the sun. Student observations of galactic sources herein reported include Taurus A, Cygnus X, and the Rosette Nebula. Additionally, we report observations of extragalactic phenomena, including Cygnus A, 3C 147, and 3C 146. These observations serve as a performance and capability test-bed of the MRT. In addition to the astronomical results of these

  4. Mathematical modelling of digesta passage rate, mean retention time and in vivo apparent digestibility of two different lengths of hay and big-bale grass silage in ponies.

    PubMed

    Moore-Colyer, M J S; Morrow, H J; Longland, A C

    2003-07-01

    Welsh-cross pony geldings (about 300 kg live weight) were used in a 4x4 Latin square experiment to determine the rate of passage and apparent digestibility of unchopped big-bale grass silage (BBL), chopped big-bale grass silage (BBS), unchopped grass hay (HL) and chopped grass hay (HS) offered at approximately 15 g/kg live weight per d. On day 1 of collection weeks, ponies were fed 85 g ytterbium chloride hexahydrate-marked feed 1.5 h after the morning meal. Total faecal collections commenced 8 h later and continued for 168 h. Apparent digestibilities of feed DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP, Nx6.25), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) were also determined. Faecal excretion data were subjected to the models of Pond et al. (1988) and digesta mean retention time (MRT) calculated from these models and using the algebraic method of Thielmans et al. (1978). Silage had significantly (P<0.05) higher digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, ADF and NDF than hay; however, chop length had no effect. All the models of Pond et al. (1988) accurately described (R(2)>0.8) the pattern of faecal marker excretion. MRT of BBL (29.0 h)>BBS(27 h)>HS and HL (26 h). Compartmental analysis using the G3 model of Pond et al. (1988) showed BBL and HS diets had longer MRT in the time-dependent compartment, whereas BBS and HL had longer MRT in the time-independent compartment. Results from this experiment indicate that BBL and BBS are readily accepted and digested by ponies. While Yb is a successful external marker for determining total tract MRT and for modelling faecal excretion curves in horses, the results did not allow any definite conclusions to be drawn on digesta MRT within the different compartments of the equid gut.

  5. Economic evaluation of multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment versus cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Köke, Albère; Hitters, Minou; Rijnders, Nieke; Pont, Menno

    2017-01-01

    Background A multi-centre RCT has shown that multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment (MRT) is more effective in reducing fatigue over the long-term in comparison with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but evidence on its cost-effectiveness is lacking. Aim To compare the cost-effectiveness of MRT versus CBT for patients with CFS from a societal perspective. Methods A multi-centre randomized controlled trial comparing MRT with CBT was conducted among 122 patients with CFS diagnosed using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and aged between 18 and 60 years. The societal costs (healthcare costs, patient and family costs, and costs for loss of productivity), fatigue severity, quality of life, quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured over a follow-up period of one year. The main outcome of the cost-effectiveness analysis was fatigue measured by the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). The main outcome of the cost-utility analysis was the QALY based on the EuroQol-5D-3L utilities. Sensitivity analyses were performed, and uncertainty was calculated using the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and cost-effectiveness planes. Results The data of 109 patients (57 MRT and 52 CBT) were analyzed. MRT was significantly more effective in reducing fatigue at 52 weeks. The mean difference in QALY between the treatments was not significant (0.09, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.19). The total societal costs were significantly higher for patients allocated to MRT (a difference of €5,389, 95% CI: 2,488 to 8,091). MRT has a high probability of being the most cost effective, using fatigue as the primary outcome. The ICER is €856 per unit of the CIS fatigue subscale. The results of the cost-utility analysis, using the QALY, indicate that the CBT had a higher likelihood of being more cost-effective. Conclusions The probability of being more cost-effective is

  6. Comparison of different methods of estimating the mean radiant temperature in outdoor thermal comfort studies.

    PubMed

    Krüger, E L; Minella, F O; Matzarakis, A

    2014-10-01

    Correlations between outdoor thermal indices and the calculated or measured mean radiant temperature T(mrt) are in general of high importance because of the combined effect on human energy balance in outdoor spaces. The most accurate way to determine T(mrt) is by means of integral radiation measurements, i.e. measuring the short- and long-wave radiation from six directions using pyranometers and pyrgeometers, an expensive and not always an easily available procedure. Some studies use globe thermometers combined with air temperature and wind speed sensors. An alternative way to determine T(mrt) is based on output from the RayMan model from measured data of incoming global radiation and morphological features of the monitoring site in particular sky view factor (SVF) data. The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods to assess the mean radiant temperature T(mrt) in terms of differences to a reference condition (T(mrt) calculated from field measurements) and to resulting outdoor comfort levels expressed as PET and UTCI values. The T(mrt) obtained from field measurements is a combination of air temperature, wind speed and globe temperature data according to the forced ventilation formula of ISO 7726 for data collected in Glasgow, UK. Four different methods were used in the RayMan model for T(mrt) calculations: input data consisting exclusively of data measured at urban sites; urban data excluding solar radiation, estimated SVF data and solar radiation data measured at a rural site; urban data excluding solar radiation with SVF data for each site; urban data excluding solar radiation and including solar radiation at the rural site taking no account of SVF information. Results show that all methods overestimate T(mrt) when compared to ISO calculations. Correlations were found to be significant for the first method and lower for the other three. Results in terms of comfort (PET, UTCI) suggest that reasonable estimates could be made based on global radiation

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of a compact microbeam radiotherapy system based on carbon nanotube field emission technology.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Eric C; Chang, Sha X

    2012-08-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy technique that has shown potent antitumor effects with minimal damage to normal tissue in animal studies. This unique form of radiation is currently only produced in a few large synchrotron accelerator research facilities in the world. To promote widespread translational research on this promising treatment technology we have proposed and are in the initial development stages of a compact MRT system that is based on carbon nanotube field emission x-ray technology. We report on a Monte Carlo based feasibility study of the compact MRT system design. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using EGSnrc-based codes. The proposed small animal research MRT device design includes carbon nanotube cathodes shaped to match the corresponding MRT collimator apertures, a common reflection anode with filter, and a MRT collimator. Each collimator aperture is sized to deliver a beam width ranging from 30 to 200 μm at 18.6 cm source-to-axis distance. Design parameters studied with Monte Carlo include electron energy, cathode design, anode angle, filtration, and collimator design. Calculations were performed for single and multibeam configurations. Increasing the energy from 100 kVp to 160 kVp increased the photon fluence through the collimator by a factor of 1.7. Both energies produced a largely uniform fluence along the long dimension of the microbeam, with 5% decreases in intensity near the edges. The isocentric dose rate for 160 kVp was calculated to be 700 Gy∕min∕A in the center of a 3 cm diameter target. Scatter contributions resulting from collimator size were found to produce only small (<7%) changes in the dose rate for field widths greater than 50 μm. Dose vs depth was weakly dependent on filtration material. The peak-to-valley ratio varied from 10 to 100 as the separation between adjacent microbeams varies from 150 to 1000 μm. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the proposed compact MRT system

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of a compact microbeam radiotherapy system based on carbon nanotube field emission technology

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Eric C.; Chang, Sha X.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy technique that has shown potent antitumor effects with minimal damage to normal tissue in animal studies. This unique form of radiation is currently only produced in a few large synchrotron accelerator research facilities in the world. To promote widespread translational research on this promising treatment technology we have proposed and are in the initial development stages of a compact MRT system that is based on carbon nanotube field emission x-ray technology. We report on a Monte Carlo based feasibility study of the compact MRT system design. Methods: Monte Carlo calculations were performed using EGSnrc-based codes. The proposed small animal research MRT device design includes carbon nanotube cathodes shaped to match the corresponding MRT collimator apertures, a common reflection anode with filter, and a MRT collimator. Each collimator aperture is sized to deliver a beam width ranging from 30 to 200 μm at 18.6 cm source-to-axis distance. Design parameters studied with Monte Carlo include electron energy, cathode design, anode angle, filtration, and collimator design. Calculations were performed for single and multibeam configurations. Results: Increasing the energy from 100 kVp to 160 kVp increased the photon fluence through the collimator by a factor of 1.7. Both energies produced a largely uniform fluence along the long dimension of the microbeam, with 5% decreases in intensity near the edges. The isocentric dose rate for 160 kVp was calculated to be 700 Gy/min/A in the center of a 3 cm diameter target. Scatter contributions resulting from collimator size were found to produce only small (<7%) changes in the dose rate for field widths greater than 50 μm. Dose vs depth was weakly dependent on filtration material. The peak-to-valley ratio varied from 10 to 100 as the separation between adjacent microbeams varies from 150 to 1000 μm. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate

  9. Economic evaluation of multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment versus cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vos-Vromans, Desirée; Evers, Silvia; Huijnen, Ivan; Köke, Albère; Hitters, Minou; Rijnders, Nieke; Pont, Menno; Knottnerus, André; Smeets, Rob

    2017-01-01

    A multi-centre RCT has shown that multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment (MRT) is more effective in reducing fatigue over the long-term in comparison with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but evidence on its cost-effectiveness is lacking. To compare the cost-effectiveness of MRT versus CBT for patients with CFS from a societal perspective. A multi-centre randomized controlled trial comparing MRT with CBT was conducted among 122 patients with CFS diagnosed using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and aged between 18 and 60 years. The societal costs (healthcare costs, patient and family costs, and costs for loss of productivity), fatigue severity, quality of life, quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured over a follow-up period of one year. The main outcome of the cost-effectiveness analysis was fatigue measured by the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). The main outcome of the cost-utility analysis was the QALY based on the EuroQol-5D-3L utilities. Sensitivity analyses were performed, and uncertainty was calculated using the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and cost-effectiveness planes. The data of 109 patients (57 MRT and 52 CBT) were analyzed. MRT was significantly more effective in reducing fatigue at 52 weeks. The mean difference in QALY between the treatments was not significant (0.09, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.19). The total societal costs were significantly higher for patients allocated to MRT (a difference of €5,389, 95% CI: 2,488 to 8,091). MRT has a high probability of being the most cost effective, using fatigue as the primary outcome. The ICER is €856 per unit of the CIS fatigue subscale. The results of the cost-utility analysis, using the QALY, indicate that the CBT had a higher likelihood of being more cost-effective. The probability of being more cost-effective is higher for MRT when using fatigue as primary

  10. [Prevalence and intensity of nightmares in traumatized versus non-traumatized children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ossa, Fanny Carina; Bering, Robert; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2013-09-01

    Fragestellung: Alpträume können bei Kindern, wie auch bei Erwachsenen, als Symptom für eine Traumatisierung gelten. Daher ist zu vermuten, dass bei traumatisierten Kindern und Jugendlichen die Alptraumbelastung höher ist als bei nicht traumatisierten Kindern und Jugendlichen. Methodik: Insgesamt nahmen 38 traumatisierte und 40 nicht traumatisierte Kinder und Jugendliche an der Untersuchung teil. Anhand eines Fragebogens wurde die Alptraumbelastung (u. a. die Alptraumhäufigkeit und die empfundene Intensität) erfasst. Ergebnisse: Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass traumatisierte Kinder und Jugendliche signifikant mehr Alpträume berichten (9.7 Alpträume pro Monat) und diese als intensiver und furchtauslösender bewerten als die Teilnehmer der Kontrollgruppe (1.7 Alpträume pro Monat). Die Anzahl der Alpträume bei traumatisierten Mädchen ist im Vergleich zu der Anzahl der Alpträume bei traumatisierten Jungen doppelt so hoch. Zudem geben traumatisierte Kinder und Jugendliche signifikant häufiger an, Angst vor einer Traumwiederholung zu haben, sich während des Alptraums hilflos und sich am Tag durch den Traum nachhaltig beeinträchtigt zu fühlen. Schlussfolgerung: Patienten mit einer Traumatisierung erleben in ihren Träumen mehr Gewalt und Lebensbedrohung. Eine erhöhte Alptraumbelastung ist damit auch bei Kindern und Jugendlichen ein Merkmal einer vorausgegangenen Traumatisierung.

  11. Schichtübergreifende Früherkennung von Verbindungsausfällen in drahtlosen Mesh-Netzwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Timo

    Drahtlose Mesh-Netzwerke (WMNs) bilden aufgrund ihrer Selbstorganisation ein flexibles Kommunikationssystem. Bei der Erkennung einzelner Verbindungsausfälle, die bei der Integration mobiler Teilnehmer unvermeidbar sind, ist bei aktuellen Routingprotokollen die Kommunikation jedoch für mehrere Sekunden unterbrochen. In dieser Arbeit wird gezeigt, wie durch Nutzung von Informationen aus der MAC-Schicht ein Ausfall frühzeitig erkannt und dadurch die Anzahl der Paketverluste von mehreren Hundert auf maximal vier reduziert werden kann. Hierdurch wird die Zuverlässigkeit und Verfügbarkeit von WMNs erhöht und ihr Einsatz für Echtzeit-Anwendungen ermöglicht.

  12. Galileo's daughter : a historical memoir of science, faith, and love

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiek, Burkhard

    Trotz des Bedienungskomforts moderner automatisierter Messgeräte sollte der Nutzer möglichst genau mit den angewandten Messprinzipien vertraut sein um prinzipielle Messfehler zu vermeiden. Eine anderer möglicher Leserkreis sind natürlich die Entwickler von Messgeräten und -systemen. Das Buch vermittelt die Grundlagen und führt damit zu einem vertieften Verständnis der Hochfrequenz-Messtechnik. Inhaltliche Highlights liegen bei Korrekturverfahren bei der Netzwerkanalyse, Etablierung der komplexen Messfähigkeit bei homodynen Netzwerkanalysatoren, Realisierung von Synthesegeneratoren und dem Doppel-Sechstor-Verfahren. Zu jedem der 8 Kapitel gibt es einige Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen.

  13. Combined Therapy of Septicemia with Ofloxacin and/or Synthetic Trehalose Dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) in Irradiated and Wounded Mice (Die Kombinierte Therapie der Septikaemie mit Ofloxacin und/oder Synthetischem Trehalose- Dicorynomycolat (S-TDCM) bei Bestrahlten und Verwundeten Maeusen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    for effective therapy of polymicrobic infections in irradiated/wounded mice. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Im Gefolge letaler Bestrahlung fallen MAuse normalerweise...durch die Inhalation von Methoxyfluran andsthetisiert wurden. Eine Stunde nach 8.0 G.- Germma- Bestrahlung wurden dorsal Haut- und Muskelgewebe in Ent

  14. On the size of the ptolemaic system of the world - a study based on two figures by Johannes Kepler. (German Title: Über die Gröszlig;e des ptolemäischen Weltsystems - Eine Studie, veranlasst durch zwei Bilder bei Johannes Kepler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberschelp, Arnold

    It is well known that the geocentric system according to Ptolemy is almost twice as large as the heliocentric planetary system of Copernicus. There are, however, two pictures, given by Kepler in his «Mysterium Cosmographicum» of 1596 which - at first glance - seem to contradict this. The first picture of the heliocentric system is drawn to scale. The second picture shows a geocentric system, which seems to be too small. The puzzle about the size is solved rather trivially by the fact - which is not mentioned by Kepler and which may be overlooked - that the geocentric picture is not drawn to scale and that the angles do not correspond to the degrees noted at them. In order to get a geocentric picture drawn to scale - taking Kepler's degrees for granted - it is necessary to discuss some details of the ptolemaic system. The result is, however, a geocentric system which is too big. The solution of this new puzzle is not obvious. It turns out that one of Keplers degrees (for Mars) does not correspond to the parameters of Ptolemy. Actually, in his book of 1596, Kepler's topic is not the ptolemaic system nor the copernican distances, but his heliocentric model with the five regular polyhedra. While it is interesting to note all these facts, Kepler's pictures and degrees, for the size of the ptolemaic system, lead to a dead end. Using the parameters from the «Almagest» and the principle of nested spheres from the «Planetary Hypotheses» a distance scale (Tab. 10) for the geocentric system is derived. This distance scale, however, is somewhat different from the well known ptolemaic distance scale (Tab. 1). This puzzle is not resolved, but due to the fact that different sources («Almagest» and «Planetary Hypotheses») of Ptolemy are involved. The distances of Tab. 10 correspond better to the ptolemaic system, since the relative thickness of the spheres is computed from the rather precise parameters (eccentricities and epicycle radii) of the «Almagest». The distances of Tab. I, given in the «Planetary Hypotheses», use values for the relative thicknesses of the spheres which are rounded off. Since the pictures of Kepler, when viewed together, are misleading, two new pictures of the copernican and ptolemaic planetary systems are given drawn to the same scale. A final remark is about the radius of the «tychonic system».

  15. Combined therapy of septicemia with ofloxacin and/or synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) in irradiated and wounded mice (kombinierte therapie der septikaemie mit ofloxacin und/oder synthetischem trehalose-dicorynomycolat (s-tdcm) bei bestrahlten und verwundeten maeusen)

    SciTech Connect

    Madonna, G.S.; Moore, M.M.; Ledney, G.D.; Elliot, T.B.; Brook, I.

    1989-01-01

    Following lethal irradiation, mice usually succumb to sepsis as a result of translocation of intestinal bacteria and impairment of the host defense system. Additional trauma in these immunocompromised mice further increases susceptibility to bacterial infection from either endogenous or exogenous origin. Treatment with ofloxacin or synthetic trehalose dicorynemycolate (S-TDCM) was evaluated in mice, which were lethally irradiated and wounded, and which died with sepsis within six days. Wounding was performed on C3H/HeN mice anesthetized by inhalation of methoxyfurane. Dorsal skin and muscle equal to 30% total body surface was removed 1 h after 8.0 Gy gamma radiation. S-TDCM, which augments nonspecific resistance to infection in irradiated mice, was given once i.p. immediately after wounding. Oxfloxacin was injected s.c. daily from day 0 to day 10. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecium, and Escherichia coli were isolated from both the livers and wound sites of moribund, untreated mice 4 and 5 days postirradiation.

  16. Meine Arbeit an der Entwicklung des Sprechens bei integriertem Fernsehkurs Russisch (1). Dargestellt am Beispiel der Lektion 3 - Klasse 10 (My Work in the Development of Speaking, in the Integrated Television Course in Russian (1). Presented Using as Example Lesson 3 - Grade 10)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Renate

    1974-01-01

    Presents among other things the didactic-methodological procedure in Teaching Units 3 and 4, Grade 10; the development of (predominantly monologue) speaking proficiency and proper translation into the foreign language, with special attention to measures to be taken immediately before and after watching the television program. (Text is in German.)…

  17. The void comprises everything - natural philosophy and science in Otto von Guericke's proof of existence of empty and infinite space. (German Title: Alles umfasst es, das Nichts - Naturphilosophie und Naturwissenschaft im Existenzbeweis des leeren und unendlichen Weltraums bei Otto von Guericke)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Peter

    Otto von Guericke showed in his book Experimenta nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio that space is an infinite void. This contribution illustrates how Guericke mixed natural philosophy and natural science in his argumentation with each other.

  18. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  19. 76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    .... Golden West Avenue, Arcadia, CA 91007-6563. Alice Bei Wang (a/k/a Alice B. Wang), 886 S. Golden West..., SW., Suite 401, Washington, DC 20436; and (3) For the investigation so instituted, the Honorable...

  20. Produktionslogistik mit ERP-Systemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jürgen

    Im Folgenden werden die Teilprozesse der Produktionslogistik bei Eigenfertigung unter Einsatz des ERP-Systems SAP R/3 beschrieben. Dabei wird die häufigste Fertigungsart, die kundenanonyme Losfertigung, zugrundegelegt.

  1. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  2. Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

  3. Quantitative and Qualitative Change in Children's Mental Rotation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Corth, Martin; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated quantitative and qualitative changes in mental rotation performance and solution strategies with a focus on sex differences. German children (N = 519) completed the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in the 5th and 6th grades (interval: one year; age range at time 1: 10-11 years). Boys on average outperformed girls on both…

  4. Gender-Specific Effects of Artificially Induced Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Men outperform women in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) by about one standard deviation. The present study replicated a gender belief account [Moe, A., & Pazzaglia, F. (2006). Following the instructions! Effects of gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 369-377.] for (part of) this effect. A sample of 300…

  5. Genome-Wide Profiles of Extra-cranial Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors Reveal Heterogeneity and Dysregulated Developmental Pathways | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare lethal tumors of childhood that most commonly occur in the kidney and brain. MRTs are driven by SMARCB1 loss, but the molecular consequences of SMARCB1 loss in extra-cranial tumors have not been comprehensively described and genomic resources for analyses of extra-cranial MRT are limited.

  6. [Disorders of the origin of the suspensory ligament in the horse: a diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Lischer, Ch J; Bischofberger, A S; Fürst, A; Lang, J; Ueltschi, G

    2006-02-01

    Lameness in horses due to pain originating from the proximal metacarpal/metatarsal region remains a diagnostic challenge. In cases of obvious lameness the pain can be localised to this region by diagnostic anaesthesia. Because a variety of disorders can cause lameness in this region different imaging modalities including radiography, ultrasonography and scintigraphy should be used to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. Even though a precise anatomic-pathologic diagnosis can still be an enigma, because not only bone and joints, but also soft tissue structures including the proximal suspensory ligament, its origin at the proximal metacarpus/ metatarsus, its fascia, the superficial fascia, as well as the intermetacarpal/metatarsal ligaments, the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon and both digital flexor tendons may be involved. Magnet resonance tomography (MRT) shows a high diagnostic sensitivity in imaging soft tissue structures and bone. In horses MRT is still at the beginning. The MRT appearance of the proximal metacarpal/metatarsal region has not yet been evaluated in detail and there are only few anatomic studies of the origin of the suspensory ligament in horses. The first experiences showed, that more gross and histologic examinations are necessary to fully interpret MRT-images and to differentiate pathologic alterations from clinically not relevant variations.

  7. Mode selection of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability from the point of view of Landau phase transition theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Wei, Bing

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical model referring to mode selection of Z-pinch-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability, which explains the generation of fundamental instability mode and evolution of fundamental wavelength in experiments, is proposed on the basis of the Landau theory of phase transition. The basic idea of this phase transition model lies in that the appearance of MRT instability pattern can be considered as a consequence of the spontaneous generation of interfacial structure like the spontaneous magnetization in a ferromagnetic system. It is demonstrated that the amplitude of instability is responsible for the order parameter in the Landau theory of phase transition and the fundamental wavelength appears to play a role analogous to inverse temperature in thermodynamics. Further analysis indicates that the MRT instability is characterized by first order phase transition and the fundamental wavelength is proportional to the square root of energy entering into the system from the driving source. The theory predicts that the fundamental wavelength grows rapidly and saturates reaching a limiting wavelength of the order of the liner's final outer radius. The results given by this theory show qualitative agreement with the available experimental data of MRT instability of liner implosions conducted on the Sandia Z machine as well as Primary Test Stand facility at the Institute of Fluid Physics.

  8. Enhancement of Spatial Ability in Girls in a Single-Sex Environment through Spatial Experience and the Impact on Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarlis, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The test scores of spatial ability for women lag behind those of men in many spatial tests. On the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), a significant gender gap has existed for over 20 years and continues to exist. High spatial ability has been linked to efficiencies in typical computing tasks including Web and database searching, text editing, and…

  9. Temperature mapping of laser-induced hyperthermia in an ocular phantom using magnetic resonance thermography.

    PubMed

    Maswadi, Saher M; Dodd, Stephen J; Gao, Jia-Hong; Glickman, Randolph D

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced heating in an ocular phantom is measured with magnetic resonance thermography (MRT) using temperature-dependent phase changes in proton resonance frequency. The ocular phantom contains a layer of melanosomes isolated from bovine retinal pigment epithelium. The phantom is heated by the 806-nm output of a continuous wave diode laser with an irradiance of 2.4 to 21.6 W/cm2 in a beam radius of 0.8 or 2.4 mm, depending on the experiment. MRT is performed with a 2 T magnet, and a two-turn, 6-cm-diam, circular radio frequency coil. Two-dimensional temperature gradients are measured within the plane of the melanin layer, as well as normal to it, with a temperature resolution of 1 degrees C or better. The temperature gradients extending within the melanin layer are broader than those orthogonal to the layer, consistent with the higher optical absorption and consequent heating in the melanin. The temperature gradients in the phantom measured by MRT closely approximate the predictions of a classical heat diffusion model. Three-dimensional temperature maps with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm in all directions are also made. Although the temporal resolution is limited in the prototype system (22.9 s for a single image "slice"), improvements in future implementations are likely. These results indicate that MRT has sufficient spatial and temperature resolution to monitor target tissue temperature during transpupillary thermotherapy in the human eye.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Thermometry at 7T for Real-Time Monitoring and Correction of Ultrasound Induced Mild Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Brett Z.; Liu, Yu; Kruse, Dustin E.; Caskey, Charles F.; Walton, Jeffrey H.; Lai, Chun-Yen; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Larrat, Benoit; Dumont, Erik; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2012-01-01

    While Magnetic Resonance Thermometry (MRT) has been extensively utilized for non-invasive temperature measurement, there is limited data on the use of high field (≥7T) scanners for this purpose. MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a promising non-invasive method for localized hyperthermia and drug delivery. MRT based on the temperature sensitivity of the proton resonance frequency (PRF) has been implemented in both a tissue phantom and in vivo in a mouse Met-1 tumor model, using partial parallel imaging (PPI) to speed acquisition. An MRgFUS system capable of delivering a controlled 3D acoustic dose during real time MRT with proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) feedback control was developed and validated. Real-time MRT was validated in a tofu phantom with fluoroptic temperature measurements, and acoustic heating simulations were in good agreement with MR temperature maps. In an in vivo Met-1 mouse tumor, the real-time PID feedback control is capable of maintaining the desired temperature with high accuracy. We found that real time MR control of hyperthermia is feasible at high field, and k-space based PPI techniques may be implemented for increasing temporal resolution while maintaining temperature accuracy on the order of 1°C. PMID:22536396

  11. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  12. Enhancement of Spatial Ability in Girls in a Single-Sex Environment through Spatial Experience and the Impact on Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarlis, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The test scores of spatial ability for women lag behind those of men in many spatial tests. On the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), a significant gender gap has existed for over 20 years and continues to exist. High spatial ability has been linked to efficiencies in typical computing tasks including Web and database searching, text editing, and…

  13. Law Enforcement Head-Borne Personal Protective Equipment Hearing Attenuation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    condition where the noise level is 15 decibels (dB) below the speech level. From this we can see that if PPE created noise is loud enough, then the speech...These are the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT), Phonetically Balanced (PB), Consonant- Vowel -Consonant (CVC), and Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) wordlists

  14. Synchrotron Radiation Therapy from a Medical Physics point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Prezado, Y.; Berkvens, P.; Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Renier, M.; Bravin, A.; Adam, J. F.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Fois, G.; Thengumpallil, S.; Edouard, M.; Deman, P.; Vautrin, M.

    2010-07-23

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) therapy is a promising alternative to treat brain tumors, whose management is limited due to the high morbidity of the surrounding healthy tissues. Several approaches are being explored by using SR at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), where three techniques are under development Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT), Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) and Minibeam Radiation Therapy (MBRT).The sucess of the preclinical studies on SSRT and MRT has paved the way to clinical trials currently in preparation at the ESRF. With this aim, different dosimetric aspects from both theoretical and experimental points of view have been assessed. In particular, the definition of safe irradiation protocols, the beam energy providing the best balance between tumor treatment and healthy tissue sparing in MRT and MBRT, the special dosimetric considerations for small field dosimetry, etc will be described. In addition, for the clinical trials, the definition of appropiate dosimetry protocols for patients according to the well established European Medical Physics recommendations will be discussed. Finally, the state of the art of the MBRT technical developments at the ESRF will be presented. In 2006 A. Dilmanian and collaborators proposed the use of thicker microbeams (0.36-0.68 mm). This new type of radiotherapy is the most recently implemented technique at the ESRF and it has been called MBRT. The main advantage of MBRT with respect to MRT is that it does not require high dose rates. Therefore it can be more easily applied and extended outside synchrotron sources in the future.

  15. Are Males Always Better than Females in Mental Rotation? Exploring a Gender Belief Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    Males outperform females in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) for biological, strategic and cultural reasons. The present research tested a motivational explanation with the hypothesis that females could do better when induced to have positive beliefs and expectations. All-female and all-male samples were divided into six groups, each having listened…

  16. Following the Instructions! Effects of Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Research has widely demonstrated male superiority in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT). Various explanations have been put forward to account for these differences. We considered gender beliefs and argued that women may fare less well than men partly because they are considered unable to perform this kind of task. Beliefs about spatial ability were…

  17. Variable temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon in North American forests

    Treesearch

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Christopher W. Swanston; Gary M. King; Randall K. Kolka

    2009-01-01

    We investigated mean residence time (MRT) for soil organic carbon (SOC) sampled from paired hardwood and pine forests located along a 22 °C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient in North America. We used acid hydrolysis fractionation, radiocarbon analyses, long-term laboratory incubations (525-d), and a three-pool model to describe the size and kinetics of...

  18. [Stress fracture of the ulna in a table tennis player].

    PubMed

    Dufek, P; Ostendorf, U; Thormählen, F

    1999-06-01

    This case report describes a stress fracture of the ulna in a 26-year-old professional table-tennis player. X-ray films remained negative so that the diagnostic is based on MRT. This stress fracture is caused by changing the intensity of training and changing the table-tennis-racket.

  19. MRI Based Diagnostics for Temperature Measurements in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Lauren Sascha; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the thermal diffusion in the complex turbulent flows related to cooling high temperature gas turbine blades is critical to optimize the performance and predict the lifetime of the blades. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques for temperature measurement in simple but related flows are being developed in an effort to obtain full field thermal measurements to better understand diffusion processes and support the development of more accurate computational models in these flows. Magnetic Resonance Thermometry (MRT) utilizes the temperature dependence of the hydrogen proton resonant frequency (PRF) in water. MRT is now routinely used to measure tissue temperatures during medical procedures, and a few previous studies have made velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent pipe flows. In this study, MRT is applied to the flow of a heated single hole film cooling jet (Reynolds number 3000) inclined at 30 degrees injected into a cold developing turbulent channel flow (Reynolds number 25,000 based on bulk velocity and channel height.) The jet fluid temperature is 30 degrees Celsius above the temperature in the channel. The temperature measurements compare well to previously published results for measured passive scalar concentration in the same flow although the temperature measurements show higher uncertainties of 5--10 % of the temperature difference. Techniques for reducing this uncertainty will be presented as well as procedures for applying MRT to quantify the turbulent heat transfer coefficient in turbulent internal flows.

  20. Aeromedical Lessons from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation. The contents include: 1) Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT); 2) Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO); 3) Mishap Investigation Team (MIT); 4) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mishap Response Plan; 5) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP); and 6) STS-107 Crew Surgeon.

  1. SOLWEIG 1.0--modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia

    2008-09-01

    The mean radiant temperature, T(mrt), which sums up all shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes (both direct and reflected) to which the human body is exposed is one of the key meteorological parameters governing human energy balance and the thermal comfort of man. In this paper, a new radiation model (SOLWEIG 1.0), which simulates spatial variations of 3D radiation fluxes and T(mrt) in complex urban settings, is presented. The T(mrt) is derived by modelling shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes in six directions (upward, downward and from the four cardinal points) and angular factors. The model requires a limited number of inputs, such as direct, diffuse and global shortwave radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, urban geometry and geographical information (latitude, longitude and elevation). The model was evaluated using 7 days of integral radiation measurements at two sites with different building geometries--a large square and a small courtyard in Göteborg, Sweden (57 degrees N)--across different seasons and in various weather conditions. The evaluation reveals good agreement between modelled and measured values of T(mrt), with an overall good correspondence of R (2) = 0.94, (p < 0.01, RMSE = 4.8 K). SOLWEIG 1.0 is still under development. Future work will incorporate a vegetation scheme, as well as an improvement of the estimation of fluxes from the four cardinal points.

  2. On Some Stopping Times of Citation Processes. From Theory to Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzel, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Proposes a new measure of the citation speed of scientific publications based on a stopping time approach. The stochastic process approach in bibliometrics is described, mean response time (MRT) is discussed, harmonic mean response time (HMRT) is explained, and examples are given. (six references) (LRW)

  3. Following the Instructions! Effects of Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Research has widely demonstrated male superiority in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT). Various explanations have been put forward to account for these differences. We considered gender beliefs and argued that women may fare less well than men partly because they are considered unable to perform this kind of task. Beliefs about spatial ability were…

  4. Are Males Always Better than Females in Mental Rotation? Exploring a Gender Belief Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    Males outperform females in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) for biological, strategic and cultural reasons. The present research tested a motivational explanation with the hypothesis that females could do better when induced to have positive beliefs and expectations. All-female and all-male samples were divided into six groups, each having listened…

  5. Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy: Are Mito-nuclear Interactions Likely To Be a Problem?

    PubMed

    Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that deleterious interactions between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes could pose a problem for mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT). This is because the mitochondrial genome is placed in a novel nuclear environment using this technique. In contrast, it is inherited with half the mother's genome during normal reproduction, a genome that it is relatively compatible with, since the mother is alive. Here, I review the evidence of whether mito-nuclear interactions are likely to pose a problem for MRT. The majority of the available experimental evidence, both in humans and other species, suggests that MRT is not harmful. These results are consistent with population genetic theory, which predicts that deleterious mito-nuclear interactions are unlikely to be much more prevalent in individuals born to MRT than normal reproduction, particularly in a species such as humans with low population differentiation. This is because selection is unlikely to be strong enough to establish significant linkage disequilibrium between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. These results are supported by a meta-analysis of 231 cases, from a variety of animals, in which the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from one strain has been introgressed into the nuclear background of another strain of the same species. Overall, there is little tendency for introgression of mtDNA to be harmful.

  6. Timing conditions and the magnitude of gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Rodgers, Marguerite A; McCormick, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of timing conditions on the magnitude of gender differences in performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT). In Experiment 1, each of 196 females and 119 males was administered the MRT via a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation in one of five timing conditions (15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 sec). The participants were exposed to each MRT item for the period specified in the assigned timing condition. Experiment 2 was conducted to address flaws found in Experiment 1. Accordingly, each of 105 females and 105 males was individually administered the task in one of three timing conditions (15 sec, 25 sec, or unlimited duration). The results of both experiments showed that the magnitude of gender differences was similar across timing conditions when a conventional scoring method was used. An analysis of guessing behavior generally indicated that men tend to show little effect of timing conditions, whereas women's propensity to guess increases when they are given more time to respond. In general, the results supported an interpretation of gender differences on the MRT that relies on the joint operation of performance factors and level of spatial ability.

  7. Passage rates in poultry digestion using stable isotope markers and INAA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method has been developed for the study of passage rates and mean residence times (MRT) of test rations through the gastrointestinal tracts of layer hens. The use of rare earth elements as stable indigestible markers monitored by neutron activation analysis has been previously demonstrated in num...

  8. Gender-Specific Effects of Artificially Induced Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Men outperform women in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) by about one standard deviation. The present study replicated a gender belief account [Moe, A., & Pazzaglia, F. (2006). Following the instructions! Effects of gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 369-377.] for (part of) this effect. A sample of 300…

  9. The Development and Testing of Guidelines for Designing School Classrooms to Maximize Hearing Conditions and Provide for Effective Noise Control. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Strumpf, F. M.

    Speech intelligibility was tested in three classroom type spaces, one of 700 square feet, and two of 200 square feet, using student listeners and recorded test material. One of the latter two classrooms was fully carpeted. The test material used was Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) tapes, presented via tape reproducer and loudspeaker. Also investigated…

  10. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout's adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30-40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy.

  11. [Possibilities of follow-up imaging after implantation of a carbon fiber-reinforced hip prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Krüger, T; Alter, C; Reichel, H; Birke, A; Hein, W; Spielmann, R P

    1998-03-01

    There are many problems in the radiological diagnosis of aseptic loosening in total hip arthroplasty. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) are not usable for metallic implants (stainless steel, cobalt alloy, titanium alloy). From April 1993 to December 1993 15 CFRP non-cemented hip prostheses have been implanted. In a prospective clinical study plane radiographs, CT and MRT have been analysed. Three stems were revised (1 femoral fracture, 1 severe thigh pain, 1 aseptic loosening). CFRP are not visible in plane radiographs. There was a complete (two-third of the cases) or nearly complete (one-third of the cases) small sclerotic interface between the prosthesis and the bone, these were apparent in CT and MRT in stable implant cases and did not have any clinical correlations. The small sclerotic interface is quite different in comparison to so called "Reactive Lines". In one case of aseptic loosening there was an interposition of soft tissue between prosthesis and bone in MRT and CT. CFRP inaugurates new diagnostic possibilities in aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis and in tumour surgery too.

  12. First Observations with the Morehead Radio Telescope: an Instrument for Undergraduate Research in Radio Frequency Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.

    1997-12-01

    The Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT) is a research instrument for undergraduate astronomy and physics students and an active laboratory for physics, engineering, and computer science undergraduates and faculty. The goals of the MRT program are to enhance the curricula in physics, physical science, electronics, and science education programs by serving to provide: 1.) a research instrument for investigations in astronomy and astrophysics; 2.) an active laboratory in astronomy, physics, electrical engineering, and computer science; and 3.) a research instrument and laboratory for science teacher education and inservice programs. The telescope incorporates a modular design in which components may be easily removed for use in laboratory investigations and for student research and design projects. The performance characteristics of the telescope allow a varied and in-depth scientific program. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate the investigation of a wide variety of astrophysically interesting phenomena. This presentation provides an update of the operating status of the MRT, including systems upgrades and a brief discussion of data collected to date. The MRT has been used to observe a variety of astronomical objects in transit mode. Among these objects are: Taurus A, Virgo A, and the sun. These objects were observed in transit mode. An analysis of the data will be presented along with suggestions for future experiments.

  13. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C. S. B.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature ( T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites.

  14. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  15. Discrete effect on the halfway bounce-back boundary condition of multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for convection-diffusion equations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuqi; Hong, Ning; Shi, Baochang; Chai, Zhenhua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we will focus on the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model for two-dimensional convection-diffusion equations (CDEs), and analyze the discrete effect on the halfway bounce-back (HBB) boundary condition (or sometimes called bounce-back boundary condition) of the MRT model where three different discrete velocity models are considered. We first present a theoretical analysis on the discrete effect of the HBB boundary condition for the simple problems with a parabolic distribution in the x or y direction, and a numerical slip proportional to the second-order of lattice spacing is observed at the boundary, which means that the MRT model has a second-order convergence rate in space. The theoretical analysis also shows that the numerical slip can be eliminated in the MRT model through tuning the free relaxation parameter corresponding to the second-order moment, while it cannot be removed in the single-relaxation-time model or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model unless the relaxation parameter related to the diffusion coefficient is set to be a special value. We then perform some simulations to confirm our theoretical results, and find that the numerical results are consistent with our theoretical analysis. Finally, we would also like to point out the present analysis can be extended to other boundary conditions of lattice Boltzmann models for CDEs.

  16. Effects of Kindergarten Attendance on Development of School Readiness and Language Skills. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rosalyn

    This study was made to find out to what extent kindergartens contribute to school readiness. Ninety children with a mean chronological age of 4.9 were tested with the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), and a Behavior Rating Scale and were retested one year later. During the intervening year,…

  17. Validation of Magnetic Resonance Thermometry by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydquist, Grant; Owkes, Mark; Verhulst, Claire M.; Benson, Michael J.; Vanpoppel, Bret P.; Burton, Sascha; Eaton, John K.; Elkins, Christopher P.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance Thermometry (MRT) is a new experimental technique that can create fully three-dimensional temperature fields in a noninvasive manner. However, validation is still required to determine the accuracy of measured results. One method of examination is to compare data gathered experimentally to data computed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this study, large-eddy simulations have been performed with the NGA computational platform to generate data for a comparison with previously run MRT experiments. The experimental setup consisted of a heated jet inclined at 30° injected into a larger channel. In the simulations, viscosity and density were scaled according to the local temperature to account for differences in buoyant and viscous forces. A mesh-independent study was performed with 5 mil-, 15 mil- and 45 mil-cell meshes. The program Star-CCM + was used to simulate the complete experimental geometry. This was compared to data generated from NGA. Overall, both programs show good agreement with the experimental data gathered with MRT. With this data, the validity of MRT as a diagnostic tool has been shown and the tool can be used to further our understanding of a range of flows with non-trivial temperature distributions.

  18. Restless Mind, Restless Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…

  19. Patients’ Effect on Nurses’ Job Satisfaction at Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Emotional SUpport ( esteem , affect, trust, concern, listening). 2. Appraisal sUppOrt (affirmation, feedback, social comparison). 3. Informational sMrt...is a lot of arank consciousness’ on my unit, - Nurging nersonnel seld W mingle with others of lower rank-" Oziulative Cumulative Response scale

  20. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  1. New lifting relations for estimating LBM distribution functions from corresponding macroscopic quantities, based on equilibrium and non-equilibrium moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, M. R.; Taeibi-Rahni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Due to superior accuracy and stability of multiple relaxation time (MRT) collision operator over its single relaxation time (SRT) counterpart, new lifting relations are proposed here to construct single particle distribution functions for MRT-LBM from macroscopic variables. Using these lifting relations, a new hybrid FVM-LB method is presented (called Finite type-LB hybrid method), which is consistent with MRT-LBM. In this new hybrid method, single-particle distribution functions in MRT-LBM sub-domain boundaries are computed, using equilibrium and non-equilibrium moments. These moments are computed in Navier-Stokes/FVM sub-domain boundaries, using macroscopic variables and their derivatives. The new method is validated by solving three benchmark problems, i.e., two- and three-dimensional lid driven cavity flows and two-dimensional unsteady flow around a squared section cylinder. These problems are analyzed with pure FVM, pure LBM, and Finite type-LB hybrid method (FTLBHM) and the related results are compared with each other and with benchmark data. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the accuracy of the present novel methodology for simulating steady/unsteady flow fields in two and three dimensions.

  2. Physiologically gated micro-beam radiation therapy using electronically controlled field emission x-ray source array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Hadsell, Michael; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Lee, Yueh Z.; Chang, Sha; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2013-03-01

    Micro-beam radiation therapy (MRT) uses parallel planes of high dose narrow (10-100 um in width) radiation beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000Gy of entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during the treatment can result in significant movement of micro beam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), and thus can reduce the effectiveness of the MRT. Recently we have developed the first bench-top image guided MRT system for small animal treatment using a high powered carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The CNT field emission x-ray source can be electronically synchronized to an external triggering signal to enable physiologically gated firing of x-ray radiation to minimize motion blurring. Here we report the results of phantom study of respiratory gated MRT. A simulation of mouse breathing was performed using a servo motor. Preliminary results show that without gating the micro beam full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) can increase by 70% and PVDR can decrease up to 50%. But with proper gating, both the beam width and PVDR changes can be negligible. Future experiments will involve irradiation of mouse models and comparing histology stains between the controls and the gated irradiation.

  3. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout’s adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30–40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:26441615

  4. Cognitive strategies in the mental rotation task revealed by EEG spectral power.

    PubMed

    Gardony, Aaron L; Eddy, Marianna D; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-11-01

    The classic mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) is commonly thought to measure mental rotation, a cognitive process involving covert simulation of motor rotation. Yet much research suggests that the MRT recruits both motor simulation and other analytic cognitive strategies that depend on visuospatial representation and visual working memory (WM). In the present study, we investigated cognitive strategies in the MRT using time-frequency analysis of EEG and independent component analysis. We scrutinized sensorimotor mu (µ) power reduction, associated with motor simulation, parietal alpha (pα) power reduction, associated with visuospatial representation, and frontal midline theta (fmθ) power enhancement, associated with WM maintenance and manipulation. µ power increased concomitant with increasing task difficulty, suggesting reduced use of motor simulation, while pα decreased and fmθ power increased, suggesting heightened use of visuospatial representation processing and WM, respectively. These findings suggest that MRT performance involves flexibly trading off between cognitive strategies, namely a motor simulation-based mental rotation strategy and WM-intensive analytic strategies based on task difficulty. Flexible cognitive strategy use may be a domain-general cognitive principle that underlies aptitude and spatial intelligence in a variety of cognitive domains. We close with discussion of the present study's implications as well as future directions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Targeted magnetic delivery and tracking of cells using a magnetic resonance imaging system.

    PubMed

    Riegler, Johannes; Wells, Jack A; Kyrtatos, Panagiotis G; Price, Anthony N; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2010-07-01

    The success of cell therapies depends on the ability to deliver the cells to the site of injury. Targeted magnetic cell delivery is an emergent technique for localised cell transplantation therapy. The use of permanent magnets limits such a treatment to organs close to the body surface or an implanted magnetic source. A possible alternative method for magnetic cell delivery is magnetic resonance targeting (MRT), which uses magnetic field gradients inherent to all magnetic resonance imaging system, to steer ferromagnetic particles to their target region. In this study we have assessed the feasibility of such an approach for cell targeting, using a range of flow rates and different super paramagnetic iron oxide particles in a vascular bifurcation phantom. Using MRT we have demonstrated that 75% of labelled cells could be guided within the vascular bifurcation. Furthermore we have demonstrated the ability to image the labelled cells before and after magnetic targeting, which may enable interactive manipulation and assessment of the distribution of cellular therapy. This is the first demonstration of cellular MRT and these initial findings support the potential value of MRT for improved targeting of intravascular cell therapies.

  6. 78 FR 21618 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Home Mortgage Company, Inc., Cedartown, GA [Docket No. 13-1352-MRT] 12. Amerifund Financial, Inc.... AmericaHomeKey, Inc., Dallas, TX Action: On March 22, 2012, the Board issued a Notice of Administrative Action immediately and permanently withdrawing the FHA approval of AmericaHomeKey, Inc. (AHK). Cause: The...

  7. Separation of dissolved iron from the aqueous system with excess ligand.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rahman, Ismail M M; Kinoshita, Sanae; Maki, Teruya; Furusho, Yoshiaki

    2011-02-01

    A new technique for the separation and pre-concentration of dissolved Fe(III) from the ligand-rich aqueous system is proposed. A solid phase extraction (SPE) system with an immobilized macrocyclic material, commonly known as molecular recognition technology (MRT) gel and available commercially, was used. Synthetic Fe(III) solution in aqueous matrices spiked with a 100-fold concentration of EDTA was used. Dissolved iron that was 'captured' by the MRT gel was eluted using hydrochloric acid and subsequently determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The effect of different variables, such as pH, reagent concentration, flow rate and interfering ions, on the recovery of analyte was investigated. Quantitative maximum separation (∼100%) of the dissolved Fe(III) from synthetic aqueous solutions at a natural pH range was observed at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min(-1). The extraction efficiency of the MRT gel is largely unaltered by the coexisting ions commonly found in natural water. When compared with different SPE materials, the separation performance of MRT gel is also much higher. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocrust morphogroups provide an effective and rapid assessment tool for drylands

    PubMed Central

    Read, Cassia F; Duncan, David H; Vesk, Peter A; Elith, Jane; Wan, Shiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) occur across most of the world's drylands and are sensitive indicators of dryland degradation. Accounting for shifts in biocrust composition is important for quantifying integrity of arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but the best methods for assessing biocrusts are uncertain. We investigate the utility of surveying biocrust morphogroups, a reduced set of biotic classes, compared to species data, for detecting shifts in biocrust composition and making inference about dryland degradation. We used multivariate regression tree (MRT) analyses to model morphogroup abundance, species abundance and species occurrence data from two independent studies in semi-arid open woodlands of south-eastern Australia. We advanced the MRT method with a ‘best subsets’ model selection procedure, which improved model stability and prediction. Biocrust morphogroup composition responded strongly to surrogate variables of ecological degradation. Further, MRT models of morphogroup data had stronger explanatory power and predictive power than MRT models of species abundance or occurrence data. We also identified morphogroup indicators of degraded and less degraded sites in our study region. Synthesis and applications. Sustainable management of drylands requires methods to assess shifts in ecological integrity. We suggest that biocrust morphogroups are highly suitable for assessment of dryland integrity because they allow for non-expert, rapid survey and are informative about ecological function. Furthermore, morphogroups were more robust than biocrust species data, showed a strong response to ecological degradation and were less influenced by environmental variation, and models of morphogroup abundance were more predictive. PMID:25598550

  9. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of an Axial Magnetic Field on the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Ablating Planar Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Patel, S. G.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; Weiss, M. R.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Experiments are underway to study the effects an axial magnetic field on the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) in ablating planar foils on the 1-MA LTD at the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments (MAIZE) facility at the University of Michigan. For 600 kA drive current, a 15 T axial magnetic field is produced using helical return current posts. During the current pulse, the magnetic field may diffuse into the foil, creating a sheared magnetic field along with the possibility of shear stabilization of the MRT instability. Theoretical investigation at UM has shown that a sheared azimuthal magnetic field coupled with an axial magnetic field reduces the MRT growth rate in general. In order to study this effect, the amount of magnetic shear is controlled by offsetting the initial position of the foil. A 775 nm Ti:sapphire laser will be used to shadowgraph the foil in order to measure the MRT growth rate. By comparing these results to previous experiments at UM, the effects of magnetic shear and an axial magnetic field will be determined. This work was supported by US DoE. S.G. Patel and A.M. Steiner supported by NPSC funded by Sandia. D.A. Yager-Elorriaga supported by NSF fellowship Grant DGE 1256260.

  10. Restless Mind, Restless Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…

  11. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Report 1. Introduction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    cutoffs to prevent the loss of irre- placeable lands and improve channel alignment and depth; and (d) tribu - tary basin improvement. 23. The MR&T...73, 11 li i Ni .i *t,, i v -,’ r ov, Urbana , I11 . Streeter, !1. K., ; : 1 w i.. b. ) . "A Study of the Pollution and Natural ’uirif K it i, ’ ,: r R

  12. Individual Differences in the Mental Rotation Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gender, academic performance and preschool education on mental rotation skills among Turkish prospective teachers. A total of 525 undergraduate students (364 female) from a government university located in western Turkey completed the Mental Rotation Test (MRT). A three-way [2 (gender) × 5 (academic…

  13. Effects of white noise on Callsign Acquisition Test and Modified Rhyme Test scores.

    PubMed

    Blue-Terry, Misty; Letowski, Tomasz

    2011-02-01

    The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A group of 16 normal-hearing listeners participated in the study. The speech items were presented at 65 dB(A) in the background of white noise at SNRs of -18, -15, -12, -9 and -6 dB. The results showed a strong positive association (75.14%) between the two tests, but significant differences between the CAT and MRT absolute scores in the range of investigated SNRs. Based on the data, a function to predict CAT scores based on existing MRT scores and vice versa was formulated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work compares performance data of a common speech intelligibility test (MRT) with a new test (CAT) in the presence of white noise. The results here can be used as a part of the standardisation procedures and provide insights to the predictive capabilities of the CAT to quantify speech intelligibility communication in high-noise military environments.

  14. Comparison of Acoustic Properties of Two USMC Helmets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    the same vowel and differ by initial or final sound . An MRT list is a subset of the 300 words, consisting of 50 words, one from each group of six...headset. There was no improvement in sound attenuation with the ECVCH. The ECVCH showed a decrement in speech intelligibility, although this decrement...Headsets.........................................................3 2.2 Sound Attenuation

  15. Leaf-level nitrogen use efficiency: definition and importance.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tadaki

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has been widely used to study the relationship between nitrogen uptake and dry mass production in the plant. As a subsystem of plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), I have defined leaf-level NUE as the surplus production (gross production minus leaf respiration) per unit amount of nitrogen allocated to the leaf, with factorization into leaf nitrogen productivity (NP) and mean residence time of leaf nitrogen (MRT). These concepts were applied to two herbaceous stands: a perennial Solidago altissima stand and an annual Amaranthus patulus stand. S. altissima had more than three times higher leaf NUE than A. patulus due to nearly three times longer MRT of leaf N. In both species, NUE and NP were higher at the leaf level than at the plant level, because most leaf N is involved directly in the photosynthetic activity and because leaf surplus production is higher than the plant net production. MRT was longer at the plant level. The more than twice as long MRT at the plant level as at the leaf level in S. altissima was due to a large contribution of nitrogen storage belowground in the winter in this species. Thus, comparisons between a perennial and an annual system and between plant- and leaf-level NUE with their components revealed the importance of N allocation, storage, recycling, and turnover of organs for leaf photosynthetic production and plant dry mass growth.

  16. Nitrogen use efficiency revisited.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tadaki

    2011-08-01

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was originally defined as the dry mass productivity per unit N taken up from soil. The term was subsequently redefined as the product of nitrogen productivity (NP) and mean residence time of nitrogen (MRT). However, this redefinition was found to contradict the original definition under certain conditions, and confusion arose when the MRT defined for a steady-state system was applied to a system that was actually not at steady state. As MRT is the expected length of time that a unit of N newly taken up from soil is retained before being lost, it can be translated into the plant nitrogen duration (PND) divided by the total N uptake. This MRT is determined equally well for a steady state- and a non-steady state system and is in accordance with the original definition of NUE. It can be applied to a herbaceous perennial stand (that was at a steady state) and to an annual stand (that was not at a steady state) to determine NUE. NUE is also applicable when plant growth and reproduction are analyzed in relation to N use.

  17. Multi-rate time stepping schemes for hydro-geomechanical model for subsurface methane hydrate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shubhangi; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Helmig, Rainer

    2016-05-01

    We present an extrapolation-based semi-implicit multi-rate time stepping (MRT) scheme and a compound-fast MRT scheme for a naturally partitioned, multi-time-scale hydro-geomechanical hydrate reservoir model. We evaluate the performance of the two MRT methods compared to an iteratively coupled solution scheme and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The performance of the two MRT methods is evaluated in terms of speed-up and accuracy by comparison to an iteratively coupled solution scheme. We observe that the extrapolation-based semi-implicit method gives a higher speed-up but is strongly dependent on the relative time scales of the latent (slow) and active (fast) components. On the other hand, the compound-fast method is more robust and less sensitive to the relative time scales, but gives lower speed up as compared to the semi-implicit method, especially when the relative time scales of the active and latent components are comparable.

  18. Early and Late Inhibitions Elicited by a Peripheral Visual Cue on Manual Response to a Visual Target: Are They Based on Cartesian Coordinates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawryszewski, Luiz G.; Carreiro, Luiz Renato R.; Magalhaes, Fabio V.

    2005-01-01

    A non-informative cue (C) elicits an inhibition of manual reaction time (MRT) to a visual target (T). We report an experiment to examine if the spatial distribution of this inhibitory effect follows Polar or Cartesian coordinate systems. C appeared at one out of 8 isoeccentric (7[degrees]) positions, the C-T angular distances (in polar…

  19. Factor Structure and Validation of a Set of Readiness Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Maurice; Lynch, Mervin

    A study was undertaken to identify the factor structure of a battery of readiness measures and to demonstrate the concurrent and predictive validity of one instrument in that battery--the Pre-Reading Screening Procedures (PSP). Concurrent validity was determined by examining the correlation of the PSP with the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT),…

  20. A Phase II, Multicenter Study of the EZH2 Inhibitor Tazemetostat in Adult Subjects With INI1-Negative Tumors or Relapsed/Refractory Synovial Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-17

    Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors (MRT); Rhabdoid Tumors of the Kidney (RTK); Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors (ATRT); Selected Tumors With Rhabdoid Features; Synovial Sarcoma; INI1-negative Tumors; Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of Ovary; Renal Medullary Carcinoma; Epithelioid Sarcoma; Any Solid Tumor With an EZH2 GOF Mutation

  1. Analyzing C2 Greyhound Capacity at Fleet Readiness Center Southwest (FRC SW)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Organization for Standardization MOD Modification MRT Mission Readiness Team NADEP Naval Air Depot NAE Naval Aviation Enterprise NAVRIIP Naval...structure that has reached its life limit. SOP Standard Operating Procedure SRC Scheduled Removal Component TD TECHNICAL DIRECTIVE - A document...aircraft, engines, systems, or equipment subsequent to establishment of each respective baseline configuration. TDs include all types of changes and

  2. Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

  3. Characterizing different spring systems in the Berchtesgaden Alps using stable water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvelmann, Jakob; Warscher, Michael; Franz, Helmut; Lotz, Annette; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    An extensive sampling campaign was started in January 2012 in the Berchtesgaden Alps located in the southeast of Germany. Monthly samples at 8 springs, 5 stream gauges and bulk samples of precipitation at 7 sites were collected since then. The samples were analyzed for the stable water isotopes oxygen-18 and deuterium. The sampled water systems are characterized by very different dynamics of the stable isotope signatures. Time series of precipitation stable isotope signatures were derived from the GNIP dataset in order to extend the dataset beyond the start of the sampling campaign. Mean residence times (MRT) of the spring systems and surface water streams were calculated using the exponential model and the sine curve approach. Both approaches yield very similar MRT for the studied water systems. Based on this analysis two groups of spring systems could be identified. One group with relatively short MRT of 1-2 years and another group with longer MRT of about 10-12 years. Those results were consequently discussed and interpreted in the context of a large body of literature existing on the hydrogeology in the Berchtesgaden Alps area. The springs characterized by short MRT are located in geological situations with karstified limestone, dolomite or shell limestone. Previous dye tracer experiments in those areas revealed very efficient drainage systems with fast flowpaths. The spring systems with longer MRT are located in areas with large bodies consisting of quaternary debris and talus material and can be considered as porous aquifers with relatively long flow paths with low flow velocities. The influence of the stable isotope signature and hence the MRT observed at the springs is also reflected in the downstream surface water stable isotope signatures showing the importance of the spring water for river discharge in the study area. The results of the study provide interesting insights into the different dynamics of spring systems and surface water bodies controlled by

  4. Contribution of different segments of the gastrointestinal tract to digestion in growing Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Leite, R F; Krizsan, S J; Figueiredo, F O M; Carvalho, V B; Teixeira, I A M A; Huhtanen, P

    2015-04-01

    This study examined mean retention time (MRT) of particulate and liquid matter in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of growing Saanen goats of different sexes and subjected to different levels of feed restriction. In addition, feeding behavior and total tract digestibility were determined for all animals ahead of slaughter. In total, 54 Saanen goats (18 each of females, castrated males, and intact males) with initial BW 15.3 ± 0.4 kg were used in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement comprising the 3 sexes and 3 levels of feed restriction (unrestricted/ad libitum, moderate, and severe restriction). Six blocks per sex group, each consisting of 3 goats, were randomly formed and the goats within each block were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 different feed restrictions. The daily amounts of feed offered to animals subjected to moderate and severe feed restriction (approximately 75% and 50% of ad libitum rate, respectively) were determined within block based on the DMI by ad libitum fed goats on the previous day. The MRT of particulate matter was determined either using Yb-labeled diet or indigestible NDF (iNDF) determined in situ as markers. Mean retention time of the liquid phase was determined by Cr-EDTA. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to determine linear and quadratic effect of feed restriction, while the effect of sex was compared by Tukey test. The effects of sex and the interaction between sex and feed restriction were not significant on most of variables evaluated. Eating, ruminating, and total chewing time per g DM and NDF intake increased linearly as feed restriction increased (P ≤ 0.03). Diet digestibility increased quadratically for DM and OM, and linearly for NDF as feed intake decreased (P ≤ 0.03). The MRT of iNDF in the reticulorumen, omasum, abomasum, colon, and total GIT increased linearly with increased feed restriction (P ≤ 0.01). Mean retention time in the cecum varied quadratically, being greatest for animals with

  5. Evaluation of gastrointestinal transit characteristics of oral patch preparation using caffeine as a model drug in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Eaimtrakarn, Sudarat; Prasad, Y V Rama; Puthli, Shivanand P; Yoshikawa, Yukako; Shibata, Nobuhito; Takada, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    Salivary caffeine excretion rate test has been proposed for the evaluation of gastrointestinal transit characteristics of an oral patch preparation after administration to human volunteers instead of measuring the plasma or serum concentration in the early stages of formulation development. Patches having a diameter of 3.0 mm and containing caffeine as a model drug were prepared. The patches consisted of 1) the backing layer made of a water-insoluble polymer, 2) the drug-carrying layer composed of caffeine and a gel-forming polymer, and 3) the enteric polymer membrane. These three layer patches were filled into enteric capsules. Caffeine solution in an enteric capsule was used as the control preparation. After oral administration of each preparation to human volunteers at a dose of 50 mg of caffeine in a cross-over study with a wash-out period of two weeks, saliva samples were collected over 1 min at every sampling time for 12 h and salivary caffeine concentration was determined by a HPLC assay method. Salivary caffeine excretion rate (ER) was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean residence time (MRT) and first-appearance time of caffeine into the saliva (T(i)) were determined. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, MRT-T(i) values of patch and solution preparations were compared. Patch preparations had a T(i) value of 2.33+/-0.33 h and showed significantly longer MRT-T(i), 3.87+/-0.21 h, as compared to the control preparation (MRT-T(i)=1.04+/-0.38 h) under fasting condition (p<0.05). Food intake prolonged the gastric emptying time (GET) of the preparations with T(i) values of 5.00+/-1.15 h for control preparation and 4.67+/-1.20 h for patch preparation. The MRT-T(i) values were 0.62+/-0.20 h (control) and 2.45+/-0.73 h (patch). The results of this study indicate that the parameter, MRT-T(i), was useful in characterizing the transit characteristics of oral patch preparations than MRT itself and the presence of food affects the performance of the patch

  6. Periodenermittlung mittels Autokorrelationsfunktion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussnitzer, H.

    Zur Auffindung von Periodizitäten in Zeitreihen wird in vielen Fällen die Autokorrelationsfunktion (AKF) angewendet. Es wurde darauf hingewiesen, daß bei ihrer Anwendung jedoch Vorsicht geboten ist. In den folgenden Ausführungen wird gezeigt, auf welche Besonderheiten der AKF geachtet werden sollte und in welcher Weise gewisse Mängel bei ihrer Anwendung umgangen werden können.

  7. Monitoring the Brain-Stem State Through the Assessment of the Baroreceptor-Heart Rate Reflex in Critically Brain-Injured Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    death . We estimated during impending brain death in 11 comatose patients hospitalized in ICU 1) spontaneous variability of systolic and diastolic...and baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) by the sequence technique. Brain death was associated with significant spectral changes, including a...generalized reduction in PI spectra and a decrease of the 0,1 Hz power in SBP and DBP spectra, BRS and BEI, close to normal values just before brain death , dropped

  8. [Agreement between self-report and clinician's assessment in depressed adolescents, using the example of BDI-II and CDRS-R].

    PubMed

    Straub, Joana; Plener, Paul L; Koelch, Michael; Keller, Ferdinand

    2014-07-01

    Fragestellung: Vorhergehende Studien zeigen eine hohe Übereinstimmung von Selbst- und Klinikerurteil bei der Erfassung von Depressivität. Die Übereinstimmung auf Summen-, Subskalen- und Einzelitemebene wurde aber bisher nicht bei einer psychiatrischen jugendlichen Stichprobe untersucht. Der Einfluss von Drittvariablen, wie Alter, Geschlecht, IQ und Behandlungssetting wurde bei Jugendlichen bisher unzureichend überprüft. Methodik: Untersucht wurden 105 depressive Jugendliche (mittleres Alter = 15.94) bei welchen innerhalb einer Woche das BDI-II und CDRS-R durchgeführt wurde. Korrelationsanalysen erfolgten auf Ebene der Summenwerte, Subskalen und Einzelitems. Ergebnisse: Es zeigte sich eine hohe Korrelation zwischen Selbst- und Klinikerurteil (r = .67). Auf Subskalen-Ebene zeigten Items, die somatische Inhalte erfassen, keine höhere Konkordanz als Subskalen, die kognitive oder affektive Inhalte messen. Auf Symptom-Ebene zeigte sich die höchste Übereinstimmung bei dem Item Selbstmordgedanken. Drittvariablen hatten keinen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Höhe der Korrelation aber Jugendliche mit einem eher hohen IQ und ambulant Behandelte neigten zur relativen Überschätzung ihrer Symptomatik. Schlussfolgerungen: Die Gesamtkorrelation war hoch und unterschied sich nicht von Ergebnissen vergleichbarer Korrelationsstudien. Die höchste Übereinstimmung bei dem Item «Selbstmordgedanken» spricht für die gute Erfassbarkeit von Suizidalität auch im Klinikerurteil. Der Fragebogen kann somit deutliche Hinweise auf das Vorliegen einer Depression liefern, jedoch sollte trotz hoher Korrelationen nicht ein Verfahren durch ein anderes ersetzt werden.

  9. A comparison of three different physiotherapy modalities used in the physiotherapy of burns.

    PubMed

    Sar, Zübeyir; Polat, Mine Gülden; Özgül, Bahar; Aydoğdu, Onur; Camcoğlu, Burcu; Acar, Ahmet Hakan; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effectiveness of matrix rhythm therapy, ultrasound treatment (UT), laser treatment (LT) used in the physiotherapy of burns. The study was conducted at the Wound and Burn Healing Center, Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital (Turkey) from June 2009 to January 2012. The case series comprised 39 individuals with second- and third-degree upper-limb burns, whose burn traumas ended approximately 1 to 3 months previously. Participants were separated into three groups: matrix rhythm treatment (MRT), UT and LT; each group was also applied a treatment protocol including whirlpool and exercise. Pain, range of motion (ROM), muscular strength, skin elasticity, and sensory functions were evaluated before and after the treatment. Pressure sense and passive ROM were higher in the MRT group than in the LT group (P < .05). Pain was lower in the LT group than in the UT group, and passive ROM was higher in the UT group than the in LT group (P < .05). Active ROM was found to increase in all treatment groups, whereas passive ROM increased only in the MRT and UT groups; pressure sense increased only in the MRT group, and pain decreased only in the LT group (P < .05). MRT was found to be more effective in the restoration of sensory functions than LT, whereas LT was more effective in reducing pain than UT. No significant difference was observed in terms of skin elasticity according to the results of three treatment modalities. It is suggested that further research with more cases should be conducted to examine the long-term effect of treatment modalities.

  10. Impact of fibre intake and fibre source on digestibility, gut development, retention time and growth performance of indigenous and exotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, T T B; Len, N T; Lindberg, J E

    2013-05-01

    The impact of fibre level and fibre source on digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, total tract mean retention time (MRT) and growth performance was studied in indigenous Mong Cai (MC) and exotic Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) pigs. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soyabean meal, fish meal and soyabean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer's grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF) and were fed ad libitum. A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 27 days. Increased dietary fibre level resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP and gross energy (GE) at the ileum and in the total tract, and in MRT, and an increase (P < 0.05) in the feed conversion ratio and in the weight of the GIT (except for small intestine and caecum). The coefficients of total tract digestibility of fibre fractions were higher in HF diets than in the LF diet, with highest values for diet HF-CR, which had a high proportion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides. MC pigs had longer MRT of digesta than LY pigs (P < 0.05), resulting in higher digestibility at the ileum and in the total tract. Across diets and breeds, the total tract apparent digestibility of OM, CP and GE was positively related (R 2 = 0.80 to 0.84) to the MRT of solids, whereas the MRT was negatively related to the DM intake (R 2 = 0.60).

  11. Heterogeneity of Monosymptomatic Resting Tremor in a Prospective Study: Clinical Features, Electrophysiological Test, and Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hua-Guang; Zhang, Rong; Li, Xin; Li, Fang-Fei; Wang, Ya-Chen; Wang, Xue-Mei; Lu, Ling-Long; Feng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between monosymptomatic resting tremor (mRT) and Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess the function of presynaptic dopaminergic neurons in patients with mRT by dopamine transporter positron emission tomography (DAT-PET) and to evaluate the utility of clinical features or electrophysiological studies in differential diagnosis. Methods: Thirty-three consecutive patients with mRT were enrolled prospectively. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and electromyography were tested before DAT-PET. Striatal asymmetry index (SAI) was calculated, and a normal DAT-PET was defined as a SAI of <15%. Scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficits (SWEDDs) were diagnosed in patients with a subsequent normal DAT-PET and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Twenty-eight mRT patients with a significant reduction in uptake of DAT binding in the striatum were diagnosed with PD, while the remained 5 with a normal DAT-PET scan were SWEDDs. As for UPRDS, the dressing and hygiene score, walking in motor experiences of daily living (Part II) and motor examination (Part III) were significant different between two groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Bilateral tremor was more frequent in the SWEDDs group (P < 0.05). The frequency of resting tremor and the amplitude of postural tremor tend to be higher in the SWEDDs group (P = 0.08 and P = 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: mRT is heterogeneous in presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, which can be determined by DAT-PET brain imaging. Clinical and electrophysiological features may provide clues to distinguish PD from SWEDDs. PMID:26112718

  12. Heterogeneity of Monosymptomatic Resting Tremor in a Prospective Study: Clinical Features, Electrophysiological Test, and Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua-Guang; Zhang, Rong; Li, Xin; Li, Fang-Fei; Wang, Ya-Chen; Wang, Xue-Mei; Lu, Ling-Long; Feng, Tao

    2015-07-05

    The relationship between monosymptomatic resting tremor (mRT) and Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess the function of presynaptic dopaminergic neurons in patients with mRT by dopamine transporter positron emission tomography (DAT-PET) and to evaluate the utility of clinical features or electrophysiological studies in differential diagnosis. Thirty-three consecutive patients with mRT were enrolled prospectively. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and electromyography were tested before DAT-PET. Striatal asymmetry index (SAI) was calculated, and a normal DAT-PET was defined as a SAI of <15%. Scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficits (SWEDDs) were diagnosed in patients with a subsequent normal DAT-PET and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-eight mRT patients with a significant reduction in uptake of DAT binding in the striatum were diagnosed with PD, while the remained 5 with a normal DAT-PET scan were SWEDDs. As for UPRDS, the dressing and hygiene score, walking in motor experiences of daily living (Part II) and motor examination (Part III) were significant different between two groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Bilateral tremor was more frequent in the SWEDDs group (P < 0.05). The frequency of resting tremor and the amplitude of postural tremor tend to be higher in the SWEDDs group (P = 0.08 and P = 0.05, respectively). mRT is heterogeneous in presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, which can be determined by DAT-PET brain imaging. Clinical and electrophysiological features may provide clues to distinguish PD from SWEDDs.

  13. Secondary Breast Cancer Risk by Radiation Volume in Women With Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jessica L; Connors, Joseph M; Tyldesley, Scott; Savage, Kerry J; Campbell, Belinda A; Zheng, Yvonne Y; Hamm, Jeremy; Pickles, Tom

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the risk of secondary breast cancer (SBC) is reduced in women with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with smaller field radiation therapy (SFRT) versus mantle field radiation therapy (MRT). We used the BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) Lymphoid Cancer Database to identify female patients treated for HL between January 1961 and December 2009. Radiation therapy volumes were categorized as MRT or SFRT, which included involved field, involved site, or involved nodal radiation therapy. SBC risk estimates were compared using competing risk analysis and Fine and Gray multivariable model: MRT ± chemotherapy, SFRT ± chemotherapy, or chemotherapy-only. Of 734 eligible patients, 75% of the living patients have been followed up for more than 10 years, SBC has developed in 54, and 15 have died of breast cancer. The 20-year estimated risks (competing risk cumulative incidence) for SBC differed significantly: MRT 7.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4%-11.5%), SFRT 3.1% (95% CI 1.0%-7.7%), and chemotherapy-only 2.2% (95% CI 1.0%-4.8%) (P=.01). Using a Fine and Gray model to control for death and patients lost to follow-up, MRT was associated with a higher risk of SBC (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9; 95% CI 1.4%-6.0%; P=.004) compared with chemotherapy-only and with SFRT (HR = 3.3; 95% CI 1.3%-8.4%; P=.01). SFRT was not associated with a greater risk of SBC compared with chemotherapy-only (HR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.28%-2.66%; P=.80). This study confirms that large-volume MRT is associated with a markedly increased risk of SBC; however, more modern small-volume RT is not associated with a greater risk of SBC than chemotherapy alone. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of two methods for measuring γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence as a marker of DNA damage in cultured human cells: applications for microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Andrais, B.; Mirzayans, R.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Fallone, B. G.; Warkentin, B.

    2013-06-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) delivers single fractions of very high doses of synchrotron x-rays using arrays of microbeams. In animal experiments, MRT has achieved higher tumour control and less normal tissue toxicity compared to single-fraction broad beam irradiations of much lower dose. The mechanism behind the normal tissue sparing of MRT has yet to be fully explained. An accurate method for evaluating DNA damage, such as the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence assay, will be important for understanding the role of cellular communication in the radiobiological response of normal and cancerous cell types to MRT. We compare two methods of quantifying γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence for uniformly irradiated cell cultures: manual counting of γ-H2AX foci by eye, and an automated, MATLAB-based fluorescence intensity measurement. We also demonstrate the automated analysis of cell cultures irradiated with an array of microbeams. In addition to offering a relatively high dynamic range of γ-H2AX signal versus irradiation dose ( > 10 Gy), our automated method provides speed, robustness, and objectivity when examining a series of images. Our in-house analysis facilitates the automated extraction of the spatial distribution of the γ-H2AX intensity with respect to the microbeam array — for example, the intensities in the peak (high dose area) and valley (area between two microbeams) regions. The automated analysis is particularly beneficial when processing a large number of samples, as is needed to systematically study the relationship between the numerous dosimetric and geometric parameters involved with MRT (e.g., microbeam width, microbeam spacing, microbeam array dimensions, peak dose, valley dose, and geometric arrangement of multiple arrays) and the resulting DNA damage.

  15. Influence of ruminal methane on digesta retention and digestive physiology in non-lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Hammond, Kirsty J; Kirton, Paul; Humphries, David J; Crompton, Les A; Ortmann, Sylvia; Misselbrook, Tom H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Reynolds, Christopher K; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Enteric methane (CH4) production is a side-effect of herbivore digestion, but it is unknown whether CH4 itself influences digestive physiology. We investigated the effect of adding CH4 to, or reducing it in, the reticulorumen (RR) in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with rumen-fistulated, non-lactating cows, with four treatments: (i) control, (ii) insufflation of CH4 (iCH4), (iii) N via rumen fistula, (iv) reduction of CH4 via administration of bromochloromethane (BCM). DM intake (DMI), apparent total tract digestibility, digesta mean retention times (MRT), rumen motility and chewing activity, spot breath CH4 emission (CH4exhal, litre/kg DMI) as well as CH4 dissolved in rumen fluid (CH4RRf, µg/ml) were measured. Data were analysed using mixed models, including treatment (or, alternatively, CH4exhal or CH4RRf) and DMI relative to body mass0·85 (rDMI) as covariates. rDMI was the lowest on the BCM treatment. CH4exhal was highest for iCH4 and lowest for BCM treatments, whereas only BCM affected (reduced) CH4RRf. After adjusting for rDMI, CH4RRf had a negative association with MRT in the gastrointestinal tract but not in the RR, and negative associations with fibre digestibility and measures of rumination activity. Adjusting for rDMI, CH4exhal had additionally a negative association with particle MRT in the RR and a positive association with rumen motility. Thus, higher rumen levels of CH4 (CH4exhal or CH4RRf) were associated with shorter MRT and increased motility. These findings are tentatively interpreted as a feedback mechanism in the ruminant digestive tract that aims at mitigating CH4 losses by shortening MRT at higher CH4.

  16. COPD patients' oxygen uptake and heart rate on-kinetics at cycle-ergometer: correlation with their predictors of severity.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Bruna V; Beltrame, Thomas; Di Lorenzo, Valéria A Pires; Catai, Aparecida M; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether there is a correlation between oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) on-kinetics in the constant-load cycle-ergometer test (CLT) and the BODE index and its isolated variables in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fourteen male patients between 55 and 78 years of age with moderate to severe COPD were evaluated. Each patient underwent spirometry, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), the cycle-ergometer incremental test (IT) and CLT on alternate days. The exhaled gases were collected, and the VO2 and HR on-kinetics were analyzed. The BODE index was calculated. It was noted that the VO2 tau (τ) and mean response time (MRT) were significantly higher than HR τ and MRT. Moderate and strong correlations between τ and MRT of the VO2 and HR and the BODE index was noted (r=0.75 and r=0.78; r=0.62 and r=0.63, respectively), and there were correlations between the VO2 τ and MRT and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (r=-0.60; r=-0.53) and the distance traveled at 6MWT (DT-6MWT) (r=-0.61; r=-0.44) and DT-6MWT % predicted (r=-0.62; r=-0.46). The HR τ and MRT were correlated with DT-6MWT (r=-0.59; r=-0.58) and DT-6MWT % predicted (r=-0.62; r=-0.62). The slowing of cycle-ergometer VO2, and especially of HR on-kinetics, may be key markers of disease severity. Furthermore, airflow obstruction and reduced exercise capacity are associated with the slowing of patients' VO2 and HR on-kinetics.

  17. Solute and particle retention in a small grazing antelope, the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jürgen; Hammer, Sven; Hammer, Catrin; Ruf, Julia; Lechenne, Monique; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Digesta retention patterns have been suggested to play a major role in ruminant diversification. Two major digestion types have been proposed, termed 'cattle-type' and 'moose-type', that broadly correspond to the feeding categories of grazers and intermediate feeders on the one, and browsers on the other hand. We measured and calculated the mean retention time (MRT) of a solute and a particle (<2 mm) marker in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the reticulorumen (RR) of a small grazer, the Indian blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra, n=5, body mass of 26±4 kg) and an intermediate feeder, the nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus, n=5, body mass of 168±21 kg). MRT(solute) and MRT(particle) were 29±4.1 h and 60±6.6 h in blackbuck and 28±2.5 h and 54±8.9 h in the nilgai for the GIT, and 14±1.7 h, 45±5.0 h, 19±2.0 h and 45±8.4 h for the RR, respectively. With a selectivity factor (SF, the ratio of MRT(particle) to MRT(solute)) in the RR of 3.2±0.28 for blackbuck and 2.3±0.36 for nilgai, both species are clearly in the category of 'cattle-type' ruminants. In particular, the high SFRR of blackbuck, in spite of its small body size, is remarkable, and leads to specific predictions on the RR anatomy of this species (such as a particularly large omasum), which can be tested in further studies. The adaptive value of a high SFRR is mainly considered as an increase in microbial productivity in the RR.

  18. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    PubMed

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Proton microbeam radiotherapy with scanned pencil-beams--Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Kłodowska, M; Olko, P; Waligórski, M P R

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation, delivered by a synchrotron facility, using a set of highly collimated, narrow and parallel photon beams spaced by 1 mm or less, has been termed Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT). The tolerance of healthy tissue after MRT was found to be better than after standard broad X-ray beams, together with a more pronounced response of malignant tissue. The microbeam spacing and transverse peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) are considered to be relevant biological MRT parameters. We investigated the MRT concept for proton microbeams, where we expected different depth-dose profiles and PVDR dependences, resulting in skin sparing and homogeneous dose distributions at larger beam depths, due to differences between interactions of proton and photon beams in tissue. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code we simulated PVDR distributions for differently spaced 0.1 mm (sigma) pencil-beams of entrance energies 60, 80, 100 and 120 MeV irradiating a cylindrical water phantom with and without a bone layer, representing human head. We calculated PVDR distributions and evaluated uniformity of target irradiation at distal beam ranges of 60-120 MeV microbeams. We also calculated PVDR distributions for a 60 MeV spread-out Bragg peak microbeam configuration. Application of optimised proton MRT in terms of spot size, pencil-beam distribution, entrance beam energy, multiport irradiation, combined with relevant radiobiological investigations, could pave the way for hypofractionation scenarios where tissue sparing at the entrance, better malignant tissue response and better dose conformity of target volume irradiation could be achieved, compared with present proton beam radiotherapy configurations.

  20. The arterial baroreflex effectiveness index in risk stratification of chronic heart failure patients who are candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Serôdio, João; Martins Oliveira, Mário; Matoso Laranjo, Sérgio; Tavares, Cristiano; Silva Cunha, Pedro; Abreu, Ana; Branco, Luísa; Alves, Sandra; Rocha, Isabel; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Baroreflex function is an independent marker of prognosis in heart failure (HF). However, little is known about its relation to response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study is to assess arterial baroreflex function in HF patients who are candidates for CRT. The study population consisted of 25 patients with indication for CRT, aged 65±10 years, NYHA functional class ≥III in 52%, QRS width 159±15 ms, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 29±5%, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) 150±48 ml, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) 357±270 pg/ml, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) 18.4±5.0 ml/kg/min. An orthostatic tilt test was performed to assess the baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) by the sequence method. This group was compared with 15 age-matched healthy individuals. HF patients showed a significantly depressed BEI during tilt (31±12% vs. 49±18%, p=0.001). A lower BEI was associated with higher BNP (p=0.038), lower peak VO2 (p=0.048), and higher LVESV (p=0.031). By applying a cut-off value of 25% for BEI, two clusters of patients were identified: lower risk cluster (BEI >25%) QRS 153 ms, LVESV 129 ml, BNP 146 pg/ml, peak VO2 19.0 ml/kg/min; and higher risk cluster (IEB ≤25%) QRS 167 ms, LVESV 189 ml, BNP 590 pg/ml, peak VO2 16.2 ml/kg/min. Candidates for CRT show depressed arterial baroreflex function. Lower BEI was observed in high-risk HF patients. Baroreflex function correlated closely with other clinical HF parameters. Therefore, BEI may improve risk stratification in HF patients undergoing CRT. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Transit times of baseflow in New Zealand rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Daughney, Chris; Townsend, Dougal

    2015-04-01

    Water quantity and quality responses of catchments to climate and land-use changes are difficult to understand and predict due to complexities of subsurface water flow paths and potentially large groundwater stores. It is difficult to relate the hydrologic responses of catchments to measurable catchment properties. Tritium is ideally suited to provide a measurable parameter of hydrologic response. Tritium, a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years after the water enters the groundwater system, and can therefore provide information on transit time of water through the groundwater system over the time range 0 to 200 years mean residence time (MRT). Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments. In recent years it has become possible to use tritium in a straightforward way for dating of stream and river water due to the decay of the bomb-tritium from atmospheric thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Tritium dating of river water during baseflow conditions from over 120 sites throughout New Zealand show consistent patterns and a good correlation between geology and residence times of the water discharges. Basement rock catchments (greywacke, schist) have very young water of MRT less than 1year, sand-, mud-, limestone catchments have moderately old water of MRT 3-15 years, and porous ignimbrite catchments have very old water of MRT greater than 100 years. For example, the tritium data indicate MRT of 6 - 7 years in the Whanganui River, 3 - 3.5 years in the Rangitikei River, and 9 - 11 years in the large discharges from the Tertiary sediments in the Manawatu catchment. The discharges from the greywacke Ruahine and Tararua Ranges contain very young water with MRT of 0 - 2 years. Associated groundwater stores for the Rangitikei, Manawatu, and Whanganui Rivers are 1, 2, and 5 x 109 m3 of

  2. Multi-GNSS real-time precise positioning service and Initial assessment of BDS-3 (G Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Ge, Maaorong; Li, Xin; Zhang, Xiuaohong; Wu, Mingkui; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2017-04-01

    The rapid development of multi-constellation GNSSs (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, e.g., BeiDou, Galileo, GLONASS, GPS) and the IGS (International GNSS Service) Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) bring great opportunities and challenges for real-time precise positioning service. In this contribution, we present a GPS+GLONASS+BeiDou+Galileo four-system model to fully exploit the observations of all these four navigation satellite systems for real-time precise orbit determination, clock estimation and positioning. Meanwhile, an efficient multi-GNSS real-time precise positioning service system is designed and demonstrated by using the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and International GNSS Service (IGS) data streams including stations all over the world. The addition of the BeiDou, Galileo and GLONASS systems to the standard GPS-only processing, reduces the convergence time almost by 70%, while the positioning accuracy is improved by about 25%. The successful launch of five new-generation satellites of the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS-3) marks a significant step in expanding BeiDou into a navigation system with global coverage. We present an initial characterization and performance assessment for these new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites and their signals. The characteristics of the B1C, B1I, B2a, B2b and B3I signals are evaluated in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudorange multipath and noise, triple-frequency carrier phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, and double-differenced carrier phase and code residuals. With respect to BeiDou-2 satellites, the analysis of code multipath shows that the elevation-dependent code biases, which have been previously identified to exist in the code observations of BeiDou-2 satellites, seem to be not obvious for all the available signals of new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites. This will significantly benefit precise applications that resolve wide-lane ambiguity based on Melbourne

  3. Studioakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Peter

    Tonstudios zählen zu den Gebäuden und Räumen mit den höchsten Ansprüchen an die akustische Gestaltung. Die Akustik, die bei Gebäuden für Wohn- oder Büronutzung häufig eher nebensächlich behandelt wird, wird im Studiobau zu einem zentralen Bestandteil der Funktion. Daher spielen in der Planung von Studios einerseits Schallschutz und Bauakustik, also die Schallübertragung zwischen Räumen innerhalb eines Gebäudes, die Schallabstrahlung durch ein Gebäude und die Schalleinwirkung von außen, vor allem aber die Raumakustik, also die Schallübertragung innerhalb eines Raumes eine wichtige Rolle. Bei bauakustischen Aufgabenstellungen unterscheidet sich die Vorgehensweise im Studiobau grundsätzlich nur wenig von der im Bereich "ziviler“ Bauten, wenngleich die Anforderungen bei weitem höher liegen, die Konstruktionen aufwändiger sind, und die Qualität der Ausführung von erheblich größerer Bedeutung ist. In der Raumakustik dagegen weichen die Zielsetzungen im Studiobau so weit von denen beim Bau von Wohn-, Büro- und Konferenzräumen und selbst Theater- und Konzertsälen ab, dass bei der Planung völlig andere Sichtweisen und Beschreibungsformen auftreten und bei deren Umsetzung Konstruktionen notwendig werden, wie man sie kaum in anderen Bauten wiederfinden wird.

  4. Europäische Leitlinien (S1) für die Anwendung von hochdosierten intravenösen Immunglobulinen in der Dermatologie.

    PubMed

    Enk, Alexander; Hadaschik, Eva; Eming, Rüdiger; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; French, Lars; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Hertl, Michael; Jolles, Stephen; Karpati, Sarolta; Steinbrink, Kerstin; Stingl, Georg; Volc-Platzer, Beatrix; Zillikens, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    Die Behandlung schwerer dermatologischer Autoimmunerkrankungen und der toxischen epidermalen Nekrolyse (TEN) mit hochdosierten intravenösen Immunglobulinen (IVIg) ist ein bewährtes therapeutisches Verfahren in der Dermatologie. Da eine IVIg-Therapie in der Regel nur bei seltenen Erkrankungen oder bei schweren Fällen in Betracht gezogen wird, stützt sich die Anwendung von Immunglobulinen zumeist nicht auf Daten aus randomisierten kontrollierten Studien, wie sie in der evidenzbasierten Medizin erforderlich sind. Da Indikationen für die Anwendung von IVIg selten sind, ist es unwahrscheinlich, dass solche Studien in absehbarer Zeit durchgeführt werden. Wegen der hohen Kosten für IVIg im First-Line-Einsatz wurden die ersten klinischen Leitlinien für die Anwendung von IVIg bei dermatologischen Erkrankungen im Jahr 2008 herausgegeben und im Jahr 2011 überarbeitet. Diese europäischen Leitlinien wurden von einer Gruppe durch das EDF und die EADV benannter Experten erarbeitet. Die Leitlinien wurden erstellt, um die derzeit als wirksam erachteten Behandlungsindikationen zu aktualisieren und die für die Anwendung von IVIg bei dermatologischen Autoimmunerkrankungen und TEN vorliegenden Daten zusammenzufassen. Die vorliegenden Leitlinien repräsentieren die einvernehmlichen Meinungen und Definitionen von Experten zur Anwendung von IVIg, die die aktuell publizierten Daten widerspiegeln, und sollen als Entscheidungshilfe für den Einsatz von IVIg bei dermatologischen Erkrankungen dienen. © 2017 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  5. Preliminary Analyses of Beidou Signal-In Anomaly Since 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Ren, J.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    As BeiDou navigation system has been operational since December 2012. There is an increasing desire to use multiple constellation to improve positioning performance. The signal-in-space (SIS) anomaly caused by the ground control and the space vehicle is one of the major threats to affect the integrity. For a young Global Navigation Satellite System, knowledge about SIS anomalies in history is very important for not only assessing the SIS integrity performance of a constellation but also providing the assumption for ARAIM (Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring). In this paper, the broadcast ephemerides and the precise ones are pre-processed for avoiding the false anomaly identification. The SIS errors over the period of Mar. 2013-Feb. 2016 are computed by comparing the broadcast ephemerides with the precise ones. The time offsets between GPST (GPS time) and BDT (BeiDou time) are estimated and removed by an improved estimation algorithm. SIS worst-UREs are computed and a RMS criteria are investigated to identify the SIS anomalies. The results show that the probability of BeiDou SIS anomalies is in 10-3 level in last three years. Even though BeiDou SIS integrity performance currently cannot match the GPS integrity performances, the result indicates that BeiDou has a tendency to improve its integrity performance.

  6. Retrospective analysis of a VACM (vacuum-assisted closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction) treatment manual for temporary abdominal wall closure - results of 58 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Beltzer, Christian; Eisenächer, Alexander; Badendieck, Steffen; Doll, Dietrich; Küper, Markus; Lenz, Stefan; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Das optimale Behandlungskonzept eines temporären Bauchdeckenverschlusses (temporary abdominal closure, TAC) bei kritisch kranken viszeralchirurgischen Patienten mit offenem Abdomen („open abdomen“, OA) ist weiterhin unklar. Durch eine VACM-Therapie (vacuum-assisted closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction) scheinen sich gegenüber anderen Verfahren des TAC höhere Faszienverschlussraten (delayed primary fascial closure rate, FCR) realisieren zu lassen. Material und Methoden: Patienten unserer Klinik (n=58), welche in den Jahren 2005 bis 2008 mittels eines VAC/VACM-Behandlungsmanuals behandelt wurden, wurden retrospektiv analysiert. Ergebnisse: Die FCR aller Patienten betrug insgesamt 48,3% (95%-Konfidenzintervall: 34,95–61,78). Bei Patienten, bei denen im Verlauf ein Vicryl-Netz auf Faszienebene implantiert wurde (VACM-Therapie), konnte eine FCR von 61,3% realisiert werden. Die Letalität der mittels VACM therapierten Patienten betrug 45,2% (95%-KI: 27,32–63,97).Schlussfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse der eigenen Untersuchung bestätigen bisherige Studienergebnisse, die eine akzeptable FCR bei non-trauma-Patienten durch Anwendung der VACM-Therapie zeigen konnten. Die VACM-Therapie scheint aktuell Therapiekonzept der ersten Wahl bei Patienten mit OA und Indikation zum TAC zu sein.

  7. Effect of food on the bioavailability of oxybutynin from a controlled release tablet.

    PubMed

    Lukkari, E; Castrèn-Kortekangas, P; Juhakoski, A; Löyttyniemi, E; Aranko, K; Neuvonen, P J

    1996-01-01

    The effect of food on the bioavailability of oxybutynin was assessed in a randomised cross-over study in 23 healthy volunteers. A single oral 10 mg dose of a controlled release oxybutynin tablet was administered after a high fat breakfast and to fasting subjects. The AUC, Cmax, tmax, t1/2 and MRT of oxybutynin and its active metabolite N-desethyloxybutynin were determined. Breakfast did not change the AUC of oxybutynin but increased the AUC of N-desethyloxybutynin by about 20%. The Cmax of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin were two-fold higher when the drug was administered after breakfast compared to the fasting state. Breakfast significantly reduced the MRT of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin.

  8. Mitochondrial replacement techniques and Mexico's rule of law: on the legality of the first maternal spindle transfer case

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Arellano, María de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Abstract News about the first baby born after a mitochondrial replacement technique (MRT; specifically maternal spindle transfer) broke on September 27, 2016 and, in a matter of hours, went global. Of special interest was the fact that the mitochondrial replacement procedure happened in Mexico. One of the scientists behind this world first was quoted as having said that he and his team went to Mexico to carry out the procedure because, in Mexico, there are no rules. In this paper, we explore Mexico's rule of law in relation to mitochondrial replacement techniques and show that, in fact, certain instances of MRTs are prohibited at the federal level and others are prohibited at the state level. According to our interpretation of the law, the scientists behind this first successful MRT procedure broke federal regulations regarding assisted fertilization research. PMID:28852557

  9. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  10. Implicit versus explicit momentum relaxation time solution for semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, E. G. Ruiz, F. G. Godoy, A. Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-07-14

    We discuss the necessity of the exact implicit Momentum Relaxation Time (MRT) solution of the Boltzmann transport equation in order to achieve reliable carrier mobility results in semiconductor nanowires. Firstly, the implicit solution for a 1D electron gas with a isotropic bandstructure is presented resulting in the formulation of a simple matrix system. Using this solution as a reference, the explicit approach is demonstrated to be inaccurate for the calculation of inelastic anisotropic mechanisms such as polar optical phonons, characteristic of III-V materials. Its validity for elastic and isotropic mechanisms is also evaluated. Finally, the implications of the MRT explicit approach inaccuracies on the total mobility of Si and III-V NWs are studied.

  11. Estimation of sonic layer depth from surface parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sarika; Ali, M. M.; Sen, P. N.

    2007-09-01

    Sonic layer depth (SLD), an important parameter in underwater acoustics, is the near surface depth of first maxima of the sound speed in the ocean. The lack of direct observations of vertical profiles of velocimeters or temperature and salinity, from which sound speed and SLD can be calculated, hampers the investigation of SLD. In this study, we demonstrate SLD estimation using artificial neural network (ANN) from surface measurements that can be replaced with satellite observations later. Surface and subsurface measurements from a central Arabian Sea mooring are used for this purpose. The estimated SLD had a root mean square error (correlation coefficient) of 11.83 m (0.84). Approximately 76% (91%) of estimations lie within +/-10 m (+/-20 m). SLD has also been estimated from surface parameters using multiple regression technique (MRT). ANN proved its superiority over MRT in estimating SLD from surface parameters.

  12. An accelerated photo-magnetic imaging reconstruction algorithm based on an analytical forward solution and a fast Jacobian assembly method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouizi, F.; Erkol, H.; Luk, A.; Marks, M.; Unlu, M. B.; Gulsen, G.

    2016-10-01

    We previously introduced photo-magnetic imaging (PMI), an imaging technique that illuminates the medium under investigation with near-infrared light and measures the induced temperature increase using magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). Using a multiphysics solver combining photon migration and heat diffusion, PMI models the spatiotemporal distribution of temperature variation and recovers high resolution optical absorption images using these temperature maps. In this paper, we present a new fast non-iterative reconstruction algorithm for PMI. This new algorithm uses analytic methods during the resolution of the forward problem and the assembly of the sensitivity matrix. We validate our new analytic-based algorithm with the first generation finite element method (FEM) based reconstruction algorithm previously developed by our team. The validation is performed using, first synthetic data and afterwards, real MRT measured temperature maps. Our new method accelerates the reconstruction process 30-fold when compared to a single iteration of the FEM-based algorithm.

  13. Mechanism-based model of a mass rapid transit system: A perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Khoon, Lee Kee; Guang, Hung Gih; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our findings on the spatiotemporal dynamics within the mass rapid transit (MRT) system of Singapore. We show that the trip distribution of Origin-Destination (OD) station pairs follows a power-law, implying the existence of critical OD pairs. We then present and discuss the empirically validated agent-based model (ABM) we have developed. The model allows recreation of the observed statistics and the setting up of various scenarios and their effects on the system, such as increasing the commuter population and the propagation of travel delays within the transportation network. The proposed model further enables identification of bottlenecks that can cause the MRT to break down, and consequently provide foresight on how such disruptions can possibly be managed. This can potentially provide a versatile approach for transport planners and government regulators to make quantifiable policies that optimally balance cost and convenience as a function of the number of the commuting public.

  14. Real-time photo-magnetic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nouizi, Farouk; Erkol, Hakan; Luk, Alex; Unlu, Mehmet B.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    We previously introduced a new high resolution diffuse optical imaging modality termed, photo-magnetic imaging (PMI). PMI irradiates the object under investigation with near-infrared light and monitors the variations of temperature using magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). In this paper, we present a real-time PMI image reconstruction algorithm that uses analytic methods to solve the forward problem and assemble the Jacobian matrix much faster. The new algorithm is validated using real MRT measured temperature maps. In fact, it accelerates the reconstruction process by more than 250 times compared to a single iteration of the FEM-based algorithm, which opens the possibility for the real-time PMI. PMID:27867701

  15. Multi-strip silicon sensors for beam array monitoring in micro-beam radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, E; Brauer-Krisch, E; Bravin, A; Cornelius, I; Fournier, P; Hansen, T E; Kok, A; Lerch, M; Monakhov, E; Morse, J; Pacifico, N; Petasecca, M; Povoli, M; Requard, H; Rozenfeld, A D; Salome, M; Sandaker, H; Stugu, B

    2016-12-01

    We present here the latest results from tests performed at the ESRF ID17 and ID21 beamlines for the characterization of novel beam monitors for Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), which is currently being implemented at ID17. MRT aims at treating solid tumors by exploiting an array of evenly spaced microbeams, having an energy spectrum distributed between 27 and 600keV and peaking at 100keV. Given the high instantaneous dose delivered (up to 20kGy/s), the position and the intensity of the microbeams has to be precisely and instantly monitored. For this purpose, we developed dedicated silicon microstrip beam monitors. We have successfully characterized them, both with a microbeam array at ID17, and a submicron scanning beam at ID21. We present here the latest results obtained in recent tests along with an outlook on future developments.

  16. Does field independence predict visuo-spatial abilities underpinning human navigation? Behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Di Marco, Mariangela; Pizzamiglio, Luigi; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2016-10-01

    Field independence (FI) has been defined as the extent to which the individual perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding field, rather than embedded in the field. It has been proposed to represent a relatively stable pattern in individuals' predisposition towards information processing. In the present study, we assessed the effect of FI on skills underpinning human navigation. Fifty Healthy individuals took part in this study. FI has been assessed by using the group embedded figures test (GEFT). Participants were also asked to perform several visuo-spatial orientation tasks, including the perspective taking/spatial orientation test (PTSOT), the mental rotation task (MRT) and the vividness task, as well as the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale, a self-reported questionnaire, which has been found to predict environmental spatial orientation ability. We found that performances on the GEFT significantly predicted performances on the PTSOT and the MRT. This result supports the idea that FI predicts human navigation.

  17. Compact cryogenic system with mechanical cryocoolers for antihydrogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Mohri, A; Kanai, Y; Enomoto, Y; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a compact cryogenic system which cools a vacuum chamber housing multi-ring trap electrodes (MRTs) of an antihydrogen synthesis trap using mechanical cryocoolers to achieve background pressure less than 10(-12) Torr. The vacuum chamber and the cryocoolers are thermally connected by copper strips of 99.9999% in purity. All components are installed within a diametric gap between the MRT of phi108 mm and a magnet bore of phi160 mm. An adjusting mechanism is prepared to align the MRT axis to the magnet axis. The vacuum chamber was successfully cooled down to 4.0 K after 14 h of cooling with heat load of 0.8 W.

  18. The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future.

  19. Monitoring of Brucella reactor does following milk examination using different techniques.

    PubMed

    el-Razik, K A Abd; Ghazi, Y A; Salama, E M

    2007-01-15

    Milk samples from 129 does were collected and monitored for Brucella antibodies using immunological tests such as Milk Ring Test (MRT), Whey Agglutination Test (WAT), Whey Antiglobulin Coombs Test (WCT) and milk ELISA (m ELISA) using Brucella Periplasmic protein antigen. Results obtained from these tests were compared to PCR and bacterial isolation. The highest incidence of positive reactors was given by Whey Antiglobulin and Whey Agglutination Test (9.3%) while the lowest incidence was given by bacterial isolation (Br. melitensis biovars 3, 3.8%). PCR showed the highest agreement with the bacterial isolation, while WAT and WCT showed the lowest one. PCR showed a high sensitivity of 1 x 10 B. melitensis CFU mL(-1) of milk. The results of mELISA here suggests its efficiency to be used as a screening test and/or confirmatory test, while the modified MRT still need more investigations to diagnosis caprine brucellosis.

  20. Optimization of integrated impeller mixer via radiotracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Othman, N; Kamarudin, S K; Takriff, M S; Rosli, M I; Engku Chik, E M F; Adnan, M A K

    2014-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments are carried out in order to determine the mean residence time (MRT) as well as percentage of dead zone, V dead (%), in an integrated mixer consisting of Rushton and pitched blade turbine (PBT). Conventionally, optimization was performed by varying one parameter and others were held constant (OFAT) which lead to enormous number of experiments. Thus, in this study, a 4-factor 3-level Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was introduced to obtain an accurate optimization of mixing efficiency with minimal number of experiments. This paper describes the optimal conditions of four process parameters, namely, impeller speed, impeller clearance, type of impeller, and sampling time, in obtaining MRT and V dead (%) using radiotracer experiments. The optimum conditions for the experiments were 100 rpm impeller speed, 50 mm impeller clearance, Type A mixer, and 900 s sampling time to reach optimization.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of indomethacin in poultry.

    PubMed

    Cristòfol, C; Valladares, J E; Martí, G; Arboix, M

    2000-01-01

    Indomethacin (INDO) is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug widely used since the 1970s. The pharmacokinetic behavior of INDO (2 mg/kg) has been studied after intravenous (i.v.) and oral administration to broiler chickens. After i.v. administration, a first fast distribution phase and a later and slower elimination phase were observed. The elimination half-life and mean residence time (MRT) obtained were 1.0 hr and 0.8 hr, respectively. After oral administration, a flip-flop phenomenon was observed giving an elimination half-life and MRT approximately three times and six times higher, respectively, than the i.v. administration. The plasma concentrations after oral administration were sustained during 8-10 hr, giving an antinflammatory cover over the dose producing 50% of maximal effect during this time period.

  2. SPECT measurements with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in focal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, E.; Rosen, I.; Elmqvist, D.; Ingvar, D.H.

    1988-12-01

    The ability of SPECT measurements with (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO (Ceretec) to find the location of the epileptic focus was studied in patients under consideration for neurosurgical treatment for therapy-resistant focal epilepsy. The location of low (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at interictal measurements, and of high (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at ictal measurements, was compared to the findings of extensive ictal and interictal EEG examinations, and to the results of CT and MRT. While EEG revealed focal epileptic activity in all of the 14 patients, SPECT showed regional abnormalities in 13 (93%). CT and MRT showed abnormal findings in 30%.

  3. Training generalized spatial skills.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rebecca; Thompson, William L; Ganis, Giorgio; Newcombe, Nora S; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2008-08-01

    Spatial transformation skills are an essential aspect of cognitive ability. These skills can be improved by practice, but such improvement has usually been specific to tasks and stimuli. The present study investigated whether intensive long-term practice leads to change that transcends stimulus and task parameters. Thirty-one participants (14 male, 17 female) were tested on three cognitive tasks: a computerized version of the Shepard-Metzler (1971) mental rotation task (MRT), a mental paper-folding task (MPFT), and a verbal analogies task (VAT). Each individual then participated in daily practice sessions with the MRT or the MPFT over 21 days. Postpractice comparisons revealed transfer of practice gains to novel stimuli for the practiced task, as well as transfer to the other, nonpracticed spatial task. Thus, practice effects were process based, not instance based. Improvement in the nonpracticed spatial task was greater than that in the VAT; thus, improvement was not merely due to greater ease with computerized testing.

  4. Accuracy and Numerical Stabilty Analysis of Lattice Boltzmann Method with Multiple Relaxation Time for Incompressible Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipto; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is the novel method for simulating fluid dynamics. Nowadays, the application of LBM ranges from the incompressible flow, flow in the porous medium, until microflows. The common collision model of LBM is the BGK with a constant single relaxation time τ. However, BGK suffers from numerical instabilities. These instabilities could be eliminated by implementing LBM with multiple relaxation time. Both of those scheme have implemented for incompressible 2 dimensions lid-driven cavity. The stability analysis has done by finding the maximum Reynolds number and velocity for converged simulations. The accuracy analysis is done by comparing the velocity profile with the benchmark results from Ghia, et al and calculating the net velocity flux. The tests concluded that LBM with MRT are more stable than BGK, and have a similar accuracy. The maximum Reynolds number that converges for BGK is 3200 and 7500 for MRT respectively.

  5. Fractionating soils so that others do not have to: radiocarbon informs choice of method for scale, ecosystem, or process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Physical separation of soil into various fractions has long been used to address questions concerning mechanisms of soil organic matter stabilization, processes contributing to soil carbon (C) accumulation, and the effects of land use, climate change, and management practice on soil quality and carbon sequestration. However, no published method works well for every soil, ecosystem, or research question. Often a chosen method does not effectively separate soil into C pools that differ in mean residence time (MRT) and sensitivity to change, which can complicate the interpretation of results. Soil C is stabilized by a variety of mechanisms and radiocarbon-based estimates of MRT can reveal the integrated effects of these mechanisms on bulk soil C storage; radiocarbon-based estimates of MRT on isolated soil fractions separated by a carefully chosen method can reveal internal C dynamics invisible to the bulk soil methods. A variety of soils collected around Hawaii (Mollisol, Oxisol, Andisol) were fractionated by several common methods and the radiocarbon-based MRT was estimated for comparison among fractions, soils, and methods. In some cases, depending on the research question of interest, aspects of different methods could be combined to reveal changes in soil C pools on both short and long time frames. For example, for a cultivated, mixed-mineralogy Mollisol, a method that combined a density separation at 1.8 g mL-1 for free light fraction, then calibrated sonication to disrupt aggregates for an occluded fraction, then further sequential fractionation at 2.0 g -1could produce soil C pools with turnover of 3.5 yr (free light fraction), 10 yr (occluded light fraction), 714 yr (1.8-2.0 fraction), and 2090 yr (<2.0 fraction). This method may be ideal for tracking short-term (1-10 year) changes in soil structure due to sustainable agriculture or management practices. For an Andisol, land conversion from old-growth native forest to 80 yr of pasture increased bulk soil C

  6. Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system calculation engine for microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Rovira, I.; Sempau, J.; Prezado, Y.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a synchrotron radiotherapy technique that explores the limits of the dose-volume effect. Preclinical studies have shown that MRT irradiations (arrays of 25-75-{mu}m-wide microbeams spaced by 200-400 {mu}m) are able to eradicate highly aggressive animal tumor models while healthy tissue is preserved. These promising results have provided the basis for the forthcoming clinical trials at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The first step includes irradiation of pets (cats and dogs) as a milestone before treatment of human patients. Within this context, accurate dose calculations are required. The distinct features of both beam generation and irradiation geometry in MRT with respect to conventional techniques require the development of a specific MRT treatment planning system (TPS). In particular, a Monte Carlo (MC)-based calculation engine for the MRT TPS has been developed in this work. Experimental verification in heterogeneous phantoms and optimization of the computation time have also been performed. Methods: The penelope/penEasy MC code was used to compute dose distributions from a realistic beam source model. Experimental verification was carried out by means of radiochromic films placed within heterogeneous slab-phantoms. Once validation was completed, dose computations in a virtual model of a patient, reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images, were performed. To this end, decoupling of the CT image voxel grid (a few cubic millimeter volume) to the dose bin grid, which has micrometer dimensions in the transversal direction of the microbeams, was performed. Optimization of the simulation parameters, the use of variance-reduction (VR) techniques, and other methods, such as the parallelization of the simulations, were applied in order to speed up the dose computation. Results: Good agreement between MC simulations and experimental results was achieved, even at

  7. Mitochondrial genome inheritance and replacement in the human germline.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Don P; Hayama, Tomonari; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondria, the ubiquitous power packs in nearly every eukaryotic cell, contain their own DNA, known as mtDNA, which is inherited exclusively from the mother. The number of mitochondrial genomes varies depending on the cell's energy needs. The mature oocyte contains the highest number of mitochondria of any cell type, although there is little if any mtDNA replication after fertilization until the embryo implants. This has potential repercussions for mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT; see description of currently employed methods below) used to prevent the transmission of mtDNA-based disorders. If only a few mitochondria with defective mtDNA are left in the embryo and undergo extensive replication, it might therefore thwart the purpose of MRT In order to improve the safety and efficacy of this experimental therapy, we need a better understanding of how and which mtDNA is tagged for replication versus transcription after fertilization of the oocyte. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  9. Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy in Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Don P.; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in disease and in age-related infertility. Mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT) in oocytes or zygotes such as pronuclear (PNT), spindle (ST) or polar body (PBT) transfer could prevent second generation transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. PNT, associated with high levels of mtDNA carryover in mice but low levels in human embryos, carries ethical issues secondary to donor embryo destruction. ST, developed in primates, supports normal development to adults and low mtDNA carryover. PBT in mice, coupled with PN or ST, may increase the yield of reconstructed embryos with low mtDNA carryover. MRT also offers replacement of the deficient cytoplasm in oocytes from older patients, with the expectation of high pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization. PMID:25573721

  10. Optimization of Integrated Impeller Mixer via Radiotracer Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Othman, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Takriff, M. S.; Rosli, M. I.; Engku Chik, E. M. F.; Adnan, M. A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments are carried out in order to determine the mean residence time (MRT) as well as percentage of dead zone, Vdead (%), in an integrated mixer consisting of Rushton and pitched blade turbine (PBT). Conventionally, optimization was performed by varying one parameter and others were held constant (OFAT) which lead to enormous number of experiments. Thus, in this study, a 4-factor 3-level Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was introduced to obtain an accurate optimization of mixing efficiency with minimal number of experiments. This paper describes the optimal conditions of four process parameters, namely, impeller speed, impeller clearance, type of impeller, and sampling time, in obtaining MRT and Vdead (%) using radiotracer experiments. The optimum conditions for the experiments were 100 rpm impeller speed, 50 mm impeller clearance, Type A mixer, and 900 s sampling time to reach optimization. PMID:24741344

  11. Design, construction, and optimization of a novel, modular, and scalable incubation chamber for continuous viral inactivation.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Raquel; Godfrey, Scott; Coffman, Jon; Amarikwa, Linus; Parker, Stephanie; Hernandez, Lindsay; Wachuku, Chinenye; Mai, Ben; Song, Brian; Hoskatti, Shashidhar; Asong, Jinkeng; Shamlou, Parviz; Bardliving, Cameron; Fiadeiro, Marcus

    2017-02-11

    We designed, built or 3D printed, and screened tubular reactors that minimize axial dispersion to serve as incubation chambers for continuous virus inactivation of biological products. Empirical residence time distribution data were used to derive each tubular design's volume equivalent to a theoretical plate (VETP) values at a various process flow rates. One design, the Jig in a Box (JIB), yielded the lowest VETP, indicating optimal radial mixing and minimal axial dispersion. A minimum residence time (MRT) approach was employed, where the MRT is the minimum time the product spends in the tubular reactor. This incubation time is typically 60 minutes in a batch process. We provide recommendations for combinations of flow rates and device dimensions for operation of the JIB connected in series that will meet a 60-min MRT. The results show that under a wide range of flow rates and corresponding volumes, it takes 75 ± 3 min for 99% of the product to exit the reactor while meeting the 60-min MRT criterion and fulfilling the constraint of keeping a differential pressure drop under 5 psi. Under these conditions, the VETP increases slightly from 3 to 5 mL though the number of theoretical plates stays constant at about 1326 ± 88. We also demonstrated that the final design volume was only 6% ± 1% larger than the ideal plug flow volume. Using such a device would enable continuous viral inactivation in a truly continuous process or in the effluent of a batch chromatography column. Viral inactivation studies would be required to validate such a design. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017.

  12. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  13. Comparative pharmacokinetics of three phenylpropanoids in rat plasma after oral administration of Ramulus Cinnamomi and Ramulus Cinnamomi-Ephedrae Herba herb-couple extract.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Tang, Qing-Fa; Huo, Hui-Ling; Chen, Fei-Long; Song, Shuai; Xing, Xue-Feng; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2017-07-28

    To investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of three phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamic alcohol and coumarin) in Ramulus Cinnamomi (GZ) and Ramulus Cinnamomi-Ephedrae Herba (MH) herb-couple (GZMH). Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into the GZ and GZMH herb-couple groups. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.08, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after oral administration. The three phenylpropanoids in rat plasma were quantified using an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for pharmacokinetic study. In GZMH group, the area under the curve (AUC), mean retention time (MRT) of cinnamic acid and coumarin were increased significantly (P<0.01, respectively), and biological half-life (t1/2z) was obviously shorter (P<0.05) compared with the GZ group. There were no significant differences in the mean retention time from 0 to ∞ (MRT0-∞), the peak concentration (Cmax), the time to peak (Tmax) and t1/2z, except for AUC and MRT0-t (the mean retention time from 0 to t) of cinnamic alcohol in the GZMH group by comparison to the GZ group (P<0.01, respectively). The AUC, MRT (both P<0.01) and t1/2z (P<0.05) of coumarin were increased significantly, while Cmax, and Tmax were decreased slightly by comparison to the GZ group (P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in some pharmacokinetic parameters of the three compounds between GZ and GZMH groups, which meant that MH could affect the absorption and elimination of the three compounds.

  14. Current and Historical Sediment Loads in the Lower Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    been affected by changes in land-use and river management; increasing in the 19th and early-20th Centuries, before decreasing due to soil ...System IL Illinois xx KY Kentucky LA Louisiana LCA Louisiana Coastal Area MO Missouri MRC Mississippi River Commission MR&T Mississippi River...before decreasing due to soil conservation and improved land management. The supply of sediment from tributaries is also believed to have decreased

  15. Modeling, measuring, and mitigating instability growth in liner implosions on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. In this talk, we will discuss the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. We present simulations that show electro-thermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability growth. We discuss measurement results from experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electro-thermal instability growth on well-characterized initially solid aluminum or beryllium rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These measurements show good agreement with electro-thermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone. Recent experiments have confirmed simulation predictions of dramatically reduced instability growth in solid metallic rods when thick dielectric coatings are used to mitigate density perturbations arising from the electro-thermal instability. These results provide further evidence that the inherent surface roughness of the target is not the dominant seed for the MRT instability, in contrast with most inertial confinement fusion approaches. These results suggest a new technique for substantially reducing the integral MRT growth in magnetically driven implosions. Indeed, recent results on the Z facility with 100 km/s Al and Be liner implosions show substantially reduced growth. These new results include axially magnetized, CH-coated beryllium liner radiographs in which the inner liner surface is observed to be remarkably straight and uniform at a radius of about 120 microns (convergence ratio ~20). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under

  16. Enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling; Li, Qing

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is developed for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams under the local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) condition. The enthalpy-based MRT-LB method consists of three different MRT-LB models: one for flow field based on the generalized non-Darcy model, and the other two for phase-change material (PCM) and metal-foam temperature fields described by the LTNE model. The moving solid-liquid phase interface is implicitly tracked through the liquid fraction, which is simultaneously obtained when the energy equations of PCM and metal foam are solved. The present method has several distinctive features. First, as compared with previous studies, the present method avoids the iteration procedure; thus it retains the inherent merits of the standard LB method and is superior to the iteration method in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Second, a volumetric LB scheme instead of the bounce-back scheme is employed to realize the no-slip velocity condition in the interface and solid phase regions, which is consistent with the actual situation. Last but not least, the MRT collision model is employed, and with additional degrees of freedom, it has the ability to reduce the numerical diffusion across the phase interface induced by solid-liquid phase change. Numerical tests demonstrate that the present method can serve as an accurate and efficient numerical tool for studying metal-foam enhanced solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in latent heat storage. Finally, comparisons and discussions are made to offer useful information for practical applications of the present method.

  17. Benchmarking and validation of a Geant4-SHADOW Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculations in microbeam radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Iwan; Guatelli, Susanna; Fournier, Pauline; Crosbie, Jeffrey C; Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Lerch, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a synchrotron-based radiotherapy modality that uses high-intensity beams of spatially fractionated radiation to treat tumours. The rapid evolution of MRT towards clinical trials demands accurate treatment planning systems (TPS), as well as independent tools for the verification of TPS calculated dose distributions in order to ensure patient safety and treatment efficacy. Monte Carlo computer simulation represents the most accurate method of dose calculation in patient geometries and is best suited for the purpose of TPS verification. A Monte Carlo model of the ID17 biomedical beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has been developed, including recent modifications, using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit interfaced with the SHADOW X-ray optics and ray-tracing libraries. The code was benchmarked by simulating dose profiles in water-equivalent phantoms subject to irradiation by broad-beam (without spatial fractionation) and microbeam (with spatial fractionation) fields, and comparing against those calculated with a previous model of the beamline developed using the PENELOPE code. Validation against additional experimental dose profiles in water-equivalent phantoms subject to broad-beam irradiation was also performed. Good agreement between codes was observed, with the exception of out-of-field doses and toward the field edge for larger field sizes. Microbeam results showed good agreement between both codes and experimental results within uncertainties. Results of the experimental validation showed agreement for different beamline configurations. The asymmetry in the out-of-field dose profiles due to polarization effects was also investigated, yielding important information for the treatment planning process in MRT. This work represents an important step in the development of a Monte Carlo-based independent verification tool for treatment planning in MRT.

  18. Brachioradial pruritus as a result of cervical spine pathology: the results of a magnetic resonance tomography study.

    PubMed

    Marziniak, Martin; Phan, Ngoc Quan; Raap, Ulrike; Siepmann, Dorothee; Schürmeyer-Horst, Funda; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Niederstadt, Thomas; Ständer, Sonja

    2011-10-01

    Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) describes a rare form of itching occurring at the dorsolateral part of the forearms. Recent case reports suggest that BRP may be attributed to cervical lesions or spine neoplasms. We sought to determine the incidence of cervical spine changes in BRP and to correlate the localization of spinal lesions with the dermatomal presence of pruritus. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) of the cervical spinal cord, a chest x-ray, and a skin biopsy were performed in 41 patients (28 female, 13 male; 59.0 ± 10.6 years) with BRP. Patients completed an itch questionnaire (NeuroDerm Questionnaire) that included a dermatome chart and the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire. The patients marked the locations C5 (90.2%) and C6 (100%) on the dermatome chart. All patients had detectable MRT changes. In 80.5% of the patients, stenosis of the intervertebral foramen or protrusions of the cervical disk led to nerve compression. The location of the nerve compression lesions correlated significantly with the dermatomal localization of the pruritus (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.893; P < .01). No spinal neoplasm was observed, and 19.5% of the patients had degenerative changes without significant correlation to the dermatomal localization of pruritus. No healthy control group without pruritus was investigated. BRP may result from cervical nerve compression, and rarely, it may also stem from degenerative changes. Our findings suggest that even slight cervical changes detected on MRT may alter itch afferents and lead to BRP. Spinal cord tumors are rare and should be ruled out by a cervical spine MRT. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Integrated Hearing Protection Headsets on the Quality of Radio Communications (Effets des Casques D’ecoute Munis d’un Dispositif Integre de Protection de L’Ouie sur la Qualite des Communications Radio)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of...averaged SPIN and MRT scores using SPSS Statistics 17.0 (Statistical package for social sciences, SPSS Inc., 2008). Statistical significance was...Date: _________ Headset___________ 1 but bug bus 14 map mat math 27 wed fed bed 40 cake came cave buff bun buck mad mass man led shed red

  20. The effect of size and density on the mean retention time of particles in the reticulorumen of cattle ( Bos primigenius f. taurus), muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus) and moose ( Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Lechner, Isabel; Barboza, Perry; Collins, William; Tervoort, Theo A; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Particle passage from the reticulorumen (RR) depends on particle density and size. Forage particle density and size are related and change over time in the RR. Particle density mainly influences sorting in the reticulum, whereas particle size influences particle retention in the fibre mat of stratified rumen contents ('filter-bed' effect). We investigated these effects independently, by inserting plastic particles of different sizes (1, 10 and 20 mm) and densities (1·03, 1·20 and 1·44 mg/ml) in the RR of cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus) as a pilot study, and of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus; n 4) and moose (Alces alces; n 2) both fed two diets (browse and grass). Faeces were analysed for plastic residues for 13 d after dosing to calculate mean retention times (MRT). The results confirmed previous findings of differences in absolute MRT between species. Comparing muskoxen with moose, there was no difference in the effect of particle density on the MRT between species but particle size had a more pronounced effect on the MRT in muskoxen than in moose. This indicated a stronger 'filter-bed effect' in muskoxen, in accord with the reports of stratified RR contents in this species v. the absence of RR content stratification in moose. Low-density particles were retained longer in both species fed on grass diets, indicating a contribution of forage type to the 'filter-bed effect'. The results indicate that retention based on particle size may differ between ruminant species, depending on the presence of a fibre mat in the RR, whereas the density-dependent mechanism of sedimentation in the RR is rather constant across species.

  1. Competitive-level differences in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and twelve minute run test performance in soccer referees.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Abt, Grant; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine yo-yo intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo test) and 12-minute run test (12MRT) performances in experienced soccer referees of different competitive levels. Three groups (n = 14 each) of experienced Italian soccer referees officiating in the first (series AB, top-level), third (series C, medium-level), and fourth (series D, low-level) division, were randomly submitted to the 12MRT and the Yo-Yo test during 2 testing sessions, 48-hours apart. 12MRT performances were 3,000 +/- 112 m; 2,894 +/- 99 m; and 2,896 +/- 171 m for top-level, medium-level and low-level referees, respectively (p > 0.05). In the Yo-Yo test, the top-level, medium-level, and low-level referees covered 1,874 +/- 431 m; 1,360 +/- 172 m; and 1,272 +/- 215 m, respectively. The test performances of top-level referees in the Yo-Yo test was significantly different from those scored by medium-level and low-level referees (p < 0.05). After the Yo-Yo test, blood lactate concentrations (BLC) were higher in the medium-level and low-level referees compared with the top-level referees (p < 0.05). The results of the present study show that the Yo-Yo test and not the 12MRT can discriminate endurance performance in experienced elite level soccer referees. With respect to its discriminative and match performance validity, the Yo-Yo test may be considered a relevant field test to assess endurance preparedness for experienced soccer referees and a useful tool in talent selection.

  2. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles.

  3. Enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling; Li, Qing

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is developed for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams under the local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) condition. The enthalpy-based MRT-LB method consists of three different MRT-LB models: one for flow field based on the generalized non-Darcy model, and the other two for phase-change material (PCM) and metal-foam temperature fields described by the LTNE model. The moving solid-liquid phase interface is implicitly tracked through the liquid fraction, which is simultaneously obtained when the energy equations of PCM and metal foam are solved. The present method has several distinctive features. First, as compared with previous studies, the present method avoids the iteration procedure; thus it retains the inherent merits of the standard LB method and is superior to the iteration method in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Second, a volumetric LB scheme instead of the bounce-back scheme is employed to realize the no-slip velocity condition in the interface and solid phase regions, which is consistent with the actual situation. Last but not least, the MRT collision model is employed, and with additional degrees of freedom, it has the ability to reduce the numerical diffusion across the phase interface induced by solid-liquid phase change. Numerical tests demonstrate that the present method can serve as an accurate and efficient numerical tool for studying metal-foam enhanced solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in latent heat storage. Finally, comparisons and discussions are made to offer useful information for practical applications of the present method.

  4. Speech Intelligibility While Wearing Civilian Full-Facepiece Air-Purifying Respirators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Test Procedures 9 Equipment 10 Data Analyses 10 Respirator Trial Analyses 10 Comparisons Among Trials 11 RESULTS. 12 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2...22 Trial on 28 Mar 09: Avon FM12 23 Comparisons Among Trials 24 Differences in Performance Rating by Speaker Listener Gender 24 Speech Transmission...six-word lists of monosyllabic English words, most having three sounds in a consonant- vowel -consonant sequence. The MRT evaluates a listener’s

  5. [Optimized study technic in meniscopathies by NMR tomographic 3D imaging at 1.5 tesla].

    PubMed

    Skalej, M; Klose, U; Küper, K

    1988-02-01

    Traumatic and degenerative changes in the meniscus can be demonstrated well by MRT, but the small size and complex anatomical structure of the menisci present practical problems. A correct understanding is only possible by images in several planes and good resolution, making the examination a lengthy procedure. A technique is therefore described using 3-D images and reconstruction of high-resolution films, which allows rapid examination of the menisci in optimal planes.

  6. Respirator Speech Intelligibility Testing with an Experienced Speaker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    having three sounds in a consonant- vowel -consonant sequence. The MRT requires listeners to correctly identify single-syllable words spoken by a...intelligibility of commercial chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) air-purifying respirators (APRs). The speaker’s sound output level...enunciation, accent, and pronunciation may adversely affect sound conveyance and speech intelligibility during respirator wear. It was postulated that an

  7. Sensitivity of Availability Estimates to Input Data Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    found to be equally effective component characterization methods (pertaining to model availability estimation error) compared to using automated software... Annotated as I ( for component i, it represents the proportion of system state vectors which are critical for component i [5:456]. When the system...31.76950 176.63768 ....... ... Sd S-P I d MTSM vs. MTB : d::. 8 S-PI dMR MRT I.00044 ).00159 S // \\ / ).00478L . .,f.. . 0 ~ 2206 .. ! .... . 139.76723

  8. Effects of various axial flow profiles on the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ding, N.

    2006-06-01

    The stabilizing effect of different axial flow profiles on the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MTR) instability in Z-pinch implosions is investigated with a compressible skin-current model. The numerical results show that the mitigation effect of the axial flow on the MRT instability is caused by the radial velocity shear, and it is highly susceptible to the shear value nearby the plasma outer surface. By adjusting the flow profile, the mitigation effect can be improved markedly.

  9. Mixing effects on nitrogen and oxygen concentrations and the relationship to mean residence time in a hyporheic zone of a riffle-pool sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Clinton Davis,

    2015-01-01

    Flow paths and residence times in the hyporheic zone are known to influence biogeochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification. The exchange across the sediment-water interface may involve mixing of surface water and groundwater through complex hyporheic flow paths that contribute to highly variable biogeochemically active zones. Despite the recognition of these patterns in the literature, conceptualization and analysis of flow paths and nitrogen transformations beneath riffle-pool sequences often neglect to consider bed form driven exchange along the entire reach. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) were monitored in the hyporheic zone beneath a riffle-pool sequence on a losing section of the Truckee River, NV. Spatially-varying hyporheic exchange and the occurrence of multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells are shown to influence concentrations of DO and NO3- and the mean residence time (MRT) of riffle and pool areas. Distinct patterns observed in piezometers are shown to be influenced by the first large flow event following a steady 8 month period of low flow conditions. Increases in surface water discharge resulted in reversed hydraulic gradients and production of nitrate through nitrification at small vertical spatial scales (0.10 to 0.25 m) beneath the sediment-water interface. In areas with high downward flow rates and low MRT, denitrification may be limited. The use of a longitudinal two-dimensional flow model helped identify important mechanisms such as multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells and spatially varying MRT, an important driver for nitrogen transformation in the riverbed. Our observations of DO and NO3- concentrations and model simulations highlight the role of multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells on MRT and nitrogen transformations in the hyporheic zone of riffle-pool sequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy).

    PubMed

    Buffagni, Andrea; Tenchini, Roberta; Cazzola, Marcello; Erba, Stefania; Balestrini, Raffaella; Belfiore, Carlo; Pagnotta, Romano

    2016-09-15

    We hypothesized that reach-scale, bank and channel modification would impact benthic communities in temporary rivers of Sardinia, when pollution and water abstraction are not relevant. A range of variables were considered, which include both artificial structures/alterations and natural features observed in a stream reach. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were used to assess the effects of the explanatory variables on invertebrate assemblages and five groups, characterized by different habitat modification and/or features, were recognized. Four node variables determined the splits in the MRT analysis: channel reinforcement, tree-related bank and channel habitats, channel modification and bank modification. Continuity of trees in the river corridor diverged among MRT groups and significant differences among groups include presence of alders, extent of channel shading and substrate diversity. Also, the percentage of in-stream organic substrates, in particular CPOM/Xylal, showed highly significant differences among groups. For practical applications, thresholds for the extent of channel reinforcement (40%) and modification (10%) and for bank alteration (≈30%) were provided, that can be used to guide the implementation of restoration measures. In moderately altered river reaches, a significant extent of tree-related habitats (≈5%) can noticeably mitigate the effects of morphological alteration on aquatic invertebrates. The outcomes highlight the importance of riparian zone management as an opportune, achievable prospect in the restoration of Mediterranean temporary streams. The impact of bank and channel modification on ecological status (sensu WFD) was investigated and the tested benthic metrics, especially those based on abundance data, showed legible differences among MRT groups. Finally, bank and channel modification appears to be a potential threat for the conservation of a few Sardo-Corsican endemic species. The introduction of management criteria that

  11. Bone Conduction Systems for Full-Face Respirators: Speech Intelligibility Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Introduction Communication (from Latin "communis," meaning to share) is the exchange of thoughts, messages, and information by speech, writing , behavior, or...vocabularies representative of operational military communications (ANSI/ASA S3.2-2009). The MRT consists of 300 monosyllabic consonant- vowel -consonant (CVC...Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive CVC consonant- vowel -consonant dBA decibels (A-weighted) EAR Environment for Auditory Research FoS

  12. Early gene expression analysis in 9L orthotopic tumor-bearing rats identifies immune modulation in molecular response to synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Audrey; Sakakini, Nathalie; El Atifi, Michèle; Le Clec'h, Céline; Brauer, Elke; Moisan, Anaïck; Deman, Pierre; Rihet, Pascal; Le Duc, Géraldine; Pelletier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) relies on the spatial fractionation of the synchrotron photon beam into parallel micro-beams applying several hundred of grays in their paths. Several works have reported the therapeutic interest of the radiotherapy modality at preclinical level, but biological mechanisms responsible for the described efficacy are not fully understood to date. The aim of this study was to identify the early transcriptomic responses of normal brain and glioma tissue in rats after MRT irradiation (400Gy). The transcriptomic analysis of similarly irradiated normal brain and tumor tissues was performed 6 hours after irradiation of 9 L orthotopically tumor-bearing rats. Pangenomic analysis revealed 1012 overexpressed and 497 repressed genes in the irradiated contralateral normal tissue and 344 induced and 210 repressed genes in tumor tissue. These genes were grouped in a total of 135 canonical pathways. More than half were common to both tissues with a predominance for immunity or inflammation (64 and 67% of genes for normal and tumor tissues, respectively). Several pathways involving HMGB1, toll-like receptors, C-type lectins and CD36 may serve as a link between biochemical changes triggered by irradiation and inflammation and immunological challenge. Most immune cell populations were involved: macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer, T and B lymphocytes. Among them, our results highlighted the involvement of Th17 cell population, recently described in tumor. The immune response was regulated by a large network of mediators comprising growth factors, cytokines, lymphokines. In conclusion, early response to MRT is mainly based on inflammation and immunity which appear therefore as major contributors to MRT efficacy.

  13. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment versus cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vos-Vromans, D C W M; Smeets, R J E M; Huijnen, I P J; Köke, A J A; Hitters, W M G C; Rijnders, L J M; Pont, M; Winkens, B; Knottnerus, J A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the difference in treatment effect, at 26 and 52 weeks after the start of treatment, between cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment (MRT) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Multicentre, randomized controlled trial of patients with CFS. Participants were randomly assigned to MRT or CBT. Four rehabilitation centres in the Netherlands. A total of 122 patients participated in the trial. Primary outcomes were fatigue measured by the fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength and health-related quality of life measured by the Short-Form 36. Outcomes were assessed prior to treatment and at 26 and 52 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 114 participants completed the assessment at 26 weeks, and 112 completed the assessment at 52 weeks. MRT was significantly more effective than CBT in reducing fatigue at 52 weeks. The estimated difference in fatigue between the two treatments was -3.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) -8.07 to 2.03; P = 0.24] at 26 weeks and -5.69 (95% CI -10.62 to -0.76; P = 0.02) at 52 weeks. Patients showed an improvement in quality of life over time, but between-group differences were not significant. This study provides evidence that MRT is more effective in reducing long-term fatigue severity than CBT in patients with CFS. Although implementation in comparable populations can be recommended based on clinical effectiveness, it is advisable to analyse the cost-effectiveness and replicate these findings in another multicentre trial. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. Effect of curing regime on the cytotoxicity of resin-modified glass-ionomer lining cements applied to an odontoblast-cell line.

    PubMed

    Aranha, Andreza M F; Giro, Elisa M A; Souza, Pedro P C; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos A

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of resin-modified glass-ionomer lining cements submitted to different curing regimes and applied to an immortalized odontoblast-cell line (MDPC-23). Forty round-shaped specimens of each experimental material (Fuji Lining LC and Vitrebond) were prepared. They were light-cured for the manufacturers' recommended time (MRT = 30 s), under-cured (0.5 MRT = 15 s), over-cured (1.5 MRT = 45 s) or allowed to dark cure (0 MRT). Sterilized filter papers soaked with either 5 microL of PBS or HEMA were used as negative and positive control, respectively. After placing the specimens individually in wells of 24-well dishes, odontoblast-like cells MDPC-23 (30,000 cells/cm2) were plated in each well and incubated for 72 h in a humidified incubator at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 and 95% air. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the cell metabolism (MTT assay) and cell morphology (SEM). Fuji Lining LC was less cytotoxic than Vitrebond (p < 0.05) in all the experimental conditions. However, the cytotoxicity of Fuji Lining LC was noticeably increased in the absence of light-curing while the same was not observed for Vitrebond. The length of light-curing (15, 30 or 45 s) did not influence the toxicity of both lining materials when they were applied on the odontoblast-cell line MDPC-23. The light-activation plays an important role in reducing the cytotoxicity of Fuji Lining LC. Following the manufacturer' recommendation regarding the light-curing regime may prevent toxic effect to the pulp cells.

  15. Synergistic effect of moxibustion and rehabilitation training in functional recovery of post-stroke spastic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan-Xia; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Bao-Chao

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic benefit of combining moxibustion and rehabilitation training for functional recovery in post-stroke spastic hemiplegic patients. We randomly divided 84 cases subjecting to inclusion criteria into moxibustion plus rehabilitation training group (MRT group, n=44) and rehabilitation training group (RT group, n=40). Evaluation of therapeutic effect was observed before treatment, 2 weeks during treatment and 6 months after treatment. Spasticity was evaluated using modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and Clinical Spasticity Index (CSI), recovery of motor function was assessed by Brunnstrom recovery stages and Simplified Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale, and performance of activities of daily living (ADL) was measured, and the quality of life was assessed by Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO). Evaluation of upper limbs, hands and lower limbs based on CSI and MAS revealed significant improvements in patients treated with MRT, compared to RT alone, both during and after therapy. CSI and MAS also showed significant improvement in patients at each time point in the MRT group, compared to RT group. Marked improvement in Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale was also observed in MRT group at each time point. Based on Brunnstrom grades of upper limbs, hands and lower limbs, significant differences between the two groups were recorded at all time points during and after therapy. Barthel index (BI) and PRO also confirmed the dramatic differences between the two therapy groups. Our results demonstrate that combination therapy with moxibustion and rehabilitation training offers greater clinical benefits in relieving spasticity, promoting function recovery of motion, improving the performance of ADL, and increasing quality of life in post-stroke spastic hemiplegic patients, compared to RT alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tanker Avionics/Aircrew Complement Evaluation (TAACE). Phase I. Simulation Evaluation. Volume II. Crew System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    is no longer enployed by your organization please notify AFWAL/FIGR, W-PAFB, OH 45433 to help us maintain a current mailing list. Copies of this...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 PROGRAM ELEMEUNIT NUMBEROJECT TASK Bunker Rawo Corporation, Electronic Systems 11142F 4130 Linden Avenue, Suite...MegaHei:tz MPD Multipurpose Display MRT Military Rated Thrust N North NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NAV Navigation/Navigator ix LIST OF

  17. Automated Trace Metals Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-18

    Water Treatment Plant 4.1.1 Performance Objectives. At the North Island Naval Air Station Waste Water Treatment Plant when...of custody, shipping and holding times will follow the QA/QC plan. 4.2 Puget Sound Naval Shipyard MRT Waste Water Treatment Plant 4.2.1...Waste Water Treatment Plant . The ATMA was setup at the North Island Naval Air Station Waste Water Treatment Plant . Upon arrival of a bulk

  18. Comparison of gastrointestinal transit times between chickens from D+ and D- genetic lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rougière, N; Carré, B

    2010-11-01

    D+ (high digestion efficiency) and D- (low digestion efficiency) genetic chicken lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency were compared in this experiment. Gizzard functions were tested in terms of digesta mean retention time and reactions to high dilution of a corn diet with 15% coarse sunflower hulls. The corn standard (S) and high fibre (F) experimental diets were given from 9 days of age to chickens from both lines. Besides the measurements of growth efficiencies (9 to 20 days), digestibilities (20 to 23 days) and gut anatomy (0, 9, 29, 42 and 63 days), two digestive transit studies were performed at 9 and 29 days of age. For the transit studies, the S and F diets were labelled with 0.5% TiO2 and 1% Cr-mordanted sunflower hulls. These diets were fed ad libitum during 3 days, and then the birds were euthanized. The digestive contents were analysed for the determination of marker concentrations and mean retention times (MRTs) in digestive compartments (crop + oesophagus, proventriculus + gizzard, duodenum + jejunum, ileum, rectum + cloaca and caeca) were determined. D+ birds were confirmed as better digesters than D- birds during the growth period, in association with larger gizzard and pancreas, and lighter small intestine in D+ than in D-birds. The MRT in the proventriculus-gizzard system, higher in D+ than in D- birds, was a major factor associated with differences between D+ and D- birds regarding digestion efficiencies and gut anatomy. Diet dilution with fibres reduced differences in digestion efficiencies and proventriculus-gizzard MRT between lines. Differences in gut anatomy between lines tended to disappear after 8 weeks of age. In conclusion, this study showed that MRT in the proventriculus-gizzard system was a major factor associated with genotype differences between the D+ and D- genetic chicken lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency, with longer MRT found in D+ than in D- birds.

  19. In vivo efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid in combination with radiotherapy in a malignant rhabdoid tumor mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase inhibitors are promising new substances in cancer therapy and have also been shown to sensitize different tumor cells to irradiation (XRT). We explored the effect as well as the radiosensitizing properties of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in vivo in a malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) mouse model. Methods and material Potential radiosensitization by SAHA was assessed in MRT xenografts by analysis of tumor growth delay, necrosis (HE), apoptosis (TUNEL), proliferation (ki-67) and γH2AX expression as well as dynamic 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG -PET) after treatment with either SAHA alone, single-dose (10 Gy) or fractionated XRT (3 × 3Gy) solely as well as in combination with SAHA compared to controls. Results SAHA only had no significant effect on tumor growth. Combination of SAHA for 8 days with single-dose XRT resulted in a higher number of complete remissions, but failed to prove a significant growth delay compared to XRT only. In contrast fractionated XRT plus SAHA for 3 weeks did induce significant tumor growth delay in MRT-xenografts. The histological examination showed a significant effect of XRT in tumor necrosis, expression of Ki-67, γH2AX and apoptosis. SAHA only had no significant effect in the histological examination. Comparison of xenografts treated with XRT and XRT plus SAHA revealed a significantly increased γH2AX expression and apoptosis induction in the mice tumors after combination treatment with single-dose as well as fractionated XRT. The combination of SAHA with XRT showed a tendency to increased necrosis and decrease of proliferation compared to XRT only, which, however, was not significant. The 18F-FDG-PET results showed no significant differences in the standard uptake value or glucose transport kinetics after either treatment. Conclusion SAHA did not have a significant effect alone, but proved to enhance the effect of XRT in our MRT in vivo model. PMID:22458853

  20. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Tactical Aircraft (TA) A/P22P-14A Respirator Assembly (V)5: Speech Intelligibility Performance with Double Hearing Protection, HGU-84/P Flight Helmet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    Pressure Level (SPL) background pink noise. The speech intelligibility tests shall result in a Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) score as listed below...Speech intelligibility testing shall be measured per ANSI S3.2 for each background pink noise level using a minimum of ten talkers and of ten...listeners. The test shall be conducted wearing the JSAM-TA using appropriate communication 6 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release