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Sample records for mucosa oral lesionada

  1. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  2. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  3. [Infections of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Reibel, Jesper; Kragelund, Camilla

    2010-11-01

    The most common infections of the oral mucosa are those caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Candidosis occurs as pseudomembraneous, erythematous and hyperplastic types with varying symptoms from no to a burning sensation. Treatment most importantly includes elimination of any predisposing factors such as smoking, sub-optimal denture hygiene and hyposalivation. A primary HSV infection results in a life-long latent infection recurring in some infected persons either intraorally or on the lip. If treatment is indicated, topical or systemic aciclovir and related drugs can be used.

  4. Warty dyskeratoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, G; Sklavounou, A

    1985-10-01

    A case of oral warty dyskeratoma is presented and the literature is reviewed in brief. While warty dyskeratoma of the oral mucosa is rare, it appears to exhibit a variability of clinical appearance and to have a special predilection for keratinised mucosae exposed to friction and mechanical stress.

  5. Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

    2011-01-01

    The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

  6. Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.

    PubMed

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

    2011-12-01

    The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit.

  7. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  8. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chilagondanahalli, Nandini L.; Bundele, Manish M.; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic), mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type) of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision. PMID:27672465

  9. Diseases of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

  10. [Bullous autoimmune diseases of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, L

    1999-10-01

    Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBD) are characterized by autoantibodies targeted against adhesion molecules, impairing their formation. According to localization criteria, pemphigus (intraepidermal blister and desmosomal involvement) and pemphigoid (subepidermal blister and dermoepidermal junction involvement) can be distinguished. In two-thirds of the cases, pemphigus vulgaris begins with oral lesions (mainly the buccal mucosa and palate, rarely the gingiva). Skin lesions are usual. Excepting paraneoplastic pemphigus (a recently individualized entity), oral lesions are uncommon in other types of pemphigus. Cicatricial pemphigoid mainly involves oral mucosa, frequently other mucous membranes, and rarely the skin. Gingival involvement is frequent. In case of desquamative gingivitis, the clip sign gives the diagnosis of cicatricial pemphigoid. Ocular involvement is frequent and causes blindness. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and IgA linear dermatosis are rare. Bullous pemphigoid and bullous lupus rarely involve the oral mucosa. Diagnosis of AIBD requires a biopsy within the mucosal membrane lesion for pathology examination and another biopsy in a lesion-free area for direct immunofluorescence detection of antibody fixation. Immunoelectron microscopy or immunoblast transfer may be needed for positive diagnosis. Corticosteroids are used to treat pemphigus and dapsone is used for cicatricial pemphigoid. Immunosuppressive therapy is rarely needed.

  11. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  12. [Optimizing biopsies of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Raybaud, H; Voha, C; Cardot-Leccia, N; Monteil, R A

    2012-11-01

    We had for aim to describe and illustrate the artefacts observed in biopsies of the oral mucosa, as well as the impact of sending non-representative histological material to a laboratory. This article was based on an international literature review, as well as on our experience. We analysed the problems raised, for the pathologists and the histology lab-technicians, by these artefacts as well as their impact on the pathology report patient management. We suggest simple solutions.

  13. Age and the architecture of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Sawair, Faleh; Landini, Gabriel; Saku, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Age changes affect the oral mucosa (the protective lining of the oral cavity), but few of these have been studied objectively. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyse a number of morphometric parameters of the ageing oral mucosa. The fractal dimension of the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI) was estimated in 42 samples of normal buccal mucosa to correlate any changes in their irregularity to the age of the individuals. Morphometric parameters extracted from theoretical cell areas computed programatically were also analysed. Results showed no significant change in ECTI complexity associated with age; however, there was indication that epithelial cells tended to become larger and flatter with age. Interestingly, while some parameters did not show significant differences case wise, cluster analysis showed that the data clustered the cases into three main age groups: one representing the first two decades of life, another group represents adult life (21-50 years) and the last group representing the ageing population (50-90 years).

  14. [Oral medicine 8. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-01-01

    Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is a potentially malignant disorder, which means that there is an elevated risk oftransformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. The term oral leukoplakia is a clinical diagnosis for a predominantly white lesion which is not immediately recognizable as another well definable lesion which is white in appearance. Oral leukoplakia is generally an asymptomatic disorder of the mucosa with a prevalence of less than 2 per cent in the adult population. Tobacco usage is considered to be the most important etiological factor. Malignant transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma occurs in about I per cent per year. A patient with oral leukoplakia is generally referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, who takes a biopsy for a definitive histopathological diagnosis. The outcome of the histopathological study, which may vary from hyperkeratosis to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, will determine the treatment. It is preferable that every leukoplakia is removed to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Long term follow-up is indicated. Follow-up may in some cases be performed by the general dental practitioner.

  15. [Oral mucosa analog allografts in non-consanguineous rats].

    PubMed

    González, Luis; Padrón, Karla; Salmen, Siham; Jerez, Elsy; Dávila, Lorena; Solórzano, Eduvigis

    2017-01-24

    Although there are therapeutic options for the treatment of oral mucosa defects, the need for functional, anatomical and aesthetically similar substitutes persists, as well as for solutions to reduce autologous grafts morbidity. To determine clinical and histological compatibility of equivalent oral mucosa allografts generated through tissue engineering in non-consanguineous rats. We used a sample of oral mucosa from Sprague Dawley rats to obtain a fibroblast culture and a keratinocytes and fibroblasts co-culture. In both cases, we used a commercial collagen membrane as "scaffold". After ten weeks of culture, we grafted the resulting membranes into four Wistar rats. The first phase of the study was the development of the oral mucosa equivalents generated by tissue engineering. Then, we implanted them in immunocompetent Wistar rats, and finallywe evaluated the clinical and histological features of the allografts. In vivo evaluation of mucosal substitutes showed a correct integration of artificial oral mucosa in immunocompetent hosts, with an increase in periodontal biotype and the creation of a zone with increased keratinization. Histologically, the tissue was similar to the control oral mucosa sample with no inflammatory reaction nor clinical or histological rejection signs. The equivalent oral mucosa allografts generated by tissue engineering showed clinical and histological compatibility.

  16. [Oral status and oral mucosa blood circulation changes in patients with chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, L Iu; Rybakova, M G; Barmasheva, A A; Kuznetsova, I A; Semernin, E N; Shirshova, N A; Shliakhto, E V; Gudkova, A Ia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize dental status and oral mucosa blood flow in patients with chronic heart failure and amyloid deposits in oral mucosa. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of 80 oral mucosa biopsies taken from patients aged 32-72 years with chronic heart failure I-IV NYHA functional class was carried out. It detected a systemic amyloidosis in 15.7% of cases; a local amyloid deposition in oral mucosa was found in 58.5% of cases. Amyloid deposition in oral mucosa was associated with severe chronic generalized periodontitis in more than a half of cases. Amyloid deposits in oral mucosa were revealed more often in patients with metabolic syndrome (63.5%). The article describes dental status and oral mucosa blood flow in patients with heart failure.

  17. A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

  18. Optical detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa: autofluorescence characteristics of healthy mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Veld, Diana C. G.; Witjes, Max; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Hericus J. C. M.

    2001-10-01

    Previous clinical results demonstrate the potential of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy for early detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. For reliable diagnosis, it is necessary to study autofluorescence spectra of healthy mucosa first. We measured excitation-emission maps in healthy subjects and subjects with a history of cancer in the head -neck region. Our results show that different anatomical locations produce distinct autofluorescence spectra. Influences of, among others, smoking and drinking habits require further investigation.

  19. Oral mucosa and therapy of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Landová, Hana; Daněk, Zdeněk; Gajdziok, Jan; Vetchý, David; Stembírek, Jan

    2013-02-01

    Oral mucosa is one of the specific surfaces of the human body, which is permanently exposed to external factors related with food intake, breathing and speaking processes, which can lead to the onset of some problems. Disorders of the oral mucosa are a group of diseases, affecting, in the course of life, the majority of the population. Many of the oral mucosa ailments are manifested by lesions. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common of these diseases. Despite much clinical and research attention, its causes remain poorly understood and treatment is only symptomatic. RAS is reported to affect up to 25% of the population worldwide. Topical or systemic therapy (corticosteroids, antiseptics, anti-inflamatory drugs, immunomodulating agents, etc.) can be used for treatment of RAS-associated symptoms. In general, topical therapy should be preferred due to the smaller drug load of the organism. In both cases, the active substance has to be in suitable dosage form. Recently, besides the conventional ways of application (rinses), the main disadvantage of which is the short time of resistance in the oral cavity, mucoadhesive dosage forms are used. The aim of this article is to give a theoretical overview of the oral mucosa topic and its most frequent disease - recurrent aphthous stomatitis in terms of various types of the disease classification, diagnosis and therapy, and in terms of the usage of various types of active substances and medical forms. oral mucosa recurrent aphthous stomatitis therapy mucoadhesive dosage forms.

  20. ORGANIZATION, BARRIER FUNCTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL LIPIDS OF THE ORAL MUCOSA

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah V.; Drake, David R.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Brogden, Kim A.; Fischer, Carol L.; Wertz, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis As one moves from the skin across the vermilion region of the lip and into the oral cavity the oral mucosa is encountered. The oral mucosa consists of connective tissue known as the lamina propria covered by a stratified squamous epithelium. In the regions of the hard palate and gingiva the epithelium is keratinized like the epidermis. In the buccal region, the floor of the mouth and the underside of the tongue the epithelium is nonkeratinized. The epithelium on the dorsum of the tongue is a specialized epithelium but can be approximated as a mosaic of keratinized and nonkeratinized epithelia. The nonkeratinized epithelial regions do not produce a stratum corneum. Nuclei with intact DNA are retained in the superficial cells. In all regions the outer portions of the epithelium provides a protective permeability barrier, which varies regionally. Antimicrobial lipids at the surfaces of the oral mucosa are an integral part of innate immunity. PMID:23320785

  1. Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Gavaldá, Carmen; Carbonell, Enrique; Margaix, María; Sarrión, Gracia

    2008-07-01

    Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the genital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even less frequent. Knowledge of such lesions is important in order to establish a differential diagnosis with other white oral lesions, and histological confirmation is required. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with a well delimited, pearly white lesion located in the upper gingival mucosa, lip mucosa and adjacent skin. The lesion had led to loss of periodontal attachment of the affected tooth, causing pain in response to tooth brushing. The biopsy confirmed lichen sclerosus, and treatment was provided in the form of intralesional corticoid injections, followed by improvement of the mucosal lesion, though without recovery of the periodontal loss.

  2. Detection of survivin mRNA in healthy oral mucosa, oral leucoplakia and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Lodi, G; Franchini, R; Bez, C; Sardella, A; Moneghini, L; Pellegrini, C; Bosari, S; Manfredi, M; Vescovi, P; Carrassi, A

    2010-01-01

    Survivin is involved in modulation of cell death and cell division processes. Survivin expression in normal adult tissues has not been fully understood, although it is markedly lower than in cancer, where it is over-expressed. To investigate survivin expression in normal, potentially malignant and cancerous oral mucosa. We measured survivin mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR in specimens of oral mucosa (15 from normal mucosa, 17 from potentially malignant lesions, 17 from neoplasms). Scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc according to Conover. Chi-squared test was used for dichotomous data. The median relative levels of survivin mRNA resulted six for normal mucosa, eight for potentially malignant lesions, 13 for cancers: differences among these three groups were statistically significant, as between cancer and potentially malignant lesions. Expression in normal mucosa and potentially lesions group showed no significant difference. Low, but not marginal expression of survivin in normal mucosa is a new finding, and it could be explained with the higher sensibility of our methods. Survivin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions might indicate a progressive deregulation of expression paralleling oncogenesis, particularly during the first stages of process, suggesting a putative predictive role for survivin.

  3. Oral lining mucosa development depends on mesenchymal microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Oommen, S; Kawasaki, M; Kawasaki, K; Imam, N; Jalani-Ghazani, F; Hindges, R; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

    2013-03-01

    The oral mucosa plays critical roles in protection, sensation, and secretion and can be classified into masticatory, lining, and specialized mucosa that are known to be functionally, histologically, and clinically distinct. Each type of oral mucosa is believed to develop through discrete molecular mechanisms, which remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19 to 25nt non-coding small single-stranded RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by binding target mRNAs. miRNAs are crucial for fine-tuning of molecular mechanisms. To investigate the role of miRNAs in oral mucosa development, we examined mice with mesenchymal (Wnt1Cre;Dicer(fl/fl)) conditional deletion of Dicer. Wnt1Cre;Dicer(fl/fl) mice showed trans-differentiation of lining mucosa into an epithelium with masticatory mucosa/ skin-specific characteristics. Up-regulation of Fgf signaling was found in mutant lining mucosal epithelium that was accompanied by an increase in Fgf7 expression in mutant mesenchyme. Mesenchyme miRNAs thus have an indirect effect on lining mucosal epithelial cell growth/differentiation.

  4. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Sand, Lars

    2015-11-01

    It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected.

  5. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. Results HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. Key words:HSV-1, nested PCR, PCR. PMID:26449432

  6. [Oral mucosa reaction in patients adapting to removable dentures].

    PubMed

    Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatova, L N; Pikhur, O L; Mikhailova, E S; Peremyshlenko, A S; Soldatov, V S

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosa reaction of prosthetic bed to the removable acrylic dentures was evaluated in 43 patients (12 male and 31 female) aged 56-69 years with partial and full teeth loss in one or both jaws. Patients of the first (control) group (17 patients) were not using additional tools improving fixation of the removable dentures during adaptation period, while patients of the second (main) group (26 patients) used Corega cream for dentures fixation for 30 days follow-up. Oral mucosa assessment was carried out on 3-4 and 28-30 day of dentures use by 3 end points: pain syndrome, moisture level, inflammation of a prosthetic bed. The results proved Corega cream to improve prosthetic bed mucosa condition reducing inflammatory response to polymeric materials of removable dentures basis.

  7. Oral mucosa lesions in Mazahua Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Banderas, J A; Toshikasu, O; González, M

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiologic data on oral lesions in native Indians remain unknown in many countries around the world. This paper reports the prevalence and distribution of oral congenital anomalies and pathologic lesions found in a survey of 107 schoolchildren (ages 12 to 17), from two isolated communities in the ethnographic Mazahua area in the State of Mexico. The main entities identified were: pigmented lesions (47.6%), lingual anomalies (17.4%) and developmental tooth alterations (6.9%). The remaining 24.4% of the lesions were gingival inflammatory hyperplasia, partial ankilosis of the tongue, lichen planus, focal epithelial hyperplasia and the double lip. The most frequent localization was lips and tongue. These findings suggest the high prevalence of oral anomalies in this Indian population. Therefore, we suggest that health programs should emphasize the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these pathologies in Indians groups.

  8. Immunohistochemistry of lymphocytes in benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Li, S-X; Li, Q; Yang, Y-Q; Jin, L-J; Sun, Z; Yu, S-F

    2015-06-29

    Benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa (BLOM) is a common oral mucosa disease and may be regarded as a precancerous lesion. However, the association between its biological behavior and lymphocyte distribution remains unclear. Therefore, to investigate the characteristics of BLOM, we studied the infiltration of lymphocytes associated with it. The expression levels of CD74, CD20, CD3, and CD45RO were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in 14 sam-ples from BLOM, 9 samples from BLOM with atypia hyperplasia, 11 samples from BLOM with canceration, and 10 samples from normal oral mucosa tissues. The results were analyzed by two-sample t-test using SPSS 10.0 for Windows, and P < 0.05 was considered to be sig-nificant. In normal oral mucosa, positive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO were presented in the extra-lymphoid follicle, and the expres-sion levels of CD74 and CD20 were negative. In all BLOM groups, the expression level of CD20 was positive except for one case of BLOM with canceration; the expression levels of CD74 were all positive. Posi-tive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO could be found not only in extra-lymphoid follicles but also in inner-lymphoid follicles in the BLOM groups. The expression levels of CD74 and CD20 in extra-lym-phoid follicles, and CD3 and CD45RO in inner-lymphoid follicles in BLOM were significantly higher than in BLOM with canceration. The infiltrated lymphocytes in BLOM comprise T- and B-cells. This indi-cates that the lymphoid tissue in BLOM is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and BLOM is a proliferative lesion.

  9. Raman microspectroscopic study of oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Mamgain, Hitesh; Deshmukh, Atul; Kukreja, Lekha; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer among Indian males, with 5-year- survival-rates of less than 50%. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopic methods in non-invasive and objective diagnosis of oral cancers and confounding factors has already been demonstrated. The present Raman microspectroscopic study was undertaken for in-depth and site-specific analysis of normal and tumor tissues. 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained sections from 20 tissues were accrued. Raman data of 160 x 60 μm and 140 x 140 μm in normal and tumor sections, respectively, were acquired using WITec alpha 300R equipped with 532 nm laser, 50X objective and 600 gr/mm grating. Spectral data were corrected for CCDresponse, background. First-derivitized and vector-normalized data were then subjected to K-mean cluster analysis to generate Raman maps and correlated with their respective histopathology. In normal sections, stratification among epithelial layers i.e. basal, intermediate, superficial was observed. Tumor, stromal and inflammatory regions were identified in case of tumor section. Extracted spectra of the pathologically annotated regions were subjected to Principal component analysis. Findings suggest that all three layers of normal epithelium can be differentiated against tumor cells. In epithelium, basal and superficial layers can be separated while intermediate layer show misclassifications. In tumors, discrimination of inflammatory regions from tumor cells and tumor-stroma regions were observed. Finding of the study indicate Raman mapping can lead to molecular level insights of normal and pathological states.

  10. Noninvasive imaging of oral mucosae with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Tsan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is developed for in vivo visualization of structural and vascular morphology oral mucosa. For simplification of optical probe fabrication, probe weight, and system setup, the body of the scanning probe is fabricated by a 3D printer to fix the optical components and the mechanical scanning device, and a partially reflective slide is attached at the output end of probe to achieve a common-path configuration. Aside from providing the ability of 3D structural imaging with the developed system, 3D vascular images of oral mucosa can be simultaneously obtained. Then, different locations of oral mucosa are scanned with common-path OCT. The results show that epithelium and lamina propria layers as well as fungiform papilla can be identified and microvascular images can be acquired. With the proposed probe, the system cost and volume can be greatly reduced. Experimental results indicate that such common-path OCT system could be further implemented for oral cancer diagnosis.

  11. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with α-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  12. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  13. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions as a working concept for oral mucosa regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiarong; Mao, Jeremy J; Chen, Lili

    2011-02-01

    Oral mucosa consists of two tissue layers, the superficial epithelium and the underlying lamina propria. Together, oral mucosa functions as a barrier against exogenous substances and pathogens. In development, interactions of stem/progenitor cells of the epithelium and mesenchyme are crucial to the morphogenesis of oral mucosa. Previous work in oral mucosa regeneration has yielded important clues for several meritorious proof-of-concept approaches. Tissue engineering offers a broad array of novel tools for oral mucosa regeneration with reduced donor site trauma and accelerated clinical translation. However, the developmental concept of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) is rarely considered in oral mucosa regeneration. EMIs in postnatal oral mucosa regeneration likely will not be a simple recapitulation of prenatal oral mucosa development. Biomaterial scaffolds play an indispensible role for oral mucosa regeneration and should provide a conducive environment for pivotal EMIs. Autocrine and paracrine factors, either exogenously delivered or innately produced, have rarely been and should be harnessed to promote oral mucosa regeneration. This review focuses on a working concept of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions in oral mucosa regeneration.

  14. Epithelial–Mesenchymal Interactions as a Working Concept for Oral Mucosa Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiarong

    2011-01-01

    Oral mucosa consists of two tissue layers, the superficial epithelium and the underlying lamina propria. Together, oral mucosa functions as a barrier against exogenous substances and pathogens. In development, interactions of stem/progenitor cells of the epithelium and mesenchyme are crucial to the morphogenesis of oral mucosa. Previous work in oral mucosa regeneration has yielded important clues for several meritorious proof-of-concept approaches. Tissue engineering offers a broad array of novel tools for oral mucosa regeneration with reduced donor site trauma and accelerated clinical translation. However, the developmental concept of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) is rarely considered in oral mucosa regeneration. EMIs in postnatal oral mucosa regeneration likely will not be a simple recapitulation of prenatal oral mucosa development. Biomaterial scaffolds play an indispensible role for oral mucosa regeneration and should provide a conducive environment for pivotal EMIs. Autocrine and paracrine factors, either exogenously delivered or innately produced, have rarely been and should be harnessed to promote oral mucosa regeneration. This review focuses on a working concept of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions in oral mucosa regeneration. PMID:21062224

  15. [Tobacco-associated lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Michael M; Klingler, Karl; Saxer, Ulrich P; Walter, Clemens; Ramseier, Christoph A

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of tobacco can result not only in a multitude of different general health problems like carcinoma of the lung, ischaemic cardiac diseases, peripheral vascular diseases, stroke, chronic-obstructive pulmonary diseases or peptic ulcers, but also in pathologic lesions of the oral mucosa. Benign oral lesions from smoking or consumption of smokeless tobacco are the so-called smoker's palate and smoker's melanosis. On the other hand, tobacco-associated lesions like oral leukoplakia or oral squamous cell carcinoma are already potentially life-threatening diseases that in general require active treatment. The following review article will present and discuss the typical lesions of the oral mucosa that result from chronic tobacco consumption. The aim of this article is to demonstrate dental health care providers the needs and benefits of tobacco use cessation in a dental setting, especially regarding stomatologic sequelae and consequences. The present article is the first in a series of articles from the Swiss task force "Smoking - Intervention in the private dental office" on the topic "tobacco use and dental medicine".

  16. Comparative proteomics of paired vocal fold and oral mucosa fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Karbiener, Michael; Darnhofer, Barbara; Frisch, Marie-Therese; Rinner, Beate; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Gugatschka, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Injuries of the vocal folds frequently heal with scar formation, which can have lifelong detrimental impact on voice quality. Current treatments to prevent or resolve scars of the vocal fold mucosa are highly unsatisfactory. In contrast, the adjacent oral mucosa is mostly resistant to scarring. These differences in healing tendency might relate to distinct properties of the fibroblasts populating oral and vocal fold mucosae. We thus established the in vitro cultivation of paired, near-primary vocal fold fibroblasts (VFF) and oral mucosa fibroblasts (OMF) to perform a basic cellular characterization and comparative cellular proteomics. VFF were significantly larger than OMF, proliferated more slowly, and exhibited a sustained TGF-β1-induced elevation of pro-fibrotic interleukin 6. Cluster analysis of the proteomic data revealed distinct protein repertoires specific for VFF and OMF. Further, VFF displayed a broader protein spectrum, particularly a more sophisticated array of factors constituting and modifying the extracellular matrix. Conversely, subsets of OMF-enriched proteins were linked to cellular proliferation, nuclear events, and protection against oxidative stress. Altogether, this study supports the notion that fibroblasts sensitively adapt to the functional peculiarities of their respective anatomical location and presents several molecular targets for further investigation in the context of vocal fold wound healing. Biological significance Mammalian vocal folds are a unique but delicate tissue. A considerable fraction of people is affected by voice problems, yet many of the underlying vocal fold pathologies are sparsely understood at the molecular level. One such pathology is vocal fold scarring - the tendency of vocal fold injuries to heal with scar formation -, which represents a clinical problem with highly suboptimal treatment modalities. This study employed proteomics to obtain comprehensive insight into the protein repertoire of vocal fold

  17. Relationship between chronic trauma of the oral mucosa, oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Piemonte, Eduardo David; Lazos, Jerónimo Pablo; Brunotto, Mabel

    2010-08-01

    Oral cancer represents 2%-5% of all cancers, being one of the 10 most frequent ones. Apart from oral cancer risk factors already described in literature, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, others emerging risk factors have been proposed, such as chronic irritation from dental factors. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of chronic trauma of the oral mucosa (CTOM) in patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and cancer. A retrospective study of 406 patients (both sexes; aged between 18 and 80 years; with OPMD and cancer) who attended the Department of Clinical Stomatology A of the National University of Cordoba was performed by non-probabilistic sampling. The association of variables and outcome variable diagnosis, with levels control, OPMD, oral cancer, was evaluated by multinomial regression model. Population under study was represented by 72% of control patients, 16% patients with OPMD and 11% of patients with oral cancer. It was observed a significant association between diagnosis and CTOM (P = 0.000), after adjustment of confounding factors (smoking and drinking habits, sex, cancer inheritance and denture use). Our results suggest that CTOM is, together with other factors, an important risk factor in patients with oral cancer diagnosis, but not for patients with OPMD.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of EMLA cream 5% application to oral mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, E. R.; Marzbani, N.; Gerzina, T. M.; McLean, C.; Punnia-Moorthy, A.; Mather, L.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and prilocaine were measured following the application of a 5% eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) topical anesthetic cream to the oral mucosa of twelve subjects. For each subject, a total of 8 g of EMLA was occluded to 18 cm2 of buccal mucosa for 30 min. Analysis was carried out by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and results showed peak concentrations at 40 min for lidocaine and prilocaine. The maximum concentration measured in any subject was 418 ng/ml for lidocaine and 223 ng/ml for prilocaine, well below known toxic levels. No adverse local effects were observed from a 30-min application of EMLA. A follow-up pilot study assessing the clinical efficacy of EMLA for achieving sufficient analgesia for restorative procedures showed that the cream was successful in 75% of subjects tested. PMID:9481979

  19. Topical 1% oxytetracycline hydrochloride versus placebo in oral mucosa biopsy.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pia; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Martinez-Canovas, Ascensión; Sidrach-Cardona, Miriam

    2012-07-01

    Oral surgical procedures produce side effects such as pain and inflammation, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of tissue damage produced. To explore the effectiveness and safety of the topical application of 1% oxytetracycline hydrochloride after biopsy of the oral mucosa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and no treatment-controlled study was conducted in 90 patients with lesions needing histopathologic analysis. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I (control) received no treatment; in group II, the site of surgical intervention was treated topically with 1% oxytetracycline hydrochloride three times a day for 1 week; and in group III, the patients were treated in the same way but with placebo. Using a visual analog scale, we determined the time of maximum postoperative pain. Maximum pain intensity was recorded in the placebo group, with peak pain occurring 24 hours after surgery. The pain subsequently tended to decrease gradually over the 1-week period of the study. The maximum level of pain was significantly lower in group II than in the controls. No adverse effects were recorded. Topical 1% oxytetracycline hydrochloride decreases pain symptoms after oral mucosa biopsy. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Phenotypic characterization of oral mucosa: what is normal?

    PubMed

    Valach, Jaroslav; Foltán, René; Vlk, Marek; Szabo, Pavol; Smetana, Karel

    2017-01-31

    Knowledge of the phenotypic pattern of oral squamous epithelium is important in the histopathologic evaluation of lesions including cancer. The literature on normal epithelium is controversial as the phenotype has not been evaluated in samples from completely healthy tissue donors without a history of tobacco and alcohol exposure. In this study, we evaluated normal upper lip fornix and gingival mucosa from carefully selected young healthy donors without a history of smoking and alcohol exposure, and keratin types 8, 10, 14, and 17, filaggrin, and Ki67 were investigated in these donors. The results were compared with profile of epithelium from leukoplakia. The results demonstrated that the phenotypic patterns of gingiva and upper lip fornix mucosa were different. Surprisingly, a high proportion of gingival samples exhibited keratin 8 and a suprabasal signal for keratin 14. These patterns were compared with that of human oral leukoplakia, and some phenotypic similarities were noted. These results demonstrated oral epithelium phenotypic plasticity based on functional requirements of the microenvironment, which can be used in diagnosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of tissue engineered models of the oral mucosa to investigate oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis.

  2. Human papillomavirus DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kansky, A A; Poljak, M; Seme, K; Kocjan, B J; Gale, N; Luzar, B; Golouh, R

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the putative etiologic role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in oral carcinogenesis, a comparative study was carried out on 62 tissue specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and on 62 specimens of histologically normal oral mucosa obtained from the individuals who matched the subjects with OSCC in age, gender, localization of obtained tissue specimens, drinking and smoking habits. Internal control amplification showed that amplifiable DNA was recovered from 59/62 and 61/62 tissue samples of OSCC and normal oral mucosa, respectively. The amplification with two different HPV L1 and one HPV E6 consensus primer sets showed the presence of the HPV DNA genotypes 16, 33, 58 in 5/59 (8.4%) OSCC specimens and HPV genotypes 11, 16, 31, 68 in 4/61 (6.6%) tissue samples of normal oral mucosa tested. In the study in which a comparative examination of the presence of HPV DNA was for the first time performed on the tissue samples of the patients with OSCC and the age- and gender-matched control subjects there was no significant difference in the prevalence of HPV DNA among both study groups. Our results suggest that occasional findings of HPV DNA in OSCC tissue specimens may be the result of an incidental HPV colonization of oral mucosa, rather than of viral infection, and that HPVs play a limited role in the etiopathogenesis of the majority of OSCC.

  3. In vitro cytokeratin expression profiling of human oral mucosa substitutes developed by tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Garzon, Ingrid; Serrato, Deyanira; Roda, Olga; Del Carmen Sanchez-Quevedo, Maria; Gonzales-Jaranay, Maximino; Moreu, Gerardo; Nieto-Aguilar, Renato; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    In this work we performed a study of cytokeratin (CK) expression profiling on human artificial oral mucosa developed in vitro by tissue engineering at different stages of maturation (from immature to well-developed stages) at the protein and mRNA levels. Human artificial oral mucosa was generated in the laboratory using fibrin-agarose biomaterials. As controls, we used human native normal oral mucosa and embryonic oral tissues. Our results demonstrated that human embryonic oral tissues tended to express CK8 and CK19. In contrast, monolayered bioengineered oral mucosa did not show any CK expression by immunohistochemistry, whereas bilayered and multilayered artificial oral mucosa showed several markers of stratified epithelia, but did not express CK10. These results suggest that the CK expression pattern is strongly dependent on the maturation state of the artificial tissues and that the CK expression profile of our model of artificial oral mucosa was partially similar to that of the non-keratinized human adult oral mucosa. However, the expression of CK8 by the artificial oral mucosa suggests that these samples correspond to an early stage of development while kept in vitro.

  4. Oral immunotherapy induces local protective mechanisms in the gastrointestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Martos, Gustavo; Wang, Wei; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Berin, M. Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising treatment for food allergy. Studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of clinical protection, and to identify safer and potentially more efficacious methods for desensitizing patients to food allergens. Objective We established a mouse model of OIT in order to determine how dose or form of antigen may affect desensitization, and to identify mechanisms of desensitization. Methods Increasing doses of egg white or ovomucoid as OIT were administered orally to sensitized mice. Impact of OIT on anaphylaxis elicited by oral allergen challenge was determined. Allergen-specific antibody and cytokine responses, and mast cell and basophil activation in response to OIT was measured. Gene expression in the small intestine was studied by microarray and real-time PCR. Results OIT resulted in desensitization but not tolerance of mice to the allergen. OIT did not result in desensitization of systemic effector cells, and protection was localized to the gastrointestinal tract. OIT was associated with significant changes in gene expression in the jejunum, including genes expressed by intestinal epithelial cells. Extensively heated ovomucoid that does not trigger anaphylaxis when given orally to sensitized mice was as efficacious as native ovomucoid in desensitizing mice. Conclusions OIT results in clinical protection against food-induced anaphylaxis through a novel mechanism that is localized to the intestinal mucosa and is associated with significant changes in small intestinal gene expression. Extensively heating egg allergen decreases allergenicity and increases safety while still retaining the ability to induce effective desensitization. PMID:22554705

  5. Phenotype and Tissue Residency of Lymphocytes in the Murine Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-Young; Chung, Hyunsoo; Choi, Youngnim; Park, Jung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a critical barrier tissue that harbors a series of distinct immune cell subsets. Immune surveillance in the oral mucosa is important for both local and systemic immunity because the oral cavity is a heavily utilized route of pathogen entry and also serves as site of pathogen propagation. Nonetheless, composition and phenotype of the lymphocyte pool in the oral mucosa have remained poorly characterized. Utilizing a newly established protocol for mucosal immune cell isolation, here, we report that the oral mucosa features a unique cellular composition of immune cells, which differed not only from secondary lymphoid organs but also from mucosal tissues in the gut and lung. We observed profound accumulation of CD11b+Ly6Clo monocytes in the oral mucosa that were maintained independently of T- and B-lymphocytes. Unlike the gut mucosa, the oral mucosa neither contained CD8αα T cells nor was it enriched for CD103+CD69+ tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells. In fact, a major fraction of T cells circulated and trafficked through the mucosa as revealed by treatment with the S1P1 receptor antagonist, FTY720, a potent inhibitor of lymphocyte migration. Collectively, these results provide a comprehensive picture of immune cells in the oral mucosa as an active site of lymphocyte recruitment and surveillance. PMID:28337201

  6. [Bax protein expression in the carcinogenesis of human oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Chen, Q; Li, B; Tan, N

    2000-04-01

    Bax gene is an important apoptosis-promoting gene. In order to investigate the expression of Bax in oral premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas, a total of 38 samples are evaluated using a labelled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB) immunohistochemical assay. A total of 38 specimens were studied, including normal oral mucosa, premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinomas. The specimens were obtained and blocked, fixed with 10% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin using conventional histopathological techniques. 3 microns-thick sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were cut, mounted onto slides coated with 5% APES (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane), dried overnight at 56 degrees C, dewaxed in xylene and rehydrated through descending graded alchols to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4). For antigen retrieval, slides were immersed in 10 mmol/L sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) and boiled twice for 5 min in a microwave oven (800 W). After treated for 10 min with 3% H2O2, 18% methanol in PBS, the slides were covered with 10% normal porcine serum for 10 min at 37 degrees C. Then slides were incubated with primary antibody (bax rabbit polyclonal antibody) for 60 min at 37 degrees C and were subsequently incubated with prediluted biotinylated antibody against rabbit immunogobulins, and streptavidinhorseardish peroxidase conjugate for 30 min at 37 degrees C. After washing, peroxidase activity was detected using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine as chromogen with H2O2 as substrate. The cells in the test specimens which demonstrated granular staining were considered as positive. A haemocytometer counter with 6. 6 framework were applied and only the positive cells on the cross were counted. The cell counting were processed in ten randomly chosen 400* microscopic fields and the mathematic mean was presented as the final counting of each sample. Statistical valuations were performed using the version 6.0 SPSS package. Positive controls were sections of bladder cancer tissues

  7. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  8. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  9. [Pathology of the oral mucosa in patients with type I diabetes mellitus: study of 44 cases].

    PubMed

    Bagan Sebastian, J V; Gisbert Selles, C; Milian Masanet, A

    1988-01-01

    We study the pathology of the oral mucosa in a group of type I diabetics. The most common disease was oral candidiasis (9.09%), whereas the other pathologies encountered showed no significant differences with the controls.

  10. Concurrent HPV infection in oral and genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Badaracco, G; Venuti, A; Di Lonardo, A; Scambia, G; Mozzetti, S; Benedetti Panici, P; Mancuso, S; Marcante, M L

    1998-03-01

    Screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) types was performed by a PCR-based assay on 29 women (mean age 34.0 years, range 21-48 years). HPV-DNA was demonstrated in 16 women (55.2%), with a detection rate of 37.9% in the oral cavity and 34.5% in the genital tract. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype (53.8%), followed by HPV-6, which was present in 34.6% of the positive samples. Other types were more rarely detected. Five subjects showed concurrent genital tract and oral cavity infections but HPV type-specific concordance was detected in only 3 patients. Multiple HPV infections were found in 9 of the 26 positive samples, where HPV-6 appeared frequently associated with the other types. These data confirm the occurrence of mixed HPV infections and the wide diffusion of different types of HPV in the genital mucosa and in the oral cavity; they also stress the need to utilize diagnostic methods with a wide typing capacity.

  11. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  12. Preparation and clinical application of 2% diflunisal oral ointment for painful lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kizu, J; Tsuchiya, M; Watanabe, S; Yasuno, N; Arakawa, Y; Saijyo, H; Okuda, O

    2001-11-01

    We previously reported the development and clinical efficacy of a 2% aspirin oral ointment and 2% ethenzamide oral ointment as hospital preparations for painful lesions of the oral mucosa. This study investigated methods of preparing a more stable oral ointment with a more effective analgesic action, using diflunisal, another salicylic acid derivative, with an analgesic effect stronger than that of aspirin. A two-percent diflunisal oral ointment was prepared similarly to the aspirin ointment using plastibase and CMC-Na as the ointment base. From the results of spreadability measurement, a CMC-Na content of 20% was considered appropriate. The stability of diflunisal in 2% diflunisal oral ointment stored at 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C, was determined using HPLC, and a high stability of diflunisal at room temperature for more than 100 days was confirmed. We also investigated its antinociceptive effect using the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test in rats, which showed that 2% diflunisal oral ointment was as effective as 2% aspirin oral ointment. On clinical application of 2% diflunisal oral ointment to 8 patients with painful oral mucous diseases, it was found to be significantly (p = 0.014) more effective than 2% aspirin oral ointment. The results of this study demonstrated that 2% diflunisal oral ointment is a clinically useful analgesic for painful oral lesions.

  13. Oral immunotherapy induces local protective mechanisms in the gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Martos, Gustavo; Wang, Wei; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Berin, M Cecilia

    2012-06-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising treatment for food allergy. Studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of clinical protection and to identify safer and potentially more efficacious methods for desensitizing patients to food allergens. We established a mouse model of OIT to determine how the dose or form of antigen may affect desensitization and to identify mechanisms of desensitization. Increasing doses of egg white or ovomucoid as OIT were administered orally to sensitized mice. The impact of OIT on anaphylaxis elicited by oral allergen challenge was determined. Allergen-specific antibody and cytokine responses and mast cell and basophil activation in response to OIT were measured. Gene expression in the small intestine was studied by microarray and real-time PCR. OIT resulted in desensitization but not tolerance of mice to the allergen. OIT did not result in desensitization of systemic effector cells, and protection was localized to the gastrointestinal tract. OIT was associated with significant changes in gene expression in the jejunum, including genes expressed by intestinal epithelial cells. Extensively heated ovomucoid that does not trigger anaphylaxis when given orally to sensitized mice was as efficacious as native ovomucoid in desensitizing mice. OIT results in clinical protection against food-induced anaphylaxis through a novel mechanism that is localized to the intestinal mucosa and is associated with significant changes in small intestinal gene expression. Extensively heating egg allergen decreases allergenicity and increases safety while still retaining the ability to induce effective desensitization. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral bacteria as potential probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-06-01

    The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-kappaB activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) in tissue specimens of oral squamous cell papillomas and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Andrej A; Seme, Katja; Maver, Polona J; Luzar, Bostjan; Gale, Nina; Poljak, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of oral squamous cell papillomas (OSCP) is still unresolved. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) was examined, using PCR and three different consensus primers, in tissue specimens obtained from 49 patients with OSCP and 49 tissue specimens of histologically-normal oral mucosa obtained from the same number of individuals, who matched the patients with OSCP in age, gender and localization of the obtained tissue specimens. Amplifiable DNA was recovered from 44 out of 49 and 45 out of 49 tissue specimens of OSCP and normal oral mucosa, respectively. HPV-6 was detected in three and HPV-16 in one out of 44 OSCP specimens tested. Three tissue specimens of normal oral mucosa were HPV DNA-positive, harboring HPV-6, HPV-11 and HPV-31. Since no significant difference in the prevalence of HPV DNA between the patients with OSCP and the control subjects (9.1% vs. 6.7%; p=0.694) was observed, HPV is deemed to play a limited role in the etiology of OSCP, at least in Europe.

  16. Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

  17. Nano-TiO2 penetration of oral mucosa: in vitro analysis using 3D organotypic human buccal mucosa models.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Victoria; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Lie, Stein A; Birkeland, Eivind Salmorin; Neppelberg, Evelyn; Marthinussen, Mihaela Cuida; Costea, Daniela Elena; Cimpan, Mihaela R

    2017-03-01

    Oral cavity is a doorway for a variety of products containing titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) (nano-TiO2 ) such as food additives, oral healthcare products and dental materials. Their potential to penetrate and affect normal human oral mucosa is not yet determined. To evaluate the ability of nano-TiO2 to penetrate the in vitro reconstructed normal human buccal mucosa (RNHBM). RNHBM was generated from primary normal human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts isolated from buccal oral mucosa of healthy patients (n = 6). The reconstructed tissues were exposed after 10 days to clinically relevant concentrations of spherical or spindle rutile nano-TiO2 in suspension for short (20 min) and longer time (24 h). Ultrahigh-resolution imaging (URI) microscopy (CytoViva(™) , Auburn, AL, USA) was used to assess the depth of penetration into reconstructed tissues. Ultrahigh-resolution imaging microscopy demonstrated the presence of nano-TiO2 mostly in the epithelium of RNHBM at both 20 min and 24-h exposure, and this was shape and doze dependent at 24 h of exposure. The depth of penetration diminished in time at higher concentrations. The exposed epithelium showed increased desquamation but preserved thickness. Nano-TiO2 is able to penetrate RNHBM and to activate its barrier function in a doze- and time-dependent manner. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dexmedetomidine Oral Mucosa Patch for Sedation Suppresses Apoptosis in Hippocampus of Normal Rats

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist, provides sedative and analgesic effects without significant respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine has been suggested to have an antiapoptotic effect in response to various brain insults. We developed an oral mucosa patch using dexmedetomidine for sedation. The effects of the dexmedetomidine oral mucosa patch on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus were evaluated. Methods A hydrogel oral mucosa patch was adhered onto the oral cavity of physiologically normal rats, and was attached for 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, or 24 hours. Plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry–multiple-ion reaction monitoring (LC-ESI-MS/MS-MRM). Cell proliferation in the hippocampus was detected by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, and Western blotting for Bax and Bcl-2 were performed to detect hippocampal apoptosis. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampus were also measured by Western blotting. Results Plasma dexmedetomidine concentration increased according to the attachment time of the dexmedetomidine oral mucosa patch. Hippocampal cell proliferation did not change due to the dexmedetomidine oral mucosa patch, and the dexmedetomidine oral mucosa patch exerted no significant effect on BDNF or TrkB expression. In contrast, the dexmedetomidine oral mucosa patch exerted an antiapoptotic effect depending on the attachment time of the dexmedetomidine oral mucosa patch. Conclusions A dexmedetomidine oral mucosa patch can be used as a convenient tool for sedation, and is of therapeutic value due to its antiapoptotic effects under normal conditions. PMID:28446017

  19. The Oral Mucosa Immune Environment and Oral Transmission of HIV/SIV

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lianna F.; Chahroudi, Ann; Chen, Hui-Ling; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission. PMID:23772613

  20. Regional quantitative histological variations in human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ciano, Joseph; Beatty, Brian Lee

    2015-03-01

    Oral mucosa demonstrates regional variations that reflect contact with food during mastication. Though known qualitatively, our aim was to quantitatively assess regions to establish a measurable baseline from which one could compare in pathological and comparative studies, in which the abrasiveness of diets may differ. We assessed variations in the epithelial-connective tissue junction (rete ridges counts), collagen organization within the lamina propria, and elastin composition of the lamina propria of 15 regions of the labial (buccal) gingiva, lingual gingiva, vestibule, and palate. All characteristics varied more between regions within the same individual than between individuals. Lingual gingiva had high rete ridges counts, high level of collagen organization, and moderate elastin composition compared to other regions. The labial gingiva had few rete ridges, high collagen organization, and low elastin. The vestibule had the fewest average of rete ridges, least organized collagen, and high elastin. The hard palate had the highest average of rete ridges, high collagen organization, and the lowest elastin content. The soft palate conversely had the smallest average of rete ridges, moderate collagen organization, and the highest elastin composition. Our results indicate that comparison of these quantitative histological differences is warranted only for collagen organization and elastin composition. Differences in rete ridges counts were not statistically significant. Most histological characteristics observed were not significantly different between dentulous and edentulous cadavers, and the group containing all individuals. An exception was the level of collagen fiber organization within the lamina propria, which was higher in most regions when teeth were present.

  1. Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    differences in the primary efficacy measure of increased keratinized mucosa; secondary measures of graft contracture and Wound Healing Index; and...per treatment group, will be randomized to receive either the experimental treatment , EVPOME (Group 1), or standard of care, the palatal oral mucosa...Keratinized mucosa, graft contracture 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  2. Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa, Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    study will determine differences in the primary efficacy measure of increased keratinized mucosa; secondary measures of graft contracture and Wound...palatal oral mucosa (POM) graft (Group 2). The study population will include non-smoking adults (ages 18 and older) in need of additional keratinized ...POM), Keratinized mucosa, graft contracture 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  3. Expression of E-cadherin in normal oral mucosa, in oral precancerous lesions and in oral carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, Ugrappa; Jain, Ajay; Nagalaxmi, Velpula; Kumar, Ugrappa Vijay; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral mucosa (NOM) as control group. All the samples were assessed for the expression of E-cad by immunohistochemical study. Results: Upon assessing the expression of E-cad in OL, OSMF, OLP and OSCC, as majority of the samples with OSCC (90%), OL (80%), OLP (70%) and OSMF (60%) showed mild to moderate expression of E-cad staining, which was suggestive of reduction in dysplastic cells on comparison to NOM cells. This difference in expression and variation of E-cad upon comparison with normal mucosa was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is significant (P < 0.001) variation of expression of E-cad with the histopathological dysplasia of the oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and the tumor differentiation of the oral cancers. However, there was no correlation of the degree of loss of expression of E-cad with the degree of dysplasia or the tumor differentiation of oral cancers. We conclude with our study that, there is a variation in the expression of E-cad but its value as a prognostic marker is questionable. PMID:26430364

  4. The effect of cola consumption on oral mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Kapicloğlu, S; Baki, A H; Tekelioğlu, Y; Araz, K

    2000-01-01

    Drinks that contain phosphoric acid have been shown to have erosive effects and cola drinks are strongly acidic (pH 2.5). Gingivitis may be caused by dietary acids. Therefore, this study analyses the interaction of Coca Cola consumption and oral mucosal damage. Thirty rats were divided into three groups of 10. The animals received saline (pH 7.0) or HCl acid buffered to pH 2.6 or Coca Cola (pH 2.6) per os with 24-h free access to these solutions. A biopsy was taken from the front of the gingiva and the tongue. Histopathological analysis showed no specific lesion and there were no differences among saline, Coca Cola and HCl groups. Flow cytometric analysis was used to assess proliferative activity. In the HCl acid and Coca Cola groups, cell cycle analysis showed that the effects of Coca Cola and HCl acid in inducing oral mucosal damage are similar. In both Coca Cola [G0/G1, 70.38+/-7.9; S, 28.06+/-10.13; G2/M, 1.62+/-2.80; proliferative index (PI), 28.68+/-7.981 and HCI (G0/G1, 67.7+/-18.9; S, 27.8+/-17.5; G2/M, 4.4+/-3.8; PI, 30.9+/-20.98), the rat cell population G0/G1 and G2/M phases were found to be low (p < 0.05) and the cell population S and PI phases were found to be significantly elevated compared with the control group (p < 0.05) (G0/G1, 86.92+/-8.69; S, 9.8+/-1.21; G2/M, 3.25+/-2.87; P1, 13.2+/-8.7). This result was reflected in the proliferative index, which is used as a measure of the regeneration index. The data show that Coca Cola and HCl acid have similar proliferative and regenerative effects on oral mucosa, and it is possible that their regenerative effects are caused as a result of an irritant effect.

  5. [The study of HPV prevalence in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Zhi-yuan

    2007-10-01

    Mucosal infection with high-risk human papiloma virus(HPV) types 16 and 18 is the cause of cervical cancer and might be a subset of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), yet the prevalence and type distribution of HPV in oral SCC remained unclear. We systematically reviewed published studies of OSCC biopsies, which were employed to detect and genotype HPV through different methods. The aim of this investigation is to carry out a bibliographic review on the prevalence of HPV in OSCC and normal oral mucosa. Supported by Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.30630065), Key Lab Project of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No.06DZ22026) and Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (Grant No. Y0203).

  6. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. A unique manifestation of human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    van der Voort, E A M; Arani, S Fallah; Hegt, V Noordhoek; van Praag, M C G

    2009-03-01

    A 34-year old Creole woman appeared at the dermatology department with white-pink spots on the oral mucosa, which had been there for some time. Histology showed lesions characteristic of focal epithelial hyperplasia. The patient was treated with a CO2 laser. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare benign lesion and is caused by human papillomavirus subtypes 13 or 32; it only appears on the oral mucosa.

  7. Human Papillomavirus in the Lesions of the Oral Mucosa According to Topography

    PubMed Central

    Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranjčić, Josip; Knežević, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated. PMID:23922786

  8. Collagen fibril arrangement and size distribution in monkey oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    OTTANI, V.; FRANCHI, M.; DE PASQUALE, V.; LEONARDI, L.; MOROCUTTI, M.; RUGGERI, A.

    1998-01-01

    Collagen fibre organisation and fibril size were studied in the buccal gingival and hard palate mucosa of Macacus rhesus monkey. Light and electron microscopy analysis showed connective papillae exhibiting a similar inner structure in the different areas examined, but varying in distribution, shape and size. Moving from the deep to surface layers of the buccal gingival mucosa (free and attached portions), large collagen fibril bundles became smaller and progressively more wavy with decreasing collagen fibril diameter. This gradual diameter decrease did not occur in the hard palate mucosa (free portion, rugae and interrugal regions) where the fibril diameter remained constant. A link between collagen fibril diameter and mechanical function is discussed. PMID:9688498

  9. Lichen sclerosus in the oral mucosa: a rare form of presentation.

    PubMed

    Louvain, Dailana; Moura Jacques, Claudio; Fernandes Ferreira, Adriana; Hoehl Carneiro, Leonardo; Quintela, Leonardo; Cuzzi, Tullia; Soares de Azevedo, Lucia; Moritz Trope, Beatriz; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, which affects mostly women in the fifth and sixth decades of life, but can also occur in men and children. The involvement of the oral mucosa alone or together with other forms of presentation is extremely rare, requiring a differential diagnosis with other diseases of the oral cavity, particularly lichen planus. There are less than 30 cases of lichen sclerosus in the oral mucosa described in the literature and there are no reports on malignant transformation so far. We describe a patient with skin, oral and genital lesions of lichen sclerosus.

  10. [Generation of a substitute for human oral mucosa and verification of its viability by tissue-engineering].

    PubMed

    Marañés Gálvez, C; Liceras Liceras, E; Alaminos, M; Fernández Valadés, R; Ruiz Montes, A M; Garzón, I; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Campos, A

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of large oral mucosa defects is often challenging, since the shortage of healthy oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues. This way, tissue ingineering techniques may provide a source of autologous tissues available for transplant in these patients. In this work, we have developed a new model for artificial oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering using a fibrin-agarosa scaffold. For that purpose, we have generated primary cultures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts and keratinocytes from small biopsies of normal mucosa oral using enzymatic treatments. Then, we have determined the viability of cultured cells by electron probe quantitative X-ray microanalysis, and we have demonstrated that most of the cells in the primary cultures were alive and hd high K/Na ratios. Once cell viability was determined, we used cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes to develop an artificial oral mucosa construct by using a fibrin-agarosa extracellular matrix and a sequential culture technique using porous culture inserts. Histological analysis of the artificial tissues showed high similarities with normal oral mucosa controls. The epithelium of the oral substitutes had several layers, with desmosomes and apical microvilli and microplicae. Both the controls and de oral mucosa substitutes showed high suprabasal expression of cytokeratin 13 and low expression of cytokeratin 10. All these results suggest that our model of oral mucosa using fibrin-agarose scaffolds show several similarities with native human oral mucosa.

  11. The relationship of Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosae of mothers and oral mucosae of their newborns at birth.

    PubMed

    Al-Rusan, Rund M; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Lataifeh, Isam M

    2017-04-01

    Vaginal Candida colonization is common during pregnancy. Vaginal Candida may transmit vertically to the mouth of newborns during labor. The aim of this study was to assess and compare oral Candida colonization between vaginally born newborns and cesarean-born newborns and to investigate the association of the mother's vaginal and oral Candida colonization and the newborn's oral colonization at the time of delivery. Culture swabs were collected from the oral and vaginal mucosae of 100 pregnant women and from the oral mucosa of their 100 full-term newborns. Fifty (50%) of the mothers gave birth vaginally and the other 50 (50%) by cesarean section. The prevalence of oral and vaginal Candida in pregnant mothers was 49% and 40%, respectively. Oral Candida colonization in newborns was 7%. Oral Candida was isolated from 5 of 50 (10%) in the vaginally born group and from 2 of 50 (4%) in the cesarean-born group (P = .44). In vaginally born group, oral Candida was isolated from 5 of 20 (25%) in those born to mothers with vaginal colonization of Candida, and 0 of 30 (0.0%) in mothers without vaginal colonization of Candida (P = .007). The mother's vaginal Candida may constitute an important source of oral Candida in the newborns, particularly in those delivered vaginally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Micronuclei in nasal mucosa, oral mucosa and lymphocytes in students exposed to formaldehyde vapor in anatomy class.

    PubMed

    Ying, C J; Yan, W S; Zhao, M Y; Ye, X L; Xie, H; Yin, S Y; Zhu, X S

    1997-12-01

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in cells of the nasal mucosa, oral mucosa and in lymphocytes was evaluated for 25 students in anatomy classes exposed to formaldehyde (FA) over an 8-week period. Each student served as his or her own control. The time-weighted average concentration (TWA) of formaldehyde in anatomical laboratories and in students' dormitories was 0.508 +/- 0.299 mg/m3 and 0.012 +/- 0.0025 mg/m3, respectively. A higher frequency of micronuclei was observed in nasal and oral exfoliative cells after formaldehyde exposure (3.85 +/- 1.48 vs 1.20 +/- 0.676 and 0.857 +/- 0.558 vs 0.568 +/- 0.317, paired-t test: P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). No significant increase in the frequency of lymphocyte micronuclei was found after formaldehyde exposure (P > 0.05). The present study shows that nasal mucosa cells exposed through respiration are the chief target of FA-induced genotoxic effects.

  13. Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent by Using the Direct Explant Cell Culture Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Gürkan Raşit; Aydıntuğ, Yavuz Sinan; Günhan, Ömer; Öztürk, Kamile; Gülses, Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is the histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents using keratinocytes cultured by direct explant technique. Material and Methods: Oral mucosa tissue samples were obtained from the keratinized gingival tissues of 14 healthy human subjects. Human oral mucosa keratinocytes from an oral mucosa biopsy specimen were dissociated by the explant technique. Once a sufficient population of keratinocytes was reached, they were seeded onto the type IV collagen coated “AlloDerm” and taken for histological and immunohistochemical examinations at 11 days postseeding of the keratinocytes on the cadaveric human dermal matrix. Results: Histopathologically and immunohistochemically, 12 out of 14 successful ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOME) that consisted of a stratified epidermis on a dermal matrix have been developed with keratinocytes cultured by the explant technique. Conclusion: The technical handling involved in the direct explant method at the beginning of the process has fewer steps than the enzymatic method and use of the direct explant technique protocol for culturing of human oral mucosa keratinocyte may be more adequate for EVPOME production. PMID:25207018

  14. In vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa with harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lou, Pei-Jen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical studies on human skin indicated that in vivo multi-harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can achieve sub-micron resolution for histopathological analysis with a high penetration depth and leave no energy or photodamages in the interacted tissues. It is thus highly desired to apply HGM for in vivo mucosa histopathological diagnosis. In this paper, the first in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human oral mucosa by using epi-HGM is demonstrated. We modified an upright microscope to rotate the angle of objective for in vivo observation. Our clinical study reveals the capability of HGM to in vivo image cell distributions in human oral mucosa, including epithelium and lamina propria with a high penetration depth greater than 280 μm and a high spatial resolution better than 500 nm. We also found that the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast on nucleus depends strongly on its thicknesses, in agreement with a numerical simulation. Besides, 4% acetic acid was found to be able to enhance the THG contrast of nucleus in oral mucosa, while such enhancement was found to decay due to the metabolic clearance of the contrast enhancer by the oral mucosa. Our clinical study indicated that, the combined epi-THG and epi-second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive optical virtual biopsy and disease diagnosis in human mucosa. PMID:21833368

  15. [Role of keratinocytes in preservation of oral mucosa epithelium integrity. Part I].

    PubMed

    Zapała, Jan; Zarzecka, Joanna; Drukała, Justyna

    2005-01-01

    Functions of oral mucosa epithelium in preservation of homeostasis have been presented. Characteristic features that distinguish epithelial cells from the other somatic cells influencing mechanical resistance of oral epithelium and creating selective chemical barrier have been described. The participation of keratinocytes in selected phases of wound healing process has been analyzed.

  16. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence of oral mucosa cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaliashvili, Z. V.; Medoidze, T. D.; Melikishvili, Z. G.; Gogilashvili, K. T.

    2017-10-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra have been measured for cancer-infused and control mice mucosa tissues. It was established that there is quite a difference between their LIF spectral shapes. These spectral shapes are used to express the diagnostic of different states of tissues: from normal to cancer.

  18. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira da; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction of P. brasiliensis with these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM.

  19. Characterization of a three-dimensional mucosal equivalent: similarities and differences with native oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tra, Wendy M W; van Neck, Johan W; Hovius, Steven E R; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Perez-Amodio, Soledad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create and characterize a tissue-engineered mucosal equivalent (TEM) that closely resembles native mucosa. TEM consists of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts isolated from biopsies taken from healthy donors and seeded onto a de-epidermized dermis and cultured for 14 days at the air/liquid interface. The structure of TEM was examined and compared with native nonkeratinizing oral mucosa (NNOM). The various components of the newly formed epidermal layer, basement membrane and underlying connective tissue were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The mucosal substitute presented in this study showed a mature stratified squamous epithelium that was similar to that of native oral mucosa, as demonstrated by K19, desmoglein-3 and involucrin staining. In addition, the expression of basement membrane components collagen type IV, laminin-5 and integrin α6 and β4 in TEM proved to be consistent with native oral mucosa. The expression of PAS, Ki67, K10 and K13, however, appeared to be different in TEM compared to NNOM. Nevertheless, the similarities with native oral mucosa makes TEM a promising tool for studying the biology of mucosal pathologies such as oral mucositis or fibrosis as well as the development of new therapies. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effects of alcohol on the morphological and structural changes in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Wang, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the morphological and structural changes of oral mucosa under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Sixty male and female specimens (42 males and 18 females) who died of chronic alcoholism were selected in this study. The specimens (5-7 mm) were sliced by the morphological-histological detection method, and stained by the HE and Spielmeyer (myelin staining) protocols respectively. Then five immune peroxidase chemical reaction tests were performed. Results: 10% of the tissue sections had epithelial hyperplasia points with hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. 90% of the sections had epithelial atrophy points with different degrees of damage, and had moderate infiltration of lymphocytes-macrophages in the basal oral mucosa simultaneously. For the tissue sections of patients who died of cardiovascular diseases with a history of alcoholism, about a half showed that extensive necrotic points were observed in different parts of oral mucosa, accompanied by a secondary infection. Approximately 15% of the sections had more dense and homogeneous necrotic tissues with microbial colonization, and the necrotic focus of 5% of the sections was located above the epithelial tissue, which was not distinctively different from other tissues. 48% of the sections were subjected to small nerve bundles with jeopardized deep oral mucosa, accompanied by necrosis of neuron axon and its myelin membrane. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that drinking alcohol over an extended time may lead to carcinogenic changes in oral mucosa. PMID:24353685

  1. Measuring the impact of oral mucosa disease on quality of life.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Lucero Berdugo, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to study the quality of life in patients with oral mucosa disease. Two hundred sixteen consecutive patients with oral pathology were studied at the Department of Oral Medicine, University of Murcia (Spain). Sixty patients had burning mouth syndrome, 100 oral lichen planus, 41 recurrent aphthous stomatitis and 15 had and other oral mucosa disorders. The instruments applied were the Spanish version of the SF-36, used to evaluate general quality of life, and the OHIP-49, Spanish version, to measure oral health-related quality of life. With respect to oral quality of life (OHIP-49 all items), the worst scores were found for burning mouth syndrome. The group formed by other mucosal lesions presented the lowest scores for the domains role physical and general health in the SF-36. Oral mucosa diseases have a negative impact on health and quality of life. Administration of specific and generic questionnaires provides a detailed picture of the impact of oral diseases on patients, which adds information that may be useful in clinical practice.

  2. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells.

  3. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A.; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision. PMID:26451366

  4. Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2

    PubMed Central

    González-Losa, Maria del Refugio; Manzano-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda-Gordillo, Florencio; Hernández-Solís, Sandra E.; Puerto-Solís, Luis

    2008-01-01

    High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) are recognized as a necessary factor to development cervical cancer. During the last decade many studies have found HR-HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral mucosa, however the association between HR-HPV and OSCC is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to determine DNA HR-HPV in normal oral cavity of healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 77 patients with normal oral cavity were collected at the Dentistry school, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV was detected by hybrid capture 2. One sample out of 77(1.2%) was positive for HR-PVH. It was from a man of 50 years old. HRHPV is present in low rate among healthy oral mucosa. Hybrid capture 2 could be a good methodology for large epidemiology studies. PMID:24031173

  5. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  6. Electrically induced transport of macromolecules through oral buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mangala P; Churchman, Svetla T; Cruchley, Alan T; Braden, Michael; Williams, David M

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of iontophoretic delivery of large molecules across buccal mucosa, and to establish its potential for enhanced drug delivery. Qualitative (6h) and quantitative (8 and 36 h) assessment of porcine buccal mucosa, using a diffusion cell in vitro model, was carried out by fluorescent microscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy respectively, with four fluorescently-labeled model species (3 and 10 kDa dextrans, 12 kDa parvalbumin and 66 kDa bovine serum albumin, BSA). Passive and iontophoresis parameters were obtained. The experimental iontophoresis data were compared with theoretical predictions. The two dextrans and parvalbumin showed enhanced permeation through buccal mucosa after anodal iontophoresis (1-6h). Passive diffusion and cathodal iontophoresis resulted in minimal permeation. BSA could not be measured by either mode. Iontophoretic delivery profiles compared to passive delivery, had reduced time lags (30-50 versus ~270 min) and increased flux (~37 times faster). Time lag factor/enhancement ratio (TLF/ER) data confirmed that iontophoresis significantly enhanced permeation. The diffusion coefficients (D, passive) for dextrans were significantly higher than for parvalbumin, with the converse obtained for solubility (C0); permeability coefficients (P) were similar for all three species. Potential differences (V) for the two higher kDa species were significantly higher than for the lowest kDa species. Experimental and theoretical data were in reasonable agreement. The experimental and theoretical data, confirming enhanced delivery of the model species via iontophoresis, gave a suitable basis for its potential application in the mouth, in a clinical setting and opens pathways to further research for delivering precious drugs topically and systemically. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo study of liposomes as drug carriers to oral mucosa using EPR oximetry.

    PubMed

    Erjavec, V; Pavlica, Z; Sentjurc, M; Petelin, M

    2006-01-03

    The purpose of this study was to select the best types of liposomes for use as drug carriers for topical treatment of oral mucosal lesions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry, using the paramagnetic probe lithium phthalocyanine, was used in vivo to measure the effects of a hyperemic drug, benzyl nicotinate (BN) which was incorporated into liposomes of varying size and composition. The liposomes were made from either hydrogenated or non-hydrogenated soy lecithin and mixed with polymethyl methacrylate ointment for application. EPR oximetry was used to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the oral mucosa before and after application of liposomes. It was found that the most pronounced changes of pO2 in oral mucosa and also the longest action of the drug occurred after the topical application of BN in multi-lamellar liposomes made from hydrogenated soy lecithin (p<0.0001). When these liposomes were applied to oral mucosa over 3 successive days it was found that pO2 increased the most on the first day, the effect gradually decreased following application on the second and third days. The duration of the resulting hyperemia was the longest on the second day (p<0.01). Among the examined carriers, multi-lamellar liposomes made from hydrogenated soy lecithin appear to be the most appropriate for local drug delivery to oral mucosa.

  8. Elastofibromatous Changes and Hyperelastosis of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tosios, Konstantinos I.; Economou, Ioanna; Vasilopoulos, Nektarios-Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Three cases of abnormalities of elastic fibers, two of them on the floor of the mouth and one on the lingual alveolar mucosa, close to the floor of the mouth, in a patient with history of homolateral squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth, are presented. Comparison with elastofibromatous changes and elastofibromas are made and their possible pathogenesis is discussed. It is suggested that increased awareness may facilitate recognition of such lesions as they can be easily overlooked, especially when they do not present as discrete tumors or they are associated with other “more significant” pathologic processes. PMID:20237986

  9. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Joseph, Paule V.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r2 > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS. PMID:26963804

  10. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K; Sherwin, LeeAnne B; Joseph, Paule V; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-07-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r(2) > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS.

  11. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of peripheral blood and oral mucosa cells from car painters.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Silva, Victor Hugo; Gomes de Moura, Carolina Foot; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Célia; Araki Ribeiro, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate genomic damage and cellular death in exfoliated oral mucosa cells and peripheral blood from car painters. A total of 24 car painters and 19 healthy controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek mucosa (left and right side) mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the specific nuclear phenotypes. A total of 5 μL from peripheral blood was collected for the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results pointed out statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from car painters. In addition, DNA damage was detected in peripheral blood cells by single cell gel (comet) assay. Nevertheless, exposure to car paints did not cause increases other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karrhyorexis, pyknosis and karyolysis in buccal mucosa cells. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that car painters comprise a high risk group since paints can induce genotoxic and mutagenic effects in peripheral blood and oral mucosa cells, respectively.

  12. The lupus band test in oral mucosa, conjunctiva and skin.

    PubMed

    Burge, S M; Frith, P A; Millard, P R; Wojnarowska, F

    1989-12-01

    The prevalence and clinical significance of subepithelial immunoglobulin and complement deposition (the lupus band) were examined in the uninvolved sun-protected skin of the forearm, the uninvolved sun-protected lip mucosa and sun-protected bulbar conjunctival mucosa in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE). In SLE, linear deposition of an immunoreactant at the BMZ was detected in 32% (6/19) of skin biopsies; 21% (4/19) of lip mucosal biopsies and 42% (5/12) of conjunctival biopsies. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of the test at different sites in SLE and no correlation between a positive test in skin, lip or conjunctiva and clinical mucosal involvement. In CCLE, linear deposition of an immunoreactant at the BMZ was found in 3% (1/32) of skin biopsies; 3% (1/29) of lip mucosal biopsies and 50% (10/20) of conjunctiva and clinical mucosal involvement. In the conjunctiva, IgG was present in all but one of the biopsies and was the only immunoreactant in 90% (9/10) of positive CCLE biopsies and 60% (3/5) of positive SLE biopsies. In lupus erythematosus immunoreactants may be deposited in the basement membrane zone beneath non-keratinizing mucosal surfaces of the lip and the eye as well as the skin. In CCLE, the test may be positive in conjunctiva when skin and lip are negative.

  13. Cellular death but not genetic damage in oral mucosa cells after exposure to digital lateral radiography.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Sannomiya, Eduardo K; Pozzi, Renan; Miranda, Sandra R; Angelieri, Fernanda

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from individuals following digital lateral radiography. A total of 30 healthy patients (15 men and 15 women) indicated to the orthodontic therapy were submitted to digital lateral X-ray. Exfoliated oral mucosa cells were collected immediately before the X-ray exposure and after 10 days. The results pointed out no significant statistically differences (p > 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells. On the other hand, X-ray was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and karyolysis. In summary, these data indicate that exposure to digital lateral radiography may not be a factor that induced chromosomal damage, but it is able to promote cytotoxicity.

  14. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission.

  15. Phase II Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    graft contracture and Wound Healing Index; and ancillary outcome measures of tissue perfusion measured graft color and laser Doppler flowmetry, and...infection, fluid loss, and foreign material contamination and relapse secondary to wound contracture. Oral mucosa is in limited supply for use in...reconstructive procedures in the oral cavity. This is especially prevalent after large avulsed soft tissue wounds involving the mouth and lips seen in

  16. Acute sensitivity of the oral mucosa to oncogenic K-ras

    PubMed Central

    van der Weyden, Louise; Alcolea, Maria P; Jones, Philip H; Rust, Alistair G; Arends, Mark J; Adams, David J

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer represent powerful tools for analysing the role of genetic alterations in carcinogenesis. Using a mouse model that allows tamoxifen-inducible somatic activation (by Cre-mediated recombination) of oncogenic K-rasG12D in a wide range of tissues, we observed hyperplasia of squamous epithelium located in moist or frequently abraded mucosa, with the most dramatic effects in the oral mucosa. This epithelium showed a sequence of squamous hyperplasia followed by squamous papilloma with dysplasia, in which some areas progressed to early invasive squamous cell carcinoma, within 14 days of widespread oncogenic K-ras activation. The marked proliferative response of the oral mucosa to K-rasG12D was most evident in the basal layers of the squamous epithelium of the outer lip with hair follicles and wet mucosal surface, with these cells staining positively for pAKT and cyclin D1, showing Ras/AKT pathway activation and increased proliferation with Ki-67 and EdU positivity. The stromal cells also showed gene activation by recombination and immunopositivity for pERK indicating K-Ras/ERK pathway activation, but without Ki-67 positivity or increase in stromal proliferation. The oral neoplasms showed changes in the expression pattern of cytokeratins (CK6 and CK13), similar to those observed in human oral tumours. Sporadic activation of the K-rasG12D allele (due to background spontaneous recombination in occasional cells) resulted in the development of benign oral squamous papillomas only showing a mild degree of dysplasia with no invasion. In summary, we show that oral mucosa is acutely sensitive to oncogenic K-ras, as widespread expression of activated K-ras in the murine oral mucosal squamous epithelium and underlying stroma can drive the oral squamous papilloma–carcinoma sequence. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21381032

  17. Lichen planus pigmentosus of the oral mucosa: a rare clinical variety.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, G C; Papavasiliou, S S; Bovopoulou, O D; Nicolis, G D

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of lichen planus of the mouth with intense melanosis, in a middle-aged white male. Due to its unusual clinical characteristics, we believe that this case represents a rare variant of lichen planus of the oral mucosa. The histopathologic findings, differential diagnosis and its possible connection with lichen planus pigmentosus of the skin are discussed.

  18. Quantitative comparison of the expression of antimicrobial peptides in the oral mucosa and extraoral skin.

    PubMed

    Kesting, Marco R; Mueller, Christian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Steiner, Timm; Bauer, Florian; Teichmann, Jan; Baumann, Claudia M; Barthel, Leopold C; Satanovskij, Robin M; Mücke, Thomas; Schulte, Matthias; Schütz, Katrin; Wolff, Klaus-D; Rohleder, Nils H

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) defend epithelial surfaces against pathological micro-organisms. We know of no comparison of their expression between the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium, but knowledge of differences in their quantities is of interest, possibly as a starting point for new treatments. Expression of AMP human beta-defensin (hBD)-1/-2/-3 and psoriasin in the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium of the head and neck were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (n=14), immunohistochemistry (n=6), and western blot (n=8). RT-PCR showed that all the genes investigated were expressed significantly more in the oral mucosa than in the skin (hBD-1: p=0.002; hBD-2: p=0.006; hBD-3: p=0.035; psoriasin: p=0.02). Immunohistochemistry and western blot showed differential concentrations of proteins: hBD-2 (p=0.021) and hBD-3 (p=0.043) were pronounced in the oral mucosa, whereas psoriasin was raised in the extraoral skin (p=0.021). There was no difference in protein concentrations for hBD-1 (p=0.08). The observed differences in the expression of AMP may be important for new treatments such as topical application of AMP derivatives.

  19. Mapping, profiling and clustering of pressure pain threshold (PPT) in edentulous oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Tanaka, M; Ogimoto, T; Okushi, N; Koyano, K; Takeuchi, K

    2004-03-01

    Edentulous oral mucosa involves different tissue types, various innervation and wound healing process. We hypothesized that pressure pain threshold (PPT) of edentulous oral mucosa varies significantly among different regions. The objective of this study is to examine regional differences and correlations of PPT in edentulous oral mucosa. Pain threshold (PPT) was measured at 112 sites in 15 edentulous patients using an electric-controlled pressure algometer. PPT mapping was created by the level of PPT, and PPT clustering was undertaken based on the inter-site correlation of PPT. PPT increased from the anterior to posterior alveolus in both maxilla and mandible, but decreased from the anterior palate to the posterior palate. PPT decreased from the ridge crest to the buccal vestibule. The inter-site difference was four fold within the maxilla and 2.4 fold within the mandible. Principal component analysis applied on PPT inter-site correlation matrix revealed that the maxilla and mandible could be differentiated statistically. The maxilla and mandible were divided into three and four clusters, respectively. These results demonstrate that different areas of edentulous oral mucosa have different PPT and that the PPT varies proportionally in selected areas, providing useful diagnostic and therapeutic information in removable prosthodontics and a new opportunity for understanding pain underneath the denture.

  20. [Raman spectral characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma, epithelial dysplasia and normal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Xue, Lili; Li, Yi; Cai, Qiaoling; Sun, Pei; Luo, Xianyang; Yan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the Raman spectral characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma, high-grade epithelial dysplasia and normal mucosa. Fifty- six fresh samples of oral carcinoma, 50 of high-grade epithelial dysplasia and 32 of normal mucosa were collected. The i-Raman spectrometer with an optical fiber tube was applied to acquire Raman spectrum. The diagnostic model established by principle component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze and classify the spectra of different samples. There were significant differences among the Raman spectra of these samples. Compared with the spectra of normal mucosa, the spectra of oral carcinoma and dysplasia showed strong peaks which were contributed to nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. The diagnostic models established by PCA-DFA could successfully classify these Raman spectra of different samples with a high accuracy of 96.4% (133/138). The model was evaluated by 'Leave one out' cross-validation and reached a high accuracy of 92.8% (128/138). The proliferation and metabolism of oral squamous cell carcinoma and epithelial high-grade dysplasia are more active than normal mucosa. The diagnostic models established by PCA-DFA can classify these Raman spectra of different samples with a high accuracy.

  1. [Lesions of the oral mucosa. Epidemiological study of 7,297 patients].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Guzmán, L; Castellanos, J L

    1991-01-01

    To our Knowledge, this is the first work in a number population (higher than 500 sample WHO) that is carried out in our country about lesions in the Oral Mucosa. The advantages in this Kind of studies are recognized particularly in the fields of academic, research and services. This work presents the first view of a permanent research project of Oral Mucosa Lesions at the admission clinic, School of Dentistry, Universidad del Bajío. The findings are from the evaluation of 7,297 patients, 15 years or older, that seek dental services between January 1982 and June 1989 (7.5 years). The lack of national data and the oldest population samples in other countries studies stopped wider evaluations, even though the study purpose was not affected, it was possible to offer qualitative data in the respect of prevalecence, variety and etiopathogenesis of those type of pathosis in the Oral Mucosa. The general prevalecence in the group was approximately 13%, identifying lesions more frequently in males, but higher variety in females. Report on 40 different entities, presented in general according to a descent order of prevalencece and reagrouped by sex and pathology. In half the lesions was possible to identify as the cause, acute and cronic traumatic agents; The infectious associations were also very frequent. Those last observations are of high relevance concerning the prevention of Oral Mucosa lesions.

  2. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  3. Squamous epitheliotropism of Enterovirus A71 in human epidermis and oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Kong, Chee Kwan; Alizan, Abdul Khalil; Ramanujam, Tindivanam Muthurangam; Wong, Kum Thong

    2017-03-21

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a self-limiting paediatric infectious disease commonly caused by Enterovirus A71 (Genus: Enterovirus, Family: Picornaviridae). Typical lesions in and around the hands, feet, oral cavity and other places may rarely be complicated by acute flaccid paralysis and acute encephalomyelitis. Although virus is readily cultured from skin vesicles and oral secretions, the cellular target/s of Enterovirus A71 in human skin and oral mucosa are unknown. In Enterovirus A71-infected human skin and oral mucosa organotypic cultures derived from the prepuce and lip biopsies, focal viral antigens and viral RNA were localized to cytoplasm of epidermal and mucosal squamous cells as early as 2 days post-infection. Viral antigens/RNA were associated with cytoplasmic vacuolation and cellular necrosis. Infected primary prepuce epidermal keratinocyte cultures showed cytopathic effects with concomitant detection of viral antigens from 2 days post-infection. Supernatant and/or tissue homogenates from prepuce skin organotypic cultures and primary prepuce keratinocyte cultures showed viral titres consistent with active viral replication. Our data strongly support Enterovirus A71 squamous epitheliotropism in the human epidermis and oral mucosa, and suggest that these organs are important primary and/or secondary viral replication sites that contribute significantly to oral and cutaneous viral shedding resulting in person-to-person transmission, and viraemia, which could lead to neuroinvasion.

  4. Squamous epitheliotropism of Enterovirus A71 in human epidermis and oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Kong, Chee Kwan; Alizan, Abdul Khalil; Ramanujam, Tindivanam Muthurangam; Wong, Kum Thong

    2017-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a self-limiting paediatric infectious disease commonly caused by Enterovirus A71 (Genus: Enterovirus, Family: Picornaviridae). Typical lesions in and around the hands, feet, oral cavity and other places may rarely be complicated by acute flaccid paralysis and acute encephalomyelitis. Although virus is readily cultured from skin vesicles and oral secretions, the cellular target/s of Enterovirus A71 in human skin and oral mucosa are unknown. In Enterovirus A71-infected human skin and oral mucosa organotypic cultures derived from the prepuce and lip biopsies, focal viral antigens and viral RNA were localized to cytoplasm of epidermal and mucosal squamous cells as early as 2 days post-infection. Viral antigens/RNA were associated with cytoplasmic vacuolation and cellular necrosis. Infected primary prepuce epidermal keratinocyte cultures showed cytopathic effects with concomitant detection of viral antigens from 2 days post-infection. Supernatant and/or tissue homogenates from prepuce skin organotypic cultures and primary prepuce keratinocyte cultures showed viral titres consistent with active viral replication. Our data strongly support Enterovirus A71 squamous epitheliotropism in the human epidermis and oral mucosa, and suggest that these organs are important primary and/or secondary viral replication sites that contribute significantly to oral and cutaneous viral shedding resulting in person-to-person transmission, and viraemia, which could lead to neuroinvasion. PMID:28322333

  5. Analysis of immune cells within the healthy oral mucosa of specific pathogen-free cats.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Baumgarth, N; Vapniarsky, N; Nemec, A; Naydan, D K; Cox, D P; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-02-01

    The oral mucosa is an important interface for host-environment interactions. Based on previous studies, it is generally accepted that the cellular compartments of the oral immune system comprise organized mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues as well as diffusely and focally distributed T- and to lesser extent B-lymphocytes, oral mucosal Langerhans cells (OMLC), macrophages and mast cells. However, a comprehensive quantification of the cellular elements in the oral mucous membranes of the cat has not been reported. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the immune cell compartments in the oral mucous membranes and anatomically related tissues of healthy cats. Multiple biopsies of the oral mucous membranes and related tissues were obtained from four specific pathogen-free cats for histological and immunohistochemical assessment of lymphocyte subsets, OMLC, macrophages and mast cells. T-lymphocyte subsets, OMLC, mast cells and macrophages were present in varying frequencies among the tissue compartments of the feline oral cavity. B-lymphocytes were not identified in any of the examined tissues except the tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes. Lymphocytic aggregates (follicles) were found in the palatoglossal folds and the gingiva. We describe the topographical distribution of various leucocyte subsets in the normal healthy feline oral mucosa, and demonstrate regional differences in the distribution of these cells.

  6. Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. T.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jin, H. L.; Chang, F. Y.; Hu, K. Y.; Wu, C. P.; Chiang, C. P.; Yang, C. C.

    2013-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for noninvasive, real-time oral cancer diagnosis. However, in previous reports, OCT has still been found to be difficult to use in the diagnosis of oral precancerous stages, including mild dysplasia and moderate dysplasia. In clinical applications, early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer can greatly improve the survival rate. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new approach to differentiate the oral precancerous stages based on the evaluation of the optical scattering properties of the epithelial layer, which is where the dysplastic cells start to develop in the precancerous stages. Instead of using exponential decay fitting to evaluate the scattering properties of mucosal tissues based on the Beer-Lambert law, linear fitting of the OCT depth intensity is used to evaluate the scattering properties of normal and dysplastic cells. From the statistical results of the linear fitting, the slope, a, can be an effective indicator to discriminate healthy mucosa and moderate dysplasia when an a value equal to zero is the threshold value, and the intercept, b, can be used to differentiate healthy and dysplastic mucosae, as well as mild and moderate dysplasia, when b values of 0.15 and 0.18 are used as the threshold values, respectively. Furthermore, this approach is also applied to the determination of the safe margin between normal and abnormal mucosae, making it possible to provide real-time, in vivo inspection during oral maxillofacial surgery.

  7. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques

    PubMed Central

    kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin–like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. Results: The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). Conclusion: It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy. PMID:26120409

  8. Positional differences in the wound transcriptome of skin and oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When compared to skin, oral mucosal wounds heal rapidly and with reduced scar formation. Recent studies suggest that intrinsic differences in inflammation, growth factor production, levels of stem cells, and cellular proliferation capacity may underlie the exceptional healing that occurs in oral mucosa. The current study was designed to compare the transcriptomes of oral mucosal and skin wounds in order to identify critical differences in the healing response at these two sites using an unbiased approach. Results Using microarray analysis, we explored the differences in gene expression in skin and oral mucosal wound healing in a murine model of paired equivalent sized wounds. Samples were examined from days 0 to 10 and spanned all stages of the wound healing process. Using unwounded matched tissue as a control, filtering identified 1,479 probe sets in skin wounds yet only 502 probe sets in mucosal wounds that were significantly differentially expressed over time. Clusters of genes that showed similar patterns of expression were also identified in each wound type. Analysis of functionally related gene expression demonstrated dramatically different reactions to injury between skin and mucosal wounds. To explore whether site-specific differences might be derived from intrinsic differences in cellular responses at each site, we compared the response of isolated epithelial cells from skin and oral mucosa to a defined in vitro stimulus. When cytokine levels were measured, epithelial cells from skin produced significantly higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than cells from oral mucosa. Conclusions The results provide the first detailed molecular profile of the site-specific differences in the genetic response to injury in mucosa and skin, and suggest the divergent reactions to injury may derive from intrinsic differences in the cellular responses at each site. PMID:20704739

  9. Papillomavirus infections in the oral and genital mucosa of asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ledy Horto Santos; Santos, Larissa Silva; Silva, Carolina Oliveira; Augusto, Everton Faccini; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found in several regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Recently, this virus has been associated with oropharyngeal cancer, but little is known about HPV transmission to the oral cavity. We carried out a study to investigate concurrent oral and cervical infections in 76 asymptomatic women attending a healthcare program. Demographic and behavior data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Oral and cervical mucosa scrapings were collected and stored for DNA extraction. HPV DNA amplification was performed by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) using both primers My09/My11 and FAP59/64, followed by HPV typing with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and sequencing. The data collected revealed no risk factors for HPV infection in these 76 women. HPV prevalence of 9.2 and 5.3% was found in cervical and oral mucosa, respectively. Concurrent infections by discordant types were detected in one case only. Sequencing procedures allowed us to detect a new putative HPV 17 subtype from the Betapapillomavirus genus. Our results support the view that cervical and oral HPV infections are independent events. The observed low prevalence of both oral and cervical HPV infections could be associated with attendance in a healthcare program. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-photon autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Shilagard, Tuya; Qiu, Suimin; Vargas, Gracie

    2011-03-01

    The survival rate for individuals diagnosed with oral cancer is correlated with the stage of detection. Thus the development of novel techniques for the earliest possible detection of malignancies is of critical importance. Single photon (1P) autofluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful diagnostic tool in this regard, but 2P (two photon) spectroscopy remains essentially unexplored. In this investigation, a spectroscopic system was incorporated into a custom-built 2P laser scanning microscope. Oral cancer was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian Golden hamsters by tri-weekly topical application of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA).Three separated sites where investigated in each hamster at four excitation wavelengths from 780 nm to 890 nm. A Total of 8 hamsters were investigated (4 normal and 4 DMBA treated). All investigated sites were imaged via 2p imaging, marked for biopsy, processed for histology and H&E staining, and graded by a pathologist. The in vivo emission spectrum for normal, mild/high grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma is presented. It is shown that the hamsters with various stages of dysplasia are characterized by spectral differences as a function of depth and excitation wavelength, compared to normal hamsters.

  11. Gene Signature of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts: Comparison with Dermal Fibroblasts and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Keiko; Horiguchi, Taigo; Tanimura, Ayako; Hagita, Hiroko; Noma, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucosa is a useful material for regeneration therapy with the advantages of its accessibility and versatility regardless of age and gender. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of oral mucosa. Here we report the first comparative profiles of the gene signatures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts (hOFs), human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), and hOF-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hOF-iPSCs), linking these with biological roles by functional annotation and pathway analyses. As a common feature of fibroblasts, both hOFs and hDFs expressed glycolipid metabolism-related genes at higher levels compared with hOF-iPSCs. Distinct characteristics of hOFs compared with hDFs included a high expression of glycoprotein genes, involved in signaling, extracellular matrix, membrane, and receptor proteins, besides a low expression of HOX genes, the hDFs-markers. The results of the pathway analyses indicated that tissue-reconstructive, proliferative, and signaling pathways are active, whereas senescence-related genes in p53 pathway are inactive in hOFs. Furthermore, more than half of hOF-specific genes were similarly expressed to those of hOF-iPSC genes and might be controlled by WNT signaling. Our findings demonstrated that hOFs have unique cellular characteristics in specificity and plasticity. These data may provide useful insight into application of oral fibroblasts for direct reprograming.

  12. Gene Signature of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts: Comparison with Dermal Fibroblasts and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Keiko; Horiguchi, Taigo; Tanimura, Ayako; Hagita, Hiroko; Noma, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucosa is a useful material for regeneration therapy with the advantages of its accessibility and versatility regardless of age and gender. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of oral mucosa. Here we report the first comparative profiles of the gene signatures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts (hOFs), human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), and hOF-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hOF-iPSCs), linking these with biological roles by functional annotation and pathway analyses. As a common feature of fibroblasts, both hOFs and hDFs expressed glycolipid metabolism-related genes at higher levels compared with hOF-iPSCs. Distinct characteristics of hOFs compared with hDFs included a high expression of glycoprotein genes, involved in signaling, extracellular matrix, membrane, and receptor proteins, besides a low expression of HOX genes, the hDFs-markers. The results of the pathway analyses indicated that tissue-reconstructive, proliferative, and signaling pathways are active, whereas senescence-related genes in p53 pathway are inactive in hOFs. Furthermore, more than half of hOF-specific genes were similarly expressed to those of hOF-iPSC genes and might be controlled by WNT signaling. Our findings demonstrated that hOFs have unique cellular characteristics in specificity and plasticity. These data may provide useful insight into application of oral fibroblasts for direct reprograming. PMID:26339586

  13. In vivo particle-mediated cytokine gene transfer into canine oral mucosa and epidermis.

    PubMed

    Keller, E T; Burkholder, J K; Shi, F; Pugh, T D; McCabe, D; Malter, J S; MacEwen, E G; Yang, N S; Ershler, W B

    1996-01-01

    Cytokines can stimulate immune effector cells present within the oral mucosa and epidermis to respond to vaccination or to combat cancer. However, intravenous cytokine delivery is often inefficient and frequently accompanied by systemic toxicity. The goal of this study was to evaluate dogs as a large animal model for gene therapy of cancer because they develop spontaneous oral and epidermal tumors. In this report, we demonstrate that particle-mediated gene transfer of beta-galactosidase, luciferase, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) complementary DNA (cDNA) into the oral mucosa and epidermis of healthy dogs resulted in effective, localized, transgenic protein expression. Additionally, the epidermal sites transfected with GM-CSF developed a profound inflammatory reaction characterized by neutrophilic infiltration. Clinical pathology analyses were unremarkable. These results demonstrate that in vivo particle-mediated gene transfer of canine oral mucosa and epidermis with cytokine cDNA can result in production of biologically active transgenic cytokines with minimal toxicity. These findings have applications to cancer immunotherapy using a gene gun approach.

  14. Usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa model for preventing palate bone alterations in rabbits with a mucoperiostial defect.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Valadés-Gámez, Ricardo; Garzón, Ingrid; Liceras-Liceras, Esther; España-López, Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martin-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María-Ángeles; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria-Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel; Fernández-Valadés, Ricardo

    2016-02-19

    The use of mucoperiostial flaps during cleft palate surgery is associated with altered palatal bone growth and development. We analyzed the potential usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa in an in vivo model of cleft palate. First, a 4 mm palate defect was created in one side of the palate oral mucosa of 3 week-old New Zealand rabbits, and a complete autologous bioengineered oral mucosa (BOM) or acellular fibrin-agarose scaffold (AS) was implanted. No material was implanted in the negative controls (NC), and positive controls were not subjected to palatal defect (PC). Animals were allowed to grow for 6 months and the results were analyzed morphologically (palate mucosa and bone size) and histologically. Results show that palatal mucosa and bone growth and development were significantly altered in NC and AS animals, whereas BOM animals had similar results to PC and the bioengineered oral mucosa was properly integrated in the host palate. The amount and compaction of collagen fibers was similar between BOM and PC, and both groups of animals had comparable contents of proteoglycans and glycoproteins at the palate bone. No differences were found for decorin, osteocalcin and BMP2. The use of bioengineered oral mucosa substitutes is able to improve palate growth and maturation by preventing the alterations found in animals with denuded palate bone. These results support the potential clinical usefulness of BOM substitutes for the treatment of patients with cleft palate and other conditions in which palate mucosa grafts are necessary with consequent bone denudation.

  15. Oral mucosa alterations in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis due to HBV or HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Sulka, Agnieszka; Simon, Krzysztof; Piszko, Paweł; Kalecińska, Ewa; Dominiak, Marzena

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the character of lesions within oral mucosa in patients suffering from chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver due to either HBV or HCV infection. A total of 74 patients treated at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Wrocław for chronic hepatitis B (20 patients, group I) and for chronic hepatitis C (23 patients group III) and cirrhosis of the liver due to HBV (15 patients , group II) and HCV (16 patients, group IV) infection. The control group comprised 29 healthy subjects. Lesions within the oral mucosa found on clinical examinations were confirmed with a histopathological evaluation. Patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B revealed leukoplakia (1/20), melanoplakia (1/20), petechiae (1/20), 17 patients from this group did not show any changes. Patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C revealed leukoplakia (6/23), Delbanco's disease (2/23), melanoplakia (1/23), lichen planus (1/23), petechiae (1/23), 12 patients from this group did not show any changes. Patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver due of HBV infection revealed leukoplakia (3/15) petechiae (2/15), Delbanco's disease (1/15), angular cheilitis (1/15), aphthae (1/15), 7 patients from this group did not reveal any changes. Patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver due of HCV infection revealed petechiae (2/16), melanoplakia (1/16), candidosis (1/16), labial herpes (1/16), 11 patients from this group did not reveal any changes. In control group we observed leukoplakia (3/29), Delbanco's disease (1/29), labial herpes (1/29), petechiae (1/29), and 23 subjects did not present pathological lesions within the oral mucosa. Results indicate the lack of connection between chronic HBV and HCV infection as well as the stage of the disease with the incidence and character of oral lesions in oral mucosa.

  16. Exfoliative cytology of the oral mucosa in burning mouth syndrome: a cytomorphological and cytomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wandeur, Talita; de Moura, Sérgio Adriane Bezerra; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Alanis, Luciana Reis de Azevedo; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells by exfoliative cytology in burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology in 40 individuals (20 BMS patients and 20 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for cytological and cytomorphometric techniques. Mean values of nuclear area (NA) for experimental and control groups were, respectively, 67.52 and 55.64 μm² (p < 0.05). Cytoplasmic area (CA) showed the following mean values: 1258.0 (experimental) and 2069.0 μm² (control). Nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio for the experimental group was 0.07, besides the control group was 0.03 (p < 0.05). Morphologically, oral smears exhibited normal epithelial cells in both experimental and control groups. There was a significant predominance of nucleated cells of the superficial layer in the smears of BMS patients (p = 0.00001). This study revealed that oral mucosa of BMS patients exhibited significant cytomorphometric changes in the oral epithelial cells. These changes probably are associated with epithelial atrophy and a deregulated maturation process that may contribute to the oral symptoms of pain and discomfort in BMS. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Melanoma of the oral mucosa. Clinical cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González-García, Raúl; Naval-Gías, Luis; Martos, Pedro L; Nam-Cha, Syong Hyun; Rodríguez-Campo, Francisco J; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Sastre-Pérez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of primary melanomas of the oral mucosa is uncommon. The aggressiveness of this entity and the absence of any standardized treatment protocol make the prognostic unfortunate. The difficulty to obtain free surgical margins, the elevated tendency to invade in depth and the early haematogenous metastasis have been referred as features which may explain its bad prognosis, even in comparison with cutaneous melanoma. However, no large clinical series exist and actually, clinical cases are the main source of information. Due to the absence of any treatment modality which may substantially increase long-term survival, we suggest the use of resective surgery with wide margins and early diagnosis by means of biopsy for suspicious melanotic-pigmented lesions. In this work we present 2 new cases of primary melanoma of the oral mucosa, with a follow-up period of 72 and 12 months respectively, and we make a review of the literature in relation with this rare entity.

  18. Lesions of the oral mucosa in cocaine users who apply the drug topically.

    PubMed

    Gandara-Rey, J M; Diniz-Freitas, M; Gandara-Vila, P; Blanco-Carrion, A; Garcia-Garcia, A

    2002-01-01

    The use and abuse of cocaine is increasingly frequent in many countries, and the associated problems are increasingly evident. The effects of cocaine in the oral cavity vary depending on the form used and the route of self-administration. In the present study we describe the lesions observed in four patients with a history of topical self-application of cocaine to the oral and/or nasal mucosa, with the aim of relieving pain produced by cocaine-induced cluster headache. In three of the four patients this practice has led to erythematous lesions, while the remaining patient showed gingival recession and bone sequestration. These lesions can probably be attributed to the vasoconstrictor activity of cocaine, and to its caustic effects on the mucosa.

  19. Bacterial-killing effect of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet and oral mucosa response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexi; Xiong, Zilan; Du, Tianfeng; Zhou, Xincai; Cao, Yingguang; Lu, Xinpei

    2011-12-01

    Recently, plasma sterilization has attracted increasing attention in dental community for the atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet (APNPs), which is driven by a kilohertz pulsed DC power, may be applied to the dental and oral diseases. However, it is still in doubt whether APNPs can effectively kill pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and produce no harmful effects on normal oral tissues, especially on normal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial-killing effect of APNPs in the biofilms containing a single breed of bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, P.g.), and the pathological changes of the oral mucosa after treatment by APNPs. P.g. was incubated to form the biofilms in vitro, and the samples were divided into three groups randomly: group A (blank control); group B in which the biofilms were treated by APNPs (the setting of the equipment: 10 kHz, 1600 ns and 8 kV); group C in which the biofilms were exposed only to a gas jet without ignition of the plasma. Each group had three samples and each sample was processed for up to 5 min. The biofilms were then fluorescently stained, observed and photographed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. In the animal experiment, six male Japanese white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly (n=3 in each group) in terms of the different post-treatment time (1-day group and 5-day group). The buccal mucosa of the left side and the mucosa of the ventral surface of the tongue were treated by APNPs for 10 min in the same way as the bacterial biofilm experiment in each rabbit, and the corresponding mucosa of the other sides served as normal control. The clinical manifestations of the oral mucosa were observed and recorded every day. The rabbits were sacrificed one or five day(s) after APNPs treatment. The oral mucosa were harvested and prepared to haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Clinical observation and histopathological scores were used to assess mucosal changes. The results

  20. Rheological characterization of human fibrin and fibrin-agarose oral mucosa substitutes generated by tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, I A; López-López, M T; Oliveira, A C X; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Campos, A; Alaminos, M; Durán, J D G

    2012-08-01

    In regenerative medicine, the generation of biocompatible substitutes of tissues by in vitro tissue engineering must fulfil certain requirements. In the case of human oral mucosa, the rheological properties of tissues deserve special attention because of their influence in the acoustics and biomechanics of voice production. This work is devoted to the rheological characterization of substitutes of the connective tissue of the human oral mucosa. Two substitutes, composed of fibrin and fibrin-agarose, were prepared in cell culture for periods in the range 1-21 days. The time evolution of the rheological properties of both substitutes was studied by two different experimental procedures: steady-state and oscillatory measurements. The former allows the plastic behaviour of the substitutes to be characterized by estimating their yield stress; the latter is employed to quantify their viscoelastic responses by obtaining the elastic (G') and viscous (G'') moduli. The results demonstrate that both substitutes are characterized by a predominant elastic response, in which G' (order 100 Pa) is roughly one order of magnitude larger than G'' (order 10 Pa). But the most relevant insight is the stability, throughout the 21 days of culture time, of the rheological quantities in the case of fibrin-agarose, whereas the fibrin substitute shows a significant hardening. This result provides evidence that the addition to fibrin of a small amount of agarose allows the rheological stability of the oral mucosa substitute to be maintained. This feature, together with its viscoelastic similitude with native tissues, makes this biomaterial appropriate for potential use as a scaffold in regenerative therapies of human oral mucosa. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Diffusion studies of nanometer polymersomes across tissue engineered human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hearnden, Vanessa; Lomas, Hannah; Macneil, Sheila; Thornhill, Martin; Murdoch, Craig; Lewis, Andrew; Madsen, Jeppe; Blanazs, Adam; Armes, Steve; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    To measure the diffusion of nanometer polymersomes through tissue engineered human oral mucosa. In vitro models of full thickness tissue engineered oral mucosa (TEOM) were used to assess the penetration properties of two chemically different polymersomes comprising two of block copolymers, PMPC-PDPA and PEO-PDPA. These copolymers self-assemble into membrane-enclosed vesicular structures. Polymersomes were conjugated with fluorescent rhodamine in order to track polymersome diffusion. Imaging and quantification of the diffusion properties were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). TEOM is morphologically similar to natural oral mucosa. Using CLSM, both formulations were detectable in the TEOM within 6 h and after 48 h both penetrated up to 80 microm into the TEOM. Diffusion of PMPC-PDPA polymersomes was widespread across the epithelium with intra-epithelial uptake, while PEO-PDPA polymersomes also diffused into the epithelium. CLSM was found to be an effective and versatile method for analysing the level of diffusion of polymersomes into TEOM. The penetration and retention of PMPC-PDPA and PEO-PDPA polymersomes means they may have potential for intra-epithelial drug delivery and/or trans-epithelial delivery of therapeutic agents.

  2. Oral Mucosa Harbors a High Frequency of Endothelial Cells: A Novel Postnatal Cell Source for Angiogenic Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Rogers, Jason H; Lee, Scott H; Sun, DongMing; Yao, Hai; Mao, Jeremy J; Kong, Kimi Y

    2017-01-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells/endothelial cells (EPCs/ECs) have great potential to treat pathological conditions such as cardiac infarction, muscle ischemia, and bone fractures, but isolation of EPC/ECs from existing cell sources is challenging due to their low EC frequency. We have isolated endothelial progenitor (EP)-like cells from rat oral mucosa and characterized their yield, immunophenotype, growth, and in vivo angiogenic potential. The frequency of EP-like cells derived from oral mucosa is thousands of folds higher than EPCs derived from donor-match bone marrow samples. EP-like cells from oral mucosa were positive for EC markers CD31, VE-Cadherin, and VEGFR2. Oral mucosa-derived EP-like cells displayed robust uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and formed stable capillary networks in Matrigel. Subcutaneously implanted oral mucosa-derived EP-like cells anastomosed with host blood vessels, implicating their ability to elicit angiogenesis. Similar to endothelial colony-forming cells, EP-like cells from oral mucosa have a significantly higher proliferative rate than human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These findings identify a putative EPC source that is easily accessible in the oral cavity, potentially from discarded tissue specimens, and yet with robust yield and potency for angiogenesis in tissue and organ regeneration.

  3. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto

    2016-03-01

    To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established.

  4. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Joey M; Bentley, Julie L; Malik, Bilal H; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A; Maitland, Kristen C

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue.

  5. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Bentley, Julie L.; Malik, Bilal H.; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

  6. Presence of highly oncogenic human papillomavirus in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Paula; Gatto de Almeida, Flávia; Bonin, Camila Mareti; Martins Prata, Thiago Theodoro; Sobrinho Ávilla, Leandro; Junqueira Padovani, Cacilda Tezelli; Teixeira Ferreira, Alda Maria; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Tozetti, Inês Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify highly oncogenic forms of human papillomavirus in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men. In this study, we analyzed samples of exfoliated cells from the oral cavity of 559 asymptomatic men. DNA-human papillomavirus was detected using the consensus primers PGMY09/11; viral genotyping was performed using type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. DNA-human papillomavirus was detected in 1.3% of the study participants and of those 42.8% were infected by more than one type of virus. Viral types included HPV6, 11, 89 (low oncogenic risk), and HPV52, 53 (high oncogenic risk). Increased vulnerability to human papillomavirus infection was observed in individuals aged over 26 years, among those who reported oral sex practices, and in those who have had more than 16 sexual partners since first engaging in sexual intercourse. There was a low prevalence of human papillomavirus detection in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men. Highly oncogenic human papillomavirus types and infection by more than one viral type was observed. Oral sex practices and a large number of sexual partners may increase the risk of acquiring human papillomavirus infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. A novel mechanism for NETosis provides antimicrobial defense at the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Tirthankar; Sjögren, Jonathan; Kahn, Fredrik; Abu-Humaidan, Anas H A; Fisker, Niels; Assing, Kristian; Mörgelin, Matthias; Bengtsson, Anders A; Borregaard, Niels; Sørensen, Ole E

    2015-10-29

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense at the oral mucosa and neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects lead to disordered oral homeostasis. We found that neutrophils from the oral mucosa harvested from morning saliva had released neutrophil extracellular traps (undergone NETosis) in vivo. The NETosis was mediated through intracellular signals elicited by binding of sialyl Lewis(X) present on salival mucins to l-selectin on neutrophils. This led to rapid loss of nuclear membrane and intracellular release of granule proteins with subsequent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release independent of elastase and reduced NAD phosphate-oxidase activation. The saliva-induced NETs were more DNase-resistant and had higher capacity to bind and kill bacteria than NETs induced by bacteria or by phorbol-myristate acetate. Furthermore, saliva/sialyl Lewis(X) mediated signaling enhanced intracellular killing of bacteria by neutrophils. Saliva from patients with aphthous ulcers and Behçet disease prone to oral ulcers failed to induce NETosis, but for different reasons it demonstrated that disordered homeostasis in the oral cavity may result in deficient saliva-mediated NETosis.

  8. Herpes simplex virus detection in oral mucosa lesions in patients undergoing oncologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda Tebache, Ester; Brethauer Meier, Ursula; Jiménez Moraga, Marco; Morales Figueroa, Rocío; Rojas Castro, Jaime; Le Fort Canales, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The presence of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) has been a frequent detection in gingivitis and ulcerations of oral mucosa in patients undergoing oncologic therapy. In these patients, lesions tend to show atypical clinical patterns, leading to misdiagnosis. To detect HSV, using an ELISA test, in oral lesions of patients under oncologic therapy, to determine localization of these lesions in the oral cavity, to relate their presence with the general diagnosis of the patient and to compare the test results with the previous clinical diagnosis of the lesions. Thirty lesions where examined in nineteen pediatric patients under oncologic therapy. Direct samples of all lesions were taken and an ELISA test for HSV type I and II was applied to them. General diagnosis of the patients was consigned, as well as localization of the lesions in the oral cavity and clinical diagnosis of them. A database was elaborated with all the information. 33% of lesions were positive to the test, most of them in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Localization of lesions was not restricted to areas of mucosa attached to periosteum, but also in areas like the dorsum of the tongue. Positive predictivity of clinical diagnosis was 56,25% and negative predictive index was 92,86%. Sensitivity of the test was 90% and specificity was 65%. It is very important to corroborate clinical diagnosis of gingivitis and ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity of patients under oncologic therapy with laboratory tests, because of the atypical clinical presentation that can lead to misdiagnosis.

  9. Potential applications of oral brush cytology with liquid-based technology: results from a cohort of normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Desai, Mina; Sargent, Alexandra; Bailey, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Sloan, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Fifty healthy volunteers were studied to assess the potential applications of oral brush sampling using liquid-based cytology. Three specimens from the buccal mucosa and lateral border of tongue were collected from each subject by using cervical brushes and brooms. The brush was immersed in a preservative fluid. The sample in the preservative fluid was processed according to the manufacturer's directions (SurePath, UK). Slides were stained by the Papanicolaou method and assessed for squamous cell adequacy by the same criteria used for cervical cytology screening. Immunocytochemical staining for FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad) was applied in liquid-based preparations following the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene) and the PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR HPV Test. LBC preparation slides showed good sample preservation, specimen adequacy and visualization of cell morphology. Interestingly, nine cases showed borderline cytological abnormalities from apparently normal oral mucosa. All cases showed good quality positive FHIT immunoreactivity staining. All studied cases were high-risk HPV negative using HC2 assay method. However, the AMPLICOR Roche Test detected four samples with positive results for high-risk HPVs. Liquid-based cytology has potential as a screening tool for oral cancer and precancer. The method may also have applications for research and practice in the field of oral cancer and precancer. However a special custom-designed oral cytobrush is required.

  10. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus associated conditions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Ivan J; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections of the oral mucosa may present as both benign and malignant conditions. Squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum are benign, HPV-associated growths treated with simple excision while multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) usually occurs in children and adolescents and resolves over time. HPV-associated oral dysplasia is uncommon and HPV-carcinoma comprises 6% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. EBV is responsible for oral hairy leukoplakia, a benign condition seen in immunocompromised patients, while the EBV-associated mucocutaneous ulcer is a recently-described, indolent condition associated with an atypical lymphoid proliferation seen immunocompromised patients as well as older adults, the latter likely because of immunosenescence. Awareness of these conditions is important for the practicing pathologist because some of these conditions may represent the first sign of underlying immunocompromise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microplicae--Specialized Surface Structure of Epithelial Cells of Wet-Surfaced Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, P; Sirviö, E; Mikkonen, J J W; Singh, S P; Schulten, E A J M; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Koistinen, A P; Kullaa, A M

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa is decorated with numerous membrane ridges, termed microplicae (MPLs). The MPL structure is typical of the epithelial surfaces that are covered with protective mucus. Cell membrane MPLs are no longer seen as passive consequences of cellular activity. The interaction between MPLs and the mucins has been demonstrated, however the role of MPL structure seen on the upper surface of the oral epithelial cells is speculative. The cell surface is of potentially great significance, as it harbors many markers for refined prognosis and targets for oral mucosal diseases and cancer therapy. With these aspects in mind, we conducted the present review of the MPL structure and function in order to form the basis for further studies of MPLs of the oral epithelial cells.

  12. Acute corrosion of the oral mucosa in a dog due to ingestion of Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles (Harmonia axyridis: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Stocks, Ian C; Lindsey, Derek E

    2008-08-01

    A six-year old mixed-breed dog presented with severe trauma to the oral mucosa suggestive of chemical burn. Sixteen Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae) were removed from the oral cavity, which revealed trauma consistent with chemical burn. The beetles had become embedded in mucosa covering the hard palate and required manual removal. A diagnosis of beetle induced chemical burn was warranted and consistent with the nature of the chemical constituents of H. axyridis hemolymph.

  13. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria

    PubMed Central

    Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

    1999-01-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.
  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).
  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.


Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787

  14. [Construction and application of the tissue bank and database of oral mucosa precancerous lesions in the Yangtze delta].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji-yan; Zhao, Hou-ming; Zhou, Hai-wen

    2014-04-01

    To construct a database and a tissue bank of oral mucosa precancerous lesions and to estimate the application values. Patients in the Yangtze delta suffering oral mucosa precancerous lesions were enrolled into this study. The patients' clinical data and samples of oral precancerous mucosa, salivary and blood were collected to create a tissue bank, based on which a database was constructed using Microsoft Access software, Brower/Server structure and ASP language. The tissue bank and database of oral mucosa precancerous lesions were successfully built. The procedure to harvest, store and transport the samples had been standardized. The database showed good interactive interface, convenient for data collection, query and share in the internet. We constructed the tissue bank and database of oral mucosa precancerous lesions for the first time, which not only help preserve the biological resource of oral mucosa precancerous lesions, but also provide enormous convenience in clinical work, researching and teaching. Supported by Research Fund of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (08ZR1416700).

  15. In vivo study of different ointments for drug delivery into oral mucosa by EPR oximetry.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Milan; Pavlica, Zlatko; Bizimoska, Saska; Sentjurc, Marjeta

    2004-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of transport and long-term effect of a drug applied to the oral mucosa in different ointments. Three ointments with bioadhesive properties: Orabase, Carbopol 935P, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMM) and the ointment Miglyol without such properties were used. Benzyl nicotinate (BN) was used as an active ingredient that causes hyperemia. The kinetics of drug action was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry in vivo using the paramagnetic probe (Lithium phthalocyanine) implanted beneath the epithelium of the buccal mucosa in rats. EPR spectra line-width was proportional to local changes of partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) in tissue and was monitored for 90 min after the application of ointments mixed with BN. The greatest increase in pO(2) and the highest efficiency of drug action was observed after the application of 2% BN in PMM (P<0.01). Additionally in PMM the drug effect increased linearly with BN concentration up to 3%, at higher concentrations (3.5 and 4% BN) no further effect was observed. The results demonstrated that the greatest and the longest effect caused by a hyperemic drug in PMM. By increasing the concentration of the drug in PMM higher pO(2) in the oral mucosa can be established but only until the saturation is reached.

  16. Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Raja, JV; Khan, M; Ramachandra, VK; Al-Kadi, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Methods Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. Results The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusion Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression. PMID:22241875

  17. Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Raja, J V; Khan, M; Ramachandra, V K; Al-Kadi, O

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression.

  18. Dendritic cell chimerism in oral mucosa of transplanted patients affected by graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudio A; Rabanales, Ramón; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Larrondo, Milton; Escobar, Alejandro F; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Alfaro, Jorge I; González, Fermín E

    2016-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the main complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinical features of GVHD include either an acute (aGVHD) or a chronic (cGVHD) condition that affects locations such as the oral mucosa. While the involvement of the host's dendritic cells (DCs) has been demonstrated in aGVHD, the origin (donor/host) and mechanisms underlying oral cGVHD have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we intend to determine the origin of DCs present in mucosal tissue biopsies from the oral cavity of transplanted patients affected by cGVHD. We purified DCs, from oral biopsies of three patients with cGVHD, through immunobeads and subsequently performed DNA extraction. The origin of the obtained DCs was determined by PCR amplification of 13 informative short tandem repeat (STR) alleles. We also characterised the DCs phenotype and the inflammatory infiltrate from biopsies of two patients by immunohistochemistry. Clinical and histological features of the biopsies were concordant with oral cGVHD. We identified CD11c-, CD207- and CD1a-positive cells in the epithelium and beneath the basal layer. Purification of DCs from the mucosa of patients affected by post-transplantation cGVHD was >95%. PCR-STR data analysis of DCs DNA showed that 100% of analysed cells were of donor origin in all of the evaluated patients. Our results demonstrate that resident DCs isolated from the oral tissue of allotransplanted patients affected by cGVHD are originated from the donor. Further research will clarify the role of DCs in the development and/or severity of oral cGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  20. Th1/Th2 balance in mouse delayed-type hypersensitivity model with mercuric chloride via skin and oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ukichi, Kenichirou; Okamura, Taito; Fukushima, Daihei; Morimoto, Mitsuaki; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Takahashi, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) among different exposure sites, we evaluated the sensitization potency of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) via exposure to the skin, or oral or esophageal mucosa using the mouse ear swelling test. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro splenocyte proliferation reaction and cytokine profile in HgCl(2)-exposed and control mice. Sensitization with HgCl(2) was established via the skin and oral mucosa but not via the esophageal mucosa. The splenocyte proliferation reaction was significantly enhanced to a similar degree in skin and oral mucosa-sensitized mice compared with in the control mice. IL-10 levels from cultured splenocytes were significantly increased in skin and oral mucosa-sensitized mice compared with those in control mice, whilst IFN-γ significantly increased only in splenocytes from skin-sensitized mice. These results suggest that exposure of the skin or oral mucosa to HgCl(2) can induce DTH, but that Th1/Th2 balance differs according to the site of antigen exposure.

  1. [Use of "functional tooth paste," made with nanotechnology, in the treatment of oral mucosa diseases].

    PubMed

    Szabó, György; Németh, Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    The authors report their experience connected with the introduction of "functional toothpaste" in Hungary. This cream (gel), prepared with nanotechnology, contains vitamins C and E, propolis and various herb extracts. It is manufactured in South Korea and is commercially available in the USA, among others. It protects the gingiva, and its use is recommended in cases of diseases of the oral mucosa. The experience in Hungary indicates that it is well applicable after surgery in the oral cavity (it promotes wound healing), in cases involving processes in the oral cavity that heal with difficulty, and during the healing of burn wounds (e.g. after laser surgery). In view of the favourable experience, its distribution in Hungary can be recommended.

  2. Delayed contact sensitivity on the lips and oral mucosa due to propolis-case report.

    PubMed

    Brailo, V; Boras, Vanja Vucicevic; Alajbeg, I; Juras, Vidovic

    2006-07-01

    We report a rare case of a patient who was referred to the Department of Oral medicine in Zagreb, Croatia. The patient was 20 years old, otherwise healthy and not taking any medication. She presented with irregular erosions partially covered with pseudomembranes that involved both lips and retrocomissural mucosa. Discrete erosion was also noticed on her lower lingual gingiva in the area 42. She reported a propolis solution self-medication for treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers. After ten days of propolis application, lip and oral lesions developed. Patch test to propolis was proven. We highlight the fact that some folk medicine medications, such as propolis, although being known for many decades to be helpful in various conditions, in some individuals might lead to unwanted side-effects due to its antigenic potential. Additionally, every colleague, during the differential diagnosis of the oral lesions must bear in mind unwanted reactions to folk medicine products.

  3. In vivo OCT study of neoplastic alterations of the oral cavity mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomina, Julia V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Myakov, Alexey V.

    2004-07-01

    The goal of our study was to conduct a statistical evaluation of the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect neoplasia in vivo in oral cavity. The study enrolled 97 patients (35 volunteers with healthy mucosa of the oral cavity-group I, 41 patients with benign conditions-group II, 21 patients with dysplasia or carcinoma-group III). The diagnosis was established by a histopathology examination of biopsy material. Each biopsy site was imaged by OCT beforehand. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 98% were observed as a result of OCT image recognition of dysplastic/malignant versus benign/reactive conditions in the oral cavity. The interobserver agreement kappa was 0.76. Such sensitivity and specificity makes OCT a promising tool for non-invasive evaluation of tissue sites suspicious for high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  4. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Soluble Immune Factor Environment of Rectal and Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Romas, Laura M.; Hasselrot, Klara; Aboud, Lindsay G.; Birse, Kenzie D.; Ball, T. Blake; Broliden, Kristina; Burgener, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual transmission of HIV occurs across a mucosal surface, which contains many soluble immune factors important for HIV immunity. Although the composition of mucosal fluids in the vaginal and oral compartments has been studied extensively, the knowledge of the expression of these factors in the rectal mucosa has been understudied and is very limited. This has particular relevance given that the highest rates of HIV acquisition occur via the rectal tract. To further our understanding of rectal mucosa, this study uses a proteomics approach to characterize immune factor components of rectal fluid, using saliva as a comparison, and evaluates its antiviral activity against HIV. Methods Paired salivary fluid (n = 10) and rectal lavage fluid (n = 10) samples were collected from healthy, HIV seronegative individuals. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify and quantify mucosal immune protein abundance differences between saliva and rectal fluids. The HIV inhibitory capacity of these fluids was further assessed using a TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results Of the 315 proteins identified in rectal lavage fluid, 72 had known immune functions, many of which have described anti-HIV activity, including cathelicidin, serpins, cystatins and antileukoproteinase. The majority of immune factors were similarly expressed between fluids, with only 21 differentially abundant (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Notably, rectal mucosa had a high abundance of mucosal immunoglobulins and antiproteases relative to saliva, Rectal lavage limited HIV infection by 40–50% in vitro (p<0.05), which is lower than the potent anti-HIV effect of oral mucosal fluid (70–80% inhibition, p<0.005). Conclusions This study reveals that rectal mucosa contains many innate immune factors important for host immunity to HIV and can limit viral replication in vitro. This indicates an important role for this fluid as the first line of defense

  5. Nuclear changes in oral mucosa of alcoholics and crack cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Webber, L P; Pellicioli, A C A; Magnusson, A S; Danilevicz, C K; Bueno, C C; Sant'Ana Filho, M; Rados, P V; Carrard, V C

    2016-02-01

    The effects of drugs of abuse on oral mucosa are only partly understood. The aims of the present study were to: (1) evaluate the frequency of nuclear changes in normal-appearing oral mucosa of alcoholics and crack cocaine users and (2) assess their association with cell proliferation rate. Oral smears were obtained from the border of the tongue and floor of the mouth of 26 crack cocaine users (24 males and 2 females), 29 alcoholics (17 males and 12 females), and 35 controls (17 males and 18 females). Histological slides were submitted to Feulgen staining to assess the frequency of micronuclei (MN), binucleated cells (BN), broken eggs (BE), and karyorrhexis (KR). A significant increase in the frequency of MN was observed in cells exfoliated from the tongue of crack cocaine users (p = 0.01), and alcoholics showed a higher frequency of KR in cells obtained from the floor of the mouth (p = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the use of crack cocaine induces clastogenic effects, whereas alcoholism is associated with higher degrees of keratinization in the floor of the mouth.

  6. Quantitative sensory testing for assessment of somatosensory function in human oral mucosa: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pin; Chen, Yaming; Zhang, Jinglu; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter

    2017-09-20

    This narrative review provides an overview of the quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess somatosensory function in human oral mucosa. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database to identify studies in vivo on human oral mucosa using QST methods. A list of 149 articles was obtained and screened. A total of 36 relevant articles remained and were read in full text. Manual search of the reference lists identified eight additional relevant studies. A total of 44 articles were included for final assessment. The included studies were divided into six categories according to the study content and objective. In each category, there was a great variety of aims, methods, participants and outcome measures. The application of QST has nevertheless helped to monitor somatosensory function in experimental models of intraoral pain, effects of local anesthesia, after oral and maxillofacial surgery and after prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment. QST has been proved to be sufficiently stable and reliable, and valuable information has been obtained regarding somatosensory function in healthy volunteers, special populations and orofacial pain patients. However, as most of the studies were highly heterogeneous, the results are difficult to compare quantitatively. A standardized intraoral QST protocol is recommended and expected to help advance a mechanism-based assessment of neuropathies and other intraoral pain conditions.

  7. Ex vivo and in vivo modulatory effects of umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells on human oral mucosa stroma substitutes.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Rodríguez, C A; González-Andrades, E; Jaimes-Parra, B D; Fernández-Valadés, R; Campos, A; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Alaminos, M; Garzón, I

    2015-11-01

    Novel oral mucosa substitutes have been developed in the laboratory using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells -HWJSC- as an alternative cell source. In the present work, we have generated human oral mucosa substitutes with oral mucosa keratinocytes and HWJSC to determine the influence of these cell sources on stromal differentiation. First, acellular and cellular stroma substitutes and bilayered oral mucosa substitutes with an epithelial layer consisting of oral mucosa keratinocytes -OM samples- or HWJSC -hOM- were generated. Then, tissues were analyzed by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to quantify all major extracellular matrix components after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of ex vivo development, and OM and hOM were also analyzed after in vivo grafting. The results showed that bioengineered oral mucosa stromas displayed an adequate fibrillar mesh. Synthesis of abundant collagen fibers was detected in OM and hOM after 3 weeks, and in vivo grafting resulted in an increased collagen synthesis. No elastic or reticular fibers were found. Glycoprotein synthesis was found at the epithelial-stromal layer when samples were grafted in vivo. Finally, proteoglycans, decorin, versican and aggrecan were strongly dependent on the in vivo environment and the presence of a well-structured epithelium on top. The use of HWJSC was associated to an increased synthesis of versican. These results confirm the usefulness of fibrin-agarose biomaterials for the generation of an efficient human oral mucosa stroma substitute and the importance of the in vivo environment and the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction for the adequate differentiation of the bioengineered stroma.

  8. Cavernoplasty with oral mucosa graft for the surgical treatment of Peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Molina-Escudero, R; Álvarez-Ardura, M; Redón-Gálvez, L; Crespo-Martínez, L; Otaola-Arca, H; Páez-Borda, A

    2016-06-01

    Peyronie's disease is a disorder of the tunica albuginea and causes penile curvature, requiring surgical correction when the deformity impedes penetration. Retrospective analysis of the short-term results (penile length, angle of curvature and erectile function) of treating Peyronie's disease in 10 patients through cavernoplasty with oral mucosa graft. Essentially, the treatment included the incision of the fibrotic plaque with electrical scalpel and the subsequent coating of the cavernous defect using a patch of oral mucosa. At month 6, we measured the penile length and curvature and recorded the erectile function using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Finally, the patients were asked "Would you undergo the same operation again?". The mean age was 53.4 years. The average and median follow-up was 22.7 months and 24 months, respectively. The mean preoperative curvature was 68.5° (50°-90°), the mean penile length was 11.2cm (9-15) and the mean IIEF-5 score was 16.1 (8-25). The mean postoperative penile length was 10.7cm, and the mean IIEF-5 score was 18.9. The differences between the preoperative and postoperative values were not statistically significant (P=ns). One patient developed erectile dysfunction. In all cases, the residual curvature was <20°. Nine patients (90%) stated that they would undergo the same operation. The short-term results suggest that cavernoplasty with oral mucosa graft can be an alternative to traditional grafts for surgically correcting Peyronie's disease. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa grafts for intraoral lining reconstruction of the maxilla and mandible with a fibula flap.

    PubMed

    Sieira Gil, Ramón; Pagés, Carles Martí; Díez, Eloy García; Llames, Sara; Fuertes, Ada Ferrer; Vilagran, Jesús Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Many types of soft tissue grafts have been used for grafting or prelaminating bone flaps for intraoral lining reconstruction. The best results are achieved when prelaminating free flaps with mucosal grafts. We suggest a new approach to obtain keratinized mucosa over a fibula flap using full-thickness, engineered, autologous oral mucosa. We report on a pilot study for grafting fibula flaps for mandibular and maxilla reconstruction with full-thickness tissue-engineered autologous oral mucosa. We describe 2 different techniques: prelaminating the fibula flap and second-stage grafting of the fibula after mandibular reconstruction. Preparation of the full-thickness tissue-engineered oral mucosa is also described. The clinical outcome of the tissue-engineered intraoral lining reconstruction and response after implant placement are reported. A peri-implant granulation tissue response was not observed when prelaminating the fibula, and little response was observed when intraoral grafting was performed. Tissue engineering represents an alternative method by which to obtain sufficient autologous tissue for reconstructing mucosal oral defects. The full-thickness engineered autologous oral mucosa offers definite advantages in terms of reconstruction planning, donor site morbidity, and quality of the intraoral soft tissue reconstruction, thereby restoring native tissue and avoiding peri-implant tissue complications. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Histomorphometric analysis of nuclear and cellular volumetric alterations in oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and normal oral mucosa using image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Venkatesiah, Sowmya S; Kale, Alka D; Hallikeremath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that clinically and histologically resembles lichenoid lesions, although the latter has a different etiology. Though criteria have been suggested for differentiating oral lichen planus from lichenoid lesions, confusion still prevails. To study the cellular and nuclear volumetric features in the epithelium of normal mucosa, lichen planus, and lichenoid lesions to determine variations if any. A retrospective study was done on 25 histologically diagnosed cases each of oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions, and normal oral mucosa. Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. The basal cells of oral lichen planus showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear and cellular areas, and in nuclear volume; there was a significant decrease in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa. The suprabasal cells showed a significant increase in nuclear and cellular areas, nuclear diameter, and nuclear and cellular volumes as compared to normal mucosa. The basal cells of oral lichenoid lesions showed significant difference in the mean cellular area and the mean nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa, whereas the suprabasal cells differed significantly from normal mucosa in the mean nuclear area and the nuclear and cellular volumes. Morphometry can differentiate lesions of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions from normal oral mucosa. Thus, morphometry may serve to discriminate between normal and premalignant lichen planus and lichenoid lesions. These lesions might have a high risk for malignant transformation and may behave in a similar manner with respect to malignant transformation.

  11. Comparative study of cell alterations in oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma of the mouth mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Rosa, Luiz Eduardo Blumer

    2009-01-01

    Currently, much is discussed regarding the pre-malignant nature of mouth mucosa lichen planus. The present study aims at analyzing the alterations found in the epithelial cells present in the oral cavity lichen planus, comparing them to those found in epidermoid carcinoma. Histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma, dyed by hematoxylineosin, were analyzed through light microscopy. The most frequently found alterations in oral lichen planus were: an increase in the nucleus/cytoplasm relation (93.33%), nucleus membrane thickness (86.67%) and bi-nucleus or multinucleous (86.67%). The Student t test (alpha=5%) revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in oral lichen planus (5.87+/-1.57) and in epidermoid carcinoma (7.60+/-1.81). As to the types of alterations, the chi-squared test also revealed statistically significant differences among the lesions assessed in relation to the following cell alterations: nuclear excess chromatism, atypical mitoses, cellular pleomorphism and abnormal cell differentiation (p<0.05). Despite the fact that in some cases, some pathologists may make mistakes in the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus, the results obtained in this study show that the alterations present in oral lichen planus differ considerably from those seen in epidermoid carcinoma, thus showing how distinct these two diseases are.

  12. Local anaesthesia through the action of cocaine, the oral mucosa and the Vienna group.

    PubMed

    López-Valverde, A; de Vicente, J; Martínez-Domínguez, L; de Diego, R Gómez

    2014-07-11

    Local anaesthesia through the action of cocaine was introduced in Europe by the Vienna group, which includeed Freud, Koller and Königstein. Before using the alkaloid in animal or human experimentation all these scientists tested it on their oral mucosa - so-called self-experimentation. Some of them with different pathologies (that is, in the case of Freud), eventually became addicted to the alkaloid. Here we attempt to describe the people forming the so-called 'Vienna group', their social milieu, their experiences and internal disputes within the setting of a revolutionary discovery of the times.

  13. Effects of nicotine on an in vitro reconstituted model oral mucosa in terms of cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Muhammad Nauman; Hanif, Sajid; Zia, Majid; Qayyum, Zahur

    2011-01-01

    The extensive use of tobacco and its associated problematic health issues have been a concern to mankind. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately one-third of the global population aged 15 years or older are smokers and each smoker consumes an average of 15 cigarettes daily. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of nicotine on an in vitro reconstituted oral mucosa model, the effect of treatment with this compound was measured in terms of cytokine production. Observational laboratory based study design was used to carry out the experiment. The reconstituted human epithelium model used in the study was prepared and supplied by Skin Ethic Laboratories, Nice, France. The effect of nicotine on epithelial cytokine production was assessed using commercially available assay kits (R&D systems). This was done using the enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay. In this study there was evidence that after 5 minutes treatment on un-inflamed mucosa with nicotine at 10 mm concentration GM-CSF release decreased, and also after 24 hours treatment with nicotine at 10mM concentration GM-CSF release increased. TNF-alpha increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and also GM-CSF from the model mucosa after 24 hours, but had no effect on the release of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF after 5 minutes and 24 hours respectively. In conclusion at all the concentrations used in this experiment, nicotine had no effect on the TNF-alpha stimulated tissue and un-inflamed mucosa and had no significant effect on cytokine release including IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF after 5 minutes and 24 hours respectively.

  14. Identification of Helicobacter spp. in oral secretions vs. gastric mucosa of stray cats.

    PubMed

    Shojaee Tabrizi, A; Jamshidi, Sh; Oghalaei, A; Zahraei Salehi, T; Bayati Eshkaftaki, A; Mohammadi, M

    2010-01-06

    The definite mode of transmission of Helicobacter infection is largely unknown. This study was carried out primarily, to determine the existence of Helicobacter spp. in the oral secretions of stray cats as one of the possible routes of transmission and secondly, to evaluate the accordance between oral and gastric colonization of Helicobacter spp. in these cats. Forty-three adult stray cats were thus studied for the presence of Helicobacter species by quantitative rapid urease test (RUT), cytology and PCR. Helicobacter spp. were found in the oral secretions and gastric biopsies of 93% and 67.5% of the stray cats, respectively. There was not, however, any agreement observed between Helicobacter colonization at these two locations, at neither genus nor species level. These findings suggest that the oral cavity is routinely exposed to transient forms of bacteria and may temporarily harbor Helicobacter spp. Thus, oral cavity as a source of Helicobacter spp. may act as a reservoir for transmission and may not necessarily reflect the colonization status of the gastric mucosa.

  15. Localized Leishmaniasis of the oral mucosa. A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    García de Marcos, José Antonio; Dean Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos Granados, Francisco; Ruiz Masera, Juan José; Cortés Rodríguez, Begoña; Vidal Jiménez, Alfredo; García Lainez, Ana; Lozano Rodríguez-Mancheno, Aquiles

    2007-08-01

    The term leishmaniasis comprises a group of diseases caused by different species of a protozoon called Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is found worldwide, and is considered to be endemic in 88 countries. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Exclusive involvement of the mucosa is very rare. We present a series of three cases of mucosal leishmaniasis located in the oral cavity. The fact that all three cases were recorded in Spain (an area where L. infantum is endemic), suggests that the latter was the causal agent. The only manifestation of leishmaniasis disease in the described cases was the appearance of an oral lesion. Treatment was provided in the form of meglumine antimoniate in two patients, with a favorable response. One of the patients left the hospital after diagnosis, without receiving treatment, and the subsequent course is not known. A review is made of the literature on the subject.

  16. Effects of visible light irradiation on eugenol-treated oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Muraoka, Eitoku; Nakazato, Yoshihiro; Okada, Norihisa

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects of eugenol (EUG) and iso-eugenol (IsoEUG)--with or without visible light (VL) irradiation--on oral mucous membranes. Oral mucous membranes of mice were applied with three agents, EUG, IsoEUG, and aceton (as the control) in the absence or presence of VL irradiation. VL irradiation resulted in more tissue damage for EUG- or IsoEUG-treated mucosa compared to corresponding compounds without VL irradiation, and that damage under IsoEUG treatment was greater than that under EUG treatment. Necrosis, but not apoptosis, was preferentially expressed in EUG- or IsoEUG-treated mucous membranes in the presence of VL irradiation.

  17. Innate tissue fluorescence of the oral mucosa of controls and head-and-neck cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Howard E.; Kolli, Venkateswara; Ansley, John; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y.; Alfano, Robert R.; Schantz, Stimson P.

    1995-04-01

    Base line spectral excitation and emission scans were defined for the oral mucosa in a population of 61 controls, 16 oral tongue cancer patients and 2 patients with tongue leukoplakia. A xenon-based fluorescence spectrophotometer (Mediscience Corp.) with a fiberoptic probe (Mediscience Corp.) was used to collect excitation and emission spectra. Two excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm; (lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm) and two emission scans ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm; (lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360-660 nm) were used to analyze the buccal mucosa (BM), hard palate (HP), floor of mouth (FOM) and dorsal tongue (DT) of 61 control individuals. In 41 controls the lateral tongue site (LT) was added. The same set of scans was performed on tumor lesions and contralateral normal tissues of 16 patients with lateral tongue tumors and on two individuals with leukoplakia of the tongue. Ratios of points on the individual scans were used to quantitate data. The excitation scan ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm) and the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm) were able to statistically discriminate the HP and DT from the BM and FOM. The ratios of intensities of neoplastic mucosa and contralateral sites were significantly different with the excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm, p < 0.001) and ((lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm, p < 0.01) and with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm, p < 0.001). Discrimination was significant with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360- 660 nm, p < 0.07). Innate tissue fluorescence has potential as a monitor of cancer patients and populations at risk for head and neck cancer.

  18. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

  19. Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid permeation through oral mucosa in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Alleman, Anthony; Lehman, Paul; Blevins, Steve; Stone, Angie; Fink, Louis; Dinehart, Scott; Stern, Scott J.

    1994-07-01

    Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid are photosensitizers that show promise in the photodynamic treatment of cancer, port-wine stains, atherosclerosis and viral lesions. Photofrin is a mixture of porphyrins which, upon the absorption of light, become temporarily cytotoxic. One side-effect associated with the use of Photofrin is long-term cutaneous photosensitivity. It is possible that topical application of this photosensitizing dye will ameliorate such a side-effect. Another way to avoid the cutaneous photosensitivity in photodynamic therapy is to use 5- aminolevulinic acid, which is a porphyrin precursor that causes an increase in the synthesis and concentration of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. 5-aminolevulinic acid is usually applied topically, and so minimizes cutaneous photosensitivity while maximizing the local protoporphyrin concentration. There are a host of disorders in oral mucosa that are potentially treatable by photodynamic therapy. However, since stratum corneum presents an impermeable barrier to many pharmaceuticals, it is not clear that topical application of the photosensitizer will result in a clinically relevant tissue concentration. We have therefore studied the permeation behavior of Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid by applying them to the surface of ex vivo oral mucosa tissue positioned by a Franz diffusion cell. In order to increase the permeability of the photosensitizer across the stratum corneum, we studied the effects of four different drug carriers: phosphate buffered saline, dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and Azone with isopropyl alcohol.

  20. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE).

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

    2013-07-21

    Occurrence of metachronous and synchronous secondary tumors in oral cavities has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased 5-year disease-free survival rates. The origin of secondary tumors in the oral cavity has been primarily attributed to cancer field effects (CFE) or malignancy-associated changes (MAC) in uninvolved areas. Classification of normal, cancerous and pre-cancerous oral lesions by in vivo Raman spectroscopy (RS) has already been demonstrated. In the present study, MAC/CFE in oral buccal mucosa were explored. In vivo Raman spectra from 84 subjects (722 spectra) under five categories - cancer and contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), healthy controls (no tobacco habit, no cancer), habitués healthy controls (tobacco habit, no cancer) and non-habitués contralateral normal (no tobacco habit with cancer) were acquired. Mean and difference spectra suggest that loss of lipids and additional features representing proteins and DNA are characteristics of all pathological conditions, with respect to healthy controls. Spectral data were analyzed by PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results suggest that Raman characteristics of mucosa of healthy controls are exclusive, while those of habitués healthy controls are similar to those of contralateral normal mucosa. It was observed that the cluster of non-habitués contralateral normal mucosa is different from habitués healthy controls, suggesting that malignancy associated changes can be identified and also indicating that transformation of uninvolved oral mucosa due to tobacco habit or malignancy is different. The findings of the study demonstrate the potential of RS in identifying early transformation changes in oral mucosa and the efficacy of this approach in oral cancer applications.

  1. Erythema multiforme limited to the oral mucosa in a teenager on oral contraceptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Jawetz, Robert E; Elkin, Avigayil; Michael, Lisa; Jawetz, Sheryl A; Shin, Helen T

    2007-10-01

    Erythema multiforme has been linked to numerous drugs and infectious agents. A link to oral contraceptive use has been reported in the past in the adult population but thus far has not been reported in children or adolescents. We report the case of an 18-yr-old female who developed oral erosions consistent with erythema multiforme two and a half weeks after initiating therapy with an oral contraceptive agent. A thorough examination for other inciting factors was negative, and the lesions slowly resolved over the course of 3 weeks. This case illustrates that erythema multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adolescents with oral erosions who have been prescribed oral contraceptives.

  2. Evaluation of oral mucosa epithelium in type II diabetic patients by an exfoliative cytology method.

    PubMed

    Jajarm, Hassan Hosseinpour; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Rangiani, Afsaneh

    2008-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that causes chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Although diabetes can cause considerable cellular changes, this field has attracted little research. We therefore decided to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method. In 30 control individuals and 30 patients with type II diabetes, smears were obtained from two distinct oral sites: the buccal mucosa and tongue dorsum. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou solution. Quantitative and qualitative changes were evaluated in each slide. For this purpose, 50 clearly defined cells in each slide were microscopically evaluated, and photographs were subjected to computerized morphometric analysis. Cytoplasmic and nuclear areas in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. The cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio was lower in the control group. At both smear sites, the proportion of cells with nuclear changes was higher in the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in the oral epithelium that are detectable with this exfoliative cytology method. The method may be viable in evaluating this disease.

  3. Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Topical Application of Black Raspberries on High At-Risk Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Blake M.; Casto, Bruce C.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Accurso, Brent T.; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preclinical efficacy of topical administration of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) to inhibit the progression of premalignant oral lesions and modulate biomarkers of cancer development in high at-risk mucosa (HARM). Study Design Hamster cheek pouches (HCPs) were treated with carcinogen for six weeks to initiate a HARM microenvironment. Subsequently, right HCPs were topically administered a BRB suspension in short-term or long-term studies. After 12 weeks, SCC multiplicity, SCC incidence, and cell proliferation rates were evaluated. mRNA expression was measured in short-term treated pouches for selected oral cancer biomarkers. Results SCC multiplicity (−41.3%), tumor incidence (−37.1%), and proliferation rate (−6.9%) were reduced in HCPs receiving BRBs. Topical BRBs correlated with an increase in Rb1 expression in developing oral lesions. Conclusion Topical BRBs inhibit SCC development when targeted to HARM tissues. These results support the translational role of BRBs to prevent oral cancer development in humans. PMID:25457886

  4. Chemoprevention of oral cancer by topical application of black raspberries on high at-risk mucosa.

    PubMed

    Warner, Blake M; Casto, Bruce C; Knobloch, Thomas J; Accurso, Brent T; Weghorst, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the preclinical efficacy of topical administration of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) to inhibit the progression of premalignant oral lesions and modulate biomarkers of cancer development in high at-risk mucosa (HARM). Hamster cheek pouches (HCPs) were treated with carcinogen for 6 weeks to initiate a HARM microenvironment. Subsequently, right HCPs were topically administered a BRB suspension in short-term or long-term studies. After 12 weeks, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) multiplicity, SCC incidence, and cell proliferation rates were evaluated. mRNA expression was measured in short-term treated pouches for selected oral cancer biomarkers. SCC multiplicity (-41.3%), tumor incidence (-37.1%), and proliferation rate (-6.9%) were reduced in HCPs receiving BRBs. Topical BRBs correlated with an increase in RB1 expression in developing oral lesions. Topical BRBs inhibit SCC development when targeted to HARM tissues. These results support the translational role of BRBs to prevent oral cancer development in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of three sampling instruments, Cytobrush, Curette and OralCDx, for liquid-based cytology of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Reboiras-López, M D; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Antúnez-López, J R; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Gándara-Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2012-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity is a simple and noninvasive technique that permits the study of epithelial cells. Liquid-based cytology is an auxiliary diagnostic tool for improving the specificity and sensitivity of conventional cytology. The objective of our study was to compare the quality of normal oral mucosa cytology samples obtained using three different instruments, Cytobrush®, dermatological curette and Oral CDx® for liquid-based cytology. One hundred four cytological samples of oral cavity were analyzed. Samples were obtained from healthy volunteer subjects using all three instruments. The clinical and demographic variables were age, sex and smoking habits. We analyzed cellularity, quality of the preparation and types of cells in the samples. All preparations showed appropriate preparation quality. In all smears analyzed, cells were distributed uniformly and showed no mucus, bleeding, inflammatory exudate or artifacts. We found no correlation between the average number of cells and the type of instrument. The samples generally consisted of two types of cells: superficial and intermediate. No differences were found among the cytological preparations of these three instruments. We did not observe basal cells in any of the samples analyzed.

  6. Treating animal bites: susceptibility of Staphylococci from oral mucosa of cats.

    PubMed

    Muniz, I M; Penna, B; Lilenbaum, W

    2013-11-01

    Infected wounds determined by cats' bites represent high costs to public health, and their adequate treatment relies on the knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial agents found in the oral microbiota. Members of the genus Staphylococcus sp. belong to the microbiota of the oral mucosa of cats and are frequently involved in secondary infections of these wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from oral mucosa of cats. Samples were collected from 200 clinically healthy cats and processed by standard bacteriological methods and tested for susceptibility to a panel of 16 antimicrobials. A total of 212 staphylococci isolates were obtained from 141 of the 200 cats (70.5%), and more than one colony was recognized in 53 cases. Coagulase-negative species were most frequently found (89.6%) distributed among Staphylococcus xylosus (50.9%), Staphylococcus felis (27.4%), Staphylococcus simulans (6.1%) and Staphylococcus sciuri (5.2%). Coagulase-positive species (10.4%) were distributed among Staphylococcus aureus (4.7%) and Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) (5.7%). Regarding to antimicrobial resistance, 178 isolates (83.9%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and rifampicin showed the best results with 100% of sensitive strains. Conversely, high rates of resistance were observed for penicillin and tetracycline (56.1%). The 212 staphylococci isolates and 30 (14.1%) strains were resistant to methicillin (on the disc susceptibility test) and may be preliminarily considered as methicilin-resistant staphylococci. In conclusion, this study reports important rates of antimicrobial resistance among the species of Staphylococcus isolated from clinical specimens of cats, which must be considered for the treating of cats' bites in humans.

  7. Hypermethylation of the p16 gene in normal oral mucosa of smokers.

    PubMed

    von Zeidler, S Ventorin; Miracca, E C; Nagai, M A; Birman, E G

    2004-11-01

    The oral cavity is the sixth most common anatomical localization of head and neck carcinoma in men. Detection of oral carcinomas in the early asymptomatic stages improves cure rates and the quality of life. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking are the most important known risk factors for the development of head and neck tumors, suggesting that the exposure to these risk factors may increase the predisposition for genetic and epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation. The presence of methylated CpG islands in the promoter region of human genes can suppress their expression due to the presence of 5-methylcytosine that interferes with the binding of transcription factors or other DNA-binding proteins repressing transcription activity. Hypermethylation leading to the inactivation of some tumor suppressor genes, such as p16, has been pointed out as an initial event in head and neck cancer. Our aim was to evaluate an early diagnostic method of oral pre-cancerous lesions through the analysis of methylation of the p16 gene. DNA samples from normal oral mucosa and posterior tongue border from 258 smokers, without oral cancer, were investigated for the occurrence of p16 promoter hypermethylation. The methylation status of the p16 gene was analyzed using MS-PCR (methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and PCR amplification), MSP (Methylation-specific PCR) or direct DNA sequence of bisulfite modified DNA. Hyper-methylation was detected in 9.7% (25/258) of the cases analyzed. These findings provide further evidence that epigenetic alteration, leading to the inactivation of the p16 tumor suppressor gene is an early event that might confer cell growth advantages contributing to the tumorigenic process. Thus, the detection of abnormal p16 methylation pattern may be a valuable tool for early oral cancer detection.

  8. Treatment for long bulbar urethral strictures with membranous involvement using urethroplasty with oral mucosa graft.

    PubMed

    Gimbernat, H; Arance, I; Redondo, C; Meilán, E; Andrés, G; Angulo, J C

    2014-10-01

    Urethroplasty with oral mucosa grafting is the most popular technique for treating nontraumatic bulbar urethral strictures; however, cases involving the membranous portion are usually treated using progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty. We assessed the feasibility of performing dorsal (or ventral) graft urethroplasty on bulbar urethral strictures with mainly membranous involvement using a modified Barbagli technique. This was a prospective study of 14 patients with bulbomembranous urethral strictures who underwent dilation urethroplasty with oral mucosa graft between 2005 and 2013, performed using a modified technique Barbagli, with proximal anchoring of the graft and securing of the graft to the tunica cavernosa in 12 cases (85.7%) and ventrally in 2 (14.3%). The minimum follow-up time was 1 year. We evaluated the subjective (patient satisfaction) and objective (maximum flow [Qmax] and postvoid residual volume [PVRV], preoperative and postoperative) results and complications. Failure was defined as the need for any postoperative instrumentation. A total of 14 patients (median age, 64+13 years) underwent surgery. The main antecedent of note was transurethral resection of the prostate in 9 cases (64.3%). The median length of the stenosis was 45+26.5mm. Prior to surgery, 50% of the patients had been subjected to dilatations and 4% to endoscopic urethrotomy. The mean surgical time and hospital stay were was 177+76min and 1.5+1 day, respectively. The preoperative Qmax and PVRV values were 4.5+4.45mL/sec and 212.5+130 cc, respectively. The postoperative values were 15.15+7.2mL/sec and 6+21.5cc, respectively (P<.01 for both comparisons). Surgery was successful in 13 cases (92.9%). None of the patients had major complications. There were minor complications in 1 (7.1%) patient, but reintervention was no required. The repair of long bulbar urethral strictures with membranous involvement using urethroplasty with free oral mucosa grafts represents a viable

  9. The role of autofluorescence diagnostics in the diseases of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosciarz-Grzesiok, A.; Waskowska, J.; Kawczyk-Krupka, A.; Ledwon, A.; Misiak, A.; Latos, W.; Koszowski, R.; Sieron-Stoltny, K.; Sieron, A.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction. Life induced fluorescence (LIFE) diagnostics can be used as an imaging system of precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa. Neoplastic lesions are visible in pseudo colours, healthy tissue in green colour and abnormal tissue in red colour. All the observed colours present different intensity. Colour intensity is relevant to the grade of dysplasia, carcinoma progress and is called Numerological Value of Color Index (NCV). The aim of our study was to find correlation between autofluorescence diagnostics combined with NCV assessment and histopathological findings of taken specimen biopsies. Patients and methods. 10 patients participated in our study. Lesions affected a variety of intraoral sites. The most common location was: buccal, gingival and mandibular mucosa. Patients were examined using Life Induced Fluorescence diagnosis (400 - 750 nm wavelength) with Numerological Value of Color index (NCV) using Onco LIFE system. Afterwards the specimen biopsies from the lesions were taken and histopathological examination was performed. Results. Different NCV and dependence of NCV on the histopathological findings were observed. Conclusion. Diagnostic procedures with the application of white-light imaging with LIFE imaging is not only a significantly faster method and a better diagnostic tool of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, but there exist also correlations between measured NCV and histopathological diagnosis. The farther investigations are necessary in order to prove these preliminary findings.

  10. Modeling the Mechanisms by Which HIV-Associated Immunosuppression Influences HPV Persistence at the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Vida; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Leber, Andrew; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Ciupe, Stanca M.

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at an increased risk of co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), and subsequent malignancies such as oral cancer. To determine the role of HIV-associated immune suppression on HPV persistence and pathogenesis, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the modulation of HPV infection and oral cancer by HIV, we developed a mathematical model of HIV/HPV co-infection. Our model captures known immunological and molecular features such as impaired HPV-specific effector T helper 1 (Th1) cell responses, and enhanced HPV infection due to HIV. We used the model to determine HPV prognosis in the presence of HIV infection, and identified conditions under which HIV infection alters HPV persistence in the oral mucosa system. The model predicts that conditions leading to HPV persistence during HIV/HPV co-infection are the permissive immune environment created by HIV and molecular interactions between the two viruses. The model also determines when HPV infection continues to persist in the short run in a co-infected patient undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, the model predicts that, under efficacious antiretroviral treatment, HPV infections will decrease in the long run due to the restoration of CD4+ T cell numbers and protective immune responses. PMID:28060843

  11. Raman fiberoptic probe for monitoring human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Okagbare, Paul; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    In oral and maxillofacial surgery, there is a need for tissue engineered constructs for dental implants, reconstructions due to trauma, oral cancer or congenital defects. A non-invasive quality monitoring of the fabrication of tissue engineered constructs during their production and implantation is a required component of any successful tissue engineering technique. We demonstrate the design and application of a Raman spectroscopic probe for rapid and noninvasive monitoring of Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs). We conducted in vivo studies to identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs (already developed in vitro), and found that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. This is the first step towards the ultimate goal to design a stand-alone system, which will be usable in a clinical setting, as the data processing and analysis will be performed with minimal user intervention, based on already established and tested Raman spectroscopic indicators for EVPOMEs.

  12. Human oral mucosa tissue-engineered constructs monitored by Raman fiber-optic probe.

    PubMed

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Kim, Roderick Y; Matthews, Robert V; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E; Morris, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    In maxillofacial and oral surgery, there is a need for the development of tissue-engineered constructs. They are used for reconstructions due to trauma, dental implants, congenital defects, or oral cancer. A noninvasive monitoring of the fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs at the production and implantation stages done in real time is extremely important for predicting the success of tissue-engineered grafts. We demonstrated a Raman spectroscopic probe system, its design and application, for real-time ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) constructs noninvasive monitoring. We performed in vivo studies to find Raman spectroscopic indicators for postimplanted EVPOME failure and determined that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs preexposed to thermal stress during manufacturing procedures displayed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, giving a Raman metric to distinguish between healthy and compromised postimplanted constructs. This study is the step toward our ultimate goal to develop a stand-alone system, to be used in a clinical setting, where the data collection and analysis are conducted on the basis of these spectroscopic indicators with minimal user intervention.

  13. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  14. PCR based detection of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in normal oral mucosa of tobacco users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Pattanshetty, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Nayak, R; Bhat, K; Somannavar, P; Babji, D

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of a causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Several studies have shown that HPV is associated with increased risk of oral cancer independent of exposure to tobacco and alcohol. The association is valid for HPVs 16 and 18, which generally are considered high risk types, because they have been detected in oral dysplastic lesions and cancers. We determined the baseline prevalence of HPVs 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa of individuals with and without tobacco habit. PCR was used for DNA collected by oral smears to detect HPV 16/18 DNA in normal oral mucosa of 60 healthy individuals who were assigned to two groups of 30 subjects each. One group had a tobacco habit, the other did not. The tobacco user group comprised individuals who were tobacco chewers only. Sixty-five percent of individuals were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, but HPV 16/18 positivity was less in individuals with tobacco habit than in those without tobacco habit. No significant association was found between the presence of HPVs and gender, age or duration of chewing habit, or between groups with and without a tobacco habit. We propose that HPVs16 and 18 commonly are present in normal oral mucosa and emphasize the importance of distinguishing clinical, subclinical and latent HPV infections when investigating HPVs and OSCC.

  15. [Lesions of the oral mucosa : Differential diagnostic approach from the maxillofacial surgeon's perspective].

    PubMed

    Steiner, C

    2016-10-01

    A detailed medical history and a careful clinical examination are the basis for developing a list of possible differential diagnoses in lesions of the oral mucosa. On this basis, it can be decided whether a lesion can be observed for 14 days after removal of possible causes or the start of a trial treatment, or whether a biopsy for histological examination must be taken immediately. An excisional biopsy is performed for small and presumably benign lesions, an incisional biopsy for large and presumably malignant lesions. If an autoimmune blistering disease is suspected, a second sample for examination by immunofluorescence is taken. Depending on the results of the histological examination further treatment steps are planned or regular appointments for follow-up are arranged.

  16. Concanavalin A and ricinus communis receptor sites in normal human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dabelsteen, E; Fejerskov, O; Norén, O; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-01-01

    Fluorescein conjugates of concanavalin A (Con-A) and Ricinus communis fraction 120 (RCA120) were shown to bind to the cell surfaces of basal and spinous cell layers in oral buccal mucosa. Palatal epithelium showed distinct binding to basal and spinous cells; cell membranes in the granular layer occasionally bound Con-A and always RCA120. The ultrastructural localization of Con-A binding sites on exfoliated buccal cells was detected by the Con-A peroxidase staining method. The Con-A receptors were seen on the cell surface in association with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The reaction products appeared as a homogeneous, electron-dense layer containing irregularly distributed globules.

  17. Blood flow and epithelial thickness in different regions of feline oral mucosa and skin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G K; Squier, C A; Johnson, W T; Todd, G L

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between epithelial thickness and blood flow was examined in 6 mucosal and 3 skin regions of the cat. Blood flow to these tissues was determined using the radiolabelled microsphere method. From histologic sections the proportion of the tissue biopsy occupied by epithelium and the average epithelial thickness were calculated. The oral tissues had a significantly higher blood flow than the skin regions (p less than 0.05). In terms of epithelial thickness, the tissues could be divided into 4 groups (p less than 0.05). These were: a) palate; b) gingival regions and dorsum of the tongue; c) lip and buccal mucosa; d) all skin regions. When epithelial thickness was related to blood flow there was a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.005) indicating that a thicker epithelium is associated with a higher blood flow. This finding may reflect the greater metabolic demands of the thicker epithelia.

  18. Cryopreservation of an artificial human oral mucosa stroma. A viability and rheological study.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mario A; López-López, Modesto T; Durán, Juan D G; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio; Rodriguez, Ismael A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability and biomechanical properties of artificial human oral mucosa stroma (HOMS) subjected to cryopreservation with different cryoprotectant solutions. Artificial HOMS based on a fibrin-agarose matrix with human gingival fibroblasts cultured 7 days in vitro were cryopreserved with three cryoprotectant solutions: (A) TC-199 Medium, DMSO 15%, albumin; (B) DMEM, FCS, DMSO 10%; (C) QC Medium, glycerol. As controls, artificial HOMS not subjected to cryopreservation (CF) and HOMS cryopreserved without cryoprotectant solution (CS) were used. Histological analysis by light microscopy showed that solutions A and B preserved a pattern of porosity similar to values in CF. Based on the number of intact cells in the fibrin-agarose matrix, substitutes preserved with solution B showed the best results. Cell proliferation detected with PCNA immunochemical methods showed that the cell proliferation index was highest in substitutes cryopreserved with solution B. The reculture method and cell viability analyses with Live & Dead(®) revealed increased number of viable in cells preserved with solution B. Artificial stroma substitutes in CS control samples showed the greatest alterations in microstructure and cell proliferation. Analysis of the biomechanical properties showed that substitutes cryopreserved with different solutions had adequate rheological parameters (yield stress, elastic modulus and viscous modulus) and were therefore suitable for use in regenerative medicine. These results establish effective methods of cryopreservation for all experimental situations and suggest that solution B (DMEM, FCS, DMSO 10%) was the best cryoprotectant for the cryopreservation of an artificial oral human mucosa substitute based on a fibrin-agarose matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sphere-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Obtained From Human Oral Mucosa Are Enriched in Neural Crest Cells.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Yutaka; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    : Although isolation of oral mucosal stromal stem cells has been previously reported, complex isolation methods are not suitable for clinical application. The neurosphere culture technique is a convenient method for the isolation of neural stem cells and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs); neurosphere generation is a phenotype of NCSCs. However, the molecular details underlying the isolation and characterization of human oral mucosa stromal cells (OMSCs) by neurosphere culture are not understood. The purpose of the present study was to isolate NCSCs from oral mucosa using the neurosphere technique and to establish effective in vivo bone tissue regeneration methods. Human OMSCs were isolated from excised human oral mucosa; these cells formed spheres in neurosphere culture conditions. Oral mucosa sphere-forming cells (OMSFCs) were characterized by biological analyses of stem cells. Additionally, composites of OMSFCs and multiporous polylactic acid scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. OMSFCs had the capacity for self-renewal and expressed neural crest-related markers (e.g., nestin, CD44, slug, snail, and MSX1). Furthermore, upregulated expression of neural crest-related genes (EDNRA, Hes1, and Sox9) was observed in OMSFCs, which are thought to contain an enriched population of neural crest-derived cells. The expression pattern of α2-integrin (CD49b) in OMSFCs also differed from that in OMSCs. Finally, OMSFCs were capable of differentiating into neural crest lineages in vitro and generating ectopic bone tissues even in the subcutaneous region. The results of the present study suggest that OMSFCs are an ideal source of cells for the neural crest lineage and hard tissue regeneration. The sphere culture technique is a convenient method for isolating stem cells. However, the isolation and characterization of human oral mucosa stromal cells (OMSCs) using the sphere culture system are not fully understood. The present study describes the

  20. Oral mucosa: an alternative epidermic cell source to develop autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes from diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Uribe, Daniela; Alvarado-Estrada, Keila Neri; Pierdant-Pérez, Mauricio; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Sánchez-Aguilar, Jesus Martin; Rosales-Ibáñez, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes from oral mucosa from diabetic subjects as a first step towards a possible clinical application for cases of diabetic foot. Oral mucosa was obtained from diabetic and healthy subjects (n=20 per group). Epidermal cells were isolated and cultured using autologous fibrin to develop dermal-epidermal in vitro substitutes by the air-liquid technique with autologous human serum as a supplement media. Substitutes were immunocharacterized with collagen IV and cytokeratin 5-14 as specific markers. A Student´s t- test was performed to assess the differences between both groups. It was possible to isolate epidermal cells from the oral mucosa of diabetic and healthy subjects and develop autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes using autologous serum as a supplement. Differences in the expression of specific markers were observed and the cytokeratin 5-14 expression was lower in the diabetic substitutes, and the collagen IV expression was higher in the diabetic substitutes when compared with the healthy group, showing a significant difference. Cells from oral mucosa could be an alternative and less invasive source for skin substitutes and wound healing. A difference in collagen production of diabetic cells suggests diabetic substitutes could improve diabetic wound healing. More research is needed to determine the crosstalk between components of these skin substitutes and damaged tissues.

  1. Epidemiological study of oral mucosa pathology in patients of the Oviedo School of Stomatology.

    PubMed

    Martínez Díaz-Canel, A I; García-Pola Vallejo, M José

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were: 1) to determine the frequency of oral mucosa lesions and to analyze their relationship with toxic habits (tobacco and alcohol), and 2) to determine the prevalence of the oral pathology in patients who are denture wearers, to establish necessities for treatment and the opportune preventive measures. The study was carried out in patients attending the Oviedo Stomatology School to receive treatment for periodontal or prosthodontic dental pathology; but not for oral mucosal disorders. 337 patients were examined (140 males and 197 females). The ages ranged from 30 to 85 years. A clinical protocol was elaborated which included lesions previously reported in epidemiological studies. The number of patient with lesions was 198 (58,75%). The pathology diagnosed with more frequency was Melanin Pigmentation (n=83; 24,6%), followed by Frictional Keratosis (n=39; 11,5%), Linea Alba (n=34; 10,7%), Cheek Biting (n=23; 6,8%) and Traumatic Ulcer (n=16; 4,7%). In the patients who were denture wearers, the most frequent pathology was Hyperplasia (n=17; 5%) and Stomatitis (n=9; 2,6%). A statistically significant relation was observed between denture wearers and Traumatic Keratosis, Leucoplakia and Candidosis Pseudomembranous; tobacco habit and Leucoplakia presence, Frictional Keratosis and Melanin Pigmentation; and between alcohol habit and Traumatic Keratosis. Our results have shown the necessity to periodically examine denture wearers, and to establish the opportune preventive measures to eradicate the pathology that this causes. The observation of the association between Traumatic Keratosis, and two factors related with the etiology and prognosis of oral cancer should awake maximum interest in its correct diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Oral mucosa: an alternative epidermic cell source to develop autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes from diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    GUZMÁN-URIBE, Daniela; ALVARADO-ESTRADA, Keila Neri; PIERDANT-PÉREZ, Mauricio; TORRES-ÁLVAREZ, Bertha; SÁNCHEZ-AGUILAR, Jesus Martin; ROSALES-IBÁÑEZ, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oral mucosa has been highlighted as a suitable source of epidermal cells due to its intrinsic characteristics such as its higher proliferation rate and its obtainability. Diabetic ulcers have a worldwide prevalence that is variable (1%-11%), meanwhile treatment of this has been proven ineffective. Tissue-engineered skin plays an important role in wound care focusing on strategies such autologous dermal-epidermal substitutes. Objective The aim of this study was to obtain autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes from oral mucosa from diabetic subjects as a first step towards a possible clinical application for cases of diabetic foot. Material and Methods Oral mucosa was obtained from diabetic and healthy subjects (n=20 per group). Epidermal cells were isolated and cultured using autologous fibrin to develop dermal-epidermal in vitro substitutes by the air-liquid technique with autologous human serum as a supplement media. Substitutes were immunocharacterized with collagen IV and cytokeratin 5-14 as specific markers. A Student´s t- test was performed to assess the differences between both groups. Results It was possible to isolate epidermal cells from the oral mucosa of diabetic and healthy subjects and develop autologous dermal-epidermal skin substitutes using autologous serum as a supplement. Differences in the expression of specific markers were observed and the cytokeratin 5-14 expression was lower in the diabetic substitutes, and the collagen IV expression was higher in the diabetic substitutes when compared with the healthy group, showing a significant difference. Conclusion Cells from oral mucosa could be an alternative and less invasive source for skin substitutes and wound healing. A difference in collagen production of diabetic cells suggests diabetic substitutes could improve diabetic wound healing. More research is needed to determine the crosstalk between components of these skin substitutes and damaged tissues. PMID:28403359

  3. Analysis of the influence of parenteral cancer chemotherapy on the health condition of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Mansur; Madej-Czerwonka, Barbara; Jastrzębska-Jamrogiewicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of oral complications in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Material and methods The study was conducted on a group of 58 patients treated with chemotherapy (study group). The control group consisted of 30 healthy patients. Dental status and oral mucosa were examined using the criteria of the National Cancer Institute Toxicity Criteria Scale. The levels of stimulated and unstimulated saliva flow were analysed. Results In the group of patients treated with chemotherapy, 59% of patients had inflammatory changes of the soft tissues of the mouth, such as erythema, erosions, or ulcers, which were discovered during dental examination. Such changes occurred in only 10% of patients in the control group. Six of the patients treated with chemotherapy reported pain with intensity was so severe that it caused swallowing difficulties. Patients in the study group frequently complained about the presence of dry mouth, taste disturbances, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms occurred in 70% of patients undergoing oncological treatment. In both stimulated and unstimulated saliva secretion, the rates were significantly lower in patients from the research group, when compared to the control group. PMID:26199575

  4. The layered resolved microstructure and spectroscopy of mouse oral mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen; Chen, Rong; Cao, Ning; Zou, Qilian; Xiong, Shuyuan

    2007-08-01

    The layered-resolved microstructure and spectroscopy of mouse oral mucosa are obtained using a combination of multiphoton imaging and spectral analysis with different excitation wavelengths. In the keratinizing layer, the keratinocytes microstructure can be characterized and the keratinizing thickness can be measured. The keratin fluorescence signal can be further characterized by emission maxima at 510 nm. In the epithelium, the cellular microstructure can be quantitatively visualized with depth and the epithelium thickness can be determined by multiphoton imaging excited at 730 nm. The study also shows that the epithelial spectra excited at 810 nm, showing a combination of NADH and FAD fluorescence, can be used for the estimation of the metabolic state in epithelium. Interestingly, a second-harmonic generation (SHG) signal from DNA was observed for the first time within the epithelial layer in backscattering geometry and provides the possibility of analyzing the chromatin structure. In the stroma, the combination of multiphoton imaging and spectral analysis excited at 850 nm in tandem can obtain quantitative information regarding the biomorphology and biochemistry of stroma. Specifically, the microstructure of collagen, minor salivary glands and elastic fibers, and the optical property of the stroma can be quantitatively displayed. Overall, these results suggest that the combination of multiphoton imaging and spectral analysis with different excitation wavelengths has the potential to provide important and comprehensive information for early diagnosis of oral cancer.

  5. Exfoliative cytology of the oral mucosa: comparison of two collection methods.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Juliana Brusadin; Lima, Celina Faig; Burim, Rafael Augusto; Brandao, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimaraes; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the sampling efficacy of a cytobrush and metal spatula for exfoliative cytology of the oral mucosa. Thirty students with no detectable oral alterations upon clinical examination were submitted to exfoliative cytology of the lateral border of the tongue, using a metal spatula on the left side and a cytobrush on the right side. The smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique and evaluated for cellularity, cell type, cell distribution, homogeneity, and cellular distortion, as well as the presence of mucus, inflammatory infiltrate, and hemorrhage. A statistical test (Z-test) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) showed a significant difference between the metal spatula and cytobrush in terms of cellularity (p = 0.02) and homogeneity (p = 0.01). No difference between the two methods was observed regarding cell type (p = 0.4, Z-test) or cell distribution for the 95% confidence interval (p = 0.2, Fisher's test). Cell distortion and the presence of mucus were observed in five cases that used the metal spatula and in two cases that used the cytobrush. No hemorrhage or inflammatory infiltrate was detected in any of the slides. Based on the results of this study, the cytobrush produced qualitatively better smears in terms of cellularity and homogeneity compared to the metal spatula.

  6. Characterization of cornified oral mucosa for iontophoretically enhanced delivery of chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Baig, Arif; White, Donald J; Li, S Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Topical administration of chlorhexidine for periodontal disease can provide advantages over systemic delivery, but is limited by the permeability of the cornified oral mucosal tissue. In the present study, passive and iontophoretic transport of tetraethylammonium, salicylate, mannitol, dexamethasone, fluoride, and chlorhexidine across bovine palate was investigated to (a) determine the intrinsic barrier properties of bovine palate for its eventual use as a model of human cornified oral mucosa, (b) examine the feasibility of iontophoretically enhanced transport of chlorhexidine into and across bovine palate, and (c) identify the transport mechanisms involved in iontophoretic transport across the palate. The histology study suggests that bovine and human palates have similar cornified epithelium structures; bovine palate could be a model tissue of human hard palate for drug delivery studies. Transport study of tetraethylammonium, salicylate, and mannitol suggests that bovine palate was net negatively charged and the cornified epithelial layer was the rate-determining barrier. The direct-field effect (electrophoresis) was shown to be the dominant flux-enhancing mechanism in iontophoretic transport of ionic compounds. Electroosmosis also contributed to the iontophoretic transport of both neutral and ionic permeants. Anodal iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of chlorhexidine into and across the palate, reduced the transport lag time, and provided tissue concentration above the drug minimum inhibitory concentration, and therefore could be a promising method to assist in the treatment of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotypic determination by PCR-RFLP of human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma samples in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Llamas-Martínez, Silvia; Esparza-Gómez, German; Campo-Trapero, Julián; Cancela-Rodríguez, Paloma; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Moreno-López, Luis Alberto; García-Núñez, Juan Antonio; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), especially genotypes 16 and 18, are considered to be human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). They are the most important etiological agents of uterine cervix cancer but their true role in oral carcinogenesis is controversial. To detect the presence of HPV genome genotypes in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and analyze their relationship with clinicopathological variables. Presence of genome ofHPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 42, 45, and 52 was studied by polymerase chain reaction in samples of normal mucosa (30 controls), oral leukoplakia (35 cases) and OSCC (33 cases). Results were compared between groups and differences were examined in relation to clinical and histological variables. HPV genome was detected in 23.3% of controls, 45.7% of oral leukoplakias, and 39.4% of OSCCs. Only HPV-16 was significantly (p=0.0005) more frequently detected in leukoplakias (40%) and OSCCs (33.3%) versus controls (0%). No significant relationship was found between the presence of viral genome and the main clinicopathological variables. According to these findings, the presence of HPV-16 is significantly associated with oral leukoplakia and OSCC lesions, therefore in our setting this virus may be a carcinogenic element in this disease.

  8. Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Maria; Wirtz, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Hescheler, Jürgen; Peters, Saskia C; Sauer, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dose-dependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1), which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Use of archived biopsy specimens to study gene expression in oral mucosa from chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Jean-Luc C; Mougeot, Farah K B; Peterson, Douglas E; Padilla, Ricardo J; Brennan, Michael T; Lockhart, Peter B

    2013-05-01

    Oral mucositis caused by cancer chemotherapy can result in significant clinical complications. There is a strategic need to accelerate the delineation of the pathobiology. This proof-of-principle study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of studying archived oral mucosal specimens to further delineate oral mucositis pathobiology. Twenty-nine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 25-year-old oral mucosa autopsy specimens from cancer chemotherapy patients were studied. Standardized technology was utilized, including RNA isolation and amplification, array hybridization, and gene expression analysis. A predominance of DNA damage in buccal mucosal basal keratinocytes was observed. Data comparing basal cells from buccal vs. gingival mucosa identified differential gene expression of host responses in relation to pathways relevant to oral mucositis pathogenesis, including responses to cancer-associated inflammation. This proof-of-principle study demonstrated that archived oral mucosal specimens may be a potentially valuable resource for the study of oral mucositis in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  11. Biochemical indicators of implantation success of tissue-engineered oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S; Zhou, Y; Kim, H M; Kato, H; Kim, R Y; Bayar, G R; Marcelo, C L; Kennedy, R T; Feinberg, S E

    2015-01-01

    Real-time (RT) determination of the health of in vitro tissue-engineered constructs prior to grafting is essential for prediction of success of the implanted tissue-engineered graft. In addition, the US Food and Drug Administration requires specific release criteria in RT prior to the release of tissue-engineered devices for human use. In principle, assessing the viability and functionality of the cellular component can be achieved by quantifying the secretion of growth factors and chemokines of tissue-engineered constructs. Ex vivo-produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOMEs) were fabricated under thermally stressed conditions at 43 °C for 24 h to create a functionally compromised EVPOME. We used microchannel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to evaluate the functionality of the cellular component, oral keratinocytes, of stressed and unstressed EVPOMEs by measuring the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and -2) into the spent medium, which was collected on the same day prior to graft implantation into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Implanted EVPOMEs' histology on the seventh postimplantation day was used to correlate outcomes of grafting to secreted amounts of IL-8, hBD-1, VEGF, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 from corresponding EVPOMEs. Our findings showed that significantly higher levels of IL-8, hBD-1, and TIMP-2 were secreted from controls than from thermally stressed EVPOMEs. We also found a direct correlation between secreted VEGF and IL-8 and blood vessel counts of implanted EVPOMEs. We concluded that measuring the constitutive release of these factors can be used as noninvasive predictors of healthy tissue-engineered EVPOMEs in RT, prior to their implantation.

  12. Tissue-engineered constructs of human oral mucosa examined by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kainkaryam, Raghu; Cole, Jacqueline H; Izumi, Kenji; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E; Morris, Michael D

    2013-04-01

    A noninvasive quality monitoring of tissue-engineered constructs is a required component of any successful tissue-engineering technique. During a 2-week production period, ex vivo produced oral mucosa-equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs) may encounter adverse culturing conditions that might compromise their quality and render them ineffective. We demonstrate the application of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to in vitro monitoring of EVPOMEs during their manufacturing process, with the ultimate goal of applying this technology in situ to monitor the grafted EVPOMEs. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for less-than optimal EVPOMEs that are stressed by higher temperature and exposure to higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal and calcium stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH(2) deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We compared these results to histology and glucose consumption measurements, demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy is more sensitive and specific to changes in proteins' secondary structure not visible by H&E histology. We also exposed the EVPOMEs to rapamycin, a cell growth inhibitor and cell proliferation capacity preserver, and distinguished between EVPOMEs pretreated with 2 nM rapamycin and controls, using the ratio of the Amide III envelope to the phenylalanine band as an indicator.

  13. Using laser diodes for the removal of a lesion of the oral mucosa. Case report

    PubMed Central

    GARGARI, M.; AUTILI, N.; PETRONE, A.; CERUSO, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim. Describe a clinical case of a voluminous asymptomatic fibromatosis lesion present on the cheek mucosa and evaluate the healing of the site after removal of the lesion with use of the laser diode. Methods. It was decided to use laser diodes to affect the mucous membrane and remove the lesion without the use of local anesthetic infiltration. The protocol used includes a 300-micron fiber and the emission of continuous light of 1.5 Watt with a range of wave of 940 nm. Results. The proven benefits of using laser diodes for minor surgery are: drastic reduction of intraoperative bleeding and in the hours after the surgerywill restrict the swellingbetter and faster healing with no scarring and better cosmetic resultdoes not require suturesreducing the operating time thanks to no need for anesthetic infiltrationin most cases totally absent or less post-operative pain on the surgical site. Conclusions. The laser diodes give a significant contribution to improving the surgical treatment of tumors of the oral cavity infact during the surgery reduce bleeding and surgical time, while in the process of healing by reduce swelling and post-operative pain and better results appearance without scarring. PMID:23285396

  14. IL-17-mediated antifungal defense in the oral mucosa is independent of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Trautwein-Weidner, K; Gladiator, A; Nur, S; Diethelm, P; LeibundGut-Landmann, S

    2015-03-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-mediated immunity has emerged as a crucial host defense mechanism against Candida albicans infections in mucosal tissues and the skin. The precise mechanism by which the IL-17 pathway prevents fungal outgrowth has not been clarified. Neutrophils are critical for limiting fungal dissemination and IL-17 is generally thought to act by regulating neutrophil mobilization and trafficking to the site of infection. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we found that strikingly the IL-17 pathway is not required for the neutrophil response to C. albicans. Mice deficient for the IL-17 receptor subunits IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) or IL-17RC or mice depleted of IL-17A and IL-17F exhibited a normal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CXC-chemokine response and displayed no defect in neutrophil recruitment or function. Instead, the inability of these mice to clear the fungus was associated with a selective defect in the induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the epithelium that resulted in persistent fungal colonization. Importantly, this antifungal mechanism of IL-17A and IL-17F did not extend to the closely related family member IL-17C. Together, these data uncouple IL-17-dependent effector mechanisms from the neutrophil response and reveal a compartmentalization of the antifungal defense in the oral mucosa providing a new understanding of IL-17-mediated mucosal immunity against C. albicans.

  15. Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

  16. Tissue-Engineered Constructs of Human Oral Mucosa Examined by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kainkaryam, Raghu; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Izumi, Kenji; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    A noninvasive quality monitoring of tissue-engineered constructs is a required component of any successful tissue-engineering technique. During a 2-week production period, ex vivo produced oral mucosa-equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs) may encounter adverse culturing conditions that might compromise their quality and render them ineffective. We demonstrate the application of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to in vitro monitoring of EVPOMEs during their manufacturing process, with the ultimate goal of applying this technology in situ to monitor the grafted EVPOMEs. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for less-than optimal EVPOMEs that are stressed by higher temperature and exposure to higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal and calcium stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We compared these results to histology and glucose consumption measurements, demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy is more sensitive and specific to changes in proteins' secondary structure not visible by H&E histology. We also exposed the EVPOMEs to rapamycin, a cell growth inhibitor and cell proliferation capacity preserver, and distinguished between EVPOMEs pretreated with 2 nM rapamycin and controls, using the ratio of the Amide III envelope to the phenylalanine band as an indicator. PMID:22992065

  17. [Experiment of oral mucosa epithelial cells cultured on small intestinal submucosa in vitro].

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Wei, Ren-Qian; Yang, Zhi-Ming; Li, Xiu-Qun; Han, Ping; Zhi, Wei; Xie, Hui-Qi; Ren, Yan; Tan, Zhong-Xia

    2010-02-01

    To explore an effective method to culture oral mucosa epithelial cells (OMECs) of canine in vitro, and to observe the biological characteristics of OMECs growing on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) in order to provide the experimental basis for epithelium tissue engineering. The primary OMECs were cultivated with DKSFM (defined keratinocyte serum free medium) containing 6% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The morphological characteristics and the growth curve of OMECs were observed. The expressions of OMECs marker (CK19) were examined by immunocytochemistry. The 2nd passage of OMECs were seeded on SIS, OMECs co-cultured with SIS were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). OMECs were grown well in DKSFM. Immunohistochemical staining of the 2nd passage cultured canine OMECs with broadly reacting anti-cytokeratin anyibodies (CK19) was positive. OMECs formed a single layer on the surface of SIS, and eight days later the cells were polygong and arranged like slabstone. Culture of canine OMECs in DKSFM containing 6% FBS is a simple and feasible method. SIS has good biocompatibility, it is a kind of good bioscafold in the tissue-engineered epithelium.

  18. IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Altmeier, Simon; Toska, Albulena; Sparber, Florian; Teijeira, Alvaro; Halin, Cornelia; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal infections with Candida albicans belong to the most frequent forms of fungal diseases. Host protection is conferred by cellular immunity; however, the induction of antifungal immunity is not well understood. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we show that interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical for fungal control at the onset of infection through its impact on neutrophils at two levels. We demonstrate that both the recruitment of circulating neutrophils to the site of infection and the mobilization of newly generated neutrophils from the bone marrow depended on IL-1R. Consistently, IL-1R-deficient mice displayed impaired chemokine production at the site of infection and defective secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the circulation in response to C. albicans. Strikingly, endothelial cells were identified as the primary cellular source of G-CSF during OPC, which responded to IL-1α that was released from keratinocytes in the infected tissue. The IL-1-dependent crosstalk between two different cellular subsets of the nonhematopoietic compartment was confirmed in vitro using a novel murine tongue-derived keratinocyte cell line and an established endothelial cell line. These data establish a new link between IL-1 and granulopoiesis in the context of fungal infection. Together, we identified two complementary mechanisms coordinating the neutrophil response in the oral mucosa, which is critical for preventing fungal growth and dissemination, and thus protects the host from disease. PMID:27632536

  19. Dynamic changes in cell-surface expression of mannose in the oral epithelium during the development of graft-versus-host disease of the oral mucosa in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of cell-surface glycoconjugates in oral mucosal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still unclear, even though molecular changes in the oral epithelium are essential for the pathogenesis of these lesions. In this study, we investigated changes in the binding of mannose (Man)-specific Lens culinaris lectin (LCA) in the oral mucosa of rats with GVHD. Methods Lewis rat spleen cells were injected into (Lewis x Brown Norway) F1 rats to induce systemic GVHD, including oral mucosal lesions. Tongue and spleen samples were evaluated using lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, transwell migration assays and Stamper-Woodruff binding assays. Results Binding of Man-specific LCA expanded to the epithelial layers of the tongue in GVHD-rats. An expansion of LCA binding was related to the increased expression of mannosyltransferase in the oral mucosa. CD8+ cells, effector cells of oral mucosal GVHD, expressed mannose-binding protein (MBP) and migrated to the medium containing Man in the transwell migration assay. Adherence of CD8+ cells to the oral epithelium could be inhibited by pretreating CD8+ cells with MBP antibody and/or by pretreating sections with Man-specific LCA. Conclusions Increased expression of Man on keratinocytes leads to the migration and/or adhesion of CD8+ cells in the surface epithelium, which is mediated in part by the MBP/Man-binding pathway during the development of oral mucosal GVHD. PMID:24433462

  20. Cytological changes in the oral mucosa after use of a mouth rinse with alcohol: A prospective double blind control study

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Marzal, Cristina; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Ezequiel; Bagan, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol. Material and Methods: A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine®] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus. Results: We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients. Key words:Mouth wash, oral mucosa, cytological change, alcohol. PMID:23085712

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Mucoadhesive Film Containing Acmella oleracea Extract for Oral Mucosa Topical Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Santana de Freitas-Blanco, Verônica; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Serpe, Luciano; Oliveira Sousa, Ilza Maria; Guilherme Damasio, Viviane Aparecida; Yamane, Lais Thiemi; de Paula, Eneida; Ferreira Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop an anesthetic mucoadhesive film containing Acmella oleracea (jambu) extract for topical use on oral mucosa. Methods Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of jambu were prepared by maceration. Pigment removal was obtained by adsorption with activated carbon. Three mucoadhesive films were developed using a film casting method: 10 or 20% of crude jambu extract (10% JB and 20% JB), and 10% of crude jambu extract treated with activated carbon (10% JBC). The mucoadhesive films were characterized regarding their uniformity, thickness, pH, and spilanthol content, and their stability was evaluated during 120 days. Gas chromatography was used to quantify the amount of spilanthol. In vitro tests determined the permeation of spilanthol across pig esophageal epithelium mucosa in Franz diffusion cells. Topical anesthetic efficacy was assessed in vivo using a tail flick test in mice. Results The three mucoadhesive films showed physical stability and visual appearances suitable for use on oral mucosa. The permeation study revealed that the spilanthol from 10% JBC presented higher flux and permeability coefficient values, compared to 10% or 20% JB (p < 0.001). Moreover, 10% JBC showed better topical anesthetic efficacy than the other films (p < 0.01). Conclusion Mucoadhesive film containing crude extract of jambu treated with activated carbon is a potential alternative for oral, topical use, encouraging future clinical studies. PMID:27626796

  2. Identification of gentian violet concentration that does not stain oral mucosa, possesses anti-candidal activity and is well tolerated.

    PubMed

    Jurevic, R J; Traboulsi, R S; Mukherjee, P K; Salata, R A; Ghannoum, M A

    2011-05-01

    Gentian violet (GV) is recommended for initial treatment of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Currently GV is not used because of its staining effects. In this study, we investigated the staining capacity of three different concentrations of GV to determine a concentration that does not cause staining. The selected concentration that did not cause staining was evaluated for its physical stability and antifungal activity. Fifteen healthy participants were randomized to rinse twice daily for 14 days with one of three GV concentrations: 0.1%, 0.0085%, or 0.00165%. Oral examination and intra-oral photographs were performed at baseline and at the end of therapy. Participants responded to a questionnaire to assess adverse events. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute methodology. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% did not stain the oral mucosa and was well tolerated. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% was stable and possessed antifungal activity when stored at certain temperatures for different time periods. Gentian violet solution at the concentration of 0.00165% does not stain the oral mucosa, is stable and possesses potent antifungal activity.

  3. Inter-rater reliability of the Reaper Oral Mucosa Pressure Injury Scale (ROMPIS): A novel scale for the assessment of the severity of pressure injuries to the mouth and oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Reaper, Sue; Green, Cameron; Gupta, Sachin; Tiruvoipati, Ravindranath

    2017-05-01

    Patients who are intubated in the ICU are at risk of developing pressure injuries to the mouth and lips from endotracheal tubes. Clear documentation is important for pressure wound care; however, no validated instruments currently exist for the staging of pressure injuries to the oral mucosa. Instruments designed for the assessment of pressure injuries to other bodily regions are anatomically unsuited to the lips and mouth. This study aimed to develop and then assess the reliability of a novel scale for the assessment of pressure injuries to the mouth and oral mucosa. The Reaper Oral Mucosa Pressure Injury Scale (ROMPIS) was developed in consultation with ICU nurses, clinical nurse educators, Intensivists, and experts in pressure wound management. ICU nurses and portfolio-holders in pressure wound care from Peninsula Health (Victoria, Australia) were invited to use the ROMPIS to stage 19 de-identified clinical photographs of oral pressure injuries via secure online survey. Inter-rater reliability (IRR) was calculated using Krippendorff's alpha (α). Among ICU nurses (n=52), IRR of the ROMPIS was α=0.307; improving to α=0.463 when considering only responses where injuries were deemed to be stageable using the ROMPIS (i.e. excluding responses where respondents considered an injury to be unstageable). Among a cohort of experts in pressure wound care (n=8), IRR was α=0.306; or α=0.443 excluding responses indicating that wounds were unstageable. An instrument for the assessment and monitoring of pressure injuries to the mouth and lips has practical implications for patient care. This preliminary study indicates that the ROMPIS instrument has potential to be used clinically for this purpose; however, the performance of this scale may be somewhat reliant on the confidence or experience of the ICU nurse utilising it. Further validation is required. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46) non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72%) of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23%) versus palate/gum (16%). Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression. PMID:21129222

  5. Evaluation of the Safety, Cell Migration, and Mucoadhesive Properties of a Mucoadhesive Polymer Blend in Human Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Song, Guiyun; Banov, Daniel; Bassani, August S; Valdez, Benigno C

    2017-07-01

    The efficacy of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in compounded medications for oral mucosa greatly depends on the composition of the base. Here, we assessed the safety, facilitation of cell migration, and mucoadhesive properties of a newly developed mucoadhesive polymer blend (MPB) which contains pullulan, tamarindus indica polysaccharide, and sodium hyaluronate. No cell death was observed when human oral keratinocyte (HOK) and fibroblast (HOrF) cells were exposed to 1% MPB for 24 h. Epithelial cells in a 3D buccal tissue model (EpiOral) were unaffected when exposed to 50% MPB for 20 h whereas 1% Triton X-100 killed 93% cells after 4.5 h. The expressions of cytokines IL1α and IL1β and cell proliferation markers PCNA, CYCLIN A, and CYCLIN D1 in EpiOral tissue did not increase suggesting that MPB is neither an irritant nor a mitogen. Markers of apoptosis such as cleavage of CASPASES 8/9, upregulation of pro-apoptosis NOXA protein, and downregulation of anti-apoptosis XIAP protein were observed in Triton X-100-treated cells but not in cells exposed to MPB. The migration of HOK and HOrF cells was stimulated by MPB, and the expression of E-CADHERIN in the EpiOral tissues was unaffected. Moreover, MPB showed stronger mucoadhesion on the human EpiOral tissue model compared with a reference product. We conclude that MPB can safely deliver API within the oral mucosa, facilitate cell migration, and may increase drug efficacy through its strong mucoadhesive property.

  6. DNA damage and cellular death in oral mucosa cells of children who have undergone panoramic dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Gabriela R; Sannomiya, Eduardo K; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2007-06-01

    Despite wide use as a diagnostic tool in medical and dental practice, radiography can induce cytotoxic effects and genetic damage. To evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells taken from healthy children following exposure to radiation during dental radiography. A total of 17 children who had undergone panoramic dental radiography were included. We found no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between micronucleated oral mucosa cells in children before and after exposure to radiation. On the other hand, radiation did cause other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity including karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis. Taken together, these results indicate that panoramic dental radiography might not induce chromosomal damage, but may be cytotoxic. Overall, the results reinforce the importance of evaluating the health side effects of radiography and contribute to the micronucleus database, which will improve our understanding and practice of this methodology in children.

  7. Human papillomavirus-32-associated focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying HPV-16-positive papilloma-like lesions in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Wang, Jiayi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhou, Min; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2013-05-01

    Human papillomavirus infection can cause a variety of benign or malignant oral lesions, and the various genotypes can cause distinct types of lesions. To our best knowledge, there has been no report of 2 different human papillomavirus-related oral lesions in different oral sites in the same patient before. This paper reported a patient with 2 different oral lesions which were clinically and histologically in accord with focal epithelial hyperplasia and oral papilloma, respectively. Using DNA extracted from these 2 different lesions, tissue blocks were tested for presence of human papillomavirus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Finally, human papillomavirus-32-positive focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying human papillomavirus-16-positive oral papilloma-like lesions were detected in different sites of the oral mucosa. Nucleotide sequence sequencing further confirmed the results. So in our clinical work, if the simultaneous occurrences of different human papillomavirus associated lesions are suspected, the multiple biopsies from different lesions and detection of human papillomavirus genotype are needed to confirm the diagnosis.

  8. Penetration of the oral mucosa by parasite-like sperm bags of squid: a case report in a Korean woman.

    PubMed

    Park, Gab-Man; Kim, Jong-Yun; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Huh, Jong-Ki

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of oral stings by spermatophores of the squid Todarodes pacificus . A 63-yr-old Korean woman experienced severe pain in her oral cavity immediately after eating a portion of parboiled squid along with its internal organs. She did not swallow the portion, but spat it out immediately. She complained of a pricking and foreign-body sensation in the oral cavity. Twelve small, white spindle-shaped, bug-like organisms stuck in the mucous membrane of the tongue, cheek, and gingiva were completely removed, along with the affected mucosa. On the basis of their morphology and the presence of the sperm bag, the foreign bodies were identified as squid spermatophores.

  9. Delivery of macromolecules across oral mucosa from polymeric hydrogels is enhanced by electrophoresis (iontophoresis).

    PubMed

    Patel, Mangala P; Churchman, Svetla T; Cruchley, Alan T; Braden, Michael; Williams, David M

    2013-11-01

    To develop polymeric hydrogel delivery systems for iontophorseis transfer of large molecules across buccal (porcine) mucosa. Three hydrogels (PVA, HPMC and PVA/HPMC) were prepared as stable gels (7 mm diameter/1.5 mm thick). Quantitative (8 and 36 h) assessment of porcine buccal mucosa and the three hydrogel delivery systems, using a diffusion cell in vitro model, was carried out by UV/vis spectroscopy with three model agents (3 and 10 kDa dextrans and 12 kDa parvalbumin). Passive and iontophoresis parameters were obtained. Experimental and theoretical data were compared. Iontophoresis (30 min, 1-8 h) significantly enhanced the delivery of all model agents across four single systems (hydrogels and buccal mucosa) and three sandwich systems (hydrogels on top of buccal mucosa), as confirmed by time lag factor/enhancement ratio (TLF/ER) data. The diffusion coefficients of model agents across buccal mucosa (×10(-13) m(2) s(-1)) were ~100 times lower than across single hydrogels (2.97-4.80×10(-11) m(2) s(-1)). Solubility values of all agents across hydrogels were similar, but lower across buccal mucosa. Permeability of parvalbumin was highest across PVA, and for both dextrans across PVA/HPMC. In sandwich systems TLFs were similar for all hydrogels, but significantly lower, and ERs significantly higher, than tissue alone. Experimental and theoretical TLF data were in reasonable agreement. The in vitro data show that iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of large molecules across polymeric hydrogel systems and buccal mucosa. This creates the opportunity of new approaches to drug delivery and opens pathways to further research for delivering therapeutic agents topically and systemically. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in oral mucosa and pockets of patients with gingivitis-periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Alicia I; Jewtuchowicz, Virginia M; Brusca, María I; Mujica, María T; Rosa, Alcira C

    2011-01-01

    Both oral cavity and subgingival pocket are ecological niches conducive to hosting microorganisms that may act as opportunistic pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Early detection of MRSA is a matter of concern to Public Health. The aim of our study was to determine phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin resistance of S. aureus in oral mucosa and subgingival pocket in 102 patients with gingivitis-periodontitis. The prevalence of S. aureus was 10.8% (n = 11) in subgingival pocket and 19.6% (n = 20) in oral mucosa. We obtained 31 isolates of S. aureus of which 13 were mecA positive and 18 were mecA negative. Detection of mecA gene by PCR was used as the reference method to compare the results of phenotypic methods to determine methicillin resistance. Early, accurate detection of S. aureus through phenotyping and genotyping methods is crucial for assessing the colonization and preventing the spread of MRSA.

  11. Effectiveness of vital staining with iodine solution in reducing local recurrence after resection of dysplastic or malignant oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Kamata, Takahiro; Li, Xiangjun; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Shimane, Tetsu; Koike, Takeshi

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the effect of vital staining with iodine solution in reducing local recurrence after resection of dysplastic or malignant oral mucosa. The historical control group had dysplastic or malignant mucosal lesions resected solely on the evidence of direct inspection and palpation. In the vital staining group tissue was resected only after vital staining with iodine solution. Seven of 25 patients in the conventional group developed recurrent dysplastic or cancerous oral mucosa around the primary site, while no patient among 23 reported recurrence in the vital staining group (p<0.01). Kaplan-Meier assessment showed that the 5-year primary control rate was 100% in the vital staining group and 75% in the conventional group. Although this retrospective study has some limitations, the results suggest that vital staining with iodine may be useful in reducing the incidence of recurrence of dysplastic or cancerous epithelium at a primary site. Further well-controlled study is essential. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal increase in the oral mucosa and in the jawbone during Nd:YAG laser applications. Ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, Samir

    2012-07-01

    Literature reports bactericidal and biostimulant effects for Nd:YAG laser procedures on bone and oral mucosa but the possible overheating can cause damage to anatomical structures. The aim of the study was to evaluate the is the evaluation of thermal increase in different levels of oral tissues: mucosa, periosteum and bone during defocused application of Nd:YAG laser at different parameters. Superficial thermal evaluation was performed in pig jaws with a thermal camera device; deep thermal evaluation was realized by 4 thermocouples placed at a subperiosteal level and at 1,2 and 4 mm depth in the jaw bone. Laser applications of 1 minute were performed 5 times (with a pause of 1 minute) on a surface of 4 cm² with a Nd:YAG laser (MSP mode, 320 micrometer fiber, defocused mode) with different parameters. Temperatures were recorded before and after laser applications and after each pause in order to evaluate also the thermal relaxation of tissues. At submucosal level, mean thermal increase was between 1.1°C and 13.2°C, at 1 mm depth between 1.1°C and 8.5°C, at 2 mm depth between 1.1°C and 6.8°C, at 4 mm depth between 1.0°C and 5.3°C. Temperature decrease during the rest time period was variable between 0°C and 2.5°C. Temperatures reached during clinical procedures with parameters reported in the literature in biostimulation protocols (1.25-2 Watts) for the five minutes of application are not dangerous for biological structures. The decrease in temperature during the rest time period is less considerable in the bone in comparison to oral mucosa.

  13. Thermal increase in the oral mucosa and in the jawbone during Nd:YAG laser applications. Ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Vescovi, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean P.; Nammour, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Literature reports bactericidal and biostimulant effects for Nd:YAG laser procedures on bone and oral mucosa but the possible overheating can cause damage to anatomical structures. The aim of the study is the evaluation of thermal increase in different levels of oral tissues: mucosa, periosteum and bone during defocused application of Nd:YAG laser at different parameters. Study Design: Superficial thermal evaluation was performed in pig jaws with a thermal camera device; deep thermal evaluation was realized by 4 thermocouples placed at a subperiosteal level and at 1,2 and 4 mm depth in the jaw bone. Laser applications of 1 minute were performed 5 times (with a pause of 1 minute) on a surface of 4 cm2 with a Nd:YAG laser (VSP mode, 320 micrometer fiber, defocused mode) with different parameters. Temperatures were recorded before and after laser applications and after each pause in order to evaluate also the thermal relaxation of tissues. Results: At submucosal level, mean thermal increase was between 1.1°C and 13.2°C, at 1 mm depth between 1.1°C and 8.5°C, at 2 mm depth between 1.1°C and 6.8°C, at 4 mm depth between 1.0°C and 5.3°C. Temperature decrease during the rest time period was variable between 0°C and 2.5°C. Conclusions: Temperatures reached during clinical procedures with parameters reported in the literature in biostimulation protocols (1.25-2 Watts) for the five minutes of application are not dangerous for biological structures. The decrease in temperature during the rest time period is less considerable in the bone in comparison to oral mucosa. Key words:Nd:YAG laser, thermal increase, thermocouple, thermal camera, low level laser therapy. PMID:22322506

  14. Bacillus species are present in chewing tobacco sold in the United States and evoke plasma exudation from the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Israel; Pedersen, Gerald W

    2002-09-01

    Five Bacillus species, predominantly Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus, were isolated from two popular brands of commercially available chewing tobacco [(5.0 +/- 1) x 10(6) CFU/ml of supernatant; results for four experiments]. Moreover, the supernatant of the Bacillus culture evoked plasma exudation from postcapillary venules in the intact hamster cheek pouch, exudation that was mediated by the kallikrein/kinin metabolic pathway. Taken together, these data indicate that Bacillus species contaminate chewing tobacco commercially available in the United States and elaborate a potent exogenous virulence factor(s) that injures the oral mucosa.

  15. [Reconstruction of oral mucosa with a micro-vascularized fascia-cutaneous flap from the forearm].

    PubMed

    Burgueño García, Miguel; Cebrián Carretero, José Luis; Muñoz Caro, Jesús Manuel; Arias Gallo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Epidermoid carcinoma of jugal mucosa is an aggressive tumor. Its treatment is based on broad excision and reconstruction in order to avoid fibrosis and restriction of mouth opening. Neck dissection and radiotherapy are indicated in selected cases. We display our experience with microvascularized flaps with the aim of preventing the flaws. We reconsider 8 patients (representing 10 flaps) handle in our Department. Besides we discuss other therapeutic alternatives after the growth's removal. The conclusion reached is that the mucovascularized forearm flaps give a great quantity of thin tissue and therefore so results to be the best option for the reconstruction of the jugal mucosa.

  16. Usage of low-intensity laser radiation for the treatment of the inflammatory processes of the oral cavity mucosa after applying removable plate dentures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivradzhiyan, Edvard; Lesnykh, Nikolay; Kunin, Vadim; Mutafyan, Mikhail

    1995-04-01

    Effective methods of reveling overload zones of the oral mucosa under the bases of plane dentures, the effect of low intensity laser radiation ont he increase of its resistance are discussed. At present removable plate dentures of different modifications to a certain degree restore aesthetic proportions of the face, phonetics and malfunction of the teeth and jaws. Besides, removable bridge are known not to secure even distribution of mastication pressure along the whole dentures bed which results in the development of inflammatory and dystrophic processes, and, finally in the accelerated atrophy of the oral mucosa and bony tissue of the alveolar process of upper and alveolar parts of the mandible. Many papers are devoted to the anti-inflammatory effect of laser therapy. Improvement of metabolic processes and revascularization of the dentures bed mucosa, normalization of the oral microflora structure, anesthetizing effect is noted too. At the same time there are no papers about studying the therapeutic effect of low intensity laser radiation intraumatic dentures stomatitis, inflammation of the oral mucosa in the literature available for us. To increase the functional effectiveness of removable plate dentures, profilaxy of inflammation and dystrophic phenomena and to decrease adaptation period we have developed methods of early detection of overload zone of oral mucosa at the initial stages of acute inflammation with the help of macrohistochemical reaction. Visible with the naked eye for the timely and precise correction of the dentures.

  17. [A comparative study on the responses of blood vessels of oral mucosa to thermal stimulation in dentulous and edentulous subjects].

    PubMed

    Naitoh, T; Torii, K; Kobayashi, Y

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the characteristic changes of vasculature in edentulous alveolar mucosa and the effect of wearing a complete denture during sleep. Thermal stimulations were applied to the oral mucosa of five normal subjects and five completely edentulous patients and the responses of blood vessels were observed using both Impedance Plethysmography (IMP) and Reflection Photoelectric Plethysmography (RPP). Quantitative comparisons were made between edentulous patients and dentulous normal subjects, and between patients wearing complete dentures during sleep and those who do not. The following results were obtained. 1) The responses of blood vessels were divided into four groups. Type 1 showed dilatation in IMP and RPP. Type 2 showed dilatation but had late initial rising in IMP. Type 3 showed initial contraction in either or both IMP and RPP, and followed by dilatation few seconds later. Type 4 showed no changes in RPP but dilatation in IMP. 2) There was definite difference between edentulous and dentulous subjects in the frequency of exhibition of each type. Especially for the edentulous patients type 4 was observed in all stimulation temperature. 3) For the dentulous subjects there were more cases showing responses of RPP in digital apex than those do not. This was most conspicuous at the 50 degrees C stimulation. However for the edentulous patients there were about equal number of each cases. 4) The responses of blood vessels for both dentulous and edentulous subjects became greater and blood volume increased both with time at each temperature and as the stimulation temperature were raised. However the increase in the response was greater for the edentulous patients when the stimulation temperature was raised from 0 degrees C to 50 degrees C. 5) The responses of blood vessels became greater after two weeks when complete dentures were worn during sleep at night. And when dentures were not worn during sleep the responses decreased to a

  18. Site-specific regulation of oral mucosa-recruiting CD8(+) T cells in a mouse contact allergy model.

    PubMed

    Hirunwidchayarat, Worawalun; Furusawa, Emi; Kang, Siwen; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Takeuchi, Shunsuke; Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Azuma, Miyuki

    2017-09-02

    Contact allergy is a T cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity generated by contact exposure of an allergen to the skin and mucosal surface. The clinical manifestations of allergic responses between the skin and oral mucosa vary and the differences in immunopathology have not been clarified. We generated hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CH) of the buccal mucosa (BM) in parallel studies with ear skin (ES) CH, and observed several characteristic findings of BM CH. The BM challenge induced more rapid and more severe inflammation than the ES challenge, with abundant granulocyte and CD8(+) T cell infiltration. However, these inflammatory responses diminished quickly. Recruiting CD8(+) T cells in the BM had higher ratios of CD62L(-)CD44(low-hi) memory-type cells, and showed impaired IFN-γ, greater PD-1, and comparable Ki-67 expression, suggesting that the recruiting-proliferating CD8(+) T cells were unable to differentiate into effector T cells and converted into exhausted T cells at the local site. This finding may explain the rapid recovery of the BM from severe inflammation. Preferentially greater expression of PD-1 ligand (B7-H1), was observed in the BM epithelium under the peak inflammation, and the absence of B7-H1 further accelerated CH responses, suggesting the occurrence of PD-1:B7-H1-mediated immune regulation at the local site. Our results may facilitate the understanding of the unique features of contact allergies in the oral mucosa, and guide the development of new strategies for control of contact allergy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Repair genes expression profile of MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira; Carta, Celina Faig Lima; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic smoking on the expression profile of the repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers and never smokers. The sample consisted of thirty exfoliative cytology smears per group obtained from Smokers and Never Smokers. Total RNA was extracted and expression of the MLH1, MSH2 and ATM genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time and immunocytochemistry. The gene and protein expression data were correlated to the clinical data. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using the Student t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, with p<0.05. MLH1, MSH2 and ATM genes were downregulated in the smoking group compared to the control with significant values for MLH1 (p=0.006), MSH2 (p=0.0001) and ATM (p=0.0001). Immunocytochemical staining for anti-MLH1, anti-MSH2 and anti-ATM was negative in Never Smokers; in Smokers it was rarely positive. No significant correlation was observed among the expression of MLH1, MSH2, ATM and age, number of cigarettes consumed per day, time of smoking during life, smoking history or levels of CO in expired air. The expression of genes and proteins related to DNA repair mechanism MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers was reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytological changes in the oral mucosa after use of a mouth rinse with alcohol. A prospective double blind control study.

    PubMed

    Bagan, Jose V; Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Marzal, Cristina; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Ezequiel; Bagan, Leticia

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol. A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus. We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients.

  1. Receptors for the lectins wheat germ. Ricinus communis I and soybean in ameloblastomas and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, E

    1981-11-01

    The histological distribution of receptors for the lectins Wheat germ (WGA). Ricinus communis I (RCA I) and Soybean (SBA) was examined in ameloblastomas and normal oral mucosa from 12 patients. The study utilized fluorescein-conjugated WGA, RCA I and SBA. Cell-membrane bound receptors for these 3 lectins were demonstrated in the spinous cell layer of the normal oral mucosa. WGA and RCA I receptors were also located in the basal cell layer, whereas SBA receptors were not detectable there. Cell-membrane bound WGA receptors were shown in the epithelial cells of the ameloblastomas. Titrations showed significant differences in staining reactivity related to the morphology of the peripheral epithelial cells of the ameloblastomas. The distribution of RCA I and SBA receptors in the peripheral cells was also related to the morphology of these cells and was independent of the histological types of the tumours. It is suggested that the distribution of these receptors is related to cellular activities such as cell differentiation and cell migration in the tumour and therefore possibly reflects the biological behavior of the tumours.

  2. Astrocyte-Like Cells Derived From Human Oral Mucosa Stem Cells Provide Neuroprotection In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Javier; Arie, Ina; Ben-Zur, Tali; Dadon-Nachum, Michal; Pour, Sammy; Araidy, Shareef; Offen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSC) are a recently described neural crest-derived stem cell population. Therapeutic quantities of potent hOMSC can be generated from small biopsies obtained by minimally invasive procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of hOMSC to differentiate into astrocyte-like cells and provide peripheral neuroprotection. We induced hOMSC differentiation into cells showing an astrocyte-like morphology that expressed characteristic astrocyte markers as glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100β, and the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 and secreted neurotrophic factors (NTF) such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and insulin-like growth factor 1. Conditioned medium of the induced cells rescued motor neurons from hypoxia or oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective effect mediated by soluble factors. Given the neuronal support (NS) ability of the cells, the differentiated cells were termed hOMSC-NS. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve injury and transplanted with hOMSC-NS showed improved motor function after transplantation. At the graft site we found the transplanted cells, increased levels of NTF, and a significant preservation of functional neuromuscular junctions, as evidenced by colocalization of α-bungarotoxin and synaptophysin. Our findings show for the first time that hOMSC-NS generated from oral mucosa exhibit neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo and point to their future therapeutic use in neural disorders. PMID:24477074

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa after release of submucous fibrosis and bilateral small radial forearm flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Celik, Naci; Wei, Fu-chan; Chang, Yang-ming; Yang, Wen-guei; Chen, Da-jeng; Tsai, Chi-ying

    2002-07-01

    carcinoma of the intraoral mucosa. High risk of cancer occurrence strongly indicates the importance of an earlier and more aggressive surgical approach toward submucous fibrosis, and long-term follow-up on a regular basis. The purpose of an early and aggressive approach to submucous fibrosis is to provide a good quality of life to the patient by improving oral hygiene and oral intake quality and at the same time to obtain a sufficient mouth opening, which is mandatory for the inspection of the excision site and the remaining oral mucosa during follow-up.

  4. Effects of aging in the expression of NOD-like receptors and Inflammasome-related genes in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kirakodu, Sreenatha; Novak, M. John; Exposto, Cristina R.; Stromberg, Arnold J.; Shen, Shu; Orraca, Luis; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Gonzalez, Octavio A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The molecular changes underlying the higher risk of chronic inflammatory disorders during aging remain incompletely understood. Molecular variations in the innate immune response related to recognition and interaction with microbes at mucosal surfaces could be involved in aging-related inflammation. We developed an ontology analysis of 20 NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and 7 inflammasome-related genes (IRGs) in healthy and inflamed/periodontitis oral mucosal tissues from young, adolescent, adult and aged nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) using the GeneChip® Rhesus Macaque Genome array. Validation of some of the significant changes was done by qRT-PCR. The expression of NLRB/NAIP, NLRP12, and AIM2 increased with aging in healthy mucosa whereas NLRC2/NOD2 expression decreased. Although higher expression levels of some NLRs were generally observed with periodontitis in adult mucosal tissues (e.g., NLRB/NAIP, NLRP5, and NLRX1), various receptors (e.g., NLRC2/NOD2, and NLRP2) and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, exhibited a significant reduction in expression in aged periodontitis tissues. Accordingly, the expression of NLR-activated innate immune genes, such as HBD3 and IFNB1, was impaired in aged but not adult periodontitis tissues. Both adult and aged tissues showed significant increase in IL-1β expression. These findings suggest that the expression of a subset of NLRs appears to change with aging in healthy oral mucosa, and that aging-related oral mucosal inflammation could involve an impaired regulation of the inflammatory and antimicrobial response associated with down-regulation of specific NLRs and IRGs. PMID:26197995

  5. Loss of Aβ-nerve endings associated with the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2016-03-30

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.

  6. Loss of Aβ-nerve endings associated with the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis

    PubMed Central

    Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis. PMID:27025263

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 in oral carcinoma cells and gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Go; Midorikawa, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Yasutaka; Takeyama, Mayu; Yamada, Kenji; Nozawa, Takaomi; Morikawa, Masako; Imai, Kazushi

    2013-07-01

    Oral carcinoma patients with inactivation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) expression worsen their prognoses. Although the genetic mutation could be responsible for the inactivation, no information is available at present. In the present study, genomic DNA of oral carcinoma cells (HOC313, TSU, HSC2, HSC3, KOSC2, KOSC3, SCCKN, OSC19, Ca9.22, and Ho1u1 cells) and normal gingival fibroblasts (GF12 cells) derived from a Japanese population were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primer sets spanning MALT1 exons, and nucleotide substitutions were analyzed by the single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The substitutions were commonly observed in all cells, which express MALT1 at various levels. The substitutions at exons 1 and 9 were located at the 5' untranslated region and replaced (336)Asp to Asn, respectively, and others were positioned at the introns. Among the intronic substitutions, four were matched with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) registered at the database. Since all cells were derived from a Japanese population, all substitutions detected are the SNPs. Absence of the carcinoma cell-specific mutation suggests that the inactivation of MALT1 expression but not the mutation promotes oral carcinoma progression.

  8. Miconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for local delivery to the oral mucosa: improving antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, A I; Silva, A C; Catita, J A M; Cerqueira, F; Gabriel, C; Lopes, C M

    2013-11-01

    Miconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with poor aqueous solubility, which requires the development of drug delivery systems able to improve its therapeutic activity. For this purpose, a miconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) dispersion was prepared and characterized. Further, the dispersion was used to prepare a NLC-based hydrogel formulation proposed as an alternative system to improve the local delivery of miconazole to the oral mucosa. NLC dispersion showed particles in the nanometer range (≈ 200 nm) with low polidispersity index (<0.3), good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency (>87%). A controlled miconazole release was observed from NLC and NLC-based hydrogel formulations, in contrast to a commercial oral gel formulation, which demonstrated a faster release. Additionally, it was observed that the encapsulation of miconazole in the NLC improved its antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the encapsulation of miconazole in NLC allows for obtaining the same therapeutic effect of a commercial oral gel formulation, using a 17-fold lower dose of miconazole.

  9. Orally administered phenylbutazone causes oxidative stress in the equine gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Aranzales, J R; Cândido de Andrade, B S; Silveira Alves, G E

    2015-06-01

    Phenylbutazone (PBZ) is widely used in equine medicine, and its side effects on the gastrointestinal tract are well known. The inhibition of prostaglandins and the oxidative stress induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are described as mechanisms of gastric mucosal injury in humans. In horses, only the secondary effect of changes in cyclooxygenases is related to gastric mucosal injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PBZ on certain antioxidative/oxidative parameters of the gastric mucosa. The concentrations of antioxidants and oxidants (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; nitric oxide, NO; total glutathione, GSH; myeloperoxidase, MPO; and malondialdehyde, MDA), PGE2 levels, and the ulcerative lesions score were assessed. The results demonstrated decreased levels of antioxidant variables, increased levels of oxidant variables, and alterations in the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. In conclusion, PBZ induces oxidative stress in the gastric glandular mucosa of horses by changing the antioxidant-oxidant balance of this surface, which might be regarded as another mechanism of injury in the horse stomach.

  10. Genotoxic effect of chronic exposure to DDT on lymphocytes, oral mucosa and breast cells of female rats.

    PubMed

    Canales-Aguirre, Alejandro; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Salado-Ponce, Hugo; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; De Celis, Ruth

    2011-02-01

    The genotoxicity of some environmental contaminants may affect human health directly by damaging genetic material and thus plays an important role in cancer development. Xenoestrogens are one kind of environmental pollutants that may alter hormonal routes or directly affect DNA. The number of available biomarkers used to assess genetic risk and cancer is very extensive. The present study evaluated genotoxicity produced by the pesticide DDT on systemic and mammary gland cells obtained from adult female Wistar rats. Oral mucosa cells micronuclei were assessed; the comet assay in peripheral blood-isolated lymphocytes and mammary epithelial cells was also carried out. Additionally, oxidative stress was studied in mammary tissue through a lipid peroxidation assay. Our data showed an increase in lipid peroxidation, product of an increase in free oxygen radical levels, which leads to an oxidative stress status. Our results suggest that DDT is genotoxic, not only for lymphocytes but also to mammary epithelial cells.

  11. Genotoxic Effect of Chronic Exposure to DDT on Lymphocytes, Oral Mucosa and Breast Cells of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Canales-Aguirre, Alejandro; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Salado-Ponce, Hugo; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; De Celis, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxicity of some environmental contaminants may affect human health directly by damaging genetic material and thus plays an important role in cancer development. Xenoestrogens are one kind of environmental pollutants that may alter hormonal routes or directly affect DNA. The number of available biomarkers used to assess genetic risk and cancer is very extensive. The present study evaluated genotoxicity produced by the pesticide DDT on systemic and mammary gland cells obtained from adult female Wistar rats. Oral mucosa cells micronuclei were assessed; the comet assay in peripheral blood-isolated lymphocytes and mammary epithelial cells was also carried out. Additionally, oxidative stress was studied in mammary tissue through a lipid peroxidation assay. Our data showed an increase in lipid peroxidation, product of an increase in free oxygen radical levels, which leads to an oxidative stress status. Our results suggest that DDT is genotoxic, not only for lymphocytes but also to mammary epithelial cells. PMID:21556202

  12. Quantification of the global and local complexity of the epithelial-connective tissue interface of normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic oral mucosae using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Landini, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at quantifying the complexity of the epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) in human normal mucosa, premalignant, and malignant lesions using fractal geometry. Two approaches were used to describe the complexity of 377 oral mucosa ECTI profiles. The box counting method was used to estimate their global fractal dimension, while local fractal dimensions were estimated using the mass radius relation at various local scales. The ECTI complexity significantly increased from normal through premalignant to malignant profiles in both global and local (over 283 microm) scales. Normal mucosa samples from different sites of the oral cavity also had different degrees of global complexity. Fractal geometry is a useful morphological marker of tissue complexity changes taking place during epithelial malignancy and premalignancy, and we propose it as a quantitative marker of epithelial complexity.

  13. Oral breathing increases Pth and vocal effort by superficial drying of vocal fold mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V

    2002-06-01

    Oral breathing superficially dehydrates the airway lumen by decreasing the depth of the sol layer in humans and animals. Conversely, nasal breathing can increase the humidity of inspired air. We compared the effects of short-term oral and nasal breathing on Pth and perceived vocal effort in 20 female subjects randomly assigned to two groups: oral breathing (N = 10, age 21-32 years); nasal breathing (N = 10, age 20-36 years). We hypothesized that short-term oral breathing, but not nasal breathing, would increase Pth, and that subjects would perceive this change as an increase in vocal effort. Following 15 minutes of oral breathing, Pth increased at comfortable and low pitch (p < 0.01) with 6 of 10 subjects reporting increased vocal effort. Nasal breathing reduced Pth at all three pitches (p < 0.01), and 7 of 10 subjects reported decreased vocal effort. Over all subjects, 49% of the variance in treatment-induced change in Pth was accounted for by change in vocal effort (R = 0.70). We posit that obligatory oral breathing places healthy subjects at risk for symptoms of increased vocal effort. The facilitatory role of superficial hydration on vocal fold oscillation should be considered in biomechanical models of phonation and in the clinical prevention of laryngeal dryness.

  14. A histochemical comparison of methyl green-pyronin, and hematoxylin and eosin for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sumedha, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Somannavar, P; Nayak, R; Babji, D

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of apoptotic cells in oral pathological states could be useful for determining the rates of tissue turnover, which would help determine prognosis. The use of histochemical stains such as hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and methyl green-pyronin (MGP) can provide a simple and cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells. We compared the efficacy of MGP and H & E for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral leukoplakia (OL), oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Ten cases each of OSCC, OSMF, OL and NOM were retrieved from the archives and two serial sections were stained, one with H & E and the other with MGP. Apoptotic cells were identified at 100 x magnification and the apoptotic index was calculated. Apoptotic cells were distinguished more readily in MGP stained sections than in those stained with H & E. Also, the apoptotic cell count was greater in OSCC compared to OL, OSMF and NOM. We concluded that MGP staining can be used as a routine, cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells.

  15. Detrimental dermal wound healing: what can we learn from the oral mucosa?

    PubMed

    Glim, Judith E; van Egmond, Marjolein; Niessen, Frank B; Everts, Vincent; Beelen, Robert H J

    2013-01-01

    Wounds in adults are frequently accompanied by scar formation. This scar can become fibrotic due to an imbalance between extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and ECM degradation. Oral mucosal wounds, however, heal in an accelerated fashion, displaying minimal scar formation. The exact mechanisms of scarless oral healing are yet to be revealed. This review highlights possible mechanisms involved in the difference between scar-forming dermal vs. scarless oral mucosal wound healing. Differences were found in expression of ECM components, such as procollagen I and tenascin-C. Oral wounds contained fewer immune mediators, blood vessels, and profibrotic mediators but had more bone marrow-derived cells, a higher reepithelialization rate, and faster proliferation of fibroblasts compared with dermal wounds. These results form a basis for further research that should be focused on the relations among ECM, immune cells, growth factors, and fibroblast phenotypes, as understanding scarless oral mucosal healing may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic strategies to prevent fibrotic scars. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Carbon ions and X‑rays induce pro‑inflammatory effects in 3D oral mucosa models with and without PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Tschachojan, Viktoria; Schroer, Henrike; Averbeck, Nicole; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Oral mucositis is a severe complication of radiotherapy. Hence, it may constitute a serious medical safety risk for astronauts during extended space flights, such as missions to Mars, during which they are exposed to heavy-ion irradiation. For risk assessment of developing radiation-induced mucositis, a three-dimensional (3D) organotypic oral mucosa model was irradiated with 12C heavy ions or X‑rays. The present study focused mainly on early radiation‑induced effects, such as the activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the expression or release of pro-inflammatory marker molecules. The 3D oral mucosa models with or without peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were irradiated with X‑rays or 12C heavy ions followed by snap freezing. Subsequently, cryosections were derived from the specimens, which were immunostained for analysis of compactness, DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and activation of NFκB. Radiation‑induced release of interleukin 6 (IL6) and interleukin 8 (IL8) was quantified by ELISA. Quantification of the DNA damage in irradiated mucosa models revealed distinctly more DSB after heavy-ion irradiation compared to X‑rays at definite time points, suggesting a higher gene toxicity of heavy ions. NFκB activation was observed after treatment with X‑rays or 12C particles. ELISA analyses showed significantly higher IL6 and IL8 levels after irradiation with X‑rays and 12C particles compared to non-irradiated controls, whereas co‑cultures including PBMCs released 2 to 3-fold higher interleukin concentrations compared to mucosa models without PBMCs. In this study, we demonstrated that several pro-inflammatory markers are induced by X‑rays and heavy-ion irradiation within an oral mucosa model. This suggests that oral mucositis indeed poses a risk for astronauts on extended space flights.

  17. Valuation of exfoliative cytology as prediction factor in oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Brunotto, Mabel; Zárate, Ana María; Cismondi, Adriana; Fernández, María del Carmen; Noher de Halac, Rita Inés

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was immunolabeling oncoproteins Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 in order to evaluate their expression in premalignant and malignant stomatological lesions in oral epithelial, and to compare this expression with exfoliative cytology alterations in the same patients. It was studied biopsies and cytologies of 13 subjects with oral lichen planus, with or without Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma clinically diagnosed and confirmed by anatomopathological studies. The oral lichen planus lesion presented binuclei orange cells; and in leukoplakia lesions only orange stained was observed; meanwhile koilocytes, inflammatory cells, enlarge nuclear volume and pathogenic microorganisms were observed in the HPV infections and squamous cells carcinoma (SCC). The Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 proteins were found modified in the leukoplakia, oral lichen planus and cancer. Cytological alterations and positive immunolabeling or over-expression of Ck14 cytokeratine in the upper epithelial stratus should be indicator of malignant transformations as doing subsequence exams.

  18. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  19. Stromal laminin chain distribution in normal, hyperplastic and malignant oral mucosa: relation to myofibroblast occurrence and vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marcus; Wolheim, Anke; Richter, Petra; Umbreit, Claudia; Dahse, Regine; Driemel, Oliver; Hyckel, Peter; Virtanen, Ismo; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Berndt, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of stromal laminin chain expression to malignant potential, tumour stroma reorganization and vessel formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the expression of the laminin chains alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 in the stromal compartment/vascular structures in OSCC was analysed. Frozen tissue of OSCC (9x G1, 24x G2, 8x G3) and normal (2x)/hyperplastic (11x) oral mucosa was subjected to laminin chain and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated to tumour grade. The relation of laminin chain positive vessels to total vessel number was assessed by immunofluorescence double labelling with CD31. Stromal laminin alpha2 chain significantly decreases and alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 chains and also ASMA significantly increase with rising grade. The amount of stromal alpha3, alpha4 and gamma2 chains significantly increased with rising ASMA positivity. There is a significant decrease in alpha3 chain positive vessels with neoplastic transformation. Mediated by myofibroblasts, OSCC development is associated with a stromal up-regulation of laminin isoforms possibly contributing to a migration promoting microenvironment. A vascular basement membrane reorganization concerning alpha3 and gamma2 chain laminins during tumour angioneogenesis is suggested.

  20. Non-specific labelling of mast cells in feline oral mucosa--a potential problem in immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2002-01-01

    Non-specific labelling of mast cells was found to occur in formalin-fixed sections of feline oral mucosa during immunohistochemical procedures. The phenomenon occurred when normal goat, rabbit or mouse serum was applied as a negative control in place of primary antibodies. In addition, with murine isotype-specific negative control reagents, non-specific labelling of mast cells was intense when IgG2b was applied as the primary reagent, but absent or mild when IgGl or IgG2a isotypes were utilized. The non-specific labelling could be eliminated or diminished by reducing the pH of the washing and dilution buffers from 7.4 to 6.0, or by preincubating sections with heparin. The non-specific binding could also be abolished by preincubating sections with heparinase-I. The results suggest that the non-specific binding was mediated by heparin present within feline oral mucosal mast cells. These findings illustrate the importance of the inclusion of adequate control sections in immunohistochemical studies.

  1. Surgical Outcomes of Porcine Acellular Dermis Graft in Anophthalmic Socket: Comparison with Oral Mucosa Graft

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Livia; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Kim, Chang Yeom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We describe our experience with the Permacol graft in anophthalmic socket reconstruction, and compare it to the autologous buccal mucosal graft, emphasizing the postoperative vascularization and contraction of each graft. Methods This was a retrospective comparative study. We measured the time necessary for the graft surface to be completely vascularized, as well as the fornix depth of the conjunctival sac in anophthalmic patients. Results Ten patients underwent Permacol graft reconstruction, with 44 undergoing buccal mucosal graft reconstruction. Seven eyelids (70%) in the Permacol group had a good outcome, with improvement in lower eyelid position and prosthesis retention. Nine out of 10 eyelids (90%) in this group showed complete vascularization of the graft at 2.6 ± 1.9 months postoperatively, while the grafted buccal mucosa was fully vascularized at 1.1 ± 0.3 months postoperatively (p < 0.01). Postoperative fornix depth in the Permacol group was 9.1 ± 2.2 mm, compared to 14.9 ± 4.5 mm in the buccal mucosal graft group (p < 0.01). Mean increases in fornix depth were 33.1% and 67.9% of the mean vertical length of the implanted graft. Conclusions The Permacol graft can be useful as spacer graft material in anophthalmic socket patients. It takes longer to vascularize, and undergoes greater graft shrinkage with time, compared to the buccal mucosal graft. PMID:28243018

  2. Efficiency of systemic versus intralesional bone marrow-derived stem cells in regeneration of oral mucosa after induction of formocresol induced ulcers in dogs.

    PubMed

    Aly, Lobna A; El-Menoufy, Hala; Sadeq, Hesham S; Ragae, Alyaa; Sabry, Dina

    2014-03-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are the key to regenerative wound healing. MSCs have spatial memory and respond to local environment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of systemic and intralesional transplantation of BMSCs for regeneration of oral mucosa in an in vivo dog model. Transplantation of undifferentiated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled autologous BMSCs systemically, submucosally or vehicle (saline) was injected around the chemically induced oral ulcer in each group of 18 adult dogs. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. One way ANOVA was used to compare between means of the three groups. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. Flow cytometric analysis of the MSCs at the passage 3 showed that these cells were negative for CD45 (2.39%). They expressed high levels of CD29 (98.34%). Frozen fluorescence microscopy of sections of the cell-treated oral tissue of all groups indicated that the GFP-transduced implanted cells were integrated within the transplanted tissues. The treatment resulted in dramatic wound edge activation and resurfacing of oral mucosa wound. Our results revealed that BMSCs may be labeled with (GFP), in order to know the distribution of these cells after administration, and suggest that intralesional administration is an appropriate procedure to achieve acceptable regeneration of the previously injured oral mucosa more than systemic route.

  3. Oral mucosa as a source of Mycobacterium leprae infection and transmission, and implications of bacterial DNA detection and the immunological status.

    PubMed

    Martinez, T S; Figueira, M M N R; Costa, A V; Gonçalves, M A; Goulart, L R; Goulart, I M B

    2011-11-01

    Leprosy is an important health problem in Brazil despite extensive use of multidrug therapy. The nasal mucosa is the preferential site of entry and exit of Mycobacterium leprae, and although lesions have been found in the oral mucosa, its potential involvement in the transmission of leprosy bacilli has never been investigated. We investigated the presence of the M. leprae DNA in buccal swabs of leprosy patients (334) and household contacts (1288) through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and correlated this with clinical and laboratorial evaluations. The overall positivity for patients and contacts was 18.26% and 6.83%, respectively. Subclinical infection among contacts was considered when PCR and anti-PGL-1 ELISA presented positive results. This study provides evidence that the oral mucosa may be a secondary site of M. leprae transmission and infection, and contacts with bacillary DNA may be actively involved in transmission. We have also shown that bacilli DNA is more frequently found in the oral mucosa of PB patients. Our findings have great epidemiological relevance and indicate an additional strategy for leprosy control programmes and dental clinics.

  4. Effects of curcumin and capsaicin irradiated with visible light on murine oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Okada, Norihisa; Muraoka, Eitoku; Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Machino, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects of curcumin and capsaicin, with or without visible light (VL) irradiation for 5 min, on the oral mucous membrane in mice. Capsaicin-treated, but not curcumin-treated, buccal epithelium exhibited slight tissue damage; VL irradiation caused excessive tissue damage, particularly when combined with the former treatment. The TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method demonstrated that both capsaicin and curcumin induced apoptosis, with the apoptotic effect of capsaicin appearing at an early stage of application. VL irradiation increased the number of apoptotic cells, particularly those upon in the capsaicin-treated area. Capsaicin and curcumin acted as photosensitizers exposure to VL, in the presence of oxygen. Curcumin and capsaicin with VL irradiation could thus be used for photodynamic therapy in the clinical setting, especially in precancerous oral diseases.

  5. A clinicopathological study on verrucous hyperplasia and verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lai-Kuan; Ding, Ye-Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Mei; Shi, Lin-Jun; Zhou, Zeng-Tong

    2012-02-01

    Oral verrucous hyperplasia (VH) and verrucous carcinoma (VC) are two clinicopathologically distinctive oral verrucous lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological features of the two verrucous lesions and estimate their relationship from China. Retrospective review of two series of patients with histologically confirmed VH (n = 121) and VC (n = 56) between 1996 and 2009 in our hospital were conducted. The average age of VH was 58.5 years (ratio male:female = 1.37) with the tongue being the predominant site. The average age of VC was 64.3 years (ratio male:female = 1.15) with the lower lip being the predominant site. Multivariate analysis revealed that the elderly patient with verrucous lesion (≥60 years) was associated with 3.06-fold (P = 0.007) increased carcinoma risk compared with the non-elderly patient. The lesion located on lower lip was associated with 13.54-fold (P < 0.001) increased carcinoma risk compared with other sites. Clinicopathological features of VH and VC in China were elucidated. Elderly patient with oral verrucous lesion located on the lower lip correlates with higher risk of carcinoma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Oral manifestations in Urbach--Wiethe disease (lipoglycoproteinosis; lipoid proteinosis; hyalinosis cutis et mucosae).

    PubMed

    Hofer, P A; Bergenholtz, A

    1975-01-01

    The oral manifestations in 27 patients with Urbach--Wiethe disease (UWD) discovered in Northern Sweden are described. The oral regions most frequently affected are the lips, the back of the tongue, the frenulum of the tongue, the palate and the back wall of the pharynx. The general impression is that older patients usually have more marked manifestations than younger, indicating that the oral lesions may become more severe with increasing age. Histopathologically, the disorder is essentially a microangiopathy in which the walls of small blood vessels are thick and PAS-positive, indicating the presence of glycoproteins. In clinically affected regions there are usually PAS-positive extravascular deposits. In material used of lipid histochemical studies, sudanophil droplets were found in the vessel walls. By staining with osmium tetroxide the osmium is--contrary to previous assumptions--in some way bound to the droplets, but for unknown reasons is not reduced to a coloured product. The binding of osmium was demonstrated by the OTAN (osmium textroxide alpha-naphthylamine) method. The exact significance of this finding awaits further studies. The implications of dental anomalies occurring in UWD are discussed.

  7. Automated segmentation of oral mucosa from wide-field OCT images (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldan, Ryan N.; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Cahill, Lucas; Liu, Kelly; MacAulay, Calum; Poh, Catherine F.; Lane, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can discriminate morphological tissue features important for oral cancer detection such as the presence or absence of basement membrane and epithelial thickness. We previously reported an OCT system employing a rotary-pullback catheter capable of in vivo, rapid, wide-field (up to 90 x 2.5mm2) imaging in the oral cavity. Due to the size and complexity of these OCT data sets, rapid automated image processing software that immediately displays important tissue features is required to facilitate prompt bed-side clinical decisions. We present an automated segmentation algorithm capable of detecting the epithelial surface and basement membrane in 3D OCT images of the oral cavity. The algorithm was trained using volumetric OCT data acquired in vivo from a variety of tissue types and histology-confirmed pathologies spanning normal through cancer (8 sites, 21 patients). The algorithm was validated using a second dataset of similar size and tissue diversity. We demonstrate application of the algorithm to an entire OCT volume to map epithelial thickness, and detection of the basement membrane, over the tissue surface. These maps may be clinically useful for delineating pre-surgical tumor margins, or for biopsy site guidance.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  9. A study on the differences between oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosas measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Y; Yoshida, S; Yanagisawa, S; Shimizu, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the differences of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal gingival epithelium (NGE) or normal subgingival tissue (NST). We used 15 specimens of OSCC which had not been treated before measurement and 10 of NGE or NST. We also used cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma (COSCC) and the tissue (MSCC) which massed for 3 months after the cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma was transplanted into the lower back of a rat. Those tissue spectra were compared with the purified human collagens and human keratin. One half of every tissue specimen was measured with FTIR and the other half was investigated histologically. The differences of FTIR spectra between OSCC and NGE were observed in the bands between 1431 and 1482 cm(-1) and between 1183 and 1274 cm(-1). The shoulder at 1368 cm(-1) tended to disappear in OSCC, and the peaks at 1246 and 1083 cm(-1) found in NGE tended to shift to those at 1242 and 1086 cm(-1) in OSCC, respectively. The infrared spectrum of NST was noticed to be strongly influenced by the presence of collagen. Significant differences were also observed in the second derivative FTIR spectra between OSCC and NGE. Our data suggested that this infrared technique is applicable to clinical diagnostics.

  10. Human papilloma virus types in the oral and cervical mucosa of HIV-positive South African women prior to antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Richter, Karin L; van Rensburg, Estrelita Janse; van Heerden, Willie F P; Boy, Sonja C

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and types in the oral and cervix mucosa of treatment-naïve HIV-1-positive women with CD4 counts less than 300 cells per ml with no HPV-associated oral lesions. Oral epithelium was harvested from the buccal mucosa and lateral borders of the tongue and cervical samples were collected from the endocervical area of 30 women, 22-64 years old. Cytobrush Plus cell collectors were used for sampling both anatomical areas. Genital pathology, obstetric and gynaecological history, co-morbid disease, hormone therapy, sexual behavior and smoking history were assessed via physical examination and clinical interviews. Special investigations included cervical Papanicolau smears, CD4 counts and HIV-1 viral loads. The linear array HPV test was used to determine HPV genotypes present in the specimens. Oral HPV were identified in 20% (n = 6) of the patients, of which two had infection with two HPV types. Genital HPV was found in 96.7% (n = 29) of the women, of which only 14 had cytological abnormalities on Papanicolau smear. Infection with multiple HPV types were present in 93.1% (n = 27) of the patients, with an average of four HPV types per individual. South African HIV-positive women with CD4 counts less than 300 cells per ml have a significant risk of cervical HPV strains and multiple strain infection of the cervix. The prevalence of HPV in normal oral mucosa was low but high-risk types were present. Limited correlation between oral HPV types and those identified in the cervical mucosa was found.

  11. [The informative value of determination of the cytological status of nasal and oral mucosae in the assessment of the quality of water].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N N; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Gorelova, Zh Iu; Aleksandrova, V P; Aleksandrovskiĭ, S B; Shamarin, A A; Sevost'ianova, E M

    2005-01-01

    The nasal and oral mucosal cytological status was studied in children of a control kindergarten who used boiled Moscow tap water and in those of two experimental kindergartens who had drunk bottled "Troitsa" water supplemented by a fortified "Zolotoy Shar" drink for 6 months. Impression smears were taken from their nasal and oral mucosae twice: before and 6 months after water use. The data presented indicate that the use of the water of improved quality in its trace and vitamin contents may be used in preventive and rehabilitative medicine as it leads to improvement of the nasal and oral cytological status, by normalizing and/or positively affecting the latter.

  12. Preservation of epithelial progenitor cells from collagenase-digested oral mucosa during ex vivo cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Jen; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Hung-Chi; Wu, Sung-En; Wang, Tze-Kai; Sun, Chi-Chin; Ma, Kevin Sheng-Kai; Chen, Jan-Kan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2016-01-01

    To avoid xenogeneic infection, we report a novel protocol for producing animal-derived component-free oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) sheet for transplantation, in which collagenase was used to replace dispase II/trypsin-EDTA for digesting oral mucosal tissue, and human platelet-derived PLTMax to replace fetal bovine serum. The resulting epithelial aggregates were expanded on de-epithelialized amniotic membranes without 3T3 feeder cells, and serum-free EpiLife was used to reduce contamination by submucosal mesenchymal cells. The OMEC sheets thus generated showed similar positive keratin 3/76-positive and keratin 8-negative staining patterns compared with those generated by the original protocol. Colony formation efficiency assay, BrdU label retention assay, and p63 and p75NTR immunostaining results indicated that higher proliferative potentials and more progenitor cells were preserved by the modified protocol. TaqMan array analysis revealed that the transcription of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) was up-regulated along with an increase in β-catenin signaling and its downstream cell cycle modulators, cyclin D1 and p27KIP1. Furthermore, ILK silencing led to the inhibition of nuclear β-catenin accumulation, suppressed p63 expression, and reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and p27KIP1; these observations suggest that ILK/β-catenin pathway may be involved in cell proliferation regulation during the ex vivo expansion of OMECs for transplantation purposes. PMID:27824126

  13. Oral epithelial atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, peppers and hot meals, using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Ebnoof, Syda Omer M Ali; Hussein, Mohmmed Omer M; Gbreel, Afra Yousif A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate cytological atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, hot meals, and peppers using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou methods. A total of 180 individuals were evaluated, of which 60 were smokers, 34 were alcohol users, 52 were habitual peppers and hot meal (exposed) consumers, 24 were non-exposed, and 10 were patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), as an internal control. Cytological materials were obtained by brushing of buccal mucosa, on the border of the tongue and on the floor of the mouth, and participants underwent the Papanicolaou test for cytological changes and AgNOR staining for evaluation of the mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus. SPSS program was used to perform the Pearson chi-square test. The 95% confidence level, Odds Ratio (OR), and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were used. The features of cytological atypia were verified among 10 individuals, including 5 smokers, 2 alcohol users, 2 hot meals and peppers consumers, and one non-exposed. For atypia among tobacco smokers, the adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95% CI were found to be 2 (0.246-16.24). Increased keratinization was detected among 27 (45%) of the smokers (P < 0.0001), 17 (32.7%) of the pepper and hot meals consumers (P < 0.005), 4 (11.8%) of the alcohol consumers, and among 2 (3.7%) of the non-exposed group. Statistical analyses revealed a greater mean number of AgNORs per nucleus in smokers (3.68) followed by (2.82) alcohol consumers, compared to the habitual peppers and hot meal consumers (2.28) and the non-exposed group (2.00). What's more, 80% of the smears with cytological atypia were identified with 6 +/- 2 AgNOR mean count. The increase of the variables suggests that the evaluation of epithelial atypical changes in individuals exposed to smoking and alcohol carcinogens may be a useful screening tool. While hot meals and peppers did not seem to be a risk for oral mucosal proliferation, they increased the potency of

  14. Metastasis of renal clear-cell carcinoma to the oral mucosa, an atypical location.

    PubMed

    Maestre-Rodríguez, Oscar; González-García, Raúl; Mateo-Arias, Jesús; Moreno-García, Carlos; Serrano-Gil, Herminia; Villanueva-Alcojol, Laura; Campos-de-Orellana, Ana Ma; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2009-11-01

    The majority of cases of metastatic tumors involve the mandible and some the maxilla but they are considerably less common in intraoral soft tissues. In addition, the primary tumor is known in the majority of cases; although in one-third of such cases, metastasis is the first clinical manifestation. The most common primary tumors metastasizing to the mouth are lung carcinoma in men and breast carcinoma in women. An oral metastasis implies a serious prognosis, as in the majority of patients there is multiple organ involvement at the time of diagnosis. We present the case of a 52-year old patient with renal pathology who came to the emergency room due to a rapidly increasing gingival tumor. With the provisional clinical diagnosis of a pyogenic granuloma,the tumor was excised. Subsequent anatomopathological analysis revealed a tumor metastasis compatible with clear-cell carcinoma, and its renal origin was confirmed by means of immunohistochemical techniques.

  15. Study of the extraction process and in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes in oral mucosa cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ruhui; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Shang; Gao, Wenxin; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Haotian; Han, Bing

    2011-06-24

    the normal state, simple epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma disease grades. Using the optimized extraction process, ganoderma triterpenes could be extracted with high efficiency, and the results of animal tests showed inhibitory effects of ganoderma triterpenes on oral mucosa cancer.

  16. Effects of oral intake of cetirizine HCl and desloratadine molecules on the middle ear mucosa: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Songu, Murat; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Kirtay, Seyithan; Arslanoglu, Secil; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, Sevinc; Onal, Kazim

    2014-04-01

    We have planned to demonstrate histopathologic effects of mid- or long-term oral use of desloratadine and cetirizine HCl molecules on middle ear mucosa of rats. Thirty-six rats were randomized equally into six groups. Desloratadine groups received once daily doses of 1 mg/ml desloratadine for 30 (D30 Group) or 60 (D60 Group) days. The Cetirizine study groups were given once daily doses of 1 mg/ml cetirizine for 30 (S30 Group) or 60 (S60 Group) days. Control groups were given 2 cc physiologic saline using orogastric gavage method through a 12 G gavage catheter for 30 (K30 Group) or 60 (K60) days. At the end of 30 days, D30, S30 and K30 Groups were sacrificed. Tissue samples harvested from groups were evaluated between 1 and 4 Grades for histological characteristics of middle ear canal, eardrum, middle ear epithelium and connective tissue, edema, vascular congestion and inflammatory cells. In the control group no pathological finding was encountered in rats sacrificed on 30 and 60 days. No statistical difference was observed when groups were compared on external ear epithelial tissue, external ear sebaceous gland, middle ear inflammation, and middle ear capillary dilatation both on 30 and 60 days. Tympanic membrane collagen was more evident in D30 and D60 groups when compared with C30 and C60 groups. Comparison of histopathological grading results between 30 and 60 days revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, oral intake of cetirizine and desloratadine preparations has effects of tympanic membrane collagen, degrees of edema and vascular congestion being more prominent with desloratadine molecule.

  17. Novel papillomavirus isolated from the oral mucosa of a polar bear does not cluster with other papillomaviruses of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Hans; Rector, Annabel; Bertelsen, Mads F; Leifsson, Pall S; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-05-25

    Papillomatosis has been documented in several carnivores, and papillomavirus (PV) types have been characterized from lesions in a number of carnivore species: the canine oral PV (COPV), the Felis domesticus PV type 1 (FdPV-1) isolated from a Persian cat, the Procyon lotor PV type 1 (PlPV-1) isolated from a raccoon, the canine PV type 2 (CPV-2) from a dog's foot pad lesion and the canine PV type 3 (CPV-3) associated with a canine epidermodysplasia verruciformis - like disease. A tissue sample was taken from a papillomatous lesion on the oral mucosa of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Extracted DNA was used as a template for multiply primed rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and restriction enzyme analysis of the RCA product indicated the presence of papillomaviral DNA. The genome of this PV was cloned and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The Ursus maritimus PV type 1 (UmPV-1) genome counts 7582 basepairs and is smaller than that of other papillomaviruses from carnivore species. UmPV-1 contains the typical noncoding region NCR1, but unlike the carnivore PVs of the Lambda genus, UmPV-1 does not possess a second noncoding region NCR2. Phylogenetic analysis based on a nucleotide sequence alignment of the L1 ORF of UmPV-1 and 51 other PV types indicates that UmPV-1 does not cluster with any of the other carnivore PVs, but branches off near the root of the common branch of the genus Alphapapillomavirus.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Livério, Harisson Oliveira; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Freitas, Roseli Santos de; Nishikaku, Angela; Souza, Ana Clara de; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Domaneschi, Carina

    2017-04-13

    The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species.

  19. Bioeffect of lipohemia rabbits irradiated in oral mucosa with 650-nm diode-laser-accompanied oxygen inspiration and clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fu-Shou; Tang, Jin-Xian; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Pang, Hi-Xiu

    1998-11-01

    The study on irradiating in oral mucosa of rabbits with 650 nm diode laser and clinical application has been reported in this paper. The result of animal experiment showed: the obvious decrease of cholesterin and triglyceride has been found among those highly lipohemia rabbits in the experiments of 650nm diode laser irradiating accompanying with oxygen, as well as the parameters of hemorheology obviously being improved, as compared with highly lipohemia rabbits un-irradiating, the statistical analysis showing P < 0.01. In the meantime, the observation of histopathology shows, the lipide decreasing in aorta wall, intramyocardinal membranous layer,and renal interstitial in the group of rabbits which are irradiated with laser and accompanying with oxygen inspiration, and even the perfectly recovered tissue in some rabbits has been seen. This experimental result is significantly for clinical application. The results of clinic application showed, that the patients employed this method which treatment cerebral infarction, lipohemia, the total effective ratio achieved 91.7 percent, perfect effect 30.6 percent.

  20. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage.

  1. Comparison of divided and full pupil configurations for line-scanning confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Glazowski, Chris; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-02-01

    Confocal point-scanning microscopy has been showing promise in the detection, diagnosing and mapping of skin lesions in clinical settings. The noninvasive technique allows provides optical sectioning and cellular resolution for in vivo diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma and pre-operative and intra-operative mapping of margins. The imaging has also enabled more accurate "guided" biopsies while minimizing the otherwise large number of "blind" biopsies. Despite these translational advances, however, point-scanning technology remains relatively complex and expensive. Line-scanning technology may offer an alternative approach to accelerate translation to the clinic. Line-scanning, using fewer optical components, inexpensive linear-array detectors and custom electronics, may enable smaller, simpler and lower-cost confocal microscopes. A line is formed using a cylindrical lens and scanned through the back focal plane of the objective with a galvanometric scanner. A linear CCD is used for detection. Two pupil configurations were compared for performance in imaging human tissue. In the full-pupil configuration, illumination and detection is made through the full objective pupil. In the divided pupil approach, half the pupil is illuminated and the other half is used for detection. The divided pupil configuration loses spatial and axial resolution due to a diminished NA, but the sectioning capability and rejection of background is improved. Imaging in skin and oral mucosa illustrate the performance of the two configurations.

  2. Genomic instability in non-neoplastic oral mucosa cells can predict risk during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Fávero Salvadori, Daisy Maria; da Silva, Renata Nunes; Ribeiro Darros, Bruno; Alencar Marques, Mariangela Esther

    2004-10-01

    4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of DNA damage induced by 4NQO in oral mucosa cells by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution by drinking water for 4, 12 or 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. Statistically significant increase of DNA damage was observed in non-neoplastic oral cells at four weeks of 4NQO administration when compared with control (P < 0.05). The level of DNA damage was directly associated with the severity of histological changes. The results suggest that histologically normal tissue is able to harbor genetically unstable cells contributing to the initiation of oral carcinogenesis. Genomic instability appears to be associated with the risk and progression of oral cancer.

  3. p53 mutation is rare in oral mucosa brushings from patients previously treated for a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Acha-Sagredo, Amelia; Ruesga, Maria T; Rodriguez, Carlos; Aguirregaviria, Jose I; de Pancorbo, Marian M; Califano, Joseph A; Aguirre, Jose M

    2009-08-01

    Mutations of the tumour suppressor gene p53 are common in human cancer, and seem to be an early event in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. The aim of our study was to determine the status of the tumour suppressor gene p53 in the oral mucosa of patients previously treated for a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, at risk of developing an oral squamous cell carcinoma, but without oral clinical lesions. Oral brushings from 87 patients were sequenced with matched genomic DNA. No mutations were found in exons 5, 7 and 8, whereas in exon 6 silent mutations (n=6) and a polymorphism (n=7) were found. Mutation of the tumour suppressor gene p53 does not seem to be a frequent event in patients at risk but without oral lesions.

  4. SU-D-16A-02: A Novel Methodology for Accurate, Semi-Automated Delineation of Oral Mucosa for Radiation Therapy Dose-Response Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J; Welsh, L; Gulliford, S; Harrington, K; Nutting, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The significant morbidity caused by radiation-induced acute oral mucositis means that studies aiming to elucidate dose-response relationships in this tissue are a high priority. However, there is currently no standardized method for delineating the mucosal structures within the oral cavity. This report describes the development of a methodology to delineate the oral mucosa accurately on CT scans in a semi-automated manner. Methods: An oral mucosa atlas for automated segmentation was constructed using the RayStation Atlas-Based Segmentation (ABS) module. A radiation oncologist manually delineated the full surface of the oral mucosa on a planning CT scan of a patient receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the head and neck region. A 3mm fixed annulus was added to incorporate the mucosal wall thickness. This structure was saved as an atlas template. ABS followed by model-based segmentation was performed on four further patients sequentially, adding each patient to the atlas. Manual editing of the automatically segmented structure was performed. A dose comparison between these contours and previously used oral cavity volume contours was performed. Results: The new approach was successful in delineating the mucosa, as assessed by an experienced radiation oncologist, when applied to a new series of patients receiving head and neck RT. Reductions in the mean doses obtained when using the new delineation approach, compared with the previously used technique, were demonstrated for all patients (median: 36.0%, range: 25.6% – 39.6%) and were of a magnitude that might be expected to be clinically significant. Differences in the maximum dose that might reasonably be expected to be clinically significant were observed for two patients. Conclusion: The method developed provides a means of obtaining the dose distribution delivered to the oral mucosa more accurately than has previously been achieved. This will enable the acquisition of high quality dosimetric data for use in

  5. CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

  6. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA by in situ hybridization in oral mucosa epithelial cells from anti-HIV-1 positive patients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Jiménez, Esther; Bartolomé, Javier; Ortiz-Movilla, Nuria; Bartolomé Villar, Begoña; José Arrieta, Juan; Manzarbeitia, Felix; Carreño, Vicente

    2005-09-01

    Several in vitro studies have shown that HIV-1 can infect CD4 negative epithelial cells of different origin including normal human oral keratinocytes, but whether this infection of mucosal epithelial cells occurs in vivo is still unclear. In this report, the presence and cell types infected by HIV-1 in paraffin embedded oral mucosa biopsies from 17 anti-HIV-1 positive patients have been examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. As controls, oral mucosa biopsies from eight patients without HIV-1 infection markers were also analyzed. The results showed that 8 out of the 17 anti-HIV-1 positive patients had HIV-1 RNA detectable in plasma. Positive hybridization signals were observed in the mucosa biopsies from 14 of the 17 anti-HIV-1 patients (82.3%). The mean percentage of cells showing HIV-1 RNA was 2.64% +/- 1.77% (range: 1% to 5.5%). No differences in the mean percentage of HIV-1 infected cells were found between patients with and without HIV-1 RNA in plasma (3.01% +/- 1.57% vs. 3.4% +/- 1.27% respectively), or between untreated patients and patients under antiretroviral therapy (2.83% +/- 1.63% vs. 3.42% +/- 1.29% respectively). Immunohistochemical detection of S-100 antigen, cytokeratin and CD4 showed that hybridization signals appeared in cytokeratin positive cells and CD4 positive cells but not in S-100 positive cells. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that HIV-1 infects and replicates in oral mucosa epithelial cells in vivo and that these cells could represent a reservoir of the virus that may escape to the currently used antiretroviral therapy. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2014-02-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 μm fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p < 0.0001; PPIX: rs = 0.959, p < 0.0001). In difference spectra from oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  8. Effect of dexmedetomidine injected into the oral mucosa in combination with lidocaine on local anesthetic potency in humans: a crossover double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ayaka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to dexmedetomidine, a selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, as a possible additive for local anesthesia. However, the effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on the anesthetic action in humans has not fully been clarified. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine injected into the oral mucosa in combination with lidocaine on local anesthetic potency in humans. Twenty healthy volunteers were included in the present crossover double-blinded study. Lidocaine solution or lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution was submucosally injected into the alveolar mucosa in a crossover and double-blinded manner. The local anesthetic effect of the solutions was evaluated by measuring the current perception threshold (CPT) in the oral mucosa for 120 minutes after injection. Furthermore, the sedation level, blood pressure, and heart rate of the volunteers were evaluated. For statistical analysis, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and 2-way repeated measures analysis of variation were used. The CPT was increased with the 2 solutions and peaked 10 minutes after injection. CPT values 10 and 20 minutes after injection of lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution were considerably higher than those with lidocaine solution. The duration of an important increase in the CPT after injection with lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution was longer than that with lidocaine. Furthermore, the area under the time curve of CPT was considerably higher with lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution than with lidocaine solution. No volunteer showed a change in sedation level, blood pressure, or heart rate after injection with either test solution throughout the experiment. The present study showed that a combination of dexmedetomidine plus lidocaine considerably enhances the local anesthetic potency of lidocaine without any major influences on the cardiovascular system when locally injected into the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2015

  9. Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Kusumoto, Junya; Takeda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto; Komori, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1–4) (TRPV1–4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli, chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1–4 receptors. Hence, we examined the relationship between oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and TRPV1–4 expression. Materials and Methods Oral SCC patients (n = 37) who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. We investigated the expression of TRPV1–4 by immunohistochemical staining and quantification of TRPV1–4 mRNA in human oral mucosa. In addition, we compared the TRPV1–4 levels in mucosa from patients with SCC to those in normal oral mucosa. Results The receptors were expressed in oral mucosa at all sites (tongue, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and oral floor) and the expression was stronger in epithelia from patients with SCC than in normal epithelia. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and tobacco use were strongly associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and were found to have a remarkable influence on TRPV1–4 receptor expression in normal oral mucosa. In particular, patients with a history of alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher expression levels. Conclusion Various external stimuli may influence the behavior of cancer cells. Overexpression of TRPV1-4 is likely to be a factor in enhanced sensitivity to external stimuli. These findings could contribute to the establishment of novel strategies for cancer therapy or prevention. PMID:28081185

  10. Histology of the Oral Mucosa in Patients With BRONJ at III Stage: A Microscopic Study Proves the Unsuitability of Local Mucosal Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Sara Di; Trapassi, Alberto; Corradino, Bartolo; Cordova, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonate Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) is a newly recognized condition reported in patients treated with aminobisphosphonates (BF). BRONJ is defined as the presence of exposed necrotic alveolar bone that does not resolve over a period of 8 weeks in a patient taking bisphosphonates who has not had radiotherapy to the jaw. Treatment protocols have been outlined, but trials and outcomes of treatment and long-term follow-up data are not yet available. In 2004 an expert panel outlined recommendations for the management of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Through the histological study of the oral mucosa over the bone necrosis and around the osteonecrosis area in 8 patients affected by BRONJ at III stage, the authors highlight the inappropriateness of the local mucosal flaps to cover the losses of substance of the jaw, BF-related. Methods Mucosa tissue was taken from 8 patients, affected by BRONJ, III stage. The samples taken from the mucosa around and over the osteonecrosis area were fixed with formalin and an ematossilina-eosin dichromatic coloring was carried out. Results The samples of mucosa showed pathognomonic signs of cell suffering that prove that in these patients using local mucosa flaps is inappropriate. Conclusions The authors suggest that only a well vascularized flap as free flap must be used to cover the osteonecrosis area in patients with BRONJ stage III. Because of the structural instability of the mucosa in patients suffering of osteonecrosis Bf related the local flaps are prone to ulceration and to relapse. PMID:23390472

  11. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Apparently Normal Oral Mucosa and its Correlation With Clinicopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sindhu; Nayak, Ramakant; Bhat, Kishore; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Babji, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) is essential for its growth, invasion, and metastasis. This entails a shift in the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. CD105 and TGF-β1 are 2 such proangiogenic factors wherein CD105 exerts its angiogenic effect by binding to and modulating the TGF-β1 pathway. A total of 50 resected specimens of OSCC were considered. One tissue specimen was taken from tumor proper and another specimen from adjacent apparently normal mucosa (AANM). Both tissues were immunohistochemically stained using CD105 and TGF-β1 antibodies. The expression of each antibody was individually assessed and then compared. Pearson χ test was used for statistical comparison of expression. CD105 was significantly expressed in OSCC as compared with AANM and also correlated with increasing TNM stage. The mean microvessel density was higher in OSCC. TGF-β1 was significantly expressed in epithelium of OSCC as compared with AANM. On comparing expression of TGF-β1 and CD105, 79.54% of endothelial cells expressed positivity for both molecules. Both CD105 and TGF-β1 were increased in OSCC, although based on our results CD105 alone can be used as a prognostic marker. On the basis of immunohistochemical expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in endothelial cells, our results demonstrate that CD105 acts as one of the receptors of TGF-β1 on endothelial cells and induces the angiogenic pathway in OSCC.

  12. The Use of Solid-Phase Concentrated Growth Factors for Surgical Defects in the Treatment of Dysplastic Lesions of the Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Lun; Wu, Shang-Liang; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Ko, Shun-Yao; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Yang, Jung-Wu

    2016-12-01

    Use of the skin graft and artificial dermis to reconstruct a defect after the excision of dysplastic lesions of the oral mucosa has been practiced for years. The purpose of this case series was to introduce a novel resolution-that is, an operating procedure using solid-phase concentrated growth factors (SPCGFs) to reconstruct oral mucosa defects-and observe the postoperative results and evaluate its clinical effects. In this consecutive serial case study of patients with oral dysplastic lesions who underwent operations from April 2015 through July 2015, the primary endpoint of the study was to observe the clinical wound-healing profile at 1 week, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. The secondary endpoint was to observe maximal interincisal opening (MIO) and wound pain preoperatively and at 1 and 3 days, 1 and 3 weeks, and 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The minimum follow-up was 8 months, and the longest was 1 year. All sites had healed with complete epithelialization after 3 weeks postoperatively. All patients had a wound-healing score no higher than 3 at 3 weeks postoperatively. The preoperative MIO was 52 ± 4.64 mm and the 6-month postoperative MIO was 49.2 ± 3.03 mm. No patient reported further pain from 3 weeks postoperatively. No recurrence of the lesion was found at or after the 6-month follow-up period. The results of this study show that the use of SPCGFs to reconstruct oral mucosa defects is feasible and practical. The efficacy of SPCGFs needs to be verified by additional studies with higher-level evidence bases in the future. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficiency of systemic versus intralesional bone marrow-derived stem cells in regeneration of oral mucosa after induction of formocresol induced ulcers in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Lobna A.; El-Menoufy, Hala; Sadeq, Hesham S.; Ragae, Alyaa; Sabry, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are the key to regenerative wound healing. MSCs have spatial memory and respond to local environment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of systemic and intralesional transplantation of BMSCs for regeneration of oral mucosa in an in vivo dog model. Materials and Methods: Transplantation of undifferentiated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled autologous BMSCs systemically, submucosally or vehicle (saline) was injected around the chemically induced oral ulcer in each group of 18 adult dogs. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. One way ANOVA was used to compare between means of the three groups. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: Flow cytometric analysis of the MSCs at the passage 3 showed that these cells were negative for CD45 (2.39%). They expressed high levels of CD29 (98.34%). Frozen fluorescence microscopy of sections of the cell-treated oral tissue of all groups indicated that the GFP-transduced implanted cells were integrated within the transplanted tissues. The treatment resulted in dramatic wound edge activation and resurfacing of oral mucosa wound. Conclusion: Our results revealed that BMSCs may be labeled with (GFP), in order to know the distribution of these cells after administration, and suggest that intralesional administration is an appropriate procedure to achieve acceptable regeneration of the previously injured oral mucosa more than systemic route. PMID:24932192

  14. Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katarkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Khan, Masood H; Ray, Jay G; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and quantification of DNA damage in oral premalignancy or malignancy may help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. However, due to the invasive nature of collecting blood, it may be painful for many unwilling patients. This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 participants, including those with oral lichen planus (OLP; n = 52), leukoplakia (LPK; n = 51), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF; n = 51), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; n = 54) and normal volunteers (n = 52). Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P < 0.0001) and micronuclei (MNi) frequency (P = 0.0009). The DNA damage pattern in precancer and cancer patients was OLP < OSF < LPK < OSCC, and with respective oral habits, it was multiple habits > cigarette + khaini > cigarette smokers > areca + khaini > areca. There was no significant difference in the comet length and MNi frequency between males and females who had oral chewing habits. An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P < 0.0001. Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions.

  15. The role and application of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral mucosa pathology - contemporary knowledge with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazanowska, Krzysztofa; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the current available literature, the authors have presented a short description of cytological examination and its application in the oral mucosa disease diagnostic process. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of this method are described. The available diagnostic tools used for oral smears were reviewed as well as more and more often available methods which aim at making the diagnosis process more accurate and more favorable for patients. Oral cytology analysis may, in the near future, be a very useful examination for patients in terms of diagnostics and monitoring, not only during the treatment but also afterwards. The authors would like to demonstrate what a beneficial tool this cytological examination could be as a fast and cheap cancer prophylactic test. This opinion is based on the fact that this cytological method has significantly improved the detection of uterine cervical cancer during a gynecological examination since the introduction of the Papanicolau technique in the 40s.

  16. [Comparison of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity and gastric mucosa according to virulence genotype (cagA and vacA m 1)].

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Ester; Moreno, Jessica; Spencer, María L; Quilodrán, Sandra; Brethauer, Ursula; Briceño, Carlos; García, Apolinaria

    2012-06-01

    To compare the virulence genotype (cagA and vacA ml genes) of Helicobacter pylori obtained simultaneously from gastric mucosa and oral cavity. Gastric samples of 18 patients were obtained by endoscopic biopsies. Oral samples of these patients were obtained from dental plaque and saliva swabs from the floor of the mouth and the base of the tongue. All samples were studied by conventional PCR and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Virulence genes cagA and vacA ml were studied by RT- PCR. According to presence and/or absence of cagA and vacAm1 genes, seven different combinations were observed. These results suggest that there is a variety of genetic profiles of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach and oral cavity, with a predominance of less virulent genotypes in the patients included in this study (cagA-, vacA m1-).

  17. Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters.

  18. Radiation-induced changes in the microstructure of epithelial cells of the oral mucosa: A comparative light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, Pekka J; Dekker, Hannah; Sirviö, Ellinoora; Mikkonen, Jopi; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Koistinen, Arto; Ten Bruggenkate, Chris M; Kullaa, Arja M

    2017-09-02

    The microplicae is a typical structure of the epithelial cell surface of the oral mucosa. The cell surface is potentially of great significance, as it provides the underlying basis for the protective function of the salivary pellicle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation therapy affects the surface morphology of the superficial cells of the human oral mucosa in patients who have received radiotherapy for oral cancer. Oral mucosal tissue samples from 91 patients were collected during dental implant surgery or ablative surgery. Study group 1 consisted of 28 patients who underwent dental implant surgery after radiotherapy. Group 2 consisted of five patients who developed osteoradionecrosis. Group 3 consisted of eight oral cancer patients without radiotherapy. Group 4 consisted of 50 clinically healthy subjects as controls. The samples were studied with scanning electron microscopy and compared with both light and transmission electron micrographs. Radiation therapy (RT) induces breakage and destruction in the microplicae morphology and declines the density of the microplicae surface structures. In some of the irradiated cells, the microplicae were completely vanished, especially in patients who developed osteoradionecrosis. In non-irradiated tissue, the microplicae of the superficial epithelial cells were intact in all cases. Scanning electron microscopy, in contrast to light microscopy, appears to be a useful tool to reveal the condition of superficial oral mucosal cells. In respect of the possible pathogenesis of osteoradionecrosis, the radiation-induced damage of the microplicae and its influence on the mucosal salivary pellicle is discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly.

  20. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years

    PubMed Central

    Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

  1. The significance of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) & DNA Topoisomerase II alpha (DNA-Topo II alpha) immunoreactivity in normal oral mucosa, Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Shamaa, Ali A; Zyada, Manal M; Wagner, Mathias; Awad, Sally S; Osman, Mohamed M; Azeem, Ali A Abdel

    2008-01-01

    Background Head and neck cancer including oral cancer is considered to develop by accumulated genetic alterations and the major pathway is cancerization from lesions such as intraepithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia. The relationship of proliferation markers with the grading of dysplasia is uncertain. The involvement of EBV in oral carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Aim The present study was designed to investigate the role of EBV and DNA Topoisomerase II∝ (DNA-Topo II∝) during oral carcinogenesis and to examine the prognostic significance of these protein expressions in OSCCs. Methods Using specific antibodies for EBV and DNA-Topo II∝, we examined protein expressions in archival lesion tissues from 16 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, 22 oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 normal oral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospective database from the tumor registry. Results DNA-Topo II∝ was expressed in all examined specimens. Analysis of Variance ANOVA revealed highly significant difference (P < 0.01) in young aged labial tissues and significant (P ≤ 0.05) in gingival and not significant (P > 0.05) in inferior surface of tongue and in hard palatal tissues. Significant differences were observed between OEDs and NSE (P < 0.001) and SCCs and controls (P < 0.001), also, significant differences could be observed between SCCs and OEDs. DNA-Topo II∝ expression was significantly higher in tumors of low differentiation versus tumors of moderate and high differentiation (P < 0.001), DNA-Topo II∝ expression was correlated with age, tumor size, tumor stage, node metastasis and tumor differentiation, but not with gender and tumor site. None of normal squamous epithelium (NSE) expressed EBV. Heterogenous reactivity for EBV was observed through the series of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. Its expression increased progressively with lymph node metastasis and low tumor

  2. Effects of oral supplementation with glutamate or combination of glutamate and N-carbamylglutamate on intestinal mucosa morphology and epithelium cell proliferation in weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Zhang, Y; Liu, Z; Li, T J; Yin, Y L

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of glutamate (Glu) or combination of Glu and N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal mucosa morphology and epithelium cell proliferation, 18 piglets weaned at 21 d (BW 5.56 ± 0.51 kg) were grouped into 3 treatments and fed one of the following diets for 20 d: a standard diet (SD), SD+Glu(1%), or SD+Glu(1%)+NCG(0.05%). All the piglets were killed for intestinal mucosa collection, and real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and β-catenin. The results showed that compared with the control group, adding Glu or Glu+NCG to the diet resulted in a higher villus height and mucosal thickness (P < 0.05) in the jejunum. However, the villus height/crypt depth ratio was unaltered. The RT-PCR results showed that Glu+NCG significantly increased PCNA mRNA abundance in both jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05), while they also significantly increased β-catenin and VEGF mRNA abundance in ileum (P < 0.05). Only Glu increased PCNA mRNA abundance in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and β-catenin mRNA in the jejunum (P < 0.05). These results indicated that oral supply of Glu improved intestinal mucosa morphology, and combined Glu and NCG may have favorable effects on intestinal epithelium cell proliferation than Glu alone.

  3. [Solcoseryl--dental adherent paste in the treatment of acute radiation-induced inflammation of oral mucosa, gingivae and tongue].

    PubMed

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G

    1990-07-01

    On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa.

  4. Ulceration of the oral mucosa following direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients: a case report and a review of the French National Pharmacovigilance Database.

    PubMed

    Liabeuf, Sophie; Gras, Valérie; Moragny, Julien; Laroche, Marie-Laure; Andrejak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    To report a series of cases of ulceration of the oral mucosa linked to direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients. The first case report concerns the occurrence of widespread oral ulceration in an 87-year-old woman with Alzheimer's disease. The ulceration extended from the side of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. No clear explanation was found and various local treatments were ineffective. Once it was realized that the ferrous sulfate tablets (given as an iron supplement) were crushed prior to administration (due to the patient's deglutition disorder), withdrawal of this treatment led to rapid resolution of the ulceration. Nine other cases of oral ulcerations associated with ferrous sulfate were identified in the French National Pharmacovigilance Database. All but one of the patients were over 80 years of age and the youngest patient (a 54-year-old) had dysphagia associated with facial paralysis. Only two other reports of oral ulceration due to ferrous sulfate have been published to date. Mucosal toxicity of ferrous sulfate (which is probably related to oxidative stress) has previously been reported for the hypopharynx, the esophageal lumen, and (after inhalation of a tablet) the tracheobronchial tree. The mucosal toxicity of ferrous sulfate must be taken into account when deglutition disorders are present (as in elderly patients) and appropriate pharmaceutical formulations (such as syrups) should be administered to at-risk patients. The use of iron salts other than ferrous sulfate could be considered.

  5. Real-time quantification of proteins secreted by artificial connective tissue made from uni- or multidirectional collagen I scaffolds and oral mucosa fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Rosa Helena; Suesca, Edward; Millán, Diana; González, José Manuel; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2014-03-04

    Previously, we found that oral autologous artificial connective tissue (AACT) had a different protein secretion profile to that of clot-embedded AACT. Other oral mucosa substitutes, having different cell types and scaffolds, had dissimilar secretion profiles of proteins (including that for AACT) that influence healing outcome; thus, to ascertain the profiles of factors secreted by artificial tissue and whether they are influenced by their microstructure might help in understanding their bioactivity. An important component of tissue microstructure is the fiber orientation of the scaffold used for manufacturing it. This work developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology to quantify factors secreted by oral artificial connective tissue (ACT) in culture medium, and a method to manufacture unidirectional laminar collagen I scaffolds. The SPR methodology was used for assessing differences in the protein secretion profile of ACT made with collagen scaffolds having different fiber orientation (unidirectional vs multidirectional). Oral fibroblasts seeded onto unidirectional scaffolds increased the secretion of six factors involved in modulating healing compared to those seeded onto multidirectional scaffolds. Histological analysis of uni- and multidirectional ACT showed that cells differ in their alignment and morphology. This SPR-methodology led to nanoscale detection of paracrine factors and might be useful to study biomarkers of three-dimensional cell growth, cell differentiation, and wound-healing progression.

  6. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: an epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years.

    PubMed

    Candau-Alvarez, Alberto; Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco-Jesús; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan-José; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

    2014-09-01

    Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients.

  7. In-vivo nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) of epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) reveals quantitative measures of neoplasia in hamster oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Ortiz, Daniel; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) plays an integral role in epithelial neoplasia, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This interface undergoes significant alterations due to hyperproliferating epithelium that supports the transformation of normal epithelium to precancers and cancer. We present a method based on nonlinear optical microscopy to directly assess the ECTI and quantify dysplastic alterations using a hamster model for oral carcinogenesis. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic normal mucosa were imaged in-vivo by both multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) to obtain cross-sectional reconstructions of the oral epithelium and lamina propria. Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histopathological grading and measurement of ECTI parameters. An ECTI shape parameter was calculated based on deviation from the linear geometry (ΔLinearity) seen in normal mucosa was measured using MPAM-SHGM and histology. The ECTI was readily visible in MPAM-SHGM and quantitative shape analysis showed ECTI deformation in dysplasia but not in normal mucosa. ΔLinearity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dysplasia (0.41±0.24) than normal (0.11±0.04) as measured in MPAM-SHGM and results were confirmed in histology which showed similar trends in ΔLinearity. Increase in ΔLinearity was also statistically significant for different grades of dysplasia. In-vivo ΔLinearity measurement alone from microscopy discriminated dysplasia from normal tissue with 87.9% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, while calculations from histology provided 96.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Among other quantifiable architectural changes, a progressive statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness was seen with increasing grade of dysplasia. MPAM-SHGM provides new noninvasive ways for direct characterization of ECTI which may be used in preclinical studies to investigate the role of this interface in

  8. In-Vivo Nonlinear Optical Microscopy (NLOM) of Epithelial-Connective Tissue Interface (ECTI) Reveals Quantitative Measures of Neoplasia in Hamster Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Ortiz, Daniel; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) plays an integral role in epithelial neoplasia, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This interface undergoes significant alterations due to hyperproliferating epithelium that supports the transformation of normal epithelium to precancers and cancer. We present a method based on nonlinear optical microscopy to directly assess the ECTI and quantify dysplastic alterations using a hamster model for oral carcinogenesis. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic normal mucosa were imaged in-vivo by both multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) to obtain cross-sectional reconstructions of the oral epithelium and lamina propria. Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histopathological grading and measurement of ECTI parameters. An ECTI shape parameter was calculated based on deviation from the linear geometry (ΔLinearity) seen in normal mucosa was measured using MPAM-SHGM and histology. The ECTI was readily visible in MPAM-SHGM and quantitative shape analysis showed ECTI deformation in dysplasia but not in normal mucosa. ΔLinearity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dysplasia (0.41±0.24) than normal (0.11±0.04) as measured in MPAM-SHGM and results were confirmed in histology which showed similar trends in ΔLinearity. Increase in ΔLinearity was also statistically significant for different grades of dysplasia. In-vivo ΔLinearity measurement alone from microscopy discriminated dysplasia from normal tissue with 87.9% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, while calculations from histology provided 96.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Among other quantifiable architectural changes, a progressive statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness was seen with increasing grade of dysplasia. MPAM-SHGM provides new noninvasive ways for direct characterization of ECTI which may be used in preclinical studies to investigate the role of this interface in

  9. Chromosome damage and cytotoxicity in oral mucosa cells after 2 months of exposure to anabolic steroids (decadurabolin and winstrol) in weight lifting.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A S; Aguiar, Odair; Medalha, Carla C; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from anabolic steroid users after 2 months of exposure. Two experimental groups consisting of 15 adult males who practise weight lifting and are anabolic steroid users or 15 adult males who practise weight lifting, but are non-anabolic steroid users, were recruited. In addition, 20 sedentary males, who do not practise any physical activity regularly, were matched by age with experimental groups. No significant statistical differences (p>0.05) were noticed in individuals who practise physical activity only. On the other hand, an increase of micronucleated cells (MNCs) in anabolic steroid (decadurabulin and Winstrol) users was observed. Regarding cytotoxic parameters, the same observation has occurred, that is, significant statistical differences (p<0.05) were noticed in the group exposed to anabolic steroids when compared with other controls, as depicted by high frequencies of pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis. Taken together, our results suggest that genomic instability and cytotoxicity are induced by anabolic steroid administration in oral mucosa cells as assessed by the micronucleus test.

  10. The long-term effect of anti TNF-alpha treatment on temporomandibular joints, oral mucosa, and salivary flow in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Moen, Ketil; Kvalvik, Anne Grimstvedt; Hellem, Sølve; Jonsson, Roland; Brun, Johan G

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of anti-TNF-alpha treatment on temporomandibular joints (TMJs), oral mucosa, and salivary flow in RA. Seventeen patients received infusions of TNF-alpha blocking agents after 0, 2, and 6 weeks, and then every 8 weeks until week 54 (follow-up). Clinical dysfunction index (Di) for the TMJ system, salivary flow, disease activity score (DAS28), and other medical assessments were calculated at weeks 0 and 54. Median Di was 5.0 (range 0-21) at baseline and 1.0 (range 0-6) (P = .001) at follow-up. Mean salivary flow was 3.2 mL/15 minutes at baseline and 4.6 at follow-up (P = .055). Two (11.7%) of the patients developed oral candidiasis during the period of treatment. The median DAS28 was 6.2 (range, 4.7-7.7) at baseline and 4.1 (range, 1.6-6.8) at follow-up (P = .001). We conclude that anti-TNF-alpha blocking treatments have beneficial effects on oral as well as general manifestations of RA.

  11. Hyperplasia of gastric mucosa in donor rats orally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs and in recipient rats surgically implanted with the larvae in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Konno, K; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

    1999-06-01

    Rats heavily infected with Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the liver show a remarkable increase in their stomach weight, hyperplasia, and hypergastrinemia. However, it is unknown what causes these phenomena. Hence, as a preliminary study to investigate the importance of larval parasitism in the liver, two experiments were done. In the first experiment, 14 donor rats were orally inoculated with 3,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs. In the second experiment, 136-300 of the larvae obtained from the rats were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of 7 recipient rats. Gastrin levels and histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa were investigated. In all, 11 donor rats showed hypergastrinemia and hyperplasia, 5 recipient rats showed gastric mucosal hyperplasia accompanied by excessive mucous cell proliferation, and 2 recipient rats showed hypergastrinemia. These results suggest that parasitism of the liver by the larvae is not essential for the development of hyperplasia and that factors from the larvae might cause these phenomena.

  12. Nickel-Related Intestinal Mucositis in IBS-Like Patients: Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and Oral Mucosa Patch Test in Use.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Raffaele; Puzzono, Marta; Rosato, Edoardo; Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Greco, Francesca; Picarelli, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) is often the trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like gastrointestinal disorders: its ingestion may cause allergic contact mucositis, identifiable by means of oral mucosa patch test (omPT). OmPT effectiveness has been proven, but it is still an operator-dependent method. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) was tested to support omPT in Ni allergic contact mucositis diagnosis. Group A: 22 patients with intestinal/systemic symptoms related to the ingestion of Ni-containing foods. Group B: 12 asymptomatic volunteers. Ni-related symptoms and their severity were tested by a questionnaire. All patients underwent Ni omPT with clinical evaluation at baseline (T0), after 30 min (T1), after 2 h (T2), and after 24-48 h (T3). LDPI was performed to evaluate the mean mucosal perfusion at T0, T1, and T2. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and Bonferroni multiple-comparison test. All 22 Ni-sensitive patients (group A) presented oral mucosa hyperemia and/or edema at T2. Eight out of the same 22 patients presented a local delayed vesicular reaction at T3 (group A1), unlike the remaining 14 out of 22 patients (group A2). All 12 patients belonging to control group B did not show any alteration. The mean mucosal perfusion calculated with LDPI showed an increase in both subgroups A1 and A2. In group B, no significant perfusion variations were observed. LDPI may support omPT for diagnostic purposes in Ni allergic contact mucositis. This also applies to symptomatic Ni-sensitive patients without aphthous stomatitis after 24-48 h from omPT and that could risk to miss the diagnosis.

  13. Beta-carotene isomers in human serum, breast milk and buccal mucosa cells after continuous oral doses of all-trans and 9-cis beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E J; Qin, J; Krinsky, N I; Russell, R M

    1997-10-01

    The concentrations of all-trans beta-carotene (tBC) and 9-cis beta-carotene (9cBC) isomers in serum, breast milk and buccal mucosa cells were determined after continuous oral doses as a simple, non-invasive method to determine whether differences in tissue uptake are important determinants of serum responses. Twelve healthy lactating women were recruited for a nonresidential study. On d 1, blood samples were obtained from fasting subjects for baseline concentrations of beta-carotene isomers. Over a 1-wk period, subjects were given either seven doses of a placebo (n = 4) or seven doses of naturally occurring BC (n = 8) derived from Dunaliella bardawil (64 mg tBC, 69 mg 9cBC). Subjects were instructed to consume a single beta-carotene dose along with a meal containing adequate fat each day for 1 wk. On d 2, 3, 5 and 8, blood samples and breast milk were collected from fasting subjects. On d 1 and 8, buccal mucosa cells were collected. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids by HPLC. In the experimental group, the mean serum concentration of tBC significantly increased to seven times the baseline level by the end of the supplementation period (P < 0.0001). The serum concentration of 9cBC significantly increased to three times the baseline level by the end of the supplementation period (P < 0.0001). The changes in milk and buccal mucosa cells levels of tBC and 9cBC followed a pattern similar to that for serum, showing significant increases at the end of the supplementation period. In the control group, the serum, milk and buccal mucosa cell concentrations of BC isomers did not change. This study confirms the previously reported differences in the serum response curves of tBC and 9cBC and provides evidence that there is no difference in tissue uptake of tBC and 9cBC.

  14. GAS6 is a key homeostatic immunological regulator of host-commensal interactions in the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Maria; Tabib, Yaara; Capucha, Tal; Mizraji, Gabriel; Nir, Tsipora; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Heyman, Oded; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Bercovier, Herve; Wilensky, Asaf; Elinav, Eran; Burstyn-Cohen, Tal; Hovav, Avi-Hai

    2017-01-17

    The oral epithelium contributes to innate immunity and oral mucosal homeostasis, which is critical for preventing local inflammation and the associated adverse systemic conditions. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the oral epithelium maintains homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of growth arrest specific 6 (GAS6), a ligand of the TYRO3-AXL-MERTK (TAM) receptor family, in regulating oral mucosal homeostasis. Expression of GAS6 was restricted to the outer layers of the oral epithelium. In contrast to protein S, the other TAM ligand, which was constitutively expressed postnatally, expression of GAS6 initiated only 3-4 wk after birth. Further analysis revealed that GAS6 expression was induced by the oral microbiota in a myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent fashion. Mice lacking GAS6 presented higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, elevated frequencies of neutrophils, and up-regulated activity of enzymes, generating reactive nitrogen species. We also found an imbalance in Th17/Treg ratio known to control tissue homeostasis, as Gas6-deficient dendritic cells preferentially secreted IL-6 and induced Th17 cells. As a result of this immunological shift, a significant microbial dysbiosis was observed in Gas6(-/-) mice, because anaerobic bacteria largely expanded by using inflammatory byproducts for anaerobic respiration. Using chimeric mice, we found a critical role for GAS6 in epithelial cells in maintaining oral homeostasis, whereas its absence in hematopoietic cells synergized the level of dysbiosis. We thus propose GAS6 as a key immunological regulator of host-commensal interactions in the oral epithelium.

  15. Effect of ethanol on lipid metabolism and epithelial permeability barrier of skin and oral mucosa in the rat.

    PubMed

    Squier, Christopher A; Kremer, Mary J; Wertz, Philip W

    2003-11-01

    Ethanol consumption induces changes in lipid metabolism. This might be reflected locally as an alteration in the epithelial lipid barrier. Rats were fed with an isocaloric liquid diet with, or without, ethanol (6.7%) and were sacrificed at 60 or 120 days. Plasma and liver triglycerides, gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGTP) levels, and permeability (Kp) of skin and buccal mucosa to tritiated water and the tobacco carcinogen, nitrosonornicotine, were determined. Significant elevation of GGTP at 120 days and triglycerides at both 60 and 120 days was observed for rats fed with ethanol diet. For this diet, Kp values to both penetrants increased significantly for skin in rats after 120 days compared to all other groups. The parallel between changes in lipid metabolism and permeability suggests that one effect of ingested alcohol is to alter the lipid-containing permeability barrier of stratified squamous epithelium.

  16. Exploring beyond the oral mucosa in patients affected with autoimmune blistering diseases: the importance of endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    España, A; Fernandez, S

    2016-09-14

    Autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) comprise several entities characterized by the presence of autoantibodies targeted against structural proteins either in desmosomes or in the dermoepidermal junction of polystratified squamous epithelium. Patients develop blisters, erosions in cutaneous surfaces or mucosas. Diagnosis is based on the characteristic mucocutaneous lesions, the typical findings on histological studies and direct immunofluorescence assays, and the presence of specific autoantibodies against the epidermal antigens. It may not be possible for dermatologists to appropriately explore the nose and throat (NT). Thus, a clinical exploration by endoscopic procedures of NT may be a useful tool during the conventional dermatological exam. The aims of this review are to draw attention to the most frequent NT manifestations in AIBD patients, and underline the utility of endoscopic procedures to achieve a more successful and rationale management of patients. Additionally, we will provide brief information related to the anatomical structures and type of epithelium in NT areas which may explain the extent and type of NT involvement in AIBD. Endoscopic exploration in AIBD patients is important for several reasons. Firstly, it will allow the real NT mucosal involvement in each patient to be determined, thus making a differential diagnosis during the endoscopic exam possible, based on the localization of mucosal lesions. Secondary mucosal morbidity can also be ruled out. Secondly, the clinical response to treatment may be established, especially in NT mucosa, as these are anatomical areas subjected to important local traumas, and physiological functions such as breathing, swallowing, speech production and phonation may be damaged. Therefore, a multidisciplinary management in AIBD is mandatory by both dermatologists and otorhinolaryngologists, adding the clinical exploration by endoscopic procedures of NT to the conventional dermatological exam in all AIBD patients

  17. Differential immunohistochemical expression profiles of perlecan-binding growth factors in epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Mayumi; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Abé, Tatsuya; Babkair, Hamzah; Saito, Chikara; Saku, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The intercellular deposit of perlecan, a basement-membrane type heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is considered to function as a growth factor reservoir and is enhanced in oral epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS). However, it remains unknown which types of growth factors function in these perlecan-enriched epithelial conditions. The aim of this study was to determine immunohistochemically which growth factors were associated with perlecan in normal oral epithelia and in different epithelial lesions from dysplasia and CIS to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Eighty-one surgical tissue specimens of oral SCC containing different precancerous stages, along with ten of normal mucosa, were examined by immunohistochemistry for growth factors. In normal epithelia, perlecan and growth factors were not definitely expressed. In epithelial dysplasia, VEGF, SHH, KGF, Flt-1, and Flk-1were localized in the lower half of rete ridges (in concordance with perlecan, 33-100%), in which Ki-67 positive cells were densely packed. In CIS, perlecan and those growth factors/receptors were more strongly expressed in the cell proliferating zone (63-100%). In SCC, perlecan and KGF disappeared from carcinoma cells but emerged in the stromal space (65-100%), while VEGF, SHH, and VEGF receptors remained positive in SCC cells (0%). Immunofluorescence showed that the four growth factors were shown to be produced by three oral SCC cell lines and that their signals were partially overlapped with perlecan signals. The results indicate that perlecan and its binding growth factors are differentially expressed and function in specific manners before (dysplasia/CIS) and after (SCC) invasion of dysplasia/carcinoma cells.

  18. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  19. CaN19 expression in benign and malignant hyperplasias of the skin and oral mucosa: evidence for a role in regenerative differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xia, L; Stoll, S W; Liebert, M; Ethier, S P; Carey, T; Esclamado, R; Carroll, W; Johnson, T M; Elder, J T

    1997-07-15

    CaN19, a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, is known to be "underexpressed" in cultured breast carcinoma-derived cell lines relative to their normal counterparts. By Northern blotting, we confirm these results and find that CaN19 is also markedly "underexpressed" in several carcinoma-derived cell lines of the skin, oral mucosa, and urogenital tract. However, exceptions to the inverse correlation between CaN19 expression and malignancy have been identified, bringing into question the hypothesis that CaN19 functions as a tumor suppressor gene. Unexpectedly, CaN19 mRNA was strongly expressed in bulk specimens of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and oral cavity. However, in situ hybridization revealed only limited CaN19 expression in tumor cells themselves; the bulk of expression is localized to hyperplastic perilesional epidermis. Tumor cell expression of CaN19 was similar in primary and locally metastatic tumors, indicating that this gene is not necessarily down-regulated during tumor progression. Coordinate overexpression of CaN19 and the "hyperproliferalive" keratin K6a was observed only in tissues undergoing squamous differentiation. Taken together with other recent results from our laboratory, these findings suggest the hypothesis that CaN19 participates in an epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent pathway of regenerative squamous differentiation.

  20. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  1. Peripheral blood lymphocyte typing as a useful tool to objectify the oral mucosa patch test in the diagnosis of allergic contact mucositis to nickel.

    PubMed

    Di Tola, Marco; Amodeo, Rachele; Marino, Mariacatia; Tabacco, Fabio; Casale, Rossella; Bove, Maurizio; Rossi, Alfredo; Cardelli, Patrizia; Picarelli, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) exposure through the intestinal mucosa may cause a hypersensitivity reaction recently defined as allergic contact mucositis (ACM). This condition is identifiable by the oral mucosa patch test (omPT), a qualitative and subjective examination that requires clinical expertise. Our aim was to evaluate if a peripheral blood lymphocyte typing performed before and after the omPT for Ni may be able to objectify this examination for diagnostic purposes. Thirty patients with symptoms referable to the ingestion of Ni-rich foods were subjected to omPT for Ni. Before and after the omPT, each patient underwent blood sampling for the typing of total lymphocytes and their subsets (T, T helper or Th, T cytotoxic or Tc, B, natural killer or NK). Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. According to the omPT outcomes, 18 patients were defined as Ni-sensitive and the remaining 12 as controls. In Ni-sensitive patients, the number of total, T, Th, Tc, and B lymphocytes/μL whole blood increased after the omPT (p<0.0001 for the first three, p=0.0004 and p=0.0001 for the last two lymphocyte types). No omPT-dependent lymphocyte increase was observed in controls. The post/pre omPT cell ratio, especially if calculated for Th lymphocytes, appears to be an effective index for diagnostic purposes (sensitivity=100%, specificity=83.3%, Youden index=0.833, area under curve (AUC)=0.926, p<0.0001). In conclusion, the peripheral blood lymphocyte typing with calculation of post/pre omPT cell ratio has the potential to support the omPT in diagnosing ACM, with the advantage of providing quantitative and objective data.

  2. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject.

  3. Prevalence of oral lesions and normal variants of the oral mucosa in 12 to 15-year-old students in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Morse, Douglas E; Alinejad, Halimeh

    2012-03-01

    There are relatively few systematic studies, documenting the prevalence of mucosal disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions in 12- to 15-year olds living in Tehran and to assess the possible relationship between the occurrence of these lesions and gender. A cross-sectional study was designed in which 1020 adolescents were participated. The sample size was based upon an expected oral lesion prevalence of 25%, a precision of 0.05 and a confidence level of 99. Epi-info version 6.0 was used for statistical analysis. Two hundred eighty-six adolescents (28.0%) were diagnosed with at least one oral mucosal lesion at the time of the examination. The prevalence of any oral mucosal lesion was 29.2% among the boys and 26.9% among the girls. With the exception of melanotic macules, there were no statistically significant differences in oral mucosal lesion prevalence by gender. More than 28% of the adolescents were found to have at least one oral mucosal lesion. Melanotic macule was found to be proportionally more common in boys than girls.

  4. Does the Excision of Overlying Oral Mucosa Reduce the Recurrence Rate in the Treatment of the Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Moraissi, Essam Ahmed; Pogrel, M Anthony; Ellis, Edward

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether there is scientific evidence to support excision of the overlying mucosa (EOM) in conjunction with cyst enucleation to decrease the recurrence rate (RR) of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs). A systematic review with meta-analysis conforming to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was performed. A comprehensive search of 3 major databases through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL was conducted to identify all relevant articles published without date or language restrictions from inception to December 2015. Eligible articles were selected based on the following inclusion criteria: randomized, prospective, or retrospective studies comparing enucleation with EOM to enucleation without EOM for patients with KOTs. The predictor variable was treatment group (enucleation with EOM vs enucleation without EOM). The outcome variables were RR of KOTs, presence of epithelial islands and microcysts in the excised overlying mucosa, and correlation between recurrent cortically perforated KOTs. A weighted RR and odds ratio (OR; using a random- or fixed-effect model) and the Mantel-Haenszel test with 95% confidence interval (CI) were performed using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Eleven studies were included in this review. There was no significant difference between enucleation with and without EOM (random; OR = 3.259; 95%, 0.975-10.901, P = 0.055). The weighted event rates for enucleation with Carnoy's solution plus EOM and enucleation without EOM in cortically perforated lesions were 6.2% (random; 95% CI, 2.6-14) and 9.1% (random; 95% CI, 1.6-38.2), respectively. The weighted event rate for the presence of epithelial islands and microcysts in overlying mucosa of KOTs was 68.8% (random; 95% CI, 27.2-92.9). The results of this study suggest that enucleation of KOTs plus the use of Carnoy's solution or liquid nitrogen (when indicated) should be combined with EOM to

  5. Oral mucosa symptoms, signs and lesions, in end stage renal disease and non-end stage renal disease diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa García, Estela; Mondragón Padilla, Arnoldo; Aranda Romo, Saray; Bustamante Ramírez, Martha Alicia

    2006-11-01

    To assess oral signs, symptoms and oral lesions (OL) type and prevalence, in diabetic patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD DM), and compare them with analogous findings in a non-ESRD DM group; analyze the possible association between oral manifestations, as well as with relevant laboratory findings. Research design. Two adult groups were studied: Group A: ESRD DM on dialysis, and group B: non-ESRD DM (serum creatinine <2.0 mg/dl). Known DM evolution time, dialysis treatment type and duration, and laboratory results were recorded. An oral exam was performed, searching for signs, symptoms and ESRD-associated OL. Associations were analyzed using Chi square, Fisher s exact test, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Ages, time on dialysis, and laboratory results were compared with Student s t test. 229 individuals were examined, group A 99, and group B 130 pts. Signs and symptoms prevalence was higher in group A: 77.8% vs. 57.6%, (P<0.001), uremic breath (48.5%), unpleasant taste (45.5%) and xerostomia (44.4%) being the most frequent ones. OL were also more prevalent in group A; 65.6% vs. 36.9% (P<0.001). The most frequent OL were dry, fissured lips (28.3%), saburral tongue (18.2%) and candidiasis (17.2%). No difference was found in candidiasis prevalence between groups. Candidiasis was found associated to xerostomia (P<0.05) and smooth tongue (P<0.05) only in group A. ESRD DM patients had a significantly higher prevalence of signs, symptoms and OLs, as compared to non-ESRD DM pts. The high prevalence of uremic fetor, xerostomia, saburral tongue and candidiasis in group A, could be tried as warning signs on the possibility of non diagnosed advanced renal disease in other diabetic patients.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of the risk of tobacco abuse in oral mucosa using fluorescence spectroscopy: a clinical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazeer, Shaiju S.; Asish, Rajashekharan; Venugopal, Chandrashekharan; Anita, Balan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco abuse and alcoholism cause cancer, emphysema, and heart disease, which contribute to high death rates, globally. Society pays a significant cost for these habits whose first demonstration in many cases is in the oral cavity. Oral cavity disorders are highly curable if a screening procedure is available to diagnose them in the earliest stages. The aim of the study is to identify the severity of tobacco abuse, in oral cavity, as reflected by the emission from endogenous fluorophores and the chromophore hemoglobin. A group who had no tobacco habits and another with a history of tobacco abuse were included in this study. To compare the results with a pathological condition, a group of leukoplakia patients were also included. Emission from porphyrin and the spectral filtering modulation effect of hemoglobin were collected from different sites. Multivariate analysis strengthened the spectral features with a sensitivity of 60% to 100% and a specificity of 76% to 100% for the discrimination. Total hemoglobin and porphyrin levels of habitués and leukoplakia groups were comparable, indicating the alarming situation about the risk of tobacco abuse. Results prove that fluorescence spectroscopy along with multivariate analysis is an effective noninvasive tool for the early diagnosis of pathological changes due to tobacco abuse.

  7. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity.

  8. Areca nut-induced buccal mucosa fibroblast contraction and its signaling: a potential role in oral submucous fibrosis--a precancer condition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Hui-Lin; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2013-05-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an oral habit that increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition showing epithelial atrophy and tissue fibrosis. Persistent fibroblast contraction may induce the fibrotic contracture of tissue. In this study, we found that areca nut extract (ANE) (200-1200 µg/ml) stimulated buccal mucosa fibroblast (OMF)-populated collagen gel contraction. Arecoline but not arecaidine-two areca alkaloids, slightly induced the OMF contraction. Exogenous addition of carboxylesterase (2U/ml) prevented the arecoline- but not ANE-induced OMF contraction. OMF expressed inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors. ANE-induced OMF (800 µg/ml) contraction was inhibited by U73122 [phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (IP3 receptor antagonist), respectively. Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and verapamil, two calcium mobilization modulators, also suppressed the ANE-induced OMF contraction. ANE induced calcium/calmodulin kinase II and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in OMF. Moreover, W7 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibitor), HA1077 (Rho kinase inhibitor), ML-7 (MLC kinase inhibitor) and cytochalasin B (actin filament polymerization inhibitor) inhibited the ANE-induced OMF contraction. Although ANE elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in OMF, catalase, superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine showed no obvious effect on ANE-elicited OMF contraction. These results indicate that BQ chewing may affect the wound healing and fibrotic processes in OSF via inducing OMF contraction by ANE and areca alkaloids. AN components-induced OMF contraction was related to PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/calmodulin and Rho signaling pathway as well as actin filament polymerization, but not solely due to ROS production.

  9. Differential Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by Benzo[a]pyrene in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines and by Tobacco Smoking in Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Angela C.; Appleton, Kathryn; Henriod, Joel B.; Krayer, Joe W.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sigmon, Ryan C.; Kurtz, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BP), are major tobacco carcinogens. Their carcinogenic effects require metabolic activation by cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzymes. Relative CYP isoform expression is related to tissue-specific tobacco-related squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) susceptibility. There have been conflicting reports regarding relative CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 oral expression, and information regarding CYP1B1 expression in oral tissues is limited. OBJECTIVE To quantify BP- and tobacco-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in oral SCC cells and oral mucosa. STUDY DESIGN Real-time qPCR was performed to measure 1) BP-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in seven oral/other head and neck SCC cell lines 2) CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in gingiva from 22 smokers and 24 nonsmokers. RESULTS SCC lines exhibited either similar induction of both isoforms or preferential CYP1A1 induction (CYP1A1-to-CYP1B1 ratios 0.8-4.3). In contrast, gingival tissues from smokers exhibited preferential CYP1B1 induction. Marked interindividual variation in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression was observed among smokers. CONCLUSIONS In vitro conditions may not account for factors that modulate expression in vivo. Interindividual variation in inducible CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression may account in part for variation in tobacco-related oral SCC risk. PMID:19576839

  10. The effectiveness of benzydamine hydrochloride spraying on the endotracheal tube cuff or oral mucosa for postoperative sore throat.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Shiou; Hung, Nan-Kai; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Kuo, Chang-Po; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Go-Shine; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wong, Chih-Shung; Chu, Chi-Hong; Wu, Ching-Tang

    2010-10-01

    The etiology of postoperative sore throat (POST) is considered to be the result of laryngoscopy, intubation damage, or inflated cuff compression of the tracheal mucosa. In this study, we compared the effectiveness in alleviating POST using different approaches to benzydamine hydrochloride (BH) administration by spraying the endotracheal tube (ET) cuff or the oropharyngeal cavity, or both. Three hundred eighty patients were included in this prospective and double-blind study, which was randomized into 4 groups: group A, oropharyngeal cavity spray of BH, and distilled water on the ET cuff; group B, both the oropharyngeal cavity and the ET cuff received BH spray; group C, the ET cuff received BH spray, and the oropharyngeal cavity received distilled water; and group D, distilled water sprayed on both the ET tube and into the oropharyngeal cavity. The patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, severe) at 0, 2, 4, and 24 hours postextubation. The incidence of POST was 23.2%, 13.8%, 14.7%, and 40.4% in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. POST occurred significantly less frequently in groups B and C compared with group D (odds ratio: 0.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.60; P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between groups A and D (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.01). Moreover, there was no significant interaction between spraying BH over the oropharyngeal cavity and the ET cuff on the incidence of POST (P = 0.088). The severity of POST was significantly more intense in group D compared with groups B and C (P < 0.001). Group B had a significantly higher incidence of local numbness, burning, and/or stinging sensation compared with patients in group D (P < 0.05). This study indicates that spraying BH on the ET cuff decreases the incidence and severity of POST without increased BH-related adverse effects.

  11. Molecular Characteristics of High-Dose Melphalan Associated Oral Mucositis in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Gene Expression Study on Human Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bødker, Julie Støve; Christensen, Heidi Søgaard; Johansen, Preben; Nielsen, Søren; Christiansen, Ilse; Bergmann, Olav Jonas; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen; Vyberg, Mogens; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2017-01-01

    Background Toxicity of the oral and gastrointestinal mucosa induced by high-dose melphalan is a clinical challenge with no documented prophylactic interventions or predictive tests. The aim of this study was to describe molecular changes in human oral mucosa and to identify biomarkers correlated with the grade of clinical mucositis. Methods and Findings Ten patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were included. For each patient, we acquired three buccal biopsies, one before, one at 2 days, and one at 20 days after high-dose melphalan administration. We also acquired buccal biopsies from 10 healthy individuals that served as controls. We analyzed the biopsies for global gene expression and performed an immunohistochemical analysis to determine HLA-DRB5 expression. We evaluated associations between clinical mucositis and gene expression profiles. Compared to gene expression levels before and 20 days after therapy, at two days after melphalan treatment, we found gene regulation in the p53 and TNF pathways (MDM2, INPPD5, TIGAR), which favored anti-apoptotic defense, and upregulation of immunoregulatory genes (TREM2, LAMP3) in mucosal dendritic cells. This upregulation was independent of clinical mucositis. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 (surface receptors on dendritic cells) were expressed at low levels in all patients with MM, in the subgroup of patients with ulcerative mucositis (UM), and in controls; in contrast, the subgroup with low-grade mucositis (NM) displayed 5–6 fold increases in HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 expression in the first two biopsies, independent of melphalan treatment. Moreover, different splice variants of HLA-DRB1 were expressed in the UM and NM subgroups. Conclusions Our results revealed that, among patients with MM, immunoregulatory genes and genes involved in defense against apoptosis were affected immediately after melphalan administration, independent of the presence of clinical mucositis. Furthermore, our results suggested that the expression levels of HLA

  12. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

    PubMed

    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  13. Mouse papillomavirus MmuPV1 infects oral mucosa and preferentially targets the base of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Cladel, Nancy M.; Budgeon, Lynn R; Balogh, Karla K.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Hu, Jiafen; Christensen, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, a new mouse papillomavirus, MmuPV1, was discovered in a colony of NMRI- Foxn1nu /Foxn1nu athymic mice in India. This finding was significant because it was the first papillomavirus to be found in a laboratory mouse. In this paper we report successful infections of both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostral tongues of outbred athymic nude mice. We also report the observation that the base of the tongue, the area of the tongue often targeted by cancer-associated high-risk papillomavirus infections in humans, is especially susceptible to infection. A suitable animal model for the study of oral papillomavirus infections, co-infections, and cancers has long been sought. The work presented here suggests that such a model is now at hand. PMID:26609937

  14. Impact of Eating Probiotic Yogurt on Colonization by Candida Species of the Oral and Vaginal Mucosa in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haihong; Wang, Cuiwei; Hamilton, Pilar R.; Blackmon, Mandy L.; Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard A.; Li, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    Background Candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients continues to be a public health problem. Antifungal therapies are not always effective and may result in complications, such as the development of drug-resistant strains of Candida species. Objectives This study evaluated the impact of probiotic consumption on Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosa. Patients/Methods A pilot study was conducted in 24 women (17 HIV-infected, 7 HIV-uninfected) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The women underwent a 60-day initiation period with no probiotic consumption, followed by two 15-day consumption periods, with a different probiotic yogurt (DanActive™ or YoPlus™ yogurt) during each interval. There was a 30-day washout period between the two yogurt consumption periods. Oral and vaginal culture swabs were collected on days 0, 60, 74, and 120. Candida was detected by inoculating each swab in both Sabouraud's dextrose agar with or without chloramphenicol and CHROMagar. Results Less fungal colonization among women was observed when the women consumed probiotic yogurts (54 % of the women had vaginal fungal colonization during the non-probiotic yogurt consumption period, 29 % during the DanActive™ period, and 38 % during YoPlus™ yogurt consumption period), and HIV-infected women had significantly lower vaginal fungal colonization after they consumed DanActive™ yogurt compared to the nonintervention periods (54 vs 29 %, p = 0.03). Conclusions These data are promising, but as expected in a small pilot study, there were some significant changes but also some areas where colonization was not changed. This type of conflicting data is supportive of the need for a larger trial to further elucidate the role of probiotic yogurts in fungal growth in HIV-infected women. PMID:23925786

  15. Er,CR:YSGG lasers induce fewer dysplastic-like epithelial artefacts than CO2 lasers: an in vivo experimental study on oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    González-Mosquera, A; Seoane, J; García-Caballero, L; López-Jornet, P; García-Caballero, T; Varela-Centelles, P

    2012-09-01

    Our aim was to assess wounds made by lasers (CO(2) and Er,Cr:YSGG) for their epithelial architectural changes and width of damage. We allocated 60 Sprague-Dawley(®) rats into groups: glossectomy by CO(2) laser at 3 different wattages (n=10 in each); glossectomy by Er,Cr:YSGG laser at two different emissions (n=10 in each), and a control group (n=10). Histological examination assessed both prevalence and site of thermal artefacts for each group. Both lasers (CO(2) and Er,Cr:YSGG) caused the same type of cytological artefacts. The 3W Er,Cr:YSGG laser produced the fewest cytological artefacts/specimen, and was significantly different from the other experimental groups: 3W CO(2) laser (95% CI=0.8 to 1.0); the 6W CO(2) laser (95% CI=0.1 to 2.0) and the 10W CO(2) laser (95% CI=1.1 to 3.0). CO(2) lasers (3-10W) generate epithelial damage that can simulate dysplastic changes with cytological atypia that affects mainly the basal and suprabasal layers. Irradiation with Er,CR:YSGG laser (2-4W) produces significantly fewer cellular artefacts and less epithelial damage, which may be potentially useful for biopsy of oral mucosa.

  16. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

  17. Potentiation of evoked calcitonin gene-related peptide release from oral mucosa: a potential basis for the pro-inflammatory effects of nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Dussor, Gregory O.; Leong, Anthony S.; Gracia, Nicholas B.; Kilo, Sonja; Price, Theodore J.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Flores, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation of the buccal mucosa, gingiva and periodontal tissues is a significant problem in users of nicotine-containing tobacco products; however, the potential role of nicotine in the development of this inflammation is unclear. In many tissues, nicotine, acting through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), has been shown to increase the release of the pro-inflammatory mediator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) thereby potentially contributing to neurogenic inflammation. The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effects of nicotine and other nAChR agonists on capsaicin-evoked immunoreactive CGRP (iCGRP) release from rat buccal mucosa and to identify a potential cellular basis for these effects. Using a previously validated model of in vitro superfusion, we show that the nAChR agonists nicotine (EC50 557 μM), epibatidine (EC50 317 pM) and cytisine (EC50 4.83 nM) potentiated capsaicin-evoked iCGRP release in a concentration-dependent manner by 123, 70 and 76%, respectively. The expression and distribution patterns of the mRNA transcripts encoding the α3, α4 and α6 nAChR subunits and their colocalization with CGRP and the capsaicin receptor VR1 were examined in rat trigeminal ganglion using combined in situ hybridization and immunohistofluorescence. Of all trigeminal neurons counted, mRNA encoding the α3, α4 and α6 subunits was found, respectively, in 14.45, 9.2 and 19.21% of neurons. The cell body diameter of most neurons containing any nAChR subunit was in the 30–40 μm range with slightly fewer in the 20–30 μm range. Co-localization of these α subunit transcripts with either CGRP or VR1 immunoreactivity ranged from approximately 5 to 7% for α4 and over 8% for α3 to 18% for α6. These data support the hypothesis that nicotinic agents, acting at nAChRs contained on primary sensory neurons, are capable of directly modulating the stimulated release of iCGRP In the case of users of nicotine-containing tobacco products, this

  18. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Müller-Richter, Urs D A; Weyandt, Gerhard H; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C

    2016-05-01

    Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results.

  19. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Gerhard H.; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results. PMID:27579226

  20. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Umbilicus

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Young Soo; Jeong, Se Yeong; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopia refers to the finding of normal tissue in foreign sites, entirely separate from the main organ. Heterotopic gastric mucosa has been observed throughout the alimentary tract, everywhere from the oral cavity to the rectum. However, occurrences in the umbilicus are an extremely rare and peculiar phenomena. We report the case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the umbilicus. PMID:20548921

  1. Effects of nasal application of an epinephrine and lidocaine mixture on the hemodynamics and nasal mucosa in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Kimiko; Watanabe, Seiji; Kano, Tatsuhiko; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2008-11-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the influences of nasal pretreatment with a mixed solution of epinephrine and lidocaine (E-L pretreatment) on the systemic hemodynamics and the mucosa of the inferior nasal concha, which is carried out for expansion of the nasal cavity and the prevention of mucosal injury before nasotracheal intubation. Subjects included 29 adult patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgery. This study consisted of 2 parts. In part 1 (n = 18), the effects of E-L pretreatment on the systemic hemodynamics were studied before (pre-Anesth group, n = 10) and after (post-Anesth group, n = 8) induction of anesthesia. Changes of the mucosal volume and the blood flow of the inferior nasal concha also were observed by optic bronchoscopy and noncontact type laser-Doppler flowmetry, respectively. In part 2 (n = 11), changes in the serum concentrations of epinephrine and lidocaine after the E-L pretreatment were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. The heart rate increased at 2 and 3 min after E-L pretreatment in pre-Anesth group (P < .05), but not in post-Anesth group. The cross section of the nasal cavity decreased from 66% to 42% (n = 8, P < .05). The mucosal blood flow decreased from 60 to 22 AU (n = 8, P < .01). The serum epinephrine concentration increased from 24 to 185 pg/mL. The E-L pretreatment provided characteristic evidence for useful expansion of the nasal cavity and for reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow with less systemic hemodynamic effects, although further investigation is needed for the determination of the proper epinephrine concentration in E-L pretreatment.

  2. Exploring the mechanisms of alcohol-related damage in oral mucosa - is oxidative stress associated with the increase in cell proliferation in rat tongue epithelium?

    PubMed

    Carrard, Vinicius C; Pires, Aline S; Mendez, Marina; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Badauy, Cristiano M; Lauxen, Isabel S; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel

    2013-02-01

    proliferation in the oral mucosa.

  3. Adjuvant antifungal therapy using tissue tolerable plasma on oral mucosa and removable dentures in oral candidiasis patients: a randomised double-blinded split-mouth pilot study.

    PubMed

    Preissner, Saskia; Kastner, Isabell; Schütte, Eyke; Hartwig, Stefan; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Robert; Hertel, Moritz

    2016-07-01

    Extended use of antimycotics in oral candidiasis therapy gives rise to problems related to fungal drug resistance. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) in denture stomatitis patients. It was hypothesised that (I): erythema and (IIa): complaint remission would be accelerated and (IIb): colony forming unit (CFU) reduction would be improved. The halves of the upper jaws of eight patients were randomly assigned to control (nystatin, chlorhexidine and placebo treatment) and test sides (nystatin, chlorhexidine and TTP administered six times each 7 days). The patients and the investigators, who were different from the therapists, were both blinded. Compared to the control sides, the erythema surface was reduced significantly more extensively on the test sides between 2 and 6 weeks of antifungal therapy (P ≤ 0.05). Visual analogue scale values and the frequency of moderate or heavy growth of Candida post-treatment did not differ significantly between both sides (P > 0.05). The primary hypothesis was confirmed, which may be interpreted as an accelerated remission. As drug therapy is usually limited to the time in which signs of infection are present, TTP might help reducing antifungal use. Even though the secondary hypotheses were not confirmed, persistence of Candida might be only colonisation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Osteolipoma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alvimar-Lima; de Castro, Eni-Vaz-Franco-Lima; Felipini, Renata-Callestini; Ribeiro, Ana-Carolina-Prado; Soubhia, Ana-Maria-Pires

    2010-03-01

    Lipomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms of soft tissue that can be found in any part of the human body. Conversely, their presence in the oral mucosa is rather uncommon, with approximately 4% of the cases occurring in the oral cavity. In such cases, they are likely to have originated from mature adipose tissue and to be among several described histological variants of lipomas, which are identified according to the predominant type of tissue. There is a rare lipoma, known as an osteolipoma or an ossifying lipoma; however, little has been written this type of lipoma characterized by a classical lipoma with areas of osseous metaplasia. Considering the few cases of oral osteolipomas previously described in the English-related literature and the consequent risk of misdiagnosis and overtreatment, this paper describes an extreme case of an osteolipoma affecting the buccal mucosa of an adult patient. This paper focuses particularly on the pathogenesis of this lesion and the discussion of a correct diagnosis.

  5. Clinical application of tissue-engineered transplants. Part I: mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Gutwald, Ralf; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Lauer, Günter; Schmelzeisen, Rainer

    2006-12-01

    The study series aims at testing the feasibility of the clinical application of tissue-engineered oral mucosa. The preliminary results were gathered over a period varying from 6 months to 12 years depending on the surgical method. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa was used to cover defects in various surgical procedures like vestibuloplasty (n=42), freeing of the tongue (n=10), prelaminating the radial flap (n=5) and reconstruction of the urethra (n=16). In all interventions small samples of oral mucosa were harvested, cut into small pieces, resuspended in culture medium and seeded into a culture flask. Cultured keratinocytes were transferred onto membranes which then were used to cover mucosal defects in the oral cavity. To gain a graft of 15 cm(2) size a mucosa biopsy of 4-8 mm(2) and 40 ml autologous patients serum is needed. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa was applied successfully in all four surgical methods. Six months after transplantation a regular epithelial layering with a histological delimitation of the stratum, epithelial crest and a strong basal membrane appeared. According to the reception site the tissue engineered oral mucosa differentiated in several ways. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa fulfils the requirements for clinical routine. With view to healing time and outcome it does not appear to be superior to regular harvested oral mucosa transplants. Because of a smaller harvesting defect and primary wound closure at the actual operation site the patients' convenience is increased. Thus this method reduces morbidity and advances the quality of life.

  6. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW <5 kDa were obtained. All ultrafiltrates had antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. NCM ultrafiltrates revealed the highest antibacterial activity in respect to negative control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  7. Disruption of the ECM33 gene in Candida albicans prevents biofilm formation, engineered human oral mucosa tissue damage and gingival cell necrosis/apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida.

  8. Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida. PMID:22665950

  9. In vivo determination of aluminum, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, titanium and vanadium in oral mucosa cells from orthodontic patients with mini-implants by Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Angeles; Puerto, Maria; Calleja, Ana; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Miniscrews are used as orthodontic anchorage devices in the dentistry clinical practice but the in vivo metallic release from these structures has been not previously investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Ti and V in oral mucosa cells of control subjects, patients under orthodontic treatment and with both, orthodontic treatment and miniscrew, in order to know the contribution of these mini-implants to the total metallic content. ICP-MS measurements revealed the following ascending order: Cr

  10. New procedure of quantitative mapping of Ti and Al released from dental implant and Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn as physiological elements in oral mucosa by LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sajnóg, Adam; Hanć, Anetta; Koczorowski, Ryszard; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2017-12-01

    A new procedure for determination of elements derived from titanium implants and physiological elements in soft tissues by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is presented. The analytical procedure was developed which involved preparation of in-house matrix matched solid standards with analyte addition based on certified reference material (CRM) MODAS-4 Cormorant Tissue. Addition of gelatin, serving as a binding agent, essentially improved physical properties of standards. Performance of the analytical method was assayed and validated by calculating parameters like precision, detection limits, trueness and recovery of analyte addition using additional CRM - ERM-BB184 Bovine Muscle. Analyte addition was additionally confirmed by microwave digestion of solid standards and analysis by solution nebulization ICP-MS. The detection limits are in range 1.8μgg(-1) to 450μgg(-1) for Mn and Ca respectively. The precision values range from 7.3% to 42% for Al and Zn respectively. The estimated recoveries of analyte addition line within scope of 83%-153% for Mn and Cu respectively. Oral mucosa samples taken from patients treated with titanium dental implants were examined using developed analytical method. Standards and tissue samples were cryocut into 30µm thin sections. LA-ICP-MS allowed to obtain two-dimensional maps of distribution of elements in tested samples which revealed high content of Ti and Al derived from implants. Photographs from optical microscope displayed numerous particles with µm size in oral mucosa samples which suggests that they are residues from implantation procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Calmodulin-Like Protein CALML3: A Novel Marker for Normal Oral Squamous Mucosa That Is Downregulated in Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Michael D.; Bennett, Richard D.; Weaver, Amy L.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Eckert, Steven E.; Strehler, Emanuel E.; Carr, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is often diagnosed only at advanced stages due to a lack of reliable disease markers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the epithelial-specific human calmodulin-like protein (CALML3) could be used as marker for the various phases of oral tumor progression. Immunohistochemical analysis using an affinity-purified CALML3 antibody was performed on biopsy-confirmed oral tissue samples representing these phases. A total of 90 tissue specimens were derived from 52 patients. Each specimen was analyzed in the superficial and basal mucosal cell layers for overall staining and staining of cellular subcompartments. CALML3 was strongly expressed in benign oral mucosal cells with downregulation of expression as squamous cells progress to invasive carcinoma. Based on the Cochran-Armitage test for trend, expression in the nucleus and at the cytoplasmic membrane significantly decreased with increasing disease severity. Chi-square test showed that benign tissue specimens had significantly more expression compared to dysplasia/CIS and invasive specimens. Dysplasia/CIS tissue had significantly more expression than invasive tissue. We conclude that CALML3 is expressed in benign oral mucosal cells with a statistically significant trend in downregulation as tumorigenesis occurs. CALML3 may thus be a sensitive new marker for oral cancer screening. PMID:23935623

  12. Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome using swept source OCT

    PubMed Central

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Nowak, Jan K.; Karnowski, Karol; Zebryk, Paweł; Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the mucosa of the lower lip and labial minor salivary glands is demonstrated in vivo using swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1310 nm with modified interface. Volumetric data sets of the inner surface of the lower lip covering ~230 mm2 field are obtained from patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and a control group. OCT enables high-resolution visualization of mucosal architecture using cross-sectional images as well as en-face projection images. Comprehensive morphometry of the labial minor salivary glands is performed, and statistical significance is assessed. Statistically significant differences in morphometric parameters are found when subgroups of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome are analyzed. PMID:24466492

  13. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  14. Mucosal pemphigus vulgaris anti-Dsg3 IgG is pathogenic to the oral mucosa of humanized Dsg3 mice.

    PubMed

    Culton, Donna A; McCray, Suzanne K; Park, Moonhee; Roberts, James C; Li, Ning; Zedek, Daniel C; Anhalt, Grant J; Cowley, Dale O; Liu, Zhi; Diaz, Luis A

    2015-06-01

    There are two major clinical subsets of pemphigus vulgaris (PV)-mucosal PV (mPV) and mucocutaneous PV (mcPV). The mPV subset exhibits anti-human desmoglein (Dsg) 3 autoantibodies that fail to recognize murine Dsg3 (mDsg3); thus, passive transfer experiments of mPV IgG into wild-type (WT) mice have been unsuccessful at inducing disease. We therefore generated a fully humanized Dsg3 (hDSG3) murine model utilizing a hDsg3 transgenic animal crossed to the mDsg3 knockout line. Expression of hDsg3 in the mucosa rescues the mDsg3 knockout phenotype. Well-characterized mPV sera bind mucosal epithelia from the hDsg3 mice, but not mucosal tissues from WT mice, as detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IF). The majority of mPV sera preferentially recognize hDsg3 compared with mDsg3 by immunoprecipitation as well. Passive transfer of mPV IgG into adult hDsg3 mice, but not WT mice, induces suprabasilar acantholysis in mucosal tissues, thus confirming the pathogenicity of mPV anti-hDsg3 IgG in vivo. Human anti-hDsg3 antibodies are detected in perilesional mucosa as well as in sera of recipient mice by IF. These findings suggest that the Dsg3 epitopes targeted by pathogenic mPV IgG are human specific. This hDsg3 mouse model will be invaluable in studying the clinical transition from mPV to mcPV.

  15. Mucosal pemphigus vulgaris anti-Dsg3 IgG are pathogenic to the oral mucosa of humanized Dsg3 mice

    PubMed Central

    Culton, Donna A.; McCray, Suzanne K.; Park, Moonhee; Roberts, James C.; Li, Ning; Zedek, Daniel C.; Anhalt, Grant J.; Cowley, Dale; Liu, Zhi; Diaz, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    There are two major clinical subsets of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), mucosal PV (mPV) and mucocutaneous PV (mcPV). The mPV subset exhibits anti-human desmoglein (Dsg) 3 autoantibodies that fail to recognize murine Dsg3; thus, passive transfer experiments of mPV IgG into WT mice have been unsuccessful at inducing disease. We therefore generated a fully humanized Dsg3 (hDSG3) murine model utilizing a human Dsg3 transgenic animal crossed to the murine Dsg3 knockout line. Expression of hDsg3 in the mucosa rescues the murine Dsg3 knockout phenotype. Well characterized mPV sera bind mucosal epithelia from the hDsg3 mice, but not mucosal tissues from WT mice by as detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The majority of mPV sera preferentially recognize hDsg3 compared to mDsg3 by immunoprecipitation as well. Passive transfer of mPV IgG into adult hDsg3 mice, but not WT mice, induces suprabasilar acantholysis in mucosal tissues, thus confirming pathogenicity of mPV anti-hDsg3 IgG in vivo. Human anti-hDsg3 antibodies are detected in perilesional mucosa as well as in sera of recipient mice by immunofluorescence. These findings suggest that the Dsg3 epitopes targeted by pathogenic mPV IgG are human specific. This hDsg3 mouse model will be invaluable in studying the clinical transition from mPV to mcPV. PMID:25695683

  16. Periluminal Distribution of HIV-Binding Target Cells and Gp340 in the Oral, Cervical and Sigmoid/Rectal Mucosae: A Mapping Study.

    PubMed

    Patyka, Mariia; Malamud, Daniel; Weissman, Drew; Abrams, William R; Kurago, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the transmission of HIV is most likely to occur via rectal or vaginal routes, and rarely through oral exposure. However, the mechanisms of virus entry at mucosal surfaces remain incompletely understood. Prophylactic strategies against HIV infection may be attainable once gaps in current knowledge are filled. To address these gaps, we evaluated essentially normal epithelial surfaces and mapped the periluminal distribution of CD4+ HIV target cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and an HIV-binding molecule gp340 that can be expressed by epithelial cells in secreted and cell-associated forms. Immunohistochemistry for CD4, CD16, CD3, CD1a and gp340 in human oral, rectal/sigmoid and cervical mucosal samples from HIV-negative subjects demonstrated that periluminal HIV target cells were more prevalent at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces lined by simple columnar epithelium, than at oral and ectocervical surfaces covered by multilayered stratified squamous epithelium (p<0.001). gp340 expression patterns at these sites were also distinct and strong in oral minor salivary gland acini and ducts, including ductal saliva, in individual rectum/sigmoid and endocervix periluminar columnar cells, and in ectocervix squamous cells. Only weak expression was noted in the oral non-ductal squamous epithelium. We conclude that periluminal HIV target cells, together with periluminal epithelial cell-associated gp340 appear to be most accessible for HIV transmission at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces. Our data help define vulnerable structural features of mucosal sites exposed to HIV.

  17. A novel protocol allowing oral delivery of a protein complement inhibitor that subsequently targets to inflamed colon mucosa and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Elvington, M; Blichmann, P; Qiao, F; Scheiber, M; Wadsworth, C; Luzinov, I; Lucero, J; Vertegel, A; Tomlinson, S

    2014-01-01

    While there is evidence of a pathogenic role for complement in inflammatory bowel disease, there is also evidence for a protective role that relates to host defence and protection from endotoxaemia. There is thus concern regarding the use of systemic complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy. Local delivery of a complement inhibitor to the colon by oral administration would ameliorate such concerns, but while formulations exist for oral delivery of low molecular weight drugs to the colon, they have not been used successfully for oral delivery of proteins. We describe a novel pellet formulation consisting of cross-linked dextran coated with an acrylic co-polymer that protects the complement inhibitor CR2-Crry from destruction in the gastrointestinal tract. CR2-Crry containing pellets administered by gavage, were characterized using a therapeutic protocol in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral treatment of established colitis over a 5-day period significantly reduced mucosal inflammation and injury, with similar therapeutic benefit whether or not the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, was co-administered. Reduction in injury was associated with the targeting of CR2-Crry to the mucosal surface and reduced local complement activation. Treatment had no effect on systemic complement activity. This novel method for oral delivery of a targeted protein complement inhibitor will reduce systemic effects, thereby decreasing the risk of opportunistic infection, as well as lowering the required dose and treatment cost and improving patient compliance. Furthermore, the novel delivery system described here may provide similar benefits for administration of other protein-based drugs, such as anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies. PMID:24730624

  18. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  19. Narrow band (light) imaging of oral mucosa in routine dental patients. Part I: Assessment of value in detection of mucosal changes.

    PubMed

    Truelove, Edmond L; Dean, David; Maltby, Samuel; Griffith, Matthew; Huggins, Kimberly; Griffith, Mickealla; Taylor, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the value of adding narrow band (light) imaging (NBI) to the standard oral soft tissue examination process used to detect mucosal change. A total of 620 dental patients who came to the clinic for regular dental evaluation or for treatment of acute dental problems were given a standard oral soft tissue examination by dental students under faculty supervision. The results of the white light examination were recorded after the tissues were examined with NBI, at which point areas with a loss of fluorescence (LOF) were recorded. The nature of the tissue change was classified clinically as normal variation, inflammatory, traumatic, dysplastic, or other, and patients were categorized depending on their clinical findings: normal, need follow-up visit, or immediate biopsy. Risk factors related to oral dysplasia also were recorded. The addition of NBI added between one and two minutes to the examination process. Of the 620 examinations, an area with an LOF suggestive of pathology was detected in 69 subjects (11.1%). After a second immediate evaluation, 28 of the 69 subjects were scheduled for follow-up or biopsy. None of the lesions discovered in these 28 subjects had been detected using standard (white light) examination. Adding NBI to the routine clinical examination resulted in detection of changes not seen with white light examination in 11.1% of patients; of these, a small but important number were found to have otherwise undetected persistent changes representing inflammatory lesions or potentially dangerous oral dysplasia. Adding NBI as an adjunctive diagnostic procedure improved the quality and outcome of the examination process.

  20. Biological effects caused by low-power laser light in the treatment of the dentition, periodontium, and mucosa of oral cavity, and lip diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Erina, Stanislava V.; Kashuba, Victor A.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Buerger, F.; Herdt, Alexander; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.; Tchernov, V. I.

    1997-12-01

    Nowadays low-power therapy is one of the leading trends in a combined treatment of the oral cavity and lips diseases. The present paper sums up the results of the investigation into the biological effects caused by low-power laser light (LPLL) during its interaction with hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity and lips. A research on the effect of LPLL upon the remineralization processes in the hard dental tissues in the stage in the stage of an initial caries was carried out in 150 patients. The biological effects caused by an interaction of LPLL with the parodontium tissues in the process of treatment of medium degree disease of the parodontium were studied in 140 patients; the effects of the above mentioned character which generated in lips tissues during treatment of a post-radiation chilitis were analyzed in 32 patients. Immunological, biochemical histochemical, morphological, stomatoscopic, bacteriological and other methods were employed while studying the bioeffects caused by LPLL in the parodontium, lips tissues and hard tissues of the tooth.

  1. The Role of E-Cadherin in Maintaining the Barrier Function of Corneal Epithelium after Treatment with Cultured Autologous Oral Mucosa Epithelial Cell Sheet Grafts for Limbal Stem Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, Richard H.; Wood, Andrew; Oliva, Joan; Niihara, Hope; Makalinao, Andrew; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Pan, Derek; Tiger, Kumar; Garcia, Julio; Laporte, Amanda; French, Samuel W.; Niihara, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of E-cadherin in epithelial barrier function of cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) grafts was examined. CAOMECS were cultured on a temperature-responsive surface and grafted onto rabbit corneas with Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD). E-cadherin levels were significantly higher in CAOMECS compared to normal and LSCD epithelium. Beta-catenin colocalized with E-cadherin in CAOMECS cell membranes while phosphorylated beta-catenin was significantly increased. ZO-1, occludin, and Cnx43 were also strongly expressed in CAOMECS. E-cadherin and beta-catenin localization at the cell membrane was reduced in LSCD corneas, while CAOMECS-grafted corneas showed a restoration of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression. LSCD corneas did not show continuous staining for ZO-1 or for Cnx43, while CAOMECS-grafted corneas showed a positive expression of ZO-1 and Cnx43. Cascade Blue® hydrazide did not pass through CAOMECS. Because E-cadherin interactions are calcium-dependent, EGTA was used to chelate calcium and disrupt cell adhesion. EGTA-treated CAOMECS completely detached from cell culture surface, and E-cadherin levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, E cadherin high expression contributed to CAOMECS tight and gap junction protein recruitment at the cell membrane, thus promoting cellular adhesion and a functional barrier to protect the ocular surface. PMID:27777792

  2. Antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W attenuates Candida albicans virulence by modulating its effects on Toll-like receptor, human β-defensin, and cytokine expression by engineered human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Semlali, A; Leung, K P; Curt, S; Rouabhia, M

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the toxicity of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W on normal human gingival epithelial cell cultures, its effect on Candida albicans adhesion and growth, and the activation of epithelial cell innate immunity. Our results indicate that KSL-W had no toxic effect on cell adhesion or growth, suggesting its safe use with human cells. Pre-treating C. albicans with KSL-W attenuated the yeast's virulence as demonstrated by its reduced adhesion and growth on engineered human oral mucosa epithelium and the subsequent decreased expression of some innate defense molecules by targeted epithelial cells. Indeed, the expression of Toll-like receptors and human β-defensins was reduced in tissues infected with KSL-W-treated Candida. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β and IL-6) by the epithelial cells was also regulated by KSL-W in a manner similar to that of antifungal molecule amphotericin B. These findings therefore show that KSL-W is safe for use with human cells and is able to attenuate Candida virulence by modulating its effects on host innate immunity. This study proposes the potential application of KSL-W peptide as an alternative antifungal agent.

  3. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  4. [Contact allergies of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Pevny, I; Binzenhöfer, A

    1984-02-15

    Patch tests were performed on 132 patients suspected of allergic sensitivity to dentures. Of these, 98 reacted positively to at least one substance. While only 4 patients showed positive reactions to methyl methacrylate, 42 (31,8%) had positive tests with the catalyst benzoyl peroxide, 4 and 5 patients, respectively, were positive to 4 different inhibitors, 7 patients reacted positively to various softeners and 3 to the reducing agent hydrazine sulfate. 43 positive reactions occurred on the commercial products, of these 39,5% on the liquid monomer, 23,2% on the polymer in powder form and 37,2% on the polymer in lamellar form. Among the 132 patients, 111 positive tests on metal allergens could be observed. Cadmium-, copper- and nickel-salts accounted for one half of all reactions. The sensitivity index of cadmium was 18,2% and of copper 13,6%, which indicates a high allergen exposition. Nickel, chrome and cobalt allergies were registered in 9,9; 8,3 and 6,1% of the patients, respectively, what is only slightly below the sensitivity indices of our standard test results in Würzburg.

  5. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  6. [T-L mucosa to mucosa pancreatojejunal anastomosis for pancreatic reconstruction following a duodenopancreatectomy].

    PubMed

    Targarona, J; Garatea, R; Rosas, J; Romero, C; Rosamedina, J; Lora, A; Montoya, E

    2006-01-01

    The pancreatojejunal anastomosis is considered the weak spot when carrying out a duodenopancreatectomy, because it causes most of the complications following a Whipple surgery. Here we present a series of cases using a single technique for performing this anastomosis. During the period between October 2002 and August 2005, 49 duodenopancreatectomies were performed at the 3AII Department of the National Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins - H.N.E.R.M., in 31 of these cases a lateral mucosa to mucosa pancreatojejunal anastomosis was carried out by the same surgeon. The most frequent complication was infection of the operating wound followed by pancreatic fistula and intra-abdominal hemorrhage and the overall morbidity was 29%. Pancreatic fistula developed in 13% of the cases; however, no patient required additional treatment and the fistula closed maximum twenty days after the surgery. On average, patients resumed oral food intake after 6 days and remained hospitalized for 16 days. Mortality was 3%, because a patient developed a pseudo-aneurism of the hepatic artery, which ruptured 17 days after the operation. The mucosa to mucosa pancreatojejunal anastomosis is a safe technique with a low index of pancreatic fistula and mortality.

  7. Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae.

    PubMed

    Vago, Bernadette; Hausser, Ingrid; Hennies, Hans Christian; Enk, Alexander; Jappe, Uta

    2007-05-01

    Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by deposition of hyaline material around the basement membrane of the skin and mucous membranes. Typical clinical symptoms are hoarseness, infiltration of the mucous membranes and papular verrucous skin changes. Mutations within the extracellular matrix protein gene (ECM-1) are the underlying defect. We report on a 24-year-old man, who had first been seen in our department at the age of seven and had undergone the necessary diagnostic procedures and who revisited 17 years later with hoarseness and extensive verrucous skin changes at elbows and knees which were removed by excision. A new mutation of the ECM1 gene was identified.

  8. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  9. Autologous buccal mucosa graft augmentation for foreshortened vagina.

    PubMed

    Grimsby, Gwen M; Bradshaw, Karen; Baker, Linda A

    2014-05-01

    Vaginal foreshortening after pelvic surgery or radiotherapy may lead to dyspareunia and decreased quality of life. Unfortunately, little literature exists regarding treatment options for this debilitating problem. Autologous buccal mucosal grafting has been previously reported for creation of a total neovagina and the repair of postvaginoplasty vaginal stenosis. Autologous buccal mucosa offers several advantages as a replacement material for vaginal reconstruction. Vaginal and oral buccal mucosa are both hairless, moist, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia. Buccal mucosa has a dense layer of elastic fibers, imparting both elasticity and strength, and acquires a robust neovascularity with excellent graft take. The graft material is readily available and donor site scars are hidden in the mouth. A 60-year-old woman had vaginal foreshortening to 4.5 cm 15 years after radical hysterectomy and brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. She was unable to have intercourse despite attempted vaginal dilation. Her foreshortened vagina was successfully augmented with autologous buccal mucosa grafting at the apex, increasing her vaginal length to 8 cm and permitting pain-free intercourse. Even in the face of an altered surgical field after radical hysterectomy and radiation, autologous buccal mucosa is an option for vaginal reconstruction for vaginal foreshortening.

  10. Cleft palate cells can regenerate a palatal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lamme, E N; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Krapels, I P C; Bian, Z; Marres, H; Spauwen, P H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cleft palate repair leaves full-thickness mucosal defects on the palate. Healing might be improved by implantation of a mucosal substitute. However, the genetic and phenotypic deviations of cleft palate cells may hamper tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to construct mucosal substitutes from cleft palate cells, and to compare these with substitutes from normal palatal cells, and with native palatal mucosa. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa of eight children with cleft palate and eight age-matched control individuals were taken. Three biopsies of both groups were processed for (immuno)histochemistry; 5 were used to culture mucosal substitutes. Histology showed that the substitutes from cleft-palate and non-cleft-palate cells were comparable, but the number of cell layers was less than in native palatal mucosa. All epithelial layers in native palatal mucosa and mucosal substitutes expressed the cytokeratins 5, 10, and 16, and the proliferation marker Ki67. Heparan sulphate and decorin were present in the basal membrane and the underlying connective tissue, respectively. We conclude that mucosal cells from children with cleft palate can regenerate an oral mucosa in vitro.

  11. Immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor in gingival mucosa with papilloma and condyloma acuminata.

    PubMed

    Scrieciu, Monica; MercuŢ, Veronica; Andrei, Oana Cella; Predescu, Anca Mihaela; Niculescu, Mihaela; Pisoschi, Cătălina Gabriela; BaniŢă, Ileana Monica

    2015-01-01

    The histological changes of the oral mucosa in contact with a metal alloy dentures is one of the current issues widely debated in the literature. To highlight the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human paraprosthetic gingival mucosa exposed to nickel and copper compounds using the immunohistochemical technique. The selected participants were wearers of fixed dentures made of nickel-based alloys and copper-based alloys. The gingival mucosa fragments were prelevated through excision after removing fixed denture and extraction one of its affected teeth. The gingival mucosa fragments were processed through the histological technique of paraffin inclusion. The paraffin-embedded tissue sections were usually stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and processed by immunohistochemical technique with VEGF antibody. The gingival mucosa fragments from nickel-based alloys dentures wearers were diagnosed with papilloma and, also, gingival mucosa samples prelevated from copper-based alloys dentures wearers were diagnosed with condyloma acuminata. Immunohistochemical reaction for VEGF was different in the gingival mucosa fragments with papilloma compared with condyloma acuminata samples. In papillomatosis gingival mucosa fragments, VEGF was implicated in principal in vasodilatation and inflammation process, and secondary in angiogenesis. In gingival mucosa fragments with condyloma acuminata, the principal role of VEGF was in angiogenesis and secondary in inflammation.

  12. Karyometry of the colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Alberts, David S; Einspahr, Janine G; Krouse, Robert S; Prasad, Anil; Ranger-Moore, James; Hamilton, Peter; Ismail, Ayaaz; Lance, Peter; Goldschmid, Steven; Hess, Lisa M; Yozwiak, Michael; Bartels, Hubert G; Bartels, Peter H

    2007-12-01

    The study summarizes results of karyometric measurements in epithelial cells of the colorectal mucosa to document evidence of a field effect of preneoplastic development among patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma or adenoma. Karyometric analyses were done on high-resolution images of histologic sections from 48 patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas and 44 patients with adenomas and on images from matching normal-appearing mucosa directly adjacent to such lesions, at a 1-cm and 10-cm distance from the lesions or from the rectal mucosa of adenoma patients, as well as from 24 healthy normal controls with no family history of colonic disease. The nuclei recorded in the histologically normal-appearing mucosa of patients with either colorectal adenoma or adenocarcinoma exhibited differences in karyometric features in comparison with nuclei recorded in rectal mucosa from patients who were free of a colonic lesion. These differences were expressed to the same extent in tissue adjacent to the lesions and in normal-appearing tissue as distant as the rectum. The nuclear chromatin pattern may serve as an integrating biomarker for a preneoplastic development. The field effect might provide an end point in chemopreventive intervention trials.

  13. [Exfoliatio areata linguae et mucosae oris: a mucous membrane manifestation of psoriasis pustulosa?].

    PubMed

    Casper, U; Seiffert, K; Dippel, E; Zouboulis, C C

    1998-11-01

    Lesions of the oral mucosa are frequently described in association with psoriasis, particularly in the pustular type. Controversy surrounds the question whether mucosal lesions can be considered as oral manifestation of psoriasis. Two patients presented with concurrent pustular psoriasis and mucosal lesions with the characteristic picture of geographic tongue. Histopathology of the mucosa showed typical features of psoriasis such as marked acanthosis, clubbing of the rete ridges, focal parakeratosis and neutrophilic infiltrates. There was parallel improvement of the skin and the mucosal lesions with systemic retinoid treatment. On the basis of the histopathological features and the clinical course we favour the hypothesis that geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of pustular psoriasis.

  14. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  15. Glass embedded in labial mucosa for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sumanth, K N; Boaz, Karen; Shetty, Naresh Y

    2008-01-01

    Foreign bodies may be deposited in the oral cavity either by traumatic injury or iatrogenically. Among the commonly encountered iatrogenic foreign bodies are restorative materials like amalgam, obturation materials, broken instruments, needles, etc. Few reports of glass pieces embedded in the soft tissues of the mouth have been published. We report a case where glass pieces had been lodged in the lower labial mucosa for 20 years, with consequent peripheral reactive bone formation.

  16. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa masquerading as a salivary gland neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Nayal, Bhavna; Kantipudi, Swarna; Ray, Satadru

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the oral cavity is a rare occurrence with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) being the third most common tumor to metastasize to this location. Buccal mucosa is rarely involved and in the absence of a known primary, such lesions pose a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. The histomorphological features may mimic a primary salivary gland neoplasm adding to the dilemma. We present one such case of metastatic RCC of the buccal mucosa. PMID:27721630

  17. [Oral manifestations in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2010-11-01

    Systemic diseases may affect the oral tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth or bone, and oral manifestations will frequently present early, i.e. in association with (non-fulminant) systemic disease. Thus, recognition and proper diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment schedules. Key examples of systemic disease groups with oral manifestations include dermatological, inflammatory connective tissue diseases, haematological and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neurological and endocrine diseases.

  18. Bimaxillary Oral Focal Mucinosis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Mittal, Hitesh Chander; Singh, Gurdarshan; Kamra, Hemlata

    2016-10-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is considered as oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis. The preoperative diagnosis of mucinosis is almost impossible because of its rarity and clinical similarity to other lesions of various etiologies. The histological diagnosis of oral mucinosis is important to better understand the etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities, and any recurrence of the lesion besides differentiating from the other soft tissue lesions.The purpose of this paper is to report the first case of bimaxillary involvement with dome-shaped elevated, rounded, asymptomatic, normally colored swelling in left posterior palatal mucosa and left mandibular posterior region in a 25-year old woman who was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis histopathologically.

  19. [Applying toothpaste and mouthwash BLUEM in complex oral care in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Tambovtseva, N V

    2014-01-01

    For patients with coronary heart disease oral hygiene and treatment of oral mucosa inflammatory changes and periodontal disease are of vital importance. Dental status assessment in 110 patients hospitalized in cardiology department revealed that they all suffered from periodontal disease, diseases of teeth and oral mucosa. In 100% of cases it was necessary to improve oral hygiene. Inclusion in everyday hygienic oral care of toothpaste and mouthwash Bluem reduced the severity of inflammatory changes and improved the hygienic condition of the oral cavity.

  20. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  1. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  2. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  3. Osseous choristoma of the oral soft tissue. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Oral osseous choristoma is a rare developmental alteration, their principal localization is nearly to base of the tongue (foramen caecum). The oral mucosa localization of osseous choristoma is extremely rare. At date only 10 cases of oral mucosa osseous choristoma had been reported. In the present paper we reported a new case of oral mucosa osseous choristoma in a Klippel-Feil syndrome patient. A review of available literature was made. We presented a 28 years old female patient who showed into the right oral mucosa, a hard, mobile, and asymptomatic mass, with minimum 4 years of evolution. The histological image showed a lesion constituted by lamellar bone, osteocytes and haematopoyetic tissue. The diagnosis of osseous choristoma was made. It is discusses their possible association with Klippel-Feil syndrome. The osseous choristoma of buccal mucosa is most frequently in fifth decade of the life although is reported between 12-to-64 years old, with a female predisposition.

  4. Use of buccal mucosa in hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Diaz, Omar; Castellan, Miguel; Gosalbez, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    Hypospadias is an embryological disorder that results in an abnormal ventral positioning of the urethral meatus. Among multiple surgical techniques described to correct this anomaly, the use of buccal mucosa grafts has gained popularity among pediatric urologists, pediatric surgeons and plastic surgeons. Buccal mucosa grafts have shown favorable histological changes that result in an excellent scaffold for urethral reconstructive surgery. This review describes the evolution of the use of buccal mucosa grafts in hypospadias repair.

  5. ORAL AMELANOTIC MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, A.O.; Olawole, W.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  6. Oral verruciform xanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lydia; Staines, Konrad; Pring, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) of the oral cavity is a benign mucosal growth that often presents as a pink, yellow or grey raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary or verrucous surface morphology. Intraorally this often presents on the masticatory mucosa and extraorally often involves the skin and anogenital mucosa. There are several proposed aetiological factors and the clinical features of VX can be misleading; clinically it can resemble malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is a key for the correct management of this lesion. Excision of this lesion is curative. PMID:25819830

  7. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the alveolar mucosa of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Johann, A C B R; Caldeira, P C; Abdo, E N; Sousa, S O M; Aguiar, M C F; Mesquita, R A

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare lesion composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells accompanied by inflammatory infiltrate. The objective of this paper is to report an uncommon case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor located in the alveolar mucosa of the mandible. A 33-year-old male presented an asymptomatic tumoral lesion, firm, pedunculated, pink-colored, covered by smooth mucosa, with focal ulceration, measuring 30x20x20 mm, located in the left posterior alveolar mucosa. Clinical diagnosis was soft tissue tumor. An excisional biopsy was made. Microscopic examination showed compact fascicular spindle cells proliferation with a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Large ganglion-like cells were observed. The lesional cells were immunopos-itive to vimentin, a-smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, and CD68. Negative immunostain was observed to S-100, Bcl-2, Ki-67, desmin, CD34, and cytokeratin. A diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor was performed. After 28 months of follow-up there was no recurrence. Although no evidence of oral inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor recurrence or malignant transformation has been reported, it has been observed that in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of other regions a prolonged follow-up is necessary after surgical excision.

  8. Oral encapsulated vascular malformation: An undescribed presentation in the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Márcio-Américo; Dias, Pedro-de Souza; Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions have been classified in two broad categories, hemangiomas and malformations. Encapsulated vascular lesions have not been reported in the oral cavity, but they were described in other sites, mainly in the orbit. Herein, we present a case of an oral encapsulated vascular lesion located in the right buccal mucosa of a 69-year-old male, including histological and immunohistochemical description and a literature review. Key words:Buccal mucosa, hemangioma, vascular malformation, oral cavity. PMID:26855712

  9. A novel flow through diffusion cell for assessing drug transport across the buccal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lestari, Maria L A D; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Finnin, Barrie C

    2009-12-01

    A novel flow through (FT) diffusion cell for assessing the permeability of compounds across the buccal mucosa was designed. Porcine buccal mucosa was mounted between two chambers with flow through capacity in both the donor and receptor chambers. The permeability of caffeine (CAF), triamcinolone acetonide (TAC), and estradiol (E(2)) was determined over 4 h and flux values were compared to those obtained using a modified Ussing chamber (MUC). No significant differences in the flux of each probe compound were observed using either the MUC or the novel FT cell. The design of the FT cell allowed for monitoring appearance of receptor solution within the donor chamber during the initial equilibration period, allowing for visual inspection of tissue integrity. These permeability studies demonstrate that this FT cell is a suitable alternative model for assessing drug permeability across the buccal mucosa, without the limitations associated with the static MUC. This novel model was then utilized to determine whether salmeterol xinafoate (SX) could permeate the buccal mucosa at concentrations expected in the oral cavity following inhalation. Concentration-dependent studies demonstrated that SX permeates the buccal mucosa via passive diffusion and that oral mucosal absorption may contribute significantly to the overall systemic exposure of inhaled SX.

  10. Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Mobile phones are being used extensively throughout the world, with more than four billion accounts existing in 2009. This technology applies electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Health effects of this radiation have been subject of debate for a long time, both within the scientific community and within the general public. This study investigated the effect of mobile phone use on genomic instability of the human oral cavity's mucosa cells. 131 Individuals donated buccal mucosa cells extracted by slightly scraping the oral cavity with a cotton swab. Every participant filled out a questionnaire about mobile phone use including duration of weekly use, overall period of exposure and headset usage. 13 Individuals did not use mobile phones at all, 85 reported using the mobile phone for three hours per week or less, and 33 reported use of more than three hours per week. Additionally, information on age, gender, body weight, smoking status, medication and nutrition was retrieved. For staining of the cells a procedure using alpha-tubulin-antibody and chromomycin A(3) was applied. Micronuclei and other markers were evaluated in 1000 cells per individual at the microscope. A second scorer counted another 1000 cells, resulting in 2000 analyzed cells per individual. Mobile phone use did not lead to a significantly increased frequency of micronuclei. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  12. Free Gingival Graft to Increase Keratinized Mucosa after Placing of Mandibular Fixed Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Elcio

    2017-01-01

    Insufficiently keratinized tissue can be increased surgically by free gingival grafting. The presence or reconstruction of keratinized mucosa around the implant can facilitate restorative procedure and allow the maintenance of an oral hygiene routine without irritation or discomfort to the patient. The aim of this clinical case report is to describe an oral rehabilitation procedure of an edentulous patient with absence of keratinized mucosa in the interforaminal area, using a free gingival graft associated with a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis. The treatment included the manufacturing of a maxillary complete denture and a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis followed by a free gingival graft to increase the width of the mandibular keratinized mucosa. Free gingival graft was obtained from the palate and grafted on the buccal side of interforaminal area. The follow-up of 02 and 12 months after mucogingival surgery showed that the free gingival graft promoted peri-implant health, hygiene, and patient comfort. Clinical Significance. The free gingival graft is an effective treatment in increasing the width of mandibular keratinized mucosa on the buccal side of the interforaminal area and provided an improvement in maintaining the health of peri-implant tissues which allows for better oral hygiene. PMID:28293441

  13. Oral mucositis in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Pels, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucositis is the most commonly reported side effect observed in neoplastic patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the head and neck region as well as in patients who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The aim of the study was to assess the oral mucosa status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during antineoplastic therapy. The clinical examination included 78 children aged 2-18 with ALL. The clinical examination was conducted using the dental preset tray. The condition of the oral mucosa was determined using the WHO scale for oral mucositis. In the first period of antineoplastic therapy the pathological lesions of the oral mucosa of the mucositis type were observed among the examined patients. The lesions had various levels of intensity. Pain was found to be the primary symptom of oral mucositis. In this study the following were observed: local erythema of the oral mucosa in 35%, white pseudomembranous lesions in 18%, erosions in 40% and oral ulcerative lesions in 4% of patients who underwent the antineoplastic therapy. Oral mucositis was observed in 3.17% of children after 6 months of chemotherapy. Local treatment of oral mucositis with polyantibiotic-antifungal mixture, supporting antifungal systemic treatment, and improving the overall peripheral blood conditions in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia improve the condition of the oral mucosa.

  14. Oral mucositis in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Oral mucositis is the most commonly reported side effect observed in neoplastic patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the head and neck region as well as in patients who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The aim of the study was to assess the oral mucosa status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during antineoplastic therapy. Material and methods The clinical examination included 78 children aged 2-18 with ALL. The clinical examination was conducted using the dental preset tray. The condition of the oral mucosa was determined using the WHO scale for oral mucositis. Results In the first period of antineoplastic therapy the pathological lesions of the oral mucosa of the mucositis type were observed among the examined patients. The lesions had various levels of intensity. Pain was found to be the primary symptom of oral mucositis. In this study the following were observed: local erythema of the oral mucosa in 35%, white pseudomembranous lesions in 18%, erosions in 40% and oral ulcerative lesions in 4% of patients who underwent the antineoplastic therapy. Oral mucositis was observed in 3.17% of children after 6 months of chemotherapy. Conclusion Local treatment of oral mucositis with polyantibiotic-antifungal mixture, supporting antifungal systemic treatment, and improving the overall peripheral blood conditions in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia improve the condition of the oral mucosa. PMID:23788849

  15. Prominent features of allergic angioedema on oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Duvancić, Tomislav; Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; Brekalo, Ante; Situm, Mirna; Sinković, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Angioedema indicates acute subcutaneous edema that characterizes improperly restricted cutaneous or mucous membrane swelling, which can occur only once or be relapsing. Edema usually occurs in the periorbital area, lips, tongue, extremities and intestinal wall. It has turned out that angioedema is usually caused by the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) or allergies to certain allergens (allergic or IgE-mediated angioedema), followed by C1 inhibitor deficiency (hereditary and acquired angioedema), or the cause is unknown (idiopathic angioedema). It has been shown that patients with angioedema often have urticaria, which is noted in approximately 50% of cases. Usually there is a type I allergic reaction to some food allergens or drugs or insect stings. The most common causes of allergic angioedema are bee and wasp stings, reactions to medications or injections for sensitivity testing, and certain foods (especially eggs, shellfish and nuts). In diagnostic terms, it is important to determine the potential allergen, which is commonly performed with cutaneous tests, such as prick test, etc. The main risk of angioedema is swelling of the tongue, larynx and trachea, which can lead to airway obstruction and death, therefore tracheotomy is indicated in such cases. The initial treatment of patients with most forms of angioedema included administration of antihistamines and glucocorticoids, while epinephrine is given if there is fear from laryngeal edema.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Boesen, P V; Laszewski, M J; Robinson, R A; Dawson, D E

    1991-09-01

    Inverted papillomas of the oral cavity are rare lesions. Although in the seven oral cases previously reported the lesions were benign, approximately 10% to 15% of inverted papillomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses develop or are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. This report presents a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa. Histologically, this lesion demonstrated the morphologic features of inverted papilloma in the superficial portion, and squamous carcinoma in deeper sections. This case suggests that although rare, inverted papillomas of the oral cavity should be considered potentially malignant or capable of harboring a malignancy.

  17. A Solitary Phlebolith in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Entity and Clinicopathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, A; Kumar, N Govindraj; Kumar, B Jambukeshwar; Naik, Raghavendra M; Sangineedi, Y Jyoti

    2016-08-01

    Pathological conditions can give rise to calcifications within oral mucosa representing either a local or systemic disturbance. Inflammation, trauma, debris acting as nidus and vascular lesions have been attributed as principal causes for occurrence of calcifications within the oral mucosa. Occurrence of multiple calcified thrombi (phleboliths) is considered pathognomonic for hemangiomas and vascular malformations in the oral and maxillofacial region. Isolated occurrence of phlebolith in oral mucosa though very rare, especially without any underlying vascular lesions, can be diagnostically challenging. Either a traumatic association at that site or a hemangioma of childhood that has regressed once the individual became an adult are the possible explanations suggested for the occurrence of these unique solitary phleboliths. Histologically, an "onion-ring"-like concentric lamellar fibrosis around a central core with varying amounts of calcifications and presence of minute vascular channels within or around calcified lamellae is characteristic for phlebolith. There is a high propensity for misdiagnosing solitary phlebolith located in sites like the buccal mucosa where various other pathologic soft-tissue calcifications, such as sialoliths, calcified lymph nodes, traumatic myositis ossificans, etc. can occur and they too appear radiopaque in radiographs. Besides, the absence of any associated underlying vascular lesion adds to the mispercep-tion. In such cases, histopathological examination with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining alone may not be sufficient to determine the accurate diagnosis. Allied clinical history and immunohistochemistry can aid to arrive at the final diagnosis. We report such a case of nonvascular lesion-associated solitary phlebolith in the right buccal mucosa of a healthy 49-year-old male patient and discuss its differential diagnosis with emphasis on histological presentation.

  18. [Regeneration of the gastric and intestinal mucosas].

    PubMed

    Castrup, H J

    1979-05-10

    The physiological cell renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa is regulated in man as in animal through certain mechanisms with measurable kinetic data. Pathologic mucosal alterations, metabolic disorders, pharmacological agents etc. clearly affect the regenerative processes of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin and pentagastrin stimulate the growth not only of the parietal cells, but also of the superficial epithelium of the gastric mucosa, whereas secretin does not change cell growth. Glucocorticoid steroids inhibit epithelial regeneration in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-fluorouracil has a similar effect but acts at a different site in the regeneration cycle. Epithelial cell proliferation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa is likewise inhibited in an uremic condition. In inflammatory changes in the human gastric mucosa epithelial cell hyperproliferation relative to the severity of gastritis and anomalous proliferation within regions of dysplasia can be demonstrated. Foveolary hyperplasia in Ménétrier's disease occurs on the basis of excessive hyperproliferation with displacement of regeneration zones.

  19. Normal keratinized mucosa transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Reibel, J; Harder, F

    1981-01-01

    Two types of normal keratinized mucosa were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice of two different strains. 24 intact specimens of clinically normal human palatal mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu NC. The transplants were recovered after 42 d with a recovery rate of 96%. Moreover, 22 intact specimens of normal rat forestomach mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu BALB/c/BOM. These transplants were recovered after 21 d with a recovery rate of 63%. The histologic features of the transplants were essentially the same as those of the original tissues. However, epithelial outgrowths from the transplants differed with respect to the pattern of keratinization. The outgrowths of human palatal mucosa transplants were essentially unkeratinized, while the outgrowths of the rat forestomach transplants showed continued keratinization.

  20. [Reiter's syndrome oral manifestations].

    PubMed

    Fotiou, G; Laskaris, G

    1988-01-01

    Reiter's syndrome is characterized by arthritis, non-gonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis and mucocutaneous lesions. Oral lesions occur in 20-40% of the cases. They appear as papules and ulcerations on the buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. Lesions on the tongue resemple "geographic tongue". One case of Reiter's syndrome is described. The significance of the clinical lesions, their microscopic appearance and the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  1. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions. PMID:27688388

  2. Expression of endothelial adhesion molecules in the alveolar ridge mucosa, gingiva and periimplant mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, N U; Berglundh, T; Marinello, C P; Lindhe, J

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells in the alveolar ridge mucosa, the gingiva and the periimplant mucosa in humans. Twelve partially edentulous subjects were included in the study. In each subject, one soft tissue biopsy was harvested from the edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa, one from a tooth site and one from an implant site. After 3 weeks of undisturbed plaque accumulation, an additional biopsy was obtained from one tooth and one implant site in each subject. The tissue samples were snap frozen and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. In the alveolar ridge mucosa, smaller proportions of endothelial cells expressing ICAM-1, ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 were observed than in the gingiva. ELAM-1-positive cells occurred in lower numbers than in periimplant mucosa. After 21 days of plaque accumulation, ELAM-1 was increased in tooth sites, but decreased in periimplant mucosa. The results of the present study indicated that the proportions of activated endothelial cells and the extravasation of leukocytes is larger in gingiva and periimplant mucosa than in alveolar ridge mucosa. This might be due to the less permeable keratinized epithelial layer in the edentulous ridge mucosa, which offers proper protection against microbial pathogens. The greater expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules during experimental gingivitis, compared to periimplant mucositis, may reflect its longer history of repeated antigenic assaults.

  3. Oral Hemorrhagic Blister: An Enigma

    PubMed Central

    Shashikumar, BM; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, MR

    2013-01-01

    Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. PMID:24082207

  4. Oral hemorrhagic blister: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Shashikumar, Bm; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, Mr

    2013-09-01

    Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.

  5. Autophagy analysis in oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, T B; Paz, A H R; Rados, P V; Leonardi, R; Bufo, P; Pedicillo, M C; Santoro, A; Cagiano, S; Aquino, G; Botti, G; Pannone, G; Visioli, F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of autophagy in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate with clinical pathological features, as well as, the evolution of these lesions. 7 Normal oral mucosa, 51 oral leukoplakias, and 120 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were included in the study. Histological sections of the mucosa and leukoplakias were evaluated throughout their length, while the carcinomas were evaluated using Tissue Microarray. After the immunohistochemical technique, LC3-II positive cells were quantified in the different epithelial layers of the mucosa and leukoplakias and in the microarrays of the squamous cell carcinomas. The correlation between positive cells with the different clinical-pathological variables and with the evolution of the lesions was tested using the t test, ANOVA, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We observed increased levels of autophagy in the oral squamous cell carcinomas (p<0.001) in relation to the other groups, but without any association with poorer evolution or survival of these patients. Among the leukoplakias, we observed a higher percentage of positive cells in the intermediate layer of the dysplastic leukoplakias (p=0.0319) and in the basal layer of lesions with poorer evolution (p=0.0133). The levels of autophagy increased during the process of oral carcinogenesis and are correlated with poorer behavior of the leukoplakias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  7. The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Methods Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. Conclusions It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. Clinical relevance: The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application. PMID:23497446

  8. The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Abdelmonem, Said; Abdelsameea, Ahmed A.; AlShawadfy, Mohamed; El-Kashishy, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries. Objective  This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats. Methods  We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1) non-treated group; (2) gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis) treated group; and (3) propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally) once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope. Results  The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth. Conclusion  Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats. PMID:27413403

  9. Oral Verrucous Carcinoma Mimicking a Chronic Candidiasis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Natália Galvão; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa

    2012-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma has a special propensity to mimic benign lesions of the oral cavity. A case of the oral verrucous carcinoma in maxillary alveolar ridge, extending to buccal vestibule, cheek, and labial mucosa, which was diagnosed and initially treated as chronic candidiasis, is presented. Clinical, histopathological, and therapeutic considerations related to diagnosis of the verrucous carcinoma in the oral cavity are discussed. PMID:22720181

  10. Morphological evaluation of tongue mucosa in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Andrea; Gualerzi, Alice; Lodi, Giovanni; Sforza, Chiarella; Carrassi, Antonio; Donetti, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a morphological evaluation by immunofluorescence of biomarkers of keratinocyte intercellular adhesion, and of differentiation in the tongue mucosa of burning mouth syndrome patients (BMS), compared with a control group. A prospective blinded evaluation of tongue mucosal specimens processed for light microscopy was performed. Intercellular adhesion was evaluated by investigating the expression of desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, and of occludin. Keratin 10 and keratin 14 (markers of epithelial differentiation) were also evaluated, as keratin 16 (marker for activated keratinocytes after epithelial injury). Apoptotic cascade was investigated by p53 and activated caspase-3 expression. The basal membrane integrity was analysed through laminin immunoreactivity. In both groups, a preserved three-dimensional architecture of the tongue was observed. Desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 epithelial distributions were similar in the desmosomes of patients and control subjects. Again, keratin 10 immunoreactivity and distribution pattern of keratin 14 in the epithelial compartment was similar in both groups. In control samples, keratin 16 immunoreactivity was scant throughout the epithelium with a punctuate and scattered cytoplasmic labelling. In contrast, in all BMS patients keratinocyte cytoplasm was homogeneously labelled for keratin 16, with a more intense staining than controls. Furthermore, keratin 16 staining progressively decreased proceeding towards the most superficial epithelial layers. The results of this study are consistent with and support the clinically normal features of oral mucosa in BMS, and suggest that keratin 16 may be involved in the cell mechanisms underlying the syndrome occurrence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-18

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis.

  12. Oral warning signs of elastic pseudoxanthoma.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Lara Passos; Pires, Thaís Izidoro; Chaves, Maria das Graças Afonso Miranda; Savioli, Cynthia; Fabri, Gisele Maria Campos

    2016-09-01

    The pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a multisystemic heritable disease that primarily affects the connective tissue. It has been characterized by fragmentation and calcification of elastic fibers that can lead to complications of skin and cardiovascular system and changes in retina. Involvement of the oral mucosa has been described like white patches striated especially in the mucosa of both upper and lower lips. These oral signs are potentially useful to diagnose the disease, since it is an often undiagnosed disease due to the variability in phenotypic expressions. This study reports a case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum affecting a woman who developed lesions in the oral mucosa during the disease progression. Intraoral clinical assessment revealed the presence of changes mainly in lower labial mucosa and also slightly changes in the mouth floor and the upper labial mucosa. Therefore, the acknowledgment of oral pseudoxanthoma elasticum lesions helps dental practitioners to establish an early and appropriate diagnosis of this disease. This is very important because pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a multisystem disease with morbidity and mortality, and its early diagnosis and also the establishment of a follow-up protocol for these patients could prevent systemic and oral complications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Oral epithelial hyperplasia in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Girtan, Mihaela; Zurac, Sabina; Stăniceanu, Florica; Bastian, Alexandra; Popp, Cristiana; Nichita, Luciana; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic systemic disorders with major influences of the oral cavity microenvironment. Oral manifestations of diabetes are diverse; they are represented by candidose, lichen plan, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, gingivitis, salivary disorders, oral mucosa atrophy and rarely hypertrophy; a possible link between oral cancer and diabetes is suspected, both in animal models and humans. We report a case of a young woman with type 1 diabetes with class I Kennedy edentation with mobile denture prosthesis; latter in the clinical follow-up, a hyperplasic lesion of the oral mucosa with p53 expression within the epithelial nuclei was identified, p53 being the more likely pathogenic pathway involved in diabetes-related oral cancer. The approach of this patient required multidisciplinary investigations and careful follow-up.

  14. Cytoprotective effects of disodium cromoglycate on rat stomach mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, J.; Van Reempts, J.; Van Wauwe, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of the anti-asthmatic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on gastric mucosal necrosis induced by ethanol in rats were studied. Subcutaneous, but not oral, DSCG prevented the formation of gastric lesions and this effect was dose-dependent between 1.25 and 40 mg kg-1, with an ED50 value of 6.8 mg kg-1. Maximal cytoprotection occurred 15-30 min after DSCG treatment. Histological examination revealed that DSCG effectively protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced vascular congestion, haemorrhage, epithelial desquamation and mucosal oedema. Enhanced production of endogenous prostaglandins, which are known cytoprotective compounds, could not explain the mucosal protection. At a dose of 40 mg kg-1, DSCG did not change prostaglandin E2 or 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha concentrations in gastric mucosal tissue, although its cytoprotective activity was partially inhibited by prior treatment of the animals with indomethacin. Images Figure 2 PMID:3109535

  15. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  16. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa and Lower Lip.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed N; Chehal, Hardeep; Smith, Molly Housley; Islam, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2017-10-04

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon relatively aggressive neuroendocrine dermal neoplasm first described in 1972 as a tumor of the sun exposed skin. Although most MCC affect the skin of the head and neck, rare primarily oral mucosal cases have been documented. Merkel cells are nondendritic neuroendocrine cells that are found not only in the skin but also the oral mucosa and give rise to MCC. Neuroendocrine cells may be found as aggregates in organs or as diffuse or isolated cells within organs and their epithelial lining. They contain peptide hormones and biogenic amines and occur in two forms: dendritic, which are not associated with nerve fibers and non-dendritic, which are associated with nerve fibers. Merkel cells as well as MCC express simple epithelium-type Cytokeratins (8, 18, 19, 20), neurosecretory substances; chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), adhesion molecules, and villin (intermediate filament). Though weakly, they also express neural markers such as S-100 protein. Cytokeratin 20, and Cluster of differentiation 56, are the two key diagnostic markers for Merkel cells and MCC. Etiology includes UV radiation, the recently described Merkel cell polyomavirus, and long term systemic immunosuppression. The cutaneous and mucosal variants of MCC are considered aggressive tumors with a high risk for local recurrence and metastasis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of head and neck mucosal lesions. We present two cases of primary Merkel cell carcinoma, one on the buccal mucosa and the other on the lower lip, and discuss the salient histologic, immunohistochemical and clinical features.

  17. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth.

  18. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  20. [Oral cavity changes in alcoholic patients].

    PubMed

    Esguep, A; Ceballos, M; Smith, P

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this study was to look for pathological changes in the oral cavity in a group of 40 non cirrhotic male alcoholics, ranging in age from 30 to 40 years old. These subjects were compared with a group of 40 non alcoholic male subjects of similar age. The presence of lip, dental, periodontal, salivary gland and oral mucosa lesions was recorded. In alcoholics, pigmented lesions were observed in the lips in all the subjects (compared to 36% of controls), in the cheek mucosa in 65% and in the palate mucosa in 35.5%. Sixty five percent of alcoholics were partially edentate (compared to 32.5% of controls). It is concluded that the consideration of oral changes as a whole could be useful in the diagnosis of occult alcoholism. Moreover these patients have an important need of odontological attention that has to be considered.

  1. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  2. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-04-10

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication.

  3. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  4. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  5. Distribution of fibronectin in the rectal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scott, D L; Morris, C J; Blake, A E; Low-Beer, T S; Walton, K W

    1981-07-01

    Fibronectin is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight present in tissues, plasma, and tissue fluids. Its distribution in the rectal mucosa was studied by immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase techniques using a monospecific antiserum. Immunofluorescent reactivity for fibronectin was present in the normal rectal mucosa of control subjects in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and as a loose cribriform network of extracellular reactivity in the lamina propria that codistributed with histochemically demonstrable reticulin. Fibronectin was demonstrated immunoelectromicroscopically on collagen fibres, on smooth muscle cells and within and between columnar epithelial cells. In the rectal mucosa of patients with colitis with marked inflammatory changes, fibronectin appeared thickened and more prominent when present on basement membranes and as sparse strands between inflammatory cells infiltrating the lamina propria. In patients with longstanding colitis and less inflammatory cell infiltration there was a diffuse increase in fibronectin which was densely and uniformly present throughout the lamina propria. Fibronectin is a structural component of the rectal mucosa and changes in its distribution may form an important part of the local reaction to inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease.

  7. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures. PMID:19444317

  8. Oral and perioral piercing complications.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-12-04

    BACKGROUND.: The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing METHODS.: A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ;;oral and perioral, piercing , ;;oral, piercing and disease", ;;recessions and oral piercing . It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series RESULTS.: A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. CONCLUSION.: Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS.: Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.

  9. Oral lichenoid tissue reactions: diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Khudhur, Ahmed Salih; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Carrozzo, Marco

    2014-03-01

    The concept of lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis was introduced in dermatology to define a number of diverse inflammatory skin diseases linked together by the presence of common histopathological features. Similarly to the skin, the oral mucosa is affected by a variety of oral lichenoid lesions. Oral LTRs (OLTRs) include: oral lichen planus; oral lichenoid contact lesion; oral lichenoid drug reaction; oral lichenoid lesions of graft-versus-host disease; oral discoid lupus erythematosus; oral lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus; erythema multiforme; paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome; chronic ulcerative stomatitis and lichen planus pemphigoid. Traditionally, diagnosis of OLTRs relies on clinical and histological correlation but in several instances this approach fails to provide a reliable diagnosis. Inclusion of molecular techniques may refine our ability to differentiate OLTRs.

  10. [Gran versus host disease with oral involvement: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Rojas A, Gonzalo; González G, Néstor; Venables G, Cristián; Araos H, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Gran versus Host Disease (GVHD) is a common complication in allogenic bone marrow transplants and in some cases, it involves the oral mucosa. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and timely treatment is essential to prevent local complications which interfere with normal oral functions and facilitate infection spread. We report a 17 years old woman with GVHD associated to lichenoid and ulcerative lesion in the oral mucosa, which responded to the topical administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus ointment.

  11. The methylation status and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase is significantly high in oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Kazuya; Yada, Naomi; Sato, Shinobu; Habu, Manabu; Hayakawa, Mana; Takahashi, Osamu; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Takenaka, Shigeori; Yoshioka, Izumi; Matsuo, Kou; Tominaga, Kazuhiro

    2017-09-01

    Telomerase activity is present in most cancers and is tightly regulated by the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Hypermethylation in the promoter region of hTERT contributes to the regulation of hTERT expression. In this study, we investigated the methylation and expression of hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral leukoplakia, and normal oral mucosa. Furthermore, we investigated the significance of hTERT to the clinicopathological findings of OSCC. 35 OSCC, 50 oral leukoplakia (epithelial dysplasia n = 25, squamous cell hyperplasia n = 25), and 10 normal oral mucosa samples were investigated through methylation-specific PCR. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed in 35 OSCC, 50 oral leukoplakia, and 4 normal oral mucosa samples. The methylation and expression of hTERT increased from normal oral mucosa to oral leukoplakia to OSCC. In OSCC, all samples were methylated. However, partial methylation (20%) or unmethylation (80%), but never complete methylation, was observed in normal oral mucosa. Additionally, hTERT expression correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis. These results suggested that the methylation and expression of hTERT is high in oral carcinogenesis and may play an important role in oral cancer. hTERT expression may also be predictive of cervical lymph node metastasis. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Oral transmucosal drug delivery for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jenny K W; Xu, Yingying; Worsley, Alan; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-06-01

    The formulation of medicines for children remains a challenge. An ideal pediatric formulation must allow accurate dose administration and be in a dosage form that can be handled by the target age group. It is also important to consider the choices and the amount of excipients used in the formulation for this vulnerable age group. Although oral formulations are generally acceptable to most pediatric patients, they are not suitable for drugs with poor oral bioavailability or when a rapid clinical effect is required. In recent years, oral transmucosal delivery has emerged as an attractive route of administration for pediatric patients. With this route of administration, a drug is absorbed through the oral mucosa, therefore bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism and thus avoiding drug degradation or metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. The high blood flow and relatively high permeability of the oral mucosa allow a quick onset of action to be achieved. It is a simple and non-invasive route of drug administration. However, there are several barriers that need to be overcome in the development of oral transmucosal products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current development of oral transmucosal delivery specifically for the pediatric population in order to achieve systemic drug delivery. The anatomical and physiological properties of the oral mucosa of infants and young children are carefully examined. The different dosage forms and formulation strategies that are suitable for young patients are discussed.

  13. Hypoxic regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human buccal mucosa fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2015-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is regarded as a pre-cancerous condition with fibrosis in oral subepithelial connective tissue. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α regulates a wide variety of profibrogenic genes, which are closely associated with tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to compare HIF-1α expression in normal buccal mucosa tissues and OSF specimens and further explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to the induction of HIF-1α expression. Twenty-five OSF specimens and six normal buccal mucosa were examined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of HIF-1α from fibroblasts cultured from OSF and normal buccal mucosa was measured by Western blot. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, was challenged to normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts (BMFs) to elucidate whether HIF-1α expression could affect by arecoline. In addition, the effects of arecoline on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 expression were evaluated in environmental hypoxia. HIF-1α expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens and expressed mainly by fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Fibroblasts derived from OSF were found to exhibit higher HIF-1α protein expression than BMFs (P < 0.05). Arecoline was found to upregulate HIF-1α protein in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Hypoxia increased arecoline-induced PAI-1 protein expression than normoxic conditions (P < 0.05). These results suggest that HIF-1α expression is significantly upregulated in OSF tissues from areca quid chewers, implying a potential role as a biomarker for local tissue hypoxia. The activation of HIF-1α may promote fibrogenesis by an increase of PAI-1 expression and a subsequent elevation of extracellular matrix production in oral submucosa leading to fibrosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0059 TITLE: Educating normal breast mucosa to prevent breast cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keith L Knutson...SUBTITLE Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0059 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0059 5c...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Breast cancer develops from breast mucosa and breast mucosa has intact immune system to

  15. Role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. A computer database search was performed through the use of PubMed from 1994 to 2014. Search keywords used were: HPV and oral cancer, HPV and oral leukoplakia, HPV and oral lichen planus, HPV and OSCC, HPV and verrucous carcinoma, HPV and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, HPV and oral papilloma. PMID:26097339

  16. Quantification of oral palatine Langerhans cells in HIV/AIDS associated oral Kaposi sarcoma with and without oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Jivan, Vibha; Meer, Shabnum

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are effective antigen-presenting cells that function as "custodians" of mucosa, modifying the immune system to pathogen entry, and tolerance to self-antigen and commensal microbes. A reduction in number of LCs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals may predispose to local mucosal infections. To quantitatively determine the number of oral mucosal LCs in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated oral Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with/without oral candidiasis (OC) and to define in situ interrelationships between the cells, OC, and HIV infection. Thirty-two periodic acid-Schiff. (PAS) stained histologic sections of palatal HIV/AIDS associated KS with intact oral epithelium were examined for Candida and divided into two groups: . (1) KS coinfected with Candida and. (2) KS noninfected with Candida. Sections were immunohistochemically stained with CD1a. The standard length of surface epithelium was measured and number of positively stained LCs counted per unit length. Control cases included non-Candida infected palatal mucosa overlying pleomorphic adenoma. (PA) and oral mucosa infected with Candida in otherwise healthy individuals. LC number per unit length of surface epithelium was statistically significantly greatest in uninfected PA mucosa and lowest in KS coinfected with Candida (P = 0.0001). A statistically significant difference was also noted between uninfected PA mucosa and non-Candida infected KS (P = 0.0014), in KS coinfected with Candida and non-infected KS (P = 0.0035), between OC and PA (P = 0.0001), and OC and KS coinfected with Candida (P = 0.0247). LC numbers are significantly reduced in oral tissues of HIV/AIDS infected patients by Candida infection when compared to oral tissues without.

  17. [Effects of different nutritional support routes on the intestinal mucosa mucosainjury and renovation in burned rats].

    PubMed

    Peng, X; Wang, S; Tao, L

    2000-08-01

    To compare the effects of different nutritional support routes on the intestinal mucosa in burned rats. Wistar rats inflicted with 30% TBSA full thickness burns were employed as the model and randomly divided into three groups: burn with enteral nutrition (EN), burn with parenteral nutrition (PN), and normal control (C). Solutions for intravenous and oral application with same volume, calorie, nitrogen and other nutrients were administered to rats in PN and EN groups, respectively. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity, the intestinal mucosa change of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), of transmembrane electric potential difference (PD), of intestinal trefoil factor and their correlation analysis (ITF) were observed. Plasma DAO activity increased obviously and PD, PCNA values, ITF content were much lower in EN, PN groups than those in C group. The ITF content, the values of PD and PCNA in EN were much higher than those in PN group, while DAO activity in EN group was obviously lower than that in PN group. In addition, ITF content was significantly negatively correlated to plasma DAO activity, and obviously positively correlated to PCNA and PD values. It is suggested that intestinal mucosa injury was much more severe in PN group than that in EN group. Postburn intestine mucosa mucosal structural injury was related to the evident decrease of synthesis and secretion of ITF. Enteral nutrition might slow down the decrement of ITF, which could explain why EN was superior to PN in terms of decreasing intestinal mucosal injury and enhancing intestinal renovation.

  18. [Clinical significance of CD44 and CD133 expression in oral potentially malignant disorder and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jiajia, Qi; Yan, Sun; Changqing, Yuan; Wenjing, Jiang; Han, Zhao; Yuanpan, Cao; Qiuyan, Liu

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the expression and relationship of CD44 and CD133 in normal oral mucosa, oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This work also analyzes the relationship between such expression and clinical factors. This study intends to evaluate the clinical value of using CD44 and CD133 as indices to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of OPMD. Clinical data from 60 patients with OPMD, 60 patients with OSCC, and 10 cases of normal oral mucosa were analyzed. Double immunohistochemical analysis was applied to investigate the expression of CD44 and CD133 in paraffin sections of normal oral mucosa, OPMD, and OSCC tissues. Subsequently, the relationships between such expression and clinical factors were analyzed. The positive rates of CD44 expression in the normal oral mucosa, OPMD, and OSCC tissues were 100.00%, 96.67%, and 71.67% (P<0.05), respectively. Meanwhile, the positive rates of CD133 expression in the normal oral mucosa, OPMD, and OSCC tissues were 0.00%, 35.00%, and 63.33% (P<0.05), respectively. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was found to be correlated (P<0.05). Such expression was related to the clinical stages and lymphatic metastasis of OSCC (P<0.05). CD44 and CD133 can be used individually as clinical indices to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of OPMD.
.

  19. Geraniol-a flavoring agent with multifunctional effects in protecting the gastric and duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid Moraes; Bonamin, Flavia; Dos Santos, Raquel Cássia; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Filho, José Maria Barbosa; da Rocha, Lucia Regina Machado; Hiruma-Lima, Clelia Akiko

    2014-04-01

    Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol commonly used as a flavoring agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate antiulcerogenic effects of geraniol and to determine the possible mechanisms involved in this action. In the model of the ethanol-induced ulcer, treatment of rats with geraniol by oral route significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 70 % (7.50 mg/kg) to 99 % (200 mg/kg). Analysis of the gastric tissue of rats treated with geraniol (7.50 mg/kg) revealed that total glutathione content levels (GSH) increased and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) decreased in the gastric mucosa. Oral treatment with geraniol significantly decreased the number of ulcerative lesions induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury by 71 % and the duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine by 68 %. The action of geraniol was mediated by the activation of defensive mucosa-protective factors such as the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endogenous prostaglandins, increased mucus production, increased sulfhydryl compounds, antioxidant properties and the stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release through the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV). The multifaceted gastroprotective mechanisms of geraniol represent a promising option for the treatment of gastric and duodenal mucosa injury.

  20. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  1. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral

  2. Rare tumors of esophageal squamous mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Monika; Swanson, Paul E

    2016-10-01

    In spite of increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the last few decades, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) still remains the dominant subtype of esophageal cancer worldwide. Apart from conventional SCC, some rare unconventional tumors of esophageal squamous mucosa are also well known. This study provides an introduction to these and presents a brief review of the literature, including the diagnostic and prognostic importance of each variant.

  3. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  4. Active electrolyte transport in mammalian buccal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, R.C.; Tobey, N.A.; Schreiner, V.J.; Readling, R.D. )

    1988-09-01

    The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) was measured in vivo across the buccal mucosa of humans and experimental animals. Mean PD was {minus}31 {plus minus} 2 mV in humans, {minus}34 {plus minus} 2 mV in dogs, {minus}39 {plus minus} 2 mV in rabbits, and {minus}18 {plus minus} 1 mV in hamsters. The mechanisms responsible for this PD were explored in Ussing chambers using dog buccal mucosa. Fluxes of ({sup 14}C)mannitol, a marker of paracellular permeability, varied directly with tissue conductance. The net fluxes of {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl were +0.21 {plus minus} 0.05 and {minus}0.04 {plus minus} 0.02 {mu}eq/h{center dot}cm{sup 2}, respectively, but only the Na{sup +} flux differed significantly from zero. I{sub sc} was reduced by luminal amiloride, serosal ouabain, or by reducing luminal Na{sup +} below 20 mM. This indicated that the I{sub sc} was determined primarily by active Na{sup +} absorption and that Na{sup +} traverses the apical membrane at least partly through amiloride-sensitive channels and exists across the basolateral membrane through Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity. The authors conclude that buccal mucosa is capable of active electrolyte transport and that this capacity contributes to generation of the buccal PD in vivo.

  5. Unifocal orofacial granulomatosis in retromolar mucosa: surgical treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Seoane-Romero, Juan M.; García-Caballero, Lucía; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M.; Romero-Méndez, María A.

    2014-01-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is defined by permanent or recurrent swelling of orofacial tissues with different multiform and multifocal clinical patterns. An 11-year old boy presented with a 2-month history of mucosa enlargement. Intraoral examination revealed an erythematous, polylobulated, exophytic lesion with a smooth surface located in retromolar mucosa, non-tender and non-infiltratated to palpation. The diagnosis was inflammatory lesion compatible with pyogenic granuloma and laser excision was decided. Haematological parameters were within normal range, as well as chest Xrays. These findings lead to a diagnosis of non-symptomatic orofacial granulomatosis, whose early diagnosis can minimize the impact of systemic-related disorders, like Chron’s disease. Key words:Laser, orofacial granulomatosis, childhood, oral lesions, diagnosis. PMID:24790722

  6. Apremilast Is Effective in Lichen Planus Mucosae-Associated Stenotic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Jürg; Gubler, Christoph; Kaufmann, Karin; Nobbe, Stephan; Navarini, Alexander A.; French, Lars E.

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman with extensive lichen planus mucosae (LPM) developed stenotic esophagitis that was refractory to intravenous glucocorticosteroids. Esophageal dilatations to 14 mm width were repeatedly performed without any lasting effect. After introducing oral apremilast, she experienced complete clinical remission within the first 4 weeks of treatment. Control esophagoscopy confirmed a marked recovery of the esophageal mucosa with no recurrence of the former stenosis. Our observation is in line with the case series of Paul et al. [J Am Acad Dermatol 2013;68: 255–261] who first reported on the benefit of apremilast in patients with extensive LPM. Ideally, the effectiveness of apremilast in LPM should be studied in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27721755

  7. Unifocal orofacial granulomatosis in retromolar mucosa: surgical treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Seoane-Romero, Juan M; García-Caballero, Lucía; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M; Romero-Méndez, María A; Varela-Centelles, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is defined by permanent or recurrent swelling of orofacial tissues with different multiform and multifocal clinical patterns. An 11-year old boy presented with a 2-month history of mucosa enlargement. Intraoral examination revealed an erythematous, polylobulated, exophytic lesion with a smooth surface located in retromolar mucosa, non-tender and non-infiltratated to palpation. The diagnosis was inflammatory lesion compatible with pyogenic granuloma and laser excision was decided. Haematological parameters were within normal range, as well as chest Xrays. These findings lead to a diagnosis of non-symptomatic orofacial granulomatosis, whose early diagnosis can minimize the impact of systemic-related disorders, like Chron's disease. Key words:Laser, orofacial granulomatosis, childhood, oral lesions, diagnosis.

  8. Update on oral herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T

    2014-04-01

    Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs.

  9. Prelaminating the fascial radial forearm flap by using tissue-engineered mucosa: improvement of donor and recipient sites.

    PubMed

    Lauer, G; Schimming, R; Gellrich, N C; Schmelzeisen, R

    2001-11-01

    In reconstructive surgery, prelamination of free flaps using split-thickness skin is an established technique to avoid the creation of a considerable defect at the donor site, for example, in the case of a radial forearm flap. For oral and maxillofacial surgery, this technique is less than optimal for the recipient site because the transferred skin is inadequate to form a lining in the oral cavity. To create mucosa-lined free flaps, prelamination using pieces of split-thickness mucosa has been performed. However, the availability of donor sites for harvesting mucosa is limited. The present study combines a tissue-engineering technique with free flap surgery to create mucosa-lined flaps with the intention of improving the tissue quality at the recipient site and decreasing donor-site morbidity. On five patients undergoing resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, the radial forearm flap was prelaminated with a tissue-engineered mucosa graft to reconstruct intraoral defects. Using 10 x 5 mm biopsies of healthy mucosa, keratinocytes were cultured for 12 days and seeded onto collagen membranes (4.5 x 9 cm). After 3 days, the mucosal keratinocyte collagen membrane was implanted subcutaneously at the left or right lower forearm to prelaminate the fascial radial forearm flap. One week later, resection of the squamous cell carcinoma was performed, and the free fascial radial forearm flap pre- laminated with tissue-engineered mucosa was transplanted into the defect and was microvascularly anastomosed. Resection defects up to a size of 5 x 8 cm were covered. In four patients, the graft healed without complications. In one patient, an abscess developed in the resection cavity without jeopardizing the flap. During the postoperative healing period, the membrane detached and a vulnerable pale-pink, glassy hyperproliferative wound surface was observed. This surface developed into normal-appearing healthy mucosa after 3 to 4 weeks. In the postoperative follow

  10. Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Surabhi; Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K

    2013-03-30

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease.

  11. Role of Oral Mucosal Fluid and Electrolyte Absorption and Secretion in Dry Mouth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo H; Castro, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Dry mouth is induced by dehydration of the oral mucosa, resulting from an imbalance of fluid supply and clearance within the oral cavity. Saliva is the major source of oral mucosal fluid, whereas oral fluid clearance includes evaporation and swallowing. Oral mucosal fluid absorption has been suggested to play a critical role in oral fluid clearance; over-absorption of water and ions across the oral mucosa under certain conditions may be a major component for oral fluid imbalance, leading to mucosal dehydration. While numerous studies have confirmed that the oral mucosa absorbs fluid and electrolytes, the pathways and mechanisms mediating the absorption remain undefined. The transcellular pathway regulating oral mucosal epithelial absorption includes aquaporins, epithelial Na+ channel and/or Na+/H+ exchanger, whereas the paracellular transport is likely to be mediated by tight junctions. The regulatory mechanisms of these pathways require further elucidation. It remains unclear whether the oral mucosa also secretes fluid and ions into the oral cavity. Although intercellular lipids secreted by epithelial cells form the major barrier to paracellular water and ion transport, the role and regulation of these lipids in oral mucosal hydration in physiological and pathological conditions need further investigation. Delineation of these mechanisms will be conducive to the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions for dry mouth.

  12. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it.

  13. Development, optimization and characterization of a full-thickness tissue engineered human oral mucosal model for biological assessment of dental biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Moharamzadeh, K; Brook, I M; Van Noort, R; Scutt, A M; Smith, K G; Thornhill, M H

    2008-04-01

    Restorative dental materials and oral health care products come into direct contact with oral mucosa and can cause adverse reactions. In order to obtain an accurate risk assessment, the in vitro test model must reflect the clinical situation as closely as possible. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a three-dimensional full-thickness engineered human oral mucosal model, which can be used for biological assessment of dental materials. In this study human oral fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated from patients and seeded onto a number of collagen-based and synthetic scaffolds using a variety of cell seeding techniques and grown at the air/liquid interface to construct human oral mucosa equivalents. Suitability of 10 different scaffolds for engineering human oral mucosa was evaluated in terms of biocompatibility, biostability, porosity, and the ability to mimic normal human oral mucosa morphology. Finally an optimized full-thickness engineered human oral mucosa was developed and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining. The oral mucosa reconstruct resembled native human oral mucosa and it has the potential to be used as an accurate and reproducible test model in mucotoxicity and biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials.

  14. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.

  15. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions. PMID:19570281

  16. Collecting and paramuscular venules in glandular mucosa of rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Moskalewski, Stanislaw; Biernacka-Wawrzonek, Dorota; Klimkiewicz, Justyna; Zdun, Rafal

    2002-03-01

    Blood from the rat gastric mucosa is drained by collecting venules running from the subepithelial layer towards the lamina muscularis mucosae. Details of their structure were studied in translucent, flat strips of the glandular stomach, in thick sections of glandular mucosa cleared in mineral oil and in semi-thin plastic sections. The number and dimensions of collecting venule outlets revealed in flat strips of gastric mucosa increased after administration of atropine and papaverine and intravital ligation of the portal vein in comparison with that of intact animals or animals with intravitally ligated portal vein but without administration of relaxing agents. In hyperemic mucosa short venules running parallel to the lamina muscularis mucosae (paramuscular venules) and draining collecting venules were distinctly visible. Saccular outlets equipped with triangular protrusions usually intervened between these vessels, probably directing blood flow. Collecting venules were straight, curved, extended or two-armed. Furthermore, numerous collecting venules contained circumscribed dilatations (sacculi) connected with the lumen of the collecting venule. Connection of paramuscular and submucosal veins occurred within the muscularis mucosae. Thus, contraction of the muscularis mucosae might control the outflow of venous blood from the gastric mucosa. Conceivably, alternate contraction and relaxation of muscularis mucosae could cause expansion and collapse of collecting venules which, in turn, would facilitate the movement of glandular content to the surface of the stomach and/or movement of interstitial fluid between cells.

  17. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  18. The microbial flora associated with oral carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Byakodi, Raghavendra; Krishnappa, R; Keluskar, Vaishali; Bagewadi, Anjana; Shetti, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    Changes in the microbial flora on the oral mucosa after cancerous alteration may lead to both local and systemic infections. In this study, we assessed the microbial flora associated with the surfaces of oral squamous cell carcinoma. A comparative evaluation of these microbial contents was made with that of the contralateral healthy mucosa and control (healthy) mucosa. We also assessed the microbial flora from the saliva culture in subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy controls. The case control study was made up of 30 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma as the study group; 30 healthy age-, sex-, habit-, and dentition-matched subjects served as the control group. In the study group, microbial samples were collected from the carcinoma site, contralateral healthy mucosa, and saliva, whereas in the control group, samples were collected from the healthy mucosa and saliva. These samples were stored on ice and subsequently transported to the laboratory in 2 mL of thioglycollate transport media, where the microbial cultures were carried out. Oral squamous cell carcinoma sites harbor significantly more microbial flora (bacteria and yeasts) compared to those of healthy mucosa (control group). The microbial flora predominantly isolated from the carcinoma site were Streptococcus species, Staphylococcus species, Moraxella species, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobic spore bearers, Klebsiella species, Citrobacter species, Proteus species, Pseudomonas species, and Candida albicans. The median number of colony forming units (CFU)/mL at carcinoma sites (3.85 x 105 CFU/mL) was significantly higher than that of the healthy mucosa (0.571 x 105 CFU/mL; P = .0000, Wilcoxon nonparametric test). Similarly, in saliva of carcinoma subjects, the median number of CFU/mL (2.408 x 105 CFU/mL) was significantly higher than that of saliva in control subjects (0.78 x 105 CFU/mL; P = .0000, Wilcoxon nonparametric test). The present study clearly indicates that the subjects with

  19. Lasers in oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1994-12-01

    The indications of lasers in oral surgery are defined by the laser-tissue interaction types. These are mainly thermal effects depending especially on the absorption of laser light in varying biological tissues. In histological sections different laser effects are demonstrated on oral mucosa, bone and cartilage, which have a great influence on wound healing and subsequently on clinical indications of the different wavelengths. On the one hand the good coagulation effect of the Nd:YAG laser is wanted for hemostasis in soft tissue surgery. On the other hand, for the treatment of precancerous dysplasias or neoplasias an effective cutting with a coagulation effect like using the CO2 laser is necessary. However, the excision of benign mucosal lesions as well as performing osteotomies or shaping of cartilage should be undertaken with the Er:YAG laser without greater coagulation and consequently without any delay of wound healing.

  20. Nuclear fractal dimension: A new objective approach for discriminating normal mucosa, dysplasia and carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Phulari, Rashmi G S; Rathore, Rajendrasinh S; Talegaon, Trupti Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various clinical and histological factors have helped in predicting the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, there has been a need for more specialized diagnostic and prognostic factors to avoid subjective variation among opinion. Thus, fractal dimension (FD) can be used as an index of the morphological changes that the epithelial cells undergo during their transformation into neoplastic cell. In oral cancer study, nuclear FD (NFD) can be used as a quantitative index to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and neoplastic oral mucosa. Aim: To use nuclear fractal geometry to compare the morphometric complexity in the normal, epithelial dysplasia and OSCC cases and to verify the difference among the various histological grades of dysplasia and OSCC. It was fulfilled by estimating the FDs of the nuclear surface. Materials and Methods: Histopathologically diagnosed cases of epithelial dysplasia and OSCC were taken from the archives. Photomicrographs were captured with the help of Lawrence and Mayo research microscope. The images were then subjected to image analysis using the Image J software with FracLac plugin java 1.6 to obtain FDs. FD of ten selected nuclei was calculated using the box-counting algorithm. Statistical Analysis: was done using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and Tukey's honest significant difference post hoc tests with STATAIC-13 software. Results and Conclusion: NFD can provide valuable information to discriminate between normal mucosa, dysplasia and carcinoma objectively without subjective discrimination. PMID:27721604

  1. Re-epithelialization of the Buccal Mucosa after Alkaline Chemical Injury.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Saneyuki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Katakura, Akira; Yamane, Gen-Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water and bicarbonate toothpaste. However, the effects of an alkaline pH on the oral mucosa had not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate how basal keratinocytes are actively involved in re-epithelialization after alkaline chemical injury. We generated epithelial defects in the oral mucosa of mice by applying an alkaline chemical, and the localization of cytokeratin 13, cytokeratin 14, PCNA and p63 was investigated during the re-epithelialization process. PCNA- and p63-positive staining was seen in basal cells covering the wound surface at 1 day after the chemical injury. Cytokeratin 14-positive and PCNA-negative basal keratinocytes were localized in a few layers of the wound epithelium during epithelial outgrowth. Cytokeratin 14-positive and PCNA-positive basal keratinocytes, indicating proliferation, were localized over the entire layer of the epithelium at the wound margin. These results imply that basal keratinocytes at the wound margin migrate to the wound surface, provoke differentiation and keratinization during epithelial outgrowth and that epithelial cells are supplied from the wound margin to the epithelial outgrowth after alkaline chemical injury.

  2. [Pimecrolimus (Elidel) for therapy of lichen ruber mucosae].

    PubMed

    Scheer, M; Kawari-Mahmoodi, N; Neugebauer, J; Kübler, A C

    2006-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory disorder with criteria of auto-reactive disease. Treatment consists on topical application of corticosteroids, vitamin A derivates or cyclosporin. Calcineurin inhibitors as tacrolimus and pimecrolimus decrease the production of cytokines and inhibit T-cell proliferation. These substances have recently been introduced for local therapy of chronic inflammatory skin disorders. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of local pimecrolimus in OLP. A group of five patients with histological proven OLP were treated with topical pimecrolimus 1% ointment twice daily to the affected area. Prior to treatment and after 7, 14, 28 and 42 days the lesions were assessed clinically and by photographs. The discomfort scores were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) weekly. All five patients (median age 65.6 years) were female and showed involvement of the buccal mucosa. All lesions showed a reduction of inflammation activity during the treating period. The VAS scores decreased significantly under treatment (p=0,0014). Pimecrolimus ointment was tolerated well with no signs of itching or burning. However, 4 out of 5 patients complained about the reduced adherence properties of the cream. Although no complete remission of OLP has been observed in our series, signs of inflammatory activity of OLP as redness and burning sensations were reduced by topical pimecrolimus. Further controlled randomized studies have to be conducted to compare topical pimecrolimus with topical corticosteroid as standard therapy. The adherence properties of pimecrolimus 1% cream should be improved for intra-oral application.

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  4. [Treatment of severe scrotal hypospadias with onlay-type urethroplasty using mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Castañón, M; Grande, C; Muñoz, M E; García, A; Morales, L

    1999-07-01

    Failure in repairing severe hypospadias complicated with fistula and cutaneous retraction is often associated with lack of subcutaneous tissue and skin providing protection to the neourethra. We report the results of treatment in 6 patients with scrotal hypospadias with severe deviation and scarce dorsal prepuce. A neourethra was created by the onlay technique applying an oral mucosa graft and preserving in all cases the dorsal preputial skin for the island cutaneous flap. All patients had hypospadias without previous repairs excepting one of them, who had had one first time hypospadias repair in other hospital. Patients age ranged between 2 years and 3 months, and 4 years (mean: 2 years and 9 months). In all cases, hypospadias was scrotal type with severe deviation and scarce dorsal prepuce. All patients had prior hormone stimulation with dehydrotestosterone 3%. Surgical repair was performed in one-stage. Urethroplasty included preservation of the urethral plate, oral mucosa graft to provide ventral coverage, and island cutaneous flap with the dorsal preputial skin. In all cases, the chord was dissected behind the urethral plate. In 3 patients a dorsal Nesbit plication was necessary to obtain a complete straighten penis. Results in all 6 cases were satisfactory. Only one patient had a small leakage at the previous neomeatus. The other five patients are asymptomatic. Follow-up ranges from 6 months to 2 years. We conclude that urethroplasty in association with a well vascularized island flap of dorsal preputial skin decrease the incidence of fistulae. In patients with severe hypospadias with scarce dorsal prepuce urethroplasty should be completed with oral mucosa grafts preserving dorsal preputial skin for the ventral cutaneous plasty.

  5. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  6. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder.

  7. Proteome Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Gut Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Ellingsen, Torkell; Glerup, Henning; Bonderup, Ole Kristian; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Meyer, Michael Kruse; Bøgsted, Martin; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend; Andersen, Vibeke; Stensballe, Allan

    2017-01-06

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease leading to cartilage damage and ultimately impaired joint function. To gain new insight into the systemic immune manifestations of RA, we characterized the colon mucosa proteome from 11 RA-patients and 10 healthy controls. The biopsies were extracted by colonoscopy and analyzed by label-free quantitative proteomics, enabling the quantitation of 5366 proteins. The abundance of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was statistically significantly increased in RA-patient biopsies compared with controls and correlated with the administered dosage of methotrexate (MTX), the most frequently prescribed immunosuppressive drug for RA. Additionally, our data suggest that treatment with Leflunomide, a common alternative to MTX, increases DHFR. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy, which furthermore demonstrated that DHFR was located in the cytosol of the intestinal epithelial and interstitial cells. Finally, we identified 223 citrullinated peptides from 121 proteins. Three of the peptides were unique to RA. The list of citrullinated proteins was enriched in extracellular and membrane proteins and included known targets of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). Our findings support that the colon mucosa could trigger the production of ACPAs, which could contribute to the onset of RA. The MS data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001608 and PXD003082.

  8. Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Papazian, A; Braillon, A; Dupas, J L; Sevenet, F; Capron, J P

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100 patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis, and 300 control patients without signs of liver disease or portal hypertension. This endoscopic pattern was observed in 94 of the patients with cirrhosis, whereas oesophageal varices were seen in 78 only. In contrast, only one patient of the control group had this aspect. Moreover, this sign was also found in seven of eight patients with non cirrhotic portal hypertension, but was seen neither in 100 patients with chronic alcoholism but without liver disease, nor in 10 cirrhotic patients with end-to-side portacaval shunts. These endoscopic changes might be because of mucosal and/or submucosal oedema and congestion highlighting the normal areae gastricae pattern and related to raised portal pressure. We conclude that the mosaic pattern of the gastric mucosa is a sensible and specific sign for diagnosis of portal hypertension, whatever the cause. Images Figure PMID:3781334

  9. Innovative dual impression technique for patients with atrophia idiopathica mucosa oris

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, G; Agarwal, Swatantra; Nirmala, B. G; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Atrophia idiopathica mucosa oris is an oral fibrosing disease resulting in marked rigidity and an eventual inability to open the mouth or had limited mouth opening. Patients with limited mouth opening are a common occurrence in prosthodontic practice. The majority of these patients can be treated with exercise and stretching movements before impressions are made. Some will not respond to these procedures because of facial scarring and surgical manipulation of the facial muscles. This article presents an impression procedure for overcoming difficulties encountered in such reduced mouth opening patients that can be assembled intraorally, disassembled intraorally, and reassembled extraorally. PMID:26929494

  10. Mucoadhesion dependence of pharmaceutical polymers on mucosa characteristics.

    PubMed

    Accili, Daniela; Menghi, Giovanna; Bonacucina, Giulia; Martino, Piera Di; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2004-07-01

    Well known mucoadhesive polymers such as Carbopol 974P and Pharmacoat 606 and three different mucosas (sublingual, oesophageal and duodenal bovine) were used to verify how the mucoadhesive properties of materials may depend on the mucosa characteristics and if a polymer may reveal more mucoadhesive than another and vice versa by changing the type of interacting mucosa. So, tablets of Carbopol 974P and Pharmacoat 606 were prepared and their mucoadhesion on the three mucosas was set in terms of maximum load and work of detachment, using a texture analyzer. At the same time, mucosas were characterized by immunohistochemical techniques and lectin histochemistry. Results obtained from the Tensile test analyses show that the adhesive power of the two polymers is different in the three mucosas. Particularly, in the sublingual mucosa, Carbopol was more mucoadhesive than Pharmacoat. On the contrary, Pharmacoat was more mucoadhesive than Carbopol in duodenal mucosa. The significantly different behavior of polymers was correlated with the desquamation layer thickness and the differential sialic acid and fucose exposition in the targeted mucosas.

  11. Perceived oral health status, oral function and related behaviour among the patients of Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Miura, H; Isogai, E; Mizugai, H; Miura, K

    2000-01-01

    The majority of patients with Behçet's disease (BD) suffers from oral ulcers. The aim of the present study was to survey self-rated oral health status, oral function, and oral health behaviour of patients with BD in eastern Japan. Subjects were 33 BD patients and 101 healthy individuals ranging in age from 20 to 59 years. The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The items of oral health in the questionnaire included subjective symptoms, self-rated dental problems and oral health behaviour. We found that compared to the healthy subjects, BD patients experienced more severe physical limitations, mainly involving difficulty in pronouncing words (p < 0.01) and the pain of oral mucosa and gingival tissue caused by oral ulcers (p < 0.01). Based on the results of oral health behaviour, BD patients did not behave positively with regard to maintaining oral health including regular tooth brushing despite relatively higher risk of dental diseases that they face. The present results suggest that oral ulcers due to BD induced dental disorder such as the pain of gingiva, oral mucosa, and difficulty in the pronouncing of words. In spite of this, their oral health behaviour is not positive compared to the healthy subjects. Thus, the need to develop a more active pragramme for oral health education for patients with BD is indicated.

  12. Cytological analysis of the epithelial cells in patients with oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Loss, Rafael; Sandrin, Rodrigo; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells of the oral mucosa infected by Candida albicans using exfoliative cytology. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology of 60 individuals (30 patients with oral candidiasis and 30 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for morphologic and cytomorphometric technique. Morphologically, candida-infected epithelial cells exhibited nuclear enlargement, perinuclear rings, discrete orangeophilia, and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The cytomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic area (CA) of the epithelial cells was diminished in patients undergoing candidiasis as compared to the non-infected controls. In addition, there was an augmentation in nuclear area (NA) and NA/CA area ratio. This study revealed that oral mucosa of patients undergoing candidal infection exhibited significant changes in the size and shape of the oral epithelial cells.

  13. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  14. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizen, S. )

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references.

  15. Development of an engineering autologous palatal mucosa-like tissue for potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Luitaud, C; Laflamme, C; Semlali, A; Saidi, S; Grenier, G; Zakrzewski, A; Rouabhia, M

    2007-11-01

    The goal of this study was to optimize key processes in recreating functional and viable palatal mucosa-like tissue that would be easy to handle and would promote wound healing. Normal human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells and a clinically useful biomaterial, CollaTape, were used. Structural and ultrastructural analyses showed that the gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells adhered to the biomaterial and proliferated. Following a 6-day culture, using 10(5) fibroblasts and 10(6) epithelial cells, a well-organized palatal mucosa-like tissue was engineered. The engineered epithelium displayed various layers, including a stratum corneum, and contained cytokeratin 16-positive cells located in the supra-basal layer. This palatal mucosa-like engineered tissue was designed to meet a variety of surgical needs. The biodegradable collagen membrane (CollaTape) contributed to the flexibility of the engineered tissue. This engineered innovative tissue may contribute to the reconstruction of oral soft-tissue defects secondary to trauma, congenital defects, and acquired diseases.

  16. Cytoprotective activity of deboxamet: a possible interference with prostaglandin and prostacyclin metabolism in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Franzone, J S; Cirillo, R; Cravanzola, C

    1988-01-01

    Deboxamet (5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-indolyl-acetohydroxamic acid) is a new synthetic drug with anti-ulcer and anti-secretory activity. The authors evaluated the ability of deboxamet to protect the rat gastric mucosa against the intensive necroses induced experimentally by absolute ethanol, NaCl (25%), HCl (0.6 N), acetylsalicylic acid plus HCl, and sodium taurocholate plus HCl. Deboxamet, as compared with pirenzepine, sulglycotide and PGE2, displayed a cytoprotective activity against these necrotizing agents. The involvement of deboxamet with prostacyclin metabolism was also investigated. In order to assess the presence of PGI2-like substances, extracts of mucosa from rats treated orally with deboxamet and sulglycotide were assayed i) on isolated rabbit mesenteric artery, ii) for hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rat, and iii) for anti-platelet activity. Deboxamet, like sulglycotide, was able to raise the availability of prostacyclins in the rat gastric mucosa, which is an important action in maintaining its cellular integrity. However, our results cannot determine whether this activity is due to an enhanced biosynthesis or a decreased degradation of prostacyclins.

  17. The defense architecture of the human periimplant mucosa: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Schupbach, Peter; Glauser, Roland

    2007-06-01

    The primary function of the periodontal tissues, besides attaching the tooth to the jaw, is gingival protection; that is, to provide a seal against the contaminated environment of the oral cavity. Detailed data regarding protection of the periimplant mucosa in patients with transmucosal implants are lacking. The purpose of this histological study was to demonstrate the structural and ultrastructural features of the interface between transmucosal titanium implants with oxidized, machined, and acid-etched surfaces and surrounding tissues by combined light and electron microscopy. Five patients received 12 experimental titanium, 1-piece mini-implants with an oxidized, acid-etched, or machined surface distal to conventional implants. Following transmucosal healing of 8 weeks and at the abutment connection of the regular implants, the mini-implants were removed with a layer of surrounding hard and soft tissue. The specimens were fixed and processed for light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. For all 3 types of surfaces, substantial structural analogies were demonstrated between gingiva and periimplant mucosa in humans, both shown to provide protection for the underlying soft tissues and alveolar bone. Depending on the implant surface texture, substantial differences were noted in the manner the implants interface with connective tissue. The mechanisms of protection in the periimplant mucosa correspond to those in the gingiva surrounding a tooth. The surface texture of implants may affect the orientation of collagen fibers of the connective tissue at the implant surface.

  18. Topical isoproterenol protects the rat gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Howard, T J; Passaro, E; Guth, P H

    1989-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of topical isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, on the morphologic damage produced in the gastric mucosa by ethanol. The orogastric instillation of 100% ethanol in rats resulted in gross lesion formation and deep histologic injury in the gastric mucosa. Animals pretreated with oral isoproterenol (50 micrograms/kg, 500 micrograms/kg, 50 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent protection from both the gross and the histologic mucosal injury (P less than 0.01, ANOVA). Pretreatment with propranolol (2 mg/kg/sec) but not indomethacin (5 mg/kg/sec) blocked this protective effect. Isoproterenol had no effect on ethanol-induced mast cell degranulation as both mucosal and submucosal mast cell counts were significantly and equally decreased in all groups treated with 100% ethanol (P less than 0.05). These findings show that topical isoproterenol protects the rat gastric mucosa from both the gross and the histologic injury caused by 100% ethanol. This protection is mediated by a beta-adrenergic receptor mechanism as it can be blocked by prior treatment with propranolol, but does not involve stabilization of mucosal or submucosal mast cell membranes.

  19. Carvedilol-loaded nanocapsules: Mucoadhesive properties and permeability across the sublingual mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Paula Dos Santos; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Frank, Luiza Abrahão; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2017-05-01

    Carvedilol is a drug used to treat heart failure, hypertension, and coronary artery diseases . However, it has low oral bioavailability (25-35%) due to its high first-pass hepatic metabolism. The objective of this study was to develop carvedilol-loaded mucoadhesive nanocapsules as delivery systems for the sublingual administration of the drug. Nanocapsules were prepared using poly(ε-caprolactone) (CAR-LNC) and Eudragit® RS 100 (CAR-NC) as polymeric wall. In vitro interaction of formulations with mucin was performed to predict their mucoadhesion capacity. The permeability and washability profiles of carvedilol were evaluated using porcine sublingual mucosa. The mean diameter of particles in formulations was in the nanometric range, and particles had low polydispersity and slightly acidic pH. Zeta potential values were positive for CAR-NC and negative for CAR-LNC. Encapsulation efficiency was higher than 87% and 99% for CAR-NC and CAR-LNC, respectively. Both formulations presented controlled drug release profiles and mucoadhesive properties. Carvedilol was able to permeate through the sublingual mucosa. Nanoencapsulation improved retention time on the mucosa and permeation in presence of simulated salivary flux. This study highlighted the suitability of using CAR-loaded nanocapsules in the development of innovative sublingual dosage forms.

  20. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  1. Antitoxic immunity to cholera in dogs immunized orally with cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Pierce, N F; Cray, W C; Engel, P F

    1980-02-01

    Colera toxin was evaluated as an oral immunogen against experimental canine cholera. Dogs were immunized orally with 100-microgram doses of purified cholera toxin or comparable doses of crude toxin. Both doses caused moderate diarrhea in most nonimmune dogs. Repeated oral doses (12 doses in 54 days) gave marked protection against the diarrheal effect of oral toxin, provoked a vigorous antitoxic response in jejunal mucosa, and gave nearly complete protection against subsequent oral challenge with living virulent Vibrio cholerae. Protection appeared to be due largely to the antitoxic response in intestinal mucosa. The effectiveness of cholera toxin as an oral vaccine contrasts with the previously described ineffectiveness of toxoid given orally. This study provides an example of mucosal immunity due to a nonreplicating vaccine given orally and suggests that cholera toxin may be useful as a component of an oral vaccine for cholera.

  2. Antitoxic immunity to cholera in dogs immunized orally with cholera toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, N F; Cray, W C; Engel, P F

    1980-01-01

    Colera toxin was evaluated as an oral immunogen against experimental canine cholera. Dogs were immunized orally with 100-microgram doses of purified cholera toxin or comparable doses of crude toxin. Both doses caused moderate diarrhea in most nonimmune dogs. Repeated oral doses (12 doses in 54 days) gave marked protection against the diarrheal effect of oral toxin, provoked a vigorous antitoxic response in jejunal mucosa, and gave nearly complete protection against subsequent oral challenge with living virulent Vibrio cholerae. Protection appeared to be due largely to the antitoxic response in intestinal mucosa. The effectiveness of cholera toxin as an oral vaccine contrasts with the previously described ineffectiveness of toxoid given orally. This study provides an example of mucosal immunity due to a nonreplicating vaccine given orally and suggests that cholera toxin may be useful as a component of an oral vaccine for cholera. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7380543

  3. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC.

  4. Oral lichen planus: study of 21 cases*

    PubMed Central

    Werneck, Juliana Tristão; Costa, Taiara de Oliveira; Stibich, Christian Abreu; Leite, Cristhiane Almeida; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Silva Junior, Arley

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is considered to be the most common dermatological disease involving the oral mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, clinical features, and the presence of dysplasia and candidiasis in patients with oral lichen planus. METHODS: A total of 21 patients were selected from 258 patients at risk for oral cancer development. RESULTS: Most of the patients were white (76,2%), female (66,6%), with mean age of 58.8 years. Eight were smokers and seven were alcohol consumers. The buccal mucosa was the most affected site, followed by the tongue and the gingiva. The reticular pattern was the most common appearance. Histopathology depicted dysplasia in nine cases and cytopathology was positive for Candida in eight cases in the first appointment