Yamada, Kazuo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takeshita, Haruo; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi
Complete deficiency of an extracellular matrix tenascin-X (TNX) leads to a classical type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). TNX haploinsufficiency is a cause of hypermobility type of EDS. Human TNX is also present in a serum form (sTNX) with a molecular size of 140kDa. In this study, we established a method for quantification of sTNX using nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with selected/multiple reaction monitoring. Twelve abundant protein-depleted sera were reduced, alkylated, and digested with Lys-C and trypsin. Subsequently, the digests were fractionated by strong cation exchange chromatography. Optimal and validated transitions of precursor and product ions of the peptides from sTNX were developed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Serum concentrations of sTNX of healthy individuals were quantified as an average of 144ng/ml. However, sTNX was not detected by this method in serum from a patient with a classical type of EDS in whom sTNX was not found by Western blot analysis. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of sTNX by nano-LC/MS/MS method was 2.8pg whereas the detection sensitivity of sTNX by Western blot analysis was 19pg. The nano-LC/MS/MS method is more sensitive than Western blot analysis. The quantification method will be useful for diagnosis and risk stratification of EDS caused by TNX deficiency and haploinsufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nussbaumer, Susanne; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine; Antinori, Paola; Sadeghipour, Farshid; Hochstrasser, Denis F; Bonnabry, Pascal; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Geiser, Laurent
A liquid chromatography separation with electrospray ionisation and tandem mass spectrometry detection method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of ten commonly handled cytotoxic drugs in a hospital pharmacy. These cytotoxic drugs are cytarabine, gemcitabine, methotrexate, etoposide phosphate, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, irinotecan, doxorubicin, epirubicin and vincristine. The chromatographic separation was carried out by RPLC in less than 21 min, applying a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile in the presence of 0.1% formic acid. MS/MS was performed on a triple quadrupole in selected reaction monitoring mode. The analytical method was validated to determine the limit of quantification (LOQ) and quantitative performance: lowest LOQs were between 0.25 and 2 ng mL(-1) for the ten investigated cytotoxic drugs; trueness values (i.e. recovery) were between 85% and 110%, and relative standard deviations for both repeatability and intermediate precision were always inferior to 15%. The multi-compound method was successfully applied for the quality control of pharmaceutical formulations and for analyses of spiked samples on potentially contaminated surfaces.
Turner, Emily A; Stenson, Alexandra C; Yazdani, Saami K
Local drug delivery of paclitaxel is becoming ever more prevalent. As complex drug/excipient combinations are being developed and tested, new high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) techniques capable of quantifying paclitaxel from such formulations are needed. Here a method for quantifying paclitaxel from aqueous, protein and oil containing samples was developed and validated. Keratin, derived from human hair, is the protein component/paclitaxel excipient in the development and validation of said method. The novelty of this method is described by its ability to overcome water solubility issues and address clean-up of residual solvents in clinical grade paclitaxel injection composition. The method evaluates tert-butyl methyl ether and ethanol as extraction solvents with an extraction efficiency of 31.9±2.3% and 86.4±4.5% respectively. Upon evaporation and rehydration, samples were evaluated by HPLC-MS and a method was developed for paclitaxel quantification. The method developed had an inter-day precision of 9.1% relative standard deviation and an intra-day precision of 4.3% relative standard deviation normalized to a docetaxel internal standard. The described method is applicable to any aqueous paclitaxel sample containing protein and/or oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lapko, Veniamin N; Miller, Patrick S; Brown, G Paul; Islam, Rafiqul; Peters, Sarah K; Sukovaty, Richard L; Ruhn, Peggy F; Kafonek, Chris J
The peptide hormone glucagon plays an important role in homeostasis of glucose concentrations in the blood. Its biological importance is evidenced through the conservation of its peptide sequence between species. Reliable assays for glucagon in biological samples are important for gaining a better understanding of the pathology and treatment of diabetes. Numerous assays are available for the analysis of glucagon in biological samples, the majority of which employ an immunochemical approach and have been available for many years. However, recent advances in MS instrumentation and the amenability of glucagon for analysis by LC-MS/MS has brought these new methods to the forefront. Concentrations of glucagon determined from different methods are not always consistent and this review provides suggestions of how to improve the reliability of methods for glucagon analysis.
Flores-Flores, Myra E; González-Peñas, Elena
The simultaneous quantification of 15 mycotoxins in cow milk by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, is presented. Extraction was performed with acidified acetonitrile, followed by a cleanup step with sodium acetate. During validation limits of detection (LOD) and quantification, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, and stability were studied. LOD values were between 0.02 and 10.14ng/mL for aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxins A and B, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, sterigmatocystin and fumonisins B1, B2 and B3. Recovery values were between 82.6 and 94.4% for all the mycotoxins, except for fumonisins. The recovery values for fumonisins were between 42.1% and 64.6%. Matrix effect, between 25.5 and 96.8%, appeared for all of the mycotoxins, especially for deepoxy-deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and sterigmatocystin. The validated method achieves the quantification of those mycotoxins of major concern and mycotoxins that are not frequently studied in milk, such as fumonisins, sterigmatocystin or ochratoxin B.
Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders
An isotope-dilution TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of the ten steroid metabolites dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone (T), and estrone 3-sulfate (E1-S) in serum was developed and validated. Limits of quantification, variability (inter- and intra-day), analytical range and linearity were all found to be acceptable for clinical use. Furthermore, sample stability was evaluated including the influence of freeze-thaw cycles and the effects of temperature and storage time. The method was applied to 391 serum samples from healthy, Danish boys 10-18years old. The concentration ranges of the included steroid metabolites for this population are presented. Concentrations of DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione and T in the 391 serum samples were furthermore compared to results obtained using an existing LC-MS/MS method in our laboratory. Excellent agreement was found between the methods. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity of the new method allowed for quantification of a number of samples found to be below the LOQs of the existing method. Thus, the two instruments and their associated methods were validated as possible back-ups for each other, which we consider an extremely important issue in high-throughput laboratories analyzing clinical samples on a regular basis. The ten analytes included can be analyzed simultaneously but it is also possible only to include some of these analytes for specific diagnostic purposes which make the new method an extremely useful tool in the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tan, Bo; Jin, Sheng; Sun, Jiping; Gu, Zhongkai; Sun, Xiaotian; Zhu, Yichun; Huo, Keke; Cao, Zonglian; Yang, Ping; Xin, Xiaoming; Liu, Xinhua; Pan, Lilong; Qiu, Furong; Jiang, Jian; Jia, Yiqun; Ye, Fuyuan; Xie, Ying; Zhu, Yi Zhun
Hydrogen sulfide exists widely in mammalian tissues and plays a vital role in physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, striking differences with orders of magnitude were observed for the detected hydrogen sulfide concentrations in biological matrices among different measurements in literature, which lead to the uncertainty for examination the biological relevance of hydrogen sulfide. Here, we developed and validated a liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in various biological matrices by determination of a derivative of hydrogen sulfide and monobromobimane named sulfide dibimane (SDB). 36S-labeled SDB was synthesized and validated for using as an internal standard. This method has been successfully used to measure hydrogen sulfide levels in a broad range of biological matrices, such as blood, plasma, tissues, cells, and enzymes, across different species. Moreover, a novel mode that hydrogen sulfide could loosely and non-covalently bind to human serum protein (HSA) and hemoglobin (HB) was revealed by using the developed method. PMID:28406238
Duggan, Jeffrey; Ren, Bailuo; Mao, Yan; Chen, Lin-Zhi; Philip, Elsy
A refinement of protein LC-MS bioanalysis is to use predigestion immunoaffinity capture to extract the drug from matrix prior to digestion. Because of their increased sensitivity, such hybrid assays have been successfully validated and applied to a number of clinical studies; however, they can also be subject to potential interferences from antidrug antibodies, circulating ligands or other matrix components specific to patient populations and/or dosed subjects. The purpose of this paper is to describe validation experiments that measure immunocapture efficiency, digestion efficiency, matrix effect and selectivity/specificity that can be used during method optimization and validation to test the resistance of the method to these potential interferences. The designs and benefits of these experiments are discussed in this report using an actual assay case study.
Yuan, Teng-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ting; Li, Yan
Menadione, as the crucial component of vitamin Ks, possessed significant nutritional and clinical values. However, there was still lack of favourable quantification strategies for it to date. For improvement, a novel cysteamine derivatization based UPLC-MS/MS method was presented in this work. The derivatizating reaction was proved non-toxic, easy-handling and high-efficient, which realized the MS detection of menadione under positive mode. Benefitting from the excellent sensitivity of the derivatizating product as well as the introduction of the stable isotope dilution technique, the quantification could be achieved in the range of 0.05-50.0ng/mL for plasma and urine matrixes with satisfied accuracy and precision. After analysis of the samples from healthy volunteers after oral administration of menadione sodium bisulfite tablets, the urinary free menadione was quantified for the very first time. We believe the progress in this work could largely promote the exploration of the metabolic mechanism of vitamin K in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tette, Patrícia Amaral Souza; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; Pereira, Elba Nathália Corrêa; Silva, Gilsara; de Abreu Glória, Maria Beatriz; Fernandes, Christian
Bee products can be produced in an environment contaminated by pesticides that can be transported by honey bees to the hive and incorporated into the honey. Therefore, rapid and modern methods to determine pesticide residues in honey samples are essential to guarantee consumers' health. In this study, a simple multiresidue method for the quantification of 116 pesticides in honey is proposed. It involves the use of a modified QuEChERS procedure followed by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was validated according to the European Union SANCO/12571/2013 guidelines. Acceptable values were obtained for the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (0.005mg/kg) and limit of quantification (0.010 and 0.025mg/kg), trueness (for the four tested levels the recovery assays values were between 70 and 120%), intermediate precision (RSD<20.0%) and measurement uncertainty tests (<50.0%). The validated method was applied for determination of 100 honey samples from five states of Brazil.
Guo, Song; Sui, Chengxu; Ma, Ying
A sensitive, selective and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gypenoside of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in rat plasma and then validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration's Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple solid-phase extraction. Separation was performed on a Waters XBridgeTM BEH C18 chromatography column (4.6 × 50 mm, 2.5 μm) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (62.5:37.5, v/v). Gypenoside XLIX and the internal standard gypenoside A were detected in the negative ion mode using selection reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 1045.6 → 913.5 and 897.5 → 765.4, respectively. The calibration curve was linear (R(2) > 0.990) over a concentration range of 10-7500 ng/mL with the lower quantification limit of 10 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision was within 8.6% and accuracy was ≤10.2%. Stability results proved that gypenoside XLIX and the IS remained stable throughout the analytical procedure. The validated LC-MS/MS method was then applied to analyze the pharmacokinetics of gypenoside XLIX after intravenous administration to rats (1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Md Dom, Zaipul I; Noll, Benjamin D; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Russ, Graeme R; Hesselink, Dennis A; van Gelder, Teun; Sallustio, Benedetta C
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) has a low therapeutic index and large inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability necessitating therapeutic drug monitoring to individualise dosing after transplantation. There is an ongoing discrepancy as to whether plasma MPA concentrations sufficiently predict kidney rejection or toxicity and whether immunosuppressant concentrations within the graft tissue may better predict transplant outcomes. The aim of the study was to develop an LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of MPA concentrations in human kidney biopsies taken as part of routine clinical procedures. A total of 4 surplus human kidney biopsies obtained from 4 different kidney transplant recipients were available to use for this study. MPA was also quantified in 2 kidney samples from rats administered MPA to assess tissue extraction reproducibility. Human kidney biopsies and rat kidneys were homogenised mechanically and underwent liquid-liquid extraction before analysis by LC-MS/MS. MPA-free human kidney tissue was used in calibrators and quality control samples. Analyte detection was achieved from multiple reaction monitoring of the ammonium adducts of both MPA (m/z 321.1→207.3) and N-phthaloyl-l-phenylalanine (PPA, internal standard, m/z 296.2→250.2) using positive electrospray ionisation. The method was linear (calibration curves R(2)>0.99, n=10), precise, and accurate with coefficients of variation and bias less than 15%. Extraction efficiencies for MPA and PPA were approximately 97% and 86%, respectively, and matrix effects were minimal. In 4 kidney transplant recipients, tissue MPA concentrations ranged from 1.3 to 7.7ng/mg of tissue, however, the correlation between blood (C0) and tissue MPA concentrations could not be established. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of MPA in human kidney biopsies without the need to alter current clinical protocols.
Rezk, Mamdouh R; Basalious, Emad B; Amin, Mohammed E
A novel and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of sofosbuvir (SF) using eplerenone as an internal standard. The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether was used in sample preparation. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column by pumping 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Method validation was performed as per the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.25-3500 ng/mL for SF. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A very short run time of 1 min made it possible to analyze more than 500 human plasma samples per day. A very low quantification limit of SF allowed the applicability of the developed method for determination of SF in a bioequivalence study in human volunteers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Arellano, Cécile; Allal, Ben; Goubaa, Anwar; Roché, Henri; Chatelut, Etienne
A selective and accurate analytical method is needed to quantify tamoxifen and its phase I metabolites in a prospective clinical protocol, for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of tamoxifen and its metabolites in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. The selectivity of the analytical method is a fundamental criteria to allow the quantification of the main active metabolites (Z)-isomers from (Z)'-isomers. An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of (Z)-tamoxifen, (Z)-endoxifen, (E)-endoxifen, Z'-endoxifen, (Z)'-endoxifen, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen, (Z)-4'-hydroxytamoxifen, N-desmethyl tamoxifen, and tamoxifen-N-oxide. The validation range was set between 0.5ng/mL and 125ng/mL for 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen isomers, and between 12.5ng/mL and 300ng/mL for tamoxifen, tamoxifen N-desmethyl and tamoxifen-N-oxide. The application to patient plasma samples was performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Milosheska, Daniela; Roškar, Robert
The aim of the present report was to develop and validate simple, sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method for quantification of topiramate (TPM) and its main metabolites: 2,3-desisopropylidene TPM, 4,5-desisopropylidene TPM, 10-OH TPM and 9-OH TPM in human plasma samples. The most abundant metabolite 2,3-desisopropylidene TPM was isolated from patients urine, characterized and afterwards used as an authentic standard for method development and validation. Sample preparation method employs 100μL of plasma sample and liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether as extraction solvent. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a 1290 Infinity UHPLC coupled to 6460 Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer operated in negative MRM mode using Kinetex C18 column (50×2.1mm, 2.6μm) by gradient elution using water and methanol as a mobile phase and stable isotope labeled TPM as internal standard. The method showed to be selective, accurate, precise and linear over the concentration ranges of 0.10-20μg/mL for TPM, 0.01-2.0μg/mL for 2,3-desisopropylidene TPM, and 0.001-0.200μg/mL for 4,5-desisopropylidene TPM, 10-OH TPM and 9-OH TPM. The described method is the first fully validated method capable of simultaneous determination of TPM and its main metabolites in plasma over the selected analytical range. The suitability of the method was successfully demonstrated by the quantification of all analytes in plasma samples of patients with epilepsy and can be considered as reliable analytical tool for future investigations of the TPM metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Delavenne, Xavier; Gay-Montchamp, Jean Pierre; Basset, Thierry
We described the development and full validation of rapid and accurate liquid chromatography method, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection, for quantification of meprobamate in human plasma with [(13)C-(2)H(3)]-meprobamate as internal standard. Plasma pretreatment involved a one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Separation was performed by reversed-phase chromatography on a Luna MercuryMS C18 (20 mm×4 mm×3 μm) column using a gradient elution mode. The mobile phase was a mix of distilled water containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. The selected reaction monitoring transitions, in electrospray positive ionization, used for quantification were 219.2→158.2 m/z and 223.1→161.1m/z for meprobamate and internal standard, respectively. Qualification transitions were 219.2→97.0 and 223.1→101.1 m/z for meprobamate and internal standard, respectively. The method was linear over the concentration range of 1-300 mg/L. The intra- and inter-day precision values were below 6.4% and accuracy was within 95.3% and 103.6% for all QC levels (5, 75 and 200 mg/L). The lower limit of quantification was 1 mg/L. Total analysis time was reduced to 6 min including sample preparation. The present method is successfully applied to 24/7 clinical toxicology and demonstrated its usefulness to detect meprobamate poisoning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moser, Christina; Gschliesser, Andreas; Mattle, Verena; Wildt, Ludwig; Griesmacher, Andrea; Seger, Christoph
A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of very low levonorgestrel (D-(-)-norgestrel) serum levels such as those found in patients using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs) was developed. To achieve the sub-nanomolar sensitivity needed to measure such serum levels, a diethyl ether extraction sample preparation protocol was applied prior to the online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) assay. Analyte quantification from the selected reaction monitoring experiments relied on the use of sixfold deuterated norgestrel as internal standard. The final method was linear up to 1.50 ng/ml with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.05 ng/ml. It was found to be precise and accurate with imprecision <8% and bias <6% assessed at three control levels. Total analyte recovery measured in patient pools at three concentration levels was found to exceed 92%. Matrix interferences were excluded by post-column analyte infusion experiments. As a proof of concept, a set of IUD patient serum samples was screened for their levonorgestrel content. A total of 97.5% (n = 94) of the samples did show serum levels exceeding the LLOQ, proving the applicability of the assay in relevant clinical cohorts. This method must not be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, since it did not undergo formal performance evaluation in the sense of the in vitro diagnostic directive (98/79/EG) of the European community.
Sannino, Anna; Bolzoni, Luciana
A sensitive and selective method was developed and validated for the determination of nine N-nitrosamines in meat products. The N-nitrosamines were extracted with NaOH/methanol, partitioned into dichloromethane on a ChemElut column and cleaned-up by solid-phase extraction. All samples were spiked with (2)H isotope-labelled N-nitrosamine internal standard prior to extraction. After purification on a Florisil mini-column, the extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (GC-CI/MS/MS) using ammonia as reagent gas. The presence of N-nitrosamines in samples was quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The method was validated for linearity and range, accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Recoveries were calculated at three levels of concentration (0.5, 1 and 10 μg/kg) spiked in raw pork meat. The values were found between 95% and 110% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 5% and 11%. The excellent selectivity and sensitivity allows quantification and identification of low levels of N-nitrosamines in meat products (limits of quantitation (LOQs) 0.3-0.4 μg/kg). Finally, the method was successfully used to analyse a sample of canned meat and nine different cured meat products produced in Italy. N-Nitroso-dimethylamine was detected in all examined products in the range 0.3-1.1 μg/kg.
Vaka, Venkata Rami Reddy; Inamadugu, Jaswanth Kumar; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Ramesh, Mullangi; Katreddi, Hussain Reddy
An improved, simple and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for quantification of febuxostat with 100 μL human plasma using febuxostat-d7 as an internal standard (IS) according to regulatory guidelines. The analyte and IS were extracted from human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax C18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile and 5 mm ammonium formate (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The total run time was 5.0 min and the elution of febuxostat and IS occurred at 1.0 and 1.5 min, respectively. A linear response function was established for the range of concentrations 1-6000 ng/mL (r > 0.99). The precursor to product ion transitions monitored for febuxostat and IS were m/z 317.1 → 261.1 and 324.2 → 262.1, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions (%RSD) were within 1.29-9.19 and 2.85-7.69%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies in humans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Venisse, N; Grignon, C; Brunet, B; Thévenot, S; Bacle, A; Migeot, V; Dupuis, A
Bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread man-made chemical classified as an endocrine disruptor, is increasingly considered as a major cause of concern for human health. Chlorine present in drinking water may react with BPA to form chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA), which have demonstrated a heightened level of estrogenic activity. If many epidemiological studies report that more than 90% of people have detectable BPA levels in their urine, then no such study has been undertaken regarding ClxBPA. The purpose of this work is to propose a highly sensitive and accurate analytical method adapted to large-scale biomonitoring studies aimed at assessing exposure to BPA and ClxBPA through the use of human urine. To achieve this, we have comprehensively validated a method using salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction (SALLE) coupled to UPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution quantification, to measure unconjugated BPA and ClxBPA in human urine according to the accepted guidelines. Deutered BPA as well as deutered 2,2'-DCBPA was used as internal standards. The matrix calibration curve ranged from 0.05 to 1.60 ng mL(-1) and from 0.5 to 16.0 ng mL(-1) for ClxBPA and BPA respectively, and provided good linearity (r²>0.99). This method was precise (the intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were <20% at three different concentrations: 0.05 ng mL(-1), 0.2 ng mL(-1), 0.8 ng mL(-1) and 0.5 ng mL(-1), 2 ng mL(-1), 8 ng mL(-1) for ClxBPA and BPA, respectively) and accurate (bias ranged from -13% to +12%). The limit of quantification, validated at 0.05 ng mL(-1) and 0.5 ng mL(-1) for ClxBPA and BPA respectively when using 300 µL of urine, was found to be suitable for the concentration existing in real samples. The matrix effect and the BPA cross-contamination were also investigated in this study. The analytical method developed in this study is in accordance with the requirements applicable to biomonitoring of BPA and ClxBPA in human urine.
Bräutigam, Anja; Wesenberg, Dirk; Preud'homme, Hugues; Schaumlöffel, Dirk
Quantitative phytochelatin (PC) analysis is, due to oxidation sensitivity of the PCs, matrix effects, and time consuming sample preparation, still a challenging analytical task. In this study, a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for precise determination of native PCs in crude extracts of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was developed. Algae were exposed 48 h to 70 μM Cd. Coupling of ultra performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multi-reaction mode transitions for detection permitted the required short-time, high-resolution separation and detection specificity. Thus, under optimized chromatographic conditions, 10 thiol peptides were baseline-separated within 7 min. Relative detection limits in the nanomolar range in microliter sample volumes were achieved (corresponding to absolute detection limits at femtomole level). Next to glutathione (GSH), the most abundant cadmium-induced PCs in C. reinhardtii, namely CysGSH, PC(2), PC(3), CysPC(2), and CysPC(3), were quantified with high reproducibility at concentrations between 15 and 198 nmol g(-1) fresh weight. The biological variation of PC synthesis of nine independently grown alga cultures was determined to be on average 13.7%.
Cangemi, Giuliana; Barco, Sebastiano; Castagnola, Elio; Tripodi, Gino; Favata, Fabio; D'Avolio, Antonio
Quantification of colistin in plasma samples may be very useful in optimizing therapy especially in special patients' population. Nevertheless, therapeutic drug monitoring of colistin is still limited probably for the low number of laboratories which perform this analysis and for high shipment costs. We developed and validated new UHPLC-MS/MS methods to quantify colistin in plasma and in dried plasma spots (DPS) collected on dried sample spots devices (DSSD). Colistin A, Colistin B and polimixin B, used as internal standard, were detected using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the following specific transitions: 585.5→534.9; 576, 578.5→527.9; 568.9 and 602.5→100.9, 551.9, 592.8, respectively. Colistin A and B were extracted from plasma using protein precipitation and from DSSD using an extraction basic solution. Both methods were validated, and the mean intra and inter-day accuracies and precisions were in accordance with FDA and EMA guidelines. Colistin in DPS was found to be stable for at least one week at room temperature (20-25°C). A statistically significant linear correlation was found between colistin extracted from plasma and from DPS [r(2) 0.9864 (P<0.0001, 95% CI 0.9699-0.9939) for colistin A and 0.9695 (P<0.0001, 95% CI 0.9310-0.9866) for colistin B, respectively]. DPS on DSSD represents a safe and cheap strategy to store and ship at room temperature plasma samples. Thus, it is suited for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of colistin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jin, Hyo-Eon; Jin, Su-Eon; Maeng, Han-Joo
Third-generation cephalosporins are semi-synthetic antibiotics with enhanced activity against Gram-negative organisms. The cephalosporins in biological samples are mostly determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In recent years, numerous bioanalytical methods have been developed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of cephalosporin quantification using the powerful LC-MS/MS systems that are common in research laboratories. This review article presents recently developed bioanalytical methods by HPLC or LC-MS(/MS) for 12 third-generation cephalosporins, including five oral third-generation cephalosporins, and further discusses their application in pharmacokinetic studies of animals and humans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nørskov, Natalja P; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
Despite the extensive literature describing the biological effects of phenolic compounds from cereals, little is known about their bioaccessibility in the food matrix. This paper describes a validated LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of free and total content (free + bound) of eight plant lignans (matairesinol, hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, syringaresinol, medioresinol, and pinoresinol) and two enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) in cereal-based diets/bread and feces. The method consisted of alkaline methanolic extraction combined with enzymatic hydrolyses, for the measurement of the total concentration of lignans, and methanolic extraction combined with enzymatic hydrolysis, for the measurement of free lignans, followed by solid phase extraction (SPE). The strength of this LC-MS/MS method is that it can be combined with different types of samples, because the SPE and LC-MS/MS platforms are similar to our previously published method for plasma and urine.
de Boer, Theo; Meulman, Erik; Meijering, Henri; Wieling, Jaap; Dogterom, Peter; Lass, Holger
To support the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters of asenapine (ASE) in urine, we developed and validated online solid-phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography methods with tandem mass spectrometry detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS) for the quantification of ASE and two of its major metabolites, N-desmethylasenapine (DMA) and asenapine-N⁺-glucuronide (ASG). The linearity in human urine was found acceptable for quantification in a concentration range of 0.500-100 ng/mL for ASE and DMA and 10.0-3000 ng/mL for ASG, respectively.
Kadar, Ali; Peyre, Ludovic; de Souza, Georges; Wortham, Henri; Doumenq, Pierre; Rahmani, Roger
A method for the determination of chlorfenvinphos, ethion and linuron in liver samples by LC-MS/MS is described. Sample treatment was performed by using Sola™ polymeric reverse phase SPE cartridges after protein precipitation. Gradient elution using 10 mM ammonium formate in methanol (A) and 10 mM ammonium formate in water (B) was used for chromatographic separation of analytes on a Hypersil™ end-capped Gold PFP reverse phase column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm). All analytes were quantified without interference, in positive ionization mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with chlorfenvinphos-d10 as internal standard. The whole procedure was validated according to the FDA guidelines for bioanalytical methods. The calibration curves for chlorfenvinphos, linuron and ethion compounds were linear over the concentration range of 0.005-2 μM (i.e. 0.0018-0.720 μg/mL, 0.0019-0.770 μg/mL and 0.0012-0.500 μg/mL respectively) with coefficients of determination higher than 0.998. A Lower limit of quantification of 0.005 μM was achieved for all analytes, i.e. 5.76, 6.08 and 3.84 μg/kg of liver for chlorfenvinphos, ethion and linuron respectively. Compounds extraction recovery rates ranged from 92.9 to 99.5% with a RSD of 2.3%. Intra- and inter-day accuracies were within 90.9 and 100%, and imprecision varied from 0.8 to 8.2%. Stability tests proved all analytes were stable in liver extracts during instrumental analysis (+12 °C in autosampler tray for 72 h) at the end of three successive freeze-thaw cycles and at -20 °C for up to 9 months. This accurate and robust analytical method is therefore suitable for contamination or metabolism studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Advantages of a validated UPLC-MS/MS standard addition method for the quantification of A-type dimeric and trimeric proanthocyanidins in cranberry extracts in comparison with well-known quantification methods.
van Dooren, Ines; Foubert, Kenn; Theunis, Mart; Naessens, Tania; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra
The berries of Vaccinium macrocarpon, cranberry, are widely used for the prevention of urinary tract infections. This species contains A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs), which intervene in the initial phase of the development of urinary tract infections by preventing the adherence of Escherichia coli by their P-type fimbriae to uroepithelial cells. Unfortunately, the existing clinical studies used different cranberry preparations, which were poorly standardized. Because of this, the results were hard to compare, which led sometimes to conflicting results. Currently, PACs are quantified using the rather non-specific spectrophotometric 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) method. In addition, a normal phase HPTLC-densitometric method, a HPLC-UV method and three LC-MS/MS methods for quantification of procyanidin A2 were recently published. All these methods contain some shortcomings and errors. Hence, the development and validation of a fast and sensitive standard addition LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of A-type dimers and trimers in a cranberry dry extract was carried out. A linear calibration model could be adopted for dimers and, after logaritmic transformation, for trimers. The maximal interday and interconcentration precision was found to be 4.86% and 4.28% for procyanidin A2, and 5.61% and 7.65% for trimeric PACs, which are all acceptable values for an analytical method using LC-MS/MS. In addition, twelve different cranberry extracts were analyzed by means of the newly validated method and other widely used methods. There appeared to be an enormous variation in dimeric and trimeric PAC content. Comparison of these results with LC-MS/MS analysis without standard addition showed the presence of matrix effects for some of the extracts and proved the necessity of standard addition. A comparison of the well-known and widely used DMAC method, the butanol-HCl assay and this newly developed LC-MS/MS method clearly indicated the need for a reliable
Nørskov, Natalja P; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
Sulfation and glucuronidation constitute a major pathway in humans and may play an important role in biological activity of metabolites including the enterolignan, enterolactone. Because the aromatic structure of enterolactone has similarities to steroid metabolites, it was hypothesized that enterolactone may protect against hormone-dependent cancers. This led to numerous epidemiological studies. In this context, there has been a demand for rapid, sensitive, high-throughput methods to measure enterolactone in biofluids. Different methods have been developed using GC-MS, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and a fluoroimmunoassay; however, most of these methods measure the total concentration of enterolactone, without any specification of its conjugation pattern. Here for the first time we present a high-throughput LC-MS/MS method to quantify enterolactone in its intact form as glucuronide, sulfate, and free enterolactone. The method has shown good accuracy and precision at low concentration and very high sensitivity, with LLOQ for enterolactone sulfate at 16 pM, enterolactone glucuronide at 26 pM, and free enterolactone at 86 pM. The short run time of 2.6 min combined with simple sample clean up and high sensitivity make this method attractive for the high-throughput of samples needed for epidemiological studies. Finally, we have adapted the new method to quantify enterolactone and its conjugates in 3956 plasma samples from an epidemiological study. We found enterolactone glucuronide to be the major conjugation form and that conjugation pattern was similar between men and women.
Merdivan, Simon; Willke, Christoph; Lindequist, Ulrike
Agaritine, an aromatic hydrazine, is found as a secondary metabolite in mushroom species. It is among others suspected to exhibit genotoxic activity. This publication describes the validation of a method for the quantification of agaritine in mushrooms (i.e., extraction and purification by solid phase extraction) and measurement by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection in positive ionization mode. The results show this method to be selective, accurate, and precise. This method could be used for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing mushrooms.
Kadi, Adnan A.; Darwish, Hany W.; Attwa, Mohamed W.; Amer, Sawsan M.
In the current work, a rapid, specific, sensitive and validated liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometric method was developed for the quantification of ponatinib (PNT) in human plasma and rat liver microsomes (RLMs) with its application to metabolic stability. Chromatographic separation of PNT and vandetanib (IS) were accomplished on Agilent eclipse plus C18 analytical column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm particle size) maintained at 21±2°C. Flow rate was 0.25 mLmin-1 with run time of 4 min. Mobile phase consisted of solvent A (10 mM ammonium formate, pH adjusted to 4.1 with formic acid) and solvent B (acetonitrile). Ions were generated by electrospray (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used as basis for quantification. The results revealed a linear calibration curve in the range of 5–400 ngmL-1 (r2 ≥ 0.9998) with lower limit of quantification (LOQ) and lower limit of detection (LOD) of 4.66 and 1.53 ngmL-1 in plasma, 4.19 and 1.38 ngmL-1 in RLMs. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy in plasma ranged from1.06 to 2.54% and -1.48 to -0.17, respectively. Whereas in RLMs ranged from 0.97 to 2.31% and -1.65 to -0.3%. The developed procedure was applied for quantification of PNT in human plasma and RLMs for study metabolic stability of PNT. PNT disappeared rapidly in the 1st 10 minutes of RLM incubation and the disappearance plateaued out for the rest of the incubation. In vitro half-life (t1/2) was 6.26 min and intrinsic clearance (CLin) was 15.182± 0.477. PMID:27764191
Lucha, Stephanie; Taibon, Judith; Pongratz, Stephan; Geletneky, Christian; Huber, Erasmus; Wintterle-Roehm, Christine; Lang, Robert; Grimm, Stefanie H; Duelffer, Thomas; Tarasov, Kirill; Zander, Johannes; Vogeser, Michael; Kobold, Uwe
Accurate measurement of gentamicin concentration in serum and plasma is required for therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure appropriate treatment of patients. In this work, we present a validated LC-MS/MS-based candidate reference measurement procedure for total gentamicin quantification to be used for standardization and harmonization of routine assays applied for therapeutic drug monitoring of this compound. Total gentamicin is the sum of the concentrations of five known congeners C1, C1a, C2, C2a and C2b. To our knowledge, there is so far no LC-MS method for quantification of total gentamicin in human serum described in literature. Sample preparation was based on sample dilution with an aqueous internal standard solution followed by protein precipitation. Stable derivatives of gentamicin-glycine congeners were prepared by chemical synthesis and used as internal standards. The primary calibration material used in this assay was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and the pattern of the gentamicin congeners was determined. The total gentamicin was reported as the sum of the congeners which were quantified individually by LC-MS/MS. The method allows the measurement of total gentamicin in human serum and plasma in the concentration range of 0.1 to 12.0μg/ml with an assay imprecision of ≤6% CV and an assay accuracy between 96% and 114%. LOD and LOQ for the total gentamicin were 0.04μg/ml and 0.13μg/ml, respectively. Comparative measurement of 128 native patient samples using this method implemented at two laboratory sites showed an excellent agreement. Validation results proved that this protocol describes a robust and reliable method which is suggested as reference measurement procedure for the standardization and harmonization of routine assays for the quantification of total gentamicin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Magnes, Christoph; Suppan, Maria; Pieber, Thomas R; Moustafa, Tarek; Trauner, Michael; Haemmerle, Guenter; Sinner, Frank M
We report a robust, reliable, and comprehensive analytical method for the identification and quantification of the entire class of coenzyme A (CoA) activated substances, particularly short-, medium-, and long-chain acyl-CoAs derived from various biological tissues. This online SPE-LC/MS/MS-based method is characterized by a simple three-step sample preparation: (1) addition of buffer, organic solvents, and internal standards; (2) homogenization; and (3) centrifugation. The supernatant is injected directly into the SPE-LC/MS/MS system. Identification of CoA activated compounds is performed by accurate mass determination within the HPLC run. Method validation for short-, medium-, and long-chain acyl-CoA fatty acids revealed excellent quality. Accuracy was found to be between 87 and 107% and precision was between 0.1 and 12.8% in mouse skeletal muscle. The lower limit of quantification for all investigated compounds was well below 3.1% of estimated physiological levels in 200 mg of mouse tissue. Comparable results were obtained for mouse liver, mouse brown white adipose tissue and rat liver. For all investigated tissues, no matrix effect was observed.
Ghassabian, Sussan; Griffiths, Lyn; Smith, Maree T
Quantification of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) in biological samples is challenging due to the presence of endogenous PLP in matrices used for preparation of calibrators and quality control samples (QCs). Hence, we have developed an LC-MS/MS method for accurate and precise measurement of the concentrations of PLP in samples (20μL) of human whole blood that addresses this issue by using a surrogate matrix and minimizing the matrix effect. We used a surrogate matrix comprising 2% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for making calibrators, QCs and the concentrations were adjusted to include the endogenous PLP concentrations in the surrogate matrix according to the method of standard addition. PLP was separated from the other components of the sample matrix using protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid 10% w/v. After centrifugation, supernatant were injected directly into the LC-MS/MS system. Calibration curves were linear and recovery was >92%. QCs were accurate, precise, stable for four freeze-thaw cycles, and following storage at room temperature for 17h or at -80°C for 3 months. There was no significant matrix effect using 9 different individual human blood samples. Our novel LC-MS/MS method has satisfied all of the criteria specified in the 2012 EMEA guideline on bioanalytical method validation.
Szerkus, Oliwia; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Kordalewska, Marta; Bartosińska, Ewa; Bujak, Renata; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Bienert, Agnieszka; Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Alicja; Warzybok, Justyna; Wiczling, Paweł; Nasal, Antoni; Kaliszan, Roman; Markuszewski, Michał Jan; Siluk, Danuta
The purpose of this work was to develop and validate a rapid and robust LC-MS/MS method for the determination of dexmedetomidine (DEX) in plasma, suitable for analysis of a large number of samples. Systematic approach, Design of Experiments, was applied to optimize ESI source parameters and to evaluate method robustness, therefore, a rapid, stable and cost-effective assay was developed. The method was validated according to US FDA guidelines. LLOQ was determined at 5 pg/ml. The assay was linear over the examined concentration range (5-2500 pg/ml), Results: Experimental design approach was applied for optimization of ESI source parameters and evaluation of method robustness. The method was validated according to the US FDA guidelines. LLOQ was determined at 5 pg/ml. The assay was linear over the examined concentration range (R(2) > 0.98). The accuracies, intra- and interday precisions were less than 15%. The stability data confirmed reliable behavior of DEX under tested conditions. Application of Design of Experiments approach allowed for fast and efficient analytical method development and validation as well as for reduced usage of chemicals necessary for regular method optimization. The proposed technique was applied to determination of DEX pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients undergoing long-term sedation in the intensive care unit.
Huault, Lucie; Descharles, Nicolas; Rega, Barbara; Bistac, Sophie; Bosc, Véronique; Giampaoli, Pierre
To study reactivity in bread crust during the baking process in the pan, we followed furan mainly resulting from Maillard and caramelisation reactions in cereal products. Furan quantification is commonly performed with automatic HS-static GC-MS. However, we showed that the automatic HS-trap GC-MS method can improve the sensitivity of the furan quantification. Indeed, this method allowed the LOD to be decreased from 0.3 ng g(-1) with HS-static mode to 0.03 ng g(-1) with HS-trap mode under these conditions. After validation of this method for furan quantification in bread crust, a difference between the crust extracted from the bottom and from the sides of the bread was evident. The quantity of furan in the bottom crust was five times lower than in the side crust, revealing less reactivity on the bottom than on the sides of the bread during the baking process in the pan. Differences in water content may explain these variations in reactivity.
Zhang, Stanley Weihua; Jian, Wenying; Sullivan, Sheryl; Sankaran, Banu; Edom, Richard W; Weng, Naidong; Sharkey, David
Vitamin D deficiency is increasing in the general population and has become a serious public health risk globally. As a reliable clinical indicator of vitamin status, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been measured by various methods. However, the accuracy of these measurements has been the subject of considerable debate. Here, we report the development and validation of a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry based method for the quantification of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in human serum and plasma samples. Samples were first processed by protein precipitation to release the analytes from the vitamin D binding protein (DBP), followed by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Analysis was performed on an LC-MS/MS system which utilized an AB Sciex API 3000 mass spectrometer. A six point calibration curve ranging from 2.5 to 100ng/mL was established for both 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3. A complete method validation was conducted, including intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision, LLOQ, dilution QC, specificity, recovery, matrix effect, and a thorough stability profile of stock solutions and QC samples. Matching samples of serum and plasma (containing either heparin or EDTA anticoagulant) generated from the same blood samples were tested, and no significant differences in 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations were found in these sample matrices. In method comparison, we analyzed 10 serum samples obtained from the Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS), and the total 25(OH)D concentrations measured by our method were very close to the LC-MS/MS Method Mean values provided by DEQAS (average 0.17% bias, R(2)=0.99). However, comparison with the DiaSorin Liaison 25(OH)D TOTAL Assay demonstrated limited correlation between these two methods (R(2)=0.54). In general, concentrations measured by our LC-MS/MS method were roughly 9% higher than those measured by the DiaSorin Liaison assay. The correlation with DiaSorin Liaison measurement was better for
Zhang, Xueju; Liu, Shu; Pi, Zifeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui
Genipin-1-o-glucuronic acid and genipin-monosulfate are two major metabolites from geniposide and genipin. Based on diabetic rat model, we developed a simultaneous quantification method to investigate their comparative pharmacokinetics by online mircrodialysis-ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MD-UPLC-MS/MS) without their standard compounds. Online microdialysis sampling could avoid unexpected contamination or degradation of the analytes during the storage and transfer steps. Combined with good sensitivity, selectivity and selectivity of UPLC-MS/MS, online MD-UPLC-MS/MS method could real-timely monitor metabolites in rat blood for quantitative analysis. Our research found that AUC0→t of genipin-1-o-glucuronic acid and genipin-monosulfate in blood of diabetic group were 17.68 and 7.58 times than those in normal group, respectively, and AUC0→t of genipin-1-o-glucuronic acid was 2.28 times than that of genipin-monosulfate in blood of diabetic group, which revealed the effect of diabetes on the pharmacokinetic properties of the two metabolites. This study not only provides an approach for pharmacokinetic studies for various metabolites from herb medicines, but also can predict druggability of their bioactive metabolites. The insight obtained should facilitate drug development and toxicity research.
Capuano, Floriana; Bond, Nicholas J; Gatto, Laurent; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Napier, Johnathan A; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Lilley, Kathryn S; Baschieri, Selene
Oil bodies (OBs) are plant cell organelles that consist of a lipid core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded with specialized proteins such as oleosins. Recombinant proteins expressed in plants can be targeted to OBs as fusions with oleosin. This expression strategy is attractive because OBs are easily enriched and purified from other cellular components, based on their unique physicochemical properties. For recombinant OBs to be a potential therapeutic agent in biomedical applications, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze and quantify both endogenous and heterologously expressed OB proteins. In this study, a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method was developed to accurately quantify an OB-targeted heterologously expressed fusion protein that has potential as a therapeutic agent. The effect of the chimeric oleosin expression upon the OB proteome in transgenic plants was also investigated, and the identification of new potential OB residents was pursued through a variety of liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS approaches. The results showed that the accumulation of the fusion protein on OBs was low. Moreover, no significant differences in the accumulation of OB proteins were revealed between transgenic and wild-type seeds. The identification of five new putative components of OB proteome was also reported.
Fachi, Mariana Millan; Cerqueira, Letícia Bonancio; Leonart, Letícia Paula; de Francisco, Thais Martins Guimarães
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, gliclazide, glimepiride, metformin, nateglinide, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and vildagliptin in human plasma was developed and validated, using isoniazid and sulfaquinoxaline as internal standards. Following plasma protein precipitation using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid, chromatographic separation was performed on a cyano column using gradient elution with water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% formic acid. Detection was performed in a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer, using electrospray ionization operated in the positive mode. Data from validation studies demonstrated that the new method is highly sensitive, selective, precise (RSD < 10%), accurate (RE < 12%), linear (r > 0.99), free of matrix and has no residual effects. The developed method was successfully applied to volunteers’ plasma samples. Hence, this method was demonstrated to be appropriate for clinical monitoring of antidiabetic agents. PMID:27930700
Hong, Youngmin; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Sang, Byoung-In; Kim, Hyunook
Nine N-nitrosamines (i.e., N-nitrosomethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitorosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) in atmospheric PM2.5 collected in the fall season from an roadside site and a residential in Seoul, Korea have been analyzed using a newly developed method consisting of simple direct liquid extraction assisted by ultrasonication and subsequent quantification using a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-TQMS). Excellent recovery values (92-100%) and method detection limits for the target compounds atmospheric PM samples could be achieved even without an evaporation step for sample concentration. The concentration of total N-nitrosamines in PM2.5 was ranged from 0.3 to 9.4 ng m(-3) in this study; NDMA, NDEA, NDBA, NPyr, and NMor in PM2.5 were found to be the most frequently encountered compounds at the sampling sites. Since no industrial plant is located in Seoul, vehicle exhausts were considered major cause of the formation of nitrosamines in this study. The mechanisms how these compounds are formed and detected in the atmosphere are explained from the viewpoint of secondary organic aerosol. Considering the concentrations of N-nitrosamines and their associated potential health risks, a systematic monitoring of nitrosamines present in both ambient air and PM2.5 including seasonal and diurnal variations of selected sites (including potential precursor sources) should be carried out in the future. The proposed sample pretreatment method along with the analytical method will definitely help us perform the monitoring study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rezk, Mamdouh R; Bendas, Ehab R; Basalious, Emad B; Karim, Iman A
A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed, optimized and validated for quantification of sofosbuvir (SF) and ledipasvir (LD) in human plasma using eplerenone as an internal standard (IS). Analytes and IS were extracted from plasma by simple liquid-liquid extraction technique using methyl tertiary butyl ether. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column. Separation was done using a mobile phase formed of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. A full validation of the method was performed according to the FDA guidelines. Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.25-3500ng/ml for SF and 5-2000ng/ml for LD. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A short run time of 2min allows analysis of more than 400 plasma samples per day. The developed method was successfully applied to both fasting and fed bioequivalence studies in healthy human volunteers.
Rocca, Maria A; Battaglini, Marco; Benedict, Ralph H B; De Stefano, Nicola; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Henry, Roland G; Horsfield, Mark A; Jenkinson, Mark; Pagani, Elisabetta; Filippi, Massimo
Patients with the main clinical phenotypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) manifest varying degrees of brain atrophy beyond that of normal aging. Assessment of atrophy helps to distinguish clinically and cognitively deteriorating patients and predicts those who will have a less-favorable clinical outcome over the long term. Atrophy can be measured from brain MRI scans, and many technological improvements have been made over the last few years. Several software tools, with differing requirements on technical ability and levels of operator intervention, are currently available and have already been applied in research or clinical trial settings. Despite this, the measurement of atrophy in routine clinical practice remains an unmet need. After a short summary of the pathologic substrates of brain atrophy in MS, this review attempts to guide the clinician towards a better understanding of the methods currently used for quantifying brain atrophy in this condition. Important physiologic factors that affect brain volume measures are also considered. Finally, the most recent research on brain atrophy in MS is summarized, including whole brain and various compartments thereof (i.e., white matter, gray matter, selected CNS structures). Current methods provide sufficient precision for cohort studies, but are not adequate for confidently assessing changes in individual patients over the scale of months or a few years. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Nakov, Natalija; Bogdanovska, Liljana; Acevska, Jelena; Tonic-Ribarska, Jasmina; Petkovska, Rumenka; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kasabova, Lilia; Svinarov, Dobrin
In this research, as a part of the development of fast and reliable HPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of ibuprofen (IBP) enantiomers in human plasma, the possibility of IBP acylglucoronide (IBP-Glu) back-conversion was assessed. This involved investigation of in source and in vitro back-conversion. The separation of IBP enantiomers, its metabolite and rac-IBP-d3 (internal standard), was achieved within 6 min using Chiracel OJ-RH chromatographic column (150 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm). The followed selected reaction monitoring transitions for IBP-Glu (m/z 381.4 → 205.4, m/z 381.4 → 161.4 and m/z 205.4 → 161.4) implied that under the optimized electrospray ionization parameters, in source back-conversion of IBP-Glu was insignificant. The results obtained after liquid-liquid extraction of plasma samples spiked with IBP-Glu revealed that the amount of IBP enantiomers generated by IBP-Glu back-conversion was far <20% of lower limit of quantification sample. These results indicate that the presence of IBP-Glu in real samples will not affect the quantification of the IBP enantiomers; thereby reliability of the method was improved. Additional advantage of the method is the short analysis time making it suitable for the large number of samples. The method was fully validated according to the EMA guideline and was shown to meet all requirements to be applied in a pharmacokinetic study.
Roche, Sandra; Sewell, Louise; Meiller, Justine; Pedersen, Kasper; Rajpal, Rajesh; O'Gorman, Peter; Clynes, Martin; O'Connor, Robert
A simple, robust, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of thalidomide was developed and validated. The method was applied to thalidomide quantification in three different types of biological samples. Thalidomide was extracted from human serum (100 μL), cells (2.5 × 10(5)), or cell culture media (100 μL) by LLE and separated on a Prodigy C18 (150 mm × 4.0 mm, 5 μm i.d.) column with isocratic elution using water/acetonitrile (70/30, v/v) 0.1% formic acid, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, with umbelliferone (600 ng/mL) as an internal standard. Thalidomide was quantified using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multi-reaction-monitoring mode using positive electrospray ionisation. The method was validated in two separate thalidomide concentration ranges; human serum (0.05-20 μg/mL) and in vitro cells (0.78-50 ng) with an inter-day precision of 1.8% and 1.9% and average accuracy of 100% and 101% in serum and cells respectively. Despite the use of small sample volume, the limit of quantification for thalidomide in serum was determined to be 3 ng/mL. The method was successfully employed to measure levels of thalidomide in cancer patient serum and cell culture model systems. Although cellular levels were quantifiable, thalidomide was shown to be unstable under in vitro conditions with a half life of approximately 2 h. In patient samples, circulating serum levels showed a broad correlation with dose and uncovered some patient compliance issues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Drooger, Jan C; Jager, Agnes; Lam, Mei-Ho; den Boer, Mathilda D; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H J; de Bruijn, Peter
The aim of this study was to validate an earlier developed high-performance highly sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of tamoxifen and its three main metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen) in scalp hair. This non-invasive method might, by segmental analysis of hair, be useful in the determination of the concentration of drugs and its metabolites over time, which can be used to study a wide variety of clinical relevant questions. Hair samples (150-300 hair strands, cut as close to the scalp as possible from the posterior vertex region of the head) were collected from female patients taking tamoxifen 20mg daily (n=19). The analytes were extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with carbonate buffer at pH 8.8 and a mixture of n-hexane/isopropranol method, followed by UPLC-MS/MS chromatography, based on an earlier validated method. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 1.00-200 pmol for tamoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, with lower limit of quantitation of 1.00 pmol and 0.100-20.0 pmol with lower limit of quantitation of 0.100 pmol for endoxifen and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen. Assay performance was fair with a within-run and between-run variability less than 9.24 at the three quality control samples and less than 15.7 for the lower limit of quantitation. Importantly, a steep linear decline was observed from distal to proximal hair segments. Probably, this is due to UV exposure as we showed degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites after exposure to UV-light. Furthermore, higher concentrations of tamoxifen were found in black hair samples compared to blond and brown hair samples. We conclude that measurement of the concentration of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in hair is possible, with the selective, sensitive, accurate and precise UPLC-MS/MS method. However, for tamoxifen, it seems not possible to determine
Gil, Jeovanis; Cabrales, Ania; Reyes, Osvaldo; Morera, Vivian; Betancourt, Lázaro; Sánchez, Aniel; García, Gerardo; Moya, Galina; Padrón, Gabriel; Besada, Vladimir; González, Luis Javier
Growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6, His-(DTrp)-Ala-Trp-(DPhe)-Lys-NH₂, MW=872.44 Da) is a potent growth hormone secretagogue that exhibits a cytoprotective effect, maintaining tissue viability during acute ischemia/reperfusion episodes in different organs like small bowel, liver and kidneys. In the present work a quantitative method to analyze GHRP-6 in human plasma was developed and fully validated following FDA guidelines. The method uses an internal standard (IS) of GHRP-6 with ¹³C-labeled Alanine for quantification. Sample processing includes a precipitation step with cold acetone to remove the most abundant plasma proteins, recovering the GHRP-6 peptide with a high yield. Quantification was achieved by LC-MS in positive full scan mode in a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated, establishing the lower limit of quantification at 5 ng/mL and a range for the calibration curve from 5 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL. A dilution integrity test was performed to analyze samples at higher concentration of GHRP-6. The validation process involved five calibration curves and the analysis of quality control samples to determine accuracy and precision. The calibration curves showed R² higher than 0.988. The stability of the analyte and its internal standard (IS) was demonstrated in all conditions the samples would experience in a real time analyses. This method was applied to the quantification of GHRP-6 in plasma from nine healthy volunteers participating in a phase I clinical trial.
Chandra, A; Rana, J; Li, Y
A method has been established and validated for identification and quantification of individual, as well as total, anthocyanins by HPLC and LC/ES-MS in botanical raw materials used in the herbal supplement industry. The anthocyanins were separated and identified on the basis of their respective M(+) (cation) using LC/ES-MS. Separated anthocyanins were individually calculated against one commercially available anthocyanin external standard (cyanidin-3-glucoside chloride) and expressed as its equivalents. Amounts of each anthocyanin calculated as external standard equivalent were then multiplied by a molecular-weight correction factor to afford their specific quantities. Experimental procedures and use of a molecular-weight correction factors are substantiated and validated using Balaton tart cherry and elderberry as templates. Cyanidin-3-glucoside chloride has been widely used in the botanical industry to calculate total anthocyanins. In our studies on tart cherry and elderberry, its use as external standard followed by use of molecular-weight correction factors should provide relatively accurate results for total anthocyanins, because of the presence of cyanidin as their major anthocyanidin backbone. The method proposed here is simple and has a direct sample preparation procedure without any solid-phase extraction. It enables selection and use of commercially available anthocyanins as external standards for quantification of specific anthocyanins in the sample matrix irrespective of their commercial availability as analytical standards. It can be used as a template and applied for similar quantification in several anthocyanin-containing raw materials for routine quality control procedures, thus providing consistency in analytical testing of botanical raw materials used for manufacturing efficacious and true-to-the-label nutritional supplements.
Inoue, Koichi; Miyazaki, Yasuto; Unno, Keiko; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa
In this study, we developed the stable isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) technique for the accurate, reasonable and simultaneous quantification of glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), pyroglutamic acid (pGlu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and theanine in mouse brain tissues. The quantification of these analytes was accomplished using stable isotope internal standards and the HILIC separating mode to fully correct the intramolecular cyclization during the electrospray ionization. It was shown that linear calibrations were available with high coefficients of correlation (r(2) > 0.999, range from 10 pmol/mL to 50 mol/mL). For application of the theanine intake, the determination of Glu, Gln, pGlu, GABA and theanine in the hippocampus and central cortex tissues was performed based on our developed method. In the region of the hippocampus, the concentration levels of Glu and pGlu were significantly reduced during reality-based theanine intake. Conversely, the concentration level of GABA increased. This result showed that transited theanine has an effect on the metabolic balance of Glu analogs in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Deconinck, E; Canfyn, M; Sacré, P-Y; Baudewyns, S; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O
A fast headspace GC-MS method was developed and validated for the detection and quantification of residual solvents of all three ICH-classes in counterfeit tablets and capsules. The method was validated for 10 solvents, selected based on an initial screening of counterfeit medicinal products. The considered solvents were ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, ethylacetate, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, toluene, dichloromethane and ethylbenzene. The proposed method uses a Phenomenex 624 capillary column (60 m × 0.32 mm; 1.8 μm film thickness) (Phenomenex, Torrance, USA) with an oven temperature program from 60 °C (held for 5 min) to 270 °C at 25 °C/min. 270 °C is held for 10 min. The total run time is 23.4 min. The obtained method was fully validated by applying the "total error" profile. Calibration lines for all components were linear within the studied ranges. The relative bias and the relative standard deviations for all components were smaller than 5%, the β-expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ±10% and the relative expanded uncertainties were acceptable for all of the considered components. A method was obtained for the screening and quantification of residual solvents in counterfeit tablets and capsules, which will allow a fast screening of these products for the presence of residual solvents.
Hua, Wenyi; Ierardi, Thomas; Lesslie, Michael; Hoffman, Brian T; Mulvana, Daniel
A highly sensitive, selective, and rugged quantification method was developed and validated for decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) in human plasma treated with 100μg/mL of tetrahydrouridine (THU). Chromatographic separation was accomplished using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and detection used electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) by monitoring lithiated adducts of the analytes as precursor ions. The method involves simple acetonitrile precipitation steps (in an ice bath) followed by injection of the supernatant onto a Thermo Betasil Silica-100, 100×3.0mm, 5μm LC column. Protonated ([M+H](+)), sodiated ([M+Na](+)), and lithiated ([M+Li](+)) adducts as precursor ions for MS/MS detection were evaluated for best sensitivity and assay performance. During initial method development abundant sodium [M+Na](+) and potassium [M+K](+) adducts were observed while the protonated species [M+H](+) was present at a relative abundance of less than 5% in Q1. The alkali adducts were not be able to be minimized by the usual approach of increasing acid content in mobile phases. Significant analyte/internal standard (IS) co-suppression and inter-lot response differences were observed when using the sodium adduct as the precursor ion for quantification. By adding 2mM lithium acetate in aqueous mobile phase component, the lithium adduct effectively replaced other cationic species and was successfully used as the precursor ion for selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection. The method demonstrated the separation of anomers and from other endogenous interferences using a 3-min gradient elution. Decitabine stock, working solution stabilities were investigated during method development. Three different peaks, including one from anomerization, were observed in the SRM transition of the analyte when it was in neutral aqueous solution. The assay was validated over a concentration range of 0.5-500ng/mL (or 0.44-440pg injected on column) in
Kowal, Sebastian; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C
A reliable quantification by LC-ESI-MS/MS as the most suitable analytical method for polar substances in the aquatic environment is usually hampered by matrix effects from co-eluting compounds, which are unavoidably present in environmental samples. The standard addition method (SAM) is the most appropriate method to compensate matrix effects. However, when performed manually, this method is too labour- and time-intensive for routine analysis. In the present work, a fully automated SAM using a multi-purpose sample manager "Open Architecture UPLC®-MS/MS" (ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) was developed for the sensitive and reliable determination of 29 polar pesticide metabolites in environmental samples. A four-point SAM was conducted parallel to direct-injection UPLC-ESI-MS/MS determination that was followed by a work flow to calculate the analyte concentrations including monitoring of required quality criteria. Several parameters regarding the SAM, chromatography and mass spectrometry conditions were optimised in order to obtain a fast as well as reliable analytical method. The matrix effects were examined by comparison of the SAM with an external calibration method. The accuracy of the SAM was investigated by recovery tests in samples of different catchment areas. The method detection limit was estimated to be between 1 and 10 ng/L for all metabolites by direct injection of a 10-μL sample. The relative standard deviation values were between 2 and 10% at the end of calibration range (30 ng/L). About 200 samples from different water bodies were examined with this method in the Rhine and Ruhr region of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Approximately 94% of the analysed samples contained measurable amounts of metabolites. For most metabolites, low concentrations ≤0.10 μg/L were determined. Only for three metabolites were the concentrations in ground water significantly higher (up to 20 μg/L). In none of the examined drinking
Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Liu, Ying; Li, Xiaoqing
Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic substances related to the primary male sex hormone, testosterone. AASs can be abused in both human and equine sports and, thus, are banned by the International Olympic Committee and the Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI). Enforcement of the ban on the use of AASs in racehorses during competition requires a defensible and robust method of analysis. To address this requirement, a high-throughput ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS) method was developed for the detection, quantification and confirmation of 55 AASs in equine plasma. AASs were recovered from equine plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Analytes were chromatographically separated on a sub-2 µm particle size C(18) column with a mobile phase gradient elution and detected by selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. AASs with isobaric precursor ions were either chromatographically resolved or mass spectrometrically differentiated by unique precursor-to-product ion transitions. A few of them that could not be resolved by both approaches were differentiated by intensity ratios of three major product ions. All the epimer pairs, testosterone and epitestosterone, boldenone and epiboldenone, nandrolone and epinandrolone, were chromatographically base-line separated. The limit of detection and that of quantification was 50 pg/ml for most of the AASs, and the limit of confirmation was 100-500 pg/ml. Full product ion spectra of AASs at concentrations as low as 100-500 pg/ml in equine plasma were obtained using the triple quadrupole instrument, to provide complementary evidentiary data for confirmation. The method is sensitive and selective for the detection, quantification and confirmation of multiple AASs in a single analysis and will be useful in the fight against doping of racehorses with AASs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley
Laureano, J V; Barreto, F; Gnoatto, S; Tasso, L; Dalla Costa, T; de Araujo, B V
A rapid and highly sensitive method by LC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the quantification of an antimalarial candidate (LAFIS10) in rat plasma using dexamethasone as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed with a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of water (A) and acetonitrile (B), both containing 10 m m of ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid, delivered in the form of elution gradient. The LAFIS10 was monitored using an electrospray ionization interface operating in the positive mode in multiple reaction monitoring mode, monitoring the transitions 681.47 → 538.2 for LAFIS10 and 393.20 → 355.30 for the IS. The flow rate was 500 μL/min. The column temperature was kept at 40 °C and the injection volume was 2 μL. The lower limit of quantification was of 10 ng/mL and linearity between 10 and 1000 ng/mL was observed, with an R(2) > 0.99. The accuracy of the method was >90%. The relative standard deviations intra- and interday were <8.80 and <6.37%, respectively. The method showed sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and selectivity required to quantify LAFIS 10 in preclinical pharmacokinetic studies according to criteria established by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ramalingam, Prakash; Ko, Young Tag
A rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine resveratrol levels in plasma and brain tissue in mice for supporting pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies. Analytes were separated using a Sepax BR-C18 analytical column (5μm, 120Å, 1.0×100mm) and eluted using an isocratic elution mobile phase acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid [60:40, v/v] at a flow rate of 0.1mL/min. Precursor and product ion transitions for analyte resveratrol m/z 226.9>184.8 and curcumin m/z 367.1>148.9 were monitored using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ionization mode. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, within- and between-day precision, linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, and matrix effects of analyte. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision were within the range of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acceptance criteria, for both matrices. The method was also successfully applied to pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies of resveratrol after intravenous administration of free resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles to mice. The combined use of serial blood sampling, small sample volume, simple extraction, and capillary depletion method drastically improved resveratrol analysis from biological matrices.
Fisichella, Marco; Morini, Luca; Sempio, Cristina; Groppi, Angelo
A multi-analyte method for the detection and quantification of 87 psychoactive drugs (antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and z-drugs) in human hair has been developed and fully validated using the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Due to the remarkable increase in requests of hair sample tests (such as for driver's license renewals, child custody, DFA cases, and postmortem toxicology), we focused on the development of a rapid sample preparation. About 20 mg of hair samples, previously washed and cut into snippets, was ultrasonicated with 700 μl of methanol. Samples were then directly analyzed using a 4000 QTRAP (AB SCIEX, Foster City, CA, USA) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) Turbo V(TM) Ion Source. The validation criteria parameters were satisfactory and in accordance with the international guidelines. All the compounds tested were successfully detected. One important aspect is the LODs in the low picogram per milligram concentration which may suggest a potential use of this method in cases of detection of single drug exposure. However, the LC-MS/MS method has been successfully applied for the analysis of postmortem cases (n = 9).
Jähne, Evelyn A; Sampath, Chethan; Butterweck, Veronika; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin
An UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of indirubin in lithium heparinized rat plasma was developed and validated according to current international guidelines. Indirubin was extracted from rat plasma by using Waters Ostro™ pass-through sample preparation plates. The method was validated with a LLOQ of 5.00ng/mL and an ULOQ of 500ng/mL. The calibration curve was fitted by least-square quadratic regression, and a weighting factor of 1/X was applied. Recoveries of indirubin and I.S. were consistent and ≥75.5%. Stability studies demonstrated that indirubin was stable in lithium heparinized rat plasma for at least 3 freeze/thaw cycles, for 3h at RT, for 96h in the autosampler at 10°C, and for 84days when stored below -65°C. Preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) data were obtained from Sprague Dawley rats after intravenous administration of indirubin (2mg/kg b.w.) and blood sampling up to 12h after injection. PK parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Indirubin had a half-life (t1/2) of 35min, and a relatively high clearance (CL) of 2.71L/h/kg.
Al Feteisi, Hajar; Achour, Brahim; Barber, Jill; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin
The quantification of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters is important for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of xenobiotic clearance, which has become an integral part of drug development. There are different mass spectrometry-based techniques used for quantitative proteomics, and as more laboratories are opting for the use of these methods, selecting the most appropriate tool is becoming a concern. For the first time, we attempt to determine the significance of cost of different LC-MS methods of quantitative analysis of these proteins and to present a framework to objectively assess the choice of the techniques. Based on our analysis, quantification using labeled internal standards is more expensive per sample but provides higher quality data than label-free quantification. Quantification using absolute quantification synthetic peptides is the approach of choice for analyzing less than nine proteins, whereas when quantifying a defined set of proteins (10-50), such as enzymes, in a reasonably large number of samples (20-100), the quantification concatemer technique is more economical, followed by label-free quantification. When analyzing proteomes or sub-proteomes (≥500 proteins), label-free quantification is more cost-effective than the use of labeled internal standards. A cost-benefit approach is described to assess the choice of the most appropriate mass spectrometry-based approach for the quantification of proteins relevant to IVIVE.
Wang, Wei; Sun, Wei; Dong, Lei; Qu, Xiaotong; Shi, Jin; Li, Ke-Jun; Li, Bing; Ma, Da-Peng
A specific, sensitive and accurate analytical LC-MS/MS assay was developed for the simultaneous determination of two steroidal glycosides, tenacissoside H and tenacissoside I, in rat plasma. An Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column was used with an isocratic mobile phase system composed of methanol-water-formic acid (70:30:0.1, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analysis was performed on a positive ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via selected reaction monitoring mode scan. One-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile was chosen to extract the analytes from plasma. The lower limits of quantification were 0.9 ng/mL for tenacissoside H and tenacissoside I. The intra- and inter-day precisions were 2.03-11.56 and 3.76-11.62%, respectively, and the accuracies were <110.28% at all quality control levels. The validated method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats after oral gavage of Marsdenia tenacissima extract.
Suhr, Anna Catharina; Vogeser, Michael; Grimm, Stefanie H
For quotable quantitative analysis of endogenous analytes in complex biological samples by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS, the creation of appropriate calibrators is a challenge, since analyte-free authentic material is in general not available. Thus, surrogate matrices are often used to prepare calibrators and controls. However, currently employed validation protocols do not include specific experiments to verify the suitability of a surrogate matrix calibration for quantification of authentic matrix samples. The aim of the study was the development of a novel validation experiment to test whether surrogate matrix based calibrators enable correct quantification of authentic matrix samples. The key element of the novel validation experiment is the inversion of nonlabelled analytes and their stable isotope labelled (SIL) counterparts in respect to their functions, i.e. SIL compound is the analyte and nonlabelled substance is employed as internal standard. As a consequence, both surrogate and authentic matrix are analyte-free regarding SIL analytes, which allows a comparison of both matrices. We called this approach Isotope Inversion Experiment. As figure of merit we defined the accuracy of inverse quality controls in authentic matrix quantified by means of a surrogate matrix calibration curve. As a proof-of-concept application a LC-MS/MS assay addressing six corticosteroids (cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and 17-OH-progesterone) was chosen. The integration of the Isotope Inversion Experiment in the validation protocol for the steroid assay was successfully realized. The accuracy results of the inverse quality controls were all in all very satisfying. As a consequence the suitability of a surrogate matrix calibration for quantification of the targeted steroids in human serum as authentic matrix could be successfully demonstrated. The Isotope Inversion Experiment fills a gap in the validation process for LC-MS/MS assays
Van Bohemen, Anne-Isaline; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Phuong, Nam Ngoc; Inguimbert, Nicolas; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Ruiz, Nicolas; Pouchus, Yves François
Some terrestrial Trichoderma sp. strains are already used as biological control agents (BCAs). They all produce peptaibols, small antimicrobial peptides which are supposed to play a role in the anti-phytopathogenic activity of Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma strains producing high amounts of peptaibols could represent new potential BCAs. In this context, marine-derived Trichoderma strains from the marine fungal strain collection of the "Mer, Molécules, Santé" (MMS) laboratory were investigated for their peptaibol production. Previously, the quantification of peptaibols was performed using alamethicin, as standard (20-amino acid residues peptaibol). In this study, the development and validation of quantification LC/ESI-TI-MS methods using different standards of peptaibols (11-, 14- and 20-amino acid residues) was performed in order to quantify all of them, in a single analysis, in Trichoderma crude extracts according to their chain length. The developed and validated methods were used to study the peptaibol production kinetic of a marine-derived Trichoderma strain, i.e., Trichoderma longibrachiatum (MMS 151). The results showed the optimal culture time at the 9th day with concentrations reaching 1.4±0.2% and 2.3±0.4% of the fungal biomass respectively for 11- and 20-residue peptaibols. Then, the different peptaibol subgroups produced by 13 Trichoderma strains were quantified. According to their 18-, 19- and 20-residue peptaibol production, three strains referenced as MMS 1541, MMS 639 and MMS 151 seemed to be good candidates as potential new biological control agents with respective production of 0.4, 0.4 and 2.1%.
Brêtas, Juliana Machado; César, Isabela Costa; Brêtas, Camila Machado; Teixeira, Leonardo de Souza; Bellorio, Karini Bruno; Mundim, Iram Moreira; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio
A sensitive and fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of naproxen and sumatriptan in human plasma. A simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure, with a mixture of ethyl acetate, methyl tert-butyl ether, and dichloromethane (4:3:3, v/v), was used for the cleanup of plasma. Naratriptan and aceclofenac were employed as internal standards. The analyses were carried out using an ACE C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm i.d.; particle size 5 μm) and a mobile phase consisting of 2 mM aqueous ammonium acetate with 0.025 % formic acid and methanol (38:62, v/v). A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source in the positive mode was set up in the selective reaction monitoring mode to detect the ion transitions m/z 231.67 → m/z 185.07, m/z 296.70 → m/z 157.30, m/z 354.80 → m/z 215.00, and m/z 336.80 → m/z 97.94 for naproxen, sumatriptan, aceclofenac, and naratriptan, respectively. The method was validated and proved to be linear, accurate, precise, and selective over the ranges of 2.5-130 μg mL(-1) for naproxen and 1-50 ng mL(-1) for sumatriptan. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study with simultaneous administration of naproxen sodium and sumatriptan succinate tablet formulations in healthy volunteers.
Yan, Huiyu; Song, Yanqing; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Sixi
A selective and sensitive method was developed and validated based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This method was applied to quantify momordin Ic in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil GOLD HPLC C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm) using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in negative ion mode; selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used for quantification by monitoring the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 763.4→m/z 455.3 for momordin Ic, and m/z 649.4→m/z 487.3 for IS. Calibration curves showed good linearity over the range of 22.0-2200ng/mL for momordin Ic in rat plasma. The developed method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of momordin Ic in rats after single intravenous doses at 0.52, 1.56, and 4.67mg/kg. The elimination half-life (t1/2) values were 1.22±0.39, 1.14±0.10, and 1.83±0.39h, respectively. The plasma concentration at 2min (C2min) and area under the curve (AUC) for the intravenous doses of momordin Ic were approximately dose proportional.
Roth, Nadine; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker
For analysis of hair samples derived from a pilot study ('in vivo' contamination of hair by sidestream marijuana smoke), an LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Hair samples were extracted in methanol for 4 h under occasional shaking at room temperature, after adding THC-D(3), CBN-D(3), CBD-D(3) and THCA-A-D(3) as an in-house synthesized internal standard. The analytes were separated by gradient elution on a Luna C18 column using 0.1% HCOOH and ACN + 0.1% HCOOH. Data acquisition was performed on a QTrap 4000 in electrospray ionization-multi reaction monitoring mode. Validation was carried out according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were 2.5 pg/mg for THCA-A and 20 pg/mg for THC, CBN and CBD. A linear calibration model was applicable for all analytes over a range of 2.5 pg/mg or 20 pg/mg to 1000 pg/mg, using a weighting factor 1/x. Selectivity was shown for 12 blank hair samples from different sources. Accuracy and precision data were within the required limits for all analytes (bias between -0.2% and 6.4%, RSD between 3.7% and 11.5%). The dried hair extracts were stable over a time period of one to five days in the dark at room temperature. Processed sample stability (maximum decrease of analyte peak area below 25%) was considerably enhanced by adding 0.25% lecithin (w/v) in ACN + 0.1% HCOOH for reconstitution. Extraction efficiency for CBD was generally very low using methanol extraction. Hence, for effective extraction of CBD alkaline hydrolysis is recommended. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Verdu, Cindy F; Gatto, Julia; Freuze, Ingrid; Richomme, Pascal; Laurens, François; Guilet, David
The aim of this study was to develop faster and more efficient phenotyping methods for in-depth genetic studies on cider apple progeny. The UHPLC chromatographic system was chosen to separate polyphenolic compounds, and quantifications were then simultaneously performed with a UV-PDA detector and an ESI-triple quadrupole mass analyzer (SRM mode). Both quantification methods were validated for 15 major compounds using two apple juice samples, on the basis of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and precision tests. The comparison between UV and SRM quantifications in 120 different samples of a cider apple progeny showed an excellent correlation for major compounds quantified with both methods. However, an overestimation was revealed for five compounds with the UV detector and the mass analyzer. Co-elution and matrix effects are discussed to explain this phenomenon. SRM methods should therefore be considered with restrictions in some cases for quantification measurements when several phenolic compounds are simultaneously quantified in complex matrices such as apple juices. For both methods, analyses were carried out over short periods of time while maintaining a high quality for the simultaneous quantification of phenolic compounds in apple juice. Each method is relevant for more in-depth genetic studies of the polyphenol content of apple juice.
Simões, Susana Sadler; Silva, Inês; Ajenjo, Antonio Castañera; Dias, Mário João
An UPLC-MS/MS method using ESI+ionization and MRM was developed and fully validated according to international guidelines for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine synthetic cannabinoids and/or their metabolites in urine samples (1mL). Prior to extraction the samples were subjected to an enzymatic hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase followed by a SPE procedure using Oasis(®) HLB 3cc (60mg) columns. The chromatographic separation was performed with an Acquity UPLC(®) HSS T3 (50mm×2.1mm i.d., 1.8μm) reversed-phase column using a gradient with methanol-ammonium formate 2mM (0.1% formic acid) and with a run time of 9.5min. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, capacity of identification, limits of detection (0.01-0.5ng/mL) and quantification (0.05-0.5ng/mL), recovery (58-105%), carryover, matrix effect, linearity (0.05-50ng/mL), intra-assay precision, inter-assay accuracy and precision (CV<20%). The method was applied to 80 authentic samples, five of them (6.2%) were confirmed or suspected to be positive for the metabolites JWH-018 N-hydroxypentyl and JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid of JWH-018 and for the metabolite JWH-122 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) of JWH-122, and three of them in association with THC and/or THCCOOH (substances included in the method, together with the 11-OH-THC). Additionally, 17 spice products were analyzed, for which were confirmed the presence of the following substances: AM-2201, JWH-018, JWH-022 JWH-073, JWH-122, JWH-203, JWH-210, JWH-250, HU-210 and RCS-4, according to the comparison with authentic reference material and published data. The analytical method developed allowed the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids and the notification of the first cases in Portugal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yao, Lan; Zhou, Fang; Cai, Mingmin; Peng, Ying; Sun, Jianguo; Chen, Qianying; Jin, Xiaoliang; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei
Etimicin (ETM), which belongs to the newest generation of aminoglycosides (AGs), has been proven to not only maintain but also strengthen the advantages of former AGs with relatively less toxicity. Now, it is widely applied for the treatment of bacterial infections in the clinic. Nevertheless, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are unavoidable issues for AGs, and while ETM is no exception, the seriousness of these issues is different. To explore the reason why ETM exhibits less toxicity and to better direct the optimization and development of new AGs, it is of great necessity and importance to monitor the pharmacokinetic behaviors of ETM in its potential toxicity target organs, the kidney and internal ear, as well as in plasma. Therefore, a novel, sensitive and efficient LC-MS/MS method without derivatization or ion-pairing agents had been developed and validated for quantification of ETM in rat plasma, kidney and internal ear for the first time. This method showed good linearity over the range of 50-2000ng/mL for rat plasma/internal ear and 100-5000ng/mL for rat kidney. The precision was less than 4.4% and the accuracy was below 4.8%. Recovery and matrix effects were 71.3%-82.8% and 97.6%-108.5%, respectively. After intravenous administration of a single dose of ETM, plasma drug concentrations fit well with a two-compartmental model, and the AUC0-∞, t1/2α, t1/2β, MRT and CL were 127.96±5.52μg*h/mL, 0.53±0.03h, 3.32±1.11h, 1.01±0.03h and 234.80±10.05mL/h/kg, respectively. Particularly, ETM showed a considerably long half-life in kidney and internal ear, up to 155.96±19.95h and 83.11±26.60h, respectively, which might contribute greatly to its toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mannocchi, Giulio; Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Catanese, Miriam; Umani Ronchi, Federica; Busardò, Francesco Paolo
Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v) and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case. PMID:26236337
Regl, Christof; Wohlschlager, Therese; Holzmann, Johann; Huber, Christian G
Oxidation of biopharmaceuticals may affect their bioactivity, serum half-life, and (bio)chemical stability. The Fc domain of IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) contains two methionine residues which are susceptible to oxidation. Here, we present a middle-down approach employing the cysteine protease IdeS under reducing conditions to obtain three mAb subunits of approximately 25 kDa: Fc/2, Fd', and LC. These subunits were separated by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC) and detected by UV spectroscopy as well as Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS), as well as MS upon all-ion fragmentation (AIF-MS). We evaluated the feasibility of three strategies for absolute quantification of oxidation in the Fc region of hydrogen peroxide-stressed Rituximab, using a single, commercially available software platform both for data acquisition and evaluation: UV spectroscopy, full-scan MS, and monitoring of product ions obtained by AIF-MS. UV spectroscopy showed the lowest limits of quantification (LOQ) (0.96 ng μL(-1)) and featured the lowest relative process standard deviation (Vx0%) of 7.2% compared to MS and AIF-MS with LOQs of 1.24-4.32 ng μL(-1) and relative process standard deviations of 9.0-14%, respectively. Our approach is generic in that it allows monitoring and quantification of oxidation in the Fc regions of fully human and humanized IgG1 mAbs as well as of Fc-fusion proteins. This is exemplified by limits of detection of 1.2%, 1.0%, and 1.2% of oxidation in drug products containing the biopharmaceuticals Rituximab, Adalimumab, and Etanercept, respectively. The presented method is an attractive alternative to conventional time-intensive peptide mapping which is prone to artificial oxidation due to extensive sample preparation.
Gairola, Sunil; Gautam, Manish; Patil, Dada; Manoj Kumar, Krishna; Shinde, Pravin; Jana, S K; Dhere, Rajeev; Jadhav, Suresh
The analysis of residual sodium deoxycholate (DOC); a detergent of biological origin used in manufacturing of polysaccharide vaccines is challenging due to complex sample matrices and the lack of suitable methods. Here we report, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index (HPLC-RI) and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) methods for estimation of residual DOC in pneumococcal polysaccharides. For HPLC-RI method, separation was achieved using Luna C18 column and mobile phase compositions of acetonitrile: methanol: 20 mM sodium acetate (60:05:35% v/v). For HPLC-MS/MS method, separation was achieved using a Hypersil BDS C18 column with gradient elution of methanol and water (0.1% formic acid). MS/MS method showed linearity (r(2) = 0.997) over the range of 10-320 ng/mL with limits of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 3 and 10 ng/mL respectively. Precision (% RSD) and accuracy (% recovery) for both methods were in the range of 0.74-8.29% and 82.33-117.86% respectively. Sample matrices interferences were addressed following novel sample clean-up method based on liquid-liquid extraction. Both methods enabled traceable quantitation of DOC in intermediate and purified pneumococcal polysaccharides of serotypes: 1, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 19A, 19F and 23F.
Bylda, Caroline; Leinenbach, Andreas; Thiele, Roland; Kobold, Uwe; Volmer, Dietrich A
A fast and sensitive reference method for quantification of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in oral fluid is described in this study. Samples were collected using an oral specimen collection device, followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved by gradient elution on a reversed-phase column with subsequent detection by electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. Quantification was performed by means of deuterated analogues of the analytes as internal standards. Total run time of the assay was 12 min. The method allowed sensitive quantification of both analytes at a limit of quantification of 0.2 ng/ml. This sensitivity is essential for analysis of samples collected with the Intercept Oral Fluid Collection device (OraSure) and an assay for simultaneous quantification of THC and THCCOOH in saliva has not yet been described. The calibration curves for THC and THCCOOH were linear in the range between 0.25 and 8 ng/ml (r(2) > 0.99). Ion suppression effects from endogenous or exogenous interferences were investigated using selected model substances (albumin, ascorbic acid, bilirubin, hemoglobin, breath spray, cigarette, chewing gum, chewing tobacco, candy, tooth whitening, and Tums antacid). These substances were chosen because of the high probability of their presence in the collected samples. None of the 11 endogenous model interferences altered the accuracy of analysis, demonstrating good robustness of the method with respect to interferences in common hygiene products, medicine, tobacco and naturally occurring endogenous substances.
Liu, Wei; Morrow, Jason D; Yin, Huiyong
Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation has been implicated in a number of human diseases including atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. F(2)-Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are isomers of prostaglandin PGF(2alpha) that are generated in vivo from the free radical-initiated peroxidation of arachidonic acid independent of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Since the discovery of the IsoPs in the early 1990s, a large body of evidence has been accumulated to indicate that quantification of these F(2)-IsoPs represents the most reliable biomarker to assess oxidative stress in vivo. A variety of analytical approaches have been developed for the quantification of these novel compounds; these methods include mass spectrometry (MS) detection coupled to gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) separation, and detection using immunological approaches. This article summarizes our current methodology to quantify F(2)-IsoPs in biological fluids and tissues using GC-MS. This method includes solid-phase extraction (SPE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) purification, chemical derivatization, and MS detection using negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) coupled with GC. The protocol described herein has been optimized and validated to provide the best sensitivity and selectivity for quantification of F(2)-IsoPs from a variety of biological sources.
Nzoughet, Judith Kouassi; Campbell, Katrina; Barnes, Paul; Cooper, Kevin M; Chevallier, Olivier P; Elliott, Christopher T
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent marine neurotoxins reported. The global distribution of this toxin is spreading with the European Atlantic coastline now being affected. Climate change and increasing pollution have been suggested as underlying causes for this. In the present study, two different sample preparation techniques were used to extract TTX from Trumpet shells and pufferfish samples. Both extraction procedures (accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and a simple solvent extraction) were shown to provide good recoveries (80-92%). A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of TTX and validated following the guidelines contained in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for chemical contaminant analysis. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose. This study is the first report on the use of ASE as a mean for TTX extraction, the use of UPLC-MS/MS for TTX analysis, and the validation of this method for TTX in gastropods.
Sahle, Fitsum F; Lange, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H
Ceramides (CERs) are integral parts of the intercellular lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum (SC), which provide the barrier function of the skin. Administration of CERs deep into the SC may help to restore the barrier function in affected or aged skin. However, quantification of the amount of CER penetrated into the target site needs a selective and sensitive analytical method. Therefore, an LC/ESI-MS method was developed and validated for the detection and quantification of exogenous CER [NP] in the SC as well as other skin layers. The strategy involved synthesis of ceramide [NP]-D3-18 (deuterated CER [NP]) to distinguish it from the endogenous CER [NP] in MS on weight basis. The method was linear over 10-800 ng/ml and sensitive with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3 and 10 ng/ml, respectively. It was also accurate with within-run and between-run percentage recoveries of 97.1-103.2 and 99.0-104.9, respectively. The within-run and between-run relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0.9-5.4% and 2.1-7.4%, respectively, suggesting the method is precise. The method was highly selective and the matrix effect was too minimal with matrix factor (MF) mean and RSD values of 1.002 and 4.57%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Duan, Xiaotao; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Dai, Lipeng; Balthasar, Joseph P.; Qu, Jun
Although liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring (LC/SRM-MS) holds great promise for targeted protein analysis, quantification of therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) in tissues represents a daunting challenge due to the extremely-low tissue levels, complexity of tissue matrices, and the absence of an efficient strategy to develop an optimal LC/SRM-MS method. Here we describe a high-throughput, streamlined strategy for the development of sensitive, selective and reliable quantitative methods of mAb in tissue matrices. A sensitive nano-LC/nanospray-MS method was employed to achieve a low lower limit of quantification (LOQ). For selection of signature peptides (SP), the SP candidates were identified by a high-resolution Orbitrap and then optimal SRM conditions for each candidate were obtained using a high-throughput, on-the-fly orthogonal array optimization (OAO) strategy, which is capable of optimizing a large set of SP candidates within a single nano-LC/SRM-MS run. Using the optimized conditions, the candidates were experimentally evaluated for both sensitivity and stability in the target matrices and SP selection was based on the results of the evaluation. Two unique SPs, respectively from the light and heavy chain, were chosen for quantification of each mAb. The use of two SP improves the quantitative reliability by gauging possible degradation/modification of the mAb. Standard mAb proteins with verified purities were utilized for calibration curves, to prevent the quantitative biases that may otherwise occur when synthesized peptides were used as calibrators. We showed a proof of concept by rapidly developing sensitive nano-LC/SRM-MS methods for quantifying two mAb (8c2 and cT84.66) in multiple preclinical tissues. High sensitivity was achieved for both mAb with LOQ ranged from 0.156 to 0.312 μg/g across different tissues, and the overall procedure showed a wide dynamic range (≥500 fold), good accuracy (RE<18.8%) and
Decloedt, Anneleen I; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn
Phytosterols are ubiquitous in plants, as they play an important role in cell membrane stability and as signal transducers. Over the last few decades, scientific interest in phytosterols has significantly increased. Most of the interest has focused on the cholesterol-lowering properties of phytosterols, but they may also interfere with endogenous steroid hormone synthesis. Despite this dual interest in phytosterols, accurate and fully validated methods for the quantification of phytosterols in food and feed samples are scarce. During this study an extraction and detection method for the main free phytosterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and brassicasterol) was optimised using a fractional factorial design. Detection was carried out on a UPLC-MS/MS triple stage quadrupole apparatus. The extraction and UPLC-MS/MS detection method was fully validated according to EU Council Decision 2002/657 guidelines and Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) MS criteria, reaching all evaluated performance parameter requirements. The individual recoveries ranged between 95 and 104 %. Good results for repeatability and intralaboratory reproducibility (RSD %) were observed (<10 %). Excellent linearity was proven on the basis of determination coefficient (R (2) > 0.99) and lack-of-fit test (F test, alpha = 0.05). The limits of detection (LODs) and lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) in grain matrices were as low as 0.01-0.03 mg per 100 g and 0.02-0.10 mg per 100 g. This method allowed quantification of all main, free phytosterols in different grains (oats, barley, corn, malt) and it was shown that the method can be used for other solid food and feed samples as well, including new matrices such as straw, hay, mustard seeds, grass and yellow peas. Additionally, the method was shown to perform well in liquid samples low in phytosterols such as concentrate-based juices, soft drinks and beers (<5 μg per 100 mL). Graphical Abstract An extraction and
Park, Jin-Hee; Jhee, Ok-Hwa; Park, Song-Hee; Lee, Jung-Sik; Lee, Min-Ho; Shaw, Leslie M; Kim, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Yong-Seok; Kang, Ju-Seop
A sensitive validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) for gabapentin (GB) in human plasma has been developed and applied to pharmacokinetic (PK) and bioequivalence (BE) studies in human. In a randomized crossover design with a 1-week period, each subject received a 300 mg GB capsule. The procedure involves a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile and separated by LC with a Gemini C(18) column using acetonitrile-10 mm ammonium acetate (20:80, v/v, pH 3.2) as mobile phase. The GB and internal standard [(S)-(+)-alpha-aminocyclohexanepropionic acid hydrate] were analyzed using an LC-API 2000 MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The ionization was optimized using ESI(+) and selectivity was achieved using MS/MS analysis, m/z 172.0 --> 154.0 and m/z 172.0 --> 126.0 for GB and IS, respectively. The assay exhibited good linearity over a working range of 20-5000 ng/mL for GB in human plasma with a lower limit of quantitation of 20 ng/mL. No endogenous compounds were found to interfere with the analysis. The accuracy and precision were shown for concentrations over the standard ranges. This method was successfully applied for the PK and BE studies by analysis of blood samples taken up to 36 h after an oral dose of 300 mg of GB in 24 healthy volunteers.
Baati, Tarek; Schembri, Thérèse; Villard, Claude; Correard, Florian; Braguer, Diane; Estève, Marie-Anne
The quantification of paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancers, has been performed from complete cell culture medium and cell lysate samples using a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure in conjunction with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A simple sample preparation using methanol and acetic acid as a weaker acid was applied to avoid paclitaxel destruction and to achieve recovery exceeding 80 % from both matrices spiked with paclitaxel and docetaxel used as internal standard. This rapid, simple, selective and sensitive method enabled the quantification of paclitaxel within the linear range of 1-250nM in culture medium and 5-250nM in cell lysate. The lower limit of quantification was achieved in cell culture medium and cell lysates at 0.2 and 1pmol, respectively. This method was successfully applied to human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549 cells) in order to quantify the amount of paclitaxel in both cell culture medium and lysate after incubation with 5, 50 and 100nM of paclitaxel. This ultra-sensitive method promises the quantification of ultra-low concentrations of paclitaxel released from any nanocarriers, allowing the determination of the kinetic profile of drug release, which is an essential parameter to validate the use of nanocarriers for drug delivery in cancer therapy.
Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi
A novel analytical method using HPLC-MS/MS operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for evaluation of fungi efficacy to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye solution was developed, validated and applied. The method shows high sensibility allowing the detection of 4.6 pM of RBBR. Four fungal strains were tested in liquid medium, three strains of Aspergillus (Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. All fungi were able to degrade the dye, with efficiencies ranging from 40% for P. chrysosporium up to 99% for A. flavus during a 30-day incubation period. During the experiment, increased accumulation of degradation products was observed in A. flavus cultures containing RBBR. Through the use of full scan HPLC-MS technique it was possible to propose the biogenesis of the microbial metabolic degradation pathway. Screening using microorganisms and RBBR may be hereafter used to investigate microbial biodegradation of high toxicity molecules such as dioxins.
Junnotula, Venkatraman; Licea-Perez, Hermes
A simple, selective, and sensitive quantitative method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa in rat and monkey plasma by protein precipitation using acetonitrile containing the derivatizing reagent, flourescamine. Derivatized products of levodopa and carbidopa were separated on a BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm; 1.7 μm particle size) using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) without any further purification. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for detection. The method was validated over the concentration range of 5-5000 ng/mL and 3-3000 ng/mL for levodopa and carbidopa, respectively in rat and monkey plasma. Due to the poor stability of the investigated analytes in biological matrices, a mixture of sodium metabisulfite and hydrazine dihydrochloride was used as a stabilizer. This method was successfully utilized to support pharmacokinetic studies in both species. The results from assay validations and incurred samples re-analysis show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. To our knowledge, this is the first UHPLC-MS/MS based method that utilizes derivatization with fluorescamine and provides adequate sensitivity for both levodopa and carbidopa with 50 μL of sample and a run time of 3.5 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arora, Beauty; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Saxena, Rohit; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Dogra, T D; Ghose, Supriyo
Detection and quantification of drugs from various biological matrices are of immense importance in forensic toxicological analysis. Despite the various reported methods, development of a new method for the detection and quantification of drugs is still an active area of research. However, every method and biological matrix has its own limitation, which further encourage forensic toxicologists to develop new methods and to explore new matrices for the analysis of drugs. In this study, an electrospray ionization-liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) method is developed and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 drugs of forensic relevance in various body fluids, namely, whole blood, plasma and vitreous humour. The newly developed method has been validated for intra-day and inter-day accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity. Absolute recovery shows a mean of 84.5, 86.2, and 103% in the vitreous humour, whole blood and plasma respectively, which is suitable for the screening procedure. Further, the absolute matrix effect (AME) shows a mean of 105, 96.5, and 109% in the vitreous humour, whole blood and plasma, respectively. In addition, to examine the practical utility of this method, it has been applied for screening of drugs in post-mortem samples of the vitreous humour, whole blood and plasma collected at autopsy from ten cadavers. Experimental results show that the newly developed method is well applicable for screening of analytes in all the three matrices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rezk, Mamdouh R; Basalious, Emad B; Karim, Iman A
A rapid and simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of sofosbuvir (SF) and its metabolite GS-331007 (GS) using famotidine as an internal standard (IS). The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Extraction with ethyl acetate was used in sample preparation. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC HSS C₁₈ (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) column by pumping 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. Method validation was performed as per the FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 10-2500 ng/ml for both SF and its metabolite. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A very short run time of 1.2 min made it possible to analyze more than 300 human plasma samples per day. The developed assay method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in human volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Higgs, Richard E; Butler, Jon P; Han, Bomie; Knierman, Michael D
Recent improvements in the mass accuracy and resolution of mass spectrometers have led to renewed interest in label-free quantification using data from the primary mass spectrum (MS1) acquired from data-dependent proteomics experiments. The capacity for higher specificity quantification of peptides from samples enriched for proteins of biological interest offers distinct advantages for hypothesis generating experiments relative to immunoassay detection methods or prespecified peptide ions measured by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approaches. Here we describe an evaluation of different methods to post-process peptide level quantification information to support protein level inference. We characterize the methods by examining their ability to recover a known dilution of a standard protein in background matrices of varying complexity. Additionally, the MS1 quantification results are compared to a standard, targeted, MRM approach on the same samples under equivalent instrument conditions. We show the existence of multiple peptides with MS1 quantification sensitivity similar to the best MRM peptides for each of the background matrices studied. Based on these results we provide recommendations on preferred approaches to leveraging quantitative measurements of multiple peptides to improve protein level inference.
Higgs, Richard E.; Butler, Jon P.; Han, Bomie; Knierman, Michael D.
Recent improvements in the mass accuracy and resolution of mass spectrometers have led to renewed interest in label-free quantification using data from the primary mass spectrum (MS1) acquired from data-dependent proteomics experiments. The capacity for higher specificity quantification of peptides from samples enriched for proteins of biological interest offers distinct advantages for hypothesis generating experiments relative to immunoassay detection methods or prespecified peptide ions measured by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approaches. Here we describe an evaluation of different methods to post-process peptide level quantification information to support protein level inference. We characterize the methods by examining their ability to recover a known dilution of a standard protein in background matrices of varying complexity. Additionally, the MS1 quantification results are compared to a standard, targeted, MRM approach on the same samples under equivalent instrument conditions. We show the existence of multiple peptides with MS1 quantification sensitivity similar to the best MRM peptides for each of the background matrices studied. Based on these results we provide recommendations on preferred approaches to leveraging quantitative measurements of multiple peptides to improve protein level inference. PMID:23710359
A rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of serum androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3α, 17β diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women.
Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Bertin, Jonathan; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Dury, Alain Y; Labrie, Fernand
Quantification of steroidal glucuronide conjugates by the indirect methods of immunoassay and GC-MS/MS may underestimate some conjugates since hydrolysis is needed in sample processing. In the present work, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous direct quantification of androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3α, 17β diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women's serum. The quantification limits are 0.1ng/mL for 3α-diol-17G and 4ng/mL for both ADT-G and Etio-G, respectively, with an extraction from 200μL serum while the total run time is less than 6min for all three glucuronides. In this method, solid phase extraction is used for sample preparation. The assay has been validated in compliance with EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method development and validation. The recovery of glucuronides in stripped serum is consistent with that in unstripped serum, where the average difference in stripped and unstripped is less than 10%. A linear regression model fits well the standard curves of all three compounds with R≥0.99 where the weighting factor is 1/X. Interday accuracy and CV for all levels of QCs are within the range of 15% in both stripped and unstripped serum while all calibration curves are within the range of 6% except for LLOQs, which are within the range of 9%. Other parameters have also been assessed such as selectivity, matrix, lipemic and hemolysis effects as well as stabilities in solution and matrix. Incurred sample reanalysis has been performed with a result of over 93% within 20% of the original values. This reliable, sensitive and fast method is ready for large-scale clinical sample assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ogawa, Shoujiro; Takafuji, Kiriko; Tsubuku, Sumi; Horie, Yukiko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Higashi, Tatsuya
Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs) are antioxidant phytochemicals found in rice and effective for the prevention of human diseases including cancer. FBRA, which is a functional food manufactured by fermenting brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae, has been demonstrated to have chemopreventive effects against carcinogenesis in various organs. In this study, we developed methods for the relative and absolute quantification of ferulic acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and syringic acid in the FBRA and raw material (RM; unfermented brown rice and rice bran) samples by LC/ESI-MS/MS combined with derivatization using a newly developed reagent, N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(diethylamino)benzamide (ADB) and its deuterium-coded analog, d-ADB. For the relative quantification, the FBRA and RM samples were derivatized with ADB and d-ADB, respectively, then the resulting derivatives were mixed and subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS; by this method, we found that the fermentation process significantly increased the free HCA and HBA contents. The HCA and HBA contents in the FBRA were also determined, in which the d-ADB-derivatized standards of known amounts were used as the internal standards. The ADB-derivatization enabled the sensitive and specific detection, and the use of d-ADB significantly improved the assay precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andreoli, Roberta; Cirlini, Martina; Mutti, Antonio
A new method for the simultaneous quantitative determination in human urine of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a toxic food contaminant, and its metabolite, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (DHPMA), was developed and validated. After urine dilution, the analytes were separated on an Atlantis®dC18 column and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using isotopically labelled internal standards. The limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were 1.90 and 2.21 μg/L for 3-MCPD and DHPMA, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 6 % for each compound. Matrix effects were evaluated. Due to the high sensitivity and good accuracy of the method, 3-MCPD and DHPMA were found in 67 and 100 % of urine samples of healthy subjects, respectively.
Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Karolak, Sara; Fontova, Anne; Huart, Bruno; Levi, Yves
Pollution of the environment by pharmaceuticals is a subject of growing scientific and societal concern. However, few quantitative data have been reported concerning hospital wastewater contamination. Among the different molecules used at hospital, antineoplastic drugs appear to be of special interest, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) can be considered as a key compound of this therapeutic class. To monitor this pharmaceutical in hospital wastewater, a highly specific and selective method was developed using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. This sensitive method (limit of quantification = 40 ng L(-1)) was then applied to assess sewage contamination of a middle-size hospital with oncology service located in Paris, France. Native 5-FU was detectable in 12 of the 14 analysed samples. In positive samples, concentration range was measured from 0.09 to 4.0 microg L(-1). Finally, a predicting model for the hospital wastewater concentrations is presented, and results of this model are discussed.
Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone
Current liquid chromatography (LC) based methods for the analysis of polar plant metabolites require multiple runs using complex mobile phases and a combination of different columns. Here we describe a fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the determination of major polar metabolites in plants that requires only a single run using a single column. The method takes advantage of the ability to acquire both positive and negative data in an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) and also the accurate mass capability of the orbitrap MS. The separation of polar compounds is achieved with a polar, reversed-phase column (Synergi Hydro-RP). A single analysis with a 25min runtime is able to reliably determine the level of nearly all essential amino acids, several major organic acids and several major sugars in plant materials, as exemplified by analysis of a perennial ryegrass extract. The level of detection on column was below 0.1ng (average 0.03ng) for most amino acids, below 5ng (average 2.3ng) for organics acids and below 1ng (average 0.64ng) for sugars. The levels of quantified metabolites in ryegrass varied from 22μg/g dry weight for histidine to 41mg/g dry weight for sucrose.
van Nuland, Merel; Hillebrand, M J X; Rosing, H; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H
Abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide are 2 novel drugs for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The metabolism of these drugs is extensive. Major metabolites are N-desmethyl enzalutamide, enzalutamide carboxylic acid, abiraterone N-oxide sulfate, and abiraterone sulfate; of which N-desmethyl enzalutamide is reported to possess antiandrogen capacities. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of abiraterone, enzalutamide, and the main metabolites has been developed and validated to support therapeutic drug monitoring. Human plasma samples of patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide were harvested at the clinic and stored at -20°C. Proteins were precipitated by acetonitrile, and the final extract was injected on a Kinetex C18 column and separated with gradient elution. Analytes were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (Triple Quad 6500). The method was validated over various linear ranges: 1-100 ng/mL for abiraterone, 5-500 ng/mL for enzalutamide and enzalutamide carboxylic acid, 10-1000 ng/mL for N-desmethyl enzalutamide, 30-3000 ng/mL for abiraterone N-oxide sulfate, and 100-10,000 ng/mL for abiraterone sulfate. Intra-assay and interassay variabilities were within ±15% of the nominal concentrations for quality control samples at medium and high concentrations and within ±20% at the lower limit of quantification, respectively. The described method for simultaneous determination of abiraterone and enzalutamide was validated successfully and provides a useful tool for therapeutic drug monitoring in patients treated with these agents.
Tré-Hardy, Marie; Capron, Arnaud; Antunes, Marina Venzon; Linden, Rafael; Wallemacq, Pierre
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MSMS) assay for the simultaneous quantification of tamoxifen (TAM) and its main therapeutically active metabolites, N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDT), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT) and endoxifen (END) in dried blood spots. Ultrasound assisted methanolic extraction was used for TAM and metabolites extraction from dried blood spot. After evaporation and methanol reconstitution, the extract was injected into a LC-MSMS system. Reversed phase chromatography was performed on a C18 grafted column in gradient mode. TAM, metabolites, and internal standard (diazepam-d5; IS) were identified in positive electrospray ionization mode using m/z transition of 372.5>72.1 (TAM); 374.23>58.10 (END); 358.27>58.10 (NDT); 388.23>44.80 (4HT) and 290.00>198.00 (IS). Total analytical run time was 6.5min. Assay was linear from 1 to 500ng/mL for all substances and presented intra and inter-assay precision and accuracy <15%. TAM, NDT, 4HT and END limits of quantification and detection were of 1 and 0.5ng/mL; 1 and 3ng/mL; 1.7 and 3ng/mL; 0.6 and 2ng/mL, respectively. Recovery ranged from 83.8 to 96.3% with matrix effect ranged from 4.3 to 29.8% for TAM and its metabolites. Hematocrit value ≤40% appeared to negatively influence accuracy of the method. In conclusion, the method described here is somewhat accessible, relatively fast, sensitive and selective with no interference. This assay might be used to investigate the level of TAM and its metabolites in DBS for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes.
Hasnain, M. Saquib; Rao, Shireen; Singh, Manoj Kr.; Vig, Nitin; Singh, Manish Kr.; Budakoti, Subodh Kr.; Ansari, Abdulla
Purpose: For the determination of desloratadine (DES) and 3-OH desloratadine (3-OHD) in human plasma using deutrated desloratadine (DESD5) as internal standard (IS), a novel stability indicating liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to support the clinical advancement. Materials and Methods: The solid-phase extraction method used for sample preparation and calibration range was 100-11,000 pg/ml, for which a quadratic regression (1/x2) was best fitted. The blank plasma was screened and observed free from any endogenous interference. Results: The accuracy (% nominal) at low limit of quantification LLOQ level for DES and 3-OHD was 100.4% and 99.9% whereas precision (%CV) was 4.6 and 5.1%. They (DES and 3-OHD) were stable in human plasma after five freeze-thaw cycles, at room temperature for 23.8 hour, bench top stability for 6.4 hour. Conclusion: This method fulfills all the regulatory requirements for selectivity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, stability, goodness of fit, and ruggedness of the method for the determination of DES and 3-OHD in human plasma. PMID:23559828
Adamec, Jiri; Jannasch, Amber; Huang, Jianjie; Hohman, Emily; Fleet, James C; Peacock, Munro; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Martin, Berdine; Weaver, Connie M
Simultaneous and accurate measurement of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in biological samples is a barrier limiting our ability to define "optimal" vitamin D status. Thus, our goal was to optimize conditions and evaluate an LC-MS method for simultaneous detection and quantification of vitamin D(2) , vitamin D(3) , 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in serum. Extraction and separation of vitamin D forms were achieved using acetone liquid-liquid extraction and by a reversed phase C8 column, respectively. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS/MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure photo ionization source. The LOQs for all analytes tested were 1 ng/mL for hydroxylated molecules and 2 ng/mL for the parent vitamin Ds. RSD at lower LOQ (2 ng/mL) and in medium (80 ng/mL) and high (200 ng/mL) quality control samples did not exceed 20 and 15% CV, respectively. Accuracy of the method for determination of hydroxylated molecules was also validated using National Institutes of Standards and Technology standard samples and found to be in the range of 90.9-111.2%. In summary, a sensitive and reproducible method is reported for simultaneous quantification of vitamin D(2) , vitamin D(3) , 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) molecules in biological samples.
Thomas, Saji; Shandilya, Sanjeev; Bharati, Amber; Paul, Saroj Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Mathela, Chandra S
Six impurities were detected at trace level in rivastigmine tartrate drug substance by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography method. Three impurities were characterized rapidly and three impurities were found to be unknown. The unknown impurities were enriched and identified with a combination of semi-preparative HPLC and LC/MS/MS techniques. Proposed structures were further confirmed by characterization using NMR, FT-IR, and EA techniques of impurity standards. Based on the spectroscopic, spectrometric and elemental analysis data unknown impurities were characterized as 3-[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenyl N-ethyl-N-methyl carbamate N-oxide, ethyl-methyl-carbamic acid 4-(1-dimethylamino-ethyl)-phenyl ester and ethyl-methyl-carbamic acid 2-(1-dimethylamino-ethyl)-phenyl ester. A plausible mechanism for the formation of these impurities is also proposed. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines for fourteen impurities to demonstrate specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and stability indicating nature of the method. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for rivastigmine tartrate and its impurities. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.41 and 113.33% for all impurities.
Contreras Zavala, Leticia; Rivera Espinosa, Liliana; Ángeles Moreno, Alionka P; Ramírez San-Juan, Eduardo; Zamudio Hernández, Sergio; García González, Alberto; Marcelín Jiménez, Gabriel
Sildenafil is used for the treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. A dried blood spot (DBS)-based LC-MS method for sildenafil quantitation was developed and applied to a group of patients. DBS showed high portability and stability of samples, and the method was selective and linear for quantitation of sildenafil (5-3,000 ng/ml) and N-desmethyl-sildenafil (3-1,500 ng/ml). After a single oral dose of sildenafil (1 mg/kg), method evidenced poor metabolism in these patients. The method was successfully applied in peripheral blood and can be used for both pharmacokinetics and therapeutic drug monitoring. DBS proved to have advantages during sample translation and preservation of analytes. Data suggest that hazardous blood sildenafil levels may be reached in this population.
Moskaleva, Natalia E; Baranov, Pavel A; Mesonzhnik, Natalia V; Appolonova, Svetlana A
A new simple, rapid and sensitive high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of mebeverine metabolites as: mebeverine alcohol (MAL), mebeverine acid (MAC) and desmethylmebeverine acid (DMAC) in human plasma. Sample preparation was performed by protein precipitation following the separation of analytes using an Acquity UPLC BEN C8 column 1.7 mm 2.1×50mm (Waters, USA). (2)H5-desmethylmebeverine acid ((2)H5-DMAC) was used as the internal standard (IS). The proposed method was validated with linear ranges of 0.1-10ng/mL; 1-100ng/mL and 5-1000ng/mL for MAL, MAC and DMAC, respectively. Accuracy for all analytes (%RE), given as deviation between nominal and measured concentration and assay variability (CV) ranged from -4.04% to 4.60% and from 0.31% to 6.43% respectively both for within- and between-run. The overall recoveries for all metabolites were above 85%. The proposed method was used successfully for analysis of real samples from a pharmacokinetics study.
Fourel, Isabelle; Damin-Pernik, Marlène; Benoit, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie
Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), pesticides used worldwide to control rodent populations, exist in two diastereoisomer chemical species because they own two stereogenic centers. A core-shell LC-MS/MS multi-residue method for comprehensive quantitative analysis of the diastereoisomers of five SGARs as well as three first generation anticoagulant rodenticide molecules has been fully validated in liver of rats according to a bioanalytical guideline. A core-shell column (superficially porous particles) has been chosen for its ability to separate the diastereomers of bromadiolone, difenacoum, brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone and for its robustness to rat liver extracts. The highly selective chromatographic separation of the diastereoisomers contributes to good signal to noise ratios and then enhances the sensitivity of the method compared to the ones of fully porous columns. An elution gradient has been optimized with 10mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as aqueous/organic mobile phase respectively. Triple quadrupole mass detector has been used to achieve specifity and LLOQ from 0.92 to 2.2ng/g for each diastereoisomer, or first generation anticoagulant rodenticides. Then we evidenced diastereoisomeric ratios in liver of rats issued from not controlled exposure of wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped in a French Parisian park through a campaign of rodent eradication. We compared them to diastereoisomeric ratios in SGARs commercial baits that contain both isomers, and showed that one of the two diastereoiomers had nearly disappeared in liver of rats. The proportions of cis-bromadiolone and trans-difenacoum were really lowered compared to the baits: 5/7 and 9/12 rats had only trans-bromadiolone and cis-difenacoum hepatic residues respectively. Liver persistence of the two diastereoisomers of bromadiolone and difenacoum was different due to differences in their pharmacokinetics in wild rats. The new core-shell LC-MS/MS method is
Mazzucchelli, Serena; Ravelli, Alessandro; Gigli, Fausto; Minoli, Mauro; Corsi, Fabio; Ciuffreda, Pierangela; Ottria, Roberta
This study describes the development of simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of doxorubicin and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol, in mouse plasma, urine and tissues. The calibration curves were linear over the range 5-250 ng/mL for doxorubicin and 1.25-25 ng/mL for doxorubicinol in plasma and tumor, over the range 25-500 ng/mL for doxorubicin and 1.25-25 ng/mL for doxorubicinol in liver and kidney, and over the range 25-1000 ng/mL for doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in urine. The study was validated, using quality control samples prepared in all different matrices, for accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, lower limit of quantification and recovery in accordance with the US Food & Drug Administration guidelines. The method was successfully applied in determining the pharmaco-distribution of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol after intravenously administration in tumor-bearing mice of drug, free or nano-formulated in ferritin nanoparticles or in liposomes. Obtained results demonstrate an effective different distribution and doxorubicin protection against metabolism linked to nano-formulation. This method, thanks to its validation in plasma and urine, could be a powerful tool for pharmaceutical research and therapeutic drug monitoring, which is a clinical approach currently used in the optimization of oncologic treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mistri, Hiren N; Jangid, Arvind G; Pudage, Ashutosh; Rathod, Dhiraj M; Shrivastav, Pranav S
An accurate, selective and sensitive bioanalytical method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of alfuzosin and solifenacin in human plasma using propranolol as internal standard (IS). The analytes and IS were extracted in methyl tert-butyl ether, separated on Hypurity C8 column and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with a turbo ion spray interface. The method had a chromatographic run time of 3.0 min and linear calibration curves over the concentration range of 0.25-25 ng/mL for alfuzosin and 0.6-60 ng/mL for solifenacin. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision (%CV) evaluated at four quality control levels were within 88.2-106.4% and 0.9-7.7% respectively. The absolute recovery from spiked plasma samples was 71.8% for alfuzosin and 93.1% for solifenacin. Stability of alfuzosin and solifenacin was assessed under different storage conditions. The validated method was successfully employed for bioavailability study after oral administration of 10 mg of alfuzosin hydrochloride and 5mg of solifenacin succinate tablet formulations in eight healthy volunteers under fed condition.
Kummer, Natalie; Wille, Sarah M R; Di Fazio, Vincent; Ramírez Fernández, Maria Del Mar; Yegles, Michel; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele
The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) has provided cutoffs for the quantification of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair to indicate occasional or chronic/excessive alcohol consumption. Although several sensitive methods have been reported, past proficiency test results show a lack of reproducibility. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LLOQ of 10 pg EtG/mg hair) has been validated according to the international guidelines, including the successful participation in five proficiency tests. This method was subsequently used to evaluate the impact of different grinding conditions (cut, weakly or extensively pulverized hair samples) on the final measured EtG concentration. Hair from alcohol consumers (n = 2) and commercially available quality control samples (QCs) (n = 2) was used. For the QCs, extensive pulverization led to a significantly higher amount of measured EtG. In the hair samples obtained from volunteers, cut or weakly pulverized hair resulted in EtG concentrations below the LLOQ, while the mean concentrations of 14 and 40 pg EtG/mg hair were determined after extensive pulverization. Differences in sample preparation could partially explain inter-laboratory variability. As the differences in results can lead to a different interpretation even when applying the SoHT cutoffs, it is of interest to standardize sample preparation techniques in the field of EtG hair testing.
Derogis, Priscilla B. M. C.; Freitas, Florêncio P.; Marques, Anna S. F.; Cunha, Daniela; Appolinário, Patricia P.; de Paula, Fernando; Lourenço, Tiago C.; Murgu, Michael; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Miyamoto, Sayuri
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is highly enriched in the brain, and the oxidation products of DHA are present or increased during neurodegenerative disease progression. The characterization of the oxidation products of DHA is critical to understanding the roles that these products play in the development of such diseases. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific analytical tool for the detection and quantification of twelve major DHA hydroperoxide (HpDoHE) and hydroxide (HDoHE) isomers (isomers at positions 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19 and 20) in biological systems. In this study, HpDoHE were synthesized by photooxidation, and the corresponding hydroxides were obtained by reduction with NaBH4. The isolated isomers were characterized by LC-MS/MS, and unique and specific fragment ions were chosen to construct a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method for the targeted quantitative analysis of each HpDoHE and HDoHE isomer. The detection limits for the LC-MS/MS-SRM assay were 1−670 pg for HpDoHE and 0.5−8.5 pg for HDoHE injected onto a column. Using this method, it was possible to detect the basal levels of HDoHE isomers in both rat plasma and brain samples. Therefore, the developed LC-MS/MS-SRM can be used as an important tool to identify and quantify the hydro(pero)xy derivatives of DHA in biological system and may be helpful for the oxidative lipidomic studies. PMID:24204871
Goettel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Pluym, Nikola; Scherer, Gerhard; Scherer, Max
We developed and validated an efficient and robust method for the simultaneous quantification of 44 fatty acid species in human plasma via GC-TOF-MS. The method is characterized by its robustness, accuracy and precision covering a wide range of fatty acid species with various saturation degrees including short chain fatty acids (beginning with FA 4:0) and long chain fatty acids (up to FA 32:0). The fatty acids were methylated prior to analyses and subsequently detected as fatty acid methyl esters by means of GC-TOF-MS. A highly substituted polar column allowed the separation of geometrical and positional isomers of fatty acid species. The method was applied to plasma samples of a strictly diet controlled clinical smoking cessation study including 39 smokers followed over the course of three months after having quit. Statistical significant alterations within the fatty acid profile were observed when comparing the baseline (subjects still smoking) with one week, one month and three months of smoking cessation. After 3 months of smoking cessation, a partial recovery of alterations in the fatty acid profile evoked by smoking was observed. In conclusion, the developed fatty acid profiling method using GC-TOF-MS has proven as a reliable tool for the quantitative determination of 44 individual fatty acid species within clinical studies.
Song, Mi-Na; Moon, Pyong-Gon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Na, MinKyun; Kang, Wonku; Chae, Yee Soo; Park, Ji-Young; Park, Hoyong; Baek, Moon-Chang
This study presents a proteomic method that differentiates between matched normal and breast tumor tissues from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive carcinoma from Korean women, to identify biomarker candidates and to understand pathogenesis of breast cancer in protein level. Proteins from tissues obtained by biopsy were extracted by RIPA buffer, digested by the gel-assisted method, and analyzed by nano-UPLC-MS/MS. From proteomic analysis based on label-free quantitation strategy, a non-redundant list of 298 proteins was identified from the normal and tumor tissues, and 244 proteins were quantified using IDEAL-Q software. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed two patterns classified as two groups, invasive carcinoma and DCIS, suggesting a difference between two carcinoma at the protein expression level as expected. Differentially expressed proteins in tumor tissues compared to the corresponding normal tissues were related to three biological pathways: antigen-processing and presentation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and complement and coagulation cascades. Among them, the up-regulation of calreticulin (CRT) and protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) was confirmed by Western blot analysis. In conclusion, this study showed the possibility of identifying biomarker candidates for breast cancer using tissues and might help to understand the pathophysiology of this cancer at the protein level.
Borges, Ney Carter; Barrientos-Astigarraga, Rafael Eliseo; Sverdloff, Carlos Eduardo; Donato, José Luiz; Moreno, Patricia; Felix, Leila; Galvinas, Paulo Alexandre Rebelo; Moreno, Ronilson Agnaldo
In the present study a simple, fast, sensitive and robust method to quantify mirtazapine in human plasma using quetiapine as the internal standard (IS) is described. The analyte and the IS were extracted from human plasma by a simple protein precipitation with methanol and were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Chromatography was performed isocratically on a C(18), 5 µm analytical column and the run time was 1.8 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.5 ng/mL and a linear calibration curve over the range 0.5-150 ng/mL was obtained, showing acceptable accuracy and precision. This analytical method was applied in a relative bioavailability study in order to compare a test mirtazapine 30 mg single-dose formulation vs a reference formulation in 31 volunteers of both sexes. The study was conducted in an open randomized two-period crossover design and with a 14 day washout period. Since the 90% confidence interval for C(max) , AUC(last) and AUC(0-inf) were within the 80-125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration and ANVISA (Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency), it was concluded that mirtazapine 30 mg/dose is bioequivalent to the reference formulation, according to both the rate and extent of absorption.
Kampf, Christopher J; Bonn, Boris; Hoffmann, Thorsten
This study concerns the development and validation of a complete method for the analysis of two highly reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (Mgly), in atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Method development included optimization of sample preparation procedures, e.g., filter extraction, concentration of extracts, derivatization and solid-phase extraction (SPE) of derivatives, as well as reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT/MS/MS) measurement parameters. Selectivity of detection was enhanced using tandem mass spectrometric analysis in ESI positive ion mode via two multiple reaction monitoring channels, m/z 433 → m/z 250 and m/z 419 → m/z 236 for Mgly and Gly. Retention times were 9.5 and 12.5 min for Gly- and Mgly-bis-hydrazone derivatives. Calibration ranged from 0.5 to 50 ng/mL. Inter-batch precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was <15%. The method was shown to be unaffected by the sample matrix and to have recoveries of 100% and 60% for Gly and Mgly, respectively. Improved instrumental detection limits of 0.51 and 0.62 ng/mL for Gly and Mgly were achieved using a SPE method for the purification of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization reagent solutions. This permitted the method to be used for analysis of filter samples obtained during a field study at the Taunus Observatory (mount Kleiner Feldberg, Germany). PM(2.5) concentrations ranged from 0.81 to 1.18 ng/m(3) for Gly and from 0.83 to 1.92 ng/m(3) for Mgly. PM concentrations correlated to the concentration of NO with coefficients (R(2)) of 0.67 (Gly) and 0.78 (Mgly).
Liu, Yanhong; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Yuhui
A hydrophilic interaction high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of dacarbazine (DTIC) and its terminal metabolite, 5-amino-4-imidazole-carboxamide (AIC) in human plasma. The plasma samples are first extracted by a C8+SCX mixed-mode 96-well plate to extend the extraction stability of DTIC and AIC. The extracted residues are further cleaned by a primary and secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent for minimization of matrix effect. Analyses are done on an Amide-80 HPLC column coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure turbo ion spray ionization interface in the positive-ion mode. Both DTIC and AIC have reproducible retention times on the Amide-80 HPLC column. This type of column not only has an excellent column life (over 4000 injections), but also has zero carryover effect. The injection volume should be limited at 10 microL or less to avoid the peak splitting. The validated concentration ranges are from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL for DTIC and from 2.0 to 500 ng/mL for AIC. The validated method has been successfully applied to determine the pharmacokinetic profiles for human patients receiving DTIC infusions.
Batta, N; Pigili, R K; Pallapothu, L M K; Yejella, R P
A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra flow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) assay for the determination of norgestrel in human plasma was developed using levonorgestrel D6 as an internal standard (IS). Norgestrel and IS were extracted from human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax XDB-Phenyl column under isocratic conditions. Detection was done by tandem mass spectrometry, operating in positive ion mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for norgestrel and IS were at m/z 313.30→245.40 and 319.00→251.30 respectively. The method was fully validated as per current regulatory guidelines. Anticoagulant counter ion effect was also assessed with K2EDTA and K3EDTA. The method was validated with a linearity range of 304.356-50 807.337 pg/mL having run time of 2.0 min per sample. The method has shown tremendous reproducibility with intra- and inter-day precision (%CV) less than 11.0% and intra- and inter-day accuracy less than 9.0% of nominal values. The validated method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in human plasma samples generated after administrating a single oral dose of 0.3 mg norgestrel tablets to healthy female volunteers and has proved to be highly reliable for the analysis of clinical samples. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
A rapid, reproducible, on-the-fly orthogonal array optimization method for targeted protein quantification by LC/MS and its application for accurate and sensitive quantification of carbonyl reductases in human liver.
Cao, Jin; Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa; Covarrubias, Vanessa M; Straubinger, Robert M; Wang, Hao; Duan, Xiaotao; Yu, Haoying; Qu, Jun; Blanco, Javier G
Liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) in selected-reactions-monitoring (SRM) mode provides a powerful tool for targeted protein quantification. However, efficient, high-throughput strategies for proper selection of signature peptides (SP) for protein quantification and accurate optimization of their SRM conditions remain elusive. Here we describe an on-the-fly, orthogonal array optimization (OAO) approach that enables rapid, comprehensive, and reproducible SRM optimization of a large number of candidate peptides in a single nanoflow-LC/MS run. With the optimized conditions, many peptide candidates can be evaluated in biological matrixes for selection of the final SP. The OAO strategy employs a systematic experimental design that strategically varies product ions, declustering energy, and collision energy in a cycle of 25 consecutive SRM trials, which accurately reveals the effects of these factors on the signal-to-noise ratio of a candidate peptide and optimizes each. As proof of concept, we developed a highly sensitive, accurate, and reproducible method for the quantification of carbonyl reductases CBR1 and CBR3 in human liver. Candidate peptides were identified by nano-LC/LTQ/Orbitrap, filtered using a stringent set of criteria, and subjected to OAO. After evaluating both sensitivity and stability of the candidates, two SP were selected for quantification of each protein. As a result of the accurate OAO of assay conditions, sensitivities of 80 and 110 amol were achieved for CBR1 and CBR3, respectively. The method was validated and used to quantify the CBRs in 33 human liver samples. The mean level of CBR1 was 93.4 +/- 49.7 (range: 26.2-241) ppm of total protein, and of CBR3 was 7.69 +/- 4.38 (range: 1.26-17.9) ppm. Key observations of this study: (i) evaluation of peptide stability in the target matrix is essential for final selection of the SP; (ii) utilization of two unique SP contributes to high reliability of target protein quantification; (iii
A rapid, reproducible, on-the-fly orthogonal array optimization method for targeted protein quantification by LC/MS and its application for accurate and sensitive quantification of carbonyl reductases in human liver
Cao, Jin; Gonzalez-Covarrubias, Vanessa; Straubinger, Robert M.; Wang, Hao; Duan, Xiaotao; Yu, Haoying; Qu, Jun; Blanco, Javier G.
Liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) in selected-reactions-monitoring (SRM) mode provides a powerful tool for targeted protein quantification. However, efficient, high-throughput strategies for proper selection of signature peptides (SP) for protein quantification and accurate optimization of their SRM conditions remain elusive. Here we describe an on-the-fly, orthogonal array optimization (OAO) approach that enables rapid, comprehensive, and reproducible SRM optimization of a large number of candidate peptides in a single nanoflow-LC/MS run. With the optimized conditions, many peptide candidates can be evaluated in biological matrices for selection of the final SP. The OAO strategy employs a systematic experimental design that strategically varies product ions, de-clustering energy and collision energy in a cycle of 25 consecutive SRM trials, which accurately reveals the effects of these factors on the single-to-noise ratio of a candidate peptide, and optimizes each. As proof of concept, we developed a highly sensitive, accurate, and reproducible method for the quantification of carbonyl reductases CBR1 and CBR3 in human liver. Candidate peptides were identified by nano-LC/LTQ/Orbitrap, filtered using a stringent set of criteria, and subjected to OAO. After evaluating both sensitivity and stability of the candidates, two SP were selected for quantification of each protein. As a result of the accurate OAO of assay conditions, sensitivities of 80 and 110 amol were achieved for CBR1 and CBR3, respectively. The method was validated and used to quantify the CBRs in 33 human liver samples. The mean level of CBR1 was 93.4±49.7 (range: 26.2–241) ppm of total protein, and for CBR3 was 7.69±4.38 (range: 1.26–17.9) ppm. Key observations of this study are that: i) evaluation of peptide stability in the target matrix is essential for final selection of the SP; ii) utilization of two unique SP contributes to high reliability of target protein quantification
Gallardo, Athena Marie; Than, Chit; Wong, Carolyn; Sudowe, Ralf
Occupational exposure to plutonium is generally monitored through analysis of urine samples. Typically, plutonium is separated from the sample and other actinides, and the concentration is determined using alpha spectroscopy. Current methods for separations and analysis are lengthy and require long count times. A new method for monitoring occupational exposure levels of plutonium has been developed, which requires fewer steps and overall less time than the alpha spectroscopy method. In this method, the urine is acidified, and a 239Pu internal standard is added. The urine is digested in a microwave oven, and plutonium is separated using an Eichrom TRU Resin column. The plutonium is eluted, and the eluant is injected directly into the Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Compared to a direct “dilute and shoot” method, a 30-fold improvement in sensitivity is achieved. This method was validated by analyzing several batches of spiked samples. Based on these analyses, a combined standard uncertainty plot, which relates uncertainty to concentration, was produced. As a result, the MDA95 was calculated to be 7.0 × 10–7 μg L–1, and the Lc95 was calculated to be 3.5 × 10–7 μg L–1 for this method.
Gallardo, Athena Marie; Than, Chit; Wong, Carolyn; ...
Occupational exposure to plutonium is generally monitored through analysis of urine samples. Typically, plutonium is separated from the sample and other actinides, and the concentration is determined using alpha spectroscopy. Current methods for separations and analysis are lengthy and require long count times. A new method for monitoring occupational exposure levels of plutonium has been developed, which requires fewer steps and overall less time than the alpha spectroscopy method. In this method, the urine is acidified, and a 239Pu internal standard is added. The urine is digested in a microwave oven, and plutonium is separated using an Eichrom TRU Resinmore » column. The plutonium is eluted, and the eluant is injected directly into the Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Compared to a direct “dilute and shoot” method, a 30-fold improvement in sensitivity is achieved. This method was validated by analyzing several batches of spiked samples. Based on these analyses, a combined standard uncertainty plot, which relates uncertainty to concentration, was produced. As a result, the MDA95 was calculated to be 7.0 × 10–7 μg L–1, and the Lc95 was calculated to be 3.5 × 10–7 μg L–1 for this method.« less
Suárez-García, Susana; Arola, Lluís; Pascual-Serrano, Aïda; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Aragonès, Gerard; Bladé, Cinta; Suárez, Manuel
Recent investigations based on non-targeted metabolomics have proposed lysophospholipids (Lyso-PLs) as biomarkers of different diseases. In particular, lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PCs) and lysophosphatidylethanolamines (Lyso-PEs) have been associated with serious lipid pathologies. Methods to determine the different molecular species in a biological sample and to quantify even less abundant species are required for the evaluation of the Lyso-PL pattern as a novel comprehensive biomarker of dyslipidemia. This study describes the development and validation of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of a large number of Lyso-PCs and Lyso-PEs in biological samples. The method was validated in rat serum using two simple methanol-based extractions with low sample volumes (5-50μL) that covered the wide concentration range of these metabolites. In total, thirty-one Lyso-PLs were separated and quantified with low method limits of detection and quantification, reaching values of 0.2 and 0.8nM, respectively. The method was subsequently applied in the identification of Lyso-PL-related changes produced by the chronic intake of a cafeteria diet. The results showed alterations in the majority of Lyso-PCs and Lyso-PEs in rat serum. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that the comprehensive evaluation of serum Lyso-PLs could be an excellent indicator of the nutritional phenotype associated with an increased risk of lipid disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Zhichao; Xu, Xueyu; Sun, Lingxia; Zhao, Xue; Wang, Hao; Fawcett, John Paul; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai
A rapid and sensitive assay based on supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and its chiral metabolite licarbazine (Lic) in beagle dog plasma using carbamazepine as internal standard. Chiral analysis in a run time of only 3 min was performed on an ACQUITY UPC(2) ™ Trefoil™ CEL2 column (3.0 × 150 mm, 2.5 μm) at 50 °C by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of supercritical carbon dioxide (purity ≥ 99.99%) and methanol (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.3 mL/min. The assay was linear over the concentration ranges 5-1000 ng/mL for OXC and 0.5-100 ng/mL for the enantiomers of Lic with corresponding lower limits of quantitation of 5 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range 0.78-14.14% with accuracies in the range -10.80% to 0.42%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving a single oral administration of 16 mg/kg OXC as Trileptal(@) tablets to beagle dogs.
Wilson, Matthew P; Footitt, Emma J; Papandreou, Apostolos; Uudelepp, Mari-Liis; Pressler, Ronit; Stevenson, Danielle C; Gabriel, Camila; McSweeney, Mel; Baggot, Matthew; Burke, Derek; Stödberg, Tommy; Riney, Kate; Schiff, Manuel; Heales, Simon J R; Mills, Kevin A; Gissen, Paul; Clayton, Peter T; Mills, Philippa B
We report the development of a rapid, simple, and robust LC-MS/MS-based enzyme assay using dried blood spots (DBS) for the diagnosis of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency (OMIM 610090). PNPO deficiency leads to potentially fatal early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, severe developmental delay, and other features of neurological dysfunction. However, upon prompt treatment with high doses of vitamin B6, affected patients can have a normal developmental outcome. Prognosis of these patients is therefore reliant upon a rapid diagnosis. PNPO activity was quantified by measuring pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations in a DBS before and after a 30 min incubation with pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP). Samples from 18 PNPO deficient patients (1 day-25 years), 13 children with other seizure disorders receiving B6 supplementation (1 month-16 years), and 37 child hospital controls (5 days-15 years) were analyzed. DBS from the PNPO-deficient samples showed enzyme activity levels lower than all samples from these two other groups as well as seven adult controls; no false positives or negatives were identified. The method was fully validated and is suitable for translation into the clinical diagnostic arena.
Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R
Two separate liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B1, B2, B3 (nicotinamide), B5, B6 (pyridoxine), B7, B9 and B12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D3, 25(OH)D3, E and K1. These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum. These methods were then used to determine the vitamin concentrations in infant and parent samples under a clinical study which were reported in "Determination of Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Tears and Blood Serum of Infants and Parents by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2016.12.007 ". This article provides more details on comparison of vitamin concentrations in the samples with the ranges reported in the literature along with the medically accepted normal ranges. The details on concentrations below the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) are also discussed. Vitamin concentrations were also compared and cross-correlated with clinical data and nutritional information. Significant differences and strongly correlated data were reported in . This article provides comprehensive details on the data with slight differences or slight correlations.
Parekh, Jignesh M; Shah, Dhaval K; Sanyal, Mallika; Yadav, Manish; Shrivastav, Pranav S
A highly sensitive, selective and rapid bioanalytical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of bosentan and hydroxybosentan in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analytes and their deuterated analogs were quantitatively extracted from 100 μL human plasma by solid phase extraction. The chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved on a Thermo Hypurity C18 (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) analytical column with a resolution factor of 2.4 under isocratic conditions. The method was validated over a dynamic concentration range of 0.4-1600 ng/mL for bosentan and 0.2-250 ng/mL for hydroxybosentan. Ion-suppression effects were investigated by post-column infusion of analytes. The precision (%CV) values for the calculated slopes of calibration curves, which would reflect the relative matrix effect, were less than 1.2% for both the analytes. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (%CV) across quality control levels was ≤4.0% and the mean relative recovery was >94% for both the analytes. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 125 mg tablet formulation (test and reference) in 12 healthy Indian male subjects under fasting condition. The ratios of mean log-transformed values of C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-inf) and their 90% CIs varied from 91.3 to 104.7%. The percentage change for incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) was within ±13.0%.
Soichot, Marion; Mégarbane, Bruno; Houzé, Pascal; Chevillard, Lucie; Fonsart, Julien; Baud, Frédéric J; Laprévote, Olivier; Bourgogne, Emmanuel
A rapid, sensitive and specific method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous quantification of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its three major metabolites in human whole blood. The assay, using a sample volume of 100μL, was linear in a dynamic 25-2000ng/mL range (R(2)>0.99) for all four compounds and suitable for the determination of elevated HCQ concentrations up to 20,000ng/mL, after appropriate sample dilution. Inter- and intra-assay precisions were <18.2% and accuracies were between 84% and 113% for any analyte. No matrix effects were observed. The assay was successfully applied to a blood sample obtained from one poisoned patient following a massive HCQ self-ingestion resulting in an estimated concentration of 19,500ng/mL on hospital admission. In this patient, HCQ metabolites were identified and quantified at 1123, 465 and 91ng/mL for monodesethylhydroxychloroquine, desethylchloroquine and bisdesethylchloroquine, respectively. Further investigations are still required to assess the usefulness of the simultaneous measurement of blood concentrations of HCQ and its three active metabolites for monitoring HCQ treatment and managing HCQ poisoning.
Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhaoying; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui
A confirmatory and quantitative method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine the presence of eight glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, betamethasone, beclomethasone, and fludrocortisone) in the muscles and livers of swine, cattle, and sheep and the muscle of chicken is described. After deconjugation in alkali media, samples were extracted with ethyl acetate for glucocorticoids followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and reconstitution in the LC mobile phase. The hydrolysis procedure with sodium hydroxide was used to reduce handling time. A single-step solid-phase extraction method was optimized which is suitable for the clean-up of the compounds of interest in many diverse tissue matrices. LC separations were performed on a C(18) column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and the two epimers betamethasone and dexamethasone were successfully separated. LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in negative mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was performed to improve method sensitivity and reduce matrix interference. Two SRM transitions were used for each compound. The recovery of glucocorticoids spiked at levels of 0.5-16 microg kg(-1) ranged from 55% to 107%; the between-day relative standard deviations were no more than 15%. The limits of quantification were 0.5-2.0 microg kg(-1) in muscle and 1-4 microg kg(-1) in liver. The optimized procedure was successfully applied to monitor the food at the 2008 Summer Olympics Games in Beijing, China, demonstrating the method to be simple, fast, robust, and suitable for identification and quantification of glucocorticoids residues in foods of animal origin.
Hädener, Marianne; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Schürch, Stefan; König, Stefan
The concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in whole blood is used as a parameter for assessing the consumption behavior of cannabis consumers. The blood level of THCCOOH-glucuronide might provide additional information about the frequency of cannabis use. To verify this assumption, a column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the rapid and direct quantification of free and glucuronidated THCCOOH in human whole blood was newly developed. The method comprised protein precipitation, followed by injection of the processed sample onto a trapping column and subsequent gradient elution to an analytical column for separation and detection. The total LC run time was 4.5 min. Detection of the analytes was accomplished by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring using a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was fully validated by evaluating the following parameters: linearity, lower limit of quantification, accuracy and imprecision, selectivity, extraction efficiency, matrix effect, carry-over, dilution integrity, analyte stability, and re-injection reproducibility. All acceptance criteria were analyzed and the predefined criteria met. Linearity ranged from 5.0 to 500 μg/L for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to whole blood samples from a large collective of cannabis consumers, demonstrating its applicability in the forensic field.
Hasnain, Mohammad Saquib; Siddiqui, Salman; Rao, Shireen; Mohanty, Priyadarsan; Ara, Tahseen Jahan; Beg, Sarwar
The current studies describe the Quality by Design (QbD)-based development and validation of a LC-MS-MS method for quantification of fluoxetine in human plasma using fluoxetine-D5 as an internal standard (IS). Solid-phase extraction was employed for sample preparation, and linearity was observed for drug concentrations ranging between 2 and 30 ng/mL. Systematic optimization of the method was carried out by employing Box-Behnken design with mobile phase flow rate (X1), pH (X2) and mobile phase composition (X3) as the method variables, followed by evaluating retention time (Rt) (Y1) and peak area (Y2) as the responses. The optimization studies revealed reduction in the variability associated with the method variables for improving the method robustness. Validation studies of the developed method revealed good linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of fluoxetine in human plasma. Stability studies performed in human plasma through freeze-thaw, bench-top, short-term and long-term cycles, and autosampler stability revealed lack of any change in the percent recovery of the drug. In a nutshell, the developed method demonstrated satisfactory results for analysis of fluoxetine in human plasma with plausible utility in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies.
Brandhonneur, N; De Sousa Mendes, M; Lepvrier, E; Flejou Esseiva, E; Chevanne, F; Le Corre, P
The aim of this study was to establish a new QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection for the evaluation of the pesticide biodistribution in specific maternal and fetal tissues. This method was validated for the quantification of pesticides such as chlorotriazines (atrazine, simazine and propazine), their chlorinated metabolites (DIA, DEA and DACT). This new QuEChERS method was developed to facilitate extraction from small tissues such as fetal tissues (mean value: 200mg). The limits of detection, quantification, recovery, precision and accuracy were evaluated for different tissues (liver and brain) and blood. LOD and LOQ ranged between 0.34 and 3.27 ng/g and 1.04 to 9.91 ng/g, respectively. Recovery exceeded 80% for all pesticides, except DACT, with an associated RSD<15%. Precision and accuracy satisfied the criteria usually applied in the validation of bioanalytical methods. The results obtained indicate that this technique is suitable for use in studies of the biodistribution of pesticides in fetal tissues and can be used to evaluate the risk of exposure to pesticides during gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tur, Fernando; Tur, Eva; Lentheric, Irene; Mendoza, Paula; Encabo, Maximo; Isern, Bernat; Grases, Felix; Maraschiello, Ciriaco; Perelló, Joan
Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate, IP6) is a naturally occuring compound whose determination in biological matrices is chanllenging. Several benefitial properties have been attributed to IP6 in parallel with the development of suitable analytical methodologies for its analytical determination in urine and some tissues. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools for its determination in plasma samples. In this paper, a direct, sensitive and selective bioanalytical method for the determination of IP6 based on LC-MS is presented. It is the first method published to quantify IP6 in plasma matrices directly through its molecular weight, being consequently a highly specific methodology. The method has been validated in rat, dog and human plasma, according to the acceptance criteria laid down in the FDA guidance Bioanalytical Method Validation. Accuracy and precision were not greater than 15% at medium and high concentrations and not greater than 20% at the LLOQ concentration. The mean absolute recovery obtained ranged from 78.74 to 102.44%, 62.10 to 87.21% and 61.61 to 86.99% for rat, dog and human plasma respectively. The LLOQ was 500ngmL(-1) due to the presence of endogenous IP6 in blank plasma samples and the limit of detection was within the range 30-80ngmL(-1).
Huang, Zhu; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Chen, Qing; Han, Jian-Long; Shen, Xiang-Hong
A method for ethyl carbamate (EC) determination in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce was developed by GC-MS. We adopted the diatomaceous earth solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and elution solvent of ethyl acetate/diethyl ether (5:95 v/v) for sample cleaning. The in-house validation showed the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5.0 μg/kg. In the accuracy assay, the total average recovery for was 96.7%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <5%. Subsequently, a collaborative trial was organized for the further validation. The RSDs for repeatability and reproducibility were 1.2-7.8% and 2.3-9.6% respectively. It indicated that the present method performed well in different laboratories.
Piscitelli, Fabiana; Pagano, Ester; Lauritano, Anna; Izzo, Angelo A; Di Marzo, Vincenzo
Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures and its beneficial effects are mostly due to the presence of cannabinoids, unique natural products, whose pharmacology is going to gain increasing interest in the scientific community. The discovery of the main psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), led to the identification of at least 100 additional phytocannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ(9)-THCV), and cannabigerol (CBG). These molecules are gaining growing interest for their medical properties; however, further research is needed to assess the differences in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodymanic profiles. The aim of this study was to set up a rapid and accurate method, by using the LC-MS-IT-TOF technology, to detect and quantify CBD, CBDV, Δ(9)-THCV, and CBG in biological matrices. Data show that the method developed here is linear in the calibration range; recoveries from mouse tissues were in the 50-60% range and sensitivity was 2 ng/mL for CBDV, 4 ng/mL for CBG and THCV, and 7 ng/mL for CBD. The method is rapid, precise and accurate, and it will represent a fundamental tool to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of selected phytocannabinoids in tissues from different animal models, and develop new cannabinoid-based medicine.
Li, Shuijun; Liu, Gangyi; Jia, Jingying; Zhang, Menqi; Zhang, Haichen; Yu, Chen
Accurate quantification of creatinine (Cre) is important to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Differences among various methods of Cre quantification were previously noted. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for serum Cre and compare this method with clinical routine methods. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed on API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with an Agilent 1200 liquid chromatography system. After adding isotope-labeled Cre-d3 as internal standard, serum samples were prepared via a one-step protein precipitation with methanol. The LC-MS/MS method was compared with frequently used enzymatic method and Jaffe method. This developed method, with a total run time of 3 min, had a lower limit of quantification of 4.4 μmol/L, a total imprecision of 1.15%–3.84%, and an average bias of 1.06%. No significant matrix effect, carryover, and interference were observed for the LC-MS/MS method. The reference intervals of serum Cre measured by LC-MS/MS assay were 41–79 μmol/L for adult women, and 46–101 μmol/L for adult men. Using LC-MS/MS as a reference, the enzymatic method showed an average bias of -2.1% and the Jaffe method showed a substantial average bias of 11.7%. Compared with the LC-MS/MS method, significant negative bias was observed for the enzymatic and Jaffe methods in hemolytic and lipimic samples. We developed a simple, specific, and accurate LC-MS/MS method to analyze serum Cre. Discordance existed among different methods. PMID:26207996
Graham, Leigh Ann; Johnson, Darryl; Carter, Melissa D; Stout, Emily G; Erol, Huseyin A; Isenberg, Samantha L; Mathews, Thomas P; Thomas, Jerry D; Johnson, Rudolph C
Organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) are toxic compounds that are classified as prohibited Schedule 1 chemical weapons. In the body, OPNAs bind to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) to form nerve agent adducts (OPNA-BChE). OPNA-BChE adducts can provide a reliable, long-term protein biomarker for assessing human exposure. A major challenge facing OPNA-BChE detection is hydrolysis (aging), which can continue to occur after a clinical specimen has been collected. During aging, the o-alkyl phosphoester bond hydrolyzes, and the specific identity of the nerve agent is lost. To better identify OPNA exposure events, a high-throughput method for the detection of five aged OPNA-BChE adducts was developed. This is the first diagnostic panel to allow for the simultaneous quantification of any Chemical Weapons Convention Schedule 1 OPNA by measuring the aged adducts methyl phosphonate, ethyl phosphonate, propyl phosphonate, ethyl phosphoryl, phosphoryl and unadducted BChE. The calibration range for all analytes is 2.00-250. ng/mL, which is consistent with similar methodologies used to detect unaged OPNA-BChE adducts. Each analytical run is 3 min, making the time to first unknown results, including calibration curve and quality controls, less than 1 h. Analysis of commercially purchased individual serum samples demonstrated no potential interferences with detection of aged OPNA-BChE adducts, and quantitative measurements of endogenous levels of BChE were similar to those previously reported in other OPNA-BChE adduct assays.
He, Xin; Tao, Guizhou; Gao, Hang; Li, Keyan; Zhang, Yazhuo; Sun, Limin; Zhang, Yingjie
A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method with good accuracy and precision was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-gentiobioside (QGG) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples were simply precipitated by methanol and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. A Venusil® ASB C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, i.d. 5 μm) was used for separation, with methanol-water (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) for quantitation were 787.3/301.3 for QGG, and 725.3/293.3 for internal standard. The linear range was 7.32-1830 ng/mL with an average correlation coefficient of 0.9992, and the limit of quantification was 7.32 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were less than ±15%. At low, medium and high quality control concentrations, the recovery and matrix effect of the analyte and IS were in the range of 89.06-92.43 and 88.58-97.62%, respectively. The method was applied for the pharmacokinetic study of QGG in Sprague-Dawley rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
On-line solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS-MS) for quantification of bromazepam in human plasma: an automated method for bioequivalence studies.
Gonçalves, José Carlos Saraiva; Monteiro, Tânia Maria; Neves, Claúdia Silvana de Miranda; Gram, Karla Regina da Silva; Volpato, Nádia Maria; Silva, Vivian A; Caminha, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Maria do Rocio Bencke; Santos, Fábio Monteiro Dos; Silveira, Gabriel Estolano da; Noël, François
A validated method for on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS-MS) is described for the quantification of bromazepam in human plasma. The method involves a dilution of 300 muL of plasma with 100 muL of carbamazepine (2.5 ng/mL), used as internal standard, vortex-mixing, centrifugation, and injection of 100 muL of the supernate. The analytes were ionized using positive electrospray mass spectrometry then detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The m/z transitions 316-->182 (bromazepam) and 237-->194 (carbamazepine) were used for quantification. The calibration curve was linear from 1 ng/mL (limit of quantification) to 200 ng/mL. The retention times of bromazepam and carbamazepine were 2.6 and 3.2 minutes, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were 3.43%-15.45% and 5.2%-17%, respectively. The intraday and interday accuracy was 94.00%-103.94%. This new automated method has been successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of 2 tablet formulations of 6 mg bromazepam: Lexotan(R) from Produtos Roche Químicos e Farmacêuticos SA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (reference) and test formulation from Laboratórios Biosintética Ltda, São Paulo, Brazil. Because the 90% CI of geometric mean ratios between reference and test were completely included in the 80%-125% interval, the 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent. The comparison of different experimental conditions for establishing a dissolution profile in vitro along with our bioavailability data further allowed us to propose rationally based experimental conditions for a dissolution test of bromazepam tablets, actually lacking a pharmacopeial monograph.
Quantification of sphingosine 1-phosphate by validated LC-MS/MS method revealing strong correlation with apolipoprotein M in plasma but not in serum due to platelet activation during blood coagulation.
Frej, Cecilia; Andersson, Anders; Larsson, Benny; Guo, Li Jun; Norström, Eva; Happonen, Kaisa E; Dahlbäck, Björn
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a signalling sphingolipid affecting multiple cellular functions of vascular and immune systems. It circulates at submicromolar levels bound to HDL-associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) or to albumin. S1P in blood is mainly produced by platelets and erythrocytes, making blood sampling for S1P quantification delicate. Standardisation of sampling is thereby of great importance to obtain robust data. By optimising and characterising the extraction procedure and the LC-MS/MS analysis, we have developed and validated a highly specific and sensitive method for S1P quantification. Blood was collected from healthy individuals (n = 15) to evaluate the effects of differential blood sampling on S1P levels. To evaluate correlation between S1P and apoM in different types of plasma and serum, apoM was measured by ELISA. The method showed good accuracy and precision in the range of 0.011 to 0.9 μM with less than 0.07 % carryover. We found that the methanol precipitation used to extract S1P co-extracted apoM and several other HDL-proteins from plasma. The platelet-associated S1P was released during coagulation, thus increasing the S1P concentration to double in serum as compared to that in plasma. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that the platelet-released S1P was mainly bound to albumin. This explains why the strong correlation between S1P and apoM levels in plasma is lost upon the clotting process and hence not observed in serum. We have developed, characterised and validated an efficient, highly sensitive and specific method for the quantification of S1P in biological material.
Wang, Peng; Zhang, Yajiao; Chen, Jia; Guo, Lei; Xu, Bin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Hua; Xie, Jianwei
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a powerful alkylating vesicant that can rapidly penetrate skin, ocular, and lung bronchus mucous membranes and react with numerous nucleophiles in vivo. Although the lesion mechanisms of SM remain unclear, DNA damage is believed to be the most crucial factor in initiating SM-induced toxicity. Four major DNA adducts were identified for retrospective detection and DNA lesion evaluation, namely, N(7)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (N(7)-HETEG), bis(2-ethyl-N(7)-guanine)thioether (Bis-G), N(3)-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-2'-adenine (N(3)-HETEA), and O(6)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (O(6)-HETEG). Because of previous observations that the levels of SM-DNA adducts were relatively higher in adipose-rich organs, such as the brain, we focused on the in vitro and in vivo fates of the DNA adducts in exposed adipocytes. A UPLC-MS/MS method developed in our laboratory was used to profile the N(7)-HETEG, Bis-G, and N(3)-HETEA levels in human mature adipocytes (HA-s) that had differentiated from human subcutaneous preadipocytes (HPA-s). This method was also used to profile three other cell lines related to the targeting of major tissues, including human keratinocytes (HaCaT), human hepatocytes (L-02), and human lung fibroblasts (HLF). Long-lasting adduct persistence and a high proportion of Bis-G were found in exposed adipocytes in vitro. The survival properties of exposed adipocytes were also tested. At the same time, the fate of SM-DNA adducts in vivo was characterized using a rat model exposed to 1 and 10 mg/kg doses of SM. The level of DNA adducts in the exposed adipose tissue (AT) was much lower than those in other organs studied in our previous work. The adduct persistence behavior was observed in AT with an extremely high proportion of Bis-G, which was higher than N(7)-HETEG. In light of these results, we suggest that an adipose-rich environment may promote the formation of Bis-G and that adipocyte-specific DNA repair mechanisms may
Gong, Xiao-hong; Li, Yan; Li, Yun-xia; Yuan, An; Zhao, Meng-jie; Zhang, Ruo-qi; Zeng, Dai-wen; Peng, Cheng
A specific and sensitive UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method operated in the positive ion mode was developed and validated for the quantification of Fuziline in Beagle dog plasma. Fuziline and Neoline internal standard were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with the total running time of 4 min using gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The calibration curves for Fuziline showed good linearity in the concentrations ranging from 2 to 400 ng/mL with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.9971. The lower limit of quantification was 0.8 ng/mL. Intra- and interbatch relative standard deviations ranged from 2.11 to 3.11% and 3.12 to 3.81%, respectively. Fuziline was stable under different sample storage and processing conditions. The developed method was successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study of Fuziline in Beagle dog after intravenous and oral administration. Low absolute bioavailability of Fuziline (1.45 ± 0.76%) suggested a significant metabolism transformation extent in Beagle dog.
Zhang, Sixi; Xie, Yang; Wang, Jing; Geng, Yanmei; Zhou, Yu; Sun, Chengxin; Wang, Guangshu
An liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of six flavonoid glycosides including isoorientin (1), orientin (2), 2″-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl isoorientin (3), 2″-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl isovitexin (4), 6-C-L-α-arabipyranosyl vitexin (5), and vitexin (6) in rat plasma using isoquercitrin as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were prepared by a one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic analysis was carried out on a 25-cm C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. Six analytes and IS were detected through electrospray ionization in negative-ion selection reaction monitoring mode. The mass transitions were as follows: m/z 447.2 → 327.0 for 1, m/z 447.2 → 327.0 for 2, m/z 579.3 → 458.9 for 3, m/z 563.0 → 293.1 for 4, m/z 563.0 → 353.0 for 5, m/z 431.1 → 311.1 for 6, and m/z 463.1 → 300.2 for IS, respectively. Calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r(2) > 0.9908) over a wide concentration range for all compounds. Intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD%) at four different levels were both less than 14.2% and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -11.9% to 12.0%. The extraction recoveries of the six components ranged from 88.2% to 103.6%. The validated assay was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of the six components in male rat plasma after intravenous administration of total flavonoids of Scorzonera austriaca Wild.
Validated UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of eight saikosaponins in rat plasma: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in depression rats after oral administration of extracts of raw and vinegar-baked Bupleuri Radix.
Lei, Tianli; Zhang, Dandan; Guo, Kun; Li, Mingxiao; Lv, Chongning; Wang, Jing; Jia, Lingyun; Lu, Jincai
A sensitive and efficient UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of eight saikosaponins (SSa, SSb1, SSb2, SSb3, SSb4, SSc, SSd and SSf) in rat plasma. Furthermore, comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of these sakosaponins were investigated, following oral administration of extracts of raw and vinegar-baked Bupleuri Radix to depression rats. Biosamples were processed with liquid-liquid extraction technique using ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Waters BEH C18 UPLC column. 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase was used at a flow rate of 0.40mL/min. The analytes and internal standard, digoxin, were detected using negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The lower limit of quantification was less than 0.62ng/mL for the each analyte. The validation parameters investigated, which were specificity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery and stability, were well within acceptable limits. Results showed that for some of analytes, AUC0-t and Cmax were significantly different after oral administration of extracts of raw and vinegar-baked Bupleuri Radix. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic study in pathological state could provide more useful information to guide the clinical usage of Bupleuri Radix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The LC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) is an increasingly common tool in the clinical laboratory. Established applications include routine assays for detecting inborn errors of metabolism, and for monitoring therapeutic drugs and steroids. Peptides and proteins in biological matrices have traditionally been quantified by immunological methods such as RIA or ELISA. These methods have the drawback of being insufficiently selective, often not allowing differentiation between the peptide and its derivatives or degradation fragments. The improved robustness and sensitivity of LC-MS-based techniques provide reliable alternatives for peptide quantification. Mass spectrometry does not require specific antibody reagents and is a powerful tool for the study of posttranslational modifications (PTM). In addition, several studies have demonstrated the utility of selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays using stable-isotope-labelled (tryptic) peptides for quantifying proteins in human serum. Peptide-based MS/MS is a relatively new development in the measurement of clinically significant proteins, offering cost effectiveness, high throughput, multiplexed analysis and quantification, with the potential for combining the measurement of small molecules, peptides and proteins on a single technology platform. Quantitative analysis of proteins and peptides by LC-MS/MS is becoming a practical technique for clinical laboratories. To move from the laboratories of highly skilled analysts to routine clinical diagnostic laboratories requires that a number of technical hurdles be overcome in regard to sensitivity, imprecision, accuracy and the sample handling necessary for clinical use.
Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Swindells, Chris; Gunning, Philip; Wang, Weijun; Grün, Christian; Mahabir, Krishna; Maharaj, Vinesh J; Apps, Peter J
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV and HPLC-Mass Spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for the quantitative analysis of the family of Hoodia gordonii steroid glycosides with appetite suppressing properties in dried plant material, in purified and enriched extracts and in various prototype food-products fortified with H. gordonii extracts. For solid materials, e.g. dried plants or for non-fatty foods, extraction of the steroid glycosides is performed using methanol. For products where the steroid glycosides are present in an oil matrix, direct injection of the oil after dilution in tetrahydrofuran is applied. The HPLC separation is performed on an octyl-modified reversed-phase column in the gradient mode with UV detection at lambda = 220 nm. Quantification is performed against an external calibration line prepared using either one of the pure steroid glycosides or geranyl-tiglate. Short- and long-term repeatabilities of the methods are better than 3 and 6%, respectively. Recoveries are better than 85%, even in the analysis of the least abundant steroid glycosides in a complex yoghurt drink. Linearity is better than 3-4 orders of magnitude and the detection limits are below approximately 2 microg g(-1) for the individual steroid glycosides in dried plant material and food products. HPLC-MS is used to confirm that the steroid glycosides contain the characteristic steroid core, the carbohydrate chain and the tigloyl group.
Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water.
Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Götz
A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90 ± 6 %) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10 ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40 % during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80 % elimination) and acesulfame (85 % elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20 ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method.
Multiresidue method for identification and quantification of avermectins, benzimidazoles and nitroimidazoles residues in bovine muscle tissue by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) using a QuEChERS approach.
Silva, Guilherme Resende da; Lima, Josefa Abucater; Souza, Leonardo Francisco de; Santos, Flávio Alves; Lana, Mary Ane Gonçalves; Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio de; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos
A quantitative and confirmatory multiresidue method for determining the presence of avermectins, benzimidazoles and nitroimidazoles in bovine muscle tissue by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed, optimized and validated, using a QuEChERS extraction. The evaluated performance parameters were linearity, selectivity, matrix effect, decision limits (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision and robustness. The validated method exhibited linearity with coefficient of determination (R(2)) higher than 0.90 in the working range from 0.5 to 2.0 times the maximum residue limit (MRL) or the minimum required performance level (MRPL) for the studied analytes, except for closantel, for which the linear study range was defined from 50 to 200µgkg(-1). The method was selective in the presence of macrolides and lincosamides for all the studied analytes. The LOD varied from 0.007 to 66.715µgkg(-1), whereas LOQ values ranging from 0.011 to 113.674µgkg(-1) were found. The results of the evaluation of the accuracy and precision were satisfactory for all the studied analytes, and according to the assessment of the robustness, the method was not robust only for the analytes abamectin, moxidectin, doramectin fenbendazole sulfone, closantel, thiabendazole, hydroxyl-metronidazole and ronidazole. The performance parameters demonstrated total method adequacy for the detection and quantification of avermectins, benzimidazoles and nitroimidazoles residues in bovine muscle tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scott, David; Heese, Bryce; Garg, Uttam
Acylcarnitines are formed by esterification between fatty acids CoA or organic acids CoA molecules and carnitine. In various fatty acids oxidation defects and organic acidurias, there is increased concentration of corresponding acylcarnitines. Abnormalities in specific acylcarnitines are used in the diagnosis of fatty acids oxidation defects and organic acidurias. Most commonly used method for the assay of acylcarnitines is HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A HPLC/MS/MS method is described for the quantification of number of acylcarnitines. The method involves butylation of carnitine/acylcarnitines using acidified butanol, HPLC flow injection, and measurement of acylcarnitines using precursor ion scan and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM).
Dolder, Patrick C; Liechti, Matthias E; Rentsch, Katharina M
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a widely used recreational drug. The aim of the present study is to develop a quantitative turboflow LC-MS/MS method that can be used for rapid quantification of LSD and its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD (O-H-LSD) in serum and urine in emergency toxicological cases without time-consuming extraction steps. The method was developed on an ion-trap LC-MS/MS instrument coupled to a turbulent-flow extraction system. The validation data showed no significant matrix effects and no ion suppression has been observed in serum and urine. Mean intraday accuracy and precision for LSD were 101 and 6.84%, in urine samples and 97.40 and 5.89% in serum, respectively. For O-H-LSD, the respective values were 97.50 and 4.99% in urine and 107 and 4.70% in serum. Mean interday accuracy and precision for LSD were 100 and 8.26% in urine and 101 and 6.56% in serum, respectively. For O-H-LSD, the respective values were 101 and 8.11% in urine and 99.8 and 8.35% in serum, respectively. The lower limit of quantification for LSD was determined to be 0.1 ng/ml. LSD concentrations in serum were expected to be up to 8 ng/ml. 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy LSD concentrations in urine up to 250 ng/ml. The new method was accurate and precise in the range of expected serum and urine concentrations in patients with a suspected LSD intoxication. Until now, the method has been applied in five cases with suspected LSD intoxication where the intake of the drug has been verified four times with LSD concentrations in serum in the range of 1.80-14.70 ng/ml and once with a LSD concentration of 1.25 ng/ml in urine. In serum of two patients, the O-H-LSD concentration was determined to be 0.99 and 0.45 ng/ml. In the urine of a third patient, the O-H-LSD concentration was 9.70 ng/ml.
UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of three new antiretroviral drugs, dolutegravir, elvitegravir and rilpivirine, and other thirteen antiretroviral agents plus cobicistat and ritonavir boosters in human plasma.
Simiele, Marco; Ariaudo, Alessandra; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Favata, Fabio; Ferrante, Martina; Carcieri, Chiara; Bonora, Stefano; Di Perri, Giovanni; De Avolio, Antonio
Rilpivirine (RPV), dolutegravir (DTG) and elvitegravir (EVG) are the latest antiretroviral drugs approved for treatment of HIV infection. Currently, poor information is currently available concerning their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, thus making the use of therapeutic drug monitoring for these drugs not useful. This lack of information is partially due to the absence of an high-throughput method for their simultaneous quantification together with other antiretroviral drugs. In this work, we describe the development and validation of a new UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify these drugs, together with other fourteen antiretroviral agents, in human plasma. One hundred microliters of plasma samples were added with internal standard (6,7-Dimethyl- 2,3-di(2-pyridyl) quinoxaline), underwent a simple protein precipitation with methanol:acetonitrile (50:50v/v) followed by sample dilution with water. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Acquity(®) UPLC HSS T3 column (150mm x 2.1mm I.D) with a particle size of 1.8μm and compounds were detected with a tandem mass detector, monitoring two ion transitions for each drugs. The mean recovery of RPV, DTG and EVG were 101%, 87% and 112.3% respectively. Accuracy and precision inter/intra-day were below 15% for all drugs, in accordance to Food and Drug Administration guidelines requirements. The UPLC-MS/MS method reported here could be used routinely to monitor plasma concentrations of antiviral drugs, including RPV, DTG and EVG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Santivañez-Veliz, Mery; Moreno-Viguri, Elsa; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Varela, Javier; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Lizarraga, Elena
The development and validation of an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of five neutral lipids in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes by GC-MS is presented in this study. The validated method meets all validation parameters for all components and the chromatographic conditions have been optimized during its development. This analytical method has demonstrated good selectivity, accuracy, within-day precision, recovery and linearity in each of the established ranges. In addition, detection and quantification limits for squalene, cholesterol, ergosterol and lanosterol have been improved and it is worth highlighting the fact that this is the first time that squalene-2,3-epoxide validation data have been reported. The new validated method has been applied to epimastigotes treated with compounds with in vitro anti-T.cruzi activity. This new methodology is straightforward and constitutes a tool for screening possible sterol biosynthesis pathway inhibitors in Trypanosoma cruzi, one of the most studied targets in Chagas disease treatment. Therefore, it is an interesting and useful contribution to medicinal chemistry research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Development a validated highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of Ledipasvir, sofosbuvir and its major metabolite GS-331007 in human plasma: Application to a human pharmacokinetic study.
Abdallah, Ola M; Abdel-Megied, Ahmed M; Gouda, Amira S
A highly sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed, fully optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of Ledipasvir (LED) and Sofosbuvir (SOF) in the presence of its major metabolite GS-331007 in human plasma using Daclatasvir as internal standard (IS). The extraction of analytes and IS from plasma was performed using liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The chromatographic separation of these prepared samples was achieved on Xterra MS C8 column (4.6×50mm,5μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5; 10mM), acetonitrile and methanol pumped at a flow rate 0.7mLmin(-1).The detection was performed on API4000 triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated according to FDA guidelines for bio-analytical methods with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, carry-over, stability and dilution integrity. Linearity was obtained over a concentration range of 0.1-1000, 0.3-3000 and 3.0-3000ngmL(-1) for LED, SOF and GS-331007; respectively by applying weighted least-squares linear regression method (1/x(2)). The wider range of quantification in a shorter period of separation time less than 5.0min allowed monitoring the serum concentration of analytes up to 144h. The proposed method can be successfully applied for pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in healthy human volunteers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deng, Li; Li, Yongzhi; Zhang, Xinshi; Chen, Bo; Deng, Yulin; Li, Yujuan
A UPLC-MS method was developed for determination of pterostilbene (PTS) in plasma and tissues of mice. PTS was separated on Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear calibration curve of PTS in mouse plasma and tissues ranged from 1.0 to 5000 and 0.50 to 500 ng/ml (r(2)>0.9979), respectively, with lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ) were between 0.5 and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the assay were satisfactory. The validated method was applied to the study of bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) bearing mice. The bioavailability of PTS (dose 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg) in normal mice were 11.9%, 13.9% and 26.4%, respectively; and the maximum level (82.1 ± 14.2 μg/g) was found in stomach (dose 28 mg/kg). The bioavailability, peak concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (Tmax) of PTS in LLC mice was increased compared with normal mice. The results indicated the UPLC-MS method is reliable and bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and LLC mice were dramatically different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Truta, Liliana; Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Costa, Pedro; Sales, M Goreti F; Teixeira, Helena M
Depression is among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of our society, leading to an increase in antidepressant drug consumption that needs to be accurately determined in whole blood samples in Forensic Toxicology Laboratories. For this purpose, this work presents a new gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method targeting the simultaneous and rapid determination of 14 common Antidepressants in whole blood: 13 Antidepressants (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, dothiepin, fluoxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nortryptiline, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine and venlafaxine) and 1 Metabolite (N-desmethylclomipramine). Solid-phase extraction was used prior to chromatographic separation. Chromatographic and MS/MS parameters were selected to improve sensitivity, peak resolution and unequivocal identification of the eluted analyte. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode in tandem, using electronic impact ionization. Clomipramine-D3 and trimipramine-D3 were used as deutered internal standards. The validation parameters included linearity, limits of detection, lower limit of quantification, selectivity/specificity, extraction efficiency, carry-over, precision and robustness, and followed internationally accepted guidelines. Limits of quantification and detection were lower than therapeutic and sub-therapeutic concentration ranges. Overall, the method offered good selectivity, robustness and quick response (<16min) for typical concentration ranges, both for therapeutic and lethal levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A bio-analytical hydrophilic interaction LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of omeprazole and lansoprazole in human plasma in support of a pharmacokinetic omeprazole study in children.
De Smet, Julie; Boussery, Koen; De Cock, Pieter; De Paepe, Peter; Remon, Jean-Paul; Van Winckel, Myriam; Van Bocxlaer, Jan
A hydrophilic interaction LC method with MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of omeprazole and lansoprazole in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Betasil silica column using a high organic mobile phase (eluent A: ACN/formic acid 997.5:2.5 v/v; eluent B: water/formic acid 997.5:2.5 v/v) and gradient elution. The mass spectrometer was operated in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring mode. Prior to chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used and the organic layer was diluted with ACN, allowing direct injection on column. The method showed acceptable linearity, high precision (RSD%<10.5%), accuracy (88.9-109.3%) and selectivity in the two concentration ranges studied: 1.5-100 and 5-2000 ng/mL. The LOQ was established at 1.5 and 5 ng/mL for the two concentration ranges. Lack of variability in matrix effects was demonstrated and mean extraction recovery for omeprazole and lansoprazole was determined in the low (56.3-67.7%) and high (45.3-44.3%) concentration range, respectively. Additionally, plasma samples were found to be stable after three freeze-thaw cycles and for at least 15 h after extraction. This assay was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic omeprazole study in children with cerebral palsy and mental retardation.
Ikeda, Kayo; Ikawa, Kazuro; Kozumi, Toshihiro; Yokoshige, Satoko; Horikawa, Shunji; Morikawa, Norifumi
A simple and sensitive GC-EI-MS method using solvent extraction and evaporation was developed for the determination of olanzapine concentrations in plasma samples. Because olanzapine and promazine, which was used as the internal standard (IS), are nitrogenous bases, they can adsorb to the weakly acidic silanol groups on the surfaces of glass centrifuge tubes during solvent extraction and evaporation. Silylation of the glass tubes, addition of triethylamine (TEA), and use of a sample solution with a basic pH could prevent adsorption loss. The extraction method involved mixing plasma (500 μL) in a silylated glass tube with a promazine solution (2 μg/mL, 25 μL) in methanol containing 1% TEA. After addition of aqueous sodium carbonate (0.5 mol/L, pH 11.1, 1 mL) and extraction into 3 mL of dichloromethane/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) containing 1% TEA, the organic phase was evaporated to dryness in a silylated glass tube. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate containing 1% TEA (50 μL). For GC-EI-MS analysis, the calibration curves of olanzapine in human plasma were linear from 0.5 to 100 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precisions in plasma were both less than 7.36% (coefficient of variation), and the accuracy was between 94.6 and 110% for solutions with concentrations greater than 0.5 ng/mL. The limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL in plasma. The assay was applied to therapeutic drug monitoring in samples from three schizophrenic patients.
Background Relative isotope abundance quantification, which can be used for peptide identification and differential peptide quantification, plays an important role in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics. However, several major issues exist in the relative isotopic quantification of peptides on time-of-flight (TOF) instruments: LC peak boundary detection, thermal noise suppression, interference removal and mass drift correction. We propose to use the Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) method to extract MS signal templates for interference detection/removal and LC peak boundary detection. In our method, MRCQuant, MS templates are extracted directly from experimental values, and the mass drift in each LC-MS run is automatically captured and compensated. We compared the quantification accuracy of MRCQuant to that of another representative LC-MS quantification algorithm (msInspect) using datasets downloaded from a public data repository. Results MRCQuant showed significant improvement in the number of accurately quantified peptides. Conclusions MRCQuant effectively addresses major issues in the relative quantification of LC-MS-based proteomics data, and it provides improved performance in the quantification of low abundance peptides. PMID:21406110
Gervasoni, Jacopo; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Giorgio, Valentina; Primiano, Aniello; Russo, Consuelo; Tesori, Valentina; Urbani, Andrea; Zuppi, Cecilia
Aim. Lactulose/mannitol ratio is used to assess intestinal barrier function. Aim of this work was to develop a robust and rapid method for the analysis of lactulose and mannitol in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Lactulose/mannitol ratio has been measured in pediatric patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Methods. Calibration curves and raffinose, used as internal standard, were prepared in water : acetonitrile 20 : 80. Fifty μL of urine sample was added to 450 μL of internal standard solution. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna NH2 column operating at a flow rate of 200 μL/min and eluted with a linear gradient from 20% to 80% water in acetonitrile. Total run time is 9 minutes. The mass spectrometry operates in electrospray negative mode. Method was fully validated according to European Medicine Agency guidelines. Results and Conclusions. Linearity ranged from 10 to 1000 mg/L for mannitol and 2.5 to 1000 mg/L for lactulose. Imprecision in intra- and interassay was lower than 15% for both analytes. Accuracy was higher than 85%. Lactulose/mannitol ratio in pediatric patients is significantly higher than that measured in controls. The presented method, rapid and sensitive, is suitable in a clinical laboratory. PMID:28070137
Gervasoni, Jacopo; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Giorgio, Valentina; Primiano, Aniello; Russo, Consuelo; Tesori, Valentina; Scaldaferri, Franco; Urbani, Andrea; Zuppi, Cecilia; Persichilli, Silvia
Aim. Lactulose/mannitol ratio is used to assess intestinal barrier function. Aim of this work was to develop a robust and rapid method for the analysis of lactulose and mannitol in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Lactulose/mannitol ratio has been measured in pediatric patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Methods. Calibration curves and raffinose, used as internal standard, were prepared in water : acetonitrile 20 : 80. Fifty μL of urine sample was added to 450 μL of internal standard solution. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna NH2 column operating at a flow rate of 200 μL/min and eluted with a linear gradient from 20% to 80% water in acetonitrile. Total run time is 9 minutes. The mass spectrometry operates in electrospray negative mode. Method was fully validated according to European Medicine Agency guidelines. Results and Conclusions. Linearity ranged from 10 to 1000 mg/L for mannitol and 2.5 to 1000 mg/L for lactulose. Imprecision in intra- and interassay was lower than 15% for both analytes. Accuracy was higher than 85%. Lactulose/mannitol ratio in pediatric patients is significantly higher than that measured in controls. The presented method, rapid and sensitive, is suitable in a clinical laboratory.
Gavilán, Rosa E.; Veiga-Gómez, Maria; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Vazquez Belda, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto
The Commission Regulation 574/2011/EC set up maximum levels of coccidiostats and histomonostats in nonmedicated feed as a consequence of carry-over during manufacturing. Carry-over takes place from medicated to nonmedicated feed during feed production. Similar contamination could also occur for other pharmaceuticals such as tetracyclines, a group of antibiotics commonly employed in food production animal. The objective of this work is to present a simple and fast method for the simultaneous detection of four tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) in nontarget feed at a μg/kg level. Validation of the method was performed according to the guideline included in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for official method. The validated method was successfully applied to 50 feed samples collected from different milk farms and 25 samples obtained from feed manufacturers. While oxytetracycline was the tetracycline most frequently detected, chlortetracycline was the analyte measured at the highest concentration 15.14 mg/Kg. From 75 nonmedicated feed analysed 15% resulted to be positive for the presence of one tetracycline. PMID:27595038
Schettgen, T; Alt, A; Dewes, P; Kraus, T
We have developed and validated a simple and sensitive method for the determination of urinary phenol as well as the urinary metabolites of toluene and ethylbenzene in one analytical run. After enzymatic hydrolysis for the cleavage of conjugates overnight, the analytes are extracted from the matrix with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure using toluene as solvent under acidic conditions. The analytes are then derivatised to volatile ethers using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamid (BSTFA) for cresols and ethylphenols as well as N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamid (MTBSTFA) for the determination of phenol. Separation and detection was carried out using capillary gas chromatography with mass-selective detection (GC-MS). Deuterium-labeled o-cresol served as internal standard for the quantification of all metabolites and guaranteed good accuracy of the results. No matrix effects were observed in the quantification of the analytes. The limit of detection for o- and m-cresol and 2- and 4-ethylphenol was 10 and 20μg/l urine and linearity ranged up to 3 and 12mg/L urine, respectively. The limit of detection for urinary phenol was 0.5mg/L with a linear range up to 200mg/L. The relative standard deviation of the within-series imprecision ranged between 3.0 and 7.2% at two spiked concentrations of 60 and 400μg/l and the relative recovery was between 84 and 104%, depending on the analyte. The method was successfully applied in proficiency testing for urinary o-cresol and phenol. This method was used for the analysis of urine samples of 17 non-smoking and 13 smoking persons from the general population without known exposure to solvents. Smokers showed a significantly higher excretion of o-cresol (median: 23 vs. 33μg/l), m-cresol (median: 43 vs. 129μg/l) as well as 4-ethylphenol (median: 25 vs. 124μg/l). Especially excretion of 4-ethylphenol was significantly correlated to smoking habits. The method seems to be suitable for biological monitoring of
Kim, Sook-Jin; Shin, Hwajin; Cheon, Seong-Moon; Ko, Se-Mi; Ham, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Young-Dal; Lee, Yong-Bok; Cho, Hea-Young
The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method to simultaneously analyze schizandrin, schizandrol B, and gomisin N lignans in human plasma using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The three lignans were separated using a mobile phase of water and acetonitrile containing 0.02% acetic acid equipped with a Kinetex C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm). This analysis was achieved by multiple reaction monitoring mode in an electrospray interface. The mass transitions were m/z 433.1→384.0 for schizandrin, 398.8→367.8 for schizandrol B, and 400.6→299.8 for gomisin N. Liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether was used to obtain the three lignans. The chromatograms showed high resolution, sensitivity, and selectivity with no interference with plasma constituents. The calibration curves for the three lignans in human plasma were 0.05-50 ng/mL and displayed excellent linearity with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. Precision for all three lignans was within 11.23%. The accuracy was 88.3-99.0% for schizandrin, 90.6-103.4% for schizandrol B, and 90.2-103.5% for gomisin N. The developed simultaneous analytical method satisfied the criteria of international guidance and could be successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of three lignans after oral administration of Schisandrae Fructus extract powder to humans. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mano, Yuji; Kusano, Kazutomi
A sensitive method for the determination of total and unbound lenvatinib (Lenvima™), a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in human serum was developed for protein binding studies using an equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Serum samples (0.8 mL) were dialyzed against phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in dialyzer for 18 h at 37 °C to obtain dialysate and serum for unbound and total lenvatinib, respectively. After extraction by organic solvent, separation was achieved on a Symmetry Shield RP8 column with isocratic elution of 2 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile (3:2, v/v) at the flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Detection was performed using API4000 with multiple reaction monitoring mode using positive electrospray ionization. The standard curve ranged from 0.0400 to 16.0 ng/mL and 0.0800 to 400 ng/mL as lenvatinib free base in PBS and serum, respectively. Accuracy and precision in the intra- and inter-batch reproducibility study were within the acceptance criteria. Various stability assessments including bench-top, freeze/thaw, processed samples, and frozen stability confirmed that lenvatinib was stable in serum and PBS. Application to in vivo protein binding studies in clinical studies was successfully performed and results showed that lenvatinib was highly protein bound in serum.
A UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of direct antiviral agents simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, sofosbuvir/GS-331007, dasabuvir, ombitasvir and paritaprevir, together with ritonavir, in human plasma.
Ariaudo, Alessandra; Favata, Fabio; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Simiele, Marco; Paglietti, Luca; Boglione, Lucio; Cardellino, Chiara Simona; Carcieri, Chiara; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio
To date, the new standard for treatment of chronic hepatitis C is based on the administration of novel direct acting antivirals. Among these, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, dasabuvir, ombitasvir and paritaprevir already entered the clinical use. Anyway, since few pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted on these drugs in a "real life" context poor knowledge is available about their optimal therapeutic range. Without this background, therapeutic drug monitoring is not applicable for treatment optimization. Up to now, a few methods are reported to quantify these drugs in human plasma, and none of them in a simultaneous way. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, fast and cheap, but still reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of these drugs, feasible for a clinical routine use. Solid phase extraction was performed using HLB C18 96-well plates. Chromatographic separation was performed on a BEH C18 1.7μm, 2.1mm×50mm column, settled at 50°C, with a gradient run of two mobile phases: ammonium acetate 5mM (pH 9.5) and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 0.4mL/min for 5min. Tandem-mass detection was carried out in positive electrospray ionization mode. Both inter and intraday imprecision and inaccuracy were below 15%, as required by FDA guidelines, while both recoveries and matrix effects resulted within the acceptance criteria. The method was tested on 80 patients samples with good performance. Being robust, simple and fast and requiring a low plasma volume, this method resulted eligible for a clinical routine use.
Simultaneous quantification of soman and VX adducts to butyrylcholinesterase, their aged methylphosphonic acid adduct and butyrylcholinesterase in plasma using an off-column procainamide-gel separation method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS.
Liu, Chang-Cai; Huang, Gui-Lan; Xi, Hai-Ling; Liu, Shi-Lei; Liu, Jing-Quan; Yu, Hui-Lan; Zhou, Shi-Kun; Liang, Long-Hui; Yuan, Ling
This work describes a novel and sensitive non-isotope dilution method for simultaneous quantification of organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) soman (GD) and VX adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), their aged methylphosphonic acid (MeP) adduct and unadducted BChE in plasma exposed to OPNA. OPNA-BChE adducts were isolated with an off-column procainamide-gel separation (PGS) from plasma, and then digested with pepsin into specific adducted FGES(*)AGAAS nonapeptide (NP) biomarkers. The resulting NPs were detected by UHPLC-MS/MS MRM. The off-column PGS method can capture over 90% of BChE, MeP-BChE, VX-BChE and GD-BChE from their respective plasma materials. One newly designed and easily synthesized phosphorylated BChE nonapeptide with one Gly-to-Ala mutation was successfully reported to serve as internal standard instead of traditional isotopically labeled BChE nonapeptide. The linear range of calibration curves were from 1.00-200ngmL(-1) for VX-NP, 2.00-200ngmL(-1) for GD-NP and MeP-NP (R(2)≥0.995), and 3.00-200ngmL(-1) for BChE NP (R(2)≥0.990). The inter-day precision had relative standard deviation (%RSD) of <8.89%, and the accuracy ranged between 88.9-120%. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.411, 0.750, 0.800 and 1.43ngmL(-1) for VX-NP, GD-NP, MeP-NP and BChE NP, respectively. OPNA-exposed quality control plasma samples were characterized as part of method validation. Investigation of plasma samples unexposed to OPNA revealed no baseline values or interferences. Using the off-column PGS method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS, VX-NP and GD-NP adducts can be unambiguously detected with high confidence in 0.10ngmL(-1) and 0.50ngmL(-1) of exposed human plasma respectively, only requiring 0.1mL of plasma sample and taking about four hours without special sample preparation equipment. These improvements make it a simple, sensitive and robust PGS-UHPLC-MS/MS method, and this method will become an attractive alternative to immunomagnetic separation (IMS
Johänning, Janina; Heinkele, Georg; Precht, Jana C; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Schroth, Werner; Mürdter, Thomas E
Tamoxifen is a mainstay in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and is metabolized to more than 30 different compounds. Little is known about in vivo concentrations of estrogenic metabolites E-metabolite E, Z-metabolite E, and bisphenol and their relevance for tamoxifen efficacy. Therefore, we developed a highly sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method for tamoxifen metabolites bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E as well as for the sex steroid hormones estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. Plasma samples were subjected to protein precipitation followed by solid phase extraction. Upon derivatization with 3-[(N-succinimide-1-yl)oxycarbonyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide, all analytes were separated on a sub-2-μm column with a gradient of acetonitrile in water with 0.1 % of formic acid. Analytes were detected on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our method demonstrated high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The lower limits of quantification were 12, 8, and 25 pM for bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E, respectively, and 4 pM for estradiol and estrogen, 50 pM for testosterone and androstenedione, and 25 pM for progesterone. The method was applied to plasma samples of postmenopausal patients taken at baseline and under tamoxifen therapy. Graphical Abstract Sample preparation and derivatization for highly sensitive quantification of estrogenic tamoxifen metabolites and steroid hormones by HPLC-MS/MS.
Miraghaei, Shahram; Mohammadi, Bahareh; Babaei, Atefeh; Keshavarz, Samira; Bahrami, Gholamreza
Although for many analyses tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) systems have significant advantage over the high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) however, the HPLC methods are easier, cheaper and more available to perform. As no published method is available for quantitative HPLC analysis of sofosbuvir (SOF), an orally administered anti-hepatitis drug in human serum, this study was aimed to evaluate applicability of the HPLC technique to quantify sofosbuvir and comparison of the two methods for analytical performance. Following extraction of the drug and an internal standard (Hexobarbital), same chromatographic conditions were used for both the systems. After the chromatographic separation on a reverse phase C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of water (containing formic acid 0.5mL/L) and acetonitrile (57:43; v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8mL/min, the eluate was introduced into a DAD detector set at 261nm, then passed through the mass spectrometry system in single ion monitoring mode (SIM). For UV and mass spectrometry detections the calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 25-3200 and 10-3200ng/mL, respectively and the linearity was over 0.998 for both the systems. Lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for mass spectrometry and DAD detections were 10 and 25ng/mL, respectively. In conclusion sensitivity of DAD detection is sufficient enough to determine concentrations down to 0.5% of Cmax which achieved in bioequivalence study of sofosbuvir and meet FDA requirements for these types of studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malva sylvestris L. extract suppresses desferrioxamine-induced PGE₂ and PGD₂ release in differentiated U937 cells: the development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for prostaglandin quantification.
Martins, Cleverson Antonio Ferreira; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane Maria; Gasparetto, João Cleverson; Trindade, Angela Cristina Leal Badaró; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Pontarolo, Roberto
Malva sylvestris is a species used worldwide as an alternative to anti-inflammatory therapies; however, its mechanism of action remains unknown. In this paper, the anti-inflammatory effects of M. sylvestris alcoholic extracts were evaluated by measuring the pro-inflammatory mediators PGE₂ and PGD₂ in desferrioxamine-stimulated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated U937 cells. An HPLC-DAD fingerprint of the M. sylvestris extract was performed and caffeic acid, ferulic acid and scopoletin were identified and quantified. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to separate and measure the prostaglandins. The lower limits of detection (~0.5 ng/mL for PGE₂ and PGD₂) and quantification (1.0 ng/mL for PGE₂ and PGD₂) indicated that the method is highly sensitive. The calibration curves showed excellent coefficients of correlation (r > 0.99) over the range of 1.0-500.0 ng/mL, and at different levels, the accuracy ranged from 96.4 to 106.4% with an RSD < 10.0% for the precision study. This method was successfully applied using U937-d cells. A significant dose-dependent reduction of PGE2 and PGD2 levels occurred using 10 µg/mL (10.74 ± 2.86 and 9.60 ± 6.89%) and 50 µg/mL of extract (48.37 ± 3.24 and 53.06 ± 6.15%), suggesting that the anti-inflammatory mechanisms evoked by M. sylvestris may be related to modulation of these mediators.
Chen, Guan-Yuan; Chao, Hsi-Chun; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Tsai, I-Lin; Kuo, Ching-Hua
Glutamine, glutamate and glutathione are key modulators of excessive oxidative stress in tumor cells. In this study, we developed a rapid and accurate HILIC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine concentrations of cellular glutamine, glutamate and glutathione. A bared silica HILIC column was employed to analyze these polar metabolites. The LC-MS parameters were optimized to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The analysis can be completed within 4 min under optimal conditions. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, and linearity. Intra-day (n = 9) precision was within 2.68-6.24% among QCs. Inter-day precision (n = 3) was below 12.4%. The method accuracy was evaluated by the recovery test, and the accuracy for three analytes were between 91.6 and 110%. The developed method was applied to study antioxidant function of GLS2 in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Changes in concentrations of glutamine, glutamate and glutathione revealed that the overexpression of GLS2 could effectively decrease oxidative stress. In summary, this study developed a rapid HILIC-MS/MS method for quantification of GLS2-related metabolites that could facilitate elucidation of the role of GLS2 in tumor development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kummer, Natalie; Wille, Sarah; Di Fazio, Vincent; Lambert, Willy; Samyn, Nele
A method for the quantification of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) in human urine is developed and fully validated according to international guidelines. Protein precipitation is used as sample preparation. During the development of the method on an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS system using a CSH C18 column, special attention was paid to reduce matrix effects to improve assay sensitivity and to improve detection of the second transition for EtS for specificity purposes. The method was linear from 0.1 to 10μg/mL for both analytes. Ion suppression less than 24% (RSD<15%) was observed for EtG and no significant matrix effect was measured for EtS. The recovery was around 80% (RSD<14%) for both compounds. This method provides good precision (RSDr and RSDt<10%) and bias (<15%) for internal and external quality control samples. The reproducibility of the method was demonstrated by the successful participation to proficiency tests (z-score<0.86). This method was finally used to analyze urine samples obtained from twenty-seven volunteers whose alcohol consumption during the 5 days before sampling was monitored. Concentrations between 0.5 and 101.9μg/mL (mean 10.9, median 1.4) for EtG and between 0.1 and 37.9μg/mL (mean 3.6, median 0.3) for EtS were detected in urine samples of volunteers who declared having consumed alcohol the day before the sampling. EtG and EtS concentrations in urine were highly correlated (r=0.996, p<0.001). A moderate correlation between the number of drinks the day before sampling and the concentration of EtG (r=0.448, p<0.02) or EtS (r=0.406, p<0.04) was observed. Using a cut-off value at 0.1μg/mL for EtG and EtS, this method is able to detect social alcohol consumption approximately 24h after the intake, without showing any false positive result. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lowe, Ross H; Barnes, Allan J; Lehrmann, Elin; Freed, William J; Kleinman, Joel E; Hyde, Thomas M; Herman, Mary M; Huestis, Marilyn A
A sensitive and specific method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamine, opiates, and cocaine and metabolites in human postmortem brain was developed and validated. Analytes of interest included amphetamine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, ecgonine ethyl ester, cocaethylene, and anhydroecgonine methyl ester. The method employed ultrasonic homogenization of brain tissue in pH 4.0 sodium acetate buffer and solid phase extraction. Extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Separation and quantification were accomplished on a bench-top positive chemical ionization capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer with selected ion monitoring. Eight deuterated analogs were used as internal standards. Limits of quantification were 50 ng/g of brain. Calibration curves were linear to 1000 ng/g for anhydroecgonine methyl ester and 6-acetylmorphine, and to 2000 ng/g for all other analytes. Accuracy across the linear range of the assay ranged from 90.2 to 112.2%, and precision, as percent relative standard deviation, was less than 16.6%. Quantification of drug concentrations in brain is a useful research tool in neurobiology and in forensic and postmortem toxicology, identifying the type, relative magnitude, and recency of abused drug exposure. This method will be employed to quantify drug concentrations in human postmortem brain in support of basic and clinical research on the physiologic, biochemical, and behavioral effects of drugs in humans.
Carlier, Mieke; Stove, Veronique; De Waele, Jan J; Verstraete, Alain G
There is an increasing interest in monitoring plasma concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a fast ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (UPLC-MS/MS) for simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, meropenem and piperacillin with minimal turn around time. Sample clean-up included protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing 5 deuterated internal standards, and subsequent dilution of the supernatant with water after centrifugation. Runtime was only 2.5 min. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system using a BEH C18 column (1.7 μm, 100 mm × 2.1 mm) applying a binary gradient elution of water and methanol both containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate on a Water TQD instrument in MRM mode. All compounds were detected in electrospray positive ion mode and could be quantified between 1 and 100 mg/L for amoxicillin and cefuroxime, between 0.5 and 80 mg/L for meropenem and ceftazidime, and between 1 and 150 mg/L for piperacillin. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, matrix effect and recovery and has been compared to a previously published UPLC-MS/MS method.
Munar, Ada; Frazee, Clint; Jones, Bridgette; Garg, Uttam
A multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), positive ion electrospray ionization, LC/MS/MS method is described for the quantification of cetirizine. The compound was isolated from human plasma by protein precipitation using acetonitrile. Cetirizine d4 was used as an internal standard. Chromatographic conditions were achieved using a C18 column and a combination of ammonium acetate, water, and methanol as the mobile phase. MRMs were: cetirizine, 389.26 → 165.16, 201.09; cetirizine d4, 393.09 → 165.15, 201.10. Calibration curves were constructed by plotting the peak area ratios of the calibrators' target MRM transition area to labeled internal standard target MRM transition area versus concentration.
Ohtsubo, Yoshito; Kurooka, Hiroyuki; Tada, Hisae; Manabe, Noboru
In Japan, a criterion value of histamine residue in food is not clearly defined and there is no official test method. We examined histamine in fish and fish products according to the food sanitation test guideline (fluorescence derivatization of histamine with dansyl chloride and quantification by LC-FL: the LC-FL method). Positive samples were confirmed by determining dansylated histamine using our developed LC-MS/MS procedure (the LC-MS/MS method) when histamine was detected. Validation was earried out according to the validation test guideline using fresh fish. Recovery tests of histamine from fresh fish spiked at the level of 20 ppm were carried out. The limit of quantification was 5 ppm. The results confirmed that our LC-MS/MS method is applicable for the inspection of fish and fish products. This LC-MS/MS method has a lower false-positive ratio and a higher selectivity than the LC-FL method.
McCaffery, Peter; Evans, James; Koul, Omanand; Volpert, Amy; Reid, Kevin; Ullman, M. David
Retinoic acid (RA) mediates most of the biological effects of vitamin A that are essential for vertebrate survival. It acts through binding to receptors that belong to the nuclear receptor transcription factor superfamily (Mangelsdorf et al. 1994). It is also a highly potent vertebrate teratogen. To determine the function and effects of endogenous and exogenous RA, it is important to have a highly specific, sensitive, accurate, and precise analytical procedure. Current analyses of RA and other retinoids are labor intensive, of poor sensitivity, have limited specificity, or require compatibility with RA reporter cell lines (Chen et al. 1995. BIOCHEM: Pharmacol. 50: 1257-1264; Creech Kraft et al. 1994. BIOCHEM: J. 301: 111-119; Lanvers et al. 1996. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Appl. 685: 233-240; Maden et al. 1998. DEVELOPMENT: 125: 4133-4144; Wagner et al. 1992. DEVELOPMENT: 116: 55-66). This paper describes an HPLC/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry product ion scan (HPLC/MS(n)) procedure for the analysis of retinoids that employs atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS. The retinoids are separated by normal-phase column chromatography with a linear hexane-isopropanol-dioxane gradient. Each retinoid is detected by a unique series of MS(n) functions set at optimal collision-induced dissociation energy (30% to 32%) for all MS(n) steps. The scan events are divided into three segments, based on HPLC elution order, to maximize the mass spectrometer duty cycle. The all-trans, 9-cis, and 13-cis RA isomers are separated, if desired, by an isocratic hexane-dioxane-isopropanol mobile phase. This paper describes an HPLC/MS(n) procedure possessing high sensitivity and specificity for retinoids.
McCaffery, Peter; Evans, James; Koul, Omanand; Volpert, Amy; Reid, Kevin; Ullman, M. David
Retinoic acid (RA) mediates most of the biological effects of vitamin A that are essential for vertebrate survival. It acts through binding to receptors that belong to the nuclear receptor transcription factor superfamily (Mangelsdorf et al. 1994). It is also a highly potent vertebrate teratogen. To determine the function and effects of endogenous and exogenous RA, it is important to have a highly specific, sensitive, accurate, and precise analytical procedure. Current analyses of RA and other retinoids are labor intensive, of poor sensitivity, have limited specificity, or require compatibility with RA reporter cell lines (Chen et al. 1995. BIOCHEM: Pharmacol. 50: 1257-1264; Creech Kraft et al. 1994. BIOCHEM: J. 301: 111-119; Lanvers et al. 1996. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Appl. 685: 233-240; Maden et al. 1998. DEVELOPMENT: 125: 4133-4144; Wagner et al. 1992. DEVELOPMENT: 116: 55-66). This paper describes an HPLC/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry product ion scan (HPLC/MS(n)) procedure for the analysis of retinoids that employs atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS. The retinoids are separated by normal-phase column chromatography with a linear hexane-isopropanol-dioxane gradient. Each retinoid is detected by a unique series of MS(n) functions set at optimal collision-induced dissociation energy (30% to 32%) for all MS(n) steps. The scan events are divided into three segments, based on HPLC elution order, to maximize the mass spectrometer duty cycle. The all-trans, 9-cis, and 13-cis RA isomers are separated, if desired, by an isocratic hexane-dioxane-isopropanol mobile phase. This paper describes an HPLC/MS(n) procedure possessing high sensitivity and specificity for retinoids.
Adhikari, Khem B; Boelt, Birte; Fomsgaard, Inge S
Lolines, fungal metabolites of the grass-endophyte association, were identified and quantified using newly developed LC-MS/MS methods in endophyte-infected grasses belonging to the Lolium and Festuca genera after extraction with three different solvents using two extraction methods. The shaking extraction method with isopropanol/water was superior to the other methods due to its high sensitivity, high accuracy (recovery within or close to the range of 80-120%), and high precision (coefficient of variation of <10%). Seven loline alkaloids were identified and quantified using our newly established LC-MS/MS methods, and N-formylloline was the most abundant (5 mg/g dry matter), followed by N-acetylloline. These LC-MS/MS methods used the shortest sample handling time and the fewest sample preparation steps and proved to be good alternatives to existing GC and GC-MS analytical methods without compromising analytical efficiency. In conclusion, we developed for the first time a highly sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS analytical method for the accurate and reproducible quantification and a LightSight-assisted LC-QTRAP/MS qualitative method for the tentative identification of loline-type alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses.
Kyle, Amy Redmond; Carmical, Jennifer; Shah, Darshan; Pryor, Jason; Brown, Stacy
Opioid use during pregnancy can result in the newborn being physically dependent on the substance, thus experiencing drug withdrawal, termed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Buprenorphine and methadone are two drugs used to treat opioid withdrawal and are approved for use in pregnancy. Quantification of these compounds in umbilical cord plasma would help assess in utero exposure of neonates in cases of buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. An LC-MS/MS method using solid-phase extraction sample preparation was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and glucuronide metabolites in umbilical cord plasma. The average accuracy (percentage error) and precision (relative standard deviation) were <15% for each validated concentration. Our data establishes a 2 week maximum freezer storage window in order to achieve the most accurate cord plasma concentrations of these analytes. Additionally, we found that the umbilical cord tissue analysis was less sensitive compared with analysis with umbilical cord blood plasma, indicating that this may be a more appropriate matrix for determination of buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of cord blood from women with known buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy.
Wilffert, Daniel; Reis, Carlos R; Hermans, Jos; Govorukhina, Natalia; Tomar, Tushar; de Jong, Steven; Quax, Wim J; van de Merbel, Nico C; Bischoff, Rainer
The major challenge in targeted protein quantification by LC-MS/MS in serum lies in the complexity of the biological matrix with regard to the wide diversity of proteins and their extremely large dynamic concentration range. In this study, an LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of the 60-kDa biopharmaceutical proteins recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand wild type (rhTRAIL(WT)) and its death receptor 4 (DR4)-specific variant rhTRAIL(4C7) in human and mouse serum. Selective enrichment of TRAIL was accomplished by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), which was followed by tryptic digestion of the enriched sample and quantification of a suitable signature peptide. For absolute quantification, (15)N-metabolically labeled internal standards of rhTRAIL(WT) and rhTRAIL(4C7) were used. Since the signature peptides that provided the highest sensitivity and allowed discrimination between rhTRAIL(WT) and rhTRAIL(4C7) contained methionine residues, we oxidized these quantitatively to their sulfoxides by the addition of 0.25% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide. The final method has a lower limit of quantification of 20 ng/mL (ca. 350 pM) and was fully validated according to current international guidelines for bioanalysis. To show the applicability of the LC-MS/MS method for pharmacokinetic studies, we quantified rhTRAIL(WT) and rhTRAIL(4C7) simultaneously in serum from mice injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 5 mg/kg for each protein. This is the first time that two variants of rhTRAIL differing by only a few amino acids have been analyzed simultaneously in serum, an approach that is not possible by conventional enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) analysis.
Mutemberezi, Valentin; Masquelier, Julien; Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Muccioli, Giulio G
Oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids are three families of bioactive lipids suggested to be involved in obesity and metabolic syndrome. To facilitate the quantification of these potentially interconnected lipids, we have developed and validated a liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method allowing for their simultaneous quantification from tissues. Sample purification is of great importance when quantifying oxysterols due to the potential artifactual conversion of cholesterol into oxysterols. Therefore, we developed a novel solid-phase extraction procedure and demonstrated that it allowed for good recoveries of the three families of analytes without artifactual oxidation of cholesterol. The oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids and their respective internal standards were chromatographically separated by HPLC and ionized using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source of an LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer. The repeatability and bias were within the acceptance limits for all 23 lipids of interest. The sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ)) and specificity of the method allowed us to quantify all the analytes in the liver and adipose tissue of control and high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. We found that 16 weeks of high-fat diet strongly impacted the hepatic levels of several oxysterols, ceramides, and endocannabinoids. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on the variations of the hepatic levels of these 23 bioactive lipids allowed differentiating the lean mice from the obese mice.
Thompson, Andrew; Schäfer, Jürgen; Kuhn, Karsten; Kienle, Stefan; Schwarz, Josef; Schmidt, Günter; Neumann, Thomas; Johnstone, R; Mohammed, A Karim A; Hamon, Christian
A novel MS/MS-based analysis strategy using isotopomer labels, referred to as "tandem mass tags" (TMTs), for the accurate quantification of peptides and proteins is described. The new tags are designed to ensure that identical peptides labeled with different TMTs exactly comigrate in all separations. The tags require novel methods of quantification analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. The new tags and analysis methods allow peptides from different samples to be identified by their relative abundance with greater ease and accuracy than other methods. The new TMTs permit simultaneous determination of both the identity and relative abundances of peptide pairs using a collision induced dissociation (CID)-based analysis method. Relative abundance measurements made in the MS/MS mode using the new tags are accurate and sensitive. Compared to MS-mode measurements, a very high signal-to-noise ratio is achieved with MS/MS based detection. The new tags should be applicable to a wide variety of peptide isolation methods.
Novel LC-ESI/MS/MS(n) method for the characterization and quantification of 2'-deoxyguanosine adducts of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by 2-D linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.
Goodenough, Angela K; Schut, Herman A J; Turesky, Robert J
An accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS(n)) technique has been developed for the characterization and quantification of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of the dietary mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). PhIP is an animal and potential human carcinogen that occurs in grilled meats. Following enzymatic digestion and adduct enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE), PhIP-DNA adducts were analyzed by MS/MS and MS(n) scan modes on a 2-D linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (QIT/MS). The major DNA adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP), was detected in calf thymus (CT) DNA modified in vitro with a bioactivated form of PhIP and in the colon and liver of rats given PhIP as part of the diet. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was 1 adduct per 10(8) DNA bases, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 3 adducts per 10(8) DNA bases in both MS/MS and MS(3) scan modes, using 27 microg of DNA for analysis. Measurements were based on isotope dilution with the internal standard, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-(trideutero)methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-[2H3C]-PhIP). The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) scan mode in MS/MS was employed to monitor the loss of deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated molecules of the adducts ([M + H - 116]+). The consecutive reaction monitoring (CRM) scan modes in MS(3) and MS(4) were used to measure and further characterize product ions of the aglycone ion (BH2+) (Guanyl-PhIP). The MS(3) scan mode was effective in eliminating isobaric interferences observed in the MS/MS scan mode and resulted in an improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Moreover, the product ion spectra obtained by the MS(n) scan modes provided rich structural information about the adduct and were used to corroborate the identity of dG-C8-PhIP. In addition, an isomeric dG-PhIP adduct was detected in vivo
Munar, Ada; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. The analysis of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (OHPG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 11-deoxycortisol, and testosterone is generally performed in the diagnosis and/or follow-up of CAH. Cortisol is generally analyzed by immunoassays whereas other hormones are preferably assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A multiple reaction monitoring, positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, LC/MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, 11-deoxycortisol, and testosterone. Stable-isotope labeled internal standards are added to serum samples and steroids are extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether. The extract is evaporated under stream of nitrogen and the residue is reconstituted in methanol and analyzed by LC/MS/MS.
Qin, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Xu, Xian-Bing; Wang, Xu-Song; Liu, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Da-Yong; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Thornton, Megan
The objective of this study was to develop an accurate, robust and rapid HPLC-MS/MS-based method capable of quantifying acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) simultaneously. A Phenomenex Synergi Fusion-RP C18 column (50mm×2.5mm, 2μm) was used, and the MS/MS instrument was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The isotope dilution method was used to correct for the matrix effect from samples. This method demonstrated low limits of quantification (2.12ng/mL for acrylamide and 4.86ng/mL for HMF) and excellent linearity (R(2)>0.999). This method also demonstrated excellent quantification accuracy, precision, and recovery (87-110%). Using the method developed, target analytes were quantified in 14 thermally-processed seafood samples. Resulting concentrations ranged from 5.58 to 50.35μg/kg for acrylamide, and from 12.54 to 2276.44μg/kg for HMF. The proposed isotope dilution HPLC-MS/MS method is a valid and rapid technique for simultaneous analysis of acrylamide and HMF in seafood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peters, Jacob R; Keasling, Robert; Brown, Stacy D; Pond, Brooks B
The abuse of synthetic cathinones, formerly marketed as "bath salts", has emerged over the last decade. Three common drugs in this class include 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone). An LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of MDPV, mephedrone, and methylone in brain tissue. Briefly, MDPV, mephedrone, methylone, and their deuterium-labeled analogs were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated using an HILIC Silica Column. The HPLC was coupled to a Shimadzu IT-TOF (ion trap-time of flight) system with the electrospray source running in positive mode (+ESI). The method was validated for precision, accuracy, and extraction efficiency. All inter-day and intra-day % RSD (percent relative standard deviation) and % error values were less than 15% and extraction efficiency exceeded 80%. These conditions allowed for limits of detection of 1ng/mL for MDPV, and 5 ng/mL for both mephedrone and methylone. The limits of quantification were determined to be 5ng/mL for MDPV and 10 ng/mL for mephedrone and methylone. The method was utilized to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in adult male rats following administration of a drug cocktail including MDPV, mephedrone, and methylone. All three compounds reached peak concentrations in the brain within 15 min. Although methylone and mephedrone were administered at the same dose, the peak concentration (Cmax) of mephedrone in the brain was significantly higher than that for methylone, as was the area under the curve (AUC). In summary, this quick and sensitive method for measuring synthetic cathinones may be used for future pharmacokinetic investigations of these drugs in target tissue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wu, Yahui; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Dai, Xinlong; Liu, Yajun; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao
Phenolic compounds are major components of tea flavour, in which catechins and flavonol glycosides play important roles in the astringent taste of tea infusion. However, the flavonol glycosides are difficult to quantify because of the large variety, as well as the inefficient seperation on chromatography. In this paper, a total of 15 flavonol glycosides in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) were identified by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), and a quantitative method was established based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS/MS). It provided the limit of detection and quantification to the order of picogram, which was more sensitive than the HPLC detection of the order of nanogram. The relative standard deviations of the intra- and inter-day variations in retention time and signal intensity (peak area) of six analytes were less than 0.26% and 4%, respectively. The flavonol glycosides of four tea cultivars were relatively quantified using the signal intensity (peak area) of product ion, in which six flavonol glycosides were quantified by the authentic standards. The results showed that the flavonol mono-, di- and tri-glycoside mostly accumulated in young leaves of the four tea cultivars. Notably, the myricetin 3-O-galactoside was the major component among the six flavonol glycosides detected.
Honda, Akira; Yamashita, Kouwa; Ikegami, Tadashi; Hara, Takashi; Miyazaki, Teruo; Hirayama, Takeshi; Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Matsuzaki, Yasushi
We describe a new sensitive and specific method for the quantification of serum malonate (malonic acid, MA), which could be a new biomarker for de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthesis). This method is based upon a stable isotope-dilution technique using LC-MS/MS. MA from 50 microl of serum was derivatized into di-(1-methyl-3-piperidinyl)malonate (DMP-MA) and quantified by LC-MS/MS using the positive electrospray ionization mode. The detection limit of the DMP-MA was approximately 4.8 fmol (500 fg) (signal-to-noise ratio = 10), which was more than 100 times more sensitive compared with that of MA by LC-MS/MS using the negative electrospray ionization mode. The relative standard deviations between sample preparations and measurements made using the present method were 4.4% and 3.2%, respectively, by one-way ANOVA. Recovery experiments were performed using 50 microl aliquots of normal human serum spiked with 9.6 pmol (1 ng) to 28.8 pmol (3 ng) of MA and were validated by orthogonal regression analysis. The results showed that the estimated amount within a 95% confidence limit was 14.1 +/- 1.1 pmol, which was in complete agreement with the observed X(0) = 15.0 +/- 0.6 pmol, with a mean recovery of 96.0%. This method provides reliable and reproducible results for the quantification of MA in human serum.
Kataoka, Yohei; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Matsuda, Rieko
In this study, we developed methods to quantify lead, total arsenic and cadmium contained in various kinds of soft drinks, and we evaluated their performance. The samples were digested by common methods to prepare solutions for measurement by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). After digestion, internal standard was added to the digestion solutions for measurements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. For measurement by GF-AAS, additional purification of the digestion solution was conducted by back-extraction of the three metals into nitric acid solution after extraction into an organic solvent with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Performance of the developed methods were evaluated for eight kinds of soft drinks.
Bonneau, Natacha; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre
Annonaceous acetogenins (AAGs) are environmental neurotoxins from the fruit pulp of several Annonaceae species, whose consumption was linked to the occurrence of sporadic atypical Parkinsonism with dementia. The quantification of the prototypical AAG annonacin in Rat brain homogenates was performed by UPLC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, using a triple quadrupole mass analyzer. A natural analog of annonacin was used as an internal standard. Analyzed data set of the analytical validation of this method is presented, including stability of the samples, extraction recovery and matrix effect, supporting the results described in the article “Quantification of the environmental neurotoxin annonacin in Rat brain by UPLC-MS/MS” N. Bonneau, I. Schmitz-Afonso, D. Touboul, A. Brunelle, P. Champy (2016) . PMID:27222866
Beyer, Jochen; Peters, Frank T; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H
Poisonings with toxic plants may occur after abuse, intentional or accidental ingestion of plants. For diagnosis of such poisonings, multianalyte procedures were developed for detection and validated quantification of the toxic alkaloids aconitine, atropine, colchicine, coniine, cytisine, nicotine and its metabolite cotinine, physostigmine, and scopolamine in plasma using LC-APCI-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. After mixed-mode solid-phase extraction of 1 ml of plasma, the analytes were separated using a C8 base select separation column and gradient elution (acetonitrile/ammonium formate, pH 3.5). Calibration curves were used for quantification with cotinine-d(3), benzoylecgonine-d(3), and trimipramine-d(3) as internal standards. The method was validated according to international guidelines. Both assays were selective for the tested compounds. No instability was observed after repeated freezing and thawing or in processed samples. The assays were linear for coniine, cytisine, nicotine and its metabolite cotinine, from 50 to 1000 ng/ml using LC-APCI-MS and 1 to 1000 ng/ml using LC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively, and for aconitine, atropine, colchicine, physostigmine, and scopolamine from 5 to 100 ng/ml for LC-APCI-MS and 0.1 to 100 ng/ml for LC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively. Accuracy ranged from -38.6 to 14.0%, repeatability from 2.5 to 13.5%, and intermediate precision from 4.8 to 13.5% using LC-APCI-MS and from -38.3 to 8.3% for accuracy, from 3.5 to 13.8%, for repeatability, and from 4.3 to 14.7% for intermediate precision using LC-ESI-MS/MS. The lower limit of quantification was fixed at the lowest calibrator in the linearity experiments. With the exception of the greater sensitivity and higher identification power, LC-ESI-MS/MS had no major advantages over LC-APCI-MS. Both presented assays were applicable for sensitive detection of all studied analytes and for accurate and precise quantification, with the exception of the rather volatile nicotine. The applicability of the assays was
Mzik, Martin; Korabecny, Jan; Nepovimova, Eugenie; Voříšek, Viktor; Palička, Vladimir; Kuca, Kamil; Zdarova Karasova, Jana
A simple, rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination in rat plasma of a new candidate for AD treatment, namely PC 48 (a 7-MEOTA-donepezil like compound) in rat plasma. Sample preparation involved pH adjustment with sodium hydroxide followed by solvent extraction with ethyl acetate:dichloromethane (80:20, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Ascentis Express RP-Amide column (75 mm × 2.1mm, 2.7 μm) with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. Detection was carried out using positive-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on an LTQ XL system using the MS/MS CID (collision-induced dissociation) mode. The method was linear in the range 0.1-1000 ng/ml (r(2)=0.999) with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL. Extraction recovery was in the range 63.5-72.1% for PC 48 and 70.5% for reserpine (internal standard, IS). Intra- and inter-day precisions measured as relative standard deviation were below 10.8% and accuracy was from -7.2% to 7.4%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving intramuscular application of 3.86 mg/kg PC 48 to rats for the first time. Pharmacokinetic parameters for PC 48 include Cmax 39.09 ± 4.45 ng/mL,Tmax 5.00 ± 3.08 min, AUC0-t 23374 ± 4045 min ng/mL and t1/2 1065 ± 246 min.
Ouni, Youssef; Taamalli, Ameni; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Zarrouk, Mokhtar
The phenolic compounds present in seven samples of olive fruits were analysed by a rapid and resolutive LC-ESI-TOF MS method. All samples were collected during the normal picking period for olive oil production, in central and south Tunisia, and were obtained from the Oueslati variety cultivated in different olive growing areas. In the Tunisian samples, 22 compounds have been characterised by LC-ESI-TOF MS analysis. Results showed no qualitative differences in the phenolic fractions between virgin olive oils from different geographical region. However, significant quantitative differences were observed in a wide number of phenolic compounds. These results permit to use the phenolic fractions as an indicator of each region.
Zhang, Shen; Wu, Qi; Shan, Yichu; Zhao, Qun; Zhao, Baofeng; Weng, Yejing; Sui, Zhigang; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui
Most currently proteomic studies use data-dependent acquisition with dynamic exclusion to identify and quantify the peptides generated by the digestion of biological sample. Although dynamic exclusion permits more identifications and higher possibility to find low abundant proteins, stochastic and irreproducible precursor ion selection caused by dynamic exclusion limit the quantification capabilities, especially for MS/MS based quantification. This is because a peptide is usually triggered for fragmentation only once due to dynamic exclusion. Therefore the fragment ions used for quantification only reflect the peptide abundances at that given time point. Here, we propose a strategy of fast MS/MS acquisition without dynamic exclusion to enable precise and accurate quantification of proteome by MS/MS fragment intensity. The results showed comparable proteome identification efficiency compared to the traditional data-dependent acquisition with dynamic exclusion, better quantitative accuracy and reproducibility regardless of label-free based quantification or isobaric labeling based quantification. It provides us with new insights to fully explore the potential of modern mass spectrometers. This strategy was applied to the relative quantification of two human disease cell lines, showing great promises for quantitative proteomic applications. PMID:27198003
Development and validation of two LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine using turbulent flow chromatography.
Schaefer, Nadine; Peters, Benjamin; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H
In the context of driving ability diagnostics in Germany, administrative cutoffs for various drugs and pharmaceuticals in urine have been established. Two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine were developed and validated. A 500-μL aliquot of urine was diluted and fortified with an internal standard solution. After enzymatic cleavage, online extraction was performed by an ion-exchange/reversed-phase turbulent flow column. Separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution. For detection, a Thermo Fisher TSQ Quantum Ultra Accurate Mass tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization was used, and the analytes were measured in multiple-reaction monitoring mode detecting two transitions per precursor ion. The total run time for both methods was about 15 min. Validation was performed according to the guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry. The results of matrix effect determination were between 78% and 116%. The limits of detection and quantification for all drugs, except zopiclone, were less than 10 ng/mL and less than 25 ng/mL, respectively. Calibration curves ranged from 25 to 200 ng/mL for amphetamines, designer amphetamines, and benzoylecgonine, from 25 to 250 ng/mL for benzodiazepines, from 12.5 to 100 ng/mL for morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine, and from 5 to 50 ng/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Intraday and interday precision values were lower than 15%, and bias values within ± 15% were achieved. Turbulent flow chromatography needs no laborious sample preparation, so the workup is less time-consuming compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The methods are suitable for quantification of multiple analytes at the cutoff concentrations required for driving ability diagnostics in Germany.
Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Gotoh, Naohiro
We have developed a simple method for the quantification of milk fat in foods using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PPBu) as an indicator of milk fat content by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The separation of the triacylglycerol positional isomer, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-butyroyl-glycerol (PBuP) and PPBu, was achieved using an octacocyl silylation (C28) column, and multiple reaction monitoring was employed. The milk fat contents in butter, butter-blended margarine, and butter cookies were quantified using two different sample preparation methods. In the first method (Method A), the lipid in the food was extracted with organic solvents and used for the preparation of a sample solution. In the other method (Method B), the sample solution was prepared by dissolving the food in organic solvents; the PPBu content in the fat and oil was corrected by the lipid content in the food obtained by the rapid NMR method. The calibration curve of standard PPBu was a first-order equation over the range of 1-250 µg/mL. The recovery rates of PPBu spiked into butter evaluated by Methods A and B were 99.9-105.0% and 106.5-110.1%, respectively. PBuP was not detected in milk fat. The milk fat contents in blends of butter and margarine determined by the method developed in this study were equivalent to the contents calculated with the butyric acid (Bu) method using GC-FID. The milk fat contents in butter-blended margarine analyzed by Methods A and B were almost the same. The PPBu content in blends of butter and margarine was correlated with the butter content. Thus, we succeeded in developing an efficient method for the rapid quantification of milk fat content and the detection of milk fat adulteration.
Rust, Kristina Y; Baumgartner, Markus R; Meggiolaro, Natascha; Kraemer, Thomas
A method for detection and quantification of 21 benzodiazepines and the pharmacologically related "z-drugs" in human hair samples was developed and fully validated using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After methanolic and methanolic/aqueous extraction, the analytes were separated using two different LC-MS systems (AB Sciex 3200 QTRAP and AB Sciex 5500 QTRAP). Separation columns, mobile phases and MS modes for both systems were: Phenomenex Kinetex, 2.6 μm, 50/2.1; 5mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.5/methanol, total flow 0.75 mL/min; electrospray ionization (ESI), multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), information dependent acquisition (IDA), enhanced product ion scan (EPI). The assays were found to be selective for the tested compounds (alprazolam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, N-desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordazepam, oxazepam, phenazepam, prazepam, temazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone), all validation criteria were in the required ranges according to international guidelines, except for bromazepam. Matrix effects, and process efficiencies were in the acceptable ranges evaluated using the post-extraction addition approach. Lower limits of quantification were between 0.6 and 16 pg/mg of hair. The LC-MS/MS assay has proven to be applicable for determination of the studied analytes in human hair in numerous authentic cases (n=175). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Müller-Tautges, Christina; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski, Margit; Hoffmann, Thorsten
In this study, the development of a new sensitive method for the analysis of alpha-dicarbonyls glyoxal (G) and methylglyoxal (MG) in environmental ice and snow is presented. Stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and liquid desorption (SBSE-LD) was used for sample extraction, enrichment, and derivatization. Measurements were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). As part of the method development, SBSE-LD parameters such as extraction time, derivatization reagent, desorption time and solvent, and the effect of NaCl addition on the SBSE efficiency as well as measurement parameters of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were evaluated. Calibration was performed in the range of 1-60 ng/mL using spiked ultrapure water samples, thus incorporating the complete SBSE and derivatization process. 4-Fluorobenzaldehyde was applied as internal standard. Inter-batch precision was <12 % RSD. Recoveries were determined by means of spiked snow samples and were 78.9 ± 5.6 % for G and 82.7 ± 7.5 % for MG, respectively. Instrumental detection limits of 0.242 and 0.213 ng/mL for G and MG were achieved using the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Relative detection limits referred to a sample volume of 15 mL were 0.016 ng/mL for G and 0.014 ng/mL for MG. The optimized method was applied for the analysis of snow samples from Mount Hohenpeissenberg (close to the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg, Germany) and samples from an ice core from Upper Grenzgletscher (Monte Rosa massif, Switzerland). Resulting concentrations were 0.085-16.3 ng/mL for G and 0.126-3.6 ng/mL for MG. Concentrations of G and MG in snow were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in ice core samples. The described method represents a simple, green, and sensitive analytical approach to measure G and MG in aqueous environmental samples.
Development, optimization and validation of a highly sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of amlodipine, benazeprile and benazeprilat in human plasma: application to a bioequivalence study.
Rezk, Mamdouh R; Badr, Kamal A
A rapid, simple, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine (AML), benazepril (BEN) and benazeprilat (BNT) using eplerenone and torsemide as internal standards (IS). The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Sample preparation involves both extraction and precipitation techniques. The reconstituted samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column by pumping 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.45ml/min. A detailed validation of the method was performed as per the FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.1-5ng/ml for AML; 5-1200ng/ml for both BEN and BNT. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A run time of 2.5min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 300 human plasma samples per day. The developed assay method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in human volunteers.
Chunduri, Raja Haranadha Babu; Dannana, Gowri Sankar
A selective, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatographic method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of sacubitril and valsartan in rat plasma using telmisartan as internal standard (IS). The analytes were extracted by deprotenization of 50 μL of plasma sample using 200 μL of acetonitrile. In a short chromatographic run of 1.50 min run time, separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold C18 column using a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water-0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile in gradient elution mode. The quantification of target compounds was performed in a positive electrospray ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring. Response was a linear function of concentration in the ranges of 0.5-20,000 ng/mL for both analytes, with r(2) > 0.9997. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy results were <15% and acceptable as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Stability of compounds were established in a battery of stability studies, i.e. bench-top, autosampler and long-term storage stability as well as freeze-thaw cycles. The validated method can be used as a routine method to support pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Riddell, Nicole; Arsenault, Gilles; Benskin, Jonathan P; Chittim, Brock; Martin, Jonathan W; McAlees, Alan; McCrindle, Robert
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a global contaminant and is currently among the most prominent contaminants in human blood and wildlife samples. Although "total PFOS" (SigmaPFOS) analytical methods continue to be the most commonly used for quantification, recent analytical method developments have made it possible to resolve the various isomers of PFOS by HPLC-MS/MS. Characterized technical PFOS standards (i.e., containing a mixture of PFOS isomers) are now available that enable isomer specific quantification of PFOS, however the advantages of such an analysis have notyet been examined systematically. Herein, PFOS isomers have been individually quantified for the first time in real samples and the results are compared to a traditional SigmaPFOS method; the influence of analytical standards and isomer specific electrospray and MS/ MS behavior were also investigated. The two human serum standard reference materials chosen for analysis contained dramaticallydifferent PFOS isomer profiles (approximately 30-50% total branched isomers) emphasizing that isomer patterns should not be ignored and may provide useful information on exposure sources (i.e., direct exposure to PFOS vs indirect exposure from PFOS-precursors). Depending on the sample and the particular MS/MS transition chosen for SigmaPFOS analysis (i.e., 499-->80 or 499-->99), SigmaPFOS concentrations may be over- or underestimated compared to the isomer specific analysis. Differences in the extent of in-source fragmentation and MS/MS dissociation contributed to the systematic analytical bias. It was also shown that SigmaPFOS data are prone to interlaboratory variation due to various choices of PFOS standards and instrumental conditions used. In the future, for either SigmaPFOS or isomer specific PFOS analyses, we suggest that accuracy can be maximized and interlaboratory discrepancies minimized by using a common chemically pure technical PFOS standard characterized by 19F NMR.
Kampf, Christopher; Hoffmann, Thorsten
In recent years much effort has been put into the analysis of so called secondary organic aerosols (SOA). SOA is produced through gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by atmospheric oxidants like OH- or NO3-radicals or ozone with subsequent gas-particle partitioning of the low volatility products. VOC's are emitted by both biogenic and anthropogenic sources in large amounts into the atmosphere. However, it is found that gas to particle partitioning alone cannot explain the complete amount of SOA produced in the atmosphere. It is therefore proposed that heterogeneous reactions on the particle surface or in the particles themselves could lead to the formation of additional SOA mass from semi-volatile compounds such as the reactive dialdehydes glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Global glyoxal and methylglyoxal emissions are estimated to be 45 Tg a-1 and 140 Tg a-1, respectively. The oxidation of biogenic isoprene contributes to about 47% of the total glyoxal mass formed and even to about 79% for methylglyoxal. Due to their high solubility in water (hydration of aldehyde functions), glyoxal and methylglyoxal have a high potential to form SOA via heterogeneous reactions in the particle phase although their volatility is relatively high. Several studies propose oligomerisation or formation of imidazole derivatives as potential reaction pathways to reduce their volatility[1,3,4,5]. Here we present a method for the qualification and quantification of both glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric PM2.5 filter samples via derivatisation with phenylhydrazine. Reproducibility, recovery and limits of detection and quantification are given. The method is found to be easily suitable for measurements at atmospheric concentration levels for both substances. First results of a measurement campaign in Mainz, Germany in August 2009 are shown for a proof of principle. Initial problems of the method development due to the chemical nature of the analytes und future
Dehaut, Alexandre; Duthen, Simon; Grard, Thierry; Krzewinski, Frédéric; N'Guessan, Assi; Brisabois, Anne; Duflos, Guillaume
Fish is a highly perishable food, so it is important to be able to estimate its freshness to ensure optimum quality for consumers. The present study describes the development of an SPME-GC-MS technique capable of quantifying both trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA), components of what has been defined as partial volatile basic nitrogen (PVB-N). This method was used, together with other reference methods, to monitor the storage of cod fillets (Gadus morhua) conserved under melting ice. Careful optimisation enabled definition of the best parameters for extracting and separating targeted amines and an internal standard. The study of cod spoilage by sensory analysis and TVB-N assay led to the conclusion that the shelf-life of cod fillet was between 6 and 7 days. Throughout the study, TMA and DMA were specifically quantified by SPME-GC-MS; the first was found to be highly correlated with the values returned by steam distillation assays. Neither TMA-N nor DMA-N were able to successfully characterise the decrease in early freshness, unlike dimethylamine/trimethylamine ratio (DTR), whose evolution is closely related to the results of sensory analysis until the stage where fillets need to be rejected. DTR was proposed as a reliable indicator for the early decrease of freshness until fish rejection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Böhme, Steffi; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Meißner, Tobias; Springer, Armin; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Kühnel, Dana; Busch, Wibke
In order to quantify and compare the uptake of aluminum oxide nanoparticles of three different sizes into two human cell lines (skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and lung epithelial cells (A549)), three analytical methods were applied: digestion followed by nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (neb-ICP-MS), direct laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS), and flow cytometry. Light and electron microscopy revealed an accumulation and agglomeration of all particle types within the cell cytoplasm, whereas no particles were detected in the cell nuclei. The internalized Al2O3 particles exerted no toxicity in the two cell lines after 24 h of exposure. The smallest particles with a primary particle size (xBET) of 14 nm (Alu1) showed the lowest sedimentation velocity within the cell culture media, but were calculated to have settled completely after 20 h. Alu2 (xBET = 111 nm) and Alu3 (xBET = 750 nm) were calculated to reach the cell surface after 7 h and 3 min, respectively. The internal concentrations determined with the different methods lay in a comparable range of 2-8 µg Al2O3/cm(2) cell layer, indicating the suitability of all methods to quantify the nanoparticle uptake. Nevertheless, particle size limitations of analytical methods using optical devices were demonstrated for LA-ICP-MS and flow cytometry. Furthermore, the consideration and comparison of particle properties as parameters for particle internalization revealed the particle size and the exposure concentration as determining factors for particle uptake.
Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A.
Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. PMID:26239050
Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A
Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Caspers, Michael J; Williams, Todd D; Lovell, Kimberly M; Lozama, Anthony; Butelman, Eduardo R; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Johnson, Matthew; Griffiths, Roland; Maclean, Katherine; Prisinzano, Thomas E
A facile method for quantifying the concentration of the powerful and widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A (a selective kappa opioid agonist) from non-human primate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and human plasma has been developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. With CSF solid phase extraction can be avoided completely by simply diluting each sample to 10 % (v/v) acetonitrile, 1 % (v/v) formic acid and injecting under high aqueous conditions for analyte focusing. Extensive plasma sample preparation was investigated including protein precipitation, SPE column selection, and plasma particulate removal. Human plasma samples were centrifuged at 21,000 × gravity for 4 minutes to obtain clear particulate-free plasma, from which 300 μl was spiked with internal standard and loaded onto a C18 SPE column with a 100 mg mL(-1) loading capacity. Guard columns (C18, hand packed 1 mm × 20 mm) were exchanged after backpressure increased above 4600psi, about 250 injections. A shallow acetonitrile/water gradient was used, 29 to 33% CH3CN over 8 minutes to elute salvinorin A. Reduction of chemical noise was achieved using tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring while sensitivity increases were observed using a 50 μL injection volume onto a small bore analytical column (C18, 1 mm ID × 50 mm) thus increasing peak concentration. Limits of quantification were found to be 0.0125 ng mL(-1) (CSF) and 0.05 ng mL(-1) (plasma) with interday precision and accuracy below 1.7 % and 9.42 % (CSF) and 3.47 % and 12.37 % (plasma) respectively. This method was used to determine the concentration of salvinorin A from an in vivo Rhesus monkey study and a trial of healthy human research participants, using behaviorally active doses.
Discenza, Lorell; D'Arienzo, Celia; Olah, Timothy; Jemal, Mohammed
BMS-754807 and metformin were co-administered in drug discovery studies which required the quantitation of both compounds in plasma. Since the two compounds are chemically and structurally dissimilar, developing a single bioanalytical method presented a number of chromatographic challenges including the achievement of appropriate retention times and peak shapes on a single analytical column. To address this chromatographic challenge, we investigated different LC columns under different gradient elution schemes using aqueous/organic mobile phases. Using unbonded silica column and aqueous/methanol mobile phase, we were able to obtain robust and well-resolving chromatographic conditions to support the development and implementation of a single LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method. The use of sub-2 micron particle sizes and a high flow rate, which are attainable with UPLC systems, enhanced the method. The method performance evaluation showed that the method easily met the normally used acceptance criteria for bioanalytical methods, namely a deviation of +/-15% from the nominal concentration except at lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), where +/-20% is accepted. The reported LLOQ of 7.8 ng/ml, for both BMS-754807 and metformin, was adequate to support the pharmacokinetic studies.
Background Microalgae have attracted major interest as a sustainable source for biodiesel production on commercial scale. This paper describes the screening of six microalgal species, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Nannochloropsis sp., Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from fresh and marine water resources of southern Pakistan for biodiesel production and the GC-MS/MS analysis of their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Results Growth rate, biomass productivity and oil content of each algal species have been investigated under autotrophic condition. Biodiesel was produced from algal oil by acid catalyzed transesterification reaction and resulting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content was analyzed by GC/MS. Fatty acid profiling of the biodiesel, obtained from various microalgal oils showed high content of C-16:0, C-18:0, cis-Δ9C-18:1, cis-Δ11C-18:1 (except Scenedesmus quadricauda) and 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic (except Scenedesmus acuminatus). Absolute amount of C-14:0, C-16:0 and C-18:0 by a validated GC-MS/MS method were found to be 1.5-1.7, 15.0-42.5 and 4.2-18.4 mg/g, respectively, in biodiesel obtained from various microalgal oils. Biodiesel was also characterized in terms of cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value and compared with the standard values. Conclusion Six microalgae of local origin were screened for biodiesel production. A method for absolute quantification of three important saturated fatty acid methyl esters (C-14, C-16 and C-18) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode, was employed for the identification and quantification of biodiesels obtained from various microalgal oils. The results suggested that locally found microalgae can be sustainably harvested for the production of biodiesel. This offers the tremendous economic opportunity for an energy-deficient nation. PMID:23216896
De Nicolò, Amedeo; Abdi, Adnan Mohamed; Boglione, Lucio; Baiett, Lorena; Allegra, Sarah; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio
HCV infection affects over 170 million people worldwide. The current standard for treatment of genotype 1 infection is the association of the first generation protease inhibitors boceprevir or telaprevir to ribavirin and peginterferon α. Although the response rate has been improved with these new drugs, some pharmacokinetic/pharmacodinamic issues emerged in the past years. To date, some analytical methods are available for the quantification of these drugs in plasma; however, the real active concentrations of the two drugs are those in hepatocytes. Being the withdrawal of hepatocytes too invasive, in this work we aimed to develop and validate a chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry capable of quantifying boceprevir and telaprevir isomers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, used as an "in-vivo" cellular model of compartmentalization. The method used an on-line solid phase extraction protocol based on the new OSM(®) platform and was fully validated following FDA guidelines. This method showed mean intra- and inter-day inaccuracy and imprecision both lower than 15%, high and stable recovery and contained matrix effect, with a run time of 6min, comprehensive of SPE extraction. The method was then applied on 35 real samples from patients treated with boceprevir or telaprevir, with good analytical performances, thus assessing its eligibility for a possible future routine use. Peculiar pharmacokinetic data have been observed, suggesting the usefulness of investigating intracellular pharmacokinetics of these drugs. Further studies will be required to test the correlation of intracellular concentrations with effectiveness and toxicity of triple therapy.
Miller, Eleanor I; Wylie, Fiona M; Oliver, John S
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of amphetamines, diazepam and its metabolites, cocaine and its metabolites, and opiates from hair using a single extraction method. As part of the method development, Gemini C18, Synergi Hydro RP, and Zorbax Stablebond-Phenyl LC columns were tested with three different mobile phases. Analyte recovery and limit of detection were evaluated for two different solid-phase extraction methods that used Bond Elut Certify and Clean Screen cartridges. Phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) was chosen as the optimum hair incubation medium because of the high stability of cocaine and 6-monoacetylmorphine using this method and faster sample preparation. The optimized method was fully validated. Linearity was established over the concentration range 0.2-10 ng/mg hair, and the correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.99. Total extraction recoveries were greater than 76%, detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.09 ng/mg, and the intra- and interday imprecisions were generally less than 20% in spiked hair. The intra- and interbatch imprecision of the method for a pooled authentic hair sample ranged from 1.4 to 23.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 8.3 to 25.4% RSD, respectively, for representative analytes from the different drug groups. The percent matrix effect ranged from 63.5 to 135.6%, with most analytes demonstrating ion suppression. Sixteen postmortem samples collected from suspected drug-related deaths were analyzed for the 17 drugs of abuse and metabolites included in the method. The method was sufficiently sensitive and specific for the analysis of drugs and metabolites in postmortem hair samples. There is scope for the inclusion of other target drugs and metabolites in the method.
Rapid and sensitive method for quantification of gestodene in human plasma as the oxime derivative by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and its application to bioequivalence study.
Saxena, Ashish; Gupta, Arun; Kasibhatta, Ravisekhar; Bob, Manoj; Kumar, V Praveen; Purwar, Bipin
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the estimation of gestodene in human plasma. Gestodene was extracted from human plasma by using solid-phase extraction technique. Gestodene D6 was used as the internal standard. An Acquity HSS-T3 column provided chromatographic separation of analytes followed by detection with mass spectrometry. The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 326.2→124.1 for gestodene and m/z 332.3→129.1 for gestodene D6. The method involves a solid phase extraction from plasma, rapid derivatization with hydroxylamine to form oxime, simple gradient chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection that enables detection at sub-picogram levels. The proposed method has been validated for a linear range of 50-11957pg/ml with a correlation coefficient≥0.9994. The intra-run and inter-run precision and accuracy were within 10%. The overall recoveries for gestodene and gestodene D6 were 62.02% and 67.57% respectively. The total run time was 4.0min. The developed method was applied for the determination of the pharmacokinetic parameters of gestodene following a single oral administration of a 2×0.06mg gestodene tablets in 10 healthy female volunteers.
Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of irinotecan, SN 38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, urine, feces, liver and kidney: Application to a pharmacokinetic study of irinotecan in rats
Basu, Sumit; Zeng, Min; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming
The objective of this research is to develop and validate a sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify irinotecan, its active metabolite SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide (phase II metabolite of SN-38) simultaneously in different bio-matrices (plasma, urine, feces), tissues (liver and kidney) and to use the method to investigate its pharmacokinetic behavior in rats. Irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide has been resolved and separated by C18 column using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water used as the mobile phases. Triple quadruple mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode were employed to perform mass analysis. The results showed that the linear response range of irinotecan and SN-38 in plasma, feces, liver and kidney is 4.88 –10000 nM, 39 – 5000 nM, 48.8 –6250 nM and 48.8 – 6250 nM, respectively (R2 > 0.99). In case of SN-38 glucuronide, the standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 6.25 – 2000 nM, 4.88 – 1250 nM, 9.8 – 1250 nM and 9.8 – 1250 nM in plasma, feces, liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide was determined to be less than 25 nM in all bio-matrices as well as tissue homogenates. Recoveries of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide at three different concentrations (low, medium and high) were not less than 85% at three different concentrations in plasma and feces. The percentage matrix factors in different bio-matrices and tissues were within 20%. The UPLC-MS/MS method was validated with intra-day and inter-day precision of less than 15% in plasma, feces, liver and kidney. Owing to the high sensitivity of this method, only 20 µl of plasma, urine and homogenates of liver, kidney and feces is needed. The validated method has been successfully employed for pharmacokinetic evaluation of irinotecan in male wistar rats to quantify irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, feces
Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, urine, feces, liver and kidney: Application to a pharmacokinetic study of irinotecan in rats.
Basu, Sumit; Zeng, Min; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming
The objective of this research is to develop and validate a sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify irinotecan, its active metabolite SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide (phase II metabolite of SN-38) simultaneously in different bio-matrices (plasma, urine, feces), tissues (liver and kidney) and to use the method to investigate its pharmacokinetic behavior in rats. Irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide has been resolved and separated by C18 column using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water used as the mobile phases. Triple quadruple mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode were employed to perform mass analysis. The results showed that the linear response range of irinotecan and SN-38 in plasma, feces, liver and kidney is 4.88-10000 nM, 39-5000 nM, 48.8-6250 nM and 48.8-6250 nM, respectively (R(2)>0.99). In case of SN-38 glucuronide, the standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 6.25-2000 nM, 4.88-1250 nM, 9.8-1250 nM and 9.8-1250 nM in plasma, feces, liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide was determined to be less than 25 nM in all bio-matrices as well as tissue homogenates. Recoveries of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide at three different concentrations (low, medium and high) were not less than 85% at three different concentrations in plasma and feces. The percentage matrix factors in different bio-matrices and tissues were within 20%. The UPLC-MS/MS method was validated with intra-day and inter-day precision of less than 15% in plasma, feces, liver and kidney. Owing to the high sensitivity of this method, only 20 μl of plasma, urine and homogenates of liver, kidney and feces is needed. The validated method has been successfully employed for pharmacokinetic evaluation of irinotecan in male wistar rats to quantify irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, feces, and urine samples.
Steroid estrogens contained in wastewater discharge from sewage treatment plants and agricultural run-off can alter endocrine function in exposed wildlife at part per trillion (ng/L) levels. Detection and quantification of estrogens in the environment at these levels pose numerous analytical challen...
Montenarh, Deborah; Wernet, Mathias P; Hopf, Markus; Maurer, Hans H; Schmidt, Peter H; Ewald, Andreas H
In the present study, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) multi-analyte approach based on a simple liquid-liquid extraction was developed for fast target screening and quantification of 33 antidepressants in whole blood, plasma, and serum. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, matrix effects, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy and precision, stabilities, and limits. In addition, cross-calibration between the three biosamples was done to assess the impact of the different matrices on the calibration. Whole blood, plasma, and serum (500 μL each) were extracted twice at pH 7.4 and at pH 10 with ether-ethyl acetate (1:1). Separation, detection, and quantification were performed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode. For accuracy and precision, full calibration was performed with ranges from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations. The approach was sensitive and selective for 33 analytes in whole blood and 31 analytes in plasma and serum and accurate and precise for 30 of the 33 tested drugs in whole blood, 31 in plasma, and 28 in serum. Cross-calibration was successful only for 13 analytes in whole blood and 16 analytes in serum calculated over a calibration curve made in plasma, 12 analytes in whole blood and 15 analytes in plasma calculated over a calibration curve made in serum, and 10 analytes in plasma and 15 analytes in serum calculated over a calibration curve made in whole blood.
Picard, Guillaume; Lebert, Dorothée; Louwagie, Mathilde; Adrait, Annie; Huillet, Céline; Vandenesch, François; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Jaquinod, Michel; Brun, Virginie
Absolute protein quantification, i.e. determining protein concentrations in biological samples, is essential to our understanding of biological and physiopathological phenomena. Protein quantification methods based on the use of antibodies are very effective and widely used. However, over the last ten years, absolute protein quantification by mass spectrometry has attracted considerable interest, particularly for the study of systems biology and as part of biomarker development. This interest is mainly linked to the high multiplexing capacity of MS analysis, and to the availability of stable-isotope-labelled standards for quantification. This article describes the details of how to produce, control the quality and use a specific type of standard: Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) standards. These standards are whole isotopically labelled proteins, analogues of the proteins to be assayed. PSAQ standards can be added early during sample treatment, thus they can correct for protein losses during sample prefractionation and for incomplete sample digestion. Because of this, quantification of target proteins is very accurate and precise using these standards. To illustrate the advantages of the PSAQ method, and to contribute to the increase in its use, selected applications in the biomedical field are detailed here.
John, Harald; Eddleston, Michael; Clutton, R Eddie; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst
Dimethoate is an organophosphorus toxicant used in agri- and horticulture as a systemic broad-spectrum insecticide. It also exhibits toxic activity towards mammalian organism provoked by catalytic desulfuration in the liver producing its oxon-derivative omethoate thus inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, initiating cholinergic crisis and ultimately leading to death by respiratory paralysis and cardiovascular collapse. Pharmaco- and toxicokinetic studies in animal models help to broaden basic understanding of medical intervention by antidotes and supportive care. Therefore, we developed and validated a LC-ESI-MS/MS method suitable for the simultaneous, selective, precise (RSD(intra-day) 1-8%; RSD(inter-day) 5-14%), accurate (intra-day: 95-107%; inter-day: 90-115%), and robust quantification of both pesticides from porcine urine and plasma after deproteinization by precipitation and extensive dilution (1:11,250 for plasma and 1:40,000 for urine). Accordingly, lower limits of quantification (0.24-0.49 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-1.56 microg/ml urine) and lower limits of detection (0.12-0.24 microg/ml plasma and 0.39-0.78 microg/ml urine) were equivalent to quite low absolute on-column amounts (1.1-2.1 pg for plasma and 2.0-3.9 pg for urine). The calibration range (0.24-250 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-200 microg/ml urine) was subdivided into two linear ranges (r(2)>or=0.998) each covering nearly two orders of magnitude. The lack of any interfering peak in 6 individual blank specimens from plasma and urine demonstrated the high selectivity of the method. Furthermore, extensive sample dilution causing lowest concentration of potentially interfering matrix ingredients prompted us to develop and validate an additional flow-injection method (FI-ESI-MS/MS). Validation characteristics were as good as for the chromatographic method but sample throughput was enhanced by a factor of 6. Effects on ionization provoked by plasma and urine matrix from 6 individuals as well as in the
We report the development of a rapid, simple, and robust LC–MS/MS-based enzyme assay using dried blood spots (DBS) for the diagnosis of pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency (OMIM 610090). PNPO deficiency leads to potentially fatal early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, severe developmental delay, and other features of neurological dysfunction. However, upon prompt treatment with high doses of vitamin B6, affected patients can have a normal developmental outcome. Prognosis of these patients is therefore reliant upon a rapid diagnosis. PNPO activity was quantified by measuring pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) concentrations in a DBS before and after a 30 min incubation with pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP). Samples from 18 PNPO deficient patients (1 day–25 years), 13 children with other seizure disorders receiving B6 supplementation (1 month–16 years), and 37 child hospital controls (5 days–15 years) were analyzed. DBS from the PNPO-deficient samples showed enzyme activity levels lower than all samples from these two other groups as well as seven adult controls; no false positives or negatives were identified. The method was fully validated and is suitable for translation into the clinical diagnostic arena. PMID:28782931
Liu, Ke; Zhong, Dafang; Chen, Xiaoyan
Today, approximately 60% of synthetic drugs are chiral and 88% of these chiral synthetic drugs are used therapeutically as racemates. However, for many racemic drugs, their stereospecific plasma pharmacokinetics in humans are not known due to the limitations of the analytical methods. Nowadays, liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods based on various chiral stationary phases (CSPs), with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, have been widely used in enantioselective determination of chiral drugs and/or their metabolites in human plasma. The technologies and issues when coupling chiral chromatography with MS/MS detection in bioanalytical methods will be reviewed herein. The introduction and applications of various CPSs, including polysaccharide-, macrocyclic glycopeptide-, protein- and cyclodextrin-based phases, are described here. This review also includes a discussion of interface and matrix effects in enantioselective LC-MS/MS methods.
Ambach, Lars; Redondo, Ana Hernández; König, Stefan; Angerer, Verena; Schürch, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have become increasingly prevalent and are sold in internet shops as 'bath salts' or 'research chemicals' and comprehensive bioanalytical methods are needed for their detection. We developed and validated a method using LC and MS/MS to quantify 56 NPS in blood and urine, including amphetamine derivatives, 2C compounds, aminoindanes, cathinones, piperazines, tryptamines, dissociatives and others. Instrumentation included a Synergi Polar-RP column (Phenomenex) and a 3200 QTrap mass spectrometer (AB Sciex). Run time was 20 min. A novel method is presented for the unambiguous identification and quantification of 56 NPS in blood and urine samples in clinical and forensic cases, e.g., intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs.
Krieger, Sonja; Hayen, Heiko; Schmitz, Oliver J
The use of the direct inlet probe-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) ion source developed in our laboratory coupled to a high resolution Q-TOF MS for the quantitative analysis of coumarin in different cinnamon samples was demonstrated in this study. Extraction of coumarin from various cinnamon samples was followed by DIP-APCI-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS analysis. For quantification, an external calibration with and without the use of stable isotope-labeled coumarin as internal standard was compared. The results obtained by DIP-APCI-MS and LC-MS were in good agreement. Even without the use of an internal standard satisfying linearity (R(2) > 0.997), recovery (94-104% for spiking levels between 100 and 5,000 mg/kg) and intra- and interday repeatability (2.2-13.8%RSD) was demonstrated using DIP-APCI-MS. To reduce the number of samples requiring quantitative analysis, the possibility of semi-quantitative screening of coumarin directly from powdered cinnamon using DIP-APCI-MS was shown. The analysis of woodruff-flavored beverages and cinnamon-flavored chewing gum by DIP-APCI-MS resulted in the formation of an artifact interfering with coumarin detection. As with other ambient ionization methods, special attention has to be paid to possible spectral interferences due to isobaric substances present in the sample matrix or formed from matrix components after ionization. The temperature-programmed vaporization in DIP-APCI-MS combined with the use of stable isotope-labeled coumarin as internal standard helped in recognizing this interference.
Lucchetti, Jacopo; Marzo, Claudio M; Di Clemente, Angelo; Cervo, Luigi; Gobbi, Marco
4,4'-DMAR is an analogue of the known psychostimulants 4-methylaminorex and aminorex. In the light of reports of deaths associated with its abuse, and the easy access from Internet vendors, the EU Council recently decided on control measures across member states. Here we describe a validated method for measuring plasma levels of cis-4,4'-DMAR, crucial for preclinical studies and analysis in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was done by gradient elution on a Kinetex C18 column with 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile at 0.2 mL/min. Detection was by positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) in multiple reaction monitoring mode monitoring the quantifier transitions m/z 191.4 → m/z 148.3 for cis-4,4'-DMAR and m/z 259.3 → m/z 194.2 for carbamazepine (internal standard). Protein precipitation with 1% of formic acid in acetonitrile was used in cis-4,4'-DMAR extraction from plasma; recovery was high (>93%) with a negligible matrix effect. This method provides an accurate, precise, and sensitive method for cis-4,4'-DMAR quantification in human and rat plasma, following European Medicine Agency guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in rats. After an intravenous dose of 1 mg/kg, plasma levels declined rapidly (≥80% in 4 h), followed by a slow elimination phase (t1/2 of 5.14 ± 0.65 h). Absorption was rapid after intraperitoneal injection (tmax = 15 min) with a rapid decline thereafter; Cmax and AUC0-240min showed dose-proportionality over the dose range 1-10 mg/kg. This method was successfully applied to investigate pharmacokinetic properties in rats and could be used to quantify cis-4,4'-DMAR levels in human plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Padala, Naga Surya Prakash; Boggavarapu, Rajesh Kumar; Kalaikadhiban, Ilayaraja; Ajjala, Devender Reddy; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Muddana, Nageswara Rao
Skin is the target site to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of topical applications. Sample preparation is one of the influential steps in the bioanalysis of drugs in the skin. Evaluation of dermatopharmacokinetics at preclinical stage is challenging due to lack of proper sample preparation method. There is a need for an efficient sample preparation procedure for quantification of drugs in the skin using LC-MS/MS. The skin samples treated with collagenase followed by homogenization using a bead beater represents a best-fit method resulting in uniform homogenate for reproducible results. A new approach involving enzymatic treatment and mechanical homogenization techniques were evaluated for efficient sample preparation of skin samples in the bioanalysis.
Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification
Himes, Sarah K.; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B.
Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25–50 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500–5,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5–1,000 and 2.5–500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2–96.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from −84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within ±20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (−20 °C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 °C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304
Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification.
Himes, Sarah K; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A
Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25-50 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500-5,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5-1,000 and 2.5-500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2-96.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from -84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within ±20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (-20 °C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 °C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption.
Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard
The endogenous metabolite histamine (HA) is synthesized in various mammalian cells but can also be ingested from exogenous sources. It is involved in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological processes. So far, four different HA receptors (H1R-H4R) have been described and numerous HAR antagonists have been developed. Contemporary investigations regarding the various roles of HA and its main metabolites have been hampered by the lack of highly specific and sensitive analytic methods for all of these analytes. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the method of choice for identification and sensitive quantification of many low-molecular weight endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, different methodological aspects of HA quantification as well as recommendations for LC-MS/MS methods suitable for analysis of HA and its main metabolites are summarized.
Blaze, Melvin M. T.; Akhmetov, Artem; Aydin, Berdan; Edirisinghe, Praneeth D.; Uygur, Gulsah; Hanley, Luke
The potential of laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) imaging for small molecule quantification is demonstrated here. The N-methylpiperazine acetamide of (MPA) ampicillin was adsorbed into polyelectrolyte multilayer surface coatings composed of chitosan and alginate, both high molecular weight biopolymers. These MPA-ampicillin spiked multilayers were then shown to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis biofilms that play a role in early stage infection of implanted medical devices. Finally, LDPI-MS imaging using 7.87 eV single photon ionization was found to detect MPA-ampicillin with the multilayers before and after biofilm growth with limits of quantification and detection of 0.6 and 0.3 nmoles, respectively. The capabilities of LDPI-MS imaging for small molecule quantification are compared to those of MALDI-MS. Furthermore, these results indicate that 7.87 eV LDPI-MS imaging should be applicable to quantification of a range of small molecular species on a variety of complex organic and biological surfaces. Finally, while MS imaging for quantification was demonstrated here using LDPI, it is a generally useful strategy that can be applied to other methods. PMID:23017064
Sanda, Miloslav; Pompach, Petr; Benicky, Julius; Goldman, Radoslav
Quantitative analysis of site-specific glycosylation of proteins is a challenging part of glycoproteomic research. Multiple enrichment steps are typically required in the analytical workflows to achieve adequate characterization of the site-specific glycoforms. In spite of recent advances, quantitative workflows need further development. Here, we report a selective and sensitive MS2 followed by further fragmentation in the linear IT-MS analyzer (MS3) multiple reaction monitoring workflow mass spectrometric method for direct analysis of O-glycopeptides in difficult matrix such as serum. Method optimization was performed using two serum glycoproteins, hemopexin (HPX) and sex hormone binding globulin. With the optimized MS3 workflow, we were able to analyze major glycoforms of HPX directly in human serum. Quantification of the minor glycoforms of HPX and glycoforms of sex hormone binding globulin required enrichment of the protein because these analytes were below the sensitivity of the 4000 quadrupole ion trap hybrid mass spectrometer in the complex serum background. In conclusion, we present a quantitative method for site-specific analysis of O-glycosylation with general applicability to mucin-type glycoproteins. Our results document reliable application of the optimized MS3 multiple reaction monitoring workflow to the relative quantification of O-glycosylation microheterogeneity of HPX in human serum. Introduction of isotopically labeled standards would be desirable to achieve absolute quantification of the analytes. The possibility to analyze serum samples directly represents a significant improvement of the quantitative glycopeptide workflows with the potential for use in clinical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Towards quantification of toxicity of lithium ion battery electrolytes - development and validation of a liquid-liquid extraction GC-MS method for the determination of organic carbonates in cell culture materials.
Strehlau, Jenny; Weber, Till; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Bornhorst, Julia; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha
A novel method based on liquid-liquid extraction with subsequent gas chromatography separation and mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) for the quantification of organic carbonates in cell culture materials is presented. Method parameters including the choice of extraction solvent, of extraction method and of extraction time were optimised and the method was validated. The setup allowed for determination within a linear range of more than two orders of magnitude. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.0002 and 0.002 mmol/L and the repeatability precisions were in the range of 1.5-12.9%. It could be shown that no matrix effects were present and recovery rates between 98 and 104% were achieved. The methodology was applied to cell culture models incubated with commercial lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolytes to gain more insight into the potential toxic effects of these compounds. The stability of the organic carbonates in cell culture medium after incubation was studied. In a porcine model of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, it could be shown that a transfer of organic carbonates into the brain facing compartment took place. Graphical abstract Schematic setup for the investigation of toxicity of lithium ion battery electrolytes.
Ju, Soomi; Yeo, Woon-Seok
Protein-coated nanoparticles have been used in many studies, including those related to drug delivery, disease diagnosis, therapeutics, and bioassays. The number and density of proteins on the particles’ surface are important parameters that need to be calculable in most applications. While quantification methods for two-dimensional surface-bound proteins are commonly found, only a few methods for the quantification of proteins on three-dimensional surfaces such as nanoparticles have been reported. In this paper, we report on a new method of quantifying proteins on nanoparticles using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). In this method, the nanoparticle-bound proteins are digested by trypsin and the resulting peptide fragments are analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS after the addition of an isotope-labeled internal standard (IS) which has the same sequence as a reference peptide of the surface-bound protein. Comparing the mass intensities between the reference peptide and the IS allows the absolute quantification of proteins on nanoparticles, because they have the same molecular milieu. As a model system, gold nanoparticles were examined using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a coating protein. We believe that our strategy will be a useful tool that can provide researchers with quantitative information about the proteins on surfaces of three-dimensional materials.
Al-Dirbashi, O Y; Rashed, M S; Al-Qahtani, K; Al-Mokhadab, M A; Kurdi, W; Al-Sayed, M A A
Canavan disease is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterized by excessive excretion of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) in urine. The disease is caused by deficiency of aspartoacylase, the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of NAA into acetate and l-aspartate. Patients, who are often asymptomatic in their early months, show a wide spectrum of clinical presentation thereafter that includes macrocephaly, poor head control, seizures, abnormal muscle tone, optic atrophy, significant developmental delay and death. In this work, we describe a simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of NAA in urine. The internal standard d3-NAA was added to untreated urine and the mixture was injected into the LC-MS/MS system operated in the negative ion mode. Detection was achieved in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by monitoring m/z 174 --> 88, 174 --> 130 and 174 --> 58 for NAA and 177 --> 89 for the internal standard. Separation was carried out on a C8 column (2.1 x 150 mm) using a mixture of acetonitrile and water (1:1 v/v) containing 0.05% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/min. NAA was eluted at 1.6 min and the run time was approximately 2 min. Using spiked urine, the assay was linear up to 2 mmol/L with limit of quantification at 1 micromol/L (S/N = 12). NAA in patients' urine (n = 17) ranged between 366 and 21,235 mmol/mol creatinine compared to controls of <39 mmol/mol creatinine (n = 159). This LC-MS/MS method for NAA as described involved no extraction and no derivatization, showed no interference, and gave excellent recovery with low variability and short analytical time.
Teixeira, Dulce; Fernandes, Rúben; Prudêncio, Cristina; Vieira, Mónica
Measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in biological samples can be used as a biomarker of nitrosative stress, since it is very stable and suitable for analysis. Increased 3-NT levels in biological samples have been associated with several physiological and pathological conditions. Different methods have been described for the detection and quantification of this molecule, such as (i) immunological methods; (ii) liquid chromatography, namely high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based methods that use ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS) absorption, electrochemical (ECD) and diode array (DAD) detection, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); (iii) gas chromatography, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A literature review on nitrosative stress, protein nitration, as well as 3-NT quantification methods was carried out. This review covers the different methods for analysis of 3-NT that have been developed during the last years as well as the latest advances in this field. Overall, all methods present positive and negative aspects, although it is clear that chromatography-based methods present good sensitivity and specificity. Regarding this, GC-based methods exhibit the highest sensibility in the quantification of 3-NT, although it requires a prior time consuming derivatization step. Conversely, HPLC does not require such derivatization step, despite being not as accurate as GC. It becomes clear that all the methods described during this literature review, although accurate for 3-NT quantification, need to be improved regarding both sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, optimization of the protocols that have been described is clearly needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.
Moser, Christina; Zoderer, Daniela; Luef, Gerhard; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Wildt, Ludwig; Griesmacher, Andrea; Seger, Christoph
Co-administration of synthetic progestin containing hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a common clinical situation which needs specific considerations due to drug interactions. Several studies have demonstrated that lamotrigine plasma levels are significantly decreased during co-medication with HCs, and that this interaction is associated with increased seizure frequency in most of the cases. Additionally, an increase in contraceptive failure and unintended pregnancy could be observed during co-medication. Hence, monitoring of progestin plasma levels in patients with AED co-medication is of interest. A rapid and reliable online solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-LC-MS/MS) method using gradient elution in the LC domain was established and validated for the simultaneous quantitative determination of gestodene, dienogest, drospirenone, etonogestrel, cyproterone acetate, and levonorgestrel in human plasma. The online SPE-LC-MS/MS method covered a quantification concentration range of 5-100 ng/ml for dienogest, 1-100 ng/ml for etonogestrel and 2-100 ng/ml for all other analytes. Stable isotope-labeled internal standards were used for analyte quantification based on selected reaction monitoring experiments. Inter- and intra-assay precision and accuracy were determined from quality control (QC) samples at the lower limits of quantification and at low, medium, and high concentration levels within the calibration range. Inter-assay reproducibility at the QC levels was better than 10% (relative standard deviation, RSD), accuracy at these levels ranged from -3.7% to 11.3%. Total extraction efficiency, tested at three concentrations, ranged from 92.5% to 106.4%. Matrix interferences were excluded by post-column infusion experiments. To prove the applicability of the assay in clinical cohorts, a sample set (n = 298) stemming from study patients under AED/oral HC co-medication was
Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Mackie, Jennifer; Donnelly, Carol; Wilcox, Joyce; Pietri, Amedeo; Macdonald, Susan
A method is reported for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in various food and feed matrices using a commercial sterigmatocystin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample clean-up prior to HPLC analysis by UV with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Cereals (wheat, oats, rye, maize and rice), sunflower seeds and animal feed were spiked with sterigmatocystin at levels from 0.75 to 50 µg kg(-1) to establish method performance. Using acetonitrile/water extraction followed by IAC clean-up, and analysis by HPLC with detection at 325 nm, recoveries ranged from 68% to 106%, with repeatability from 4.2% to 17.5%. The limit of quantification with UV detection in these matrices was 1.5 µg kg(-1). For the analysis of beer and cheese the sample preparation prior to IAC clean-up was changed to accommodate the different properties of the matrix, prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. For beer and cheese spiked at 5.0 µg kg(-1) the recoveries were 94% and 104%, and precision (RSDs) were 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. The limits of quantification by LC-MS/MS in beer and cheese were 0.02 and 0.6 µg kg(-1) respectively. The sterigmatocystin IAC was demonstrated to provide an efficient clean-up of various matrices to enable this mycotoxin to be determined by either HPLC with UV detection or LC-MS/MS.
Development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization/selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of keto-androgens in human serum.
Tamae, Daniel; Byrns, Michael; Marck, Brett; Mostaghel, Elahe A; Nelson, Peter S; Lange, Paul; Lin, Daniel; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Balk, Steven; Ellis, William; True, Larry; Vessella, Robert; Montgomery, Bruce; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in males in the United States. The disease is androgen driven and the use of orchiectomy or chemical castration, known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been employed for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer for over 70 years. Agents such as GnRH agonists and non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists are routinely used in the clinic, but eventually relapse occurs due to the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer. With the appreciation that androgen signaling still persists in these patients and the development of new therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide that further suppresses androgen synthesis or signaling, there is a renewed need for sensitive and specific methods to quantify androgen precursor and metabolite levels to assess drug efficacy. We describe the development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of serum keto-androgens and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates using Girard-T oxime derivatives. The method is robust down to 0.2-4pg on column, depending on the androgen metabolite quantified, and can also quantify dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in only 1μL of serum. The clinical utility of this method was demonstrated by analyzing serum androgens from patients enrolled in a clinical trial assessing combinations of pharmacological agents to maximally suppress gonadal and adrenal androgens (Targeted Androgen Pathway Suppression, TAPS clinical trial). The method was validated by correlating the results obtained with a hydroxylamine derivatization procedure coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring that was conducted in an independent laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization/selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of keto-androgens in human serum✩, ✩✩
Tamae, Daniel; Byrns, Michael; Marck, Brett; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Nelson, Peter S.; Lange, Paul; Lin, Daniel; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Balk, Steven; Ellis, William; True, Larry; Vessella, Robert; Montgomery, Bruce; Blair, Ian A.; Penning, Trevor M.
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in males in the United States. The disease is androgen driven and the use of orchiectomy or chemical castration, known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been employed for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer for over 70 years. Agents such as GnRH agonists and non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists are routinely used in the clinic, but eventually relapse occurs due to the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer. With the appreciation that androgen signaling still persists in these patients and the development of new therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide that further suppresses androgen synthesis or signaling, there is a renewed need for sensitive and specific methods to quantify androgen precursor and metabolite levels to assess drug efficacy. We describe the development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of serum keto-androgens and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates using Girard-T oxime derivatives. The method is robust down to 0.2–4 pg on column, depending on the androgen metabolite quantified, and can also quantify dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in only 1 μL of serum. The clinical utility of this method was demonstrated by analyzing serum androgens from patients enrolled in a clinical trial assessing combinations of pharmacological agents to maximally suppress gonadal and adrenal androgens (Targeted Androgen Pathway Suppression, TAPS clinical trial). The method was validated by correlating the results obtained with a hydroxylamine derivatization procedure coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring that was conducted in an independent laboratory. PMID:23851165
van der Nagel, Bart C H; Versmissen, Jorie; Bahmany, Soma; van Gelder, Teun; Koch, Birgit C P
To assess drug adherence of patients with hypertension, an analytical method was developed and validated using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The method includes eight frequently prescribed antihypertensive drugs from four classes and their active metabolites: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors enalapril and perindopril (active metabolites respectively enalaprilate and perindoprilate), angiotensin II receptor blockers losartan (with the active metabolite losartan carboxylic acid) and valsartan, calcium channel blockers amlodipine and nifedipine and diuretics hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone (with the active metabolite canrenone). The antihypertensive drugs were analyzed using a simple and fast sample preparation protocol with protein precipitation followed by chromatographic separation using a gradient elution on a reversed phase column. Mass spectrometric detection was conducted by applying both positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI+/ESI-) and selected reaction monitoring mode (MS/MS). Only 50μl of plasma sample is needed for the simultaneous quantification of all 12 compounds within 6min run-to-run analysis time. Enalapril-d5 was applied as internal standard for all compounds except hydrochlorothiazide (internal standard: Hydrochlorothiazide-13C,d2). The method was validated according to FDA guidelines. Matrix effects were examined using the method of Matuszewski. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.995 for all compounds. Intra- and inter-day accuracies were <15% for all analytes except spironolactone (-16.8%) in the established linear range. Intra- and inter-day precision were <15% for all analytes. As a result of the lower sensitivity of hydrochlorothiazide, the lowest three calibration levels were excluded. The described method is suitable for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of the most commonly used antihypertensive drugs and their corresponding active metabolites. Major
Bray, Luigi; Monzani, Luca; Brunoldi, Enrico; Allegrini, Pietro
Cilostazol is a selective inhibitor of type 3 phosphodiesterase. 5-(3-Chloropropyl)-1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazole, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of cilostazol, has a primary alkyl chloride group, a well-known alerting function for genotoxic activity. Upon request from a regulatory agency, a limit test in accordance with ICH Q2(R1) added with the accuracy of a recovery test of 5-(4-chlorobutyl)-1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazole in cilostazol was developed and validated. The application of the method highlighted the need to optimize the purification process to ensure levels of this potential genotoxic impurity in the final active pharmaceutical ingredient below the established limit. Also, the analytical method was suitable to determine the amount of the impurity in samples of the commercially available drug product, which showed the levels to be above the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC).
Köhler, Christoph; Grobosch, Thomas; Binscheck, Torsten
The opioid tilidine is a prodrug which is hepatically metabolized to active nortilidine and bisnortilidine. Due to the increasing abuse of tilidine by drug users and the lack of a specific immunoassay, we developed an analytical method for the quantification of tilidine, nortilidine, and bisnortilidine in urine suitable for screening. In a following step, this method was used to establish data on excretion kinetics of the substances in order to evaluate the time window of detection after a single oral dose of tilidine/naloxone and also was applied to authentic urine samples from correctional facilities. Urine samples were mixed with internal standard solution and extracted on a weak cation exchanger at pH 6 using a Symbiosis Pico system. The chromatographic separation was achieved within a 3.5-min run time on a Phenylhexyl column (50 × 2.0 mm, 5 μm) via gradient elution (methanol and 0.2% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min. The ESI-MS/MS was performed on a QTrap 3,200 in positive multiple reaction monitoring mode using two mass transitions per analyte. Validating the method resulted in a lower limit of quantification of 1.0 μg/L followed by a linear calibration range to 100 μg/L for each analyte (r(2) > 0.99). The analytical method allowed the detection of a single dose of a commercially available tilidine solution up to 7 days after administration. Using this highly sensitive method, 55 of 3,665 urine samples were tested positive.
Xiao, Yi; Fu, Xiaowei; Pattengale, Paul; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Xu, Yan-Kang; O'Gorman, Maurice R
Oxidative stress has been implicated in numerous diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and inflammation. 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, a member of the F2 isoprostane family, has been well-accepted as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of oxidative stress. We report the development and validation of an ultra-sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for urinary 8-iso-PGF2α measurements in pediatric population. The assay was linear from 0.024 to 20nmol/l (R(2)=0.99). Recoveries were above 85% and matrix effects were below 5%. The variability was determined at nmol/l concentration: the intra-day variability (%CV) ranged from 3.9% to 4.5% (n=20); and the inter-day variability ranged from 4.3% to 5.7% (n=20). The accuracy of our laboratory developed test was evaluated with a clinical reference laboratory (n=39), and a correlation coefficient of 0.9257 was observed. Reference interval were established to be <0.5ng/mg creatinine in a group of pediatric population (2months-18years, n=123). The precision of the assay will allow for accurate assessment of oxidative stress, and is acceptable for patient testing, particularly in pediatric population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna
Objective To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Materials and Methods Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130—HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * family history of cardio/cerebro-vascular events (event = 1.2, no event = 1). A sample of 528 obese and non-obese participants was used to validate siMS score and siMS risk score. Scores calculated as sum of z-scores (each component of metabolic syndrome regressed with age and gender) and sum of scores derived from principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluation of siMS score. Variants were made by replacing glucose with HOMA in calculations. Framingham score was used for evaluation of siMS risk score. Results Correlation between siMS score with sum of z-scores and weighted sum of factors of PCA was high (r = 0.866 and r = 0.822, respectively). Correlation between siMS risk score and log transformed Framingham score was medium to high for age groups 18+,30+ and 35+ (0.835, 0.707 and 0.667, respectively). Conclusions siMS score and siMS risk score showed high correlation with more complex scores. Demonstrated accuracy together with superior simplicity and the ability to evaluate and follow-up individual patients makes siMS and siMS risk scores very convenient for use in clinical practice and research as well. PMID:26745635
Silva, Jeffrey C; Gorenstein, Marc V; Li, Guo-Zhong; Vissers, Johannes P C; Geromanos, Scott J
Relative quantification methods have dominated the quantitative proteomics field. There is a need, however, to conduct absolute quantification studies to accurately model and understand the complex molecular biology that results in proteome variability among biological samples. A new method of absolute quantification of proteins is described. This method is based on the discovery of an unexpected relationship between MS signal response and protein concentration: the average MS signal response for the three most intense tryptic peptides per mole of protein is constant within a coefficient of variation of less than +/-10%. Given an internal standard, this relationship is used to calculate a universal signal response factor. The universal signal response factor (counts/mol) was shown to be the same for all proteins tested in this study. A controlled set of six exogenous proteins of varying concentrations was studied in the absence and presence of human serum. The absolute quantity of the standard proteins was determined with a relative error of less than +/-15%. The average MS signal responses of the three most intense peptides from each protein were plotted against their calculated protein concentrations, and this plot resulted in a linear relationship with an R(2) value of 0.9939. The analyses were applied to determine the absolute concentration of 11 common serum proteins, and these concentrations were then compared with known values available in the literature. Additionally within an unfractionated Escherichia coli lysate, a subset of identified proteins known to exist as functional complexes was studied. The calculated absolute quantities were used to accurately determine their stoichiometry.
Rebière, Laure; Clark, Andrew C; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Prenzler, Paul D; Scollary, Geoffrey R
A headspace-solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method has been developed to quantify a range of volatile compounds in Hunter Valley Semillon wines. The fibre selected for the method was a 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibre, a three-phase fibre that allows extraction and desorption of a wide range of volatile compounds of different chemical functionalities and polarities. Four internal standards, methyl isobutyl ketone, n-dodecane, 4-methyl-2-pentanol and ethyl nonanoate were used to monitor the SPME fibre extraction efficiency and integrity. Fibre integrity was monitored by plotting the ratio of the peak area for each internal standard divided by the sum of the peak area for all internal standards as a function of analysis number. The advantage of using four internal standards for better quality control of the fibre integrity is described. The identity of twenty-one volatile compounds was ascertained by comparison of their chemical characteristics (retention indices, mass spectra) with reference compounds using two columns of different polarities. Quantification was achieved using calibration curves constructed for each compound with linear regression equations having correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.9717 to 0.9999. The method was applied to two Semillon wines (recent vintage and aged) representative of the Hunter Valley styles. As is typical of white wines, 3-methyl-1-butanol was quantified as the most concentrated volatile compound (83 and 66 mg L(-1) for the 2006 and the 1996 wines, respectively). The study highlights the use of well-defined procedures to ensure integrity of quantitative data where several fibres may be required during an extended study over one or more vintages. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bilbao, Aivett; Zhang, Ying; Varesio, Emmanuel; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard
Data-independent acquisition LC-MS/MS techniques complement supervised methods for peptide quantification. However, due to the wide precursor isolation windows, these techniques are prone to interference at the fragment ion level, which in turn is detrimental for accurate quantification. The “non-outlier fragment ion” (NOFI) ranking algorithm has been developed to assign low priority to fragment ions affected by interference. By using the optimal subset of high priority fragment ions these interfered fragment ions are effectively excluded from quantification. NOFI represents each fragment ion as a vector of four dimensions related to chromatographic and MS fragmentation attributes and applies multivariate outlier detection techniques. Benchmarking conducted on a well-defined quantitative dataset (i.e. the SWATH Gold Standard), indicates that NOFI on average is able to accurately quantify 11-25% more peptides than the commonly used Top-N library intensity ranking method. The sum of the area of the Top3-5 NOFIs produces similar coefficients of variation as compared to the library intensity method but with more accurate quantification results. On a biologically relevant human dendritic cell digest dataset, NOFI properly assigns low priority ranks to 85% of annotated interferences, resulting in sensitivity values between 0.92 and 0.80 against 0.76 for the Spectronaut interference detection algorithm. PMID:26412574
Bilbao, Aivett; Zhang, Ying; Varesio, Emmanuel; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard
Data-independent acquisition LC-MS/MS techniques complement supervised methods for peptide quantification. However, due to the wide precursor isolation windows, these techniques are prone to interference at the fragment ion level, which, in turn, is detrimental for accurate quantification. The nonoutlier fragment ion (NOFI) ranking algorithm has been developed to assign low priority to fragment ions affected by interference. By using the optimal subset of high-priority fragment ions, these interfered fragment ions are effectively excluded from quantification. NOFI represents each fragment ion as a vector of four dimensions related to chromatographic and MS fragmentation attributes and applies multivariate outlier detection techniques. Benchmarking conducted on a well-defined quantitative data set (i.e., the SWATH Gold Standard) indicates that NOFI on average is able to accurately quantify 11-25% more peptides than the commonly used Top-N library intensity ranking method. The sum of the area of the Top3-5 NOFIs produces similar coefficients of variation as compared to that with the library intensity method but with more accurate quantification results. On a biologically relevant human dendritic cell digest data set, NOFI properly assigns low-priority ranks to 85% of annotated interferences, resulting in sensitivity values between 0.92 and 0.80, against 0.76 for the Spectronaut interference detection algorithm.
Maublanc, Julie; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Morichon, Julien; Lachâtre, Gérard; Gaulier, Jean-michel
Despite a non-invasive sampling, hair samples are generally collected in limited amounts for an obvious esthetic reason. In order to reduce the required quantity of samples, a multianalytes method allowing simultaneous identification and quantification of 35 psychoactive drugs was developed. After incubation of 50 mg of hair in a phosphate buffer pH 5 for one night at room temperature, the substances of interest were extracted by a simple liquid-liquid extraction step, with a dichloromethane/ether mixture (70:30, v/v). After evaporation under a gentle stream of nitrogen and reconstitution in formate buffer (2 mM, pH 3)/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v), twenty microliter were injected into the LC-MS/MS system for a chromatographic run of 29 min using an Atlantis T3 column (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) (Waters Corp, Milford, USA) and a gradient mixture of 2 mM, pH 3.0 ammonium formate, and 2 mM, pH 3.0 ammonium formate/acetonitrile. The data acquisition was performed in scheduled MRM mode. Intra- and inter-day precisions, estimated using the coefficient of variation and relative bias, were lower than 20 % for all concentration levels, except for two compounds. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.5 to 10 pg/mg. After complete validation, this method has been successfully used in several forensic cases, three of which are reported.
John, Harald; Binder, Tobias; Höchstetter, Hans; Thiermann, Horst
We have developed and validated a quantitative liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous determination of seven natural and semisynthetic tropane alkaloids in plasma: atropine (d-hyoscyamine/l-hyoscyamine), cocaine, homatropine, ipratropium, littorine, N-butylscopolamine, and scopolamine. Plasma and serum samples were precipitated for deproteinization (recovery 88-94%), followed by reversed-phase-based liquid chromatography prior to positive electrospray ionization for detection by multiple reaction monitoring using a linear ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer. All analytes were quantified using cocaine-d3 as an internal standard suitable and reliable for robust, precise (coefficient of variation 2-13%), and accurate (87-122%) measurement within a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude (0.05-50 ng/ml plasma). The method was exemplarily applied to stability studies in phosphate-buffered saline, human serum, and rabbit serum. Each alkaloid was incubated separately and samples were taken at distinct incubation time points. Supernatants of diverse alkaloids at corresponding time points were pooled and subjected to simultaneous LC-ESI MS/MS quantification. This combinatorial analysis design allowed us to analyze the stability of samples with a drastically reduced number of chromatographic runs. In the presence of rabbit serum, all tropane alkaloids tested were degraded significantly within minutes to hours, with the exception of the stable semisynthetic compounds ipratropium and N-butylscopolamine. In contrast, in the presence of equal concentrations of human serum, no degradation was observed for any of the compounds, with the exception of cocaine. Relevant enzymes involved in enzymatic degradation are discussed.
Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.
Farhan, Nashid; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Shim, Yun M; Paige, Mikell; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian
4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.
Jaisson, S; Leroy, N; Desroches, C; Tonye-Libyh, M; Guillard, E; Gillery, P
Assaying HbA1c in patients with haemoglobin variants has long been a technical challenge, despite methodological advances that have progressively limited the problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the most frequent haemoglobin variants on three routine separation methods compared with the IFCC reference method. Blood samples from heterozygous patients (AS, AC, AD, AE) were analyzed using the IFCC reference method (LC-MS), and the results compared with those obtained by capillary electrophoresis (CAPILLARYS 2 Flex Piercing, Sebia) and two HPLC methods using cation-exchange (Variant II, Bio-Rad) and affinity chromatography (Ultra(2), Primus). HbA1c values obtained by the IFCC reference method were comparable to those obtained by the three tested methods whatever the haemoglobin variant. Mean relative biases did not exceed the threshold of 7% (above which differences are generally considered clinically significant), although some individual values were above this limit with Variant II in samples with HbS and for all three methods in samples with HbE. This comparative study of the LC-MS reference method and three field methods has demonstrated that these assays are not clinically influenced by the presence of the most common haemoglobin variants. The present results also confirm that the interpretation of HbA1c values in patients with Hb variants remains complex and depends on the assays used and should, in some cases, take into account parameters other than analytical ones (such as differences in glycation rates and half-lives of haemoglobin variants). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rosano, Thomas G; Ohouo, Patrice Y; Wood, Michelle
Drug and metabolite (analytes) identification together with quantification is an important analytical tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. We report the development and validation of a definitive detection and quantification method (UPLC-MS-MS) for initial screening of 64 analytes in urine. The principle of the method is a quantitative extension of a recently reported threshold accurate calibration (TAC) technique which employs a rapid dual-specimen analysis i.e., with and without addition of a reference-analyte standard for normalization of matrix effects. Analytes include pharmaceutical and illicit agents from opiate and opioid agonist, opiate-antagonist, benzodiazepine, amphetamine, designer amphetamine, cathinone, cocaine, hallucinogen, gabapentinoid and sedative drug classes. Using a 96-well plate format, the protocol employs glucuronidase hydrolysis, 27-fold urine dilution and a 3 min UPLC-MS-MS acquisition. Subsequent data management includes calculation of a normalized TAC ratio response and weighted least squares calibration. The method utilizes analyte-specific calibration ranges from 2.5 to 1,500 ng/mL with quality control (QC) monitoring of transition-ion ratio, calibrator re-analysis, injection precision and multi-level QC analysis. Method precision, bias, calibration linearity, detection limit, carryover, crossover studies and external proficiency performance were evaluated based on pre-established criteria. The validated method provides an alternative to stable-isotope internal standardization methods of quantification and is applicable to screening with quantification in routine toxicology practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Thirteen molecular species of tetraacylglycerols in the seed oil of Physaria fendleri were recently identified. We report here the quantification of these tetraacylglycerols using HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector and the MS of the HPLC fractions. Ion signal intensities of MS1 from th...
Cho, Jimi; Lee, Jonghwa; Lim, Chai-Uk; Ahn, Jongsung
The analysis of pesticides in food products requires accurate measurements for which standardised protocols have been developed. This paper reports the validation of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe)-based methods applied to three different food samples (brown rice, red pepper and mandarin orange) analysed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The validation of the analytical methods used to measure 113 pesticides, including various insecticides, fungicides and herbicides, was conducted in three food matrices and at three spiking levels by three different laboratories. The set of validated results was interpreted, statistically analysed and visualised using principal component analysis (PCA). Notably, the matrix effects in GC-MS analysis for most of the tested pesticides from different matrices were lowered to practical values (less than 30%) appropriate for routine analysis. This allowed for the quantification of pesticides in the samples using standard and analyte protectants (APs) in the reagent method blank as a screening measure, providing an alternative to matrix-matched calibration. Alternatively, the use of only one standardised calibration (grape matrix) in combination with APs also allowed for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of pesticides in different matrices. The inclusion of APs reduced the differences in the matrix-induced enhancement effects of various samples. The use of an internal standard (IS) to correct the matrix effects was also noted. The normalisation of the analyte peak with triphenyl phosphate (TPP) as an IS resulted in a slight improvement of validation values such as precision and linearity in only one laboratory, but it lowered the value of matrix effects in all three laboratories.
Jakobsson, Gerd; Kronstrand, Robert
A sensitive and robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine in hair samples. Segmented hair (10 mg) was incubated in 2M sodium hydroxide (80°C, 10 min) before liquid-liquid extraction with isooctane followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the organic phase to dryness. The residue was reconstituted in methanol:formate buffer pH 3 (20:80). The total run time was 4 min and after optimization of UHPLC-MS/MS-parameters validation included selectivity, matrix effects, recovery, process efficiency, calibration model and range, lower limit of quantification, precision and bias. The calibration curve ranged from 0.02 to 12.5 ng/mg, and the recovery was between 62 and 83%. During validation the bias was less than ±7% and the imprecision was less than 5% for all analytes. In routine analysis, fortified control samples demonstrated an imprecision <13% and control samples made from authentic hair demonstrated an imprecision <26%. The method was applied to samples from a controlled study of amphetamine intake as well as forensic hair samples previously analyzed with an ultra high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS) screening method. The proposed method was suitable for quantification of these drugs in forensic cases including violent crimes, autopsy cases, drug testing and re-granting of driving licences. This study also demonstrated that if hair samples are divided into several short segments, the time point for intake of a small dose of amphetamine can be estimated, which might be useful when drug facilitated crimes are investigated.
de Vlieger, Jon S B; Giezen, Mark J N; Falck, David; Tump, Cornelis; van Heuveln, Fred; Giera, Martin; Kool, Jeroen; Lingeman, Henk; Wieling, Jaap; Honing, Maarten; Irth, Hubertus; Niessen, Wilfried M A
In this paper we describe the hyphenation of high temperature liquid chromatography with ICP-MS and ESI-MS for the characterization of halogen containing drug metabolites. The use of temperature gradients up to 200°C enabled the separation of metabolites with low organic modifier content. This specific property allowed the use of detection methods that suffer from (significant) changes in analyte response factors as a function of the organic modifier content such as ICP-MS. Metabolites of two kinase inhibitors (SB-203580-Iodo and MAPK inhibitor VIII) produced by bacterial cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants and human liver microsomes were identified based on high resolution MS(n) data. Quantification was done using their normalized and elemental specific response in the ICP-MS. The importance of these kinds of quantification strategies is stressed by the observation that the difference of the position of one oxygen atom in a structure can greatly affect its response in ESI-MS and UV detection.
Shah, Hiten J; Subbaiah, Gunta; Patel, Dasharath M; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N; Patel, Chhagan N
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of lamotrigine in human plasma using multiplexing technique (two HPLC units connected to one MS-MS). Lamotrigine was extracted from human plasma by solid-phase extraction technique using Oasis Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance (HLB) or N-vinylpyrrolidone and divinylbenzene cartridge. A structural analog, 3,5-diamino-6-phenyl-1,2,4-triazine, was used as an internal standard (IS). A BetaBasic C(8) column was used for the chromatographic separation of analytes. The mass transition [M+H](+) ions used for detection were m/z 256.0 --> 211.0 for lamotrigine and m/z 188.0 --> 143.0 for IS. The method involved a simple multiplexing, rapid solid-phase extraction without evaporation and reconstitution. The proposed method has been validated for a linear range of 0.025 to 10.000 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient > or = 0.9991. The limit of quantification for lamotrigine was 0.025 microg/mL, and limit of detection was 50.000 pg/mL. The intra-run and inter-run precision and accuracy were within 10.0% for intra-HPLC runs and inter-HPLC runs. The overall recoveries for lamotrigine and IS were 97.9% and 92.5%, respectively. Total MS run time was 1.4 min per sample. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for applications in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, bioequivalence, or in vitro in vivo correlation studies.
Pedersen, Theresa L; Keyes, William R; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Allen, Lindsay H; Newman, John W
Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a metabolic intermediate transformed to succinic acid (SA) by a vitamin B(12)-dependent catalytic step, and is broadly used as a clinical biomarker of functional vitamin B12 status. However, reported methods use between 100 and 1000 μL of serum or plasma making them sub-optimal for sample-limited studies, including those with neonates and infants. LC-MS/MS based protocols to measure MMA as n-butyl esters in the presence of tri-deuterated MMA (MMA-d(3)) were modified for use with 25 μL of human serum by scaling down sample processing volumes and analysis by UPLC-MS/MS. Plasma-based calibration solutions were found to be unnecessary, and chromatographic resolution and peak shape of SA and MMA was optimized in <4 min with isocratic 53:47 methanol/1.67 mM (pH 6.5) ammonium formate. Additionally, 1-cyclohexyl-urido-3-dodecanoic acid (CUDA) was included as internal standard allowing direct assessment of MMA recovery. Sample concentrations in the low normal range produced a signal:noise of >100:1. MMA intra- and inter-assay variability was under 10%. MMA-d(3) surrogate recovery averaged 93±14%. MMA stability exceeded three years in frozen samples and was unaffected by up to five freeze/thaw cycles. In conclusion, we report that methylmalonic acid can be measured with 25 μL of serum using water based standards. The assay signal:noise per concentration indicates that the method could perform as implemented with as little as 5 μL of serum. The reported method is applicable for studies of functional B12 status in sample limited experiments including investigations of nutritional status in neonates and in studies where low normal MMA levels are expected.
Koch, Del A; Clark, Kevin; Tessier, Daniel M
Stable isotope internal standards are useful in correcting for matrix effects and instrumental variability when environmental samples such as wastewaters and biosolids are analyzed by mass spectral methods. This paper reports the use of deuterium-labeled analogues of eight pyrethroid insecticides to improve accuracy for the analysis of environmental samples by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (NCI-GC-MS). Data for the analysis of effluent water from wastewater treatment facilities are presented which demonstrate that the method is rugged and capable of achieving limits of quantification (LOQs) as low as 0.5 ng/L (ppt), with individual recoveries within the range of 81-94% for those compounds with minimal control background concentrations. In addition, an alternate use of the deuterium-labeled standards is proposed for the determination of method recoveries at low levels that would normally have been precluded due to background pyrethroid levels present in environmental samples being used for control fortifications.
Foubert, K; Cuyckens, F; Vleeschouwer, K; Theunis, M; Vlietinck, A; Pieters, L; Apers, S
Saponins are high molecular weight glycosides which are known for their broad range of biological activities. In case of Maesa lanceolata, a tree growing in African countries, the maesasaponins showed virucidal, haemolytic, molluscicidal and anti-angiogenic activity. Since the different activities are dependent on the structure of the saponins, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of the individual saponins in this plant. Since the saponins were only present in small amounts, it was necessary to develop a very sensitive analytical method. For the fast and sensitive analysis of the extracted and purified plant samples ultra-performance liquid chromatography was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for MS/MS detection. A method in positive ESI mode, using sodium acetate in the mobile phase, was developed. The sodium adduct ion was selected as the precursor ion since it provided better sensitivity and a better, more stable fragmentation compared to the deprotonated and protonated ions. The intensity of the signal obtained by fragmentation of the sodium adducts of the saponins, was optimized by the addition of different concentrations of sodium acetate to the mobile phase. Reference standards were not available for all 14 saponins. Therefore, a relative MS/UV response was calculated allowing the estimation of the saponins in real samples. alpha-Hederin was used as external standard. The method was linear over the investigated concentration range with a good correlation coefficient (>0.99). The intra- and inter-day precisions were below 15% for most maesasaponins with the exception of maesasaponin II, which showed a precision within 20%. The recoveries of the spiked pure compounds maesasaponin IV.1 and VII.1 were 96.6% and 85.5%, respectively. The validated method can be applied in the investigation of the content of 14 saponins in transgenic and non-transgenic plant material of M. lanceolata.
Katoch, Deepali; Kumar, Shiv; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram
A rapid, simple and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method (UPLC-DAD) was developed and validated for quantification of four biologically important Amaryllidaceae alkaloids viz. lycoramine, hamayne, haemanthamine and tortuosine in Zephyranthes grandiflora. The method employed BEH C(18) column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm particle size) with linear gradient elution of acetonitrile and water (0.05% formic acid) in a flow rate of 0.3mL/min and at λ(max) 280nm. Standard calibration curve for the analytes were linear (r(2)≥0.9999), precise (intra-day RSDs<1.33% and inter-day RSDs<2.67%) and accurate (97.8-105.3%). The developed method was applied to the quality assessment of samples collected during different seasons and showed significant variation with an optimum amounts of these alkaloids in rainy season. The method was also applied for identification of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in the plant and overall, seventeen Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of different structural types lycorine, haemanthamine, galanthamine, narciclasine were characterised. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative method for analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids.
Stolker, A A M; Rutgers, P; Oosterink, E; Lasaroms, J J P; Peters, R J B; van Rhijn, J A; Nielen, M W F
Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ToF-MS) has been used for screening and quantification of more than 100 veterinary drugs in milk. The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulphonamides, pyrimidines, tetracylines, nitroimidazoles, tranquillizers, ionophores, amphenicols and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). After protein precipitation, centrifugation and solid-phase extraction (SPE), the extracts were analysed by UPLC-ToF-MS. From the acquired full scan data the drug-specific ions were extracted for construction of the chromatograms and evaluation of the results. The analytical method was validated according to the EU guidelines (2002/657/EC) for a quantitative screening method. At the concentration level of interest (MRL level) the results for repeatability (%RSD < 20% for 86% of the compounds), reproducibility (%RSD < 40% for 96% of the compounds) and the accuracy (80-120% for 88% of the compounds) were satisfactory. Evaluation of the CCbeta values and the linearity results demonstrates that the developed method shows adequate sensitivity and linearity to provide quantitative results. Furthermore, the method is accurate enough to differentiate between suspected and negative samples or drug concentrations below or above the MRL. A set of 100 samples of raw milk were screened for residues. No suspected (positive) results were obtained except for the included blind reference sample containing sulphamethazine (88 microg/l) that tested positive for this compound. UPLC-ToF-MS combines high resolution for both LC and MS with high mass accuracy which is very powerful for the multi-compound analysis of veterinary drugs. The technique seems to be powerful enough for the analysis of not only veterinary drugs but also organic contaminants like pesticides, mycotoxins and plant toxins in one single method.
Rutgers, P.; Oosterink, E.; Lasaroms, J. J. P.; Peters, R. J. B.; van Rhijn, J. A.; Nielen, M. W. F.
Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–ToF-MS) has been used for screening and quantification of more than 100 veterinary drugs in milk. The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulphonamides, pyrimidines, tetracylines, nitroimidazoles, tranquillizers, ionophores, amphenicols and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). After protein precipitation, centrifugation and solid-phase extraction (SPE), the extracts were analysed by UPLC–ToF-MS. From the acquired full scan data the drug-specific ions were extracted for construction of the chromatograms and evaluation of the results. The analytical method was validated according to the EU guidelines (2002/657/EC) for a quantitative screening method. At the concentration level of interest (MRL level) the results for repeatability (%RSD < 20% for 86% of the compounds), reproducibility (%RSD < 40% for 96% of the compounds) and the accuracy (80–120% for 88% of the compounds) were satisfactory. Evaluation of the CCβ values and the linearity results demonstrates that the developed method shows adequate sensitivity and linearity to provide quantitative results. Furthermore, the method is accurate enough to differentiate between suspected and negative samples or drug concentrations below or above the MRL. A set of 100 samples of raw milk were screened for residues. No suspected (positive) results were obtained except for the included blind reference sample containing sulphamethazine (88 μg/l) that tested positive for this compound. UPLC–ToF-MS combines high resolution for both LC and MS with high mass accuracy which is very powerful for the multi-compound analysis of veterinary drugs. The technique seems to be powerful enough for the analysis of not only veterinary drugs but also organic contaminants like pesticides, mycotoxins and plant toxins in one single method. PMID:18491081
Heffron, Brendan; Taddei, Lisa; Benoit, Marc; Negrusz, Adam
The use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in racehorses is allowed under most jurisdictions. Furosemide is administered to treat exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. To help distinguish between therapeutic and illegal uses, racing regulatory bodies have set thresholds in serum for several drugs. The method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of furosemide, flunixin, ketoprofen, phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone using 500 µL of serum, and liquid extraction using diethyl ether : hexanes : dichloromethane followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantitation, was developed and validated. Method validation included inter- and intraday precision and accuracy. Method validation also included bench-top, freeze-thaw, processed and long-term storage stability testing. For all stability testing, the compounds showed a breakdown of <15%. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds was found to be within the acceptance interval of ±15% [±20% at the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ)]. Accuracy data for all compounds were within the acceptance interval of ±15% (±20% at the LLOQ). Uncertainty was calculated using the simplified Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement approach and was <30% for all drugs at 95% confidence level. The method was found to be both robust and accurate for all tested drugs.
LC–MS provides a promising alternative to ligand-binding assays for quantification of therapeutic proteins and biomarkers. As LC–MS methodology is based on the analysis of proteolytic peptides, calibration approaches utilizing various calibrators and internal standards (I.S.) have been developed. A comprehensive assessment of the accuracy and reliability of these approaches is essential but has yet been reported. Here we performed a well-controlled and systematic comparative study using quantification of monoclonal-antibody in plasma as the model system. Method development utilized a high-throughput orthogonal-array-optimization, and two sensitive and stable signature-peptides (SP) from different domains were selected based on extensive evaluations in plasma matrix. With the purities of all protein/peptide standards corrected by quantitative amino acid analysis (AAA), five calibration approaches using stable-isotope-labeled (SIL) I.S. were thoroughly compared, including those at peptide, extended-peptide, and protein levels and two “hybrid” approaches (i.e., protein calibrator with SIL-peptide or SIL-extended-peptide I.S.). These approaches were further evaluated in parallel for a 15 time point, preclinical pharmacokinetic study. All methods showed good precision (CV% < 20%). When examined with protein-spiked plasma QC, peptide-level calibration exhibited severe negative biases (−23 to −62%), highly discordant results between the two SP (deviations of 38–56%), and misleading pharmacokinetics assessments. Extended-peptide calibration showed significant improvements but still with unacceptable accuracy. Conversely, protein-level and the two hybrid calibrations achieved good quantitative accuracy (error < 10%), concordant results by two SP (deviations < 15%), and correct pharmacokinetic parameters. Hybrid approaches were found to provide a cost-effective means for accurate quantification without the costly SIL-protein. Other key findings include (i
Xu, Wen; Zhang, Yiping; Zhou, Caijie; Tai, Yanni; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Jie; Sha, Mei; Huang, Mingqing; Zhu, Yanlin; Peng, Jun; Lu, Jin-Jian
Pien-Tze-Huang (PZH) is a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula in China, but its pharmacokinetics has not been investigated yet. To better study the pharmacokinetic behaviors of PZH, an optimal ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for rapid quantification of six compounds (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rd, and muscone) in rat plasma after oral administration of PZH. All analytes were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and separated on a Waters Acquity Cortecs C18 column within 3.9min, and detected by multiple-reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. This proposed method exhibited good linearity (r≥0.9932) with a lower quantification limits of 0.558-1.566ng/mL for all analytes. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 8.24%, and the accuracy was within -10.05 to 9.87% for each analyte. The extraction recovery for each analyte ranged from 80.02 to 96.12%. This UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study for PZH in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Wei; Li, Xinmei; Chen, Yaping; Hattori, Masao
Corynoxeine (COR) is one of 4 bioactive oxindole alkaloids in Uncaria species. In this work two phase I metabolites, namely 11-hydroxycorynoxeine (M1) and 10-hydroxycorynoxeine (M2), and two phase II metabolites, namely 11-hydroxycorynoxeine 11-O-β-d-glucuronide (M3) and 10-hydroxycorynoxeine 10-O-β-d-glucuronide (M4), were detected in rat bile after oral dose of COR (0.105 mmol/kg), by optimized high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n) ) with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. Structures of M1-4 were determined by LC-MS(n) , nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism and high-resolution MS spectra. COR and its metabolites in rat bile were quantified by LC-MS(n) . The LC-MS(n) quantification methods for COR and its metabolites yielded a linearity with coefficient of determination ≥0.995 from 5.0 × 10(-10) to 5.0 × 10(-7) m. The recoveries of stability tests varied from 96.80 to 103.10%. Accuracy ranged from 91.00 to 105.20%. Relative standard deviation for intra-day and inter-day assay was <5.0%. After the oral dose 0.14% of COR was detected in rat bile from 0 to 8 h, in which in total 97.8% COR biotransformed into M1-4. M1 and M2 yielded 48.1 and 49.7%, which successively glucuronidated to M3 and M4 at 47.2 and 43.8%, respectively.
Yan, Wei; Luo, Jie; Robinson, Max; Eng, Jimmy; Aebersold, Ruedi; Ranish, Jeffrey
Biomedical research requires protein detection technology that is not only sensitive and quantitative, but that can reproducibly measure any set of proteins in a biological system in a high throughput manner. Here we report the development and application of a targeted proteomics platform termed index-ion triggered MS2 ion quantification (iMSTIQ) that allows reproducible and accurate peptide quantification in complex mixtures. The key feature of iMSTIQ is an approach called index-ion triggered analysis (ITA) that permits the reproducible acquisition of full MS2 spectra of targeted peptides independent of their ion intensities. Accurate quantification is achieved by comparing the relative intensities of multiple pairs of fragment ions derived from isobaric targeted peptides during MS2 analysis. Importantly, the method takes advantage of the favorable performance characteristics of the LTQ-Orbitrap, which include high mass accuracy, resolution, and throughput. As such it provides an attractive targeted proteomics tool to meet the demands of systems biology research and biomarker studies. PMID:21169564
Isenberg, Samantha L; Carter, Melissa D; Crow, Brian S; Graham, Leigh Ann; Johnson, Darryl; Beninato, Nick; Steele, Kandace; Thomas, Jerry D; Johnson, Rudolph C
Currently used on F-16 fighter jets and some space shuttles, hydrazine could be released at toxic levels to humans as a result of an accidental leakage or spill. Lower-level exposures occur in industrial workers or as a result of the use of some pharmaceuticals. A method was developed for the quantitation of hydrazine in human urine and can be extended by dilution with water to cover at least six orders of magnitude, allowing measurement at all clinically significant levels of potential exposure. Urine samples were processed by isotope dilution, filtered, derivatized and then quantified by HPLC-MS-MS. The analytical response ratio was linearly proportional to the urine concentration of hydrazine from 0.0493 to 12.3 ng/mL, with an average correlation coefficientRof 0.9985. Inter-run accuracy for 21 runs, expressed as percent relative error (% RE), was ≤14%, and the corresponding precision, expressed as percent relative standard deviation (% RSD), was ≤15%. Because this method can provide a quantitative measurement of clinical samples over six orders of magnitude, it can be used to monitor trace amounts of hydrazine exposure as well as industrial and environmental exposure levels.
Isenberg, Samantha L.; Carter, Melissa D.; Crow, Brian S.; Graham, Leigh Ann; Johnson, Darryl; Beninato, Nick; Steele, Kandace; Thomas, Jerry D.; Johnson, Rudolph C.
Currently used on F-16 fighter jets and some space shuttles, hydrazine could be released at toxic levels to humans as a result of an accidental leakage or spill. Lower-level exposures occur in industrial workers or as a result of the use of some pharmaceuticals. A method was developed for the quantitation of hydrazine in human urine and can be extended by dilution with water to cover at least six orders of magnitude, allowing measurement at all clinically significant levels of potential exposure. Urine samples were processed by isotope dilution, filtered, derivatized, and then quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical response ratio was linearly proportional to the urine concentration of hydrazine from 0.0493 to 12.3 ng/mL, with an average correlation coefficient R of 0.9985. Inter-run accuracy for 21 runs, expressed as percent relative error (% RE) was ≤ 14%, and the corresponding precision, expressed as percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) was ≤ 15%. Since this method can provide a quantitative measurement of clinical samples over six orders of magnitude, it can be used to monitor trace amounts of hydrazine exposure as well as industrial and environmental exposure levels. PMID:26977107
Beyer, Jochen; Peters, Frank T; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H
The herbal stimulants Ephedra species, Catha edulis (khat), and Lophophora williamsii (peyote) have been abused for a long time. In recent years, the herbal drug market has grown owing to publicity on the Internet. Some ingredients of these plants are also ingredients of cold remedies. The aim of the presented study is to develop a multianalyte procedure for detection and validated quantification of the phenalkylamines ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, methylpseudoephedrine, cathinone, mescaline, synephrine (oxedrine), and methcathinone in plasma. After mixed-mode solid-phase extraction of 1 ml of plasma, the analytes were separated using a strong cation exchange separation column and gradient elution. They were detected using a Q-Trap LC-ESI-MS/MS system (MRM mode). Calibration curves were used for quantification using norephedrine-d3, ephedrine-d3, and mescaline-d9 as internal standards. The method was validated according to international guidelines. The assay was selective for the tested compounds. It was linear from 10 to 1000 ng/ml for all analytes. The recoveries were generally higher than 70%. Accuracy ranged from - 0.8 to 20.0%, repeatability from 2.5 to 12.3%, and intermediate precision from 4.6 to 20.0%. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml for all analytes. No instability was observed after repeated freezing and thawing or in processed samples. The applicability of the assay was tested by analysis of authentic plasma samples after ingestion of different cold medications containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, and after ingestion of an aqueous extract of Herba Ephedra. After ingestion of the cold medications, only the corresponding single alkaloids were detected in human plasma, whereas after ingestion of the herb extract, all six ephedrines contained in the plant were detected. The presented LC-MS/MS assay was found applicable for sensitive detection and accurate and precise quantification of all
Liebisch, Gerhard; Binder, Marion; Schifferer, Rainer; Langmann, Thomas; Schulz, Berta; Schmitz, Gerd
Analysis of free cholesterol (FC) is not well suited for electrospray ionization (ESI); however, cholesteryl ester (CE) form ammonium adducts in positive ion mode and generate a fragment ion of m/z 369 upon collision-induced fragmentation. In order to allow parallel analysis of FC and CE using ESI tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), we developed an acetyl chloride derivatization method to convert FC to cholesteryl acetate (CE 2:0). Derivatization conditions were chosen to provide a quantitative conversion of FC to CE 2:0 without transesterification of naturally occurring CE species. FC and CE were analyzed by direct flow injection analysis using a fragment of m/z 369 in a combination of selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and precursor ion scan for FC and CE, respectively. Quantification was achieved using deuterated D(7)-FC and CE 17:0/CE 22:0 as internal standards as well as calibration lines generated by addition of FC and naturally occurring CE species to the respective sample matrix. The developed assay showed a precision and detection limit sufficient for routine analysis. A run time of 1.3 min and automated data analysis allow high throughput analysis. Loading of human skin fibroblast and monocyte derived macrophages with stable isotope labeled FC showed a potential application of this method in metabolism studies. Together with existing mass spectrometry methodologies for lipid analysis, the present methodology will provide a useful tool for clinical and biochemical studies and expands the lipid spectrum that can be analyzed from one lipid sample on a single instrumental platform.
Montenarh, Deborah; Hopf, Markus; Maurer, Hans H; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H
Based on a similar approach for quantification of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and z-drugs, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) multi-analyte approach with simple liquid-liquid extraction was extended for fast target screening and quantification of neuroleptics in whole blood, plasma, and serum. As this method is part of a multi-analyte procedure for over 100 analytes from different drug classes and as the extracts were additionally used in the authors' laboratory for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, one universal stable-isotope-labelled internal standard (SIL-IS) was used to save time and resource. The method was validated with respect to international guidelines. For accuracy and precision, full calibration was performed with ranges from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations. Selectivity problems could not be observed, but matrix effects ranged from 68 to 211% in all samples. For the low quality control (QC), recovery ranged from 32 to 112%, process efficiency from 31 to 165% and for the high QC recovery from 42 to 141%, process efficiency from 29 to 154%. In addition statistical data evaluation of the variances of the recovery, matrix effects, and process efficiency data between whole blood vs. plasma, whole blood vs. serum, and plasma vs. serum were done. The presented LC-MS/MS approach was applicable for selective detection of 33 neuroleptics as well as accurate and precise quantification of 25 neuroleptics in whole blood, 19 in plasma, and 17 in serum. More significant matrix effects (ME) for neuropletic drugs overall in plasma and serum as compared with whole blood were detected. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gervasoni, Jacopo; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Primiano, Aniello; D'Addurno, Ilaria; Cocci, Andrea; Zuppi, Cecilia; Persichilli, Silvia
The simultaneous quantification of a steroid hormones panel provides more clinical information than a single steroid assay. Traditionally, steroids have been quantified with immunoassays which are characterized by high rate of positive results. Aim of this work, was to develop a TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, cortisol and testosterone in serum. To 100μL of serum, 100μL of internal standard solution in methanol were added; after centrifugation the supernatant was injected in the TurboFlow for further purification. Steroids were determined using a TSQ Vantage operating with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Method was fully validated and results compared with immunoassay methods. Limit of quantification ranged from 0.02ng/mL to 1ng/mL. The precision was lower than 11% and accuracy ranged from 93.5 to 121.6%. The correlation was acceptable for all analytes except for low levels of testosterone. However, the Bland-Altman plots display a positive bias for androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and a negative bias for cortisol and testosterone. TurboFlow analysis provides a simple and effective clean-up procedure minimizing the interference of the matrix. The presented method is selective, precise, and sensitive being suitable in a clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qian, Yiyun; Zhu, Zhenhua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Sheng; Shang, Erxin; Tao, Jinhua; Su, Shulan; Guo, Jianming
A highly sensitive method using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of ginkgolic acids and semi-quantification of their metabolites in rat plasma. For the five selected ginkgolic acids, the method was found to be with good linearities (r>0.9991), good intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD<15%), and good accuracies (RE, from -10.33% to 4.92%) as well. Extraction recoveries, matrix effects and stabilities for rat plasm samples were within the required limits. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the five ginkgolic acids in rat plasma after oral administration of 3 dosage groups (900mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 100mg/kg). Meanwhile, six metabolites of GA (15:1) and GA (17:1) were identified by comparison of MS data with reported values. The results of validation in terms of linear ranges, precisions and stabilities were established for semi-quantification of metabolites. The curves of relative changes of these metabolites during the metabolic process were constructed by plotting the peak area ratios of metabolites to salicylic acid (internal standard, IS), respectively. Double peaks were observed in all 3 dose groups. Different type of metabolites and different dosage of each metabolite both resulted in different Tmax.
Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas
Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas
Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. PMID:25341943
Vaiano, Fabio; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Focardi, Martina; Fioravanti, Alessia; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta
Propofol is a short-acting hypnotic agent that is commonly used to induce and maintain anesthesia. Propofol abuse and its involvement in suicide deaths have increased in recent years, especially among healthcare personnel. An example is the suicide of a 61-year-old nurse found with a propofol drip in his left arm. We describe the postmortem concentration of propofol in various tissues (femoral and cardiac blood, bile, urine, brain, and liver) and in the drip. The toxicological analyses were performed through two analytical methods, differing in derivatization reaction and in instrumentation: silylation for gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), as routinely performed in our laboratory for this kind of analyses (lower limits of quantification-LLOQ-in urine and blood: 0.3 and 5ng/ml); for liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) an innovative azo-coupling derivatization (LLOQ: 0.0004 and 0.1ng/ml). This latter produces an azo-derivative (molecular composition: C18H22ON2; molecular weight: 282Da) highly ionizable in electro-spray ion source, both in negative and positive ionizations. These two methods were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of this new LC-MS/MS analysis. An acidic hydrolysis (HCl 6N, 100°C, and 1h) was performed for the biological samples (1ml or 1g) irrespective of the analytical method applied. The drip content was extracted adding phosphate buffer (pH 8) and a dichloromethane/ethylacetate 8:2 (v:v) mixture. Derivatization steps were: silylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)+tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for GC-MS; regarding LC-MS/MS, azo-coupling reaction with the aryl-diazonium salt (0-5°C, and 30min). The analyses were achieved in selected-ion monitoring for GC-MS (m/z, 235,250,73 propofol"; m/z, 252,267,27 propofol-d17) and in multiple reaction monitoring ([M-H](-): m/z 283→241,77, azo-propofol; m/z 299→251,77, azo-propofol-d17) for LC-MS/MS. Autopsy showed no significant findings
Jensen, Berit Packert; Vella-Brincat, Jane Winifred Ann; Begg, Evan James
A rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for quantification of cyclizine and its main metabolite norcyclizine in human plasma. Samples were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and cinnarizine was used as internal standard (recovery >87%). The analytes were eluted from a C8 50 mm×2.0 mm analytical column using a linear gradient of methanol and 0.05% formic acid with a total analysis time of 4 min. Analytes were detected by MS/MS using electrospray ionisation in the positive mode with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) of the precursor ion/product ion transitions 267.2/167.2 for cyclizine and 253.2/167.2 for norcyclizine. Matrix effects were negligible. Standard curves for cyclizine and norcyclizine were linear (r(2)≥0.996) over the range 2-200 ng/mL, with 2 ng/mL representing the lower limit of quantification. Relative standard deviations were <14% for intra- and inter-day precision and the accuracy was within ±8%. The assay was successfully applied to a clinical study.
Henderson, W Matthew; Weber, Eric J; Duirk, Stephen E; Washington, John W; Smith, Mary Alice
Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), have been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and potentially toxic compounds. The structural analog, 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8-2 fTOH) is considered the probable precursor of these stable metabolites. Because simultaneous quantification is needed for volatile and non-volatile perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in complex matrices, a GC/MS method was developed and tested based on selected ion monitoring of perfluorinated alkyl parent chain fragment ions. Although the method requires a derivatization step, combined GC/MS analysis of PFCA-me's and FTOHs increases analytical efficiency and decreases sample analysis time. The method instrument detection limits are between 7.1 and 24.5 ng/mL extract (MTBE), and the method quantification limits are below 50 ng/mL serum or ng/g liver for all PFCs investigated. Recoveries from mouse serum and liver homogenates, which were spiked with FTOHs and PFCAs at levels of 25 and 200 ng/mL or ng/g, ranged from 81 to 101%. Finally, the utility of the method was demonstrated by dosing male CD-1 mice with 30 mg/kg-BW of 8-2 fTOH and quantifying PFCs 6h post-treatment. The advantages of this method are (1) the simultaneous detection of both volatile and non-volatile fluorotelomer-based chemicals in complex matrices, such as mammalian tissues, (2) as a confirmatory method to LC-MS/MS, and (3) as an alternative method of analysis for laboratories without access to LC-MS/MS.
Bertol, Elisabetta; Argo, Antonina; Procaccianti, Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Furlanetto, Sandra; Mari, Francesco
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method were validated for quantifying endogenous and exogenous hair concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). The GC-MS method is based on overnight extraction of 25 mg hair in NaOH at 56 °C, liquid/liquid extraction in ethylacetate and trimethylsylil derivatization; analysis is by electron ionization and single ion monitoring of three ions. The LC-MS/MS method entails a rapid digestion of 25 mg hair with NaOH at 75 °C for 40 min, liquid/liquid extraction in ethylacetate and reconstitution of the extract in the LC mobile phase; negative ion electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis are employed for the LC-MS/MS detection. In both cases, GHB-d6 is used as an internal standard. The endogenous amount in "blank" hair are estimated by the standard addition method. Limits of detection are 0.4 and 0.5 ng/mg for GC-MS and LC-MS/MS respectively, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) is 0.6 ng/mg for both methods; the GC-MS method proved to be linear in the range 1-50 ng/mg whereas linearity was demonstrated from 0.6 to 50 ng/mg for the LC-MS/MS; imprecision and inaccuracy were always lower than 23% for quality controls samples. The two methods were applied to a real case of a man addicted to GHB; the drug concentration in segments from 17 cm hair strand well correlated with self-reported use of GHB in different periods of his life. Performances of the two methods were similar.
High-performance liquid chromatography and LC-ESI-MS method for identification and quantification of two isomeric polyisoprenylated benzophenones isoxanthochymol and camboginol in different extracts of Garcinia species.
Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil K
A rapid, sensitive and simple reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method has been developed for the identification and quantification of two isomeric polyisoprenylated benzophenones, isoxanthochymol and camboginol, in the extracts of the stem bark, seeds and seed pericarps of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. The separation of isoxanthochymol and camboginol was achieved on a Perkin Elmer RP(8) column (10 x 2.1 mm with 5.0 microm particle size) using a solvent system consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) and methanol-acetic acid (99.0:1.0, v/v) as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The limits of detection and quantification were 5 and 10 microg/mL for isoxanthochymol and 50 and 100 microg/mL for camboginol, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were 2.34 and 3.41% for isoxanthochymol and 3.35 and 3.66% for camboginol. The identity of the two isomeric compounds in the samples was determined on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with ESI interface operating in the negative ion mode. The method was used to identify and quantify isoxanthochymol and camboginol in the different extracts of two Garcinia species, Garcinia indica and Garcinia cambogia.
Jones, Colleen P.; Lyman, Seth N.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Allen, Tanner; O'Neil, Trevor L.
Most mercury pollution is emitted to the atmosphere, and the location and bioavailability of deposited mercury largely depends on poorly understood atmospheric chemical reactions that convert elemental mercury into oxidized mercury compounds. Current measurement methods do not speciate oxidized mercury, leading to uncertainty about which mercury compounds exist in the atmosphere and how oxidized mercury is formed. We have developed a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based system for identification and quantification of atmospheric oxidized mercury compounds. The system consists of an ambient air collection device, a thermal desorption module, a cryofocusing system, a gas chromatograph, and an ultra-sensitive mass spectrometer. It was able to separate and identify mercury halides with detection limits low enough for ambient air collection (90 pg), but an improved ambient air collection device is needed. The GC/MS system was unable to quantify HgO or Hg(NO3)2, and data collected cast doubt upon the existence of HgO in the gas phase.
Petteys, Brian J; Graham, Kendon S; Parnás, M Laura; Holt, Crystal; Frank, Elizabeth L
Catecholamines and their metabolites, metanephrines, are produced excessively in pheochromocytoma tumors of the chromaffin cells. Increased concentrations of these compounds produce symptoms and allow for clinical evaluation of disease. Historically, screening for such tumors by determination of catecholamines and metabolites in urine yielded false negative results in individuals with a genetic predisposition for the disease and those with paroxysmal hypertension. Analysis of metanephrines in plasma, however, is of decisive diagnostic importance. This test exhibits high sensitivity and specificity for the analytes produced by tumors. Plasma proteins are removed by solid phase extraction. Chromatographic isolation of the analytes and stable isotope internal standards is achieved by elution on a HILIC column connected to a UPLC MS/MS system. Metanephrines are measured using multiple reaction monitoring with an electrospray source operating in positive ion mode. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, and precision. The method was accurate and correlated well to a comparison HPLC method. Potential interferences were evaluated. Results from this LC-MS/MS assay enable clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and aid in monitoring treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Song, Ehwang; Pyreddy, Swetha; Mechref, Yehia
Protein glycosylation has a major influence on functions of proteins. Studies have shown that aberrations in glycosylation are indicative of disease conditions. This has prompted major research activities for comparative studies of glycoproteins in biological samples. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is a highly sensitive technique which has been recently explored for quantitative proteomics. In this work, MRM was adopted for quantification of glycopeptides derived from both model glycoproteins and depleted human blood serum using glycan oxonium ions as transitions. The utilization of oxonium ions aids in identifying the different types of glycans bound to peptide backbones. MRM experiments were optimized by evaluating different parameters that have a major influence on quantification of glycopeptides, which include MRM time segments, number of transitions, and normalized collision energies. The results indicate that oxonium ions could be adopted for the characterization and quantification of glycopeptides in general, eliminating the need to select specific transitions for individual precursor ions. Also, the specificity increased with the number of transitions and a more sensitive analysis can be obtained by providing specific time segments. This approach can be applied to comparative and quantitative studies of glycopeptides in biological samples as illustrated for the case of depleted blood serum sample. PMID:22847692
Cabo, M L; Murado, M A; González, M P; Pastoriza, L
Different aspects of the most commonly used assay methods in the study of bacteriocins were examined. The conditions under which extraction and incubation (including exposure time) take place were analysed, and several different formal models that are usually employed to calculate ID50 were compared. As an alternative designed to overcome the problems which characterize the response of micro-organisms that are sensitive to bacteriocins, an operative procedure in a liquid medium and a modified re-parameterized logistic equation is proposed. When applied to the inhibition of Leuconostoc mesenteroides by nisin, the model allows an optimal experimental procedure to be defined.
Jager, N G L; Rosing, H; Linn, S C; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H
The antiestrogenic effect of tamoxifen is mainly attributable to the active metabolites endoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen. This effect is assumed to be concentration-dependent and therefore quantitative analysis of tamoxifen and metabolites for clinical studies and therapeutic drug monitoring is increasing. We investigated the large discrepancies in reported mean endoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen concentrations. Two published LC-MS/MS methods are used to analyse a set of 75 serum samples from patients treated with tamoxifen. The method from Teunissen et al. (J Chrom B, 879:1677-1685, 2011) separates endoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen from other tamoxifen metabolites with similar masses and fragmentation patterns. The second method, published by Gjerde et al. (J Chrom A, 1082:6-14, 2005) however lacks selectivity, resulting in a factor 2-3 overestimation of the endoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen levels, respectively. We emphasize the use of highly selective LC-MS/MS methods for the quantification of tamoxifen and its metabolites in biological samples.
de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Z
The major and minor carotenoids from six fruits, buriti (Mauritia vinifera), mamey (Mammea americana), marimari (Geoffrola striata), peach palm (Bactrys gasipaes), physalis (Physalis angulata), and tucuma (Astrocaryum aculeatum), all native to the Amazonia region, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-mass spectrometry detector (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), fulfilling the recommended criteria for identification. A total of 60 different carotenoids were separated on a C30 column, all-trans-beta-carotene being the major carotenoid found in all fruits. The presence of apo-10'-beta-carotenol, found in mamey, was not previously reported in foods. In addition, this is the first time that the identification of beta-zeacarotene in natural sources is supported by MS data. The total carotenoid content ranged from 38 microg/g in marimari to 514 microg/g in buriti. All fruits analyzed can be considered good sources of provitamin A, especially buriti, with 7280 RE/100 g.
Montenarh, Deborah; Hopf, Markus; Maurer, Hans H; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H
For the first time, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) multi-analyte approach based on a simple liquid-liquid extraction was developed and validated for fast target screening and quantification of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in case of driving ability and crime responsibility in the three most important biosamples whole blood, plasma, and serum. Whole blood, plasma, and serum (500 μL each) were extracted twice at pH 7.4 and at pH 10 with ether/ethyl acetate (1:1). Separation, detection, and quantification were performed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, ion suppression/enhancement of co-eluting analytes, matrix effects, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy and precision, stabilities, and limits of detection and quantification. For accuracy and precision, full calibration was performed with ranges from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations. The presented LC-MS/MS approach as part of a universal multi-analyte concept for over 100 drugs was applicable for selective detection as well as accurate and precise quantification in whole blood, plasma, and serum. The approach was selective, sensitive, accurate, and precise for 16 of the 19 tested drugs in whole blood, 18 in plasma, and 17 in serum. Only semiquantitative results could be obtained for zopiclone because of its instability in all tested biosamples.
A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of 38 residues of the most widely used anthelmintic veterinary drugs (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, and flukicides) in milk and liver has been d...
Cologna, Stephanie M; Crutchfield, Christopher A; Searle, Brian C; Blank, Paul S; Toth, Cynthia L; Ely, Alexa M; Picache, Jaqueline A; Backlund, Peter S; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D; Yergey, Alfred L
Protein quantification, identification, and abundance determination are important aspects of proteome characterization and are crucial in understanding biological mechanisms and human diseases. Different strategies are available to quantify proteins using mass spectrometric detection, and most are performed at the peptide level and include both targeted and untargeted methodologies. Discovery-based or untargeted approaches oftentimes use covalent tagging strategies (i.e., iTRAQ, TMT), where reporter ion signals collected in the tandem MS experiment are used for quantification. Herein we investigate the behavior of the iTRAQ 8-plex chemistry using MALDI-TOF/TOF instrumentation. The experimental design and data analysis approach described is simple and straightforward, which allows researchers to optimize data collection and proper analysis within a laboratory. iTRAQ reporter ion signals were normalized within each spectrum to remove peptide biases. An advantage of this approach is that missing reporter ion values can be accepted for purposes of protein identification and quantification without the need for ANOVA analysis. We investigate the distribution of reporter ion peak areas in an equimolar system and a mock biological system and provide recommendations for establishing fold-change cutoff values at the peptide level for iTRAQ data sets. These data provide a unique data set available to the community for informatics training and analysis.
Sabatino, Leonardo; Scarangella, Michele; Lazzaro, Francesco; Scordino, Monica; Picariello, Giavanna; Leotta, Claudia; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo
A reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC/MS-MS) has been developed and validated for detection of alkaloids matrine and oxymatrine in fertilizer with labeled enhancer plant defense activities. The analytical method was validated statistically. The results show a strong matrix effect, requiring quantification by standard addition method. The regression lines showed r(2) > 0.994. Recoveries ranging from 97 to 104% were obtained for the fortification level of 0.01% wt wt(-1) and the relative standard deviations ranged from 3 to 4% (n = 10). The limits of detection were below 0.0001% wt wt(-1), while the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.0004% wt wt(-1). The method is currently applied in ICQRF Laboratory of Catania on fertilized and corroborant plant extract collected in the Italian market in the frame of MIPAAF institutional quality control activity, with the aim to dectect these unpermitted active substances.
Perkins, Matt J; Joye, Samantha B; Field, Jennifer A
At the onset of the 2010 Gulf oil spill, analytical methods for the quantification of the surfactants in Corexit did not exist in the peer-reviewed literature. To date, only a single study reports the presence of bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS) in deep-sea Gulf sediment collected in 2010 from a single location. There are no data on the occurrence of DOSS in association with settling solids (i.e., sediment-trap solids). To address this data gap, DOSS was initially quantified by liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sediment and sediment-trap solids collected from multiple sites in the Gulf between 2010 and 2013. However, interferences confounded analyses using only a quadrupole (MS/MS) system; therefore, a LC-high mass accuracy quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) method was developed. The LC-QTOF method was validated and applied to eight representative samples of sediment and of sediment-trap solids. The presented method quantifies DOSS in solids of marine origin at concentrations above the limit of quantification of 0.23 μg kg(-1) with recoveries of 97 ± 20 % (mean ± 95 CI). Gulf sediment and sediment-trap solids gave DOSS concentrations of
Park, Su Yeon; Jung, Mun Yhung
We developed and validated an improved ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the fast separation and quantification of 8 major gingerols and shogaols (4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-gingerols, and 6-, 8-, and 10-shogaols) in gingerol products. The ionization polarity and mobile phase modifier greatly affected the mass ion profiles and sensitivity of the analytes. A mobile phase modifier of 0.05 mM ammonium formate dramatically decreased the sodium adduct ions and greatly increased the protonated ions of the gingerols and shogaols. Positive ion UHPLC-MS/MS with the ammonium formate in mobile phase showed greatly higher (4.5- to 15.7-fold) sensitivities than negative ion UHPLC. The positive ion UHPLC-MS/MS method showed excellent linearities (r(2) > 0.999), low limits of detection (LOD = 2.5 to 8.2 pg), high accuracy and precision, and no considerable matrix effect. Baseline separation of the 8 target compounds was achieved in 1 min by the UHPLC with a short C18 core-shell column. The method was successfully applied to analyze the compounds in fresh and dried powdered gingers, and dietary supplements. The total contents of the major compounds in the fresh gingers, dried powdered gingers, and dietary supplements were in the range of 1114 to 1478, 4380 to 11324, and 2915 to 29998 mg/kg, respectively. There was about 10-fold variation of the content in the dietary supplements with the commercial brands. This represents the 1st report on the ionization polarity and mobile phase modifier on the sensitivity of gingerols and shogaols in LC-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the established method provided great improvement in chromatographic separation of the target gingerols. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Kim, Soo-Jin; Ha, Dong-Jin; Koo, Tae-Sung
A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of methylene blue (MB) and its major metabolite, azure B (AZB), in rat plasma. A simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile was followed by injection of the supernatant on to a Zorbax HILIC Plus column (3.5 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) with isocratic mobile phase consisting of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 10:90 (v/v) water:methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and detection in positive ionization mode. The standard curve was linear over the concentration range from 1 to 1000 ng/mL for MB and AZB with coefficient of determination above 0.9930. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL using 20 μL of rat plasma sample. The intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were <12%. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of MB and AZB in rats. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vogl, Sylvia; Zehl, Martin; Picker, Paolo; Urban, Ernst; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte
The rhizomes of Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) Koch (masterwort) are traditionally used in the alpine region as ingredient of liqueurs and bitters, and as a herbal drug. A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of its main coumarins, oxypeucedanin hydrate, oxypeucedanin, ostruthol, imperatorin, osthole, isoimperatorin, and ostruthin. Fast HPLC separation could be achieved on an Acclaim C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3 μm) using a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile-water modified with 0.01% acetic acid. The quantification by HPLC-DAD was performed with imperatorin as external standard and validated to demonstrate selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The content of the main coumarins was quantitated in various batches of commercial and field-collected rhizomes of Peucedanum ostruthium, as well as in beverages prepared thereof.
Szerkus, O; Jacyna, J; Gibas, A; Sieczkowski, M; Siluk, D; Matuszewski, M; Kaliszan, R; Markuszewski, M J
Fluoroquinolones are the drugs of choice in the prevention of bacterial infections after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. In order to improve assessment of antibacterial efficacy in the target tissue a simple, selective, rapid and robust HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the determination of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations in human prostate bioptates was developed and validated. Preparation procedure for prostate samples (10mg) was carried out using homogenization and filtration steps. Analyses were performed within 3.5min using RP C18 column in the isocratic elution mode with mobile phase composed of a mixture of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and 0.1% formic acid methanol solution (v/v; 79:21). The method was linear between 0.3μg/g and 15μg/g for levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin with coefficient of correlation (r) ≥0.999. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for levofloxacin were 0.06μg/g and 0.2μg/g and for ciprofloxacin were 0.04μg/g and 0.13μg/g, respectively. Average concentrations (±SD) of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin obtained from patients tissue were 5.4±2.2μg/g and 3.9±1.5μg/g, respectively. Additionally, during validation procedure a novel, experimental design approach was applied for the robustness study. For evaluation of analytical method robustness, Plackett-Burman design was employed and for sample preparation method robustness Fractional Factorial design was used. The developed and validated method was successfully applied to examine prostate tissue samples obtained from patients enrolled into a clinical study. Up to now, there has been no other HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method reported for the simultaneous determination of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in human prostatic tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
De Bord, Sarah
This report details the work accomplished during my 2015 SULI summer internship at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. During this internship, I worked on multiple tasks with the common goal of making uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods more accessible to the general scientific community. As part of my work, I created a comprehensive numerical integration example to incorporate into the user manual of a UQ software package. Further, I developed examples involving heat transfer through a window to incorporate into tutorial lectures that serve as an introduction to UQ methods.
Reagen, William K; Ellefson, Mark E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P
Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and have been reported to occur in human blood. Accurate risk assessments require accurate measurements of exposures, but identification and quantification of PFCs in biological matrices can be affected by both ion suppression and enhancement in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques (LC/MS-MS). A study was conducted to quantify potential biases in LC/MS-MS quantification methods. Using isotopically labeled perfluorooctanoic acid ([(13)C(2)]-PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid ([(13)C(2)]-PFNA), and ammonium perfluorooctanesulfonate ([(18)O(2)]-PFOS) spiked tissues, ion-pairing extraction, solid-phase extraction, and protein precipitation sample preparation techniques were compared. Analytical accuracy was assessed using both solvent calibration and matrix-matched calibration for quantification. Data accuracy and precision of 100+/-15% was demonstrated in both human sera and plasma for all three sample preparation techniques when matrix-matched calibration was used in quantification. In contrast, quantification of ion-pairing extraction data using solvent calibration in combination with a surrogate internal standard resulted in significant analytical biases for all target analytes. The accuracy of results, based on solvent calibration was highly variable and dependent on the serum and plasma matrices, the specific target analyte [(13)C(2)]-PFOA, [(13)C(2)]-PFNA, or [(18)O(2)]-PFOS, the target analyte concentration, the LC/MS-MS instrumentation used in data generation, and the specific surrogate internal standard used in quantification. These results suggest that concentrations of PFCs reported for human blood using surrogate internal standards in combination with external solvent calibration can be inaccurate unless biases are accounted for in data quantification.
Man, Farahdina; Choo, Chee-Yan
Bruceines D and E are quassinoids from seeds of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. exhibiting hypoglycemia effect. The crude drug is used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients. The aim of this study is to understand the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of both the bruceines D & E. A rapid and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of both quassinoids, bruceines D & E in rat plasma. Both the bruceines D & E were separated with the Zorbax SBC-18 column with gradient elution and mobile phase system of acetonitrile and deionized water with 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min. Analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray positive ionization. The quassinoids, namely bruceines D & E were detected with transitions of m/z 411.2→393.2 and m/z 395.2→377.2, respectively. Another quassinoid, eurycomanone was used as the internal standard with transition of m/z 409.2→391.2. The method was validated and conformed to the regulatory requirements. The validated method was applied to pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in rats. The pharmacokinetic study indicated both bruceine D and E were rapidly absorbed into the circulation system and reached its peak concentration at 0.54±0.34h and 0.66±0.30h, respectively. Bruceine E was eliminated slower than Bruceine D with t1/2 value almost increased two-fold compared to Bruceine D. In conclusion, a rapid, selective and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of both the bruceines D and E in rat plasma. Both bruceines D and E displayed poor oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Allende, Fidel; Solari, Sandra; Campino, Carmen; Carvajal, Cristian A; Lagos, Carlos F; Vecchiola, Andrea; Valdivia, Carolina; Baudrand, René; Owen, Gareth I; Fardella, Carlos E
Cortisol homeostasis is implicated in hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Two enzymes modulate cortisol availability; 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) preferentially converts inactive cortisone to cortisol, whereas 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) converts cortisol to cortisone. In contrast, 5α and 5β reductases inactivate cortisol by conversion to its tetrahydrometabolites: tetrahydrocortisol, allo-tetrahydrocortisol and tetrahydrocortisone. A subtle local increase in cortisol can be detected by measuring 24-h urine metabolites, LC-MS/MS being the reference method. The 11β-HSD2 activity is assessed based on the cortisol/cortisone ratio, and the 11β-HSD1 activity on the (tetrahydrocortisol + allo-tetrahydrocortisol)/tetrahydrocortisone ratio. To better understand hypertension and/or metabolic syndrome pathogenesis a method for simultaneous determination of cortisol, cortisone, tetrahydrocortisol, allo-tetrahydrocortisol and tetrahydrocortisone was developed and validated in an LC coupled with the new detector AB Sciex QTrap(®) 4500 tandem mass spectrometer. The steroids were extracted from 1 mL urine, using cortisol-D4 as internal standard. The quantification range was 0.1-120 ng/mL for cortisol and cortisone, and 1-120 ng/mL for tetrahydrometabolites, with >89 % recovery for all analytes. The coefficient of variation and accuracy was <10 %, and 85-105 %, respectively. Our LC-MS/MS method is accurate and reproducible in accordance with Food and Drug Administration guidelines, showing good sensitivity and recovery. This method allows the assessment of 11β-HSD2 and 11β-HSD1 activities in a single analytical run providing an innovative tool to explain etiology of misclassified essential hypertension and/or metabolic syndrome.
Zhou, Yu; Meng, Zhen; Edman-Woolcott, Maria; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; Zandi, Ebrahim
Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics is one of the most widely used analytical platforms for global protein discovery and quantification. One of the challenges is the difficulty of identifying low abundance biomarker proteins from limited biological samples. Extensive fractionation could expand proteomics dynamic range, however, at the cost of high sample and time consumption. Extensive fractionation would increase the sample need and the labeling cost. Also quantitative proteomics depending on high resolution MS have the limitation of spectral acquisition speed. Those practical problems hinder the in-depth quantitative proteomics analysis such as tandem mass tag (TMT) experiments. We found the joint use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and strong cation exchange Chromatography (SCX) prefractionation at medium level could improve MS/MS efficiency, increase proteome coverage, shorten analysis time and save valuable samples. In addition, we scripted a program, Exclusion List Convertor (ELC), which automates and streamlines data acquisition workflow using the precursor ion exclusion (PIE) method. PIE reduces redundancy of high abundance MS/MS analyses by running replicates of the sample. The precursor ions detected in the initial run(s) are excluded for MS/MS in the subsequent run. We compared PIE methods with standard data dependent acquisition (DDA) methods running replicates without PIE for their effectiveness in quantifying TMT-tagged peptides and proteins in mouse tears. We quantified a total of 845 proteins and 1401 peptides using the PIE workflow, while the DDA method only resulted in 347 proteins and 731 peptides. This represents a 144% increase of protein identifications as a result of PIE analysis. PMID:26807013
Liu, Gangyi; Dong, Chunxia; Shen, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaopei; Zhang, Mengqi; Gui, Yuzhou; Zhou, Qinyi; Yu, Chen
A quantitative method for clopidogrel using online-SPE tandem LC–MS/MS was developed and fully validated according to the well-established FDA guidelines. The method achieves adequate sensitivity for pharmacokinetic studies, with lower limit of quantifications (LLOQs) as low as 10 pg/mL. Chromatographic separations were performed on reversed phase columns Kromasil Eternity-2.5-C18-UHPLC for both methods. Positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed for signal detection and a deuterated analogue (clopidogrel-d4) was used as internal standard (IS). Adjustments in sample preparation, including introduction of an online-SPE system proved to be the most effective method to solve the analyte back-conversion in clinical samples. Pooled clinical samples (two levels) were prepared and successfully used as real-sample quality control (QC) in the validation of back-conversion testing under different conditions. The result showed that the real samples were stable in room temperature for 24 h. Linearity, precision, extraction recovery, matrix effect on spiked QC samples and stability tests on both spiked QCs and real sample QCs stored in different conditions met the acceptance criteria. This online-SPE method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 75 mg single dose clopidogrel tablets in 48 healthy male subjects. PMID:26904399
Paradis, Delphine; Bérail, Géraldine; Bonmatin, Jean-Marc; Belzunces, Luc P
Several methods for analyzing pesticides in honey have been developed. However, they do not always reach the sufficiently low limits of quantification (LOQ) needed to quantify pesticides toxic to honey bees at low doses. To properly evaluate the toxicity of pesticides, LOQ have to reach at least 1 ng/g. In this context, we developed extraction and analytical methods for the simultaneous detection of 22 relevant insecticides belonging to three chemical families (neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, and pyrazoles) in honey. The insecticides were extracted with the QuEChERS method that consists in an extraction and a purification with mixtures of salts adapted to the matrix and the substances to be extracted. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the pyrazoles and the pyrethroids and by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the neonicotinoids and ethiprole. Calibration curves were built from various honey types fortified at different concentrations. Linear responses were obtained between 0.2 and 5 ng/g. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.07 and 0.2 ng/g, and LOQ ranged between 0.2 and 0.5 ng/g. The mean extraction yields ranged between 63 % and 139 % with RSD <25 %. A complete validation of the methods also examined recovery rates and specificity. These methods were applied to 90 honey samples collected during a 2009-2010 field study in two apiaries placed in different anthropic contexts.
Human reliability quantification (HRQ) methods are becoming increasingly important in risk and accident assessment in systems these terms are usually related to (hi-tech industrial systems, including nuclear and chemical plants). These methods began to intensively develop after numerous accidents caused by human error or inadequate activity of people who controlled and managed complex technological processes. For already existing systems, but also for new ones, it is important to assess the possibility of an accident. Determination of possible preventive activities, which include the influence of human error on the safety of a system, is also required. These are the main goals of the HRQ method. Using Absolute Probability Judgment (APJ) and Success Likelihood Index Methods (SLIM) HRQ techniques in control and management centers in electro-power systems in Belgrade and railway traffic in Nis (both in Serbia and Montenegro) are shown in this paper.
Lederer, Ines; Schulzki, Grit; Gross, Julia; Steffen, Jens-Peter
In this study, a methodological approach for an effective and reliable quality control of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook. F.) is developed and validated. A combined method of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS was used for differentiation of various Illicium species, especially Chinese and Japanese star anise. Species can be distinguished by their TLC flavonoid pattern. A sensitive and selective HPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the detection and quantification of lower admixtures of I. anisatum and of further toxic Illicium species at a low concentration range using the sesquiterpene lactone anisatin as a marker. The proposed assay includes a solid-phase extraction cleanup procedure with a high recovery (>90%). Chromatographic separation of anisatin was carried out on a C18 column, followed by MS detection using ESI in negative mode. The precursor/product ion transitions m/z 327 --> 127 (quantifier) and m/z 327 --> 297 (qualifier) were monitored. Statistical evaluation of this multireaction-monitoring procedure reveals good linearity and intra- and interday precision. The limits of detection and quantification are 1.2 and 3.9 microg/kg, respectively.
Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Suhong; Guo, Lili; Busch, Christine M; Jian, Wenying; Weng, Naidong; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Rangiah, Kannan; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A
Background: Absolute quantification of protein biomarkers such as serum apolipoprotein A1 by both immunoassays and LC–MS can provide misleading results. Results: Recombinant ApoA-1 internal standard was prepared using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with [13C615N2]-lysine and [13C915N1]-tyrosine in human cells. A stable isotope dilution LC–MS method for serum ApoA-1 was validated and levels analyzed for 50 nonsmokers and 50 smokers. Conclusion: The concentration of ApoA-1 in nonsmokers was 169.4 mg/dl with an 18.4% reduction to 138.2 mg/dl in smokers. The validated assay will have clinical utility for assessing effects of smoking cessation and therapeutic or dietary interventions in high-risk populations. PMID:26394123
Dhanure, Shivanand; Savalia, Atulkumar; More, Pravinkumar; Shirode, Prashant; Kapse, Kailas; Shah, Virag
A simple, sensitive, and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of carbocisteine in human plasma. Rosiglitazone was used as the internal standard and heparin was used as the anticoagulant. The chromatographic separation was performed by using the Waters Symmetry Shield RP 8, 150 × 3.9 mm, 5 μ column at 40°C with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol and 0.5% formic acid solution in a 40:60 proportion. The flow rate was 500 μl/min along with a 5 μl injection volume. Protein precipitation was used as the extraction method. Mass spectrometric data were detected in positive ion mode. The MRM mode of the ions for carbocisteine was 180.0 > 89.0 and for rosiglitazone it was 238.1 > 135.1. The method was validated in the concentration curve range of 50.000 ng/mL to 6000.000 ng/mL. The retention times of carbocisteine and the internal standard rosiglitazone were approximately 2.20 and 3.01 min, respectively. The overall run time was 4.50 min. This method was found suitable to analyze human plasma samples for the application in pharmacokinetic and BA/BE studies.
Dhanure, Shivanand; Savalia, Atulkumar; More, Pravinkumar; Shirode, Prashant; Kapse, Kailas; Shah, Virag
Abstract A simple, sensitive, and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of carbocisteine in human plasma. Rosiglitazone was used as the internal standard and heparin was used as the anticoagulant. The chromatographic separation was performed by using the Waters Symmetry Shield RP 8, 150 × 3.9 mm, 5 μ column at 40°C with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol and 0.5% formic acid solution in a 40:60 proportion. The flow rate was 500 μl/min along with a 5 μl injection volume. Protein precipitation was used as the extraction method. Mass spectrometric data were detected in positive ion mode. The MRM mode of the ions for carbocisteine was 180.0 > 89.0 and for rosiglitazone it was 238.1 > 135.1. The method was validated in the concentration curve range of 50.000 ng/mL to 6000.000 ng/mL. The retention times of carbocisteine and the internal standard rosiglitazone were approximately 2.20 and 3.01 min, respectively. The overall run time was 4.50 min. This method was found suitable to analyze human plasma samples for the application in pharmacokinetic and BA/BE studies. PMID:26171322
Kancharla, Pushpa Kumari; Kondru, Venu Gopal Raju; Dannana, Gowri Sankar
A simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of desvenlafaxine in human plasma using desvenlafaxine d6 as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed using a Thermo-BDS hypersil C8 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer: methanol (20:80, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.80 mL/min. Desvenlafaxine and desvenlafaxine d6 were detected with proton adducts at m/z 264.2/58.1 and 270.2/ 64.1 in multiple reaction monitoring positive mode, respectively. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the drug and the IS. The method was linear over the concentration range 1.001-400.352 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.9994. This method demonstrated intra and inter-day precision within 0.7-5.5 and 1.9-6.8%, and accuracy within 95.3-107.4 and 93.4-99.5%. Desvenlafaxine was found to be stable throughout the freeze-thaw cycles, bench-top and long-term matrix stability studies. The developed and validated method can be successfully applied for the bioequivalence/pharmacokinetic studies of desvenlafaxine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gensberger-Reigl, Sabrina; Huppert, Jochen; Pischetsrieder, Monika
During heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids, the glucose component is partially degraded. The formed glucose degradation products impair biocompatibility and limit the long-term application of PD fluids. As an alternative to glucose, icodextrin, a polyglucose, is used as osmotic agent in PD fluids. After targeted screening for reactive carbonyl compounds, NMR- and MS-analyses very recently revealed 4-deoxyglucosone (4-DG), 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), 3,4-dideoxypentosone (3,4-DDPS), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) as main polyglucose degradation products (pGDPs) in icodextrin-based PD fluids. Now, the present study established and validated a UHPLC method with DAD as well as a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the first-time quantification of those five major pGDPs in commercial icodextrin PD fluids after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine. Thus, 4-DG was identified to be the main degradation product (in concentrations up to 20 μM). In contrast to the values measured in glucose-based products, the concentration of 3-DGal (≤ 16 μM) was higher than the concentration of 3-DG (≤ 7 μM) indicating different reaction pathways starting from polyglucose compared to glucose. The compounds 3,4-DDPS and 5-HMF were present in minor quantities (≤ 0.3 μM each). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fuertig, René; Ceci, Angelo; Camus, Sandrine M; Bezard, Erwan; Luippold, Andreas H; Hengerer, Bastian
The kynurenine (KYN) pathway is implicated in diseases such as cancer, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. Measurement of KYN metabolite levels will help elucidating the involvement of the KYN pathway in the disease pathology and inform drug development. Samples of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid or brain tissue were spiked with deuterated internal standards, processed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS; analytes were chromatographically separated by gradient elution on a C18 reversed phase analytical column without derivatization. We established an LC-MS/MS method to measure 11 molecules, namely tryptophan, KYN, 3-OH-KYN, 3-OH-anthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, serotonin, dopamine and neopterin within 5.5 min, with sufficient sensitivity to quantify these molecules in small sample volumes of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue.
Bhatt, Vinod; Sharma, Sushila; Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Upendra; Singh, Bikram
The current study presents isolation and characterization of twelve compounds including catechin (1), isovitexin (2), hesperidin (3), psoralin (4), eudesmin (5), kobusin (6), fargesin (7), sesamin (8), asarinin (9), planispine-A (10), α-sanshool (11) and vitexin (12), from the leaves of Zanthoxylum armatum. Further, two rapid and simple ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) methods were developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of isolated compounds from Z. armatum leaves. These analytical methods were validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.06-0.21μg/mL and 0.19-0.69μg/mL, respectively. The validated method was linear (R(2)≥0.9906), precise in terms of peak area (intra-day RSDs <3.8% and inter-day RSDs <2.7%), and accurate (109.6-92.5%). This is the first report on the isolation and quantification of 1, 2, 4 and 12 in Z. armatum and 3 in Zanthoxylum genus. The methods: were successfully applied to assess the quality of samples collected from different locations of Himachal Pradesh during summer and winter season. The results demonstrated that flavonoids and furofuran lignans were the major constituents in Z. armatum leaves. The developed methods: were further applied for tandem electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) and total eighteen compounds were identified including phenolic acid, flavonoids, furofuran lignans, coumarin and isobutyl amides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chambliss, Allison B; Füzéry, Anna K; Clarke, William A
Hydroxychloroquine (HQ) is used routinely in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus. Issues such as marked pharmacokinetic variability and patient non-compliance make therapeutic drug monitoring of HQ a useful tool for management of patients taking this drug. Quantitative measurements of HQ may aid in identifying poor efficacy as well as provide reliable information to distinguish patient non-compliance from refractory disease. We describe a rapid 7-min assay for the accurate and precise measurement of HQ concentrations in 100 μL samples of human blood using turbulent flow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. HQ is isolated from EDTA whole blood after a simple extraction with its deuterated analog, hydroxychloroquine-d4, in 0.33 M perchloric acid. Samples are then centrifuged and injected onto the TFLC-MS/MS system. Quantification is performed using a nine-point calibration curve that is linear over a wide range (15.7-4000 ng/mL) with precisions of <5 %.
Migheli, Francesca; Stoccoro, Andrea; Coppedè, Fabio; Wan Omar, Wan Adnan; Failli, Alessandra; Consolini, Rita; Seccia, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Miccoli, Paolo; Mathers, John C.; Migliore, Lucia
There is increasing interest in the development of cost-effective techniques for the quantification of DNA methylation biomarkers. We analyzed 90 samples of surgically resected colorectal cancer tissues for APC and CDKN2A promoter methylation using methylation sensitive-high resolution melting (MS-HRM) and pyrosequencing. MS-HRM is a less expensive technique compared with pyrosequencing but is usually more limited because it gives a range of methylation estimates rather than a single value. Here, we developed a method for deriving single estimates, rather than a range, of methylation using MS-HRM and compared the values obtained in this way with those obtained using the gold standard quantitative method of pyrosequencing. We derived an interpolation curve using standards of known methylated/unmethylated ratio (0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of methylation) to obtain the best estimate of the extent of methylation for each of our samples. We observed similar profiles of methylation and a high correlation coefficient between the two techniques. Overall, our new approach allows MS-HRM to be used as a quantitative assay which provides results which are comparable with those obtained by pyrosequencing. PMID:23326336
Xu, Yihua; Huang, Xin-ce; Dai, Shengjie; Xiao, Yuwu; Zhou, Meng-tao
In this work, a simple, sensitive and fast ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of bosutinib in rat plasma. Plasma samples were processed with a protein precipitation. The separation was achieved by an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Detection was carried out using positive-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The validated method had an excellent linearity in the range of 0.1-500ng/mL (R(2)>0.9977) with a lower limit of quantification (0.1ng/mL). The extraction recovery was in the range of 75.6-85.6% for bosutinib and 81.2% for pirfenidone (internal standard, IS). The intra- and inter-day precision was below 9.7% and accuracy was from -8.1% to 8.8%. No notable matrix effect and astaticism was observed for bosutinib. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of bosutinib in rats for the first time, which provides the basis for the further development and application of bosutinib. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ares, Ana M; Valverde, Silvia; Bernal, José L; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José
A new method was developed to determine sulforaphane (SFN) in honey using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). An efficient extraction procedure was proposed (average analyte recoveries were between 92% and 99%); this involved a solid phase extraction (SPE) with a polymeric sorbent. Chromatography was performed on a Synergi™ Hydro analytical column with a mobile phase of 0.02 M ammonium formate in water and acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linearity, carry-over effect, reinjection reproducibility, precision and accuracy. The LOD and LOQ values were below 0.8 μg/kg and 2.6 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed method was applied to analyze SFN in honey from different botanical origins (rosemary, multifloral, orange blossom and heather), and SFN was detected at trace levels in some of the honey samples examined.
Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin
Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.
Medina, Sonia; Collado-González, Jacinta; Ferreres, Federico; Londoño-Londoño, Julián; Jiménez-Cartagena, Claudio; Guy, Alexandre; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel
The genus Passiflora, comprising about 500 species, is the largest in the Passion flower family. Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis (gulupa) is one of the most important fruits cultivated in Colombia. In recent years and due to its organoleptic and bioactive properties, its exports have significantly increased. In this work, six new bioactive oxylipins -phytoprostanes - were detected in gulupa shell by a UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method: F1t-phytoprostanes and D1t-phytoprostanes were the predominant and minor classes, respectively. Moreover, the polyphenol profile of the shell was investigated and we were able to detect and quantify phenolic compounds that have not been described previously, like luteolin-8-C-(2-O-rhamnosyl)hexoside and quercetin-3-O-(6″-acetyl)glucosyl-2″-sinapic acid. Consequently, this study provides new insights into the importance of gulupa shell as a valuable option in the design of new beverages rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, as part of a well-balanced diet, and in the process and quality control of such products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burild, Anders; Frandsen, Henrik L; Jakobsen, Jette
Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D is the established biomarker of vitamin D status although serum concentrations of vitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D may also be of interest to understand the in vivo kinetics of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify vitamin D₃, 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ in serum. After protein precipitation of the serum it was loaded on a HybridSPE column to separate vitamin D metabolites from phospholipids. Vitamin D₃, 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ in the eluate were derivatized by 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione to improve sensitivity in the following LC-MS/MS analysis. Using only 100 μL serum the limit of quantification was < 0.2 ng/mL for vitamin D₃, 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃. The method was validated up to 100 ng/mL (260 nmol/L) for vitamin D₃, up to 100 ng/mL (240 nmol/L) for 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ and up to 200 ng/mL (499 nmol/L) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃. Precision was < 6.5% for vitamin D₃ and 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and < 10.2% for 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃. We demonstrate that a method including not only serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ but also vitamin D₃ and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ could easily be implemented in most modern biochemical laboratories. The method could be used to study the metabolism of endogenous synthesized vitamin D₃ as well as vitamin D₃ in intervention studies.
Ma, Kevin; Fernandez, James; Amezcua, Lilyana; Lerner, Alex; Liu, Brent
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The chronic nature of MS necessitates multiple MRI studies to track disease progression. We have presented an imaging informatics decision-support system, called MS eFolder, designed to integrate patient clinical data with MR images and a computer-aided detection (CAD) component for automatic white matter lesion quantification. The purpose of the MS eFolder is to comprehensively present MS patient data for clinicians and radiologists, while providing a lesion quantification tool that can be objective and consistent for MS tracking in longitudinal studies. The MS CAD algorithm is based on the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) principles and has been integrated within the eFolder system. Currently, the system has been completed and the CAD algorithm for quantifying MS lesions has undergone the expert evaluation in order to validate system performance and accuracy. The evaluation methodology has been developed and the data has been collected, including over 100 MS MRI cases with various age and ethnic backgrounds. The preliminary results of the evaluation are expected to include sensitivity and specificity of lesion and non-lesion voxels in the white matter, the effectiveness of different probability thresholds for each voxel, and comparison between CAD quantification results and radiologists' manual readings. The results aim to show the effectiveness of a MS lesion CAD system to be used in a clinical setting, as well as a step closer to full clinical implementation of the eFolder system.
Bian, Qiaoxia; Wang, Weihui; Wang, Nannan; Peng, Yan; Ma, Wen; Dai, Ronghua
To evaluate the potential relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolome, a UHPLC—MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AA and its cyclooxygenase(COX) and lipoxygenase(LOX) pathway metabolites (15-HETE, 12-HETE, TXA2, 5-HETE, AA, PGI2, PGF2α, 8-HETE, PGD2, PGE2 and LTB4) in rat tissues. The analytes were extracted from tissue samples with a protein precipitation procedure and then separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODSC18 column with 0.05% formic acid in water (pH adjusted with dilute ammonia) and methanol:acetonitrile (20:80, v/v). Detection was performed on a UHPLC—MS/MS system with electrospray negative ionization (ESI) and a multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.25–50 ng/mL for all of the analytes in the prostate, seminal, bladder, liver and kidney tissues. The absolute recoveries of the analytes from all of the tissues were more than 50%. By means of the method developed, the AA metabolites in tissue samples from Sham and BPH group rats were determined. The eleven biomarkers in the BPH group prostate, seminal, bladder, liver and kidney tissues were significantly higher than those of the sham group, indicating that BPH fortified the inducible expression of COX and LOX, as well as increased the production of AA and eicosanoids. The method described here offers a useful tool for the evaluation of complex regulatory eicosanoids responses in vivo. PMID:27893755
Lugoboni, B; Barbarossa, A; Gazzotti, T; Zironi, E; Farabegoli, F; Pagliuca, G
A simple, fast and cost-effective liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantitative determination of flunixin (FLU) in bovine muscle was developed and validated. The sample preparation procedure involved an extraction with acetonitrile, followed by evaporation and reconstitution. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse-phase column under programmed conditions. FLU detection was performed with positive electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoringmode, monitoring one precursor and two products ions. For quantification purposes, FLU-d3 was used as an internal standard. The matrix effect on the analysis of FLU in bovine muscle was evaluated by comparison between calibration curves prepared with standard solution and in blank matrix extracts. The equivalent responses obtained confirmed the absence of signal suppression or/and enhancement. The method was extensively validated according to the parameters requested by European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC in terms of specificity, limit of detection, linearity, trueness, precision, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ). FLU stability was also investigated in matrix and in sample extracts at different times and storage conditions.
Bohm, Detlef A; Stachel, Carolin S; Gowik, P
The method was specifically developed for the determination and confirmation of streptomycin in apple samples using the whole mellow apple. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and was validated for streptomycin in accordance with SANCO/3131/2007. After extraction with phosphate buffer and a pH change, the clean-up was performed by the way of SPE with polymeric phase. The LC-MS/MS analysis was carried out using a HILIC column for the separation of the analytes and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ESI mode to measure the transitions of the substances in MRM mode. For the quantification of streptomycin a matrix calibration curve in the linear range of 1.0-20 microg kg(-1) and the internal standard dihydrostreptomycin (10 microg kg(-1)) were used. The calculated validation parameters like the recovery (101-105%) for 2, 5, 10 and 20 microg kg(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD, 4.1-11.4%) of the 6 replicates fulfil the requirements of SANCO/3131/2007. The LOQ was determined as 2 microg kg(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vicente, Faye B; Vespa, Gina; Miller, Alan; Haymond, Shannon
Iohexol is a nonradioactive contrast medium, and its clearance from serum or urine is used to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the most useful indicator of kidney function and progression of kidney disease. GFR determination using iohexol clearance is increasingly being applied in clinical practice, given its advantages over and correlation with inulin. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for iohexol clearance, requiring only 50 μL of serum. The sample preparation involves protein precipitation with LC/MS-grade methanol, containing ioversol as the internal standard. Samples are centrifuged and supernatant is dried under nitrogen gas at room temperature. Samples are reconstituted with mobile phase (ammonium acetate-formic acid-water). Iohexol is separated using an HPLC gradient method on a C-8 analytical column. MS/MS detection is in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the transitions monitored are m/z 822.0 to m/z 804.0 and m/z 807.0 to m/z 588.0 for iohexol and ioversol, respectively.
Marmet, Cynthia; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Renouf, Mathieu; Giuffrida, Francesca
Chlorogenic acids and derivatives like phenolic acids are potentially bioactive phenolics, which are commonly found in many foods. Once absorbed, chlorogenic and phenolic acids are highly metabolized by the intestine and the liver, producing glucuronidated and/or sulphated compounds. These metabolites were analyzed in human plasma using a validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method. After protein precipitation, phenolic acids and their metabolites were extracted by using ethanol and chromatographic separation was achieved by reversed-phase using an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column combined with a gradient elution system using 1% acetic acid aqueous solution and 1% acetic acid with 100% acetonitrile. The method was able to quantify 56 different compounds including 24 phenolic acids, 4 lactones, 15 sulfates and 13 glucuronides metabolites between 5 and 1000nM in plasma for most of them, except for m-dihydrocoumaric acid, 5-ferulloylquinic-glucuronide, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (25 to 1000nM) and p-dihydrocoumaric acid (50-1000nM). Values of repeatability and intermediate reproducibility were below 15% of deviation in general, and maximum 20% for the lowest concentrations. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify phenolic acids and their metabolites in plasma obtained after oral ingestion of soluble coffee. In conclusion, the developed and validated method is proved to be very sensitive, accurate and precise for the quantification of these possible dietary phenols.
Bosilkovska, Marija; Déglon, Julien; Samer, Caroline; Walder, Bernhard; Desmeules, Jules; Staub, Christian; Daali, Youssef
An LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe substrates and their Phase I metabolites in DBS and plasma. P-gp (fexofenadine) and CYP-specific substrates (caffeine for CYP1A2, bupropion for CYP2B6, flurbiprofen for CYP2C9, omeprazole for CYP2C19, dextromethorphan for CYP2D6 and midazolam for CYP3A4) and their metabolites were extracted from DBS (10 µl) using methanol. Analytes were separated on a reversed-phase LC column followed by SRM detection within a 6 min run time. The method was fully validated over the expected clinical concentration range for all substances tested, in both DBS and plasma. The method has been successfully applied to a PK study where healthy male volunteers received a low dose cocktail of the here described P-gp and CYP probes. Good correlation was observed between capillary DBS and venous plasma drug concentrations. Due to its low-invasiveness, simple sample collection and minimal sample preparation, DBS represents a suitable method to simultaneously monitor in vivo activities of P-gp and CYP.
Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Zarandona, Iratxe; Ortiz, Laura; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz
A high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its two metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), and four additional cannabinoids (cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and cannabinol (CBN)) in 1 mL of human urine and plasma was developed and validated. The hydrolysis process was studied to ensure complete hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates and the extraction of a total amount of analytes. Initially, urine and plasma blank samples were spiked with THC-COOH-glucuronide and THC-glucuronide, and four different pretreatment methods were compared: hydrolysis-free method, enzymatic hydrolysis with Escherichia Coli β-glucuronidase, alkaline hydrolysis with 10 M NaOH, and enzyme-alkaline tandem hydrolysis. The last approach assured the maximum efficiencies (close to 100%) for both urine and plasma matrices. Regarding the figures of merit, the limits of detection were below 1 ng/mL for all analytes, the accuracy ranged from 84% to 115%, and both within-day and between-day precision were lower than 12%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to real urine and plasma samples from cannabis users. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dziadosz, Marek; Klintschar, Michael; Teske, Jörg
As imatinib gained a lot of attention in the field of medicine, appropriate methods are needed for drug analysis. LC-MS/MS combined with complex sample preparation and column enrichment is usually the method of choice when high sensitivity is necessary. The application of LC-MS3 in imatinib quantification has not been discussed in the literature. An LC-MS3 imatinib quantification method was developed and validated in human serum. The sample preparation was based on the liquid-liquid extraction of 50 μL human serum. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna 5 μm C18 (2) 100 A, 150 mm×2 mm column and the elution was done using a mobile phase consisting of A (H2O/methanol=95/5, v/v) and B (H2O/methanol=3/97, v/v), both with 10 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% acetic acid. The conditions applied resulted in a limit of detection/quantification value of 0.14/0.45 ng/mL reached without a sophisticated sample preparation technique or enrichment column application. It could be demonstrated that MS3 detection is a very effective way of sensitive imatinib quantification. Further, it could be stated that the strategy presented can be very useful for a sensitive analysis of other protein kinase inhibitors, because their molecule structure is appropriate for MS3 detection. The presented analytical strategy is an effective way of protein kinase inhibitor analysis in human serum.
Venugopal, N; Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, A; Madhavi, G
A stability indicating gradient reverse phase UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three phenol impurities in ritonavir drug substance. The chromatographic separation was performed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution of 0.05% ammonia in methanol and 5.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Both negative and positive electrospray ionization (ESI) modes were operated simultaneously for the quantification of three phenol impurities. The total run time was 11 min, within which ritonavir and its three impurities were well separated. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curves showed a good linearity over the concentration range of 0.3-1.5 ppm for phenol and 0.1-1.5 ppm for both 4-nitrophenol and N-phenoxycarbonyl-L-valine (NPV). The determination coefficient obtained was >0.9998 in each case. The method had very low limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) and the accuracy lies between 97.8% and 103.2% for all the three phenol impurities. The developed method was successfully applied for five formulation batches of ritonavir to determine its phenol impurities.
Jimmerson, Leah C.; Ray, Michelle L.; Bushman, Lane R.; Anderson, Peter L.; Klein, Brandon; Rower, Joseph E.; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Kiser, Jennifer J.
Ribavirin (RBV) is a nucleoside analog used to treat a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. RBV undergoes intracellular phosphorylation to a mono- (MP), di- (DP), and triphosphate (TP). The phosphorylated forms have been associated with the mechanisms of antiviral effect observed in vitro, but the intracellular pharmacology of the drug has not been well characterized in vivo. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of intracellular RBV MP, DP, and TP in multiple cell matrix types. For this method, the individual MP, DP, and TP fractions were isolated from lysed intracellular matrix using strong anion exchange solid phase extraction, dephosphorylated to parent RBV, desalted and concentrated and quantified using LC-MS/MS. The method utilized a stable labeled internal standard (RBV-13C5) which facilitated accuracy (% deviation within ±15%) and precision (coefficient of variation of ≤15%). The quantifiable linear range for the assay was 0.50 to 200 pmol/sample. The method was applied to the measurement of RBV MP, DP, and TP in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), red blood cells (RBC), and dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from patients taking RBV for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. PMID:25555148
Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia
A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, Δα,β-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids.
Pettersson Bergstrand, Madeleine; Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof
New psychoactive substances (NPS) have become an increasing drug problem in the past decade. For detection of NPS, new analytical methods have to be developed, and the methods also have to be updated regularly. This study aimed at developing a multi-component LC-MS/MS method for detection and quantification of 11 NPS of the benzodiazepine sub-class ("designer benzodiazepines") in urine specimens. The method involves dilution of urine with internal standard and hydrolysis of any glucuronide conjugated forms. Separation of the compounds was achieved on a BEH Phenyl column, followed by MS/MS detection in positive electrospray mode. Method validation was performed following the EMA guideline. The method was applied to study the occurrence of designer benzodiazepines in Sweden in 2014-2015, by analysis of 390 samples retrieved from a routine drug testing laboratory. In 40% of these samples, selected based on a positive immunoassay benzodiazepine screening but a negative MS confirmation for the standard set of prescription benzodiazepines, intake of designer benzodiazepines was revealed. These results stress the importance of using and updating confirmation methods to include the increasing number of designer benzodiazepines appearing on the NPS market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Hao, Jifu; Li, Xueke; Guo, Ning
A simple and rapid method was developed using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata, a common herb and vegetable in China. The optimized parameters of MAE were: employing 50% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 400 W, temperature 70 °C, ratio of liquid/solid 30 mL/g and extraction time 2 min. Compared to conventional extraction methods, the optimized MAE can avoid the degradation of the phenolic compounds and simultaneously obtained the highest yields of all components faster with less consumption of solvent and energy. Six phenolic acids, six flavonoid glycosides and one coumarin were firstly identified. The phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC-DAD with good linearity, precision, and accuracy. The extract obtained by MAE showed significant antioxidant activity. The proposed method provides a valuable and green analytical methodology for the investigation of phenolic components in natural plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quantification of the Polyisoprenylated Benzophenones Garcinol and Isogarcinol Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring LC/Electrospray Ionization-MS/MS Analysis of Ultrasound-Assisted Extracts of Garcinia indica Fruits.
Bharate, Jaideep Bibishan; Vishwakarma, Ram Ashrey; Bharate, Sandip Bibishan; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai Prakash
This paper describes a method that includes an optimized extraction process and identification and quantification of two anticancer compounds (garcinol and isogarcinol) by LC/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The study aimed to develop a fast, accurate, and sensitive method for the quantification of garcinol and isogarcinol in different extracts of Garcinia indica fruits. The compounds were detected using LC/ESI-MS/MS in the positive-ion mode and quantified in the MRM mode using a transition mass of m/z 603.3/411 taken as the quantifier and 603.3/343.2 as the qualifier for garcinol and isogarcinol. Five point calibration curves were linear in the range of 2 to 10 ng/mL for garcinol and 0.5 to 6 ng/mL for isogarcinol, with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.990 for both. LOQ for garcinol and isogarcinol was 0.06 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively, while LOD was 0.021 and 0.017 ng/mL respectively. Our work demonstrated optimization of extraction procedure, fast and highly sensitive quantification (pg level LOQ), and validation of the developed method for the investigated compounds in fruit extracts of G. indica.
Yang, Chao; Yang, Can; Yu, Weichuan
Peptide abundance estimation is generally the first step in protein quantification. In peptide abundance estimation, peptide overlapping and peak intensity variation are two challenges. The main objective of this paper is to estimate peptide abundance by taking advantage of peptide isotopic distribution and smoothness of peptide elution profile. Our method proposes to solve the peptide overlapping problem and provides a way to control the variance of estimation. We compare our method with a commonly used method on simulated data sets and two real data sets of standard protein mixtures. The results show that our method achieves more accurate estimation of peptide abundance on different samples. In our method, there is a variance-related parameter. Considering the well-known trade-off between the variance and the bias of estimation, we should not only focus on reducing the variance in real applications. A suggestion about parameter selection is given based on the discussion of variance and bias. Matlab source codes and detailed experimental results are available at http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/PeptideQuant/peptidequant.htm.
Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.
Diseased airways have been known for several years as a possible contributing factor to airflow limitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). Quantification of disease severity through the evaluation of airway dimensions - wall thickness and lumen diameter - has gained increased attention, thanks to the availability of multi-slice computed tomography (CT). Novel approaches have focused on automated methods of measurement as a faster and more objective means that the visual assessment routinely employed in the clinic. Since the Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) method of airway measurement was introduced two decades ago , several new techniques for quantifying airways have been detailed in the literature, but no approach has truly become a standard for such analysis. Our own research group has presented two alternative approaches for determining airway dimensions, one involving a minimum path and the other active contours [2, 3]. With an increasing number of techniques dedicated to the same goal, we decided to take a step back and analyze the differences of these methods. We consequently put to the test our two methods of analysis and the FWHM approach. We first measured a set of 5 airways from a phantom of known dimensions. Then we compared measurements from the three methods to those of two independent readers, performed on 35 airways in 5 patients. We elaborate on the differences of each approach and suggest conclusions on which could be defined as the best one.
Gimeno, Pascal; Thomas, Sébastien; Bousquet, Claudine; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine
A GC/MS method was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 phthalates: 8 phthalates classified H360 (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP and DiBP), 3 phthalates proposed to be forbidden in medical devices (DnOP, DiNP and DiDP) and 3 other phthalates none regulated (DMP, DCHP and DEP) which may interfere with hormone function. In order to identify and quantify other plasticizers that are commonly used in PVC medical devices such as DEHP substitute, 5 non-phthalate plasticizers (ATBC, DEHA, DEHT, TOTM, and DINCH) were included in this study. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of plasticizers is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30m×0.25mm (i.d.)×0.25μm film thickness using a gradient temperature. Compounds quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements on standard solutions were determined using the ISO 12787 standard approach. Plasticizers are extracted from PVC medical devices using THF for dissolving the PVC part of the sample followed by precipitation of the PVC by addition of ethanol. The supernatant is injected into a GC/MS system after dilution in ethanol. Different validation elements, including extraction recoveries for all compounds or for DEHP a cross-validation of the extraction process using the European pharmacopoeia monograph 3.1.14 as reference method, are discussed. Results obtained on 61 medical devices in PVC and 12 raw materials used as plasticizers are given.
Nicoletti, Isabella; Bello, Cristiano; De Rossi, Antonella; Corradini, Danilo
Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on a semimicro separation scale was employed to develop a straightforward method for the simultaneous separation, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds occurring in whole berries of Vitis vinifera, which comprise phenolic acids, flavonols, catechins, stilbenes, and anthocyanins. A C-18 narrow bore column of 150 x 2.0 mm I.D. and a semimicro photodiode array detector (PDA) cell of 2.5 microL, in conjunction with a mass spectrometry detector equipped with an electrospray ionization source (ESI-MS) to confirm peak identification, were employed. The C-18 narrow bore column was eluted by a multisegment gradient of increasing concentration of acetonitrile in water-formic acid solution that was optimized on the basis of the results of a study carried out to evaluate the influence of mobile phase composition and gradient shape on separation performance and detection sensitivity by ESI-MS. The identification of individual phenolic compounds was performed on the basis of their retention times and both UV-visible and mass spectra, acquired by a mass spectrometer (MS) equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, employed in conjunction with the PDA detector. Libraries comprising retention times, UV-visible, and mass spectra for major phenolic compounds expected in grape berries were made by subjecting solutions of each phenolic standard to the optimized RP-HPLC method. Quantification of individual compounds was performed by the external standard method using a six point regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance of each analyte determined by the PDA spectra. The RP-HPLC method was validated in terms of linearity of calibration graphs, limits of detection, limits of quantification, repeatability, and accuracy, which was evaluated by a recovery study. The developed method was successfully applied to identify the phenolic compounds
Montoro, P; Carbone, V; Quiroz, J de Dioz Zuniga; De Simone, F; Pizza, C
The two main classes of secondary metabolites, alkaloids and quinovic acid glycosides, of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a Peruvian plant commonly known as 'uña de gato', have been analysed. Separation of the alkaloidal fraction was achieved using a solid phase extraction method based on cationic exchange, and an analytical method employing HPLC-ES/MS has been developed. Quantitative data for commercial wild bark, cultivated bark and leaves are reported. The analysis of quinovic acid glycosides was performed directly on the crude extract using both a fast analytical method based on flow injection ES/MS, and a more complete analytical technique using HPLC-MS.
Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Rizwan; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Alam, Md Aftab; Samim, Mohd; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees
Rutin (RT), an antioxidant drug, has been utilized to treat cerebral ischemia hence a sensitive quantification method for estimation of RT in brain homogenate is necessary to develop. This study aims to prepare RT loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles (RT-CS-NPs) develop and validate ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-synapt mass spectrometric method Synapt Mass Spectrometry (Synapt MS) (UHPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) for quantification of RT in brain homogenate from Wistar rat. The process of chromatographic separation was carried out on Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ with the components of separation in detail as; column: BEH C-18 with dimension as 2.1 mm×100 mm and particle size 1.7 µm, mobile phase: acetonitrile (85 % v/v/v): 2 mM ammonium formate (15 % v/v/v): formic acid (0.1 % v/v/v) and flow rate: 0.25 mL/min. Liquid-liquid extraction method (LLE), in mixture, i.e. ethyl acetate:acetonitrile, was considered to optimize the recovery of analyte from the brain homogenate of Wistar rat. Over a total run time of 5 minutes, the elution time for RT and internal standard (IS), i.e. Tolbutamide, observed was 2.67 and 2.82 min respectively whereas the transition observed for RT and IS was at m/z 611.1023/303.1071 and 271.1263/155.1073, respectively. Results, regarding various processes and parameters studied for RT as summarized, established a linear dynamic range over a concentration range of 1.00 ng/mL - 1000.0 ng/mL with r2; 0.9991±0.0010. Accuracy for intra and inter-assay in terms of % CV revealed a range of 0.45- 2.11 whereas lower limit of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) observed was 0.09 ng/mL and 0.142 ng/mL, respectively. The analyte stability as well as method specificity and accuracy, i.e. recovery > 86 %, supports the idea for application of current developed method in order to quantify and evaluate the RT-loaded-CS-NPs for RT determination in brain homogenate after intranasal drug delivery. PMID:28096783
Wille, Klaas; Kiebooms, Julie A L; Claessens, Michiel; Rappé, Karen; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Noppe, Herlinde; Van Praet, Nander; De Wulf, Eric; Van Caeter, Peter; Janssen, Colin R; De Brabander, Hubert F; Vanhaecke, Lynn
Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and pesticides, are important environmental contaminants. To obtain more information regarding their presence in marine organisms, an increasing demand exists for reliable analytical methods for quantification of these micropollutants in biotic matrices. Therefore, we developed extraction procedures and new analytical methods for the quantification of 14 pesticides, 10 PFCs, and 11 pharmaceuticals in tissue of marine organisms, namely blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). This paper presents these optimized analytical procedures and their application to M. edulis, deployed at five stations in the Belgian coastal zone. The methods consisted of a pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for pharmaceuticals and pesticides, and of a liquid extraction using acetonitrile and SPE, followed by liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for PFCs. The limits of quantification of the three newly optimized analytical procedures in M. edulis tissue varied between 0.1 and 10 ng g(-1), and satisfactory linearities (≥0.98) and recoveries (90-106%) were obtained. Application of these methods to M. edulis revealed the presence of five pharmaceuticals, two PFCs, and seven pesticides at levels up to 490, 5, and 60 ng g(-1), respectively. The most prevalent micropollutants were salicylic acid, paracetamol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, chloridazon, and dichlorvos.
Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Schwartz, Katrin; Balsano, Evelyn; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan
Acetaminophen is a pharmaceutical, frequently found in surface water as a contaminant. Bioremediation, in particular, mycoremediation of acetaminophen is a method to remove this compound from waters. Owing to the lack of quantitative analytical method for acetaminophen in aquatic organisms, the present study aimed to develop a method for the determination of acetaminophen using LC-MS/MS in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis. The method was then applied to evaluate the uptake of acetaminophen by M. hiemalis, cultured in pellet morphology. The method was robust, sensitive and reproducible with a lower limit of quantification of 5 pg acetaminophen on column. It was found that M. hiemalis internalize the pharmaceutical, and bioaccumulate it with time. Therefore, M. hiemalis was deemed a suitable candidate for further studies to elucidate its pharmaceutical tolerance and the longevity in mycoremediation applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pingale, Satish G; Mangaonkar, Kiran V
An analytical method based on protein precipitation has been developed and validated for analysis of lumefantrine in human plasma. Artesunate was used as an internal standard for lumefantrine. Inertsil ODS column provided chromatographic separation of analytes followed by detection with mass spectrometry. The method involves simple isocratic chromatographic condition and mass spectrometric detection in the positive ionization mode using an API-3000 system. The total run time was 2.5 minutes. The proposed method has been validated with linear range of 200-20000 ng/mL for lumefantrine. The intrarun and interrun precision values are within 6.66% and 5.56%, respectively, for lumefantrine at the lower limit of quantification level. The overall recovery for lumefantrine and artesunate was 93.16% and 91.05%, respectively. This validated method was used successfully for analysis of plasma samples from a bioequivalence study.
Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik
Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, a relatively new gas/vapour phase analytical method, is derived from the much earlier selected ion flow tube, SIFT, used for the study of gas phase ion-molecule reactions. Both the SIFT and SIFT-MS techniques were conceived and developed in the UK, the former at Birmingham University, the latter at Keele University along with the complementary flowing afterglow mass spectrometry, FA-MS, technique. The focus of this short review is largely to describe the origins, developments and, most importantly, the unique features of SIFT-MS as an analytical tool for ambient analysis and to indicate its growing use to analyse humid air, especially exhaled breath, its unique place as a on-line, real time analytical method and its growing use and applications as a non-invasive diagnostic in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, principally within several UK universities and hospitals, and briefly in the wider world. A few case studies are outlined that show the potential of SIFT-MS and FA-MS in the detection and quantification of metabolites in exhaled breath as a step towards recognising pathophysiology indicative of disease and the presence of bacterial and fungal infection of the airways and lungs. Particular cases include the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (SIFT-MS) and the measurement of total body water in patients with chronic kidney disease (FA-MS). The growing exploitation of SIFT-MS in other areas of research and commerce are briefly listed to show the wide utility of this unique UK-developed analytical method, and future prospects and developments are alluded to.
Couchman, Lewis; Fisher, Danielle S; Subramaniam, Krithika; Handley, Simon A; Boughtflower, Robert J; Benton, Christopher M; Flanagan, Robert J
A novel approach to high-throughput, targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis has been developed. A single chromatographic system can be used for the analysis of a range of 20 drugs and metabolites with a total analysis time of 36 s (one 96-well plate of prepared samples per hour). To demonstrate the applicability of this approach to quantitative analysis, a method has been validated for the therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine and norclozapine following automated extraction from human plasma. Chromatographic retention times were 11.4 and 12.4 s for norclozapine and clozapine, respectively (for both analytes the chromatographic peak width was less than 1 s). Comparison with a conventional LC-MS/MS method (5 min analysis time) showed excellent agreement. This new approach offers analysis times more akin to flow-injection analysis, but is likely to be more widely applicable because of chromatographic resolution from residual matrix components and isobaric interferences. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhao, Yan; Wan, Li-Hong; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Feng-Ping; Liu, Yao-Min; Liao, Xun
The detection of mycotoxin contamination in foodstuffs is highly significant for public health. Herein we report an analytical method based on magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) and UPLC-MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins, including fumonisins B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZON) and ochratoxin A (OTA), in vegetable oil. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with double layers of silicon dioxide were synthesised and found to be an effective MSPE adsorbent for mycotoxins. The proposed MSPE procedure serves not only for sample clean-up but also for mycotoxin enrichment that enhances greatly the assay's sensitivity. Under the selected MSPE conditions, linear matrix-matched calibration curves were obtained for mycotoxins in a concentration range from 0.178 to 625 μg kg(-1). The limits of detection were 0.210 μg kg(-1) for FB1, 0.0800 μg kg(-1) for OTA and 1.03 μg kg(-1) for ZON. The proposed MSPE UPLC-MS/MS method was applied for the determination of mycotoxins in vegetable oil samples, including maize oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil. ZON was detected in a maize oil at 101 μg kg(-1), which is below the European Union limit of 200 μg kg(-1) in foodstuffs.
Huang, Qianyang; Liu, Danting; Xin, Baozhong; Cechner, Karen; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Aimin
Gangliosides are found in abundance in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Their metabolic disruption and dysfunction are associated with various neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In order to improve our understanding of the etiology of these diseases, analytical ganglioside assays with sufficient specificity and sensitivity in relevant biological matrices are required. In the present work we have developed and validated a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method for determining monosialogangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3 present in human plasma. Compared with our previous method, this method enhanced, by 15 fold, MS responses of the analytes by employing 2-(2-Pyridilamino)-ethylamine (PAEA) & 4-(4, 6-Dimethoxy-1, 3, 5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM)-based derivatization. The analytes and internal standards were derivatized with PAEA&DMTMM after extraction from plasma using a protein precipitation procedure. They were then purified using liquid-liquid partitioning. When the samples were then analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS with a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, we achieved superior sensitivity and specificity. This method was evaluated for extraction recovery, calibration linearity, precision, accuracy, and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). The validated method was successfully applied to monitor monosialoganglioside levels in the plasma from patients with GM3 synthase deficiency. With significantly increased sensitivity, we have, for the first time, detected a significant amount of GM3 in the affected patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dubbelman, A C; Tibben, M; Rosing, H; Gebretensae, A; Nan, L; Gorman, S H; Robertson, P; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H
A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay is described for the quantification of the anti-cancer agent bendamustine and its phase I metabolites γ-hydroxy-bendamustine (M3) and N-des-methylbendamustine (M4) and for its product of two-fold hydrolysis, dihydroxy-bendamustine (HP2), in human plasma and urine. Like most alkylating nitrogen mustards, bendamustine is prone to chemical hydrolysis in aqueous solution. To minimize degradation of bendamustine, urine samples were stabilized by a 100-fold dilution with human plasma and then processed identically to plasma samples. Sample aliquots of 200 μL were mixed with an internal standard solution and acidified before separation of the analytes from the biomatrix with solid phase extraction. Dried and reconstituted extracts were injected on a Synergi Hydro RP column for the analysis of bendamustine, M3 and M4 or a Synergi Polar RP column for the analysis of HP2. Gradient elution was applied using 5mM ammonium formate with 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol as mobile phases. Analytes were ionized using an electrospray ionisation source in positive mode and detected with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The quantifiable range for bendamustine, M3 and M4 was 0.5-500 ng/mL in plasma and 0.5-50 μg/mL in urine, and that for HP2 was 1-500 ng/mL in plasma and 0.1-50 μg/mL in urine. The assays were accurate and precise, with inter-assay and intra-assay accuracies within ± 20% of nominal and CV values below 20% at the lower limit of quantification and within ± 15% of nominal and below 15% at the other concentration levels tested. These methods were successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of bendamustine and its metabolites in cancer patients treated with bendamustine.
Leston, Sara; Nebot, Carolina; Nunes, Margarida; Cepeda, Alberto; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando
The awareness of the interconnection between pharmaceutical residues, human health, and aquaculture has highlighted the concern with the potential harmful effects it can induce. Furthermore, to better understand the consequences more research is needed and to achieve that new methodologies on the detection and quantification of pharmaceuticals are necessary. Antibiotics are a major class of drugs included in the designation of emerging contaminants, representing a high risk to natural ecosystems. Among the most prescribed are sulfonamides, with sulfathiazole being the selected compound to be investigated in this study. In the environment, macroalgae are an important group of producers, continuously exposed to contaminants, with a significant role in the trophic web. Due to these characteristics are already under scope for the possibility of being used as bioindicators. The present study describes two new methodologies based on liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfathiazole in seawater and in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Results show both methods were validated according to international standards, with MS/MS detection showing more sensitivity as expected with LODs of 2.79ng/g and 1.40ng/mL for algae and seawater, respectively. As for UV detection the values presented were respectively 2.83μg/g and 2.88μg/mL, making it more suitable for samples originated in more contaminated sites. The methods were also applied to experimental data with success with results showing macroalgae have potential use as indicators of contamination.
Jouhet, Juliette; Lupette, Josselin; Clerc, Olivier; Magneschi, Leonardo; Bedhomme, Mariette; Collin, Séverine; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric; Rébeillé, Fabrice
Methods to analyze lipidomes have considerably evolved, more and more based on mass spectrometry technics (LC-MS/MS). However, accurate quantifications using these methods require 13C-labeled standards for each lipid, which is not feasible because of the very large number of molecules. Thus, quantifications rely on standard molecules representative of a whole class of lipids, which might lead to false estimations of some molecular species. Here, we determined and compared glycerolipid distributions from three different types of cells, two microalgae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis gaditana) and one higher plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), using either LC-MS/MS or Thin Layer Chromatography coupled with Gas Chromatography (TLC-GC), this last approach relying on the precise quantification of the fatty acids present in each glycerolipid class. Our results showed that the glycerolipid distribution was significantly different depending on the method used. How can one reconcile these two analytical methods? Here we propose that the possible bias with MS data can be circumvented by systematically running in tandem with the sample to be analyzed a lipid extract from a qualified control (QC) of each type of cells, previously analyzed by TLC-GC, and used as an external standard to quantify the MS results. As a case study, we applied this method to compare the impact of a nitrogen deficiency on the three types of cells.
Jouhet, Juliette; Lupette, Josselin; Clerc, Olivier; Magneschi, Leonardo; Bedhomme, Mariette; Collin, Séverine; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric
Methods to analyze lipidomes have considerably evolved, more and more based on mass spectrometry technics (LC-MS/MS). However, accurate quantifications using these methods require 13C-labeled standards for each lipid, which is not feasible because of the very large number of molecules. Thus, quantifications rely on standard molecules representative of a whole class of lipids, which might lead to false estimations of some molecular species. Here, we determined and compared glycerolipid distributions from three different types of cells, two microalgae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis gaditana) and one higher plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), using either LC-MS/MS or Thin Layer Chromatography coupled with Gas Chromatography (TLC-GC), this last approach relying on the precise quantification of the fatty acids present in each glycerolipid class. Our results showed that the glycerolipid distribution was significantly different depending on the method used. How can one reconcile these two analytical methods? Here we propose that the possible bias with MS data can be circumvented by systematically running in tandem with the sample to be analyzed a lipid extract from a qualified control (QC) of each type of cells, previously analyzed by TLC-GC, and used as an external standard to quantify the MS results. As a case study, we applied this method to compare the impact of a nitrogen deficiency on the three types of cells. PMID:28771624
Mikel, Pavel; Vasickova, Petra; Tesarik, Radek; Malenovska, Hana; Kulich, Pavel; Vesely, Tomas; Kralik, Petr
The detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses is based on isolation of viral RNA from the sample followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). To control the whole process of analysis and in order to guarantee the validity and reliability of results, process control viruses (PCV) are used. The present article describes the process of preparation and use of such PCV– MS2 phage-like particles (MS2 PLP) – in RT-qPCR detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses. The MS2 PLP were derived from bacteriophage MS2 carrying a unique and specific de novo-constructed RNA target sequence originating from the DNA of two extinct species. The amount of prepared MS2 particles was quantified using four independent methods – UV spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, transmission electron microscopy and a specifically developed duplex RT-qPCR. To evaluate the usefulness of MS2 PLP in routine diagnostics different matrices known to harbor enteric RNA viruses (swab samples, liver tissue, serum, feces, and vegetables) were artificially contaminated with specific amounts of MS2 PLP. The extraction efficiencies were calculated for each individual matrix. The prepared particles fulfill all requirements for PCV – they are very stable, non-infectious, and are genetically distinct from the target RNA viruses. Due to these properties they represent a good morphological and physiochemical model. The use of MS2 PLP as a PCV in detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses was evaluated in different types of matrices. PMID:28133456
Suhr, Anna Catharina; Bruegel, Mathias; Maier, Barbara; Holdt, Lesca Miriam; Kleinhempel, Alisa; Teupser, Daniel; Grimm, Stefanie H; Vogeser, Michael
We used ferromagnetic particles as a novel technique to deproteinize plasma samples prior to quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of seven eicosanoids [thromboxane B2 (TXB2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGD2, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), 11-HETE, 12-HETE, arachidonic acid (AA)]. A combination of ferromagnetic particle enhanced deproteination and subsequent on-line solid phase extraction (on-line SPE) realized quick and convenient semi-automated sample preparation-in contrast to widely used manual SPE techniques which are rather laborious and therefore impede the investigation of AA metabolism in larger patient cohorts. Method evaluation was performed according to a protocol based on the EMA guideline for bioanalytical method validation, modified for endogenous compounds. Calibrators were prepared in ethanol. The calibration curves were found to be linear in a range of 0.1-80ngmL(-1) (TXB2, PGE2, PGD2), 0.05-40ngmL(-1) (5-HETE, 11-HETE), 0.5-400ngmL(-1) (12-HETE) and 25-9800ngmL(-1) (AA). Regarding all analytes and all quality controls, the resulting precision data (inter-assay 2.6 %-15.5 %; intra-assay 2.5 %-15.1 %, expressed as variation coefficient) as well as the accuracy results (inter-assay 93.3 %-125 %; intra-assay 91.7 %-114 %) were adequate. Further experiments addressing matrix effect, recovery and robustness, yielded also very satisfying results. As a proof of principle, the newly developed LC-MS/MS assay was employed to determine the capacity of AA metabolite release after whole blood stimulation in healthy blood donors. For this purpose, whole blood specimens of 5 healthy blood donors were analyzed at baseline and after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced blood cell activation. In several baseline samples some eicosanoids levels were below the Lower Limit of Quantification. However, in the stimulated samples all chosen eicosanoids (except PGD2) could be quantified. These results, in context with those obtained in validation, demonstrate the
Delatorre, Carolina; Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Lucía; Majada, Juan P; Ordás, Ricardo J; Feito, Isabel
Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are very different chemical compounds that play essential roles in plant development and the regulation of physiological processes. They exert their functions by a mechanism called cross-talk (involving either synergistic or antagonistic actions) thus; it is for great interest to study as many PGRs as possible to obtain accurate information about plant status. Much effort has been applied to develop methods capable of analyze large numbers of these compounds but frequently excluding some chemical families or important PGRs within each family. In addition, most of the methods are specially designed for matrices easy to work with. Therefore, we wanted to develop a method which achieved the requirements lacking in the literature and also being fast and reliable. Here we present a simple, fast and robust method for the extraction and quantification of 20 different PGRs using UHPLC-MS/MS optimized in complex matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manda, Vamshi K; Avula, Bharathi; Ashfaq, Mohammad K; Abe, Naohito; Khan, Ikhlas A; Khan, Shabana I
Sceletium tortuosum, is an indigenous herb of South Africa which is widely used as an herbal supplement in the treatment of anxiety and stress. Mesembrenone and mesembrine are the two main pharmacologically active alkaloids present in the extract. Despite the wide therapeutic applications of Sceletium extract, there are no reports of in vivo pharmacokinetic properties or analytical methods to quantify these two important alkaloids in plasma. Therefore, the current study aimed to develop and validate a simple and sensitive analytical method for simultaneous quantification of mesembrenone and mesembrine in mouse plasma. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QToF-MS) was employed to achieve our objectives. The compounds were extracted using protein precipitation by methanol (100%) with quinine as an internal standard. The lower limit of quantification for both the compounds was 10 ng/mL. The extraction recovery was between 87 and 93% for both compounds with no matrix effects on the analysis. The accuracy was between 89.5 and 106% and precision was <12.6% for all quality control samples. This validated method was successfully applied to evaluate the i.v. plasma pharmacokinetics of mesembrine and mesembrenone in mouse. However, the oral bioavailability of these alkaloids was poor and the plasma levels were below the detection limits.
Svoboda, Pavel; Vlčková, Hana; Nováková, Lucie
A complete analytical procedure combining optimized tea infusion preparation and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for routine quantification of eight naturally occurring catechin derivatives in various tea samples. The preparation of tea infusions was optimized in terms of temperature, time and water-to-tea ratio in green, white and black teas. The catechins were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in a run of only 4 min including equilibration of the system. The UHPLC-MS/MS method was fully validated in terms of inter/intra-day precision, accuracy, linearity (r(2)>0.9991), range (50-5000 ng/ml), LOD (1.5-7.5 ng/ml) and LOQ (5-25 ng/ml). Validation of the method included also the determination of the matrix effects that were evaluated in both flavored and unflavored green, white and black teas. Dilution of the resulting tea infusions appeared to be crucial for the matrix effects and also for subsequent catechin quantification in real tea samples in order to fit into the linear range of the UHPLC-MS/MS method. This complete procedure for catechin quantification was finally applied to real sample analysis represented by 70 commercial tea samples.
Development and validation of an ultra-fast and sensitive microflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MFLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of LSD and its metabolites in plasma and application to a controlled LSD administration study in humans.
Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Stock, Lorena; Eisenbeiss, Lisa; Schmid, Yasmin; Liechti, Matthias E; Kraemer, Thomas
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a semi-synthetic hallucinogen that has gained popularity as a recreational drug and has been investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Analysis of LSD represents a major challenge in forensic toxicology due to its instability, low drug concentrations, and short detection windows in biological samples. A new, fast, and sensitive microflow liquid chromatography (MFLC) tandem mass spectrometry method for the validated quantification of LSD, iso-LSD, 2-oxo 3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and N-desmethyl-LSD (nor-LSD) was developed in plasma and applied to a controlled pharmacokinetic (PK) study in humans to test whether LSD metabolites would offer for longer detection windows. Five hundred microlitres of plasma were extracted by solid phase extraction. Analysis was performed on a Sciex Eksigent MFLC system coupled to a Sciex 5500 QTrap. The method was validated according to (inter)-national guidelines. MFLC allowed for separation of the mentioned analytes within 3 minutes and limits of quantification of 0.01 ng/mL. Validation criteria were fulfilled for all analytes. PK data could be calculated for LSD, iso-LSD, and oxo-HO-LSD in all participants. Additionally, hydroxy-LSD (HO-LSD) and HO-LSD glucuronide could be qualitatively detected and PK determined in 11 and 8 subjects, respectively. Nor-LSD was only sporadically detected. Elimination half-lives of iso-LSD (median 12 h) and LSD metabolites (median 9, 7.4, 12, and 11 h for oxo-HO-LSD, HO-LSD, HO-LSD-gluc, and nor-LSD, respectively) exceeded those of LSD (median 4.2 h). However, screening for metabolites to increase detection windows in plasma seems not to be constructive due to their very low concentrations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shi, Yao; Tse, Susanna; Rago, Brian; Yapa, Udeni; Li, Fumin; Fast, Douglas M
Fumaric acid is a commonly used excipient in pharmaceutical products. It is not known if its presence may lead to fluctuation of endogenous fumarate levels. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify fumarate in support of a toxicokinetics study. Stability evaluation showed that endogenous fumarate was stable for 6 h at room temperature, while exogenously added fumaric acid was converted to malate within 1 h due to the presence of fumarase. Citric acid, a fumarase inhibitor, prevented the conversion of added fumaric acid in rat plasma. The method was validated in citric acid stabilized rat plasma using a surrogate matrix approach. A discrepancy in stability was observed between endogenous fumarate and exogenously added fumaric acid.
Klawitter, Jelena; Zhang, Yan Ling; Klawitter, Jost; Anderson, Nora; Serkova, Natalie J.; Christians, Uwe
We developed and validated a semi-automated LC/LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of imatinib in human whole blood and leukemia cells. After protein precipitation, samples were injected into the HPLC system and trapped onto the enrichment column (flow 5 mL/min); extracts were back-flushed onto the analytical column. Ion transitions [M + H]+ of imatinib (m/z = 494.3 → 394.3) and its internal standard trazodone (372.5 → 176.3) were monitored. The range of reliable response was 0.03–75 ng/mL. The inter-day precisions were: 8.4% (0.03 ng/mL), 7.2% (0.1 ng/mL), 6.5% (1 ng/mL), 8.2% (10 ng/mL) and 4.3% (75 ng/mL) with no interference from ion suppression. Autosampler stability was 24 hs and samples were stable over three freeze–thaw cycles. This semi-automated method is simple with only one manual step, uses a commercially available internal standard, and has proven to be robust in larger studies. PMID:19517424
Brix, Kristina; Hein, Christina; Sander, Jonas Michael; Kautenburger, Ralf
The determination of iodine as a main fission product (especially the isotopes I-129 and I-131) of stored HLW in a disposal beside its distribution as a natural ingredient of many different products like milk, food and seawater is a matter of particular interest. The simultaneous ICP-MS determination of iodine as iodide together with other elements (especially higher valent metal ions) relevant for HLW is analytically very problematic. A reliable ICP-MS quantification of iodide must be performed at neutral or alkaline conditions in contrast to the analysis of metal ions which are determined in acidic pH ranges. Herein, we present a method to solve this problem by changing the iodine speciation resulting in an ICP-MS determination of iodide as iodate. The oxidation from iodide to iodate with sodium hypochlorite at room temperature is a fast and convenient method with flexible reaction time, from one hour up to three days, thus eliminating the disadvantages of quantifying iodine species via ICP-MS. In the analysed concentration range of iodine (0.1-100µgL(-1)) we obtain likely quantitative recovery rates for iodine between 91% and 102% as well as relatively low RSD values (0.3-4.0%). As an additional result, it is possible to measure different other element species in parallel together with the generated iodate, even high valent metals (europium and uranium beside caesium) at recovery rates in the same order of magnitude (93-104%). In addition, the oxidation process operates above pH 7 thus offering a wide pH range for sample preparation. Even analytes in complex matrices, like 5M saline (NaCl) solution or artificial cement pore water (ACW) can be quantified with this robust sample preparation method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo
We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nantia, Edouard Akono; Moreno-González, David; Manfo, Faustin P T; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M
A new reliable, fast and highly sensitive method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the determination of 28 carbamates in aromatic herbs. A modified QuEChERS-based method was optimized for the extraction of carbamate residues from a wide variety of fresh herbal products. The proposed method allowed recoveries higher than 72%, achieving quantification limits of 2μgkg(-1), therefore below maximum residue limits established for this type of samples. The combination of QuEChERS with UHPLC-MS/MS introduces a high-throughput methodology for the monitoring of these residues in this type of matrices scarcely explored. The analysis of the real samples revealed that several samples sold in the European Union and in the North West region of Cameroon contain pesticides in concentrations below the maximum residue limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feás, Xesús; Ye, Lei; Hosseini, Seyed V; Fente, Cristina A; Cepeda, Alberto
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative assay of cyproheptadine (CP) in pharmaceutical samples. Diphenylpyraline hydrochloride (DPP) was used as an internal standard (IS). Two multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) transitions for each analyte were observed: 288.1/96.1 and 288.1/191.2 for CP and 282.1/167.2 and 282.1/116.3 for DPP. The retention time of the drug was 7.29 min. The analytical method was successfully validated for linearity (1-100 ng/ml), intra-day precision, inter-day precision, and accuracy. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.86 and 0.98 ng/ml, respectively. The proposed method was applied to analyse the cyproheptadine content from seven different syrup formulations.
Stajić, A; Anđelković, M; Dikić, N; Rašić, J; Vukašinović-Vesić, M; Ivanović, D; Jančić-Stojanović, B
From 1st January 2017 higenamine was added on the WADA (World Anti-doping Agency) Prohibited list under S3 group beta-2 agonists as at all times banned substance for the athletes. The main origine of higenamine (or norcoclaurine) are different plants including Nandina domestica, Aconitum carmichaelii, Asarum heterotropioides, Galium divaricatum, Annona squamosa, Nelumbo nucifera etc. Higenamine main use is related to weight loss and it could be found (un)labeled in different dietary supplements. The objective of this study was development of sensitive and reliable UHPLC/MS/MS method for determination of higenamine in various dietary supplement samples. In order to obtain high method sensitivity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode was applied. Separation was carried out on UHPLC Acquity BEH HILIC analytical column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm particle size). Mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, respectively, was mixed in ratio of 30:70, v/v. Flow rate was set at 0.2mLmin(-1). Quercetin was used as an internal standard. ESI (+) source ionization mode using multi reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was utilized and three ion transitions of higenamine were followed 272.08→107.01, 272.08→161.07 and 272.08→77.08. Developed method was fully validated and applied for identification and quantification of higenamine in different dietary supplements. According to the results, the most of investigated supplements were free of higenamine, and on the other hand, presence of higenamine was confirmed in some samples while it was not declared on the label. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manzano, Carlos; Hoh, Eunha; Massey Simonich, Staci L.
This research is the first to quantify complex PAH mixtures in NIST SRMs using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/ToF-MS), with and without extract cleanup, and reports previously unidentified PAH isomers in the NIST SRMs. We tested a novel, high orthogonality GC column combination (LC-50×NSP-35), as well as with a commonly used column combination (Rtx-5ms×Rxi-17) for the quantification of a complex mixture of 85 different PAHs, including parent (PAHs), alkyl- (MPAHs), nitro- (NPAHs), oxy- (OPAHs), thio- (SPAHs), bromo- (BrPAHs), and chloro-PAHs (ClPAHs) in extracts from two standard reference materials: NIST SRM1650b (diesel particulate matter), with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 (diesel particulate extract), with and without extract cleanup. The LC-50×NSP-35 column combination resulted in an average absolute percent difference of 33.8%, 62.2% and 30.8% compared to the NIST certified PAH concentrations for NIST SRM1650b, NIST SRM1975 with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 without cleanup, while the Rtx-5ms×Rxi-17 resulted in an absolute percent difference of 38.6%, 67.2% and 79.6% for NIST SRM1650b, NIST SRM1975 with cleanup and NIST SRM1975 without cleanup, respectively. This GC×GC/ToF-MS method increases the number of PAHs detected and quantified in complex environmental extracts using a single chromatographic run. Without clean-up, 7 additional compounds were detected and quantified in NIST SRM1975 using the LC-50×NSP-35 column combination. These results suggest that the use of the LC-50×NSP-35 column combination in GC×GC/ToF-MS not only results in better chromatographic resolution and greater orthogonality for the separation of complex PAH mixtures, but can also be used for the accurate quantification of complex PAH mixtures in environmental extracts without cleanup. PMID:23932031
Vrhovsek, Urska; Masuero, Domenico; Gasperotti, Mattia; Franceschi, Pietro; Caputi, Lorenzo; Viola, Roberto; Mattivi, Fulvio
Compelling evidence of the health benefits of phenolic compounds and their impact on food quality have stimulated the development of analytical methods for the identification and quantification of these compounds in different matrices in recent years. A targeted metabolomics method has been developed for the quantification of 135 phenolics, such as benzoates, phenylpropanoids, coumarins, stilbenes, dihydrochalcones, and flavonoids, in fruit and tea extracts and wine using UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS. Chromatography was optimized to achieve separation of the compounds over a period of 15 min, and MRM transitions were selected for accurate quantification. The method was validated by studying the detection and quantification limits, the linearity ranges, and the intraday and interday repeatability of the analysis. The validated method was applied to the analysis of apples, berries, green tea, and red wine, providing a valuable tool for food quality evaluation and breeding studies.
Results of an interlaboratory method performance study for the size determination and quantification of silver nanoparticles in chicken meat by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS).
Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud; Loeschner, Katrin; Grombe, Ringo; Linsinger, Thomas P J
Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS) promises fast and selective determination of nanoparticle size and number concentrations. While several studies on practical applications have been published, data on formal, especially interlaboratory validation of sp-ICP-MS, is sparse. An international interlaboratory study was organized to determine repeatability and reproducibility of the determination of the median particle size and particle number concentration of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chicken meat. Ten laboratories from the European Union, the USA, and Canada determined particle size and particle number concentration of two chicken meat homogenates spiked with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNPs. For the determination of the median particle diameter, repeatability standard deviations of 2 and 5% were determined, and reproducibility standard deviations were 15 and 25%, respectively. The equivalent median diameter itself was approximately 60% larger than the diameter of the particles in the spiking solution. Determination of the particle number concentration was significantly less precise, with repeatability standard deviations of 7 and 18% and reproducibility standard deviations of 70 and 90%.
Li, Shao-rong; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Yi-fan; Li, Guo-xin; Jiang, Chun-mei; Zhong, Da-fang
This paper is aimed to develop rapid, sensitive and convenient HPLC-MS/MS methods for the quantification of levosimendan and its metabolites OR-1855 and OR-1896 in human plasma. According to the different natures of the compounds, two sets of liquid chromatography and ionization modes were used for determination the concentration of levosimendan and its metabolites OR-1855 and OR-1896 in human plasma, separately. Following protein precipitation with methanol, the levosimendan and internal standard (rosuvastatin) were separated on a Capcell MG III C18 column (35 mm x 2.0 mm ID, 3 microm) with the mobile phase consisted of methanol-15 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate-formic acid (55: 45: 0.02, v/v/v). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was used as the detector and operated in the negative ion mode. Its metabolites OR-1855, OR-1896 and internal standard doxofylline were extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax Extend C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 5 microm) with the mobile phase consisted of methanol-15 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate-formic acid (65 :35 :0.1, v/v/v). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was used as the detector and operated at the positive ion mode. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for levosimendan and OR-1855 and OR-1896 were 0.10-50.0 ng x mL(-1), 0.20-100 ng x mL(-1), 0.20-100 ng x mL(-1), respectively. The lower limits of quantification of levosimendan and OR-1855 and OR-1896 were 0.10 ng x mL(-1), 0.20 ng x mL(-1), 0.20 ng x mL(-1), respectively. The methods proved to be sensitive, simple and rapid, and suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of levosimendan injection.
Brieudes, V; Lardy-Fontan, S; Lalere, B; Vaslin-Reimann, S; Budzinski, H
The present work describes the development and validation of a reference method conducted at the French National Institute of Metrology (LNE) for the quantitative determination of psychoactive compounds in the dissolved fraction of surface waters. More specifically an isotope dilution-SPE-LC-MS/MS based method has been implemented for the characterization of a broad range of analytes belonging to different classes of psychotropic drugs such as benzodiazepines, antidepressants, stimulants, opiates and opioids, anticonvulsants, anti-dementia drugs, analgesics as well as the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in the low ng L(-1) range of concentration. Full validation of the method was performed following procedures described by the French standard NF T90-210. Limits of quantification between 0.14 and 3.54 ng L(-1) were obtained. Method recoveries from 71 to 123% were observed with standard deviation below 10% in intermediate precision conditions. Accuracy was determined for every compound: measurement errors were between -4 and +1% and standard deviations in intermediate precision conditions were included within a 1-9% interval. Finally, measurement uncertainties were evaluated following the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). Expanded uncertainties (k=2) ranged from 2% for carbamazepine, EDDP (2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine) and venlafaxine to 17% for diazepam. The validated method was implemented to Seine river surface waters demonstrating its fitness for purpose. All compounds were detected and 22 out of 25 analytes were quantified. More specifically, measured concentration ranged from 0.39 ng L(-1) for MDMA (3,4-methylene-dioxy-N-methylamphetamine) to 182 ng L(-1) for gabapentine.
Gremmel, Christoph; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P
Two quantitative methods using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were developed to determine perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aqueous samples. The first HPLC-MS/MS method was applied to 47 PFASs of 12 different substance classes with acidic characteristics such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as precursor substances and biotransformation intermediates (e.g., unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids). In addition, 25 (13)C-, (18)O-, and (2)H-labeled PFASs were used as internal standards in this method. The second HPLC-MS/MS method was applied to fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols as these compounds have physicochemical properties different from those of the previous ones. Accuracy between 82% and 110% and a standard deviation in the range from 2% to 22% depending on the substances were determined during the evaluation of repeatability and precision. The method quantification limit after solid-phase extraction ranged from 0.3 to 199 ng/L depending on the analyte and matrix. The HPLC-MS/MS methods developed were suitable for the determination of PFASs in aqueous samples (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents or influents after solid-phase extraction). These methods will be helpful in monitoring campaigns to evaluate the relevance of precursor substances as indirect sources of perfluorinated substances in the environment. In one exemplary application in an industrial wastewater treatment plant, FTOHs were found to be the major substance class in the influent; in particular, 6:2-FTOH was the predominant compound in the industrial samples and accounted for 74% of the total PFAS concentration. The increase in the concentration of the transformation products of FTOHs in the corresponding effluent, such as fluorotelomer carboxylic acids, unsaturated fluorotelomer
Jacobs, Colin; Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Liu, Brent
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a common neurological disease affecting the central nervous system characterized by pathologic changes including demyelination and axonal injury. MR imaging has become the most important tool to evaluate the disease progression of MS which is characterized by the occurrence of white matter lesions. Currently, radiologists evaluate and assess the multiple sclerosis lesions manually by estimating the lesion volume and amount of lesions. This process is extremely time-consuming and sensitive to intra- and inter-observer variability. Therefore, there is a need for automatic segmentation of the MS lesions followed by lesion quantification. We have developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to identify the MS lesions. The segmentation algorithm is accelerated by parallel computing using Graphics Processing Units (GPU) for practical implementation into a clinical environment. Subsequently, characterized quantification of the lesions is performed. The quantification results, which include lesion volume and amount of lesions, are stored in a structured report together with the lesion location in the brain to establish a standardized representation of the disease progression of the patient. The development of this structured report in collaboration with radiologists aims to facilitate outcome analysis and treatment assessment of the disease and will be standardized based on DICOM-SR. The results can be distributed to other DICOM-compliant clinical systems that support DICOM-SR such as PACS. In addition, the implementation of a fully automatic segmentation and quantification system together with a method for storing, distributing, and visualizing key imaging and informatics data in DICOM-SR for MS lesions improves the clinical workflow of radiologists and visualizations of the lesion segmentations and will provide 3-D insight into the distribution of lesions in the brain.
Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang
Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1) and 0.96 µg L(-1) for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%). Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg(-1)) of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L(-1)). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from dairy
Hrvolová, Barbora; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Hurtado-Barroso, Sara; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Kalina, Jiří
The concentration of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma may play a significant role in numerous chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and some types of cancer. Although these compounds are of utmost interest for human health, methods for their simultaneous determination are scarce. A new high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the quantification of selected carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma was developed, validated, and then applied in a pilot dietary intervention study with healthy volunteers. In 50 min, 16 analytes were separated with an excellent resolution and suitable MS signal intensity. The proposed HPLC–MS/MS method led to improvements in the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for all analyzed compounds compared to the most often used HPLC–DAD methods, in some cases being more than 100-fold lower. LOD values were between 0.001 and 0.422 µg/mL and LOQ values ranged from 0.003 to 1.406 µg/mL, according to the analyte. The accuracy, precision, and stability met with the acceptance criteria of the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) International. According to these results, the described HPLC-MS/MS method is adequately sensitive, repeatable and suitable for the large-scale analysis of compounds in biological fluids. PMID:27754400
Hrvolová, Barbora; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Hurtado-Barroso, Sara; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Kalina, Jiří
The concentration of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma may play a significant role in numerous chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and some types of cancer. Although these compounds are of utmost interest for human health, methods for their simultaneous determination are scarce. A new high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the quantification of selected carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma was developed, validated, and then applied in a pilot dietary intervention study with healthy volunteers. In 50 min, 16 analytes were separated with an excellent resolution and suitable MS signal intensity. The proposed HPLC-MS/MS method led to improvements in the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for all analyzed compounds compared to the most often used HPLC-DAD methods, in some cases being more than 100-fold lower. LOD values were between 0.001 and 0.422 µg/mL and LOQ values ranged from 0.003 to 1.406 µg/mL, according to the analyte. The accuracy, precision, and stability met with the acceptance criteria of the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) International. According to these results, the described HPLC-MS/MS method is adequately sensitive, repeatable and suitable for the large-scale analysis of compounds in biological fluids.
Schenk, Alexander; Siewert, Beate; Toff, Stephan; Drewe, Jürgen
Due to increasing regulatory awareness of their hepatotoxic, genotoxic and possibly carcinogenic potential, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) content has to be thoroughly monitored in herbal medicinal preparations. Recently, new very low PA regulatory threshold concentrations have been requested by the authorities. Therefore, a highly sensitive and reproducible UPLC TOF MS method for the quantification of the PAs senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline, senecionine-N-oxide and seneciphylline-N-oxide in a CO2-extract of Petasites hybridus leaves (Ze 339) has been developed. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2ppb for all PAs. Recovery at the LOQ was between 88.9 and 141.9%, the repeatability precision between 3.5 and 13.6%. Linearity of the five PAs showed correlation coefficients between 0.9995 and 0.9998 and coefficients of variation between 7.44 and 8.56%. A working range between 2 ppb and 200 ppb could be fixed. In the tested batches of the P. hybridus extract Ze 339, the absence of PAs could be demonstrated. In conclusion, this assay allows to determine trace PA concentrations in P. hybridus extract Ze 339, making it suitable for analytical PA monitoring in accordance with regulatory requirements.
Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use since the 1960s. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market. A fully validated, sensitive and reproducible method for the quantification of GHB by methanolic precipitation and GC-MS/MS (TQD) in whole blood is presented. Using 100μL of whole blood, obtained results included a LOD and LLOQ of 0.1mg/L and a recovery of 86% in a working range between 0.1 and 100mg/L. This method is sensitive and specific to detect the presence of GHB in small amounts of whole blood (both ante-mortem or post-mortem), and is, to the authors' knowledge, the first GC-MS-MS TQD method that uses different precursor ions and product ions for the identification of GHB and GHB-D6 (internal standard). Hence, this method may be especially useful for the study of endogenous values in this biological sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yuan, Chao; Kosewick, Justin; Wang, Sihe
The measurement of nicotine and its metabolites has been used to monitor tobacco use. A high-sensitivity method (<1 ng/mL) is necessary for the measurement in serum or plasma to differentiate nonsmokers from passive smokers. Here, we report a novel LC-MS/MS method to quantify nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine in serum with high sensitivity. Sample preparation involved only protein precipitation, followed by online turbulent flow extraction and analysis on a porous graphitic carbon column in alkaline conditions. The chromatography time was 4 min. No significant matrix effects or interference were observed. The lower limit of quantification was 0.36, 0.32, and 0.38 ng/mL for nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine, respectively, while accuracy was 91.6-117.1%. No carryover was observed up to a concentration of 48 , 550, and 48 ng/mL for nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine, respectively. Total CV was <6.5%. The measurement of nicotine and cotinine was compared with an independent LC-MS/MS method and concordant results were obtained. In conclusion, this new method was simple, fast, sensitive, and accurate. It was validated to measure nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine in serum for monitoring tobacco use.
Brückner, Kathrin; Schwarz, Kathleen; Beck, Sebastian; Linscheid, Michael W
The combination of lanthanide-tagged oligonucleotide probes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the detection technique is a novel labeling and analysis strategy for heterogeneous nucleic acid quantification assays. We describe a hybridization assay based on biotin-streptavidin affinity using lanthanide-labeled reporter probes and biotinylated capture probes. For the basic sandwich type assay, performed in streptavidin-coated microtitration wells, the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.2 fmol of DNA target, corresponding to a final concentration of 6 pM terbium-labeled probes detectable by ICP-MS after elution from the solid support. To improve the sensitivity and sequence specificity of the approach, it was combined with established molecular biological techniques, i.e., elution with a restriction endonuclease and signal and target amplification by the ligase detection reaction (LDR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR), respectively. Initial experiments showed that the enzymes facilitated the discrimination of single-base mismatches within the recognition or ligation site. Furthermore, LCR as a target amplification step resulted in a 6000-fold increase of sensitivity, and finally an LOD of 2.6 amol was achieved with an artificial double-stranded DNA target.
Moosavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Shekar, Kiran; Fraser, John; Smith, Maree T; Ghassabian, Sussan
Most previous assays for thiopental are time-consuming due to laborious sample extraction steps prior to analysis using gas chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography. Here, we describe the first high-throughput liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantification of thiopental concentrations in samples of human plasma. Robotic on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to elute the analytes of interest from samples of human plasma (50μL) loaded onto C18 SPE cartridges to which were added aliquots (50μL) of internal standard solution (thiopental-d5 100ng/mL) and 0.5% formic acid in water (100μL). Cartridges were washed using 10% methanol in ammonium acetate buffer (50mM, pH 7) before elution with mobile phase comprising 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 0.55mL/min using a 7.2min run time. The analytes were separated on a C18 XTerra(®) analytical column. Mass spectrometry detection was performed using a QTrap 5500 mass spectrometer (AB Sciex) with negative ionisation. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for thiopental and the internal standard were 241→58, and 246→58, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over a range of 6-600ng/mL. Thiopental was stable in human plasma samples for at least 36h in the autosampler, as well as after three cycles of freeze and thaw, and after 3h storage at room temperature. The absolute recovery and matrix effect were 102% and 6.9%, respectively, and the within-run and between-run precision and accuracy were ≤15%. Our method is fully-validated and satisfies the requirements of the 2012 European Medicines Agency (EMEA) guideline for Bioanalytical Method Validation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Rosing, Hilde; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H
A combined assay for the determination of paclitaxel, docetaxel and ritonavir in human feces and urine is described. The drugs were extracted from 200 μL urine or 50 mg feces followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis coupled with positive ionization electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The validation program included calibration model, accuracy and precision, carry-over, dilution test, specificity and selectivity, matrix effect, recovery and stability. Acceptance criteria were according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines on bioanalytical method validation. The validated range was 0.5-500 ng/mL for paclitaxel and docetaxel, 2-2000 ng/mL for ritonavir in urine, 2-2000 ng/mg for paclitaxel and docetaxel, and 8-8000 ng/mg for ritonavir in feces. Inter-assay accuracy and precision were tested for all analytes at four concentration levels and were within 8.5% and <10.2%, respectively, in both matrices. Recovery at three concentration levels was between 77 and 94% in feces samples and between 69 and 85% in urine samples. Method development, including feces homogenization and spiking blank urine samples, are discussed. We demonstrated that each of the applied drugs could be quantified successfully in urine and feces using the described assay. The method was successfully applied for quantification of the analytes in feces and urine samples of patients.
Quignot, Nadia; Tournier, Mikaël; Pouech, Charlène; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Barouki, Robert; Lemazurier, Emmanuel
Reproductive function is controlled by a finely tuned balance of androgens and estrogens. Environmental toxicants, notably endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), appear to be involved in the disruption of hormonal balance in several studies. To further describe the effects of selected EDCs on steroid secretion in female rats, we aim to simultaneously investigate the EDC concentration and the sex hormone balance in the ovaries. Therefore, an effective method has been developed for the quantification of the sex steroid hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and estrone) and four endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, atrazine, and the active metabolites of methoxychlor and vinclozolin) in rat ovaries. The sample preparation procedure is based on the so-called "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" approach, and an analytical method was developed to quantify these compounds with low detection limits by liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer. This analytical method, applied to rat ovary samples following subacute EDC exposure, revealed some new findings for toxicological evaluation. In particular, we showed that EDCs with the same described in vitro mechanisms of action have different effects on the gonadal steroid balance. These results highlight the need to develop an integrative evaluation with the simultaneous measurement of EDCs and numerous steroids for good risk assessment.
McElhinney, Cormac; O'Kiely, Pádraig; Elliott, Chris; Danaher, Martin
An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) multi-mycotoxin analytical method was developed to simultaneously identify and quantify 20 mycotoxins in grass silages, inclusive of mycotoxins that are currently regulated in European Union feeds. Extraction of mycotoxins from dried grass silages was performed using of a modified QuEChERS extraction employing an acidified aqueous extraction (0.1 N HCl) with no further clean-up. Following chromatographic separation, analytes were detected using a fast polarity-switching MS/MS method that allowed both positive and negative ions to be analysed from a single injection, thus the reducing time and cost of analysis. The limits of detection and quantification ranged between 3 µg kg(-1) DM (aflatoxin B1, beauvericin and enniatin A and A1) and 200 µg kg(-1) DM (deoxynivalenol), and between 10 µg kg(-1) DM (aflatoxin B1, beauvericin and enniatin A1) and 500 µg kg(-1) DM (deoxynivalenol), respectively. Inter-assay accuracy and precision ranged between 90% and 107% and between 3.9% and 15.0% CV, respectively. The accuracy of the method was assessed through the application to a range of incurred samples in an inter-laboratory study.
Alasonati, Enrica; Fabbri, Barbara; Fettig, Ina; Yardin, Catherine; Del Castillo Busto, Maria Estela; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Fisicaro, Paola
In Europe the maximum allowable concentration for tributyltin (TBT) compounds in surface water has been regulated by the water framework directive (WFD) and daughter directive that impose a limit of 0.2 ng L(-1) in whole water (as tributyltin cation). Despite the large number of different methodologies for the quantification of organotin species developed in the last two decades, standardised analytical methods at required concentration level do not exist. TBT quantification at picogram level requires efficient and accurate sample preparation and preconcentration, and maximum care to avoid blank contamination. To meet the WFD requirement, a method for the quantification of TBT in mineral water at environmental quality standard (EQS) level, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), was developed and optimised. The quantification was done using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) followed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analytical process was optimised using a design of experiment (DOE) based on a factorial fractionary plan. The DOE allowed to evaluate 3 qualitative factors (type of stationary phase and eluent, phase mass and eluent volume, pH and analyte ethylation procedure) for a total of 13 levels studied, and a sample volume in the range of 250-1000 mL. Four different models fitting the results were defined and evaluated with statistic tools: one of them was selected and optimised to find the best procedural conditions. C18 phase was found to be the best stationary phase for SPE experiments. The 4 solvents tested with C18, the pH and ethylation conditions, the mass of the phases, the volume of the eluents and the sample volume can all be optimal, but depending on their respective combination. For that reason, the equation of the model conceived in this work is a useful decisional tool for the planning of experiments, because it can be applied to predict the TBT mass fraction recovery when the
Whymark, R. R.
Acoustical methods in which intense sound beams can be used to control the position of objects are considered. The position control arises from the radiation force experienced when a body is placed in a sound field. A description of the special properties of intense sound fields useful for position control is followed by a discussion of the more obvious methods of position, namely the use of multiple sound beams. A new type of acoustic position control device is reported that has advantages of simplicity and reliability and utilizes only a single sound beam. Finally a description is given of an experimental single beam levitator, and the results obtained in a number of key levitation experiments.
Aleksa, Katarina; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro; Koren, Gideon
Ifosfamide (IF), a potent chemotherapeutic agent for solid tumors, is known to cause high rates of nephrotoxicity in children with cancer, which is most likely due to the renal production of the metabolite chloroacetaldehyde. Using plasma samples obtained from pediatric oncology patients, we developed a simple nonderivatizing enantioselective liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method to detect the (R) and (S)-2- and 3-dechloroethylifosfamide metabolites. The (R) and (S)-enantiomers of the 2- and 3-DCEIF (N-3-dechlroethylifosfamide) were detectable in all 22 patients' samples with levels ranging from 9.9 to 238.7 ng/ml for (R)-2-DCEIF, 15.8 to 663.0 ng/ml for (S)-2-DCEIF, 20.8 to 852.8 ng/l for (R)-3-DCEIF and 28.0 to 862.0 ng/ml for (S)-3-DCEIF. In addition, the lower limit of quantification for this method is 1 ng/ml. Future studies should concentrate on (R) or (S) production of the 2-DCEIF and 3-DCEIF and subsequently chloroacetaldehyde formation with the aim of considering the administration of only the (R)-IF as its metabolism results in a lower production of chloroacetaldehyde.
Ohta, Yuki; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yayoi; Hirano, Seishiro
Speciation analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP MS) is now commonly used to investigate metabolic and toxicological aspects of some metals and metalloids. We have developed a rapid method for simultaneous identification and quantification of metabolites of selenium (Se) compounds using multiple standards labelled with different isotopes. A mixture of the labelled standards was spiked in a selenised garlic extract and the sample was subjected to speciation analysis by HPLC-ICP MS. The selenised garlic contains γ-glutamyl-methylselenocysteine, methylselenocysteine, and selenomethionine and the concentrations of those Se compounds were 723.8, 414.8, and 310.7 ng Se ml(-1), respectively. The isotopically labelled standards were also applied to the speciation of Se in rat urine. Selenate, methylselenonic acid, selenosugar, and trimethyselenium ions were found to be excreted by the present speciation procedure. Multiple standards labelled with different stable isotopes enable high-throughput identification and quantitative measurements of Se metabolites.
Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Thappali, Satheeshmanikandan R. S.; Viswanadha, Srikant; Vakkalanka, Swaroop; Rangaswamy, Manivannan
Efficacy assessments using a combination of baricitinib and methotrexate necessitate the development of an analytical method for the determination of both drugs in plasma with precision. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of baricitinib and methotrexate in rat plasma. Extraction of baricitinib, methotrexate, and tolbutamide (internal standard; IS) from 50 µL of rat plasma was carried out by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed on the YMC pack ODS AM (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column under gradient conditions with methanol: 2.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The precursor ion and product ion transition for both analytes and IS were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with selective reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5–250.00 ng/mL for baricitinib and methotrexate. Mean extraction recoveries for baricitinib, methotrexate, and IS of 86.8%, 89.4%, and 91.8% were consistent across low, medium, and high QC levels, respectively. Precision and accuracy at low, medium, and high quality control levels were less than 15% across the analytes. Benchtop, wet, freeze-thaw, and long-term stability were evaluated for both of the analytes. The analytical method was applied to support the pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous estimation of baricitinib and methotrexate in Wistar rats. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 18 incurred samples PMID:27222609
Bichon, Emmanuelle; Guiffard, Ingrid; Vénisseau, Anaïs; Marchand, Philippe; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno
Chlordecone is an organochlorine pesticide (OCP) considered as a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) as it persists in the environment, bio-accumulates through the food web, causes adverse effects to human health and the environment and transports across international boundaries far from its sources. The atypical physico-chemical properties of chlordecone make its inclusion in classical analytical approaches non applicable. The aim of our work was to include chlordecone in a multi organochlorine residue method preventing any degradation during the analytical process and thus allowing quantification at ppt (ngkg(-1) or ngL(-1)) levels for a wide range of OCPs in breast milk, human serum and adipose tissue. After GC-HRMS vs. MS/MS and EI vs. APCI comparisons, the major improvement in terms of sensitivity was found in decreasing the length and film thickness of the gas chromatography column. Thanks to a linear correlation between relative response and quantity of chlordecone injected, LC-(ESI-)-MS/MS was finally preferred. An acetonitrile based gradient optimized on a C30 coreshell HPLC column has led to reaching limits of quantification as low as 8ngL(-1), 25pgmL(-1) and 0.2ngg(-1) fat for breast milk, serum and adipose tissue, respectively, allowing multiresidue OCP quantification at concentration levels compatible with biomonitoring purposes and pre-requisites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Hyunsuk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo
To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ(2) analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.
Feng, Liuxing; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei
Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with (34)S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and (34)S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m(sp)/m(sam)) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5-3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation process. Moreover, the application of species-unspecific isotope dilution GE-LA-ICP-MS has the potential to offer reliable, direct and simultaneous quantification of proteins after conventional 1D and 2D gel electrophoretic separations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chan, Sue Hay; Lee, Warren; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Tan, Soo Choon
A sequential solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of salbutamol enantiomers in porcine urine. Porcine urine samples were hydrolysed with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase from Helix pomatia and then subjected to a double solid-phase extraction (SPE) first using the Abs-Elut Nexus SPE and then followed by the Bond Elut Phenylboronic Acid (PBA) SPE. The salbutamol enantiomers were separated using the Astec CHIROBIOTIC™ T HPLC column (3.0mm×100mm; 5μm) maintained at 15°C with a 15min isocratic run at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The mobile phase constituted of 5mM ammonium formate in methanol. Salbutamol and salbutamol-tert-butyl-d9 (internal standard, IS) was monitored and quantified with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method showed good linearity for the range of 0.1-10ng/mL with limit of quantification at 0.3ng/mL. Analysis of the QC samples showed intra- and inter-assay precisions to be less than 5.04%, and recovery ranging from 83.82 to 102.33%.
Turtoi, A; Mazzucchelli, G D; De Pauw, E
Protein quantification based upon mass spectrometry is gaining ground in diverse applications of biological and clinical relevance. The present article focuses on one of the most complex biological fluids - serum - and provides a novel ICPL based quantification protocol. The results are compared to a label-free (data independent alternate scanning) absolute quantification method. The validation is performed using MRM based protein quantification technique. Regarding the ICPL approach, serum samples used in this study were depleted of high abundant proteins, labeled with ICPL and fractionated according to their respective pI (3-5, 5-7 and 7-12). The samples were further subjected to tryptic digestion followed by treatment with the Glu-C enzyme. The peptides were analyzed on a 2D-nano-LC system using four different concentrations of salt injections (45, 75, 150 and 500 mM ammonium acetate). The LC system was connected on-line with the electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometer. For the label-free quantification the serum samples were depleted and digested with trypsin. A proteome-wide comparison was performed using highly reproducible LC and data independent alternate scanning in conjunction with a high mass accuracy orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Selected proteins, found by both methods, were validated using the MRM approach. For this purpose non-depleted tryptically digested serum samples were analyzed by LC coupled with a triple-quadrupole MS. The relative protein quantification using ICPL and mass spectrometry allowed for the detection of approximately 200 proteins, whereas about 2/3 of those contained the ICPL label and could therefore be quantified. Label-free approach used no fractionation, less sample and was able to identify and quantify over 110 proteins. The identified proteins covered generally 3-4 orders of magnitude of protein concentration in human serum. Changes in relative abundance of eight proteins were validated using MRM. This study
Giesbertz, Pieter; Ecker, Josef; Haag, Alexander; Spanier, Britta; Daniel, Hannelore
Acylcarnitines are intermediates of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation found in tissues and body fluids. They are important diagnostic markers for inherited diseases of peroxisomal and mitochondrial oxidation processes and were recently described as biomarkers of complex diseases like the metabolic syndrome. Quantification of acylcarnitine species can become challenging because various species occur as isomers and/or have very low concentrations. Here we describe a new LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 56 acylcarnitine species with acyl-chain lengths from C2 to C18. Our method includes amino acid-derived positional isomers, like methacrylyl-carnitine (2-M-C3:1-CN) and crotonyl-carnitine (C4:1-CN), and odd-numbered carbon species, like pentadecanoyl-carnitine (C15:0-CN) and heptadecanoyl-carnitine (C17:0-CN), occurring at very low concentrations in plasma and tissues. Method validation in plasma and liver samples showed high sensitivity and excellent accuracy and precision. In an application to samples from streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice, we identified significantly increased concentrations of acylcarnitines derived from branched-chain amino acid degradation and of odd-numbered straight-chain species, recently proposed as potential biomarkers for the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the LC-MS/MS method presented here allows robust quantification of isomeric acylcarnitine species and extends the palette of acylcarnitines with diagnostic potential derived from fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Giesbertz, Pieter; Ecker, Josef; Haag, Alexander; Spanier, Britta; Daniel, Hannelore
Acylcarnitines are intermediates of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation found in tissues and body fluids. They are important diagnostic markers for inherited diseases of peroxisomal and mitochondrial oxidation processes and were recently described as biomarkers of complex diseases like the metabolic syndrome. Quantification of acylcarnitine species can become challenging because various species occur as isomers and/or have very low concentrations. Here we describe a new LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 56 acylcarnitine species with acyl-chain lengths from C2 to C18. Our method includes amino acid-derived positional isomers, like methacrylyl-carnitine (2-M-C3:1-CN) and crotonyl-carnitine (C4:1-CN), and odd-numbered carbon species, like pentadecanoyl-carnitine (C15:0-CN) and heptadecanoyl-carnitine (C17:0-CN), occurring at very low concentrations in plasma and tissues. Method validation in plasma and liver samples showed high sensitivity and excellent accuracy and precision. In an application to samples from streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice, we identified significantly increased concentrations of acylcarnitines derived from branched-chain amino acid degradation and of odd-numbered straight-chain species, recently proposed as potential biomarkers for the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the LC-MS/MS method presented here allows robust quantification of isomeric acylcarnitine species and extends the palette of acylcarnitines with diagnostic potential derived from fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. PMID:26239049
Byreddy, Avinesh R; Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish
Discovering microalgae with high lipid productivity are among the key milestones for achieving sustainable biodiesel production. Current methods of lipid quantification are time intensive and costly. A rapid colorimetric method based on sulfo-phospho-vanillin (SPV) reaction was developed for the quantification of microbial lipids to facilitate screening for lipid producing microalgae. This method was successfully tested on marine thraustochytrid strains and vegetable oils. The colorimetric method results correlated well with gravimetric method estimates. The new method was less time consuming than gravimetric analysis and is quantitative for lipid determination, even in the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and glycerol.
Ramadan, Gouda; Al Jabir, Muna; Alabdulmalik, Najat; Mohammed, Ali
Most countries have clearly defined regulations governing the use of pesticides in agricultural activity. The application of pesticides in agriculture usually leads to a residual amount of these pesticides on food products such as fruit and vegetables. The presence of pesticide residues on these foods destined for human consumption may pose food safety risks to consumers. To protect consumers, national authorities have established maximum limits for pesticide residues in foods. These limits can only be enforced if there are methods available to detect and monitor their concentrations in the applicable food products. To support the enforcement of this legislation, we have developed a multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers which has been validated and implemented in the routine monitoring and surveillance programme for these pesticides. In this method, apple and cucumber samples are extracted using the QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and the extracts were analyzed directly by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries at three different concentrations of 0.01 µg/g , 0.05 µg/g, and 0.1 µg/g over the analytical range varied between 70 and 120%. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD was less than 20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.0014 and 0.0110 µg/g for apples and between 0.0012 and 0.0075 µg/g for cucumbers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 µg/g for apples and cucumbers. The method has been used for the analysis of over 600 apple and 550 cucumber samples over the past two years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E
Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p < 0.001). The mean concentrations of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).
Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Yuefei; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei; Qi, Aidi
Xue Fu Zhu Yu (XFZY), a classic recipe in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been demonstrated to show protective effects on cardiovascular system. For quality control of XFZY products, qualitative analysis using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS) was undertaken. Twenty-eight compounds from XFZY were simultaneously detected; among them, seventeen compounds were unequivocally identified, and another eight compounds were tentatively characterized. According to qualitative results, a new method for quantitative analysis of XFZY has been established by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD). Twelve representative compounds unequivocally identified were used as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF), hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), amygdalin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, ferulic acid (FA), naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin (NH), isoliquiritigenin (IL) and glycyrrhizic acid (GA), which were derived from nine of eleven herbs of XFZY except Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (Jiegeng) and Bupleurum chinense DC. (Chaihu). This UPLC method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD and LOQ, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery tests. Quality control of XFZY products in total fourteen samples by four dosage forms was examined by this method, and results confirmed its feasibility and reliability in practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The increased efficiency permitted by multiclass, multiresidue methods has made such approaches very attractive to laboratories involved in monitoring veterinary drug residues in animal tissues. In this current work, evaluation of a multiclass multiresidue LC-MS/MS method in bovine kidney is describ...
Goodenough, Angela K; Onorato, Joelle M; Ouyang, Zheng; Chang, Shu; Rodrigues, A David; Kasichayanula, Sreeneeranj; Huang, Shu-Pang; Turley, Wesley; Burrell, Richard; Bifano, Marc; Jemal, Mohammed; LaCreta, Frank; Tymiak, Adrienne; Wang-Iverson, David
It has recently been proposed that plasma levels of 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC) may be indicative of cytochrome P450 3A4 (P450 3A) activity and therefore could be used to probe for P450 3A-mediated drug-drug interactions. With this in mind, we describe a highly sensitive and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 4βHC in human plasma with a lower limit of quantification established at 2 ng/mL using 50 μL of plasma. The entire sample preparation scheme including saponification and derivatization of 4βHC to the corresponding dipicolinyl ester (DPE) was completed in less than 8 h using an automated sample preparation scheme enabling higher-throughput capabilities. Chromatographic resolution of 4βHC from 4α-hydroxycholesterol and other endogenous isobaric species was achieved in 11-min using an isocratic gradient on a C18 column. Because of endogenous concentrations of 4βHC in plasma, a stable isotope labeled (SIL) analogue, d7-4βHC, was used as a surrogate analyte and measured in the standard curve and quality control samples prepared in plasma. A second SIL analogue, d4-4βHC, was used as the internal standard. The intraday and interday accuracy for the assay was within 6% of nominal concentrations, and the precision for these measurements was less than 5% relative standard deviation. Rigorous stability assessments demonstrated adequate stability of endogenous 4βHC in plasma and the corresponding DPE derivative for the analysis of clinical study samples. The results from clinical samples following treatment with a potent P450 3A inducer (rifampin) or inhibitor (ketoconazole) are reported and demonstrate the potential future application for this highly precise and robust analytical assay.
Côté, Cynthia; Bergeron, Annik; Mess, Jean-Nicholas; Furtado, Milton; Garofolo, Fabio
Due to the presence of endogenous components in biofluids, ionization suppression or enhancement may occur for bioanalytical assays using LC-MS or LC-MS/MS technologies. The matrix effect may affect the precision and accuracy of a bioanalytical method and, therefore, compromise the quality of the results. Protein precipitation sample preparation along with LC-MS/MS is a high-throughput method most commonly used in bioanalysis and is largely affected by the matrix effect. In order to eliminate the matrix effect during the method development, some considerations may be used: cleaner sample preparations, more sensitive instruments, which allow less material to be injected, different chromatographic separations and much more must be investigated. More than giving tools to adequately assess the matrix effect during the method development, this review gives scientists numerous ways to eliminate or reduce the matrix effect based on novel sample-preparation techniques, new chromatographic optimization methods and new technologies.
Wang, Yao; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Qi; Yao, Xin; Cheng, Zongqi
An accurate, precise and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of flavonoids, terpene lactones, together with ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb 761). This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of major active ingredients and toxic components in EGb 761 using UPLC-MS-MS. This analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. In addition, the content of those major bioactive components in EGb 761 prepared by different manufacturers of China was determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results indicated that the quantification analysis could be readily utilized as a quality control method for EGb 761 and its other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones and ginkgolic acids as markers.
Mohn, Tobias; Potterat, Olivier; Hamburger, Matthias
An HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantification of the pharmacologically active principles tryptanthrin (1), 1,3-dihydro-3-[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-2 H-indol-2-one (indolinone) (3), indirubin (4), alpha-linolenic acid (2), and indigo (5), an isomer of indirubin, in extracts from the traditional anti-inflammatory plant Isatis tinctoria (woad). The chromatographic separation was performed on a C-18 column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile in water containing 0.1% formic acid. The method combines UV and electrospray MS detection in the positive ion mode for the detection of the alkaloids, with a switch to the negative mode for the analysis of alpha-linolenic acid. The method was applied to the analysis of woad extracts obtained by supercritical fluid (SFE) CO2 extraction, and by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with dichloromethane and methanol, respectively. While the highest concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was found in the SFE extract (7.43%), the concentrations of tryptanthrin , indolinone, indirubin and indigo were the highest in the dichloromethane extract (0.30, 0.035, 2.48 and 0.84%, respectively). Compound 3 was not detected in the methanolic extract and only traces of compounds 1, 4 and 5 and low amount of alpha-linolenic acid (0.39%) were present in this extract.
Three types of solid phase chemical exposure sampling media: cellulose, polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2, were analyzed for 2,4-D and the amine salts of 2,4-D. Individual samples were extracted into acidified methanol and the extracts were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using electrospra...
Three types of solid phase chemical exposure sampling media: cellulose, polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2, were analyzed for 2,4-D and the amine salts of 2,4-D. Individual samples were extracted into acidified methanol and the extracts were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using electrospra...
Berger, U; Oehme, M; Girardin, L
A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method combined with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection in series is presented for the separation and quantification of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) derivatives in extracts from food can coatings, tuna and oil. Fifteen samples of tuna cans bought in four European countries were investigated. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode (APCI(+)-MS) allowed to tentatively identify BADGE and NOGE related compounds originating from reactions of the glycidyl ethers with bisphenols, phenol, butanol, water and hydrochloric acid. Quantification was based on the external standard method and fluorescence detection. Mass fractions up to 3.7 micrograms/g were found for hydrochlorination products of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE + 2HCl) in tuna. Furthermore, total migration quantities of phenolic ether compounds were estimated. The highest values found were 20 micrograms/g in tuna and 43 micrograms/g in the oil phase.
Ofuji, Asato; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Kosuke; Takaki, Akihiro; Sone, Teruki; Ito, Shigeki
In clinical practice, measurement of the rCBF has mainly been conducted by I-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ((123)I-IMP) SPECT using the microsphere (MS) method, with continuous arterial blood sampling. While several non-invasive (123)I-IMP quantification methods have been developed, their accuracy has been shown to be lower than that of the MS method. Therefore, a non-invasive quantification method for use in routine clinical practice is being sought. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple non-invasive (123)I-IMP quantification method (SIMS method) with a simple input function-determining protocol based on the MS method. The input function for the SIMS method was determined using the administered dose and the integrated lung washout ratio obtained by analyzing the count-time activity curve of the pulmonary artery and lung on dynamic chest images. The mean CBF (mCBF) and input function measured in 80 patients by the SIMS method was compared with those determined using the MS method. A good correlation was observed between the counts measured by continuous arterial blood sampling in the MS method and the estimated counts by image analysis in the new method (r = 0.94, p < 0.01). Similarly, a good correlation was observed between the mCBF values determined by the MS method and the SIMS method (r = 0.83, p < 0.01). The mCBF values determined by the SIMS method were closely consistent with the values obtained by the MS method. This finding indicates the possibility of use of the SIMS method for routine clinical study.
Schettgen, T; Bertram, J; Kraus, T
Acrylonitrile is a highly important industrial chemical with a high production volume worldwide, especially in the plastics industry. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC group 2B). During metabolism of acrylonitrile, the genotoxic metabolite cyanoethylene-epoxide is formed. The urinary mercapturic acids of acrylonitrile, namely N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (CEMA) and cyanoethylene-epoxide, namely N-acetyl-S-(1-cyano-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (CHEMA) are specific biomarkers for the determination of individual internal exposure to acrylonitrile and its highly reactive metabolite. We have developed and validated a sensitive method for the accurate determination of CEMA and CHEMA in human urine with a multidimensional LC/MS/MS-method using deuterium-labelled analogues for both analytes as internal standards. Analytes were stripped from urinary matrix by online extraction on a restricted access material, transferred to the analytical column and determined by tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for CEMA and CHEMA was 1 μg/L urine and allowed to quantify the background exposure of the (smoking) general population. Precision within and between series for CHEMA ranged from 2.6 to 8.0% at four concentrations ranging from 8.3 to 86 μg/L urine, mean accuracy was between 94 and 100%. For CEMA, precision within and between series ranged from 2.4 to 14.5% at four concentrations ranging from 15.1 to 196 μg/L urine, mean accuracy was between 91 and 104%. We applied the method to spot urine samples of 83 subjects of the general population with no known occupational exposure to acrylonitrile. Median levels (range) for CEMA and CHEMA in urine samples of non-smokers (n=47) were 1.9 μg/L (<1-16.4 μg/L) and<1 μg/L (<1-3 μg/L), while in urine samples of smokers (n=36), median levels were 184 μg/L (2-907 μg/L) and 29.3 μg/L (<1-147 μg/L), respectively. Smokers showed a
Duchoslav, E.; Cox, D.; Tate, S. A.
A number of successful multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-directed MS/MS methods for protein characterization and quantification have been published over the past couple of years. These methods have been created either by the generation of in silico MRM transitions or from taking discovery data generated by automated MS/MS analysis and formulating MRM transitions from this. However, such a workflow, where a vast amount of discovery data needs to be searched for idealized MS/MS to target peptides, is difficult and time consuming. Automation of this would simplify the whole workflow, and allowing methods to be created smarter by utilizing the data of peptides that have been previously identified, provides a better chance of success. In this poster we highlight one possible workflow for the processing of a number of database search results that were generated during proteomic analysis of a complex sample. Proteins identified as of potential interest in these results were then added to a MRM method-building list, and all MS/MS associated with those proteins were extracted from the general proteomic search results. These MS/MS are then automatically processed to create instrument methods for MRM-directed MS/MS quantification. After analysis of the sample by these methods, the data are processed, both from a sequence identification and a chromatographic LC-MRM peak signal-to-noise perspective. These data are associated with the original proteomic workflow data, allowing visualization of the results and construction of a method that can then undergo validation.
Owens, J; Koester, C
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method for the analysis of thiodiglycol, the breakdown product of the sulfur mustard HD, in water by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), titled Method EPA MS777 (hereafter referred to as EPA CRL SOP MS777). This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to verify the analytical procedures described in MS777 for analysis of thiodiglycol in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of Method EPA MS777 can be determined.
Liang, Wen; Xu, Li; Sui, Zhiwei; Li, Yan; Li, Lanying; Wen, Yanli; Li, Chunhua; Ren, Shuzhen; Liu, Gang
The accuracy and metrology traceability of DNA quantification is becoming a critical theme in many fields, including diagnosis, forensic analysis, microorganism detection etc. Thus the research of DNA reference materials (RMs) and consistency of DNA quantification methods has attracted considerable research interest. In this work, we developed 3 plasmid candidate RMs, containing 3 target genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) and other Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC): stx1, stx2, and fliC (h7) respectively. Comprehensive investigation of the plasmid RMs was performed for their sequence, purity, homogeneity and stability, and then the concentration was quantified by three different methods: ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV), high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and digital PCR. As a routinely applied method for DNA analysis, UV was utilized for the quantification (OD260) and purity analysis for the plasmids. HR-ICP-MS quantified the plasmid DNA through analysing the phosphorus in DNA molecules. Digital PCR distributed the DNA samples onto a microarray chip containing thousands of reaction chambers, and quantified the DNA copy numbers by analysing the number of positive signals without any calibration curves needed. Based on the high purification of the DNA reference materials and the optimization of dPCR analysis, we successfully achieved good consistency between UV, HR-ICP-MS and dPCR, with relative deviations lower than 10 %. We then performed the co-quantification of 3 DNA RMs with three different methods together, and the uncertainties of their concentration were evaluated. Finally, the certified values and expanded uncertainties for 3 DNA RMs (pFliC, pStx1 and pStx2) were (1.60 ± 0.10) × 10(10) copies/μL, (1.53 ± 0.10) × 10(10) copies/μL and (1.70 ± 0.11) × 10(10) copies/μL respectively.Graphical abstractWe developed 3 plasmid candidate RMs, containing 3 target genes of
Jenkins, Rand; Duggan, Jeffrey X; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Zeng, Jianing; Lee, Jean W; Cojocaru, Laura; Dufield, Dawn; Garofolo, Fabio; Kaur, Surinder; Schultz, Gary A; Xu, Keyang; Yang, Ziping; Yu, John; Zhang, Yan J; Vazvaei, Faye
This paper represents the consensus views of a cross-section of companies and organizations from the USA and Canada regarding the validation and application of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for bioanalysis of protein biotherapeutics in regulated studies. It was prepared under the auspices of the AAPS Bioanalytical Focus Group's Protein LC-MS Bioanalysis Subteam and is intended to serve as a guide to drive harmonization of best practices within the bioanalytical community and provide regulators with an overview of current industry thinking on applying LC-MS/MS technology for protein bioanalysis. For simplicity, the scope was limited to the most common current approach in which the protein is indirectly quantified using LC-MS/MS measurement of one or more of its surrogate peptide(s) produced by proteolytic digestion. Within this context, we considered a range of sample preparation approaches from simple in-matrix protein denaturation and digestion to complex procedures involving affinity capture enrichment. Consideration was given to the method validation experiments normally associated with traditional LC-MS/MS and ligand-binding assays. Our collective experience, thus far, is that LC-MS/MS methods for protein bioanalysis require different development and validation considerations than those used for small molecules. The method development and validation plans need to be tailored to the particular assay format being established, taking into account a number of important factors: the intended use of the assay, the test species or study population, the characteristics of the protein biotherapeutic and its similarity to endogenous proteins, potential interferences, as well as the nature, quality, and availability of reference and internal standard materials.
Todoroki, Kenichiro; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Chiemi; Kitagawa, Sachiyo; Min, Jun Zhe; Inoue, Koichi; Yamanaka, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa
We established a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method to analyze the histamine and tyramine levels in Japanese soy sauce and its mash (called moromi) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Histamine and tyramine quantification was performed using their stable isotopes for electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The sample pretreatment process was a simple, one-step liquid-liquid extraction. HILIC separation was performed with a gradient elution of aqueous ammonium formate and acetonitrile. Because of validation tests, the linearity, the accuracies, and precisions were sufficient. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.09 and 0.29 ppm for histamine and 0.13 and 0.42 ppm for tyramine, respectively. We successfully applied this method to histamine and tyramine determination in four kinds of commercial Japanese soy sauces and also in moromi samples during soy sauce production.
Buscher, Brigitte; van de Lagemaat, Dick; Gries, Wolfgang; Beyer, Dieter; Markham, Dan A; Budinsky, Robert A; Dimond, Stephen S; Nath, Rajesh V; Snyder, Stephanie A; Hentges, Steven G
The aim of the presented investigation was to document challenges encountered during implementation and qualification of a method for bisphenol A (BPA) analysis and to develop and discuss precautions taken to avoid and to monitor contamination with BPA during sample handling and analysis. Previously developed and published HPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of unconjugated BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 34 (2010) 293-303)  and total BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38 (2014) 194-203)  in human urine were combined and transferred into another laboratory. The initial method for unconjugated BPA was developed and evaluated in two independent laboratories simultaneously. The second method for total BPA was developed and evaluated in one of these laboratories to conserve resources. Accurate analysis of BPA at sub-ppb levels is a challenging task as BPA is a widely used material and is ubiquitous in the environment at trace concentrations. Propensity for contamination of biological samples with BPA is reported in the literature during sample collection, storage, and/or analysis. Contamination by trace levels of BPA is so pervasive that even with extraordinary care, it is difficult to completely exclude the introduction of BPA into biological samples and, consequently, contamination might have an impact on BPA biomonitoring data. The applied UPLC-MS/MS method was calibrated from 0.05 to 25ng/ml. The limit of quantification was 0.1ng/ml for unconjugated BPA and 0.2ng/ml for total BPA, respectively, in human urine. Finally, the method was applied to urine samples derived from 20 volunteers. Overall, BPA can be analyzed in human urine with acceptable recovery and repeatability if sufficient measures are taken to avoid contamination throughout the procedure from sample collection until UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang
Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg−1 and 0.96 µg L−1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%). Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg−1) of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L−1). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment
Bernardi, Gabrieli; Kemmerich, Magali; Ribeiro, Lucila C; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Prestes, Osmar D
An effective method has been developed and validated for the determination of residues of 55 pesticides in tobacco. The proposed sample preparation method is based on acetonitrile extraction, low-temperature precipitation (LTP) and dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up. Gas chromatography and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography analysis, both coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS and UHPLC-MS/MS), were used for determination. LTP is easy to perform and was crucial to obtain a clean extract. Method quantification limit for the pesticides were between 25 and 75µgkg(-1). Extraction recoveries obtained for blank samples spiked at 25, 75, 125 and 250µgkg(-1) levels ranged from 63 to 161% with relative standard deviations (RSD)≤20%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of thirteen different tobacco samples, providing to be a robust procedure for routine analysis. The compounds pirimiphos methyl and isofenphos presented residues in the range of 35-51µgkg(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Owens, J; Vu, A; Koester, C
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method titled 'Analysis of Diethanolamine, Triethanolamine, n-Methyldiethanolamine, and n-Ethyldiethanolamine in Water by Single Reaction Monitoring Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS): EPA Method MS888'. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in 'EPA Method MS888' for analysis of the listed ethanolamines in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of 'EPA Method MS888' can be determined.
Desharnais, Brigitte; Huppé, Geneviève; Lamarche, Martine; Mireault, Pascal; Skinner, Cameron D
Cyanide is a powerful chemical asphyxiant found in some forensic cases following voluntary (suicide) or involuntary ingestion (fire, accidental exposure). A quantification method for cyanide that is specifically suited to post-mortem forensic purposes was developed. Determination was performed by headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using a GS-GASPRO column on an HP-6890 gas chromatograph with an HP-5973N mass detector. The biological sample was treated with an internal standard, frozen, glacial acetic acid was added and the sample was then incubated at 60°C for 15 min. The headspace was sampled with a disposable syringe, and analyzed to quantify hydrogen cyanide. Isotopically labeled cyanide ((13)C(15)N) was used as the internal standard to minimize matrix effect and sampling error. The method produced an extended linear dynamic range (0.07-50 μg/mL), and a method detection limit of 0.02 μg/mL. Identical calibration curves were obtained when blood, gastric contents and aqueous solutions were used as the calibration standard matrix. This method was also successful in quantitating cyanide in gastric contents, one of the most variable biological fluids. The method has been validated and is being used for current forensic cases such as fire victims and suicides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schröder, Horst Fr; Gebhardt, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario
Municipal wastewater has been examined for steroids, beta(2)-agonists, stimulants, diuretics, and phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors (PDE type V inhibitors), which are "dual-use-drugs" applied either as anabolic, doping, and lifestyle drugs or for treatment of diverse diseases. To identify their origin, fitness centre discharges under suspicion of being point sources and sewage-treatment plant feed and effluents were sampled and concentrations determined. Sensitive and selective methods for determination and quantification based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-(HR)MS and HPLC-MS-MS) were developed and established for analysis of these compounds in wastewater and to assess their effect on the environment. The methods developed enabled quantification at trace concentrations (limit of quantification (LOQ): 5 ng L(-1)). Of the steroids and stimulants under investigation, testosterone, methyltestosterone, and boldenone or ephedrine, amphetamine, and MDMA (3,4-methylendioxy-N-methylamphetamine) were observed at up to 5 microg L(-1) (ephedrine). Of the beta(2)-agonists salbutamol only, and of the diuretics furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide were confirmed in the extracts. Quite high concentrations of the PDE type V inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil and their metabolites were confirmed in fitness centre discharges (sildenafil: 1,945 ng L(-1)) whereas their concentrations in municipal wastewater did not exceed 35 ng L(-1). This study identified anabolic and doping drugs in wastewater for the first time. Results obtained from wastewater treatment plant effluents proved that these "dual-use-drugs", with the exception of hydrochlorothiazide, were mostly eliminated.
de Bang, Thomas Christian; Pedas, Pai; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren
We have developed a novel calibration method that allows concurrent quantification of multiple proteins by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) after Western blotting. Calibrants were made of nitrocellulose membranes doped with lanthanide standards. Excellent linearity was obtained in the interval from 0 to 24 ng lanthanide cm(-2). Cerium-labeled lysozyme was introduced as an internal reference protein, enabling correction for up to 50% difference in transfer efficiency during the blotting of membranes. The sensitivity of the LA-ICP-MS method was comparable to state-of-the-art chemiluminescence detection and was further improved by a factor of 20, using a polymer tag. Our method allowed reproducible and multiplexed quantification of five thylakoid proteins extracted from chloroplasts of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (relative standard deviation (RSD) of ≤ 5% in three independent analytical series). The method was capable of measuring the L subunit in photosystem I of an Arabidopsis mutant containing <5% of this particular protein, relative to the wild type. We conclude that the developed calibration method is highly suited for multiplexed and comparative protein studies, allowing for intermembrane comparisons with high sensitivity and reproducibility.
Christensen, H B; Poulsen, M E; Rasmussen, P H; Christen, D
A method for the simultaneous determination of 33 pesticides or degradation products together with patulin in apples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The method involved homogenization of the apples, extraction with ammonium acetate-acetic acid solution in methanol-water by ultrasonication, filtration, and determination by LC-MS/MS. The repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility for the three spiking levels 0.02, 0.04 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) were between 4% and 35%. In general, the repeatability and reproducibility were about 10-20%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.01 and 0.14 mg kg(-1). The method was used on incurred samples from parts of the ISAFRUIT project financed by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme. Samples were analysed at four different stages: after harvest, after storage (controlled), after a water bath, and after 28 days at room temperature. Pesticide residues were found at all stages, but no significant differences in the concentration were seen between the stages analysed. The concentration decreased significantly only for tolylfluanid after storage at room temperature for 28 days when only 0-6% of the original amount of tolylfluanid remained in the apples. No patulin was found in the apples stored for 28 days at room temperature and no growth of Penicillium expansum was observed on these apples. However, when the apples were inoculated with a spore suspension of P. expansum, high concentrations of patulin were found.
Owens, J; Koester, C
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method for analysis of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl, and methomyl in water by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), titled Method EPA MS666. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in MS666 for analysis of carbamate pesticides in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of Method EPA MS666 can be determined.
Ghareeb, Mwlod; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh
Tacrolimus is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent in organ transplant recipients. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tacrolimus is essential to adjust the dose and achieve optimal immunosuppression level. Routine TDM is practiced using whole blood samples obtained through venipuncture. However, tacrolimus concentration that is present in oral fluid (OF) can theoretically represent the free or pharmacologically active form of tacrolimus. In this study, we report the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantification of tacrolimus in OF. Chromatographic separation were achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column by a gradient elution using 2mM ammonium acetate/0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water (mobile phase A) and in methanol (mobile phase B) with a 2.2min chromatographic run time. Tacrolimus was extracted from OF with acetonitrile as the precipitating solvent. Both extraction and chromatography was optimized to provide optimal sample cleanness, negligible matrix effect, and optimal specificity. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for the assay was set at 10pg/mL using a 50μL aliquot of OF obtained by passive drool. The method demonstrated adequate accuracy and precision with accuracy between 94.5-103.6%, and coefficient of variation ranging from 4 to 9.8%. Tacrolimus was stable in OF for up to one month at -80°C and the extracted matrix was stable up to 48h in auto-sampler at 20°C. The method showed high reproducibility as confirmed by incurred sample reanalysis test. This assay was employed in several clinical pharmacokinetic studies and could successfully measure the concentration of tacrolimus in OF.
Silva, A V; Mwebaza, N; Ntale, M; Gustafsson, L L; Pohanka, A
A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantification of lumefantrine (LUM) and its metabolite desbutyl-lumefantrine (DBL) in human plasma. Sample preparation was done by protein precipitation using acetonitrile containing deuterated lumefantrine (LUM-d18) and desbutyl-lumefantrine (DBL-d9) as internal standards. Total chromatography time was 2.2min using an Hypersil Gold C18 column (20×2.1mm, 1.9μm), with a gradient using 0.5% formic acid in water (mobile phase A) and 0.5% formic acid in methanol (mobile phase B) at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min. The mass spectrometric quantification was performed in positive electro spray ionization (ESI+) mode using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Measuring range was 21-529ng/mL for LUM and 1.9-47ng/mL for DBL in plasma. Inter- and intra-assay precision was within 10% coefficient of variation (CV) for all levels of both LUM and DBL. Accuracy was within ±10% for all levels of both LUM and DBL. This method requires 100μL plasma volume and its short retention times allow a high throughput. Samples were stable for a week at +5°C, and up to six months -20°C. The method was successfully applied for plasma LUM and DBL determination in children under 5 years of age with uncomplicated malaria, up to 28 days after a standard 3-day treatment with artemether-lumefantrine.
Wiergowski, Marek; Aszyk, Justyna; Kaliszan, Michał; Wilczewska, Kamila; Anand, Jacek Sein; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Jankowski, Zbigniew
This paper describes cases of poisoning caused by new psychoactive substances such as: 25B-NBOMe (2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) and 4-CMC (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone). The analytical procedure includes rapid and selective method for the extraction and determination of 4-CMC and 25B-NBOMe in blood samples using UPLC-MS/MS technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, that involves a fully validated method for quantification of new-designer drug - 4-CMC in postmortem blood samples. The biological material was also analyzed with the use of routine analytical methods: immunochemical techniques, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry. The results of real samples analyses correspond to possible toxicological effects: death resulting from 25B-NBOMe - mediated hallucinations (661ng/mL of 25B-NBOMe and 0.887ng/mL of 4-CMC), fatal overdose of 25B-NBOMe and 4-CMC (66.5ng/mL of 25B-NBOMe and 2.14ng/mL of 4-CMC) and non-fatal intoxication of these drugs (38.4ng/mL of 25B NBOMe and 0.181ng/mL of 4-CMC). Additionally, O-demethylathed O, O-bis-demethylathed and glucuronidated metabolites of 25B-NBOMe in biological specimens were detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Napolitano, José G; Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C; Jaki, Birgit U; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F
The development of analytical methods for parallel characterization of multiple phytoconstituents is essential to advance the quality control of herbal products. While chemical standardization is commonly carried out by targeted analysis using gas or liquid chromatography-based methods, more universal approaches based on quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) measurements are being used increasingly in the multi-targeted assessment of these complex mixtures. The present study describes the development of a 1D qHNMR-based method for simultaneous identification and quantification of green tea constituents. This approach utilizes computer-assisted (1)H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) and enables rapid profiling of seven catechins in commercial green tea extracts. The qHNMR results were cross-validated against quantitative profiles obtained with an orthogonal LC-MS/MS method. The relative strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the role of identical reference standards in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Napolitano, José G.; Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C.; Jaki, Birgit U.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.
The development of analytical methods for parallel characterization of multiple phytoconstituents is essential to advance the quality control of herbal products. While chemical standardization is commonly carried out by targeted analysis using gas or liquid chromatography-based methods, more universal approaches based on quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) measurements are being used increasingly in the multi-targeted assessment of these complex mixtures. The present study describes the development of a 1D qHNMR-based method for simultaneous identification and quantification of green tea constituents. This approach utilizes computer-assisted 1H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) and enables rapid profiling of seven catechins in commercial green tea extracts. The qHNMR results were cross-validated against quantitative profiles obtained with an orthogonal LC-MS/MS method. The relative strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the role of identical reference standards in qualitative and quantitative analyses. PMID:23870106
Lowenthal, Mark S; Yen, James; Bunk, David M; Phinney, Karen W
An isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID LC-MS/MS) measurement procedure was developed to accurately quantify amino acid concentrations in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2389a-amino acids in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid. Seventeen amino acids were quantified using selected reaction monitoring on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. LC-MS/MS results were compared to gravimetric measurements from the preparation of SRM 2389a-a reference material developed at NIST and intended for use in intra-laboratory calibrations and quality control. Quantitative mass spectrometry results and gravimetric values were statistically combined into NIST-certified mass fraction values with associated uncertainty estimates. Coefficients of variation (CV) for the repeatability of the LC-MS/MS measurements among amino acids ranged from 0.33% to 2.7% with an average CV of 1.2%. Average relative expanded uncertainty of the certified values including Types A and B uncertainties was 3.5%. Mean accuracy of the LC-MS/MS measurements with gravimetric preparation values agreed to within |1.1|% for all amino acids. NIST SRM 2389a will be available for characterization of routine methods for amino acid analysis and serves as a standard for higher-order measurement traceability. This is the first time an ID LC-MS/MS methodology has been applied for quantifying amino acids in a NIST SRM material.
Asakawa, Daichi; Furuichi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Oku, Yuichiro; Funasaka, Kunihiro
A convenient quantification method for underivatized levoglucosan, which is a tracer for biomass burning influenced particulate matter (PM), has been established using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled to positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ((+)ESI-MS). Levoglucosan was chromatographically separated from its isomers (mannosan and galactosan) and detected selectively with positive ESI-MS. Limits of detection and quantification for this method were 0.40 and 1.3 ng mL-1, respectively. A comparison of simultaneous measurements by this method and conventional derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed a good linearity with a slope of 1.008 and a determination coefficient of 0.9932. The developed method was applied to ambient suspended particulate matter hourly collected by continuous particulate monitors at 10 stations. The hourly concentration of levoglucosan during August 9-11, 2011, was 1.7-918 ng m-3 and its distribution indicated the transportation of biomass burning aerosols of a forest fire. This is the first report of horizontal distribution of the hourly levoglucosan concentration in Japan.
Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti
The Amazonian region from Brazil has a wide variety of native and wild noncommercially cultivated fruits. This article reports for the first time the composition of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from Caryocar villosum fruit pulp, and, in addition, its proximate composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) were determined. According to the nutritional composition, water (52%) and lipids (25%) were the major components found in the pulp, and the total energetic value was 291 kcal/100 g. The major phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS were gallic acid (182.4 μg/g pulp), followed by ellagic acid rhamnoside (107 μg/g pulp) and ellagic acid (104 μg/g pulp). The main carotenoids identified by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS/MS were all-trans-antheraxanthin (3.4 μg/g pulp), all-trans-zeaxanthin (2.9 μg/g pulp), and a lutein-like carotenoid (2.8 μg/g pulp). The antioxidant capacity of the pulp (3.7 mMol Trolox/100 g pulp) indicates that it can be considered a good peroxyl radical scavenger.
Phillips, Caroline A; McGrew, William C
Macroscopic inspection of feces has been used to investigate primate diet. The limitations of this method to identify food-items to species level have long been recognized, but ascertaining aspects of diet (e.g., folivory) are achievable by quantifying food-items in feces. Quantification methods applied include rating food-items using a scale of abundance, estimating their percentage volume, and weighing food-items. However, verification as to whether or not composition data differ, depending on which quantification method is used during macroscopic inspection, has not been done. We analyzed feces collected from ten adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kanyawara community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We compare dietary composition totals obtained from using different quantification methods and ascertain if sieve mesh size influences totals calculated. Finally, this study validates findings from direct observation of feeding by the same individuals from whom the fecal samples had been collected. Contrasting diet composition totals obtained by using different quantification methods and sieve mesh sizes can influence folivory and frugivory estimates. However, our findings were based on the assumption that fibrous matter contained pith and leaf fragments only, which remains to be verified. We advocate macroscopic inspection of feces can be a valuable tool to provide a generalized overview of dietary composition for primate populations. As most populations remain unhabituated, scrutinizing and validating indirect measures are important if they are to be applied to further understand inter- and intra-species dietary variation.
The pH differential method (AOAC method 2005.02) by spectrophotometer, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are methods commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins of samples or products. This study was carried out to establish a relationship between...
The pH differential method (AOAC method 2005.02) by spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are methods commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins of samples or products. This study was carried out to establish a relationship between t...
The pH differential method (AOAC method 2005.02) by spectrophotometer, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are methods commonly used by researchers and the food industry for quantifying anthocyanins of samples or products. This study was carried out to establish a relationship between ...
Liu, Yongqiang; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P
The phenolic contents of plant foods are commonly quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay based on gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). However, this may lead to inaccuracies because gallic acid is not always representative of the structural heterogeneity of plant phenolics. Therefore, product-specific standards have been developed for the phenolic quantification of several foods. Currently, maple-derived foods (syrup, sugar, sap/water, and extracts) are quantified for phenolic contents based on GAEs. Because lignans are the predominant phenolics present in maple, herein, a maple phenolic lignan-enriched standard (MaPLES) was purified (by chromatography) and characterized (by UFLC-MS/MS with lignans previously isolated from maple syrup). Using MaPLES and secoisolariciresinol (a commercially available lignan), the phenolic contents of the maple-derived foods increased 3-fold compared to GAEs. Therefore, lignan-based standards are more appropriate for phenolic quantification of maple-derived foods versus GAEs. Also, MaPLES can be utilized for the authentication and detection of fake label claims on maple products.
Li, Jin; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; He, Jun; Liu, Er-wei; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu
An improved LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of eleven bioactive constituents of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and its related preparations. It was the first report on the quantification of bioactive constituents in different preparations of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis by LC-MS/MS analytical method. These samples were separated with an Agilent Zorbax Extend reversed-phase C18 column (1.8 μm, 4.6 × 100 mm) by linear gradient elution using aqueous ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.3 mL min−1. The eleven bioactive constituents showed good regression (R > 0.990) within test ranges and the recoveries were in the range of 87.1–110%. The limit of detections and quantifications for most of the major constituents were less than 0.5 and 1.0 ng mL−1, respectively. All results indicated that the developed method could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and related preparations. PMID:26078992
Musumeci, Lauren E; Ryona, Imelda; Pan, Bruce S; Loscos, Natalia; Feng, Hui; Cleary, Michael T; Sacks, Gavin L
Analyses of key odorous polyfunctional volatile thiols in wines (3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH), 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3-MHA), and 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4-MMP)) are challenging due to their high reactivity and ultra-trace concentrations, especially when using conventional gas-chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). We describe a method in which thiols are converted to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives by extractive alkylation and the organic layer is evaporated prior to headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC-EI-MS analysis. Optimal parameters were determined by response surface area modeling. The addition of NaCl solution to the dried SPME vials prior to extraction resulted in up to less than fivefold improvement in detection limits. Using 40 mL wine samples, limits of detection for 4-MMP, 3-MH, and 3-MHA were 0.9 ng/L, 1 ng/L, and 17 ng/L, respectively. Good recovery (90%-109%) and precision (5%-11% RSD) were achieved in wine matrices. The new method was used to survey polyfunctional thiol concentrations in 61 commercial California and New York State wines produced from V. vinifera (Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and non-varietal rosé wines), V. labruscana (Niagara), and Vitis spp. (Cayuga White). Mean 4-MMP concentrations in New York Niagara (17 ng/L) were not significantly different from concentrations in Sauvignon blanc, but were significantly higher than 4-MMP in other varietal wines.