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Sample records for mucosal epithelial cells

  1. Collaboration of epithelial cells with organized mucosal lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Neutra, M R; Mantis, N J; Kraehenbuhl, J P

    2001-11-01

    Immune surveillance of mucosal surfaces requires the delivery of intact macromolecules and microorganisms across epithelial barriers to organized mucosal lymphoid tissues. Transport, processing and presentation of foreign antigens, as well as local induction and clonal expansion of antigen-specific effector lymphocytes, involves a close collaboration between organized lymphoid tissues and the specialized follicle-associated epithelium. M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium transport foreign macromolecules and microorganisms to antigen-presenting cells within and under the epithelial barrier. Determination of the earliest cellular interactions that occur in and under the follicle-associated epithelium could greatly facilitate the design of effective mucosal vaccines in the future.

  2. Intestinal epithelial cells and their role in innate mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Contreras, A L; McCormick, Beth A

    2011-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts are covered by a layer of epithelial cells that are responsible for sensing and promoting a host immune response in order to establish the limits not only for commensal microorganisms but also for foreign organisms or particles. This is a remarkable task as the human body represents a composite of about 10 trillion human-self cells plus non-self cells from autochthonous or indigenous microbes that outnumber human cells 10:1. Hence, the homeostasis of epithelial cells that line mucosal surfaces relies on a fine-tuned immune system that patrols the boundaries between human and microbial cells. In the case of the intestine, the epithelial layer is composed of at least six epithelial cell lineages that act as a physiological barrier in addition to aiding digestion and the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes. In this review, we highlight the immense role of the intestinal epithelium in coordinating the mucosal innate immune response.

  3. Autologous Transplantation of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Sheets Cultured on an Amniotic Membrane Substrate for Intraoral Mucosal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Amemiya, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kanamura, Narisato

    2015-01-01

    The human amniotic membrane (AM) is a thin intrauterine placental membrane that is highly biocompatible and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties. Using AM, we developed a novel method for cultivating oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets. We investigated the autologous transplantation of oral mucosal epithelial cells cultured on AM in patients undergoing oral surgeries. We obtained specimens of AM from women undergoing cesarean sections. This study included five patients without any history of a medical disorder who underwent autologous cultured oral epithelial transplantation following oral surgical procedures. Using oral mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from these patients, we cultured oral epithelial cells on an AM carrier. We transplanted the resultant cell sheets onto the oral mucosal defects. Patients were followed-up for at least 12 months after transplantation. After 2–3 weeks of being cultured on AM, epithelial cells were well differentiated and had stratified into five to seven layers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cultured cells expressed highly specific mucosal epithelial cell markers and basement membrane proteins. After the surgical procedures, no infection, bleeding, rejection, or sheet detachment occurred at the reconstructed sites, at which new oral mucous membranes were evident. No recurrence was observed in the long-term follow-up, and the postoperative course was excellent. Our results suggest that AM-cultured oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets represent a useful biomaterial and feasible method for oral mucosal reconstruction. However, our primary clinical study only evaluated their effects on a limited number of small oral mucosal defects. PMID:25915046

  4. Bacterial Exposure Induces and Activates Matrilysin in Mucosal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    López-Boado, Yolanda S.; Wilson, Carole L.; Hooper, Lora V.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Parks, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Matrilysin, a matrix metalloproteinase, is expressed and secreted lumenally by intact mucosal and glandular epithelia throughout the body, suggesting that its regulation and function are shared among tissues. Because matrilysin is produced in Paneth cells of the murine small intestine, where it participates in innate host defense by activation of prodefensins, we speculated that its expression would be influenced by bacterial exposure. Indeed, acute infection (10–90 min) of human colon, bladder, and lung carcinoma cells, primary human tracheal epithelial cells, and human tracheal explants with type 1–piliated Escherichia coli mediated a marked (25–50-fold) and sustained (>24 h) induction of matrilysin production. In addition, bacterial infection resulted in activation of the zymogen form of the enzyme, which was selectively released at the apical surface. Induction of matrilysin was mediated by a soluble, non-LPS bacterial factor and correlated with the release of defensin-like bacteriocidal activity. Bacteria did not induce matrilysin in other cell types, and expression of other metalloproteinases by epithelial cells was not affected by bacteria. Matrilysin was not detected in germ-free mice, but the enzyme was induced after colonization with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. These findings indicate that bacterial exposure is a potent and physiologically relevant signal regulating matrilysin expression in epithelial cells. PMID:10725342

  5. Inflammation and the Intestinal Barrier: Leukocyte-Epithelial Cell Interactions, Cell Junction Remodeling, and Mucosal Repair.

    PubMed

    Luissint, Anny-Claude; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma

    2016-10-01

    The intestinal tract is lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells that forms a dynamic, permeable barrier allowing for selective absorption of nutrients, while restricting access to pathogens and food-borne antigens. Precise regulation of epithelial barrier function is therefore required for maintaining mucosal homeostasis and depends, in part, on barrier-forming elements within the epithelium and a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the mucosa. Pathologic states, such as inflammatory bowel disease, are associated with a leaky epithelial barrier, resulting in excessive exposure to microbial antigens, recruitment of leukocytes, release of soluble mediators, and ultimately mucosal damage. An inflammatory microenvironment affects epithelial barrier properties and mucosal homeostasis by altering the structure and function of epithelial intercellular junctions through direct and indirect mechanisms. We review our current understanding of complex interactions between the intestinal epithelium and immune cells, with a focus on pathologic mucosal inflammation and mechanisms of epithelial repair. We discuss leukocyte-epithelial interactions, as well as inflammatory mediators that affect the epithelial barrier and mucosal repair. Increased knowledge of communication networks between the epithelium and immune system will lead to tissue-specific strategies for treating pathologic intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammation and the Intestinal Barrier: Leukocyte–Epithelial Cell Interactions, Cell Junction Remodeling, and Mucosal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Luissint, Anny-Claude; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal tract is lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells that forms a dynamic, permeable barrier allowing for selective absorption of nutrients, while restricting access to pathogens and food-borne antigens. Precise regulation of epithelial barrier function is therefore required for maintaining mucosal homeostasis and depends, in part, on barrier-forming elements within the epithelium and a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the mucosa. Pathologic states, such as inflammatory bowel disease, are associated with a leaky epithelial barrier, resulting in excessive exposure to microbial antigens, recruitment of leukocytes, release of soluble mediators, and ultimately mucosal damage. An inflammatory microenvironment affects epithelial barrier properties and mucosal homeostasis by altering the structure and function of epithelial intercellular junctions through direct and indirect mechanisms. We review our current understanding of complex interactions between the intestinal epithelium and immune cells, with a focus on pathologic mucosal inflammation and mechanisms of epithelial repair. We discuss leukocyte–epithelial interactions, as well as inflammatory mediators that affect the epithelial barrier and mucosal repair. Increased knowledge of communication networks between the epithelium and immune system will lead to tissue-specific strategies for treating pathologic intestinal inflammation. PMID:27436072

  7. Release of HIV-1 sequestered in the vesicles of oral and genital mucosal epithelial cells by epithelial-lymphocyte interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yasen, Aizezi; Herrera, Rossana; Rosbe, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles. Intraepithelial HIV-1 remained infectious for 9 days without viral release. Release of sequestered intraepithelial HIV-1 was induced by the calcium ionophore ionomycin and by cytochalasin D, which increase intracellular calcium and disrupt the cortical actin of epithelial cells, respectively. Cocultivation of epithelial cells containing HIV-1 with activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes led to the disruption of epithelial cortical actin and spread of virus from epithelial cells to lymphocytes. Treatment of epithelial cells with proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon gamma also induced reorganization of cortical actin and release of virus. Inhibition of MVB formation by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of its critical protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) expression reduced viral sequestration in epithelial cells and its transmission from epithelial cells to lymphocytes by ~60–70%. Furthermore, inhibition of vacuole formation of epithelial cells by siRNA-inactivated rabankyrin-5 expression also significantly reduced HIV-1 sequestration in epithelial cells and spread of virus from epithelial cells to lymphocytes. Interaction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 of epithelial cells with the function-associated antigen-1

  8. Characterization of biomaterial-free cell sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong Won; Kim, Yun Hee; Koh, Ah Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Wee, Won Ryang; Jeon, Saewha; Kim, Mee Kum

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the characteristics of biomaterial-free sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells without fibrin support, in vitro and after transplantation to limbal-deficient models. Human oral mucosal epithelial cells and limbal epithelial cells were cultured for 2 weeks, and the colony-forming efficiency (CFE) rates were compared. Markers of stem cells (p63), cell proliferation (Ki-67) and epithelial differentiation (cytokeratin; K1, K3, K4, K13) were observed in colonies and in biomaterial-free sheets. Biomaterial-free sheets which had been detached with 1% dispase or biomaterial-free sheets generated by fibrin support were transplanted to 12 limbal-deficient rabbit models. In vitro cell viability, in vivo stability and cytokeratin characteristics of biomaterial-free sheets were compared with those of sheets formed by fibrin-coated culture 1 week after transplantation. Mean CFE rate was significantly higher in human oral mucosal epithelial cells (44.8%) than in human limbal epithelial cells(17.7%). K3 and K4 were well expressed in both colonies and sheets. Biomaterial-free sheets had two to six layers of stratified cells and showed an average of 79.8% viable cells in the sheets after detachment. Cytokeratin expressions of biomaterial-free sheets were comparable to those of sheets cultured by fibrin support, in limbal-deficient models. Both p63 and Ki-67 were well expressed in colonies, isolated sheets and sheets transplanted to limbal-deficient models. Our results suggest that biomaterial-free sheets cultured from human oral mucosal epithelial cells without fibrin support can be an alternative option for cell therapy in use for the treatment of limbal-deficient diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cell and adaptive immune cell in intestinal mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun Tao; Xu, An Tao; Shen, Jun; Ran, Zhi Hua

    2017-05-01

    Constantly challenged by luminal bacteria, intestinal epithelium forms both a physical and biochemical defense against pathogens. Besides, intestinal epithelium senses dynamic and continuous changes in luminal environment and transmits signals to subjacent immune cells accordingly. It has been long accepted that adaptive immune cells fulfill their roles partly by modulating function of intestinal epithelial cells. Recent studies have brought up the proposal that intestinal epithelial cells also actively participate in the regulation of adaptive immunity, especially CD4+ adaptive T cells, which indicates that there is reciprocal crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cells and adaptive immune cells, and the crosstalk may play important role in intestinal mucosal immunity. This Review makes a comprehensive summary about crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cells and CD4+ adaptive T cells in intestinal immunity. Special attention would be given to their implications in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Fabrication of transplantable corneal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets using a novel temperature-responsive closed culture device.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Kobayashi, Toyoshige; Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Kitano, Yuriko; Watanabe, Hiroya; Mizutani, Manabu; Nozaki, Takayuki; Senda, Naoko; Saitoh, Kazuo; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Takeda, Shizu

    2015-05-01

    Temperature-responsive culture surfaces make it possible to harvest transplantable carrier-free cell sheets. Here, we applied temperature-responsive polymer for polycarbonate surfaces with previously developed closed culture devices for an automated culture system in order to fabricate transplantable stratified epithelial cell sheets. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses and colony-forming assays revealed that corneal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets could be harvested with the temperature-responsive closed culture devices. The results were similar to those obtained using temperature-responsive culture inserts. These results indicate that the novel temperature-responsive closed culture device is useful for fabricating transplantable stratified epithelial cell sheets.

  11. Plausibility of HIV-1 Infection of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, M.C.; Vacharaksa, A.; Gebhard, K.H.; Giacaman, R.A.; Ross, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic continues. Little is understood about how HIV gains access to permissive cells across mucosal surfaces, yet such knowledge is crucial to the development of successful topical anti-HIV-1 agents and mucosal vaccines. HIV-1 rapidly internalizes and integrates into the mucosal keratinocyte genome, and integrated copies of HIV-1 persist upon cell passage. The virus does not appear to replicate, and the infection may become latent. Interactions between HIV-1 and oral keratinocytes have been modeled in the context of key environmental factors, including putative copathogens and saliva. In keratinocytes, HIV-1 internalizes within minutes; in saliva, an infectious fraction escapes inactivation and is harbored and transferable to permissive target cells for up to 48 hours. When incubated with the common oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, CCR5− oral keratinocytes signal through protease-activated receptors and Toll-like receptors to induce expression of CCR5, which increases selective uptake of infectious R5-tropic HIV-1 into oral keratinocytes and transfer to permissive cells. Hence, oral keratinocytes—like squamous keratinocytes of other tissues—may be targets for low-level HIV-1 internalization and subsequent dissemination by transfer to permissive cells. PMID:21441479

  12. Significantly different proliferative potential of oral mucosal epithelial cells between six animal species.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Makoto; Yamato, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Murakami, Daisuke; Namiki, Hideo; Okano, Teruo

    2014-06-01

    There has been an upsurge in regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, because oral mucosal epithelial cells can be obtained noninvasively, cultured epithelial cell sheets have been used in a number of ectopic transplantations. Additionally, the verification of the properties of experimental animals' cultured cells has accelerated the application of regenerative medicine. In the present study, the properties of oral mucosal epithelial cells were compared between six animal species. The human and pig epithelia were relatively thicker than the epithelia of the other species. The colony-forming efficiency of the rat was the highest, followed by those of the dog, human, rabbit, and pig, whereas the colonies of the mouse cells were all paraclone and uncountable in the colony-forming assay. We also found that the rabbit and pig cells proliferated poorly and were unable to form cell sheets without feeder layers. In contrast, even in the absence of feeder layers and cholera toxin, cultured dog and mouse cells formed contiguous sheets, when the cell seeding density was high. These results indicate that interspecies variation is considerable in oral mucosal epithelial cells and that specific experimental animal or human cells must be chosen according to the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  13. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-03-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells.

  14. A Novel Peptide to Treat Oral Mucositis Blocks Endothelial and Epithelial Cell Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaoyan; Chen Peili; Sonis, Stephen T.; Lingen, Mark W.; Berger, Ann; Toback, F. Gary

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: No effective agents currently exist to treat oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving chemoradiation for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer. We identified a novel 21-amino acid peptide derived from antrum mucosal protein-18 that is cytoprotective, mitogenic, and motogenic in tissue culture and animal models of gastrointestinal epithelial cell injury. We examined whether administration of antrum mucosal protein peptide (AMP-p) could protect against and/or speed recovery from OM. Methods and Materials: OM was induced in established hamster models by a single dose of radiation, fractionated radiation, or fractionated radiation together with cisplatin to simulate conventional treatments of head-and-neck cancer. Results: Daily subcutaneous administration of AMP-p reduced the occurrence of ulceration and accelerated mucosal recovery in all three models. A delay in the onset of erythema after irradiation was observed, suggesting that a protective effect exists even before injury to mucosal epithelial cells occurs. To test this hypothesis, the effects of AMP-p on tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis were studied in an endothelial cell line (human dermal microvascular endothelial cells) as well as an epithelial cell line (human adult low-calcium, high-temperature keratinocytes; HaCaT) used to model the oral mucosa. AMP-p treatment, either before or after cell monolayers were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, protected against development of apoptosis in both cell types when assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry or ligase-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: These observations suggest that the ability of AMP-p to attenuate radiation-induced OM could be attributable, at least in part, to its antiapoptotic activity.

  15. Human oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets imaging with high-resolution phase-diversity homodyne OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Naoko; Osawa, Kentaro

    2015-03-01

    There is a need for development of non-invasive technique to evaluate regenerative tissues such as cell sheets for transplantation. We demonstrated non-invasive imaging inside living cell sheets of human oral mucosal epithelial cells by phase-diversity homodyne optical coherence tomography (OCT). The new method OCT developed in Hitachi enables cell imaging because of high resolution (axial resolution; ~2.6 μm, lateral resolution; ~1 μm, in the air). Nuclei inside cell sheets were imaged with sufficient spatial resolution to identify each cell. It suggested that the new method OCT could be useful for non-invasive cell sheet evaluation test.

  16. Autophagy protects gastric mucosal epithelial cells from ethanol-induced oxidative damage via mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weilong; Bai, Jie; Tian, Shaobo; Ma, Muyuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Rui; Cui, Jinyuan; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Guobin; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Kaixiong

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol abuse is an important cause of gastric mucosal epithelial cell injury and gastric ulcers. A number of studies have demonstrated that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism, has a protective effect on cell survival. However, it is not known whether autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against the toxic effects of ethanol. In the present study, gastric mucosal epithelial cells (GES-1 cells) and Wistar rats were treated with ethanol to detect the adaptive response of autophagy. Our results demonstrated that ethanol exposure induced gastric mucosal epithelial cell damage, which was accompanied by the downregulation of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of autophagy. Suppression of autophagy with pharmacological agents resulted in a significant increase of GES-1 cell apoptosis and gastric mucosa injury, suggesting that autophagy could protect cells from ethanol toxicity. Furthermore, we evaluated the cellular oxidative stress response following ethanol treatment and found that autophagy induced by ethanol inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species and degradation of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate oxidative damage induced by ethanol in gastric mucosal epithelial cells. Therefore, modifying autophagy may provide a therapeutic strategy against alcoholic gastric mucosa injury. Impact statement The effect and mechanism of autophagy on ethanol-induced cell damage remain controversial. In this manuscript, we report the results of our study demonstrating that autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against ethanol toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate ethanol-induced oxidative damage in

  17. Diet-Derived Short Chain Fatty Acids Stimulate Intestinal Epithelial Cells To Induce Mucosal Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Gera; Molenaar, Rosalie; Macia, Laurence; Tan, Jian; Erkelens, Martje N; Konijn, Tanja; Knippenberg, Marlene; Cook, Emma C L; Hanekamp, Diana; Veldhoen, Marc; Hartog, Anita; Roeselers, Guus; Mackay, Charles R; Mebius, Reina E

    2017-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to many environmental factors that influence intestinal epithelial cells and the underlying mucosal immune system. In this article, we demonstrate that dietary fiber and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) induced the expression of the vitamin A-converting enzyme RALDH1 in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression levels of RALDH1 in small intestinal epithelial cells correlated with the activity of vitamin A-converting enzymes in mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells, along with increased numbers of intestinal regulatory T cells and a higher production of luminal IgA. Moreover, we show that the consumption of dietary fiber can alter the composition of SCFA-producing microbiota and SCFA production in the small intestines. In conclusion, our data illustrate that dietary adjustments affect small intestinal epithelial cells and can be used to modulate the mucosal immune system.

  18. Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Gerbe, François; Sidot, Emmanuelle; Smyth, Danielle J; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Dardalhon, Valérie; Cesses, Pierre; Garnier, Laure; Pouzolles, Marie; Brulin, Bénédicte; Bruschi, Marco; Harcus, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Valérie S; Taylor, Naomi; Maizels, Rick M; Jay, Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Helminth parasitic infections are a major global health and social burden. The host defence against helminths such as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is orchestrated by type 2 cell-mediated immunity. Induction of type 2 cytokines, including interleukins (IL) IL-4 and IL-13, induce goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus production, ultimately resulting in worm expulsion. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of type 2 responses remain incompletely understood. Here we show that tuft cells, a rare epithelial cell type in the steady-state intestinal epithelium, are responsible for initiating type 2 responses to parasites by a cytokine-mediated cellular relay. Tuft cells have a Th2-related gene expression signature and we demonstrate that they undergo a rapid and extensive IL-4Rα-dependent amplification following infection with helminth parasites, owing to direct differentiation of epithelial crypt progenitor cells. We find that the Pou2f3 gene is essential for tuft cell specification. Pou2f3(-/-) mice lack intestinal tuft cells and have defective mucosal type 2 responses to helminth infection; goblet cell hyperplasia is abrogated and worm expulsion is compromised. Notably, IL-4Rα signalling is sufficient to induce expansion of the tuft cell lineage, and ectopic stimulation of this signalling cascade obviates the need for tuft cells in the epithelial cell remodelling of the intestine. Moreover, tuft cells secrete IL-25, thereby regulating type 2 immune responses. Our data reveal a novel function of intestinal epithelial tuft cells and demonstrate a cellular relay required for initiating mucosal type 2 immunity to helminth infection.

  19. The biomedical aspects of oral mucosal epithelial cell culture in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bryja, A; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M; Budna, J; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Borys, S; Ciesiółka, S; Sokalski, J; Prylinski, M; Bukowska, D; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in epithelial cell tissue culture, particularly oral mucosa and its application utilizing in vitro cell culture in medicine. This involves tests using animal models to better understand oral mucosa function, and the differences in its construction in various animal models. The use of buccal pouch mucosal cell culture provides insight into the processes of trans mucosal transport and regeneration of the oral epithelium. The processes associated with epithelium regeneration is the base for stem cell research and/or oral cancer investigation. These artificially cultured tissue equivalents are used in transplant surgery for the treatment of a variety of tissue dysfunctions, i.e. eye, esophagus, or urethra. In this review, the most recent results from studies carried out on in animal models, which may be applied in areas such as regenerative medicine and reconstructive surgery, were explored.

  20. STAT3 links IL-22 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells to mucosal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Pickert, Geethanjali; Neufert, Clemens; Leppkes, Moritz; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hirth, Sebastian; Weigmann, Benno; Wirtz, Stefan; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2009-07-06

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a pleiotropic transcription factor with important functions in cytokine signaling in a variety of tissues. However, the role of STAT3 in the intestinal epithelium is not well understood. We demonstrate that development of colonic inflammation is associated with the induction of STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Studies in genetically engineered mice showed that epithelial STAT3 activation in dextran sodium sulfate colitis is dependent on interleukin (IL)-22 rather than IL-6. IL-22 was secreted by colonic CD11c(+) cells in response to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Conditional knockout mice with an IEC-specific deletion of STAT3 activity were highly susceptible to experimental colitis, indicating that epithelial STAT3 regulates gut homeostasis. STAT3(IEC-KO) mice, upon induction of colitis, showed a striking defect of epithelial restitution. Gene chip analysis indicated that STAT3 regulates the cellular stress response, apoptosis, and pathways associated with wound healing in IECs. Consistently, both IL-22 and epithelial STAT3 were found to be important in wound-healing experiments in vivo. In summary, our data suggest that intestinal epithelial STAT3 activation regulates immune homeostasis in the gut by promoting IL-22-dependent mucosal wound healing.

  1. STAT3 links IL-22 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells to mucosal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Pickert, Geethanjali; Neufert, Clemens; Leppkes, Moritz; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hirth, Sebastian; Weigmann, Benno; Wirtz, Stefan; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F.

    2009-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a pleiotropic transcription factor with important functions in cytokine signaling in a variety of tissues. However, the role of STAT3 in the intestinal epithelium is not well understood. We demonstrate that development of colonic inflammation is associated with the induction of STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Studies in genetically engineered mice showed that epithelial STAT3 activation in dextran sodium sulfate colitis is dependent on interleukin (IL)-22 rather than IL-6. IL-22 was secreted by colonic CD11c+ cells in response to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Conditional knockout mice with an IEC-specific deletion of STAT3 activity were highly susceptible to experimental colitis, indicating that epithelial STAT3 regulates gut homeostasis. STAT3IEC-KO mice, upon induction of colitis, showed a striking defect of epithelial restitution. Gene chip analysis indicated that STAT3 regulates the cellular stress response, apoptosis, and pathways associated with wound healing in IECs. Consistently, both IL-22 and epithelial STAT3 were found to be important in wound-healing experiments in vivo. In summary, our data suggest that intestinal epithelial STAT3 activation regulates immune homeostasis in the gut by promoting IL-22–dependent mucosal wound healing. PMID:19564350

  2. Concise review: transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells for treating limbal stem cell deficiency-current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2015-06-01

    A number of diseases and external factors can deplete limbal stem cells, causing pain and visual loss. Ten years have passed since the first transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells in humans, representing the first autologous cell-based therapy for severe bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Its steady increase in popularity since then can be attributed to the accumulating evidence of its efficacy in reverting limbal stem cell deficiency. In this review, the focus is on clinical, and to a lesser degree laboratory, features of cultured oral mucosal epithelial transplants over the past 10 years. Comparisons with other available technologies are made. Avenues for research to stimulate further improvements in clinical results and allow worldwide distribution of limbal stem cell therapy based on oral mucosal cells are discussed. These include storage and transportation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial sheets and in vivo culture of oral mucosal epithelial cells.

  3. Intestinal epithelial stem/progenitor cells are controlled by mucosal afferent nerves.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Ove; Jodal, Mats; Jansson, Madeleine; Ryberg, Anders T; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-02-09

    The maintenance of the intestinal epithelium is of great importance for the survival of the organism. A possible nervous control of epithelial cell renewal was studied in rats and mice. Mucosal afferent nerves were stimulated by exposing the intestinal mucosa to capsaicin (1.6 mM), which stimulates intestinal external axons. Epithelial cell renewal was investigated in the jejunum by measuring intestinal thymidine kinase (TK) activity, intestinal (3)H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, and the number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU. The influence of the external gut innervation was minimized by severing the periarterial nerves. Luminal capsaicin increased all the studied variables, an effect nervously mediated to judge from inhibitory effects on TK activity or (3)H-thymidine incorporation into DNA by exposing the mucosa to lidocaine (a local anesthetic) or by giving four different neurotransmitter receptor antagonists i.v. (muscarinic, nicotinic, neurokinin1 (NK1) or calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptors). After degeneration of the intestinal external nerves capsaicin did not increase TK activity, suggesting the involvement of an axon reflex. Intra-arterial infusion of Substance P (SP) or CGRP increased intestinal TK activity, a response abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade. Immunohistochemistry suggested presence of M3 and M5 muscarinic receptors on the intestinal stem/progenitor cells. We propose that the stem/progenitor cells are controlled by cholinergic nerves, which, in turn, are influenced by mucosal afferent neuron(s) releasing acetylcholine and/or SP and/or CGRP. In mice lacking the capsaicin receptor, thymidine incorporation into DNA and number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU was lower than in wild type animals suggesting that nerves are important also in the absence of luminal capsaicin, a conclusion also supported by the observation that atropine lowered thymidine incorporation into DNA by 60% in control rat segments. Enteric nerves are

  4. Intestinal Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells Are Controlled by Mucosal Afferent Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Ove; Jodal, Mats; Jansson, Madeleine; Ryberg, Anders T.; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Background The maintenance of the intestinal epithelium is of great importance for the survival of the organism. A possible nervous control of epithelial cell renewal was studied in rats and mice. Methods Mucosal afferent nerves were stimulated by exposing the intestinal mucosa to capsaicin (1.6 mM), which stimulates intestinal external axons. Epithelial cell renewal was investigated in the jejunum by measuring intestinal thymidine kinase (TK) activity, intestinal 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, and the number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU. The influence of the external gut innervation was minimized by severing the periarterial nerves. Principal Findings Luminal capsaicin increased all the studied variables, an effect nervously mediated to judge from inhibitory effects on TK activity or 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA by exposing the mucosa to lidocaine (a local anesthetic) or by giving four different neurotransmitter receptor antagonists i.v. (muscarinic, nicotinic, neurokinin1 (NK1) or calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptors). After degeneration of the intestinal external nerves capsaicin did not increase TK activity, suggesting the involvement of an axon reflex. Intra-arterial infusion of Substance P (SP) or CGRP increased intestinal TK activity, a response abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade. Immunohistochemistry suggested presence of M3 and M5 muscarinic receptors on the intestinal stem/progenitor cells. We propose that the stem/progenitor cells are controlled by cholinergic nerves, which, in turn, are influenced by mucosal afferent neuron(s) releasing acetylcholine and/or SP and/or CGRP. In mice lacking the capsaicin receptor, thymidine incorporation into DNA and number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU was lower than in wild type animals suggesting that nerves are important also in the absence of luminal capsaicin, a conclusion also supported by the observation that atropine lowered thymidine incorporation into DNA by 60% in control

  5. Vanadium toxicity in mice: possible impairment of lipid metabolism and mucosal epithelial cell necrosis in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Imura, Hitomi; Shimada, Akinori; Naota, Misaki; Morita, Takehito; Togawa, Masako; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Seko, Yoshiyuki

    2013-08-01

    Because precise information as to the toxicity of vanadium is required for practical use of vanadium compounds as antidiabetic drugs, we examined vanadium toxicity in mice fed normal diet or high-fat diet (C57BL/6N, male, 7 weeks) by oral administration of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) with a maximum dose of 20 mgV/kg/day. Marked lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, renal epithelial cells, and mucosal epithelial cells of the small and large intestines and severe degeneration, necrosis, and loss of mucosal epithelial cells in the small intestine were observed. These pathological changes were more severe in mice fed high-fat diet than mice fed normal diet, and the intensity of the changes increased with increase in the administered dose of AMV. By electron microscopy, the number and size of lipid droplets in hepatocytes were increased. In the small intestine, a TUNEL assay showed a decreased number of positive cells, and positive cells for acrolein immunohistochemistry were observed specifically in the mucosal epithelial cells indicating degeneration and necrosis in the AMV-treated group, suggesting that a possible factor responsible for cell necrosis in the small intestine could be oxidative stress. In conclusion, AMV may impair cellular lipid metabolism, resulting in lipid accumulation, and induce mucosal epithelial cell necrosis in the small intestine.

  6. IL-36R signalling activates intestinal epithelial cells and fibroblasts and promotes mucosal healing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Kristina; Backert, Ingo; Wirtz, Stefan; Hueber, Axel; Schett, Georg; Vieth, Michael; Probst, Hans Christian; Bopp, Tobias; Neurath, Markus F; Neufert, Clemens

    2017-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-36R signalling plays a proinflammatory role in different organs including the skin, but the expression of IL-36R ligands and their molecular function in intestinal inflammation are largely unknown. We studied the characteristics of IL-36R ligand expression in IBDs and experimental colitis. The functional role of IL-36R signalling in the intestine was addressed in experimental colitis and wound healing models in vivo by using mice with defective IL-36R signalling (IL-36R-/-) or Myd88, neutralising anti-IL-36R antibodies, recombinant IL-36R ligands and RNA-seq genome expression analysis. Expression of IL-36α and IL-36γ was significantly elevated in active human IBD and experimental colitis. While IL-36γ was predominantly detected in nuclei of the intestinal epithelium, IL-36α was mainly found in the cytoplasm of CD14(+) inflammatory macrophages. Functional studies showed that defective IL-36R signalling causes high susceptibility to acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis and impairs wound healing. Mechanistically, IL-36R ligands released upon mucosal damage activated IL-36R(+) colonic fibroblasts via Myd88 thereby inducing expression of chemokines, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-6. Moreover, they induced proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and expression of the antimicrobial protein lipocalin 2. Finally, treatment of experimental intestinal wounds with IL-36R ligands significantly accelerated mucosal healing in vivo. IL-36R signalling is activated upon intestinal damage, stimulates IECs and fibroblasts and drives mucosal healing. Modulation of the IL-36R pathway emerges as a potential therapeutic strategy for induction of mucosal healing in IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Xenobiotic- and Serum-Free Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells on Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Björkblom, Benny; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ulltveit-Moe, Harald F; Raeder, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) have proven useful in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. This study is the first to investigate the potential of expanding OMEC in a xenobiotic- and serum-free medium using therapeutic contact lenses (CLs) as a substrate and carrier. Porcine OMEC were seeded on laminin-coated lotrafilcon A therapeutic CLs with the density of 8 × 10(4) cells/lens and cultured in a defined serum and xenobiotic-free medium. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the following: (1) cellular morphology by using rhodamine-phalloidin staining of F-actin, (2) phenotype by applying antibodies against the progenitor cell marker p63 and the putative stem cell marker ABCG2 and (3) cell viability by using propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 dual staining. Porcine OMEC attached well to the CLs, and cell-to-cell contacts were evident. After three days in culture, the OMEC displayed a confluent monolayer with uniform cobblestone morphology, whereas stratified cultures with 2-3 layers were formed after six days. No significant difference in expression of p63 was observed after three-day culture (79.4 ± 14.8%) compared with six-day culture (60.3 ± 18.9%). ABCG2 expression in the basal cell layer was 6.3 ± 1.0% and 4.8 ± 1.8% after three- and six-day culture, respectively. The basal layer viability of cultured OMECs was 99.3 ± 0.2% and 82.8 ± 1.1% after three and six days culture, respectively. The use of therapeutic CLs has potential as a substrate and carrier for OMEC cultured in a xenobiotic- and serum-free culture system.

  8. Bile acid receptor TGR5 overexpression is associated with decreased intestinal mucosal injury and epithelial cell proliferation in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Guang; Xie, Xiao-Li; Yin, Jie; Qi, Wei; Chen, Lei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Na; Zhao, Dong-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Bile acids stimulate intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in the protection of intestinal epithelial proliferation in obstructive jaundice. Intestinal tissues and serum samples were obtained from patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and from bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. Intestinal permeability and morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. The functions of TGR5 in cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial injury were determined by overexpression or knockdown studies in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internal biliary drainage was superior to external biliary drainage in recovering intestinal permeability and mucosal histology in patients with obstructive jaundice. In BDL rats, feeding of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) decreased intestinal mucosa injury. The levels of PCNA, a marker of proliferation, increased in response to CDCA feeding and were paralleled by elevated TGR5 expression. CDCA upregulated TGR5 expression and promoted proliferation in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with LPS. Overexpression of TGR5 resulted in increased PCNA, cell viability, EdU incorporation, and the proportion of cells in S phase, whereas knockdown of TGR5 had the opposite effect. Our data indicate that bile acids promote intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and decrease mucosal injury by upregulating TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication of human oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets for treatment of esophageal ulceration by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ryo; Murakami, Daisuke; Kondo, Makoto; Ohki, Takeshi; Sasaki, Ryo; Mizutani, Manabu; Yamato, Masayuki; Nishida, Kohji; Namiki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Okano, Teruo

    2010-12-01

    Esophageal stenosis is one of the major complications of aggressive endoscopic resection. Tissue-engineered epithelial cell grafts have demonstrated effectiveness in promoting re-epithelialization and suppressing inflammation causing esophageal scarring and stenosis after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in an animal model. To confirm the reproducibility and efficacy of a human oral mucosal epithelial cell (hOMEC) sheet cultured on temperature-responsive surface in conformity with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. A preclinical study. Good Manufacturing Practice grade cell-processing center, animal laboratory. Canine esophageal ulcer models, which were made by ESD. Oral mucosal specimens were obtained from 7 healthy volunteers. Fabricated and transplanted hOMEC sheets were subjected to histological analysis. The reproducibility of the fabrication of hOMEC sheets was confirmed. In this method, animal-derived materials such as 3T3 feeder layer and fetal bovine serum were successfully excluded from the culture condition. Furthermore, the environment of the culture room and safety cabinet in the cell-processing center was maintained for obtaining sterility assurances during the fabrication. Transplanted hOMEC sheets after ESD were observed to graft onto canine esophageal ulcer surfaces. Small number of subjects, animal model. Cultured hOMEC sheets were fabricated without animal-derived materials and demonstrated efficacy as a medical device that promotes re-epithelialization of an esophageal ulcer after ESD. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early mucosal sensing of SIV infection by paneth cells induces IL-1β production and initiates gut epithelial disruption.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Lauren A; Grishina, Irina; Bourry, Olivier; Hu, William K; Somrit, Monsicha; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Gaulke, Chris A; Fenton, Anne N; Li, Jay A; Crawford, Robert W; Chuang, Frank; Tarara, Ross; Marco, Maria L; Bäumler, Andreas J; Cheng, Holland; Dandekar, Satya

    2014-08-01

    HIV causes rapid CD4+ T cell depletion in the gut mucosa, resulting in immune deficiency and defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier. Breakdown in gut barrier integrity is linked to chronic inflammation and disease progression. However, the early effects of HIV on the gut epithelium, prior to the CD4+ T cell depletion, are not known. Further, the impact of early viral infection on mucosal responses to pathogenic and commensal microbes has not been investigated. We utilized the SIV model of AIDS to assess the earliest host-virus interactions and mechanisms of inflammation and dysfunction in the gut, prior to CD4+ T cell depletion. An intestinal loop model was used to interrogate the effects of SIV infection on gut mucosal immune sensing and response to pathogens and commensal bacteria in vivo. At 2.5 days post-SIV infection, low viral loads were detected in peripheral blood and gut mucosa without CD4+ T cell loss. However, immunohistological analysis revealed the disruption of the gut epithelium manifested by decreased expression and mislocalization of tight junction proteins. Correlating with epithelial disruption was a significant induction of IL-1β expression by Paneth cells, which were in close proximity to SIV-infected cells in the intestinal crypts. The IL-1β response preceded the induction of the antiviral interferon response. Despite the disruption of the gut epithelium, no aberrant responses to pathogenic or commensal bacteria were observed. In fact, inoculation of commensal Lactobacillus plantarum in intestinal loops led to rapid anti-inflammatory response and epithelial tight junction repair in SIV infected macaques. Thus, intestinal Paneth cells are the earliest responders to viral infection and induce gut inflammation through IL-1β signaling. Reversal of the IL-1β induced gut epithelial damage by Lactobacillus plantarum suggests synergistic host-commensal interactions during early viral infection and identify these mechanisms as potential

  11. Nanoemulsion-based mucosal adjuvant induces apoptosis in human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Orzechowska, Beata U.; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F.; Coulter, Alexa D.; Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Gamian, Andrzej; Myc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Nanoemulsions (NEs) are adjuvants that enhance antigen penetration of the nasal mucosa, increase cellular uptake of antigens by both epithelial and dendritic cells, and promote the migration of antigen-loaded dendritic cells to regional lymph nodes within 24-hours of vaccine administration. The objective of this study was to elucidate cell death caused by W805EC NE and identify caspases and genes associated with death pathways. Consistent with this aim, we show that exposure of human epithelial cells (EC), both RPMI 2650 and FaDu, to NE results in the activation of caspases (1, 3/7, 6, 8, and 9) and the expression of genes involved in apoptotic as well as authophagy and necrosis pathways. Interestingly, the NE activates caspase 8 which promotes “immunogenic apoptosis”. The rescue assay was employed to investigate the fate of RPMI 2650 cells treated with W805EC NE. After four hour treatment with as little as 0.03% of NE no cells were rescued at 72 hours. Remarkably, immediately after four-hour treatment, the cells morphologically resembled untreated cells and most of the cells were alive. Altogether, these results suggest that NE induces death of human ECs through multiple pathways. Epithelial cell death caused by W805EC may have further implications on antigen uptake, processing, and presentation by DC's. PMID:25817825

  12. Glutamate is the major anaplerotic substrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of isolated rumen epithelial and duodenal mucosal cells from beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aimed to determine the contribution of substrates to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle fluxes in rumen epithelial (REC) and duodenal mucosal (DMC) cells isolated from bulls (n = 6) fed either a 75% forage (HF) or 75% concentrate (HC) diet. In separate incubations, [13C6]glucose, [13C5]glutam...

  13. Tissue Harvesting Site and Culture Medium Affect Attachment, Growth, and Phenotype of Ex Vivo Expanded Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rakibul; Eidet, Jon Roger; Badian, Reza A; Lippestad, Marit; Messelt, Edward; Griffith, May; Dartt, Darlene A; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2017-04-06

    Transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) is a promising treatment strategy for limbal stem cell deficiency. In order to improve the culture method, we investigated the effects of four culture media and tissue harvesting sites on explant attachment, growth, and phenotype of OMECs cultured from Sprague-Dawley rats. Neither choice of media or harvesting site impacted the ability of the explants to attach to the culture well. Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 medium (RPMI) supported the largest cellular outgrowth. Fold outgrowth was superior from LL explants compared to explants from the buccal mucosa (BM), HP, and transition zone of the lower lip (TZ) after six-day culture. Putative stem cell markers were detected in cultures grown in DMEM and RPMI. In DMEM, cells from TZ showed higher colony-forming efficiency than LL, BM, and HP. In contrast to RPMI, DMEM both expressed the putative stem cell marker Bmi-1 and yielded cell colonies. Our data suggest that OMECs from LL and TZ cultured in DMEM give rise to undifferentiated cells with high growth capacity, and hence are the most promising for treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency.

  14. Ocular surface reconstruction with a tissue-engineered nasal mucosal epithelial cell sheet for the treatment of severe ocular surface diseases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yasuda, Makoto; Hata, Yuiko; Okura, Shoki; Iwamoto, Miyu; Nagata, Maho; Fullwood, Nigel J; Koizumi, Noriko; Hisa, Yasuo; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Severe ocular surface diseases (OSDs) with severe dry eye can be devastating and are currently some of the most challenging eye disorders to treat. To investigate the feasibility of using an autologous tissue-engineered cultivated nasal mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CNMES) for ocular surface reconstruction, we developed a novel technique for the culture of nasal mucosal epithelial cells expanded ex vivo from biopsy-derived human nasal mucosal tissues. After the protocol, the CNMESs had 4-5 layers of stratified, well-differentiated cells, and we successfully generated cultured epithelial sheets, including numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of keratins 3, 4, and 13; mucins 1, 16, and 5AC; cell junction and basement membrane assembly proteins; and stem/progenitor cell marker p75 in the CNMESs. We then transplanted the CNMESs onto the ocular surfaces of rabbits and confirmed the survival of this tissue, including the goblet cells, up to 2 weeks. The present report describes an attempt to overcome the problems of treating severe OSDs with the most severe dry eye by treating them using tissue-engineered CNMESs to supply functional goblet cells and to stabilize and reconstruct the ocular surface. The present study is a first step toward assessing the use of tissue-engineered goblet-cell transplantation of nonocular surface origin for ocular surface reconstruction.

  15. The Insect Peptide CopA3 Increases Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Mucosal Barrier Function to Prevent Inflammatory Responses in the Gut*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Li Fang; Lee, Junguee; Seok, Heon; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Lamont, John Thomas; Kim, Ho

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cells of the gut form a physical barrier against the luminal contents. The collapse of this barrier causes inflammation, and its therapeutic restoration can protect the gut against inflammation. EGF enhances mucosal barrier function and increases colonocyte proliferation, thereby ameliorating inflammatory responses in the gut. Based on our previous finding that the insect peptide CopA3 promotes neuronal growth, we herein tested whether CopA3 could increase the cell proliferation of colonocytes, enhance mucosal barrier function, and ameliorate gut inflammation. Our results revealed that CopA3 significantly increased epithelial cell proliferation in mouse colonic crypts and also enhanced colonic epithelial barrier function. Moreover, CopA3 treatment ameliorated Clostridium difficile toxin As-induced inflammation responses in the mouse small intestine (acute enteritis) and completely blocked inflammatory responses and subsequent lethality in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of chronic colitis. The marked CopA3-induced increase of colonocyte proliferation was found to require rapid protein degradation of p21Cip1/Waf1, and an in vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that CopA3 directly facilitated ubiquitin ligase activity against p21Cip1/Waf1. Taken together, our findings indicate that the insect peptide CopA3 prevents gut inflammation by increasing epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal barrier function. PMID:26655716

  16. The Insect Peptide CopA3 Increases Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Mucosal Barrier Function to Prevent Inflammatory Responses in the Gut.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Li Fang; Lee, Junguee; Seok, Heon; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Lamont, John Thomas; Kim, Ho

    2016-02-12

    The epithelial cells of the gut form a physical barrier against the luminal contents. The collapse of this barrier causes inflammation, and its therapeutic restoration can protect the gut against inflammation. EGF enhances mucosal barrier function and increases colonocyte proliferation, thereby ameliorating inflammatory responses in the gut. Based on our previous finding that the insect peptide CopA3 promotes neuronal growth, we herein tested whether CopA3 could increase the cell proliferation of colonocytes, enhance mucosal barrier function, and ameliorate gut inflammation. Our results revealed that CopA3 significantly increased epithelial cell proliferation in mouse colonic crypts and also enhanced colonic epithelial barrier function. Moreover, CopA3 treatment ameliorated Clostridium difficile toxin As-induced inflammation responses in the mouse small intestine (acute enteritis) and completely blocked inflammatory responses and subsequent lethality in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of chronic colitis. The marked CopA3-induced increase of colonocyte proliferation was found to require rapid protein degradation of p21(Cip1/Waf1), and an in vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that CopA3 directly facilitated ubiquitin ligase activity against p21(Cip1/Waf1). Taken together, our findings indicate that the insect peptide CopA3 prevents gut inflammation by increasing epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal barrier function.

  17. IKKβ in intestinal epithelial cells regulates allergen-specific IgA and allergic inflammation at distant mucosal sites.

    PubMed

    Bonnegarde-Bernard, A; Jee, J; Fial, M J; Aeffner, F; Cormet-Boyaka, E; Davis, I C; Lin, M; Tomé, D; Karin, M; Sun, Y; Boyaka, P N

    2014-03-01

    Regulation of allergic responses by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remains poorly understood. Using a model of oral allergen sensitization in the presence of cholera toxin as adjuvant and mice with cell-specific deletion of inhibitor-κB kinase (IKKβ) in IECs (IKKβ(ΔIEC)), we addressed the contribution of IECs to allergic sensitization to ingested antigens and allergic manifestations at distant mucosal site of the airways. Cholera toxin induced higher pro-inflammatory responses and altered the profile of the gut microbiota in IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice. Antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses were unaltered in IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice, but their IgA antibodies (Abs), T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses were enhanced. Upon nasal antigen challenge, these mice developed lower levels of allergic lung inflammation, which correlated with higher levels of IgA Abs in the airways. The IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice also recruited a higher number of gut-sensitized T cells in the airways after nasal antigen challenge and developed airway hyper-responsiveness, which were suppressed by treatment with anti-interleukin-17A. Fecal microbiota transplant during allergic sensitization reduced Th17 responses in IKKβ(ΔIEC) mice, but did not affect IgA Ab responses. In summary, we show that IKKβ in IECs shapes the gut microbiota and immune responses to ingested antigens and influences allergic responses in the airways via regulation of IgA Ab responses.

  18. NOD1 agonist iE-DAP reverses effects of cigarette smoke extract on NOD1 signal pathway in human oral mucosal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yafan; Jiang, Wenhui; Qian, Yajie; Zhou, Qian; Jiang, Hongliu; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Wenmei

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for many systemic diseases and oral disorders. Smoking has been recognized to cause diminished defense, persistent inflammation and result in disease development. Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) signal pathway plays a key role in innate immune and tissue homeostasis. Our recent studies confirmed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) could inhibit NOD1 expression and affect expression levels of crucial molecules of NOD1 signaling in oral mucosal epithelial cells. In the present study, immortalized human oral mucosal epithelial (Leuk-1) cells were treated with CSE, iE-DAP (NOD1 agonist), CSE + iE-DAP, respectively. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that iE-DAP triggered NOD1 expression of leuk-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. iE-DAP also reversed the suppressive effect of CSE on NOD1 expression and prevented the overactivation of RIP2 and P-NF-κB following CSE exposure. Real-time PCR and ELISA results confirmed that iE-DAP reversed CSE-mediated effects on the mRNA levels and releases of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ by Leuk-1 cells. Taken together, our results indicated that NOD1 activation with iE-DAP could reverse CSE-mediated effects on NOD1 signaling in human oral mucosal epithelial cells. PMID:26550162

  19. NOD1 agonist iE-DAP reverses effects of cigarette smoke extract on NOD1 signal pathway in human oral mucosal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yafan; Jiang, Wenhui; Qian, Yajie; Zhou, Qian; Jiang, Hongliu; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Wenmei

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for many systemic diseases and oral disorders. Smoking has been recognized to cause diminished defense, persistent inflammation and result in disease development. Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) signal pathway plays a key role in innate immune and tissue homeostasis. Our recent studies confirmed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) could inhibit NOD1 expression and affect expression levels of crucial molecules of NOD1 signaling in oral mucosal epithelial cells. In the present study, immortalized human oral mucosal epithelial (Leuk-1) cells were treated with CSE, iE-DAP (NOD1 agonist), CSE + iE-DAP, respectively. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that iE-DAP triggered NOD1 expression of leuk-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. iE-DAP also reversed the suppressive effect of CSE on NOD1 expression and prevented the overactivation of RIP2 and P-NF-κB following CSE exposure. Real-time PCR and ELISA results confirmed that iE-DAP reversed CSE-mediated effects on the mRNA levels and releases of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ by Leuk-1 cells. Taken together, our results indicated that NOD1 activation with iE-DAP could reverse CSE-mediated effects on NOD1 signaling in human oral mucosal epithelial cells.

  20. Povidone-iodine-induced cell death in cultured human epithelial HeLa cells and rat oral mucosal tissue.

    PubMed

    Sato, So; Miyake, Masao; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Although povidone-iodine (PVP-I) has been used as a gargle since 1956, its effectiveness and material safety have been remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of PVP-I to epithelial cells in a concentration range significantly lower than that used clinically. Study design was in vitro laboratory investigations and in vivo histological and immunologic analysis. We examined the effects of PVP-I at concentrations of 1 × 10(-2) to 1 × 10(3) μM and 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10 μM on HeLa cells as a model of epithelial cells and rat oral mucosa, respectively, after 1 or 2 days of exposure. Annexin V/FLUOS was used to distinguish live, apoptotic and necrotic cells. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method was also used to observe whether apoptotic epithelial cells exist in rat oral mucosa after 1 day of exposure of PVP-I. HeLa cells developed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, and epithelium of rat oral mucosa was thinned in a concentration-dependent manner. HeLa cell apoptosis increased after 1 × 10(0) μM of PVP-I exposure for 2 days. In the TUNEL method, many apoptotic epithelial cells were observed in the rat oral mucosa after 1 day of exposure to diluted 1 × 10(-2) μM of PVP-I, but minimal apoptotic epithelial cells were observed using 1 × 10(-3) μM of PVP-I. Our findings suggest that exposure to PVP-I, of which concentrations are even lower than those used clinically, causes toxicity in epithelial cells. This knowledge would help us better understand the risk of the use of PVP-I against mucosa.

  1. Epithelial MUC1 promotes cell migration, reduces apoptosis and affects levels of mucosal modulators during acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)-induced gastropathy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debashish; Fernandez, Harvey Robert; Patil, Pradeep Bhatu; Premaratne, Pushpa; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Lindén, Sara Katarina

    2015-02-01

    MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin highly expressed in the stomach. Although extensive research has uncovered many of its roles in cancer, knowledge about the functions of MUC1 in normal tissues is limited. In the present study, we showed that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin) up-regulated MUC1/Muc1 expression in the gastric mucosa of humans and wild-type (WT) mice. ASA induced mucosal injury in all mice to a similar extent; however, WT animals and those chimaeras with Muc1 on the epithelia recovered faster than Muc1-knockout (KO) mice and chimaeras carrying Muc1 on haemopoietic but not epithelial cells. MUC1 enhanced proliferation and migration of the human gastric cell line MKN-7 and increased resistance to apoptosis. The repeated treatment regime used caused a reduction in cyclo-oxygenase-1 (Cox-1) expression, though WT animals returned faster towards pre-treatment levels and had increased Cox-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels during recovery. Thus we found that epithelial Muc1 is more important for the healing process than haemopoietic Muc1 and Muc1/MUC1 facilitates wound healing by enhancing cell migration and proliferation, protecting against apoptosis and mediating expression of mucosal modulators. Thus MUC1 plays essential roles during wound healing and development of treatment modalities targeting enhanced expression of MUC1 may be beneficial to treat mucosal wounds.

  2. Acute infection with the intestinal parasite Trichuris muris has long-term consequences on mucosal mast cell homeostasis and epithelial integrity.

    PubMed

    Sorobetea, Daniel; Holm, Jacob Bak; Henningsson, Henrietta; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    A hallmark of parasite infection is the accumulation of innate immune cells, notably granulocytes and mast cells, at the site of infection. While this is typically viewed as a transient response, with the tissue returning to steady state once the infection is cleared, we found that mast cells accumulated in the large-intestinal epithelium following infection with the nematode Trichuris muris and persisted at this site for several months after worm expulsion. Mast cell accumulation in the epithelium was associated with the induction of type-2 immunity and appeared to be driven by increased maturation of local progenitors in the intestinal lamina propria. Furthermore, we also detected increased local and systemic levels of the mucosal mast cell protease MCPt-1, which correlated highly with the persistent epithelial mast cell population. Finally, the mast cells appeared to have striking consequences on epithelial barrier integrity, by regulation of gut permeability long after worm expulsion. These findings highlight the importance of mast cells not only in the early phases of infection but also at later stages, which has functional implications on the mucosal tissue. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Caspase-12 Silencing Attenuates Inhibitory Effects of Cigarette Smoke Extract on NOD1 Signaling and hBDs Expression in Human Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Qian, Ya-jie; Zhou, Qian; Ye, Pei; Duan, Ning; Huang, Xiao-feng; Zhu, Ya-nan; Li, Jing-jing; Hu, Li-ping; Zhang, Wei-yun; Han, Xiao-dong; Wang, Wen-mei

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with increased risk of various diseases. Epithelial cells-mediated innate immune responses to infectious pathogens are compromised by cigarette smoke. Although many studies have established that cigarette smoke exposure affects the expression of Toll-liked receptor (TLR), it remains unknown whether the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) expression is affected by cigarette smoke exposure. In the study, we investigated effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on NOD1 signaling in an immortalized human oral mucosal epithelial (Leuk-1) cell line. We first found that CSE inhibited NOD1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, CSE modulated the expression of other crucial molecules in NOD1 signaling and human β defensin (hBD) 1, 2 and 3. We found that RNA interference-induced Caspase-12 silencing increased NOD1 and phospho-NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression and down-regulated RIP2 expression. The inhibitory effects of CSE on NOD1 signaling can be attenuated partially through Caspase-12 silencing. Intriguingly, Caspase-12 silencing abrogated inhibitory effects of CSE on hBD1, 3 expression and augmented induced effect of CSE on hBD2 expression. Caspase-12 could play a vital role in the inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke on NOD1 signaling and hBDs expression in oral mucosal epithelial cells. PMID:25503380

  4. The effects of age on mucosal morphology and epithelial cell production in rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R M

    1977-01-01

    Six groups of male Wistar rats were used, with mean weights of 29, 63, 97, 161, 249 and 399 g. Pieces of small intestine from three sites were examined after staining in bulk with the Feulgen reaction. Crypt/villus ratio (the number of crypts per villus) rose with age at all three sites, Villus height and crypt depth were measured on microdissected specimens. Villi in the proximal intestine were always taller than those distally. Proximal villi increased in height in successively older rats, except in the oldest group. Villi at the two distal sites tended to be tall in the youngest group of rats, but suffered a temporary reduction in height in the next two age groups. Crypt depth increased markedly within the first three age groups, and more slowly thereafter. Colchicine-metaphase accumulation rate was estimated from counts on microdissected intact crypts. The rate was low in the youngest group (8 cells/crypt/hour) but about 30 cells/crypt/hour in all other groups. After the changes during the early phase of rapid growth, no marked changes were seen during later life. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:885792

  5. Effects of Supernatants from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii on Intestinal Epithelial Cells and a Rat Model of 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanru; Jatmiko, Yoga D; Bastian, Susan E P; Mashtoub, Suzanne; Howarth, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are probiotics, which have been reported to ameliorate certain gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the effects of supernatants (SN) derived from Fp and EcN on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-treated intestinal cells and in a rat model of mucositis. In vitro: IEC-6, Caco-2, and T-84 cells were analyzed for viability and monolayer permeability. In vivo: Female dark agouti rats were gavaged with Fp or EcN SN and injected intraperitoneally with saline (control) or 5-FU to induce mucositis. Rats were euthanized and intestinal tissues collected for myeloperoxidase assay and histological analyses. In vitro: Caco-2 cell viability was further reduced when treated with Fp SN + 5-FU compared to 5-FU controls. In both Caco-2 and T-84 cells, Fp SN partially prevented the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) caused by 5-FU administration. In vivo: 5-FU-injected rats administered Fp SN or EcN SN partly prevented body weight loss and normalized water intake compared to 5-FU controls. These results suggest a growth inhibitory mechanism of Fp SN action on transformed epithelial cells that could be mediated by effects on tight junctions. Factors derived from Fp SN and EcN SN could have a role in reducing the severity of intestinal mucositis.

  6. Involvement of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways for TNF-α Production in SiHa Cervical Mucosal Epithelial Cells Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jung-Bo; Quan, Juan-Hua; Kim, Ye-Eun; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Kang, Byung-Hyun; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis; induces proinflammation in cervicovaginal mucosal epithelium. To investigate the signaling pathways in TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelium after T. vaginalis infection, the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were evaluated in T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors. T. vaginalis increased TNF-α production in SiHa cells, in a parasite burden-dependent and incubation time-dependent manner. In T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells, AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK were phosphorylated from 1 hr after infection; however, the phosphorylation patterns were different from each other. After pretreatment with inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways, TNF-α production was significantly decreased compared to the control; however, TNF-α reduction patterns were different depending on the type of PI3K/MAPK inhibitors. TNF-α production was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with wortmannin and PD98059, whereas it was increased by SP600125. These data suggested that PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways are important in regulation of TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells. However, activation patterns of each pathway were different from the types of PI3K/MAPK pathways.

  7. Involvement of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways for TNF-α Production in SiHa Cervical Mucosal Epithelial Cells Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Bo; Quan, Juan-Hua; Kim, Ye-Eun; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Kang, Byung-Hyun; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis; induces proinflammation in cervicovaginal mucosal epithelium. To investigate the signaling pathways in TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelium after T. vaginalis infection, the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were evaluated in T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors. T. vaginalis increased TNF-α production in SiHa cells, in a parasite burden-dependent and incubation time-dependent manner. In T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells, AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK were phosphorylated from 1 hr after infection; however, the phosphorylation patterns were different from each other. After pretreatment with inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways, TNF-α production was significantly decreased compared to the control; however, TNF-α reduction patterns were different depending on the type of PI3K/MAPK inhibitors. TNF-α production was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with wortmannin and PD98059, whereas it was increased by SP600125. These data suggested that PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways are important in regulation of TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells. However, activation patterns of each pathway were different from the types of PI3K/MAPK pathways. PMID:26323834

  8. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels in intestinal epithelial cells and their role in the regulation of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Ko, K H; Chow, J; Tuo, B; Barrett, K E; Dong, H

    2011-01-01

    As little is currently known about acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in intestinal epithelial cells, the aims of the present study were to investigate the expression and function of ASICs in intestinal epithelial cells, particularly their physiological role in the acid-stimulated duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS). RT-PCR and digital Ca²(+) imaging were used to determine the expression and function of ASICs in HT29 cells and SCBN cells, intestinal epithelial crypt cell lines. The acid-stimulated DMBS was measured in C57 black mice in vivo to study the role of ASICs in this physiological process. ASIC1a mRNA expression was detected in the duodenal mucosa stripped from mice and epithelial cell lines, in which cytoplasmic free Ca²(+) ([Ca²(+) ](cyt)) in response to extracellular acidosis was also increased. In Ca²(+) -containing solutions, acidosis (pH 6.0-5.0) raised [Ca²(+) ](cyt) in both HT29 cells and SCBN cells in a similar pH-dependent manner. Acidosis-induced increase in [Ca²(+) ](cyt) was markedly inhibited by amiloride (an ASICs blocker), SK&F96365 (a blocker for non-selective cation channels), or in Ca²(+) -free solutions; but was abolished by amiloride in Ca²(+) -free solutions. However, acidosis-induced increase in [Ca²(+) ](cyt) was slightly affected by U73122 (a PLC inhibitor), or nifedipine (a voltage-gated Ca²(+) channel blocker). After acidosis raised [Ca²(+) ](cyt) , stimulation of purinergic receptors with ATP further increased [Ca²(+) ](cyt) , but acidosis-induced increase in [Ca²(+) ](cyt) was not altered by suramin. Moreover, acid-stimulated murine DMBS was significantly attenuated by amiloride. Therefore, ASICs are functionally expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, and may play a role in acid-stimulated DMBS through a Ca²(+) signalling pathway. © 2010 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  9. Protein-Coated Nanoparticles Are Internalized by the Epithelial Cells of the Female Reproductive Tract and Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Savannah E.; Konjufca, Vjollca H.

    2014-01-01

    The female reproductive tract (FRT) includes the oviducts (fallopian tubes), uterus, cervix and vagina. A layer of columnar epithelium separates the endocervix and uterus from the outside environment, while the vagina is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The mucosa of the FRT is exposed to antigens originating from microflora, and occasionally from infectious microorganisms. Whether epithelial cells (ECs) of the FRT take up (sample) the lumen antigens is not known. To address this question, we examined the uptake of 20–40 nm nanoparticles (NPs) applied vaginally to mice which were not treated with hormones, epithelial disruptors, or adjuvants. We found that 20 and 40 nm NPs are quickly internalized by ECs of the upper FRT and within one hour could be observed in the lymphatic ducts that drain the FRT, as well as in the ileac lymph nodes (ILNs) and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Chicken ovalbumin (Ova) conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova) when administered vaginally reaches the internal milieu in an immunologically relevant form; thus vaginal immunization of mice with NP-Ova induces systemic IgG to Ova antigen. Most importantly, vaginal immunization primes the intestinal mucosa for secretion of sIgA. Sub-cutaneous (s.c) boosting immunization with Ova in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) further elevates the systemic (IgG1 and IgG2c) as well as mucosal (IgG1 and sIgA) antibody titers. These findings suggest that the modes of antigen uptake at mucosal surfaces and pathways of antigen transport are more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:25490456

  10. Macrophage-derived IL-10 mediates mucosal repair by epithelial WISP-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Quiros, Miguel; Nishio, Hikaru; Neumann, Philipp A; Siuda, Dorothee; Brazil, Jennifer C; Azcutia, Veronica; Hilgarth, Roland; O'Leary, Monique N; Garcia-Hernandez, Vicky; Leoni, Giovanna; Feng, Mingli; Bernal, Gabriela; Williams, Holly; Dedhia, Priya H; Gerner-Smidt, Christian; Spence, Jason; Parkos, Charles A; Denning, Timothy L; Nusrat, Asma

    2017-09-01

    In response to injury, epithelial cells migrate and proliferate to cover denuded mucosal surfaces and repair the barrier defect. This process is orchestrated by dynamic crosstalk between immune cells and the epithelium; however, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that IL-10 was rapidly induced following intestinal mucosal injury and was required for optimal intestinal mucosal wound closure. Conditional deletion of IL-10 specifically in CD11c-expressing cells in vivo implicated macrophages as a critical innate immune contributor to IL-10-induced wound closure. Consistent with these findings, wound closure in T cell- and B cell-deficient Rag1-/- mice was unimpaired, demonstrating that adaptive immune cells are not absolutely required for this process. Further, following mucosal injury, macrophage-derived IL-10 resulted in epithelial cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation and subsequent synthesis and secretion of the pro-repair WNT1-inducible signaling protein 1 (WISP-1). WISP-1 induced epithelial cell proliferation and wound closure by activating epithelial pro-proliferative pathways. These findings define the involvement of macrophages in regulating an IL-10/CREB/WISP-1 signaling axis, with broad implications in linking innate immune activation to mucosal wound repair.

  11. Neutrophil Interactions with Epithelial Expressed ICAM-1 Enhances Intestinal Mucosal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, JC; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, AC; Weber, DA; Neish, AS; Nusrat, A; Parkos, CA

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. While epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 plays an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing. PMID:26732677

  12. Neutrophil interactions with epithelial-expressed ICAM-1 enhances intestinal mucosal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, J C; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, A C; Weber, D A; Neish, A S; Nusrat, A; Parkos, C A

    2016-09-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. Although epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 has an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing.

  13. Airway structural cells regulate TLR5-mediated mucosal adjuvant activity.

    PubMed

    Van Maele, L; Fougeron, D; Janot, L; Didierlaurent, A; Cayet, D; Tabareau, J; Rumbo, M; Corvo-Chamaillard, S; Boulenouar, S; Jeffs, S; Vande Walle, L; Lamkanfi, M; Lemoine, Y; Erard, F; Hot, D; Hussell, T; Ryffel, B; Benecke, A G; Sirard, J-C

    2014-05-01

    Antigen-presenting cell (APC) activation is enhanced by vaccine adjuvants. Most vaccines are based on the assumption that adjuvant activity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists depends on direct, functional activation of APCs. Here, we sought to establish whether TLR stimulation in non-hematopoietic cells contributes to flagellin's mucosal adjuvant activity. Nasal administration of flagellin enhanced T-cell-mediated immunity, and systemic and secretory antibody responses to coadministered antigens in a TLR5-dependent manner. Mucosal adjuvant activity was not affected by either abrogation of TLR5 signaling in hematopoietic cells or the presence of flagellin-specific, circulating neutralizing antibodies. We found that flagellin is rapidly degraded in conducting airways, does not translocate into lung parenchyma and stimulates an early immune response, suggesting that TLR5 signaling is regionalized. The flagellin-specific early response of lung was regulated by radioresistant cells expressing TLR5 (particularly the airway epithelial cells). Flagellin stimulated the epithelial production of a small set of mediators that included the chemokine CCL20, which is known to promote APC recruitment in mucosal tissues. Our data suggest that (i) the adjuvant activity of TLR agonists in mucosal vaccination may require TLR stimulation of structural cells and (ii) harnessing the effect of adjuvants on epithelial cells can improve mucosal vaccines.

  14. Expression of late viral proteins is restricted in nasal mucosal leucocytes but not in epithelial cells during early-stage equine herpes virus-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Gryspeerdt, Annick C; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Baghi, Hossein Bannazadeh; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2012-08-01

    Equine herpes virus (EHV)-1 replicates in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and reaches the lamina propria and bloodstream in infected mononuclear cells. This study evaluated expression of the late viral proteins gB, gC, gD and gM in respiratory epithelial and mononuclear cells using: (1) epithelial-like rabbit kidney cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with EHV-1 in vitro; (2) an equine ex vivo nasal explant system; and (3) nasal mucosa tissue of ponies infected in vivo. The viral proteins were expressed in all late-infected epithelial cells, whereas expression was not observed in infected leucocytes where proteins gB and gM were expressed in 60-90%, and proteins gC and gD in only 20% of infected cells, respectively. The results indicate that expression of these viral proteins during early-stage EHV-1 infection is highly dependent on the cell type infected.

  15. Nerve growth factor injected into the gastric ulcer base incorporates into endothelial, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells: implications for angiogenesis, mucosal regeneration and ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, T; Ahluwalia, A; Watanabe, T; Arakawa, T; Tarnawski, A S

    2015-08-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that locally administered growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor can accelerate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats. That study indicates that locally administered growth factors can exert potent biological effects resulting in enhanced gastric ulcers healing. However, the fate of injected growth factors, their retention and localization to specific cellular compartments have not been examined. In our preliminary study, we demonstrated that local injection of nerve growth factor to the base of experimental gastric ulcers dramatically accelerates ulcer healing, increases angiogenesis - new blood vessel formation, and improves the quality of vascular and epithelial regeneration. Before embarking on larger, definitive and time sequence studies, we wished to determine whether locally injected nerve growth factor is retained in gastric ulcer's tissues and taken up by specific cells during gastric ulcer healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in anesthetized rats by local application of acetic acid using standard methods; and, 60 min later fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor was injected locally to the ulcer base. Rats were euthanized 2, 5 and 10 days later. Gastric specimens were obtained and processed for histology. Unstained paraffin sections were examined under a fluorescence microscope, and the incorporation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor into various gastric tissue cells was determined and quantified. In addition, we performed immunostaining for S100β protein that is expressed in neural components. Five and ten days after ulcer induction labeled nerve growth factor (injected to the gastric ulcer base) was incorporated into endothelial cells of blood vessels, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells, myofibroblasts and muscle cells. This study demonstrates for the first time that during gastric ulcer healing

  16. Gata4 is critical to maintain gut barrier function and mucosal integrity following epithelial injury

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, David; Bélanger, Élise; Jones, Christine; Tremblay, Sarah; Allaire, Joannie M.; Bruneau, Joannie; Asselin, Claude; Perreault, Nathalie; Menendez, Alfredo; Gendron, Fernand-Pierre; Boudreau, Francois

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial barrier is critical to limit potential harmful consequences from exposure to deleterious luminal contents on the organism. Although this barrier is functionally important along the entire gut, specific regional regulatory mechanisms involved in the maintenance of this barrier are poorly defined. Herein, we identified Gata4 as a crucial regulator of barrier integrity in the mouse proximal intestinal epithelium. Conditional deletion of Gata4 in the intestine led to a drastic increase in claudin-2 expression that was associated with an important increase of gut barrier permeability without causing overt spontaneous inflammation. Administration of indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that causes enteritis, led to rapid and restricted proximal small intestinal injuries in Gata4 mutant mice as opposed to control mice. Comparative analysis of gene transcript profiles from indomethacin-challenged control and Gata4 mutant mice identified defects in epithelial cell survival, inflammatory cell recruitment and tissue repair mechanisms. Altogether, these observations identify Gata4 as a novel crucial regulator of the intestinal epithelial barrier and as a critical epithelial transcription factor implicated in the maintenance of proximal intestinal mucosal integrity after injury. PMID:27827449

  17. A role for mucosal IL-22 production and Th22 cells in HIV-associated mucosal immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, C J; Nazli, A; Rojas, O L; Chege, D; Alidina, Z; Huibner, S; Mujib, S; Benko, E; Kovacs, C; Shin, L Y Y; Grin, A; Kandel, G; Loutfy, M; Ostrowski, M; Gommerman, J L; Kaushic, C; Kaul, R

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a cytokine with epithelial reparative and regenerative properties that is produced by Th22 cells and by other immune cell subsets. Therefore, we explored the hypothesis that disruption of the gut barrier during HIV infection involves dysregulation of these cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Sigmoid IL-22-producing T cell and Th22 cells were dramatically depleted during chronic HIV infection, epithelial integrity was compromised, and microbial translocation was increased. These alterations were reversed after long-term antiretroviral therapy. While all mucosal IL-22-producing T-cell subsets were also depleted very early during HIV infection, at these early stages IL-22 production by non-T-cell populations (including NKp44+ cells) was increased and gut epithelial integrity was maintained. Circulating Th22 cells expressed a higher level of the HIV co-receptor/binding molecules CCR5 and α4β7 than CD4+ T-cell subsets in HIV-uninfected participants, but this was not the case after HIV infection. Finally, recombinant IL-22 was protective against HIV and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced gut epithelial damage in a validated in vitro gut epithelial system. We conclude that reduced IL-22 production and Th22 depletion in the gut mucosa are important factors in HIV mucosal immunopathogenesis.

  18. Mucosal innate immune cells regulate both gut homeostasis and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Yosuke; Goto, Yoshiyuki; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Continuous exposure of intestinal mucosal surfaces to diverse microorganisms and their metabolites reflects the biological necessity for a multifaceted, integrated epithelial and immune cell-mediated regulatory system. The development and function of the host cells responsible for the barrier function of the intestinal surface (e.g., M cells, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and columnar epithelial cells) are strictly regulated through both positive and negative stimulation by the luminal microbiota. Stimulation by damage-associated molecular patterns and commensal bacteria-derived microbe-associated molecular patterns provokes the assembly of inflammasomes, which are involved in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Mucosal immune cells located beneath the epithelium play critical roles in regulating both the mucosal barrier and the relative composition of the luminal microbiota. Innate lymphoid cells and mast cells, in particular, orchestrate the mucosal regulatory system to create a mutually beneficial environment for both the host and the microbiota. Disruption of mucosal homeostasis causes intestinal inflammation such as that seen in inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we review the recent research on the biological interplay among the luminal microbiota, epithelial cells, and mucosal innate immune cells in both healthy and pathological conditions.

  19. Effect of Hymenolepis nana on the mouse ileal mucosal cells: histochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Sanad, M M; Salem, S A; el-Gamal, R L; Darwish, R A; el-Ridi, A M

    1990-12-01

    Histochemical studies of the ileal mucosal cells of mice experimentally infected with H. nana revealed definite increase in mucous secretions indicating increased activity of the goblet cells in response to mucosal irritation. The activity of acid phosphatase was also increased representing a sort of defence mechanism against the attached worms. The activities of ATP-ase and NADH diaphorase enzymes were decreased indicating disturbance in the metabolic and transport processes and in the absorptive function of the intestinal epithelial cells.

  20. CCN1 induces a reversible epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jianyuan; Norng, Manith; Modak, Cristina; Reavis, Kevin M; Mouazzen, Wasim; Pham, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    CCN1 is a matricellular protein that activates many genes related to wound healing and tissue remodeling in fibroblasts, but its effect on epithelial cells remains unclear. This study examined the role of CCN1 in epithelial wound healing using rat gastric epithelial cells and rat stomach ulcer as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively. We found that CCN1 expression is highly upregulated in the epithelial cells adjacent to a wound and remains high until the wound is healed. Upregulation of CCN1 activates a transient epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the epithelial cells at the migrating front and drives wound closure. Once the wound is healed, these epithelial cells and their progeny can resume their original epithelial phenotype. We also found that CCN1-induced E-cadherin loss is not due to transcriptional regulation but rather protein degradation due to the collapse of adherens junctions, which is contributed by beta-catenin translocation. CCN1-activated integrin-linked kinase mediates this process. Finally, our in vivo study showed that locally neutralizing CCN1 drastically impairs wound closure, whereas local injection of recombinant CCN1 protein induces expression of vimentin and smooth muscle alpha-actin in normal gastric mucosal epithelial cells and accelerates re-epithelialization during ulcer healing. In conclusion, our study indicates that CCN1 can induce reversible epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and this feature may have great value for clinical wound healing.

  1. Mucosal pathobiology and molecular signature of epithelial barrier dysfunction in the small intestine in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, Ana M; Martínez, Cristina; Salvo-Romero, Eloísa; Fortea, Marina; Pardo-Camacho, Cristina; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Alonso-Cotoner, Carmen; Santos, Javier; Vicario, María

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders in developed countries. Its etiology remains unknown; however, a common finding, regardless of IBS subtype, is the presence of altered intestinal barrier. In fact, signaling and location of cell-to-cell adhesion proteins, in connection with increased immune activity, seem abnormal in the intestinal epithelium of IBS patients. Despite that most research is performed on distal segments of the intestine, altered permeability has been reported in both, the small and the large bowel of all IBS subtypes. The small intestine carries out digestion and nutrient absorption and is also the site where the majority of immune responses to luminal antigens takes place. In fact, the upper intestine is more exposed to environmental antigens than the colon and is also a site of symptom generation. Recent studies have revealed small intestinal structural alterations of the epithelial barrier and mucosal immune activation in association with intestinal dysfunction, suggesting the commitment of the intestine as a whole in the pathogenesis of IBS. This review summarizes the most recent findings on mucosal barrier alterations and its relationship to symptoms arising from the small intestine in IBS, including epithelial structural abnormalities, mucosal immune activation, and microbial dysbiosis, further supporting the hypothesis of an organic origin of IBS. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Intestinal epithelial suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) impacts on mucosal homeostasis in a model of chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Elisabeth J; Smith, Emily E; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Hodges, Matthew D; Else, Kathryn J; Rigby, Rachael J

    2017-09-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a tumour suppressor, limiting intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation in acute inflammation, and tumour growth, but little is known regarding its role in mucosal homeostasis. Resistance to the intestinal helminth Trichuris muris relies on an "epithelial escalator" to expel the parasite. IEC turnover is restricted by parasite-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Mice with or without conditional knockout of SOCS3 were infected with T. muris. Crypt depth, worm burden, and proliferating cells and IDO were quantified. SOCS3 knockdown was also performed in human IEC cell lines. Chronic T. muris infection increased expression of SOCS3 in wild-type mice. Lack of IEC SOCS3 led to a modest increase in epithelial turnover. This translated to a lower worm burden, but not complete elimination of the parasite suggesting a compensatory mechanism, possibly IDO, as seen in SOCS3 knockdown. We report that SOCS3 impacts on IEC turnover following T. muris infection, potentially through enhancement of IDO. IDO may dampen the immune response which can drive IEC hyperproliferation in the absence of SOCS3, demonstrating the intricate interplay of immune signals regulating mucosal homeostasis, and suggesting a novel tumour suppressor role of SOCS3. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral

  4. Correlation of presence of Candida and epithelial dysplasia in oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Gupta, Anjali; Rajan, S Y; Padmavathi, B N; Mamatha, G P; Mathur, Hemant; Bhuvaneshwari, S; Soundarya, S

    2014-10-01

    Candida and epithelial dysplasia have long been associated with oro-mucosal lesions. The present study was designed to evaluate the correlation between presence of Candida organisms and epithelial dysplasia in various oral mucosal lesions associated with areca nut and tobacco use. A total of 50 individuals were selected, between age range of 19-70 y. Three separate cytosmears were prepared for each participant. All the slides were stained with PAS stain and the best slide was viewed for candidal organisms. The data was analysed using the SPSS version16. Chi square test was performed. Out of these, samples of 26 participants displayed presence of Candida. It was further observed that all the samples that were positive for presence of Candida displayed the organism in hyphal form. Out of 50 biopsy specimens stained for presence of Candida using PAS stain, samples of only 2 participants demonstrated presence of Candida in hyphal form, whereas the biopsy specimens stained for demonstrating dysplastic changes using H&E stain displayed various levels of cellular atypia in samples of 16 participants. Out of these 12 were mild, 3 were moderate & 1 displayed severe dysplastic changes. The study revealed a statistically non significant correlation between the presence of Candida and epithelial dysplasia in oral mucosal lesions.

  5. Gastrin stimulates MMP-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells: putative role in gastric epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R; Murugesan, Senthil V; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J

    2015-07-15

    The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling.

  6. Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption through Altered Mucosal MicroRNA Expression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gaulke, Christopher A.; Porter, Matthew; Han, Yan-Hong; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; George, Michael D.; Dang, Angeline T.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jiang, Guochun; Korf, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5′-3′-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of mi

  7. Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rawlins, Emma L.

    2008-01-01

    The current enthusiasm for stem cell research stems from the hope that damaged or diseased tissues may one day be repaired through the manipulation of endogenous or exogenous stem cells. The postnatal human respiratory system is highly accessible and provides unique opportunities for the application of such techniques. Several putative adult lung epithelial stem cells have been identified in the mouse model system. However, their in vivo capabilities to contribute to different lineages, and their control mechanisms, remain unclear. If stem cell–based therapies are to be successful in the lung, it is vitally important that we understand the normal behavior of adult lung stem cells, and how this is regulated. Lung embryonic progenitor cells are much better defined and characterized than their adult counterparts. Moreover, experiments on a variety of developing tissues are beginning to uncover general mechanisms by which embryonic progenitors influence final organ size and structure. This provides a framework for the study of lung embryonic progenitor cells, facilitating experimental design and interpretation. A similar approach to investigating adult lung stem cells could produce rapid advances in the field. PMID:18684716

  8. Th17 cells and Mucosal Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Aujla, Shean J.; Dubin, Patricia J.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2008-01-01

    Th17 cells are a new lineage of T-cells that are controlled by the transcription factor RORγt and develop independent of GATA-3, T-bet, Stat 4 and Stat 6. Novel effector molecules produced by these cells include IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-26. IL-17RA binds IL-17A and IL-17F and is critical for host defense against extracellular planktonic bacteria by regulating chemokine gradients for neutrophil emigration into infected tissue sites as well as host granulopoiesis. Moreover IL-17 and IL-22 regulate the production of antimicrobial proteins in mucosal epithelium. Although TGF-β1 and IL-6 have been shown to be critical for development of Th17 cells from naïve precursors, IL-23 is also important in regulating IL-17 release in mucosal tissues in response to infectious stimuli. Compared to Th1 cells, IL-23 and IL-17 show limited roles in controlling host defense against primary infections with intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggesting a predominate role of the Th17 lineage in host defense against extracellular pathogens. However in the setting of chronic biofilm infections, as that occurs with Cystic Fibrosis or bronchetctasis, Th17 cells may be key contributors of tissue injury. PMID:18054248

  9. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity.

  10. New generation of oral mucosal vaccines targeting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jennifer L; Sahay, Bikash; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2013-12-01

    As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge. Targeted vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent and control infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessibility, needle free delivery, and a higher capacity for mass immunizations during pandemics. Both local mucosal immunity and robust systemic responses can be achieved through mucosal vaccination. Recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular components of the mucosal immune system have allowed for the development of a novel mucosal vaccine platform utilizing specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides and orally administered lactobacilli to elicit efficient antigen specific immune responses against infections, including Bacillus anthracis in experimental models of disease.

  11. New generation of oral mucosal vaccines targeting dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Jennifer L.; Sahay, Bikash; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge. Targeted vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent and control infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessibility, needle free delivery, and a higher capacity for mass immunizations during pandemics. Both local mucosal immunity and robust systemic responses can be achieved through mucosal vaccination. Recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular components of the mucosal immune system have allowed for the development of a novel mucosal vaccine platform utilizing specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides and orally administered lactobacilli to elicit efficient antigen specific immune responses against infections, including B. anthracis in experimental models of disease. PMID:23835515

  12. HIV enteropathy and aging: gastrointestinal immunity, mucosal epithelial barrier, and microbial translocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyin; Kotler, Donald P

    2014-07-01

    Despite decreases in morbidity and mortality as a result of antiretroviral therapy, gastrointestinal dysfunction remains common in HIV infection. Treated patients are at risk for complications of 'premature' aging, such as cardiovascular disease, osteopenia, neurocognitive decline, malignancies, and frailty. This review summarizes recent observations in this field. Mucosal CD4 lymphocytes, especially Th17 cells, are depleted in acute HIV and simian immune deficiency virus (SIV) infections, although other cell types also are affected. Reconstitution during therapy often is incomplete, especially in mucosa. Mucosal barrier function is affected by both HIV infection and aging and includes paracellular transport via tight junctions and uptake through areas of apoptosis; other factors may affect systemic antigen exposure. The resultant microbial translocation is associated with systemic immune activation in HIV and SIV infections. There is evidence of immune activation and microbial translocation in the elderly. The immune phenotypes of immunosenescence in HIV infection and aging appear similar. There are several targets for intervention; blockage of residual mucosal virus replication, preventing antigen uptake, modulating the microbiome, improving T cell recovery, combining therapies aimed at mucosal integrity, augmenting mucosal immunity, and managing traditional risk factors for premature aging in the general population. Aging may interact with HIV enteropathy to enhance microbial translocation and immune activation.

  13. Cellular alterations of mucosal integrity by ribotoxins: mechanistic implications of environmentally-linked epithelial inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yuseok

    2012-01-01

    Specific ribosome-directed stressors have the capacity to damage 28S ribosomal RNA by interfering with its functioning during gene translation. This can lead to what has been called ribotoxic stress responses that are closely associated with various disease processes including epithelial inflammation in humans and domestic animals. Since the primary toxic actions of most ribotoxic stress agents are generally recognized to be the functional inhibition of global protein synthesis, highly dividing tissues including epithelia are the most susceptible targets of toxic insult. In the present study, responses in the mucosal barrier by acute and chronic exposure to ribosome-inactivating agents were reviewed in various experimental models. Specifically, the focus of this review will be on the regulation of mucosa-associated microbiota, epithelial pro-inflammatory insult, and epithelial integrity. The review aims at characterizing the mechanistic evidence of the ribotoxic stress-induced cellular responses and their implication as critical etiological factors of mucosa-associated diseases, in particular epithelial inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gastrin stimulates MMP-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells: putative role in gastric epithelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J. Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R.; Murugesan, Senthil V.; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D. Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling. PMID:25977510

  15. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica L.; Streuli, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell–matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical–basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. For further reading, please see related articles: ‘ERM proteins at a glance’ by Andrea McClatchey (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3199–3204). ‘Establishment of epithelial polarity – GEF who's minding the GAP?’ by Siu Ngok et al. (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3205–3215). PMID:24994933

  16. Cell associated urokinase activity and colonic epithelial cells in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, P R; van de Pol, E; Doe, W F

    1991-01-01

    It is not known if urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is associated with normal colonic epithelial cells. The aims of this study were to determine if normal colonic epithelial cells have uPA activity and whether this is concentrated at the cell membrane. In addition, the contribution of colonic epithelial cell associated uPA activity to disease related pertubations of mucosal uPA activity were examined. A highly enriched population of colonic epithelial cells was isolated from resected colon or biopsy specimens by an enzymatic technique. uPA activity was measured in cell homogenates by a specific and sensitive colorimetric method and expressed relative to cellular DNA. In two experiments subcellular fractionation of colonic epithelial cells was performed by nitrogen cavitation followed by ultracentrifugation over a linear sucrose gradient. The fractions collected were analysed for uPA and organelle-specific enzyme activities. Normal colonic epithelial cells have cell associated uPA activity (mean (SEM) 5.6 (1.1) IU/mg, n = 18). This colocalised with fractions enriched for leucine-beta-naphthylamidase and 5'-nucleotidase, markers of plasma membrane. uPA activities in epithelial cells from cancerous colons (9.8 (3.1) n = 7) or from mucosa affected by inflammatory bowel disease (3.8 (0.7) n = 15) were not significantly different from normal (paired t test), while that in epithelial cells from greatly inflamed mucosa was similar to that from autologous normal or mildly inflamed areas (4.4 (1.2) v 5.9 (3.6), n = 9). Thus normal colonic epithelial cells have cell associated uPA activity which is concentrated on the plasma membranes, suggesting the presence of uPA receptors. Increased mucosal levels of uPA previously reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are not due to increased colonic epithelial cell associated uPA. PMID:1650741

  17. Cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation for persistent epithelial defect in severe ocular surface diseases with acute inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Sotozono, Chie; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Takahiro; Koizumi, Noriko; Yokoi, Norihiko; Ueta, Mayumi; Matsuyama, Kotone; Kaneda, Hideaki; Fukushima, Masanori; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-09-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy of cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET) for the treatment of persistent epithelial defect (PED). We treated 10 eyes of nine patients with PED (Stevens-Johnson syndrome: three eyes; thermal/chemical injury: five eyes; ocular cicatricial pemphigoid: two eyes) with COMET at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan from 2002 to 2008. Preoperatively, PED existed on over more than 50% of the corneal surface in seven eyes. Severe ocular surface inflammation with fibrovascular tissue surrounded the PED in all 10 eyes. At 24-weeks postoperative, PED had improved in all cases except 1 in which the patient was unable to return to the hospital (95% CI, 55.5-99.7; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p = 0.0078). The preoperative median of logarithmic minimum angle of resolution was 1.85 (range 0.15-2.70), and 1.85, 1.85, and 1.52 at the 4th, 12th, and 24th postoperative week, respectively. The mean total preoperative ocular surface grading score was 7.0 (range 4-17). At 4 and 12 weeks postoperative, the total ocular surface grading score had improved significantly (p = 0.0020, p = 0.0078), and at 24 weeks postoperative, it was 3.0 (range 2-12, p = 0.0234). During the follow-up period (median 23.3 months, range 5.6-39.7 months), no recurrence of PED was observed in any eye, and long-term ocular surface stability was obtained. COMET enabled complete epithelialization of PED and stabilization of the ocular surface in patients with severe ocular surface disease, thus preventing end-stage cicatrization and vision loss at a later stage. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  18. Immunoglobulin Responses at the Mucosal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Chorny, Alejo

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces are colonized by large communities of commensal bacteria and represent the primary site of entry for pathogenic agents. To prevent microbial intrusion, mucosal B cells release large amounts of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules through multiple follicular and extrafollicular pathways. IgA is the most abundant antibody isotype in mucosal secretions and owes its success in frontline immunity to its ability to undergo transcytosis across epithelial cells. In addition to translocating IgA onto the mucosal surface, epithelial cells educate the mucosal immune system as to the composition of the local microbiota and instruct B cells to initiate IgA responses that generate immune protection while preserving immune homeostasis. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the cellular interactions and signaling pathways governing IgA production at mucosal surfaces and discuss new findings on the regulation and function of mucosal IgD, the most enigmatic isotype of our mucosal antibody repertoire. PMID:21219173

  19. Potential effector and immunoregulatory functions of mast cells in mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Laurent L; Sibilano, Riccardo; Mukai, Kaori; Galli, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are cells of hematopoietic origin that normally reside in mucosal tissues, often near epithelial cells, glands, smooth muscle cells, and nerves. Best known for their contributions to pathology during IgE-associated disorders such as food allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis, MCs are also thought to mediate IgE-associated effector functions during certain parasite infections. However, various MC populations also can be activated to express functional programs – such as secreting pre-formed and/or newly synthesized biologically active products – in response to encounters with products derived from diverse pathogens, other host cells (including leukocytes and structural cells), damaged tissue, or the activation of the complement or coagulation systems, as well as by signals derived from the external environment (including animal toxins, plant products, and physical agents). In this review, we will discuss evidence suggesting that MCs can perform diverse effector and immunoregulatory roles that contribute to homeostasis or pathology in mucosal tissues. PMID:25669149

  20. [Methotrexate as inducer of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Morón-Medina, Alejandra; Viera, Ninoska; de Morales, Thaís Rojas; Alcocer, Sirley; Bohorquez, Dinorath

    2014-03-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in childhood cancer, has also been indicated as a cytotoxic agent of the oral mucosa, which can trigger the inflammatory process and increase the vascularity of epithelial tissues during the early stages of oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to determine the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 y TNF-alpha in epithelial cell cultures treated with MTX. Epithelial cells of human larynx, obtained from the cell line Hep-2, were cultured with different doses of MTX during different incubation times. The drug cytotoxicity was analyzed by means of the colorimetric test, which is based on the metabolic reduction of the bromide of 3-(4, 5-dimetiltiazol-2-ilo)-2,5-difeniltetrazol (MTT); and the proinflammatory cytokines production by the test enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cultures of HEp-2 cells showed increased production of proinflammatory cytokines at 72 hours with 0.32 microM of MTX. These results suggest that depending on the dose and exposure time, MTX alters the physiology of human epithelial cells, which may play an important role during the phases of initiation and development of oral mucositis.

  1. Mucosal immunodeficiency in smokers, and in patients with epithelial head and neck tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, J R; Riad, M A; Gaze, M N; Maran, A G; Ferguson, A

    1990-01-01

    Cigarette smoking influences the risk of orogastrointestinal disease in both protective (ulcerative colitis), and inductive (squamous tumours of the head, neck and oesophagus) roles. In order to study the effects of smoking on mucosal immunity, salivary immunoglobulins were measured in pure parotid saliva from groups of healthy non-smokers, smokers, and exsmokers and from patients with epithelial head and neck tumours, both untreated and after radiotherapy. Of the healthy individuals, smokers had significantly lower salivary IgA and higher IgM concentrations than did non-smokers. The effect on IgA was dose related, and reversible after cessation of smoking. Likewise, in patients with head and neck tumours (the majority being smokers), salivary IgA concentration was reduced and IgM increased when compared with non-smoking controls. Results were similar before and after radiotherapy. This study provides evidence of the effects of smoking on mucosal immunity as evaluated by parotid salivary immunoglobulins. Further studies of the influence of smoking on secretory immunity are indicated. PMID:2338262

  2. Epithelial Cell Innate Response to Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Naglik, J.R.; Moyes, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of treatments and diseases such as AIDS resulting in increasing numbers of patients with suppressed immune systems, fungal diseases are an escalating problem. Candida albicans is the most common of these fungal pathogens, causing infections in many of these patients. It is therefore important to understand how immunity to this fungus is regulated and how it might be manipulated. Although work has been done to identify the receptors, fungal moieties, and responses involved in anti-Candida immunity, most studies have investigated interactions with myeloid or lymphoid cells. Given that the first site of contact of C. albicans with its host is the mucosal epithelial surface, recent studies have begun to focus on interactions of C. albicans with this site. The results are startling yet in retrospect obvious, indicating that epithelial cells play an important role in these interactions, initiating responses and even providing a level of protection. These findings have obvious implications, not just for fungal pathogens, but also for identifying how host organisms can distinguish between commensal and pathogenic microbes. This review highlights some of these recent findings and discusses their importance in the wider context of infection and immunity. PMID:21441481

  3. Gastric Mucosal Protection by Aegle Marmelos Against Gastric Mucosal Damage: Role of Enterochromaffin Cell and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Purnima; Dutta, Shubha R.; Guha, Debjani

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in gastric mucosa inhibits gastric acidity by increasing the gastric mucus secretion. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) ripe fruit pulp (250 mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index (MUI), EC cells, 5-HT content, and adherent mucosal thickness of ulcerated gastric tissue in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, p.o.), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold-restraint stress. Results: In all cases increased MUI in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content and adherent mucosal thickness (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with AM for 14 days decreased MUI, increased EC cell count, and 5-HT content as well as adherent mucosal thickness in all ulcerated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: AM produces gastric mucosal protection mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels. PMID:25672237

  4. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  5. Systems biology approaches to understanding Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in mucosal remodeling and signaling in asthma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A pathological hallmark of asthma is chronic injury and repair, producing dysfunction of the epithelial barrier function. In this setting, increased oxidative stress, growth factor- and cytokine stimulation, together with extracellular matrix contact produces transcriptional reprogramming of the epithelial cell. This process results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a cellular state associated with loss of epithelial polarity, expression of mesenchymal markers, enhanced mobility and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a result, the cellular biology of the EMT state produces characteristic changes seen in severe, refractory asthma: myofibroblast expansion, epithelial trans-differentiation and subepithelial fibrosis. EMT also induces profound changes in epithelial responsiveness that affects innate immune signaling that may have impact on the adaptive immune response and effectiveness of glucocorticoid therapy in severe asthma. We discuss how this complex phenotype is beginning to be understood using systems biology-level approaches through perturbations coupled with high throughput profiling and computational modeling. Understanding the distinct changes induced by EMT at the systems level may provide translational strategies to reverse the altered signaling and physiology of refractory asthma. PMID:24982697

  6. Polarized fibronectin secretion induced by adenosine regulates bacterial–epithelial interaction in human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in many biological processes including cell adhesion and migration, wound healing and inflammation. Cellular FNs are produced by a wide variety of cell types including epithelial cells, which secrete them and often organize them into extensive extracellular matrices at their basal surface. However, regulation of FN synthesis and the polarity of FN secretion by intestinal epithelial cells have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the role of adenosine, whose levels are up-regulated during inflammation, in modulating FN synthesis, the polarity of FN secretion and the downstream effects of the secreted FN. Polarized monolayers of T84 cells were used as an intestinal epithelial model. Adenosine added to either the apical or basolateral aspect of the cells led to a time- and dose-dependent accumulation of FN in the culture supernatants, polarized to the apical compartment and reached maximal levels 24 h after apical or basolateral addition of adenosine. Confocal microscopy confirmed that FN localized to the apical domain of model intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with apical or basolateral adenosine. The induction of FN was significantly down-regulated in response to the adenosine receptor antagonist alloxazine and was inhibited by cycloheximide. Moreover, adenosine increased FN promoter activity (3.5-fold compared with unstimulated controls) indicating that FN induction is, in part, transcriptionally regulated. Interestingly, we demonstrated that adenosine, as well as apical FN, significantly enhanced the adherence and invasion of Salmonella typhimurium into cultured epithelial cells. In summary, we have shown for the first time that FN, a classic extracellular matrix protein, is secreted into the apical compartment of epithelial cells in response to adenosine. FN may be a critical host factor that modulates adherence and invasion of bacteria, thus playing a key role

  7. Synergistic effect of laminin and mesenchymal stem cells on tracheal mucosal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Jin Ho; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Hee-Bok; Park, Seok-Won; Kwon, Seong Keun

    2015-03-01

    Although several studies have been successfully undertaken of tracheal reconstruction in terms of the maintaining the framework of the graft, most cases of reconstruction failure have resulted from delayed mucosal regeneration. The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether laminin-coated asymmetrically porous membrane (APM) scaffold enhances mucosal regeneration, to compare the mucosalization capability with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded APM, and to determine whether laminin coating and MSC seeding has a synergistic effect on mucosal regeneration. We reconstructed the full-thickness anterior tracheal defect of 36 New Zealand White rabbits with the APM scaffold. MSCs were isolated from the rabbit's inguinal fat. The animals were divided into 4 groups by the presence of laminin coating on APM and application of MSC [Group I, -/- (laminin/MSC); Group II, -/+; Group III, +/-; Group IV, +/+]. Endoscopy and histologic evaluation were performed and the results were compared among the groups. The results showed that ciliated columnar epithelium was regenerated earlier in groups II and III than in group I. Furthermore, the application of laminin and MSC had synergistic effects on tracheal epithelial regeneration. These results demonstrate that tracheal reconstruction by laminin-coated APM seeded with MSCs is most effective in enhancing tracheal mucosalization, and appears to be promising strategy in the regenerative treatment of tracheal defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of direct oral microscopy in evaluating mucosal margins around invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Michcik, Adam; Michajłowski, Igor; Starzyńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique, which aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The oral mucosa is examined at multiple magnifications and features such as sub-epithelial mucosal vessels, surface patterns, colour tone, transparency and the exact demarcation of mucosal lesions are estimated. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) oscillates between 1.9% and 3.5%, which makes it the eighth most common carcinoma occurring around the world and in Poland. The 5-year survival rates oscillate between 20% and 30%. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate clinically unchanged mucosal margins around OSCC by direct oral microscopy. The authors approached the question whether the borders of mucosal margins around OSCC established via direct oral microscopy differ from those established based on clinical examination. Material and methods Fifteen patients diagnosed with OSCC were enrolled. Patients were first clinically examined to evaluate the extent of the tumour and to plan resection margins. Eventually, direct oral microscopy was performed to establish the width of the subclinically unchanged mucosal margins based on a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae, followed by comparison with those established by clinical evaluation. Results Histopathologic results of biopsies from areas indicated by direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 86.7% of patients, whereas biopsies from areas indicated by clinical examination revealed dysplasia only in 40% of individuals, resulting in the need for widening of mucosal margins. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy enables detection of dysplasia within clinically unaltered mucosal margins around OSCC, which results in more precise establishing of resection boundaries, contributing to improvement of resection totality. PMID:26759543

  9. Norepinephrine potentiates proinflammatory responses of human vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brosnahan, Amanda J; Vulchanova, Lucy; Witta, Samantha R; Dai, Yuying; Jones, Bryan J; Brown, David R

    2013-06-15

    The vaginal epithelium provides a barrier to pathogens and recruits immune defenses through the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Several studies have shown that mucosal sites are innervated by norepinephrine-containing nerve fibers. Here we report that norepinephrine potentiates the proinflammatory response of human vaginal epithelial cells to products produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen that causes menstrual toxic shock syndrome. The cells exhibit immunoreactivity for catecholamine synthesis enzymes and the norepinephrine transporter. Moreover, the cells secrete norepinephrine and dopamine at low concentrations. These results indicate that norepinephrine may serve as an autocrine modulator of proinflammatory responses in the vaginal epithelium.

  10. Crosstalk between Adaptive and Innate Immune Cells leads to High Quality Immune Protection at the Mucosal Borders

    PubMed Central

    Cheroutre, Hilde; Huang, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal effector memory CD8 T cells are located at the epithelium and have a heightened and immediate effector function. By contrast, central memory T cells reside within lymphoid tissues and require proliferation and differentiation to become effector cells that migrate to epithelial surfaces. The accumulation of effector memory T cells at the pathogen entry site(s) is essential for protective immunity, but the mechanisms that drive the differentiation of memory cell subsets are poorly understood. We recently showed that CD8αα, induced selectively on the most highly activated primary CD8αβ T cells, together with its ligand, the thymic leukemia (TL) antigen, induced on mucosal antigen presenting cells and constitutively expressed on intestinal epithelial cells, serve as key components to mediate the selective accumulation of the fittest effector cells to form mucosal effector memory T cells. Therefore, the generation of mucosal effector memory is controlled by an innate-adaptive crosstalk that provides for host defense at the body’s largest interface. PMID:23456836

  11. Mucosal mast cells and developmental changes in gastric absorption.

    PubMed

    Catto-Smith, A G; Ripper, J L

    1995-01-01

    We aimed to establish whether gastric mucosal mast cells undergo degranulation during normal postnatal development and to correlate this with gastric electrical parameters, paracellular permeability, and macromolecular absorption. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied between 10 and 30 days after birth. Gastric mucosal mast cell degranulation occurred and was maximal on days 15 and 17, measured by histology and gastric and serum levels of rat mast cell protease II. Short-circuit current, transepithelial conductance, and permeability of voltage-clamped glandular stomach were elevated in younger animals, falling with age except for a transient but significant increase in conductance and permeability at 17 days, closely correlated with maximal mast cell degranulation. Macromolecular uptake was significantly increased in animals aged 10-15 days. Concanavalin A and antigen-induced mast cell degranulation increased conductance and permeability in vitro in younger animals. We conclude that 1) gastric mucosal mast cells degranulate during development, 2) the neonatal stomach has increased permeability and uptake of macromolecules, and 3) gastric mucosal mast cell degranulation during development may affect mucosal permeability.

  12. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Karrich, Julien J; Cornelissen, Ferry; Papazian, Natalie; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J; Butler, James A; Boon, Louis; Coles, Mark C; Samsom, Janneke N; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-10-19

    Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence of this high mitotic activity, mucosal surfaces are frequently targeted by anticancer therapies, leading to dose-limiting side effects. The cellular mechanisms that control tissue protection and mucosal healing in response to intestinal damage remain poorly understood. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are regulators of homeostasis and tissue responses to infection at mucosal surfaces. We now demonstrate that ILC3s are required for epithelial activation and proliferation in response to small intestinal tissue damage induced by the chemotherapeutic agent methotrexate. Multiple subsets of ILC3s are activated after intestinal tissue damage, and in the absence of ILC3s, epithelial activation is lost, correlating with increased pathology and severe damage to the intestinal crypts. Using ILC3-deficient Lgr5 reporter mice, we show that maintenance of intestinal stem cells after damage is severely impaired in the absence of ILC3s or the ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22. These data unveil a novel function of ILC3s in limiting tissue damage by preserving tissue-specific stem cells.

  13. Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of Teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2012-01-01

    As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naive T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity. PMID:22133710

  14. Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J Oriol

    2011-12-01

    As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naïve T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity.

  15. In vitro co-culture of epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells on aligned nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kuppan, Purushothaman; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2017-12-01

    Esophagus is a complex, hollow organ consisting of epithelial cells in the inner mucosal layer and smooth muscle cells in the outer muscle layer. In the present study, we have evaluated the in vitro co-culture of epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells on the aligned nanofibrous scaffold made of PHBV, PHBV-gelatin, PCL and PCL-gelatin developed through electrospinning using rotating drum collector. Epithelial cells were labeled with cell tracker green while the smooth muscle cells were labeled with cell tracker red. Labeled cells were seeded on the aligned nanofibers matrices and tracked using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that both epithelial and smooth muscle cells attach, extend, and proliferate over these nanofibrous matrices. Confocal z-sectioning shows that epithelial and smooth muscle cells tend to separate into two distinct layers on a single nanofiber system mimicking the in vivo anatomy. Cell viability assay showed that both types of cells are viable and also interact with each other. The functional gene expression of respective cell types demonstrates that both epithelial and smooth muscle cells are phenotypically as well as functionally active when they were co-cultured. Thus the study highlighted that aligned nanofibrous scaffolds could be potential alternative graft for esophageal tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Shatha; Lina, Taslima T; Gonzalez, Jazmin; Pinchuk, Irina V; Beswick, Ellen J; Reyes, Victor E

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium has cells with features that make them a powerful line of defense in innate mucosal immunity. Features that allow gastrointestinal epithelial cells to contribute in innate defense include cell barrier integrity, cell turnover, autophagy, and innate immune responses. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral shape gram negative bacterium that selectively colonizes the gastric epithelium of more than half of the world’s population. The infection invariably becomes persistent due to highly specialized mechanisms that facilitate H. pylori’s avoidance of this initial line of host defense as well as adaptive immune mechanisms. The host response is thus unsuccessful in clearing the infection and as a result becomes established as a persistent infection promoting chronic inflammation. In some individuals the associated inflammation contributes to ulcerogenesis or neoplasia. H. pylori has an array of different strategies to interact intimately with epithelial cells and manipulate their cellular processes and functions. Among the multiple aspects that H. pylori affects in gastric epithelial cells are their distribution of epithelial junctions, DNA damage, apoptosis, proliferation, stimulation of cytokine production, and cell transformation. Some of these processes are initiated as a result of the activation of signaling mechanisms activated on binding of H. pylori to cell surface receptors or via soluble virulence factors that gain access to the epithelium. The multiple responses by the epithelium to the infection contribute to pathogenesis associated with H. pylori. PMID:25278677

  17. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  18. The role of the epithelial cell in Escherichia coli induced neutrophil migration into the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Agace, W W

    1996-08-01

    Neutrophil influx to mucosal surfaces represents one of the earliest inflammatory responses to mucosal infection. We have been studying external interactions with urinary tract epithelial cells in an attempt to understand the molecular mechanisms behind this process. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli induced urinary tract epithelial cells to secrete the neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 secretion was higher in response to isogenic strains expressing type 1 or P fimbriae that adhered to the epithelial surface. Deliberate colonization of the human urinary tract with E. coli induced the local production of IL-8 and levels correlated with urinary neutrophil numbers suggesting a role for IL-8 in neutrophil migration. E. coli induced neutrophil migration across urinary tract epithelial layers in vitro, and this process was blocked with anti-IL-8 antibody. IL-8's activity was localized to the epithelial surface. Furthermore, these cells were shown to constitutively express IL-8 receptor A and B messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), suggesting a possible role for IL-8 on epithelial cell function. E. coli enhanced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on urinary tract epithelial cells, and neutrophil migration across urinary tract epithelial layers in vitro was dependent on epithelial ICAM-1 and neutrophil Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) expression. These results suggest that bacterial/epithelial cell interactions play a key role in the induction of neutrophil migration during mucosal infection, and show the necessity for host-derived chemotactic factors and cell adhesion events in E. coli induced transuroepithelial migration in vitro.

  19. The yin and yang of intestinal epithelial cells in controlling dendritic cell function

    PubMed Central

    Iliev, Iliyan D.; Matteoli, Gianluca; Rescigno, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Recent work suggests that dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal tissues are “educated” by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to suppress inflammation and promote immunological tolerance. After attack by pathogenic microorganisms, however, “non-educated” DCs are recruited from nearby areas, such as the dome of Peyer's patches (PPs) and the blood, to initiate inflammation and the ensuing immune response to the invader. Differential epithelial cell (EC) responses to commensals and pathogens may control these two tolorogenic and immunogenic functions of DCs. PMID:17893197

  20. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Suga, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Fujisawa, Takao; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  1. Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yuji; Fujinami, Masahiro; Inoue, Harumi; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Oral epithelial dysplasia is thought to be a precursor state of carcinogenesis and may harbor gene alterations. Recently, it was reported that gene editing enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), is expressed in precursor and cancer epithelial cells during carcinogenesis associated with chronic inflammation/infection and that this enzyme induces mutation of tumor-suppressor genes. Thus, AID may have a role in carcinogenesis via oral epithelial dysplasia. In this study, we classified oral mucosal epithelium exhibiting epithelial dysplasia as squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) grades 1-3, according to the 2005 World Health Organization classification, and used immunohistochemical techniques to examine AID expression in oral mucosal epithelium exhibiting SIN and oral cancer tissues. AID was observed in prickle cells in oral mucosal epithelium with epithelial dysplasia and in oral cancer cells. Additionally, to investigate the mechanism of AID expression and its role in cancer progression, we incubated the oral cancer cell line HSC-2 with inflammatory cytokines. In the HSC-2 cell line, AID expression was enhanced by TNF-α via NF-κB activation and promoted expression of N-cadherin by regulating Snail expression. These findings suggest that AID has a role in the development of oral epithelial dysplasia and promotes progression of oral cancer.

  2. Membrane potentials of epithelial cells in rat small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Barry, R. J. C.; Eggenton, Jacqueline

    1972-01-01

    1. Stripped sacs of rat jejunum in which the outer muscle layers had been removed were found to maintain substantial transport and electrical activities. 2. Mucosal and serosal membrane potentials of epithelial cells of normal and stripped everted sacs of rat jejunum were recorded in vitro together with the transmural potential difference. 3. The cell interior was negative relative to both serosal and mucosal fluids, the transmural potential being the sum of the two membrane potentials. 4. Changes in the transmural potentials in the presence of actively transferred hexoses and amino acids were entirely due to variations in the serosal potential, the mucosal potential being unchanged. 5. Serosal and transmural potential increases on the addition of galactose were consistent with Michaelis—Menten kinetics, giving apparent Km values of 14·9 and 14·1 mM respectively. 6. Phlorrhizin, ouabain, 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium fluoroacetate inhibited serosal potential changes in the presence of galactose. 7. Osmotic potentials resulting from transmural osmotic gradients originated from the serosal layers of the tissue. 8. The results are consistent with the concept of a serosally located, electrogenic sodium pump which is stimulated by actively transferred hexoses and amino acids. The sodium-dependent entry mechanism at the mucosal membrane is non-electrogenic. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4646578

  3. The similarity between human embryonic stem cell-derived epithelial cells and ameloblast-lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Linthicum, Logan; DenBesten, Pamela K; Zhang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to human ameloblast-lineage cells (ALCs), as a way to determine their potential use as a cell source for ameloblast regeneration. Induced by various concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), retinoic acid (RA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) for 7 days, hESCs adopted cobble-stone epithelial phenotype (hESC-derived epithelial cells (ES-ECs)) and expressed cytokeratin 14. Compared with ALCs and oral epithelial cells (OE), ES-ECs expressed amelogenesis-associated genes similar to ALCs. ES-ECs were compared with human fetal skin epithelium, human fetal oral buccal mucosal epithelial cells and human ALCs for their expression pattern of cytokeratins as well. ALCs had relatively high expression levels of cytokeratin 76, which was also found to be upregulated in ES-ECs. Based on the present study, with the similarity of gene expression with ALCs, ES-ECs are a promising potential cell source for regeneration, which are not available in erupted human teeth for regeneration of enamel.

  4. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Ker Y; Howarth, Gordon S; Yazbeck, Roger; Wright, Tessa H; Whitford, Eleanor J; Payne, Caroline; Butler, Ross N; Bastian, Susan E P

    2009-02-01

    Mucositis is a common side-effect of high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Grape seed extract (GSE) represents a rich source of proanthocyanidins with the potential to decrease oxidative damage and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated GSE for its capacity to decrease the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: GSE was administered to IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells prior to damage induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Cell viability was determined by neutral red assay. In vivo: Female Dark Agouti rats (130-180 g) were gavaged with 1 ml GSE (400 mg/kg) daily (day 3-11) and received 5-FU (150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection on day nine to induce mucositis. Rats were sacrificed at day 12 and intestinal tissues collected for myeloperoxidase and sucrase activity assays and histological analyses. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. GSE prevented the decrease in IEC-6 cell viability induced by 5-FU (p < 0.01). Compared with 5-FU controls, GSE significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity by 86% and 27% in the proximal jejunum (p < 0.001) and distal ileum (p < 0.05) respectively; decreased qualitative histological scores of damage (p < 0.05) in the proximal jejunum; increased villus height in the proximal jejunum (17%; p < 0.05) and distal ileum (50%; p < 0.01), and attenuated the 5-FU-induced reduction of mucosal thickness by 16% in the jejunum (p < 0.05) and 45% in the ileum (p < 0.01). GSE partially protected IEC-6 cells from 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and ameliorated intestinal damage induced by 5-FU in rats. GSE may represent a promising prophylactic adjunct to conventional chemotherapy for preventing intestinal mucositis.

  5. Permeability of Luminal Surface of Intestinal Mucosal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, B.; Solomon, A. K.

    1962-01-01

    A method has been devised to measure the permeability characteristics of the intestinal mucosal cells in the rat. The method makes use of an electrical recording balance to register changes in weight when the mucosal face of a small strip of intestine is exposed to anisotonic solutions. The permeability coefficient of the luminal surface of intestinal mucosal cells to water is measured as 0.15 cm4/OSM, sec. and reasons are adduced to suggest that the true value might be higher than this. The equivalent pore radius of the luminal face of the tissue, measured in experiments in which lipid-insoluble non-electrolytes have been used according to the method of Goldstein and Solomon, appears to be 4.0 Å. PMID:14465429

  6. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae exploits cytokeratin 18-positive epithelial cells of porcine tonsillar crypts as an invasion gateway.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tomoyuki; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Eguchi, Masahiro; Shi, Fang; Sato, Masumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Shimoji, Yoshihiro

    2013-06-15

    Tonsils are important organs for mucosal immunity and are gateways for various pathogens, including bacteria and viruses. The purpose of the present study was to reveal how Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the causative agent of swine erysipelas, invades the mucosal epithelium of the tonsils of pigs. Two germ-free piglets were orally infected with E. rhusiopathiae Koganei 65-0.15, an attenuated vaccine strain in Japan, and their tonsils of the soft palate were histologically examined four weeks after infection. Bacterial organisms were observed in dilated crypt lumens and a few epithelial cells of the crypt. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that some epithelial cells of the crypt were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 18, a specific marker for M cells in the Peyer's patches of pigs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that bacterial antigens were present in the cytoplasm of CK 18-positive epithelial cells. Furthermore, an ultramicroscopic examination revealed that the bacteria-containing epithelial cells did not have microfolds or microvilli, both of which are characteristic of membranous epithelial cells (M cells), and that they were in close contact with intraepithelial phagocytes. Thus, the present observations suggest that the tonsillar crypt epithelium is a site of persistent infection for orally administered E. rhusiopathiae, and the bacteria exploit cytokeratin 18-positive epithelial cells of the crypts as portals of entry into the body.

  7. Mucosal stromal fibroblasts markedly enhance HIV infection of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kohgadai, Nargis; Müller, Janis A.; Laustsen, Anders; Thavachelvam, Karthiga; Stürzel, Christina M.; Jones, Jennifer J.; Somsouk, Ma; Garcia, Maurice M.; Smith, James F.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Münch, Jan; Jakobsen, Martin R.; Giudice, Linda C.; Greene, Warner C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding early events of HIV transmission within mucosal tissues is vital for developing effective prevention strategies. Here, we report that primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from endometrium, cervix, foreskin, male urethra, and intestines significantly increase HIV infection of CD4+ T cells–by up to 37-fold for R5-tropic HIV and 100-fold for X4-tropic HIV–without themselves becoming infected. Fibroblasts were more efficient than dendritic cells at trans-infection and mediate this response in the absence of the DC-SIGN and Siglec-1 receptors. In comparison, mucosal epithelial cells secrete antivirals and inhibit HIV infection. These data suggest that breaches in the epithelium allow external or luminal HIV to escape an antiviral environment to access the infection-favorable environment of the stromal fibroblasts, and suggest that resident fibroblasts have a central, but previously unrecognized, role in HIV acquisition at mucosal sites. Inhibiting fibroblast-mediated enhancement of HIV infection should be considered as a novel prevention strategy. PMID:28207890

  8. Early activation of mucosal mast cells during the primary immune response in a rodent model of neonatal asthma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Shudou, Masachika; Maeyama, Kazutaka

    2011-02-01

    During an allergic inflammatory response in the airway, if a failure of the epithelial cell barrier occurs before the systemic immune response is triggered by allergens, more allergens can invade. Using a rat model of asthma, we previously found that mucosal mast cells, which localise to the epithelial layer of the airways, are activated to promote a pro-asthmatic immune response. In this study, we developed a neonatal rat model of allergic airway hypersensitivity that mimics some features of childhood asthma. Airway hypersensitivity was measured using unrestrained whole-body plethysmography after analysis of the serum IgE titre. Inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were examined. Two mast cell-specific proteases were detected using PCR. In addition, we analysed the phenotype and the number of mast cells in the airways by immunohistochemistry, and we found that the number of mucosal mast cells and the expression level of the proteases increased 2 weeks after sensitisation. Changes in the IgE titre, airway hypersensitivity and the activation of other inflammatory cells were delayed, appearing during the 4 weeks after sensitisation. Our results indicate that the activation of mucosal mast cells contributes to the pro-asthmatic immune response. This activation may be a biomarker allowing early intervention that could help prevent allergic airway inflammation.

  9. Cell-associated HIV mucosal transmission: the neglected pathway.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Deborah J; Le Grand, Roger

    2014-12-15

    This supplement to The Journal of Infectious Diseases is devoted to the important and understudied topic of cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV) mucosal transmission. It stems from a workshop held in Boston, Massachusetts, in October 2013, in which scientists discussed their research and insights regarding cell-associated HIV mucosal transmission. The 10 articles in this supplement present the case for cell-associated HIV transmission as an important element contributing to the HIV epidemic, review evidence for the efficacy of current HIV prevention strategies against cell-associated HIV transmission and opportunities for further development, and describe in vitro, ex vivo, and animal cell-associated transmission models that can be used to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cell-associated HIV mucosal transmission and test HIV prevention strategies. We hope that these articles will help to inform and invigorate the HIV prevention field and contribute to the development of more-effective vaccine, treatment, and microbicide strategies for HIV prevention.

  10. Adhesion and invasion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to primary and secondary respiratory epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Sara; Shagan, Marilous; Blau, Karin; Lifshitz, Sarit; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Grossman, Nili; Bodner, Lipa; Dagan, Ron; Nebenzahl, Yaffa Mizrachi

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and the mucosal epithelial cells of its host is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease development, yet the specificity of this interaction between different respiratory cells is not fully understood. In the present study, three areas were examined: i) The capability of the encapsulated S. pneumoniae serotype 3 strain (WU2) to adhere to and invade primary nasal-derived epithelial cells in comparison to primary oral-derived epithelial cells, A549 adenocarcinoma cells and BEAS-2B viral transformed bronchial cells; ii) the capability of the unencapsulated 3.8DW strain (a WU2 derivative) to adhere to and invade the same cells over time; and iii) the ability of various genetically-unrelated encapsulated and unencapsulated S. pneumoniae strains to adhere to and invade A549 lung epithelial cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the encapsulated WU2 strain adhesion to and invasion of primary nasal epithelial cells was greatest, followed by BEAS-2B, A549 and primary oral epithelial cells. By contrast, the unencapsulated 3.8-DW strain invaded oral epithelial cells significantly more efficiently when compared to the nasal epithelial cells. In addition, unencapsulated S. pneumoniae strains adhered to and invaded the A459 cells significantly more efficiently than the encapsulated strains; this is consistent with previously published data. In conclusion, the findings presented in the current study indicated that the adhesion and invasion of the WU2 strain to primary nasal epithelial cells was more efficient compared with the other cultured respiratory epithelial cells tested, which corresponds to the natural course of S. pneumoniae infection and disease development. The target cell preference of unencapsulated strains was different from that of the encapsulated strains, which may be due to the exposure of cell wall proteins. PMID:27922699

  11. Adhesion of Malassezia pachydermatis of different growth type to canine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Florek, M; Król, J; Staroniewicz, Z; Bazanów, B

    2014-01-01

    A total of 100 Malassezia pachydermatis strains recovered from skin and mucosal membranes of dogs were evaluated for their adhesive properties. Two types of growth, related to colony morphology on Sabouraud agar, were observed (type I and II). The mean number of fungal cells attaching to canine buccal epithelial cells was found to be 17. The number of adhered cells was greater (statistically significant at the level of p < 0.01) in strains belonging to the type I.

  12. Patterning Bacterial Communities on Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Leung, Brendan M.; Yaguchi, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Shuichi; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS) enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv) gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions. PMID:23785519

  13. Epithelial TRPV1 Signaling Accelerates Gingival Epithelial Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Yamada, H.; Tabeta, K.; Nakajima, T.; Murakami, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive transient receptor potential superfamily, is a sensor of thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat (> 43°C), acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), capsaicin, and endovanilloids. This pain receptor was discovered on nociceptive fibers in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 was recently found to be expressed by non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells. The oral gingival epithelium is exposed to multiple noxious stimuli, including heat and acids derived from endogenous and exogenous substances; however, whether gingival epithelial cells (GECs) express TRPV1 is unknown. We show that both TRPV1 mRNA and protein are expressed by GECs. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels in the gingival epithelial cell line, epi 4. Moreover, TRPV1 activation in epi 4 cells accelerated proliferation. These responses to capsaicin were inhibited by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366791. We also observed GEC proliferation in capsaicin-treated mice in vivo. No effects were observed on GEC apoptosis by epithelial TRPV1 signaling. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this proliferative effect, we performed complementary (c)DNA microarray analysis of capsaicin-stimulated epi 4 cells. Compared with control conditions, 227 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated following capsaicin stimulation. Several proliferation-related genes were validated by independent experiments. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-17 and neuregulin 2 were significantly up-regulated in capsaicin-treated epi 4 cells. Our results suggest that functional TRPV1 is expressed by GECs and contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25266715

  14. Mucosal Schwann cell “Hamartoma”: A new entity?

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Paola; Baiocchini, Andrea; Falasca, Laura; Annibali, Dante; Gimbo, Guido; Pace, Francesco; Nonno, Franca Del

    2009-01-01

    Schwannoma is a well-described, benign nerve sheath tumor of the soft tissue, but is rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal schwannomas are often incidentally discovered as small polypoid intraluminal lesions. In this report, we describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of a distinctive neural mucosal polyp composed of a diffuse cellular proliferation of uniform bland spindled cells in the lamina propria that entraps the colonic crypts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong and diffuse positivity for the S-100 protein. To avoid confusion of these solitary colorectal polyps containing pure spindled Schwann cell proliferation in the lamina propria with neural lesions that have significant association with inherited syndromes, it is better to use the designation “mucosal Schwann hamartoma”. PMID:19437573

  15. Induction of duodenal mucosal tumors of intestinal epithelial cell origin showing frequent nuclear β-catenin accumulation similar to the concurrently induced colorectal tumors in rats after treatment with azoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Kikuchihara, Yoh; Onda, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Masayuki; Kangawa, Yumi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogen used for induction of colon tumors in rats and mice. It is also known that AOM treatment induces small bowel tumors in addition to colorectal tumors in rats. The present study examined the histogenesis of AOM-induced rat duodenal tumors in comparison with concurrently induced colorectal tumors by histochemical and immunohistochemical approaches. Duodenal and colorectal tumors were positive for both periodic acid-Schiff reaction and Alcian blue staining. Immunohistochemically, duodenal tumors were positive for intestinal epithelial markers such as cytokeratin (CK) 20 (100%) and mucin (MUC) 2 (91.7%) but negative for pancreaticobiliary markers such as CK7 (100%) and MUC1 (100%). All colorectal tumors were also negative for CK7 and MUC1 but positive for CK20. Eighty percent of colorectal tumors were positive for MUC2. In addition, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was found in duodenal tumors (70.8%), which was similar to colorectal tumors (90.0%). These results indicate that duodenal tumors induced by AOM treatment of rats were derived from intestinal epithelium. Similar to colorectal tumors, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin indicates activation of Wnt signaling as a driving force for tumor progression in AOM-induced duodenal tumors.

  16. Strategies for Preventing Mucosal Cell-Associated HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Kevin J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be transmitted through either cell-free virions or leukocytes harboring intracellular HIV in bodily fluids. In recent years, the early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy leading to virological suppression has resulted in decreased HIV transmission to uninfected partners. Additionally, the efficacy of primary chemoprophylaxis with oral or topical antiretroviral regimens containing tenofovir (with or without emtricitabine) has been demonstrated. However, the efficacy of these approaches may be compromised by suboptimal adherence, decreased drug concentrations in mucosal compartments in women, and genital inflammation. Furthermore, in vitro studies on the effects of tenofovir on cell-associated HIV transmission have produced conflicting results. Preclinical studies suggest that combination preventive approaches may be most effective in stopping the transmission of HIV after mucosal exposure. Since the development of antibodies were found to correlate with protection in the only effective HIV vaccine trial, the administration of preformed mucosal and systemic antibodies may inform the development of safe and effective antibody-based oral, topical, and/or systemic preexposure prophylaxis agents and provide guidance in the development of HIV vaccines that effectively block cell-associated HIV transmission. PMID:25414423

  17. Cross Protective Mucosal Immunity Mediated by Memory Th17 Cells against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Yongli; Li, Wenchao; Tian, Ying; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Weiser, Jeffery N.; Ni, Xin; Shen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) remains a leading cause of serious illness and death worldwide. Immunization with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine has lowered the colonization rate and consequently invasive diseases by inducing serotype-specific antibodies. However, many of current pneumonia cases result from infection by serotype strains not included in the vaccine. In this study, we asked if cross-protection against lung infection by heterologous strains can be induced and investigated the underlying immune mechanism. We found that immune mice recovered from a prior infection were protected against heterologous Sp strains in the pneumonia challenge model, as evident by accelerated bacterial clearance, reduced pathology and apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Sp infection in the lung induced strong Th17 responses at the lung mucosal site. Transfer of CD4+ T cells from immune mice provided heterologous protection against pneumonia, and this protection was abrogated by IL-17A blockade. Transfer of memory CD4+ T cells from IL-17A knockout mice failed to provide protection. These results indicate that memory Th17 cells played a key role in providing protection against pneumonia in a serotype independent manner and suggest the feasibility of developing a broadly protective vaccine against bacterial pneumonia by targeting mucosal Th17 T cells. PMID:27118490

  18. Interleukin-10 prevents epithelial cell apoptosis by regulating IFNγ and TNFα expression in rhesus macaque colon explants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Diganta; Das, Arpita; Lala, Wendy; Kenway-Lynch, Carys S.; Liu, David X.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Pahar, Bapi

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important immunomodulatory cytokine that plays an obligate role in regulating inflammatory responses. Here we demonstrated the role of IL-10 in regulating crypts length and breadth as well as maintaining the survival of epithelial cells using rhesus colon explant cultures. Anti-IL-10 antibody treatment of colon explant cultures induced increased production of inflammatory cytokines/molecules like IFNγ, TNFα, CD107a and perforin as well as increased epithelial cell apoptosis compared to media controls tested. Our results suggest that IL-10 plays a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis by regulating mucosal IFNγ and TNFα cytokine production. PMID:23867612

  19. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Glycosylation of Candida albicans cell wall proteins is critical for induction of innate immune responses and apoptosis of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Jeanette; Weindl, Günther; de Groot, Piet W J; de Boer, Albert D; Kaesler, Susanne; Thavaraj, Selvam; Bader, Oliver; Mailänder-Sanchez, Daniela; Borelli, Claudia; Weig, Michael; Biedermann, Tilo; Naglik, Julian R; Korting, Hans Christian; Schaller, Martin

    2012-01-01

    C. albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing local and superficial mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Given that the key structure mediating host-C. albicans interactions is the fungal cell wall, we aimed to identify features of the cell wall inducing epithelial responses and be associated with fungal pathogenesis. We demonstrate here the importance of cell wall protein glycosylation in epithelial immune activation with a predominant role for the highly branched N-glycosylation residues. Moreover, these glycan moieties induce growth arrest and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Using an in vitro model of oral candidosis we demonstrate, that apoptosis induction by C. albicans wild-type occurs in early stage of infection and strongly depends on intact cell wall protein glycosylation. These novel findings demonstrate that glycosylation of the C. albicans cell wall proteins appears essential for modulation of epithelial immunity and apoptosis induction, both of which may promote fungal pathogenesis in vivo.

  1. Bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Diane S

    2008-08-15

    Bone marrow-derived cells can take on the phenotype of epithelial cells and express epithelial-specific genes in multiple organs. Here, we focus on recent data on the appearance of marrow-derived epithelial cells in the adult lung. These findings have garnered significant skepticism because in most cases marrow-derived epithelial cells are very rare, the marrow cell of origin is not known, the techniques for detection have needed improvement, and there seem to be multiple mechanisms by which this occurs. Recent studies have focused on these concerns. Once these important concerns are addressed, further studies on the function(s) of these cells will need to be performed to determine whether this engraftment has any clinical significance-either beneficial or detrimental.

  2. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Epithelial Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Peter D. Eirew CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: British Columbia Cancer Agency...NUMBER Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0702 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Abstract The mammary epithelium in normal adult female mice contains undifferentiated stem cells with extensive in vivo regenerative and self-renewal

  3. Specific and Efficient Uptake of Surfactant-Free Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanovaccine Vehicles by Mucosal Dendritic Cells in Adult Zebrafish after Bath Immersion.

    PubMed

    Rességuier, Julien; Delaune, Emilie; Coolen, Anne-Line; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Boudinot, Pierre; Le Guellec, Dominique; Verrier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Activation of mucosal immunity is a key milestone for next-generation vaccine development. Biocompatible polymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) are promising vectors and adjuvants for mucosal vaccination. However, their in vivo uptake by mucosae and their biodistribution in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) need to be better understood to optimize mucosal nanovaccine designs. Here, we assessed if APCs are efficiently targeted in a spontaneous manner by surfactant-free poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles (PLA-NPs) after mucosal administration. Combining histology and flow imaging approaches, we describe and quantify the mucosal uptake of 200 nm PLA-NPs in adult zebrafish. Following bath administration, PLA-NPs penetrated and crossed epithelial barriers from all exposed mucosae. In mucosae, PLA-NPs accumulated in APCs, which were identified as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and IgZ(+) B cells in gills and skin. PLA-NP uptake by phagocytes was specific to these cell types, as PLA-NPs were not detected in neutrophils. Importantly, quantitative analyses in gills revealed that DCs take up PLA-NPs with specifically high efficiency. This study shows that surfactant-free PLA-NPs, which display optimal biocompatibility, can spontaneously target DCs with high efficiency in vivo following mucosal administration, and highlights PLA-NPs as powerful platforms for mucosal vaccine delivery in the medical and veterinary fields, and particularly in aquaculture.

  4. Specific and Efficient Uptake of Surfactant-Free Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanovaccine Vehicles by Mucosal Dendritic Cells in Adult Zebrafish after Bath Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Rességuier, Julien; Delaune, Emilie; Coolen, Anne-Line; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Boudinot, Pierre; Le Guellec, Dominique; Verrier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Activation of mucosal immunity is a key milestone for next-generation vaccine development. Biocompatible polymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) are promising vectors and adjuvants for mucosal vaccination. However, their in vivo uptake by mucosae and their biodistribution in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) need to be better understood to optimize mucosal nanovaccine designs. Here, we assessed if APCs are efficiently targeted in a spontaneous manner by surfactant-free poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles (PLA-NPs) after mucosal administration. Combining histology and flow imaging approaches, we describe and quantify the mucosal uptake of 200 nm PLA-NPs in adult zebrafish. Following bath administration, PLA-NPs penetrated and crossed epithelial barriers from all exposed mucosae. In mucosae, PLA-NPs accumulated in APCs, which were identified as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and IgZ+ B cells in gills and skin. PLA-NP uptake by phagocytes was specific to these cell types, as PLA-NPs were not detected in neutrophils. Importantly, quantitative analyses in gills revealed that DCs take up PLA-NPs with specifically high efficiency. This study shows that surfactant-free PLA-NPs, which display optimal biocompatibility, can spontaneously target DCs with high efficiency in vivo following mucosal administration, and highlights PLA-NPs as powerful platforms for mucosal vaccine delivery in the medical and veterinary fields, and particularly in aquaculture. PMID:28289416

  5. Myb permits multilineage airway epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie-hong; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L.; Patel, Anand C.; Huang, Tao; Yozamp, Nicholas S.; Xu, Jian; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Byers, Derek E.; Pierce, Richard A.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium of the pulmonary airway is specially differentiated to provide defense against environmental insults, but also subject to dysregulated differentiation that results in lung disease. The current paradigm for airway epithelial differentiation is a one-step program whereby a p63+ basal epithelial progenitor cell generates a ciliated or secretory cell lineage, but the cue for this transition and whether there are intermediate steps is poorly defined. Here we identify transcription factor Myb as a key regulator that permits early multilineage differentiation of airway epithelial cells. Myb+ cells were identified as p63− and therefore distinct from basal progenitor cells, but were still negative for markers of differentiation. Myb RNAi treatment of primary-culture airway epithelial cells and Myb gene deletion in mice resulted in a p63− population with failed maturation of Foxj1+ ciliated cells, as well as Scbg1a1+ and Muc5ac+ secretory cells. Consistent with these findings, analysis of whole genome expression of Myb-deficient cells identified Myb-dependent programs for ciliated and secretory cell differentiation. Myb+ cells were rare in human airways but were increased in regions of ciliated cells and mucous cell hyperplasia in samples from subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Together, the results show that a p63− Myb+ population of airway epithelial cells represents a distinct intermediate stage of differentiation that is required under normal conditions and may be heightened in airway disease. PMID:25103188

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus Transcytosis through Polarized Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Rossana; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an orally transmitted virus, viral transmission through the oropharyngeal mucosal epithelium is not well understood. In this study, we investigated how EBV traverses polarized human oral epithelial cells without causing productive infection. We found that EBV may be transcytosed through oral epithelial cells bidirectionally, from both the apical to the basolateral membranes and the basolateral to the apical membranes. Apical to basolateral EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by amiloride, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Electron microscopy showed that virions were surrounded by apical surface protrusions and that virus was present in subapical vesicles. Inactivation of signaling molecules critical for macropinocytosis, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, myosin light-chain kinase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, p21-activated kinase 1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6, and cell division control protein 42 homolog, led to significant reduction in EBV apical to basolateral transcytosis. In contrast, basolateral to apical EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by nystatin, an inhibitor of caveolin-mediated virus entry. Caveolae were detected in the basolateral membranes of polarized human oral epithelial cells, and virions were detected in caveosome-like endosomes. Methyl β-cyclodextrin, an inhibitor of caveola formation, reduced EBV basolateral entry. EBV virions transcytosed in either direction were able to infect B lymphocytes. Together, these data show that EBV transmigrates across oral epithelial cells by (i) apical to basolateral transcytosis, potentially contributing to initial EBV penetration that leads to systemic infection, and (ii) basolateral to apical transcytosis, which may enable EBV secretion into saliva in EBV-infected individuals. PMID:23698302

  7. Cigarette smoke impairs airway epithelial barrier function and cell-cell contact recovery.

    PubMed

    Heijink, I H; Brandenburg, S M; Postma, D S; van Oosterhout, A J M

    2012-02-01

    Cigarette smoking, the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), induces aberrant airway epithelial structure and function. The underlying mechanisms are unresolved so far. We studied effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on epithelial barrier function and wound regeneration in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) from COPD patients, nonsmokers and healthy smokers. We demonstrate that CSE rapidly and transiently impairs 16HBE barrier function, largely due to disruption of cell-cell contacts. CSE induced a similar, but stronger and more sustained, defect in PBECs. Application of the specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor AG1478 showed that EGFR activation contributes to the CSE-induced defects in both 16HBE cells and PBECs. Furthermore, our data indicate that the endogenous protease calpain mediates these defects through tight junction protein degradation. CSE also delayed the reconstitution of 16HBE intercellular contacts during wound healing and attenuated PBEC barrier function upon wound regeneration. These findings were comparable between PBECs from smokers, healthy smokers and COPD patients. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that CSE reduces epithelial integrity, probably by EGFR and calpain-dependent disruption of intercellular contacts. This may increase susceptibility to environmental insults, e.g. inhaled pathogens. Thus, EGFR may be a promising target for therapeutic strategies to improve mucosal barrier function in cigarette smoking-related disease.

  8. Effects of spaceflight on the proliferation of jejunal mucosal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.; Moeller, C. L.; Sawyer, Heywood R.; Smirnov, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that the generalized, whole body decrease in synthetic activity due to microgravity conditions encountered during spaceflight would be demonstrable in cells and tissues characterized by a rapid rate of turnover. Jejunal mucosal cells were chosen as a model since these cells are among the most rapidly proliferating in the body. Accordingly, the percentage of mitotic cells present in the crypts of Lieberkuhn in each of 5 rats flown on the COSMOS 2044 mission were compared to the percentage of mitotic cells present in the crypts in rats included in each of 3 ground control groups (i.e., vivarium, synchronous and caudal-elevated). No significant difference (p greater than .05) was detected in mitotic indices between the flight and vivarium group. Although the ability of jejunal mucosal cells to divide by mitosis was not impaired in flight group, there was, however, a reduction in the length of villi and depth of crypts. The concommitant reduction in villus length and crypth depth in the flight group probably reflects changes in connective tissue components within the core of villi.

  9. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Protects the Genital Mucosal Epithelial Barrier from Disruption and Blocks Replication of HIV-1 and HSV-2

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Victor H.; Mueller, Kristen; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a known mechanism that facilitates HIV acquisition and the spread of infection. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, could be used to abrogate inflammatory processes that facilitate HIV-1 acquisition in the female genital tract (FGT) and contribute to HIV amplification. Primary, human genital epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with curcumin and exposed to HIV-1 or HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120), both of which have been shown to disrupt epithelial tight junction proteins, including ZO-1 and occludin. Pre-treatment with curcumin prevented disruption of the mucosal barrier by maintaining ZO-1 and occludin expression and maintained trans-epithelial electric resistance across the genital epithelium. Curcumin pre-treatment also abrogated the gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, which mediate barrier disruption, as well as the chemokines IL-8, RANTES and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), which are capable of recruiting HIV target cells to the FGT. GECs treated with curcumin and exposed to the sexually transmitted co-infecting microbes HSV-1, HSV-2 and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were unable to elicit innate inflammatory responses that indirectly induced activation of the HIV promoter and curcumin blocked Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated induction of HIV replication in chronically infected T-cells. Finally, curcumin treatment resulted in significantly decreased HIV-1 and HSV-2 replication in chronically infected T-cells and primary GECs, respectively. All together, our results suggest that the use of anti-inflammatory compounds such as curcumin may offer a viable alternative for the prevention and/or control of HIV replication in the FGT. PMID:25856395

  10. Intestinal antigen-presenting cells in mucosal immune homeostasis: crosstalk between dendritic cells, macrophages and B-cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, Elizabeth R; Li, Xuhang

    2014-08-07

    The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance of the commensal microbiota. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a breakdown in tolerance towards the microbiota. Dendritic cells (DC), macrophages (MΦ) and B-cells are known as professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) due to their specialization in presenting processed antigen to T-cells, and in turn shaping types of T-cell responses generated. Intestinal DC are migratory cells, unique in their ability to generate primary T-cell responses in mesenteric lymph nodes or Peyer's patches, whilst MΦ and B-cells contribute to polarization and differentiation of secondary T-cell responses in the gut lamina propria. The antigen-sampling function of gut DC and MΦ enables them to sample bacterial antigens from the gut lumen to determine types of T-cell responses generated. The primary function of intestinal B-cells involves their secretion of large amounts of immunoglobulin A, which in turn contributes to epithelial barrier function and limits immune responses towards to microbiota. Here, we review the role of all three types of APC in intestinal immunity, both in the steady state and in inflammation, and how these cells interact with one another, as well as with the intestinal microenvironment, to shape mucosal immune responses. We describe mechanisms of maintaining intestinal immune tolerance in the steady state but also inappropriate responses of APC to components of the gut microbiota that contribute to pathology in IBD.

  11. Intestinal antigen-presenting cells in mucosal immune homeostasis: Crosstalk between dendritic cells, macrophages and B-cells

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Elizabeth R; Li, Xuhang

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance of the commensal microbiota. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a breakdown in tolerance towards the microbiota. Dendritic cells (DC), macrophages (MΦ) and B-cells are known as professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) due to their specialization in presenting processed antigen to T-cells, and in turn shaping types of T-cell responses generated. Intestinal DC are migratory cells, unique in their ability to generate primary T-cell responses in mesenteric lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches, whilst MΦ and B-cells contribute to polarization and differentiation of secondary T-cell responses in the gut lamina propria. The antigen-sampling function of gut DC and MΦ enables them to sample bacterial antigens from the gut lumen to determine types of T-cell responses generated. The primary function of intestinal B-cells involves their secretion of large amounts of immunoglobulin A, which in turn contributes to epithelial barrier function and limits immune responses towards to microbiota. Here, we review the role of all three types of APC in intestinal immunity, both in the steady state and in inflammation, and how these cells interact with one another, as well as with the intestinal microenvironment, to shape mucosal immune responses. We describe mechanisms of maintaining intestinal immune tolerance in the steady state but also inappropriate responses of APC to components of the gut microbiota that contribute to pathology in IBD. PMID:25110405

  12. Purification of kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, R W; Böhlen, P; Fava, R; Baldwin, J H; Kleeman, G; Armour, R

    1980-01-01

    Two high molecular weight growth inhibitors have been isolated from the culture medium of BSC-1 cells, epithelial cells of African green monkey kidney. The purified kidney epithelial cell growth inhibitors, at ng/ml concentrations, reversibly arrest the growth of BSC-1 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Their action is selective; they are most active on BSC-1 cells, are less active as inhibitors of the growth of rat lung and human breast epithelial cells, and do not inhibit the growth of 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts ad human skin fibroblasts in culture. Their growth inhibitory action on BSC-1 cell cultures is counteracted by epidermal growth factor or calf serum. PMID:6969400

  13. Measuring antimicrobial peptide activity on epithelial surfaces in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Gill; Yim, Sunghan; Rigo, Isaura; McMahon, Laura

    2009-01-01

    To more accurately assess the activity and role of epithelial-cell derived antimicrobial peptides in their native settings, it is essential to perform assays at the surfaces under relevant conditions. In order to carry this out, we utilize 3-dimensional cultures of airway and gingival epithelium, which are grown at an air-liquid interface. Under these conditions, the cultures can be subjected to challenge with a variety of factors known to cause an increase in antimicrobial peptide gene expression. The functional relevance of this induction can then be assessed by quantifying antibacterial activity either directly on the surface of the cells or using the fluid secreted onto the apical surface of the cultures. The relative contribution of the peptides can also be measured by pre-incubation of the secreted fluid with specific inhibitory antibodies. Thus, a relatively inexpensive in vitro model can be used to evaluate the role of antimicrobial peptides in mucosal epithelium. PMID:20094876

  14. Cell Division Drives Epithelial Cell Rearrangements during Gastrulation in Chick.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Joao; Rocancourt, Didier; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Moreau, Chloe; Gros, Jerome

    2016-02-08

    During early embryonic development, cells are organized as cohesive epithelial sheets that are continuously growing and remodeled without losing their integrity, giving rise to a wide array of tissue shapes. Here, using live imaging in chick embryo, we investigate how epithelial cells rearrange during gastrulation. We find that cell division is a major rearrangement driver that powers dramatic epithelial cell intercalation events. We show that these cell division-mediated intercalations, which represent the majority of epithelial rearrangements within the early embryo, are absolutely necessary for the spatial patterning of gastrulation movements. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these intercalation events result from overall low cortical actomyosin accumulation within the epithelial cells of the embryo, which enables dividing cells to remodel junctions in their vicinity. These findings uncover a role for cell division as coordinator of epithelial growth and remodeling that might underlie various developmental, homeostatic, or pathological processes in amniotes.

  15. Rebamipide, a novel antiulcer agent, attenuates Helicobacter pylori induced gastric mucosal cell injury associated with neutrophil derived oxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, M; Miura, S; Mori, M; Kai, A; Suzuki, H; Fukumura, D; Suematsu, M; Tsuchiya, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of rebamipide, a novel antiulcer compound, on Helicobacter pylori activated neutrophil dependent in vitro gastric epithelial cell injury was investigated. Luminol dependent chemiluminescence (ChL), which detects toxic oxidants from neutrophils exhibited a 12-fold increase when the bacterial suspension of H pylori was added to the isolated human neutrophils. This change was significantly attenuated by rebamipide at a concentration less than 1 mM, showing that rebamipide may inhibit oxidant production from H pylori elicited neutrophils. To assess whether rebamipide attenuates gastric mucosal injury, we tested its inhibitory action on H pylori induced gastric mucosal damage associated with neutrophils in vitro. Rabbit gastric mucosal cells were monolayered in culture wells and coincubated with human neutrophils and H pylori, and the cytotoxicity index was then calculated. Cultured gastric cells were significantly damaged when they were incubated with human neutrophils activated by H pylori. This cellular damage was attenuated by rebamipide in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, spectrophotometrical measurement showed that rebamipide (1 mM) inhibits urease activity by 21.7%. As monochloramine (an oxidant yielded by reaction of neutrophil derived chlorinated oxidant and ammonia) is proposed as an important toxic molecule in this model, the current findings suggest that the preventive effect of rebamipide on H pylori elicited neutrophil induced gastric mucosal injury may result from its inhibitory actions on the neutrophilic oxidative burst as well as H pylori derived urease activity. PMID:7959190

  16. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hegan, Peter S; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M; Mooseker, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost.

  17. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hegan, Peter S.; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M.; Mooseker, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost. PMID:26446290

  18. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed.

  19. Control of lens epithelial cell survival

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the survival requirements of developing lens epithelial cells to test the hypothesis that most cells are programmed to kill themselves unless they are continuously signaled by other cells not to do so. The lens cells survived for weeks in both explant cultures and high-density dissociated cell cultures in the absence of other cells or added serum or protein, suggesting that they do not require signals from other cell types to survive. When cultured at low density, however, they died by apoptosis, suggesting that they depend on other lens epithelial cells for their survival. Lens epithelial cells cultured at high density in agarose gels also survived for weeks, even though they were not in direct contact with one another, suggesting that they can promote one another's survival in the absence of cell- cell contact. Conditioned medium from high density cultures promoted the survival of cells cultured at low density, suggesting that lens epithelial cells support one another's survival by secreting survival factors. We show for the first time that normal cell death occurs within the anterior epithelium in the mature lens, but this death is strictly confined to the region of the anterior suture. PMID:8491781

  20. Growth requirements of human mammary epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Papadimitriou, J; Shearer, M; Stoker, M G

    1977-12-15

    Colony-forming epithelial cells can be separated from the non-dividing "foam cells" in human milk by differential adhesion to glass and freezing. The growth of such partially purified mammary epithelial cells is stimulated by co-culture with non-dividing feeder cells. Foam cells, mitomycin-treated mouse fibroblast lines and human mammary fibroblasts and calf lens epithelial cells are all effective in promoting mammary epithelial cell growth. Contact between epithelial cells and feeders is not required for the growth-promoting effect. The mitogenic effect of epidermal growth factor on mammary epithelial cells also requires feeder cell activity.

  1. Mucin gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Buisine, M; Desreumaux, P; Leteurtre, E; Copin, M; Colombel, J; Porchet, N; Aubert, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. It is characterised by chronic mucosal ulcerations which affect any part of the intestine but most commonly are found in the ileum and proximal colon.
AIMS—Studies were undertaken to provide information regarding cell specific expression of mucin genes in the ileum of patients with CD.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—Expression of mucin genes was analysed in the ileal mucosa of patients with CD and controls by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS—In healthy ileal mucosa, patients with CD showed a pattern identical to normal controls with main expression of MUC2 and MUC3, lesser expression of MUC1 and MUC4, and no expression of MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, or MUC7. In the involved mucosa, the pattern was somewhat comparable although heterogeneous to that observed in healthy ileal mucosa. Importantly, a particular mucin gene expression pattern was observed in ileal mucosa close to the ulcer margins in ulcer associated cell lineage, with the appearance of MUC5AC and MUC6 mRNAs and peptides, which are normally restricted to the stomach (MUC5AC and MUC6) and duodenum (MUC6), and disappearance of MUC2.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results suggest that gel forming mucins (more particularly MUC5AC and MUC6) may have a role in epithelial wound healing after mucosal injury in inflammatory bowel diseases in addition to mucosal protection.


Keywords: mucins; MUC genes; Crohn's disease; ulcer associated cell lineage PMID:11559653

  2. Inducible expression of an antibiotic peptide gene in lipopolysaccharide-challenged tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, G; Russell, J P; Bevins, C L

    1996-01-01

    Mammals continually confront microbes at mucosal surfaces. A current model suggests that epithelial cells contribute to defense at these sites, in part through the production of broad-spectrum antibiotic peptides. Previous studies have shown that invertebrates can mount a host defense response characterized by the induction in epithelia] cells of a variety of antibiotic proteins and peptides when they are challenged with microorganisms, bacterial cell wall/membrane components, or traumatic injury [Boman, H.G. & Hultmark, D. (1987) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41, 103-126J. However, factors that govern the expression of similar defense molecules in mammalian epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, a 13-fold induction of the endogenous gene encoding tracheal antimicrobial peptide was found to characterize a host response of tracheal epithelia] cells (TECs) exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Northern blot data indicated that TECs express CD14, a well-characterized LPS-binding protein known to mediate many LPS responses. A monoclonal antibody to CD14 blocked the observed tracheal antimicrobial peptide induction by LPS under serum-free conditions. Together the data support that CD14 of epithelial cell origin mediates the LPS induction of an antibiotic peptide gene in TECs, providing evidence for the active participation of epithelial cells in the host's local defense response to bacteria. Furthermore, the data allude to a conservation of this host response in evolution and suggest that a similar inducible pathway of host defense is prevalent at mucosal surfaces of mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643545

  3. Irsogladine maleate regulates gap junctional intercellular communication-dependent epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The airway epithelium of the human nasal mucosa acts as the first physical barrier that protects against inhaled substances and pathogens. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors via upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC is thought to participate in the formation of functional tight junctions. However, the effects of IM on GJIC and the epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the effects of IM on GJIC and the tight junctional barrier in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with IM and the GJIC inhibitors oleamide and 18β-GA. Some cells were pretreated with IM before treatment with TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) to examine whether IM prevented the changes via TLR3-mediated signal pathways. In hTERT-HNECs, GJIC blockers reduced the expression of tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A. IM induced GJIC activity and enhanced the expression of claudin-1, -4, and JAM-A at the protein and mRNA levels with an increase of barrier function. GJIC blockers prevented the increase of the tight junction proteins induced by IM. Furthermore, IM prevented the reduction of JAM-A but not induction of IL-8 and TNF-α induced by poly(I:C). In conclusion, IM can maintain the GJIC-dependent tight junctional barrier via regulation of GJIC in upper airway nasal epithelium. Therefore, it is possible that IM may be useful as a nasal spray to prevent the disruption of the epithelial barrier by viral infections and exposure to allergens in human nasal mucosa.

  4. Plasma cell mucositis with gingival enlargement and severe periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini R.; Gupta, Rajiva; Saran, Ravindra K.; Krishnan, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell mucositis (PCM) is a very rare, chronic, multifocal, idiopathic, non-neoplastic plasma cell proliferative disorder of the upper aerodigestive tract. The classic clinical presentation is an intensely erythematous mucosa with surface changes described variously as papillomatous, cobblestone, nodular or velvety. It is a very rare condition <50 cases reported in literature. A 72-year-old male patient complained of sore throat, stomatodynia, dysphagia, multiple oral ulcers, enlarged swollen bleeding gums and mobile teeth. There was chronic inflammatory enlargement of the gingiva and palate with severe periodontitis. Histopathological examination revealed a hyperplastic epithelium with a dense infiltrate of mature polyclonal plasma cells in the superficial layer of the lamina propria. PCM is a diagnosis of exclusion, to be differentiated from other infective, reactive, autoimmune, allergic and neoplastic disorders with plasma cell infiltrates. Management with surgical and immunosuppressive therapy is mostly ineffective with short remissions and frequent relapses. PMID:25024555

  5. Microplicae--Specialized Surface Structure of Epithelial Cells of Wet-Surfaced Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, P; Sirviö, E; Mikkonen, J J W; Singh, S P; Schulten, E A J M; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Koistinen, A P; Kullaa, A M

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa is decorated with numerous membrane ridges, termed microplicae (MPLs). The MPL structure is typical of the epithelial surfaces that are covered with protective mucus. Cell membrane MPLs are no longer seen as passive consequences of cellular activity. The interaction between MPLs and the mucins has been demonstrated, however the role of MPL structure seen on the upper surface of the oral epithelial cells is speculative. The cell surface is of potentially great significance, as it harbors many markers for refined prognosis and targets for oral mucosal diseases and cancer therapy. With these aspects in mind, we conducted the present review of the MPL structure and function in order to form the basis for further studies of MPLs of the oral epithelial cells.

  6. Activation of rat intestinal mucosal mast cells by fat absorption.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yong; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Yang, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Min; Yoder, Stephanie; Langhans, Wolfgang; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have linked certain types of gut mucosal immune cells with fat intake. We determined whether fat absorption activates intestinal mucosal mast cells (MMC), a key component of the gut mucosal immune system. Conscious intestinal lymph fistula rats were used. The mesenteric lymph ducts were cannulated, and the intraduodenal (i.d.) tubes were installed for the infusion of Liposyn II 20% (an intralipid emulsion). Lymphatic concentrations of histamine, rat MMC protease II (RMCPII), a specific marker of rat intestinal MMC degranulation, and prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) were measured by ELISA. Intestinal MMC degranulation was visualized by immunofluorescent microscopy of jejunum sections taken at 1 h after Liposyn II gavage. Intraduodenal bolus infusion of Liposyn II 20% (4.4 kcal/3 ml) induced approximately a onefold increase in lymphatic histamine and PGD(2), ∼20-fold increase in lymphatic RMCPII, but only onefold increase in peripheral serum RMCPII concentrations. Release of RMCPII into lymph increased dose dependently with the amount of lipid fed. In addition, i.d. infusion of long-chain triacylglycerol trilinolein (C18:2 n-6, the major composite in Liposyn II) significantly increased the lymphatic RMCPII concentration, whereas medium-chain triacylglycerol tricaprylin (C8:0) did not alter lymph RMCPII secretion. Immunohistochemistry image revealed the degranulation of MMC into lamina propria after lipid feeding. These novel findings indicate that intestinal MMC are activated and degranulate to release MMC mediators to the circulation during fat absorption. This action of fatty acid is dose and chain length dependent.

  7. Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in adult liver cells.

    PubMed

    Sicklick, Jason K; Choi, Steve S; Bustamante, Marcia; McCall, Shannon J; Pérez, Elizabeth Hernández; Huang, Jiawen; Li, Yin-Xiong; Rojkind, Marcos; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2006-10-01

    Both myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and hepatic epithelial progenitors accumulate in damaged livers. In some injured organs, the ability to distinguish between fibroblastic and epithelial cells is sometimes difficult because cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). During EMT, cells coexpress epithelial and mesenchymal cell markers. To determine whether EMT occurs in adult liver cells, we analyzed the expression profile of primary HSC, two HSC lines, and hepatic epithelial progenitors. As expected, all HSC expressed HSC markers. Surprisingly, these markers were also expressed by epithelial progenitors. In addition, one HSC line expressed typical epithelial progenitor mRNAs, and these epithelial markers were inducible in the second HSC line. In normal and damaged livers, small ductular-type cells stained positive for an HSC marker. In conclusion, HSC and hepatic epithelial progenitors both coexpress epithelial and mesenchymal markers, providing evidence that EMT occurs in adult liver cells.

  8. Epithelial stem cells and intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawna; Barker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian intestine is comprised of an epithelial layer that serves multiple functions in order to maintain digestive activity as well as intestinal homeostasis. This epithelial layer contains highly proliferative stem cells which facilitate its characteristic rapid regeneration. How these stem cells contribute to tissue repair and normal homeostasis are actively studied, and while we have a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cellular locations that underlie stem cell regulation in this tissue, much still remains undiscovered. This review describes epithelial stem cells in both intestinal and non-intestinal tissues, as well as the strategies that have been used to further characterize the cells. Through a discussion of the current understanding of intestinal self-renewal and tissue regeneration in response to injury, we focus on how dysregulation of critical signaling pathways results in potentially oncogenic aberrations, and highlight issues that should be addressed in order for effective intestinal cancer therapies to be devised.

  9. Epithelial cell extrusion: Pathways and pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gudipaty, Swapna Aravind; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2016-05-19

    To remove dying or unwanted cells from an epithelium while preserving the barrier function of the layer, epithelia use a unique process called cell extrusion. To extrude, the cell fated to die emits the lipid Sphingosine 1 Phosphate (S1P), which binds the G-protein-coupled receptor Sphingosine 1 Phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) in the neighboring cells that activates Rho-mediated contraction of an actomyosin ring circumferentially and basally. This contraction acts to squeeze the cell out apically while drawing together neighboring cells and preventing any gaps to the epithelial barrier. Epithelia can extrude out cells targeted to die by apoptotic stimuli to repair the barrier in the face of death or extrude live cells to promote cell death when epithelial cells become too crowded. Indeed, because epithelial cells naturally turn over by cell death and division at some of the highest rates in the body, epithelia depend on crowding-induced live cell extrusion to preserve constant cell numbers. If extrusion is defective, epithelial cells rapidly lose contact inhibition and form masses. Additionally, because epithelia act as the first line of defense in innate immunity, preservation of this barrier is critical for preventing pathogens from invading the body. Given its role in controlling constant cell numbers and maintaining barrier function, a number of different pathologies can result when extrusion is disrupted. Here, we review mechanisms and signaling pathways that control epithelial extrusion and discuss how defects in these mechanisms can lead to multiple diseases. We also discuss tactics pathogens have devised to hijack the extrusion process to infect and colonize epithelia.

  10. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Increases Aquaporin 3 Expression in Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Ahn, Kyuyoun; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-12-01

    Water channel aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is an aquaglyceroporin that transports small neutral solutes and water. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a member of the retinoid drug class, acts as a regulator in several biological processes. To investigate the effect of ATRA on the expression of AQP3 in human vaginal epithelial cells. Human vaginal mucosal epithelial cells (CRL2616) were treated with ATRA 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μmol/L for 24 hours to examine the dose-dependent effects of ATRA and with ATRA 1 μmol/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. The expression of AQP3 and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) was determined by western blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. AQP3 was detected in the cell membrane of human vaginal epithelial cells. ATRA increased the protein expression and mRNA levels of AQP3 in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05). ATRA also increased the protein expression of RARα (P < .05). Treatment of CRL2616 cells with an RAR antagonist (Ro 41-5253) significantly decreased AQP3 protein expression (P < .05). ATRA mediated by RARα increased AQP3 gene and protein expression in human vaginal mucosal epithelial cells. These results imply that AQP3 regulated by ATRA could play an important role in the mechanism of vaginal lubrication. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Barrier Epithelial Cells and the Control of Type 2 Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2015-07-21

    Type-2-cell-mediated immunity, rich in eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, CD4(+) T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), protects the host from helminth infection but also drives chronic allergic diseases like asthma and atopic dermatitis. Barrier epithelial cells (ECs) represent the very first line of defense and express pattern recognition receptors to recognize type-2-cell-mediated immune insults like proteolytic allergens or helminths. These ECs mount a prototypical response made up of chemokines, innate cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), as well as the alarmins uric acid, ATP, HMGB1, and S100 proteins. These signals program dendritic cells (DCs) to mount Th2-cell-mediated immunity and in so doing boost ILC2, basophil, and mast cell function. Here we review the general mechanisms of how different stimuli trigger type-2-cell-mediated immunity at mucosal barriers and how this leads to protection or disease.

  12. Loss of ADAM17-Mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Intestinal Cells Attenuates Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjia; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Xiao, Weidong; Ralls, Matthew W.; Stoeck, Alex; Wilson, Carole L.; Raines, Elaine W.

    2015-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is commonly used clinically to sustain patients; however, TPN is associated with profound mucosal atrophy, which may adversely affect clinical outcomes. Using a mouse TPN model, removing enteral nutrition leads to decreased crypt proliferation, increased intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis and increased mucosal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression that ultimately produces mucosal atrophy. Upregulation of TNF-α signaling plays a central role in mediating TPN-induced mucosal atrophy without intact epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Currently, the mechanism and the tissue-specific contributions of TNF-α signaling to TPN-induced mucosal atrophy remain unclear. ADAM17 is an ectodomain sheddase that can modulate the signaling activity of several cytokine/growth factor receptor families, including the TNF-α/TNF receptor and ErbB ligand/EGFR pathways. Using TPN-treated IEC-specific ADAM17-deficient mice, the present study demonstrates that a loss of soluble TNF-α signaling from IECs attenuates TPN-induced mucosal atrophy. Importantly, this response remains dependent on the maintenance of functional EGFR signaling in IECs. TNF-α blockade in wild-type mice receiving TPN confirmed that soluble TNF-α signaling is responsible for downregulation of EGFR signaling in IECs. These results demonstrate that ADAM17-mediated TNF-α signaling from IECs has a significant role in the development of the proinflammatory state and mucosal atrophy observed in TPN-treated mice. PMID:26283731

  13. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in clinical diseases.

    PubMed

    Reantragoon, Rangsima; Boonpattanaporn, Norasate; Corbett, Alexandra Jane; McCluskey, James

    2016-03-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that recognize microbial infection via vitamin metabolites. The discovery of MAIT cells in the past two decades and the recent discovery of MR1 ligands has opened a new field and potential area for cellular immunotherapy using these unique cells. Their evolutionary conservation in mammals underscore their biological role in the host. In the past two years, we have been involved in the generation of MR1 tetramers as a tool for identification of these cells. Many groups have studied the role of these cells in clinical diseases. Here, we provide an up-to-date comprehensive review of clinical disease that have been studied with regards to MAIT cells. Original articles and review articles under the topic of MAIT cells and their relation to clinical diseases, both in human and animal models were included in the review. MAIT cells are potential candidates for future cellular immunotherapy. However, more understanding of the biological role of MAIT cells need to be elucidated first.

  14. A blockade of complement activation prevents rapid intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury by modulating mucosal mast cell degranulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, T; Andoh, A; Fujiyama, Y; Saotome, T; Bamba, T

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to define the putative role of complement activation in association with mucosal mast cell (MMC) degranulation in the pathogenesis of rapid intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We prepared complement activity-depleted rats by the administration of the anti-complement agent K-76COOH and the serine-protease inhibitor FUT-175. Autoperfused segments of the jejunum were exposed to 60 min of ischaemia, followed by reperfusion for various time periods, and the epithelial permeability was assessed by the 51Cr-EDTA clearance rate. The number of MMC was immunohistochemically assessed. In control rats, the maximal increase in mucosal permeability was achieved by 30–45 min of reperfusion. This increase was significantly attenuated by the administration of either K-76COONa alone or in combination with FUT-175. In contrast, the administration of carboxypeptidase inhibitor (CPI), which prevents the inactivation of complement-derived anaphylatoxins such as C5a, significantly enhanced the increase in I/R-induced mucosal permeability. These findings were confirmed morphologically by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the I/R-induced mucosal injury was accompanied by a marked decrease in the number of MMC, and administration of K-76COOH significantly inhibited this change. These results indicate that complement activation and the generation of complement-derived anaphylatoxins are key events in I/R-induced mucosal injury. It is likely that intestinal I/R-induced mucosal injury may be partially mediated by MMC activation associated with the complement activation. PMID:9528887

  15. Deciphering the Complex Signaling Systems That Regulate Intestinal Epithelial Cell Death Processes and Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Angela M.; Watson, Alastair J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis. Shedding of intestinal cells in a controlled manner is critical to maintenance of barrier function. Barrier function is maintained during this shedding process by a redistribution of tight junctional proteins to facilitate closure of the gap left by the shedding cell. However, despite the obvious importance of epithelial cell shedding to gut health, a central question is how the extrusion of epithelial cells is achieved, enabling barrier integrity to be maintained in the healthy gut and restored during inflammation remains largely unanswered. Recent studies have provided evidence that excessive epithelial cell shedding and loss of epithelial barrier integrity is triggered by exposure to lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Subsequent studies have provided evidence of the involvement of specific cellular components and signaling mechanisms as well as the functionality of microbiota that can be either detrimental or beneficial for intestinal barrier integrity. This review will focus on the evidence and decipher how the signaling systems through which the mucosal immune system and microbiota can regulate epithelial cell shedding and how these mechanisms interact to preserve the viability of the epithelium. PMID:28769935

  16. HIV-1-infected blood mononuclear cells form an integrin- and agrin-dependent viral synapse to induce efficient HIV-1 transcytosis across epithelial cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Alfsen, Annette; Yu, Huifeng; Magérus-Chatinet, Aude; Schmitt, Alain; Bomsel, Morgane

    2005-09-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin and adhesion molecules are key players in the formation of neuronal and immune synapses that evolved for efficient communication at the sites of cell-cell contact. Transcytosis of infectious virus across epithelial cells upon contact between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal pole of the epithelial cells is one mechanism for HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites. In contrast, transcytosis of cell-free HIV-1 is not efficient. A synapse between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal epithelial surface that resembles neuronal and immune synapses is visualized by electron microscopy. We have termed this the "viral synapse." Similarities of the viral synapse also extend to the functional level. HIV-1-infected cell-induced transcytosis depends on RGD-dependent integrins and efficient cell-free virus transcytosis is inducible upon RGD-dependent integrin cross-linking. Agrin appears differentially expressed at the apical epithelial surface and acts as an HIV-1 attachment receptor. Envelope glycoprotein subunit gp41 binds specifically to agrin, reinforcing the interaction of gp41 to its epithelial receptor galactosyl ceramide.

  17. HIV-1-infected Blood Mononuclear Cells Form an Integrin- and Agrin-dependent Viral Synapse to Induce Efficient HIV-1 Transcytosis across Epithelial Cell Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Alfsen, Annette; Yu, Huifeng; Magérus-Chatinet, Aude; Schmitt, Alain; Bomsel, Morgane

    2005-01-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin and adhesion molecules are key players in the formation of neuronal and immune synapses that evolved for efficient communication at the sites of cell-cell contact. Transcytosis of infectious virus across epithelial cells upon contact between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal pole of the epithelial cells is one mechanism for HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites. In contrast, transcytosis of cell-free HIV-1 is not efficient. A synapse between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal epithelial surface that resembles neuronal and immune synapses is visualized by electron microscopy. We have termed this the “viral synapse.” Similarities of the viral synapse also extend to the functional level. HIV-1-infected cell-induced transcytosis depends on RGD-dependent integrins and efficient cell-free virus transcytosis is inducible upon RGD-dependent integrin cross-linking. Agrin appears differentially expressed at the apical epithelial surface and acts as an HIV-1 attachment receptor. Envelope glycoprotein subunit gp41 binds specifically to agrin, reinforcing the interaction of gp41 to its epithelial receptor galactosyl ceramide. PMID:15975901

  18. Epithelial cell-extracellular matrix interactions and stem cells in airway epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Coraux, Christelle; Roux, Jacqueline; Jolly, Thomas; Birembaut, Philippe

    2008-08-15

    In healthy subjects, the respiratory epithelium forms a continuous lining to the airways and to the environment, and plays a unique role as a barrier against external deleterious agents to protect the airways from the insults. In respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, or asthma, the airway epithelium is frequently remodeled and injured, leading to the impairment of its defense functions. The rapid restoration of the epithelial barrier is crucial for these patients. The complete regeneration of the airway epithelium is a complex phenomenon, including not only the epithelial wound repair but also the epithelial differentiation to reconstitute a fully well differentiated and functional epithelium. The regeneration implies two partners: the epithelial stem/progenitor cells and factors able to regulate this process. Among these factors, epithelial cells-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a crucial role. The secretion of a provisional ECM, the cell-ECM relationships through epithelial receptors, and the remodeling of the ECM by proteases (mainly matrix metalloproteinases) contribute not only to airway epithelial repair by modulating epithelial cell migration and proliferation, but also to the differentiation of repairing cells leading to the complete restoration of the wounded epithelium. A better characterization of resident stem cells and of effectors of the regeneration process is an essential prerequisite to propose new regenerative therapeutics to patients suffering from infectious/inflammatory respiratory diseases.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Amedee, Angela M; Albritton, Hannah L; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L; Schust, Danny J; Quayle, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Amedee, Angela M.; Albritton, Hannah L.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L.; Schust, Danny J.; Quayle, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition. PMID:26730599

  1. Epithelial: lamina propria lymphocyte interactions promote epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Stephanie; Roda, Giulia; Pinn, David; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Kamalu, Okebugwu; Martin, Andrea P.; Mayer, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Lymphoepithelial interactions in the gut can occur in the epithelium and the sub-epithelial space. We asked whether Normal, Crohn’s Disease (CD) or Ulcerative colitis (UC) lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) could promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth and differentiation. Methods T84 cells were co-cultured with freshly isolated LPL for varying periods. After removal of LPL, IECs were lysed and subjected to i) measurement of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity; ii) Western blot analysis for MAPK and Akt activation; and iii) Real Time-PCR to assess CDX2 mRNA levels. Tissue sections were immunostained for evidence of MAPK and PI3K activation, CDX2 and IAP; and CDX2 mRNA expression was assessed on human colonic biopsies. Results IAP activity was increased in T84 cells co-cultured for 8 days with Normal LPL (p<0.05), and even greater with CD LPL (p<0.001). Crypt IECs in active CD mucosa expressed IAP ex vivo. Phospho-MAPK (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and phospho-Akt were seen as early as 30 min after co-culture. MAPK activation was greatest in T84 cells co-cultured with CD LPL. There was a specific increase in P-p38 MAPK and P-Akt staining in the nuclei of crypt IECs in active vs inactive CD, normal mucosa and UC mucosa. CDX2 mRNA expression was increased in CD LPL co-cultured T84 cells which not correlated with the CDX2 protein localization ex vivo. Conclusion Our observations indicate that there is crosstalk between LPL and IECs, which leads to IEC differentiation. Moreover, in CD mucosa, the differentiation of IEC is accelerated. PMID:18045591

  2. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  3. Mistletoe lectin modulates intestinal epithelial cell-derived cytokines and B cell IgA secretion.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Su-Yun; Park, Won-Bong

    2009-03-01

    A galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA), which is known for its anti-cancer activity, was isolated from Korean mistletoe. In this study, IEC-6 rat intestinal epithelial cells and IM-9 human B-cells were cultured to determine the effect of VCA on cytokine and immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IEC-6 cells, VCA significantly shifted the interleukin (IL)-2, IL-5, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion toward a more immunostimulatory response. Since intestinal epithelial cell-derived secretions may be capable of affecting local B cell Ig production in a variety of ways, we mimicked this condition by deriving a 2-day culture supernatant from IEC-6 cell line which was treated VCA in the presence or absence of LPS, and adding these supernatants to cultures of IM-9 human B cells. As a result, IgA secretion was significantly enhanced at in the presence of VCA at 10(-8)-10(-4) microg/mL. This study suggests that cytokines derived from IEC by VCA may create an environment which may contribute to the enhancement of IgA secretion seen in mucosal tissues. Overall, the induction of cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells, and IgA in B cells by Korean mistletoe lectin could indicate an enhanced immunosurveillance to prevent intestinal infections or other intestinal pathologies.

  4. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  5. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  6. Aberrant mucosal mast cell protease expression in the enteric epithelium of nematode-infected mice lacking the integrin alphavbeta6, a transforming growth factor-beta1 activator.

    PubMed

    Knight, Pamela A; Brown, Jeremy K; Wright, Steven H; Thornton, Elisabeth M; Pate, Judith A; Miller, Hugh R P

    2007-10-01

    Infection of mice with the nematode Trichinella spiralis triggers recruitment and differentiation of intraepithelial intestinal mucosal mast cells expressing mouse mast cell protease 1 (Mcpt-1), which contributes to expulsion of the parasite. Expression of Mcpt-1 is transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-dependent in vitro. TGF-beta1, which is secreted within tissues as a biologically inactive complex with latency-associated peptide, requires extracellular modification to become functionally active. The integrin-alpha(nu)beta(6) mediates local activation of TGF-beta(1) in association with epithelia. Using T. spiralis-infected beta(6)(-/-) mice, we show accumulation of mucosal mast cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine with minimal recruitment into the epithelial compartment. This was accompanied by a coordinate reduction in expression of both Mcpt-1 and -2 in the jejunum and increased tryptase expression, whereas Mcpt-9 became completely undetectable. In contrast, the cytokine stem cell factor, a regulator of mast cell differentiation and survival, was significantly up-regulated in T. spiralis-infected beta(6)(-/-) mice compared with infected beta(6)(+/+) controls. Despite these changes, beta(6)(-/-) mice still appeared to expel the worms normally. We postulate that compromised TGF-beta(1) activation within the gastrointestinal epithelial compartment is a major, but not the only, contributing factor to the observed changes in mucosal mast cell protease and epithelial cytokine expression in beta(6)(-/-) mice.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor is the most potent endogenous stimulant of rabbit gastric epithelial cell proliferation and migration in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, M; Ota, S; Shimada, T; Hamada, E; Kawabe, T; Okudaira, T; Matsumura, M; Kaneko, N; Terano, A; Nakamura, T

    1995-01-01

    Various growth factors are suggested to be involved in gastric mucosal repair. Our previous studies have shown that exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a proliferative effect on gastric epithelial cells. In the present study, comparison of the maximum proliferative effects and the optimum concentrations of several growth factors revealed that HGF was the most potent mitogen for gastric epithelial cells, as is the case for hepatocytes. Restitution of gastric epithelial cell monolayers was assessed using a round wound restitution model. HGF was the most effective agent for facilitating gastric epithelial restitution among those tested. A binding assay revealed specific binding of HGF to its receptor on gastric epithelial cells. Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of specific HGF receptor mRNA (c-met) by gastric epithelial cells but not by gastric fibroblasts. To investigate endogenous HGF production, we determined the effect of gastric fibroblast-conditioned medium on epithelial proliferation and restitution. The conditioned medium produced similar effects to HGF and its activity was neutralized by an anti-HGF antibody. In addition, expression of HGF mRNA was detected in gastric fibroblasts but not in gastric epithelial cells. Our immunohistochemical study confirmed these in vitro data by means of demonstrating the existence and localization of HGF at human native gastric mucosa. HGF was localized at fibroblasts under the epithelial cell layer around gastric ulcers. These results suggest that HGF may be a potent endogenous promotor of gastric epithelial cell proliferation and migration, and may contribute to gastric mucosal repair through a paracrine mechanism. Images PMID:7738166

  8. Rebamipide suppresses PolyI:C-stimulated cytokine production in human conjunctival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Mayumi; Sotozono, Chie; Yokoi, Norihiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2013-09-01

    We previously documented that ocular surface epithelial cells could regulate ocular surface inflammation and suggested that, while Toll-like receptor 3 upregulates, EP3, one of the prostaglandin E2 receptors, downregulates ocular surface inflammation. Others reported that rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, could not only increase the gastric mucus production, but also suppressed gastric mucosal inflammation and that it was dominantly distributed in mucosal tissues. The eyedrop form of rebamipide, approved in Japan for use in the treatment of dry eye diseases, upregulates mucin secretion and production, thereby suppressing superficial punctate keratopathy on the ocular surface of patients with this disease. In the current study, we investigated whether rebamipide has anti- inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. To examine the effects of rebamipide on polyI:C-induced cytokine expression by primary human conjunctival epithelial cells, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. We studied the effects of rebamipide on ocular surface inflammation in our murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) model. Rebamipide could suppress polyI:C-induced cytokine production and the expression of mRNAs for CXCL10, CXCL11, RANTES, MCP-1, and IL-6 in human conjunctival epithelial cells. In our EAC model, the topical administration of rebamipide suppressed conjunctival allergic eosinophil infiltration. The topical application of rebamipide on the ocular surface might suppress ocular surface inflammation by suppressing the production of cytokines by ocular surface epithelial cells.

  9. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. PMID:27365193

  10. Human genital epithelial cells capture cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and transmit the virus to CD4+ Cells: implications for mechanisms of sexual transmission.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhiwei; Phillips, David M

    2003-11-15

    Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. However, the mechanism of viral transmission across the mucosal barrier is poorly understood. By use of an ectocervical epithelium-derived cell line, we found that the cells are capable of sequestering large amounts of HIV particles but are refractory to cell-free viral infection. The sequestered virus particles remained infectious for >/=6 days and resisted treatment with trypsin. Upon coculture with CD4(+)-susceptible cells, epithelial cells can effectively transmit the virus to these cells, which can result in robust infection of the target cells. Inhibitory studies have shown that heparan sulfate moiety of cell-surface proteoglycans is involved in the viral attachment to these CD4-negative epithelial cells. Genital epithelial cells may play active roles in sequestering, protecting, and transferring virus during sexual transmission of HIV.

  11. Cell fusion between gastric epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells results in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    He, Xianghui; Li, Baosong; Shao, Yang; Zhao, Na; Hsu, Yiling; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Liwei

    2015-01-30

    The discovery of cancer stem cells and tumor heterogeneity prompted the exploration of additional mechanisms aside from genetic mutations for carcinogenesis and cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cell fusion between mesenchymal stem cells and the gastric epithelial cells in tumorigenesis. Cell fusion between cord blood mesenchymal stem cells and human gastric epithelial cells was performed in vitro. Cell scratch and transwell assays were performed to determine migration and invasion abilities of the hybrids. The expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins and genes were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and real time quantitative PCR. Tumorigenesis of the hybrids was evaluated through in vivo inoculation in nude mice. Hybrids expressed the phenotypes of both donor cells. Aneuploidy was observed in 84.1% of cells. The hybrids showed increased proliferation, migration and invasion abilities compared with the parental cells. In addition, the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin in the hybrids was significantly higher than that of the epithelial cells, and the mRNA expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes, Twist and Slug, in the hybrids was also increased compared with that of the parental epithelial cells. Furthermore, the hybrids formed masses of epithelial origin with glandular structures in BALB/c nude mice. These findings suggest that cell fusion between gastric epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells may result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation.

  12. Association of mesenchymal cells and immunoglobulins with differentiating epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Keenan, Jeffrey A; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B; Van Meter, Stuart E; Wimalasena, Jay; Elder, Robert F

    2001-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions play an important role in the physiology and pathology of epithelial tissues. Mesenchymal cells either associate with epithelium basement membrane [pericytes and perivascular monocyte-derived cells (MDC)] or reside within epithelium (MDC and T cells). Although intraepithelial mesenchymal cells were suggested to contribute to the epithelium physiology, their association with particular steps in differentiation of epithelial cells, interactions among themselves, and their fate remain unclear. We studied epitopes of mesenchymal cells and their products (immunoglobulins) in stratified epithelium of uterine ectocervix, which is one of the prototypes of complete cellular differentiation from stem into the aged cells. Results Perivascular CD14 primitive MDC associated with basal (stem) epithelial cells. Thy-1 pericytes of microvasculature secreted intercellular vesicles, which associated with Ki67 postmitotic epithelial cells expressing MHC class I. Intraepithelial T cells showed an association with veiled type MDC [dendritic cell (DC) precursors] among parabasal cells, and exhibited fragmentation after entering intermediate (mature) epithelial layers. Mature DC secreted CD68 and exhibited fragmentation after reaching mid intermediate layers. Binding of IgM was detected at the top of each layer: in the upper parabasal, upper intermediate, and most surface epithelial cells. IgG was confined to the entire superficial layer. Conclusions These data suggest that the phylogenetically and ontogenetically developed hierarchy of mesenchymal cells (MDC, pericytes, T cells) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG) accompanies differentiation of epithelial cells from immature into the mature and aged phenotype. Further studies of an involvement of mesenchymal cells in the regulation of tissue homeostasis may bring novel approaches to the prevention and therapy of tissue dysfunctions characterized by permanent tissue immaturity (muscular dystrophy

  13. Selective chemotaxis of subsets of B lymphocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissue and its implications for the recruitment of mucosal plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Czinn, S J; Lamm, M E

    1986-05-15

    As they differentiate, precursor cells from the gut-associated lymphoid tissue are known to travel via the lymphatic system to the blood and then preferentially to home to various mucosal and exocrine sites such as the lamina propria of the gut and the lactating mammary gland, where they give rise to IgA-secreting plasma cells. The present study, directed at the mechanism by which the circulating precursors of mucosal IgA plasma cells selectively lodge in characteristic locations, explored the hypothesis that such homing is due to a locally produced chemotactic factor and that milk might be a source of such a factor. Subsets of lymphocytes bearing particular surface markers and purified by panning from lymph nodes of mice were examined in a micropore chemotaxis assay to search for the presence of chemotactic activity in mouse milk. The globulin fraction of whey was shown to contain a nondialyzable factor that is chemotactic for IgA (and also IgG)-positive lymphocytes when these are obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes as a source of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. Lymphocytes from peripheral lymph nodes, nonmucosal associated, were unaffected as were surface IgM-positive lymphocytes and T lymphocytes obtained from mesenteric nodes. Chemotactic activity for IgA lymphocytes was undetectable in mouse serum. The data are consistent with the idea that precursors of mucosal IgA plasma cells home to mucosal and exocrine sites in response to a specific chemotactic factor elaborated by local differentiated epithelial cells.

  14. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  15. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  16. Constitutive activation of epithelial TLR4 augments inflammatory responses to mucosal injury and drives colitis-associated tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fukata, Masayuki; Shang, Limin; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Sotolongo, John; Pastorini, Cristhine; España, Cecilia; Ungaro, Ryan; Harpaz, Noam; Cooper, Harry S.; Elson, Greg; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Zaias, Julia; Perez, Maria T.; Mayer, Lloyd; Vamadevan, Arunan S.; Lira, Sergio A.; Abreu, Maria T.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation culminates in cancer and a link to TLR4 has been suggested by our observation that TLR4 deficiency prevents colitis-associated neoplasia. In the current study, we address the effect of the aberrant activation of epithelial TLR4 on induction of colitis and colitis-associated tumor development. We take a translational approach to address the consequences of increased TLR signaling in the intestinal mucosa. Mice transgenic for a constitutively-active TLR4 under the intestine-specific villin promoter (villin-TLR4 mice) were treated with DSS for acute colitis and azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium. TLR4 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in colonic tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis associated cancer. The effect of an antagonist TLR4 Ab was tested in prevention of colitis-associated neoplasia in the AOM-DSS model. Villin-TLR4 mice were highly susceptible to both acute colitis and colitis-associated neoplasia. Villin-TLR4 mice had increased epithelial expression of COX-2 and mucosal PGE2 production at baseline. Increased severity of colitis in villin-TLR4 mice was characterized by enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators and increased neutrophilic infiltration. In human UC samples, TLR4 expression was upregulated in almost all CAC and progressively increases with grade of dysplasia. As a proof of principle, a TLR4/MD-2 antagonist antibody inhibited colitis-associated neoplasia in the mouse model. Our results show that regulation of TLR's can affect the outcome of both acute colitis and its consequences—cancer. Targeting TLR4 and other TLR's may ultimately play a role in prevention or treatment of colitis-associated cancer. PMID:21674704

  17. Preservation of epithelial progenitor cells from collagenase-digested oral mucosa during ex vivo cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Jen; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Hung-Chi; Wu, Sung-En; Wang, Tze-Kai; Sun, Chi-Chin; Ma, Kevin Sheng-Kai; Chen, Jan-Kan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2016-01-01

    To avoid xenogeneic infection, we report a novel protocol for producing animal-derived component-free oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) sheet for transplantation, in which collagenase was used to replace dispase II/trypsin-EDTA for digesting oral mucosal tissue, and human platelet-derived PLTMax to replace fetal bovine serum. The resulting epithelial aggregates were expanded on de-epithelialized amniotic membranes without 3T3 feeder cells, and serum-free EpiLife was used to reduce contamination by submucosal mesenchymal cells. The OMEC sheets thus generated showed similar positive keratin 3/76-positive and keratin 8-negative staining patterns compared with those generated by the original protocol. Colony formation efficiency assay, BrdU label retention assay, and p63 and p75NTR immunostaining results indicated that higher proliferative potentials and more progenitor cells were preserved by the modified protocol. TaqMan array analysis revealed that the transcription of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) was up-regulated along with an increase in β-catenin signaling and its downstream cell cycle modulators, cyclin D1 and p27KIP1. Furthermore, ILK silencing led to the inhibition of nuclear β-catenin accumulation, suppressed p63 expression, and reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and p27KIP1; these observations suggest that ILK/β-catenin pathway may be involved in cell proliferation regulation during the ex vivo expansion of OMECs for transplantation purposes. PMID:27824126

  18. Differential phenotypic and functional properties of liver-resident NK cells and mucosal ILC1s.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ling; Peng, Hui; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yongyan; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consist of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells, tissue-resident NK cells and mucosal ILC1s. Recently identified liver-resident NK cells, which can mount contact hypersensitivity responses, and mucosal ILC1s that are involved in pathogenesis of colitis are distinct from cNK cells in several aspects, but the issue of how they are related to each other has not been clearly clarified. Here, we show that liver-resident NK cells and mucosal ILC1s have different phenotypes, as evidenced by distinct expression patterns of homing-associated molecules. Moreover, mucosal ILC1s exhibit tissue residency akin to liver-resident NK cells. Importantly, liver-resident NK cells express relative high levels of cytotoxic effector molecules, which are poorly expressed by mucosal ILC1s, and exhibit stronger cytotoxic activity compared with mucosal ILC1s. These results demonstrate differential phenotypic and functional characteristics of liver-resident NK cells and mucosal ILC1s, shedding new light on the diversity of ILC family.

  19. Ganglion Cells Are Frequently Present in Pediatric Mucosal Colorectal Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Alexandra E; Pacheco, M Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) rarely presents as chronic constipation after the newborn period. At our institution, calretinin immunohistochemistry (CAL) is frequently requested by clinicians on rectal mucosal biopsies (RMBs) taken during colonoscopy in older children in whom suspicion for HD is low. We hypothesized that review of these biopsies would frequently reveal ganglion cells (GCs). We reviewed features of mucosal biopsies (November 2013 to September 2015) from children ≥1 year of age on which clinicians had requested CAL on at least one specimen. A total of 93 biopsies with paired CAL from 83 patients were suitable for study (ages 1-18 years, M:F 1.2). Submitted clinical indication was constipation in 62 patients (75%). GCs were found within or subjacent to muscularis mucosa in 63 biopsies (68%), 12 (19%) of which were designated from a specific anatomic site, eg, 2 or 3 cm. In 25 of 63 (40%) cases, GCs were identified on one of the first 3 sections (median 5th, range 1st-54th). Forty-six cases (73%) contained no or <0.5 mm of submucosa (SM, range 0-2 mm). All but one case (62/63, 98%) with identified GCs showed positive CAL staining; a single case showed equivocal staining. Among the 30 biopsies with no observed GCs, none (0%) had >1 mm of SM, and 21 (70%) had no SM. CAL was positive in 28 (93%) and equivocal/weak in 2 (7%); no additional work-up for HD was pursued. The data suggest that H&E sections of RMBs can exclude HD at a specified site in many cases and provide the basis for a future study examining the utility of CAL in RMBs without SM as a means for excluding HD.

  20. Increased cytogenetic abnormalities in exfoliated oral mucosal cells of South Indian foundry workers.

    PubMed

    Singaravelu, Saranya Ramalingam; Sellappa, Sudha

    2015-02-01

    Biomonitoring offers a valuable tool to estimate the genetic risk as of exposure to genotoxic agents. Here, we intend to assess the potential cytogenetic damage related with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by evaluating the genetic damages in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of foundry workers via counting micronucleus (MNs) and other nuclear abnormalities (NAs). This was a cross-sectional study and all study subjects were male . Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were obtained from 100 subjects involved in either foundry molding or melting processes, and 100 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking from the area of Coimbatore city, Southern India. For each individual, 2000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. Significantly, there was a higher frequency of MN in the exposed workers than in the controls (P < 0.05). Smoking was associated with the increased frequencies of micronuclei and NAs in the buccal epithelium of both the control and the exposed groups. Smoking represented significant factors in terms of increasing the production of MN when the control and the exposed groups were compared (P < 0.05). The results specify that buccal cells of foundry workers display increased levels of genotoxicity and these biomarker responses may be related to the increased cancer risk. These results conclude that the studied individuals are at a risk group and they require periodical biological monitoring and proper care which is essential for them.

  1. Airway epithelial cells: current concepts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Ronald G; Randell, Scott H; Engelhardt, John F; Voynow, Judith; Sunday, Mary E

    2008-09-15

    The adult human bronchial tree is covered with a continuous layer of epithelial cells that play a critical role in maintaining the conduit for air, and which are central to the defenses of the lung against inhaled environmental concomitants. The epithelial sheet functions as an interdependent unit with the other lung components. Importantly, the structure and/or function of airway epithelium is deranged in major lung disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchogenic carcinoma. Investigations regarding the airway epithelium have led to many advances over the past few decades, but new developments in genetics and stem cell/progenitor cell biology have opened the door to understanding how the airway epithelium is developed and maintained, and how it responds to environmental stress. This article provides an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding airway epithelial stem/progenitor cells, gene expression, cell-cell interactions, and less frequent cell types, and discusses the challenges for future areas of investigation regarding the airway epithelium in health and disease.

  2. Adherence of skin bacteria to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Steiner, S; Witek, T; Balish, E

    1990-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from human axillae were tested for their capacity to adhere to buccal epithelial cells, immortalized human epithelial (HEp-2) cells, and undifferentiated and differentiated human epithelial cells. In general, both aerobic and anaerobic diphtheroids adhered better to differentiated human epithelial cells than to HEp-2 and undifferentiated human epithelial cells (P less than 0.05). Mannose, galactose, fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and fibronectin were also assayed for their capacity to inhibit the adherence of diphtheroids to human epithelial cells. A great deal of variability was observed in the capacity of the latter compounds to inhibit the attachment of aerobic diphtheroids to undifferentiated and differentiated epithelial cells. Overall, mannose appeared to be best at inhibiting the adherence of the aerobic diphtheroids to undifferentiated human epithelial cells. Galactose, fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and fibronectin showed a greater capacity to inhibit attachment of aerobic diphtheroids to differentiated than to undifferentiated human epithelial cells. The inhibition of adherence to differentiated human epithelial cells varied with the microorganism and the compound tested; however, the highest and most consistent inhibition of adherence (76.1 to 88.6%) was observed with a 5% solution of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The in vitro adherence and adherence inhibition assays presented here demonstrate that a number of adhesins and receptors are involved in the adherence of skin bacteria to human epithelial cells and receptors on human epithelial cells are apparently altered during differentiation. PMID:2298877

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, Diane; Smythies, Lesley E; Waites, Ken B; Grams, Jayleen M; Stahl, Richard D; Mannon, Peter J; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C Mel; Harris, Paul R; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B; Smith, Phillip D

    2013-06-15

    Increased apoptotic death of gastric epithelial cells is a hallmark of Helicobacter pylori infection, and altered epithelial cell turnover is an important contributor to gastric carcinogenesis. To address the fate of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells and their role in H. pylori mucosal disease, we investigated phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells in H. pylori infection. Human gastric mononuclear phagocytes were analyzed for their ability to take up apoptotic epithelial cells (AECs) in vivo using immunofluorescence analysis. We then used primary human gastric epithelial cells induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to live H. pylori to study apoptotic cell uptake by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. We show that HLA-DR(+) mononuclear phagocytes in human gastric mucosa contain cytokeratin-positive and TUNEL-positive AEC material, indicating that gastric phagocytes are involved in AEC clearance. We further show that H. pylori both increased apoptosis in primary gastric epithelial cells and decreased phagocytosis of the AECs by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. Reduced macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells was mediated in part by H. pylori-induced macrophage TNF-α, which was expressed at higher levels in H. pylori-infected, compared with uninfected, gastric mucosa. Importantly, we show that H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa contained significantly higher numbers of AECs and higher levels of nonphagocytosed TUNEL-positive apoptotic material, consistent with a defect in apoptotic cell clearance. Thus, as shown in other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, insufficient phagocyte clearance may contribute to the chronic and self-perpetuating inflammation in human H. pylori infection.

  4. Isolation of epithelial cells with hepatobiliary phenotype.

    PubMed

    Castorina, Sergio; Luca, Tonia; Torrisi, Antonella; Privitera, Giovanna; Panebianco, Mariangela

    2008-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the liver after partial hepatectomy or chemical injury is well known. In human liver, the resident progenitor cells are called "hepatic progenitor cells" (HPCs) while the term "oval cells" should be discouraged in order to indicate the stem cell compartment. The aim of our study was first to analyse the cellular aspects of liver regeneration through differentiation in cholangiocytes and hepatocytes, and then to characterise resident progenitor cells, using "primary cultured hepatocytes" derived from healthy adult human livers. Human hepatocytes were isolated from fresh surgical specimens of patients who underwent hepatic resections in our Clinical Centre surgery operating room. Hepatic differentiation and function were analysed by immunocytochemistry techniques and the presence of liver epithelial cell populations within normal adult human liver, was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry analysis. These cells expanded in vitro and showed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation. Human liver stem cells expressed several mesenchymal markers, such as CD44, but not haematopoietic stem cell markers. In addition, these cells expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, CK7 and CK19, indicating a partial commitment to hepatic and biliary cells. Interestingly the expression of both hepatocytes and biliary markers in HPCs reflects the bipotential nature of the hepatic stem cells toward both the hepatic and biliary lineage. According to their immature and bipotential phenotype, hepatic epithelial cells might represent a pool of precursors in the healthy human adult liver.

  5. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Neil R; Shaykhiev, Renat; Walters, Matthew S; Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G

    2011-05-04

    The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  6. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem

  7. Cultivation of Human Oral Mucosal Explants on Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Zsebik, Barbara; Ujlaky-Nagy, László; Losonczy, Gergely; Vereb, György; Takács, Lili

    2017-03-24

    Purpose/Aim: Autologous cultivated oral mucosal (OM) epithelial transplantation has been successfully used as corneal epithelial replacement in bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Recently, lotrafilcon A contact lens (CL) surface was described as a suitable carrier for cultured stem cells in corneal epithelial transplantation. Our aim was to establish explant cultures from human OM on CL carriers that are free of animal-derived materials and feeder cells.

  8. Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eight weaner pigs experimentally challenged with a pure culture of L. intracellularis (strain LR189/5/83) were subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray transcriptional signatures were validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of selected genes at various time points post challenge. At peak of infection (14 days post challenge) 86% of altered transcripts were down regulated, particularly those involved in maintenance of mucosal integrity and regulation of cell transport. Among the up-regulated transcripts, CD163 and CDK1 were novel findings and considered to be important, due to their respective roles in innate immunity and cellular proliferation. Overall, targeted cellular mechanisms included those that are important in epithelial restitution, migration and protection; maintenance of stable inter-epithelial cell relationships; cell transport of nutrients and electrolytes; innate immunity; and cell cycle. PMID:24885874

  9. Reversible transdifferentiation of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Danto, S I; Shannon, J M; Borok, Z; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1995-05-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells have been thought to be the progenitors of terminally differentiated type I (AT1) cells in the adult animal in vivo. In this study, we used an AT1 cell-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb VIII B2) to investigate expression of the AT1 cell phenotype accompanying reversible changes in expression of the AT2 cell phenotype. AT2 cells were isolated and cultured either on attached collagen gels or on gels detached 1 or 4 days after plating and maintained thereafter as floating gels. Monolayers on both attached and floating gels were harvested on days 4 and 8 and analyzed by electron microscopy for changes in morphology and binding of mAb VIII B2. Results indicate that: (1) alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) on attached gels develop characteristics of the AT1 cell phenotype, (2) AEC on gels detached on day 1 maintain features of the AT2 cell phenotype (and do not react with mAb VIII B2), and (3) the expression of AT1 cell phenotypic traits seen by day 4 on attached gels is reversed after detachment. We conclude that commitment to the AT1 and AT2 cell lineages requires continuous regulatory input to maintain the differentiated states, and that transdifferentiation between AT2 and AT1 cells may be reversible.

  10. Cockroach protease allergen induces allergic airway inflammation via epithelial cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Sagar L.; Agrawal, Komal; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies. Per a 10 exposure also leads to secretion of IL-33, TSLP and intracellular Ca2+ dependent increase in ATP levels. Further, in vivo experiments revealed that Per a 10 administration in mice elevated allergic inflammatory parameters along with high levels of IL-33, TSLP, IL-1α and uric acid in the mice lungs. We next demonstrated that Per a 10 cleaves CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified B cells and CD25 (IL-2 receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified T cells in an activity dependent manner, which might favour Th2 responses. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 plays a significant role in initiation of allergic airway inflammation at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:28198394

  11. Geranylgeranylacetone protects guinea pig gastric mucosal cells from gastric stressor-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tatsunori; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Tomisato, Wataru; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Mizushima, Tohru

    2002-07-01

    Various stressors induce apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells, which may cause gastric mucosal lesions in vivo. We recently reproduced gastric stressor-induced apoptosis in vitro, using primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. Geranylgeranylacetone is an antiulcer drug with heat-shock protein-inducing properties. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of geranylgeranylacetone on gastric stressor-induced apoptosis in vitro. Ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid all induced, in a dose-dependent manner, apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment of cells with geranylgeranylacetone inhibited the apoptotic DNA fragmentation caused by each of these gastric stressors. Pretreatment of cells with a low concentration of ethanol, a procedure that is also known tb induce heat-shock proteins, made cells resistant to the apoptotic DNA fragmentation. These results suggest that heat-shock proteins could be at least partly involved in the inhibitory effect of geranylgeranylacetone against apoptosis of gastric mucosal cells caused by these gastric stressors.

  12. Immune Cell Responses and Mucosal Barrier Disruptions in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Khalmuratova, Roza; Park, Jong-Wan

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common presentations of upper airway illness and severely affects patient quality of life. Its frequency is not surprising given levels of environmental exposure to microbes, pollutants, and allergens. Inflammatory cells, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and airway remodeling have been detected in the sinonasal mucosae of CRS patients, although the precise pathophysiological mechanisms causing such persistent inflammation remain unclear. Given its high prevalence and considerable associated morbidity, continued research into CRS is necessary to increase our understanding of factors likely to contribute to its pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding immune cell responses and epithelial alterations in CRS. PMID:28261021

  13. Th17 cell based vaccines in mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Chen, Kong; Kolls, Jay K

    2013-06-01

    Vaccination is proven to be effective in controlling many infections including small pox, influenza and hepatitis, but strain-specific factors may limit vaccine efficacy. All of these vaccines work through the generation of neutralizing antibodies but for some pathogens there may be roles for serotype-independent immunity. Recently several groups using murine vaccine models have shown that induced T helper cell responses including Th17 responses have shown the potential for CD4+ T-cell dependent vaccine responses. Th17 mediated protective responses involve the recruitment of neutrophils, release of anti-microbial peptides and IL-17-driven Th1 immunity. These effector mechanisms provide immunity against a range of pathogens including the recently described antibiotic-resistant metallo-beta-lactamase 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae. Continued elucidation of the mechanism of Th17 responses and identification of effective adjuvants for inducing robust non pathogenic Th17 responses may lead to successful Th17 based vaccines. Here we summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of Th17 in vaccine induced immunity. We also discuss the current status and future challenges in Th17-based mucosal vaccine development.

  14. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  15. A Novel Role of Spred2 in the Colonic Epithelial Cell Homeostasis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Sakuma; Yoshimura, Teizo; Ohkura, Takahiro; Fujisawa, Masayoshi; Fushimi, Soichiro; Ito, Toshihiro; Itakura, Junya; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Matsukawa, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and adequate mucosal healing is important for a remission of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Here, we examined whether Spred2, a member of the Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing proteins that inhibit the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway, plays a role in colonic mucosal homeostasis and inflammation by using Spred2 knockout (KO) mice. We first detected increased epithelial cell proliferation and cadherin 1 expression in the colon of naïve Spred2 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Interestingly, Spred2 KO mice were resistant to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis as indicated by lower levels of body weight loss and disease activity index. Histologically, epithelial cell injury and inflammation were milder in the colonic mucosa of Spred2 KO mice on day 3 and almost undetectable by day 8. Experiments with bone chimeric mice indicated that Spred2-deficiency in non-hematopoietic cells was responsible for the reduced sensitivity to DSS. Finally, Spred2 KO mice developed significantly fewer tumors in response to azoxymethane plus DSS. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Spred2 plays an important role in the regulation of colonic epithelial cell proliferation and inflammation by potentially down-regulating the activation of ERK. Thus, Spred2 may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of UC. PMID:27869219

  16. Force mapping in epithelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    du Roure, Olivia; Saez, Alexandre; Buguin, Axel; Austin, Robert H.; Chavrier, Philippe; Siberzan, Pascal; Ladoux, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    We measure dynamic traction forces exerted by epithelial cells on a substrate. The force sensor is a high-density array of elastomeric microfabricated pillars that support the cells. Traction forces induced by cell migration are deduced from the measurement of the bending of these pillars and are correlated with actin localization by fluorescence microscopy. We use a multiple-particle tracking method to estimate the mechanical activity of cells in real time with a high-spatial resolution (down to 2 μm) imposed by the periodicity of the post array. For these experiments, we use differentiated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Our data provide definite information on mechanical forces exerted by a cellular assembly. The maximum intensity of the forces is localized on the edge of the epithelia. Hepatocyte growth factor promotes cell motility and induces strong scattering activity of MDCK cells. Thus, we compare forces generated by MDCK cells in subconfluent epithelia versus isolated cells after hepatocyte growth factor treatment. Maximal-traction stresses at the edge of a monolayer correspond to higher values than those measured for a single cell and may be due to a collective behavior. PMID:15695588

  17. Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vona, Giovanna; Sabile, Abdelmajid; Louha, Malek; Sitruk, Veronique; Romana, Serge; Schütze, Karin; Capron, Frédérique; Franco, Dominique; Pazzagli, Mario; Vekemans, Michel; Lacour, Bernard; Bréchot, Christian; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new assay, ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells), which allows the counting and the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in patients with carcinoma, using peripheral blood sample volumes as small as 1 ml. Using this assay, epithelial tumor cells can be isolated individually by filtration because of their larger size when compared to peripheral blood leukocytes. ISET parameters were defined using peripheral blood spiked with tumor cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, MCF-7, HeLa, and LNCaP). ISET can detect a single, micropipetted tumor cell, added to 1 ml of blood. We also demonstrate that fluorescence in situ hybridization can be used to perform chromosomal analyses on tumor cells collected using ISET. Polymerase chain reaction-based genetic analyses can be applied to ISET-isolated cells, and, as an example, we demonstrate homozygous p53 deletion in single Hep3B cells after filtration and laser microdissection. Finally, we provide evidence for the in vivo feasibility of ISET in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing tumor resection. ISET, but not reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, allowed analysis of cell morphology, counting of tumor cells, and demonstration of tumor microemboli spread into peripheral blood during surgery. Overall, ISET constitutes a novel approach that should open new perpectives in molecular medicine. PMID:10623654

  18. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-01-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing. Images PMID:3771800

  19. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, A.; Anon, E.; Ghibaudo, M.; du Roure, O.; Di Meglio, J.-M.; Hersen, P.; Silberzan, P.; Buguin, A.; Ladoux, B.

    2010-05-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  20. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; du Roure, O; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A; Ladoux, B

    2010-05-19

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  1. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only...ovarian cancer by defined multiple genetic changes in a mouse model system . Cancer Cell 1, 53-62. Quartuccio, S.M., Lantvit, D.D., Bosland, M.C., and

  2. Expression of nerve growth factor in rat stomach. Implications for interactions between endothelial, neural and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, A S; Ahluwalia, A; Jones, M K; Brzozowski, T

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed to determine the expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the gastric mucosa. Transmural gastric specimens were obtained from euthanized rats. 1) expression of NGF and TrkA receptor by Western blotting; 2) histological evaluation of gastric wall architecture; 3) expression of NGF using immunostaining. Immunostaining showed strong and differential expression of NGF in neural elements of gastric myenteric and submucosal plexuses; in epithelial cells: mainly in chief and progenitor cells, in enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells; and, in endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessels. We concluded that NGF expression in neural elements, epithelial cells and endothelial cells of blood vessels indicated a complex local interaction between neural, epithelial and endothelial cells that regulated gastric mucosal homeostasis and, likely, the protection against gastric injury and ulcer healing.

  3. Establishment of a primary culture method for mouse intestinal epithelial cells by organ culture of fetal small intestine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Sato, Kanako; Morishita, Satoru; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Totsuka, Mamoru

    2009-08-01

    Studies of the physiological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been limited by the difficulty of primary culture of IEC. We established a method for primary culture of mouse IEC by culturing fragments of fetal small intestines pretreated with EDTA. This method reproducibly resulted in the expansion of cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells, and vigorous expansion of the epithelial cells was observed only from intestinal fragments of embryonic days 15-16. These cells expressed alkaline phosphatase activity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, indicating the mature phenotype of IEC in a small intestine. The cells also presented antigens to CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, the cells expressed various cytokines and chemokines, and the expression was enhanced by bacterial stimulation. These results indicate that the primary-cultured mouse IEC prepared by the method established here can be a beneficial tool in study of the functions of IECs, especially in mucosal immunity.

  4. Interleukin-22-producing natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer-like cells in mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Marco

    2009-07-17

    Blood, lymphoid tissues, and placenta contain diverse subpopulations of natural killer (NK) cells that possess distinct immune functions. Recent studies have shown that human and mouse gut-associated lymphoid tissues harbor a unique NK cell subset that specializes in production of interleukin (IL)-22. This cytokine plays a role in host defense of mucosal barriers, although dysregulated secretion may cause autoimmune disease. In parallel, human fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and mouse adult LTi-like cells in secondary lymphoid tissues were found to release IL-22, as well as IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates host defense against extracellular pathogens. Here, we compare these recently identified immune cells, reviewing what is known about their anatomical location, differentiation requirements, function, and potential involvement in host defense and autoimmunity. Finally, we discuss the challenges faced in furthering our understanding of the developmental relationships and role of NK and LTi-like cells in mucosal immune responses.

  5. Nonmelanoma skin and mucosal cancers after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leisenring, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L; Flowers, Mary E D; Schwartz, Jeffrey L; Deeg, H Joachim

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The impact of patient-, disease-, treatment-, and toxicity-related factors on risk of BCC and SCC was determined in a retrospective cohort study of 4,810 patients who received allogeneic HCT and who survived for at least 100 days. Among allogeneic HCT recipients, 237 developed at least one skin or mucosal cancer (BCC, n = 158; SCC, n = 95). Twenty-year cumulative incidences of BCC and SCC were 6.5% and 3.4%, respectively. Total-body irradiation was a significant risk factor for BCC (P = .003), most strongly among patients younger than 18 years old at HCT (P = .02, interaction). Light-skinned patients had an increased risk of BCC (P = .01). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) increased the risk of SCC (P = .02), whereas chronic GVHD increased the risk of both BCC (P = .01) and SCC (P < .001). This analysis suggests that immutable factors, such as age and complexion, have a significant impact on BCC and SCC. However, specific treatment (radiotherapy) and transplantation complications (GVHD) may modify that risk. These additional risk factors suggest the contribution of immunologic mechanism DNA and tissue repair in the development of BCC and SCC. We confirm previous reports that exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of BCC but not SCC. Survivors of HCT should be monitored for the development of BCC and SCC and use preventive strategies.

  6. Cell density determines epithelial migration in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, P; Misfeldt, D S

    1980-01-01

    The dog kidney epithelial cell line (MDCK) has been shown to exhibit a density-correlated inhibition of growth at approxmately 6.6 X 10(5) cells per cm2. When a confluent monolayer at its maximal density was wounded by removal of a wide swath of cells, migration of the cell sheet into the denuded area occurred. Precise measurements of the rate of migration for 5 day showed that the cells accelerated at a uniform rate of 0.24 micrometer . hr-2 and, by extrapolation, possessed an apparent initial velocity of 2.8 micrometer . hr-1 at the time of wounding. The apparent initial velocity was considered to be the result of a brief (< 10 hr) and rapid acceleration dependent on cell density. To verify this, wounds were made at different densities below the maximum. In these experiments, the cells did not migrate until a "threshold" density of 2.0 X 10(5) cells per cm2 was reached regardless of the density at the time of wounding. At the threshold density, the cell sheet began to accelerate at the previously measured rate (0.24 micrometer . hr-2). Any increase in density by cell division was balanced by cell migration, so that the same threshold density was maintained by the migrating cells. Each migrating cell sustained the movement of the cell sheet at a constant rate of acceleration. It is proposed that an acceleration is, in general, characteristic of the vectorial movement of an epithelial cell sheet. Images PMID:6933523

  7. High-protein diet differently modifies intestinal goblet cell characteristics and mucosal cytokine expression in ileum and colon.

    PubMed

    Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Liu, Xinxin; Descatoire, Véronique; Desclée de Maredsous, Caroline; Davila, Anne-Marie; Walker, Francine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that high-protein (HP) diet ingestion causes marked changes in the luminal environment of the colonic epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of such modifications on small intestinal and colonic mucosa, two segments with different transit time and physiological functions. Rats were fed with either normal protein (NP; 14% protein) or HP (53% protein) isocaloric diet for 2 weeks, and parameters related to intestinal mucous-secreting cells and to several innate/adaptive immune characteristics (myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine and epithelial TLR expression, proportion of immune cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues) were measured in the ileum and colon. In ileum from HP animals, we observed hyperplasia of mucus-producing cells concomitant with an increased expression of Muc2 at both gene and protein levels, reduction of mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, down-regulation of Tlr4 gene expression in enterocytes and down-regulation of mucosal Th cytokines associated with CD4+ lymphocyte reduction in mesenteric lymph nodes. These changes coincided with an increased amount of acetate in the ileal luminal content. In colon, HP diet ingestion resulted in a lower number of goblet cells at the epithelial surface but increased goblet cell number in colonic crypts together with an increased Muc3 and a slight reduction of Il-6 gene expression. Our data suggest that HP diet modifies the goblet cell distribution in colon and, in ileum, increases goblet cell activity and decreases parameters related to basal gut inflammatory status. The impact of HP diet on intestinal mucosa in terms of beneficial or deleterious effects is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epithelial BMP signaling is required for proper specification of epithelial cell lineages and gastric endocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Maloum, Faïza; Allaire, Joannie M.; Gagné-Sansfaçon, Jessica; Roy, Evelyne; Belleville, Karine; Sarret, Philippe; Morisset, Jean; Carrier, Julie C.; Mishina, Yuji; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling within the gastrointestinal tract is complex. BMP ligands and their receptors are expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments, suggesting bidirectional signaling between these two entities. Despite an increasing interest in BMP signaling in gut physiology and pathologies, the distinct contribution of BMP signaling in the epithelium vs. the mesenchyme in gastrointestinal homeostasis remains to be established. We aimed to investigate the role of epithelial BMP signaling in gastric organogenesis, gland morphogenesis, and maintenance of epithelial cell functions. Using the Cre/loxP system, we generated a mouse model with an early deletion during development of BMP receptor 1A (Bmpr1a) exclusively in the foregut endoderm. Bmpr1aΔGEC mice showed no severe abnormalities in gastric organogenesis, gland epithelial proliferation, or morphogenesis, suggesting only a minor role for epithelial BMP signaling in these processes. However, early loss of BMP signaling in foregut endoderm did impact on gastric patterning, leading to an anteriorization of the stomach. In addition, numbers of parietal cells were reduced in Bmpr1aΔGEC mice. Epithelial BMP deletion significantly increased the numbers of chromogranin A-, ghrelin-, somatostatin-, gastrin-, and serotonin-expressing gastric endocrine cells. Cancer never developed in young adult (<100 days) Bmpr1a-inactivated mice although a marker of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia was upregulated. Using this model, we have uncovered that BMP signaling negatively regulates the proliferation and commitment of endocrine precursor cells. Our data also indicate that loss of BMP signaling in epithelial gastric cells alone is not sufficient to induce gastric neoplasia. PMID:21415412

  9. Palifermin in Preventing Oral Mucositis Caused by Chemotherapy and/or Radiation Therapy in Young Patients Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-30

    Breast Cancer; Graft Versus Host Disease; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Mucositis; Multiple Myeloma; Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  10. Role of intestinal epithelial cells in the host secretory response to infection by invasive bacteria. Bacterial entry induces epithelial prostaglandin h synthase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha production.

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, L; Stenson, W F; Savidge, T C; Lowe, D C; Barrett, K E; Fierer, J; Smith, J R; Kagnoff, M F

    1997-01-01

    Increased intestinal fluid secretion is a protective host response after enteric infection with invasive bacteria that is initiated within hours after infection, and is mediated by prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) products in animal models of infection. Intestinal epithelial cells are the first host cells to become infected with invasive bacteria, which enter and pass through these cells to initiate mucosal, and ultimately systemic, infection. The present studies characterized the role of intestinal epithelial cells in the host secretory response after infection with invasive bacteria. Infection of cultured human intestinal epithelial cell lines with invasive bacteria, but not noninvasive bacteria, is shown to induce the expression of one of the rate-limiting enzymes for prostaglandin formation, PGHS-2, and the production of PGE2 and PGF2alpha. Furthermore, increased PGHS-2 expression was observed in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo after infection with invasive bacteria, using a human intestinal xenograft model in SCID mice. In support of the physiologic importance of epithelial PGHS-2 expression, supernatants from bacteria-infected intestinal epithelial cells were shown to increase chloride secretion in an in vitro model using polarized epithelial cells, and this activity was accounted for by PGE2. These studies define a novel autocrine/paracrine function of mediators produced by intestinal epithelial cells in the rapid induction of increased fluid secretion in response to intestinal infection with invasive bacteria. PMID:9218506

  11. Inhibition of CEA release from epithelial cells by lipid A of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Sayadi, Khatere; Jaberie, Hajar; Bazargani, Abdollah; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Hosseinzadeh, Massood

    2015-09-01

    A number of bacterial species, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic, use the human CEACAM family members as receptors for internalization into epithelial cells. The GPI-linked CEA and CEACAM6 might play a role in the innate immune defense, protecting the colon from microbial invasion. Previous studies showed that CEA is released from epithelial cells by an endogenous GPI-PLD enzyme. GPI-PLD activity was reported to be inhibited by several synthetic and natural forms of lipid A. We hypothesized that CEA engagement by Gram-negative bacteria might attenuate CEA release from epithelial cells and that this might facilitate bacterial colonization. We tested the hypothesis by examining the effect of Escherichia coli on CEA release from colorectal cancer cells in a co-culture experiment. A subconfluent monolayer culture of colorectal cancer cells (LS-180, Caco-2 and HT29/219) was incubated with E. coli. While there was a significant reduction in CEA secretion from LS-180 and HT29/219 cells, we found only a small reduction of CEA shedding from Caco-2 cells compared to the level from the untreated control cells. Furthermore, lipid A treatment of LS-180 cells inhibited CEA release from the cells in a dosedependent manner. Western blot analysis of total lysates showed that CEA expression levels in cells co-cultured with bacteria did not differ from those in untreated control cells. These results suggest that lipid A of Gram-negative bacteria might play a role in preventing the release of CEA from mucosal surfaces and promote mucosal colonization by bacteria.

  12. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    breast is highly expressed by luminal epithelial cells and is less expressed by basal cells19,20. In contrast, CD49f (a6 integrin) has an inverse pattern...mouse stretched on its back. The hose and nose cone from the anesthetic vaporizer are securely attached to one side of the plate, and a heated pad is...the mouse by a nose cone. Check that the mouse has reached surgical anesthesia by loss of pedal withdrawal reflex . ! cautIon Institutional review

  13. Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Ohse, Takamoto; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire. PMID:25127402

  14. Detection of Bone Marrow Derived Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kassmer, Susannah H.; Krause, Diane S.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the ability of bone marrow derived cells to adopt the morphology and protein expression of epithelial cells in vivo have expanded rapidly over the last decade, and hundreds of publications report that bone marrow derived cells can become epithelial cells of multiple organs including lung, liver, GI tract, skin, pancreas and others. In this review, we critically evaluate the literature related to engraftment of bone marrow derived cells as epithelial cells in the lung. Over 40 manuscripts focused on whether bone marrow cells can differentiate into lung epithelial cells have been published, nearly all of which claim to identify marrow derived epithelial cells. A few investigations have concluded that no such cells are present and that the phenomenon of marrow derived epithelial cells is based on detection artifacts. Here we discuss the problems that exist in published papers identifying marrow derived epithelial cells, and propose standards for detection methods that provide the most definitive data. Identification of BM derived epithelial cells requires reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection, which must include cell identification based on the presence of an epithelial marker and the absence of blood cell markers as well as a marker for donor BM origin. In order for these studies to be rigorous, they must also use approaches to rule out cell overlap by microscopy or single cell isolation. Once these stringent criteria for identification of marrow derived epithelial cells are used universally, then the field can move forward to address the critical questions regarding which bone marrow derived cells are responsible for engraftment as epithelial cells, the mechanisms by which this occurs, whether these cells play a role in normal tissue repair, and whether specific cell subsets can be used for therapeutic benefit. PMID:20447442

  15. Control of local immunity by airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weitnauer, M; Mijošek, V; Dalpke, A H

    2016-03-01

    The lung is ventilated by thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbial compounds, most of them harmless contaminants. Airway epithelial cells are known to have innate sensor functions, thus being able to detect microbial danger. To avoid chronic inflammation, the pulmonary system has developed specific means to control local immune responses. Even though airway epithelial cells can act as proinflammatory promoters, we propose that under homeostatic conditions airway epithelial cells are important modulators of immune responses in the lung. In this review, we discuss epithelial cell regulatory functions that control reactivity of professional immune cells within the microenvironment of the airways and how these mechanisms are altered in pulmonary diseases. Regulation by epithelial cells can be divided into two mechanisms: (1) mediators regulate epithelial cells' innate sensitivity in cis and (2) factors are produced that limit reactivity of immune cells in trans.

  16. Characterization of the Molecular Interplay between Moraxella catarrhalis and Human Respiratory Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Eleveld, Marc J.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a mucosal pathogen that causes childhood otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. During the course of infection, M. catarrhalis needs to adhere to epithelial cells of different host niches such as the nasopharynx and lungs, and consequently, efficient adhesion to epithelial cells is considered an important virulence trait of M. catarrhalis. By using Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative selection screenings technology, we identified 15 genes potentially required for adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 to pharyngeal epithelial Detroit 562 and lung epithelial A549 cells. Validation with directed deletion mutants confirmed the importance of aroA (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase), ecnAB (entericidin EcnAB), lgt1 (glucosyltransferase), and MCR_1483 (outer membrane lipoprotein) for cellular adherence, with ΔMCR_1483 being most severely attenuated in adherence to both cell lines. Expression profiling of M. catarrhalis BBH18 during adherence to Detroit 562 cells showed increased expression of 34 genes in cell-attached versus planktonic bacteria, among which ABC transporters for molybdate and sulfate, while reduced expression of 16 genes was observed. Notably, neither the newly identified genes affecting adhesion nor known adhesion genes were differentially expressed during adhesion, but appeared to be constitutively expressed at a high level. Profiling of the transcriptional response of Detroit 562 cells upon adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 showed induction of a panel of pro-inflammatory genes as well as genes involved in the prevention of damage of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the molecular interplay between M. catarrhalis and host epithelial cells during the process of adherence. PMID:23936538

  17. Icing oral mucositis: Oral cryotherapy in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joey; Seabrook, Jamie; Fulford, Adrienne; Rajakumar, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Background Up to 70% of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant develop oral mucositis as a side effect of high-dose melphalan conditioning chemotherapy. Oral cryotherapy has been documented to be potentially effective in reducing oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy protocol implemented within the hematopoietic stem cell transplant program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Secondary endpoints included duration of oral mucositis, duration of hospital stay, parenteral narcotics use and total parenteral nutrition use. Results One hundred and forty patients were included in the study, 70 patients in both no cryotherapy and cryotherapy groups. Both oral mucositis incidence and severity were found to be significantly lower in the cryotherapy group. Fifty (71.4%) experienced mucositis post cryotherapy compared to 67 (95.7%) in the no cryotherapy group (p < 0.001). The median oral mucositis severity, assessed using the WHO oral toxicity scale from grade 0-4, experienced in the no group was 2.5 vs. 2 in the cryotherapy group (p = 0.03). Oral mucositis duration and use of parenteral narcotics were also significantly reduced. Duration of hospital stay and use of parenteral nutrition were similar between the two groups. Conclusion The cryotherapy protocol resulted in a significantly lower incidence and severity of oral mucositis. These results provide evidence for the continued use of oral cryotherapy, an inexpensive and generally well-tolerated practice.

  18. Autologous human nasal epithelial cell sheet using temperature-responsive culture insert for transplantation after middle ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Kojima, Hiromi

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative mucosal regeneration of the middle ear cavity and the mastoid cavity is of great importance after middle ear surgery. However, the epithelialization of the mucosa in the middle ear is retarded because chronic inflammation without epithelialization aggravates gas exchange and clinical function. These environmental conditions in the middle ear lead to postoperative retraction and adhesion of the newly-formed tympanic membrane. Therefore, if the mucosa on the exposed middle ear bone surface can be rapidly regenerated after surgery, the surgical treatments for cholesteatoma and adhesive middle ear disease can potentially be improved. In this study, we successfully generated a cell sheet designed for the postoperative treatment of cholesteatoma. We used nasal cells to create an artificial middle ear mucosal cell sheet with a three-dimensional (3D) configuration similar to that of the middle ear mucosa. The sheets consisted of multi-layered mucosal epithelia and lower connective tissue and were similar to normal middle ear mucosa. This result indicates that tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after surgical operations in the middle ear and future clinical applications are expected. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on epithelial barrier disruption caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunpeng; Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-04-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) play an important role in maintaining the mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) was reported to protect the intestinal barrier function of early-weaned piglets against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 challenge; however, the underlying cellular mechanism of this protection was unclear. Here, an established intestinal porcine epithelia cell (IPEC-J2) model was used to investigate the protective effects and related mechanisms of L. plantarum on epithelial barrier damages induced by ETEC K88. Epithelial permeability, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and abundance of TJ proteins, were determined. Pre-treatment with L. plantarum for 6h prevented the reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) (P<0.05), inhibited the increased transcript abundances of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) (P<0.05), decreased expression of claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens (ZO-1) (P<0.05) and protein expression of occludin (P<0.05) of IPEC-J2 cells caused by ETEC K88. Moreover, the mRNA expression of negative regulators of toll-like receptors (TLRs) [single Ig Il-1-related receptor (SIGIRR), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3), and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1)] in IPEC-J2 cells pre-treated with L. plantarum were higher (P<0.05) compared with those in cells just exposed to K88. Furthermore, L. plantarum was shown to regulate proteins of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results indicated that L. plantarum may improve epithelial barrier function by maintenance of TEER, inhibiting the reduction of TJ proteins, and reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by ETEC K88, possibly through modulation of TLRs, NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Lactobacillus Decelerates Cervical Epithelial Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Vielfort, Katarina; Weyler, Linda; Söderholm, Niklas; Engelbrecht, Mattias; Löfmark, Sonja; Aro, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells. PMID:23675492

  1. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H

    2016-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-CXCR3 staining is useful for detecting human cutaneous and mucosal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Fukiwake, Noriko; Moroi, Yoichi; Imafuku, Shinichi; Masuda, Teiichi; Kokuba, Hisashi; Furue, Masutaka; Urabe, Kazunori

    2006-05-01

    Human synovial mast cells (MC) can be immunolabelled with antihuman CXCR3 antibody (Ab) (clone 49801). We have investigated whether cutaneous and mucosal MC are stained with anti-CXCR3 Ab in paraffin-embedded sections. Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence double staining assays were performed with anti-CXCR3, anti-tryptase, and anti-chymase Ab using normal skin, psoriatic skin lesions, and normal colon. When compared with tryptase and chymase staining, 100% of the cutaneous and 98% of the mucosal MC were positive for CXCR3. Anti-CXCR3 staining is a useful marker for human cutaneous and mucosal MC in paraffin-embedded sections.

  3. Modulation of ovine SBD-1 expression by 17beta-estradiol in ovine oviduct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucosal epithelia, including those of the oviduct, secrete antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMS). These have bactericidal/bacteriostatic functions against a variety of pathogens. Among the AIIMs, sheep β-defensin-1 (SBD-1) is one of the most potent. Even though the SBD-1 is an important AIIM and it is regulated closely by estrogenic hormone, the regulation mechanism of 17β-estradiol has not been clearly established. We investigated the effects of E2 and agonist or inhibitor on ovine oviduct epithelial cells in regard to SBD-1 expression using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In addition, three different pathways were inhibited separately or simultaneously to confirm the effect of different inhibitors in the regulation mechanism. Results 17beta-estradiol (E2) induced release of SBD-1 in ovine oviduct epithelial cells. SBD-1 expression was mediated through G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and Estrogen Receptors (ERs) activation in ovine oviduct epithelial cell. Inhibition of gene expression of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) led to a decreased SBD-1 expression. Conclusions Taken together, E2-induced up-regulation of SBD-1 expressions were GPR30-dependent during prophase and ERs-dependent during later-stage in ovine oviduct epithelial cells, and we assume that the effect was completed by the PKA, PKC, and NF-κB pathways simultaneous. PMID:22920556

  4. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  5. Mucosal vaccination shapes the expression of salivary antibodies and establishment of CD8+ T-cells.

    PubMed

    Polak, David; Benzki-Namdar, Ester; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Shapira, Lior

    2014-07-01

    Mucosal vaccination for preventing periodontitis shows promising results. However, various administration routes and adjuvants may have a substantial role in the efficacy of the vaccination. The aim of the study is to compare different modes of mucosal vaccination with whole-cell Porphyromonas gingivalis and to test the role of various adjuvants as potential modifiers of this process. Mucosal vaccine was administered through oral or nasal routes to BALB/C mice. The tested adjuvants included Escherichia coli cholera toxin, E. coli labile toxin (LT), and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide (CpG). Control mice were vaccinated subcutaneously. Saliva and serum were collected; anti-P. gingivalis salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum IgG were quantified. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure anti-P. gingivalis IgA levels was established. In addition, cells were extracted from head and neck lymph nodes, and the relative CD8(+) cells were quantified using flow cytometry. All mucosal vaccination modes induced anti-P. gingivalis salivary IgA but not anti-P. gingivalis serum IgG. Subcutaneous vaccination induced both salivary IgA and serum IgG against P. gingivalis. Mucosal vaccination also induced greater establishment of CD8(+) cells compared to the subcutaneous vaccination. Oral mucosal vaccinations with LT or CpG were the most efficient for salivary IgA expression and CD8 cell establishment in lymph nodes. Oral and nasal mucosal vaccination induced a local host response with little systemic effect. The use of CpG or LT as adjuvants with the oral mucosal vaccination was the most efficient vaccination mode in the present mouse model.

  6. Mucosal Immunity and Candida albicans Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moyes, David L.; Naglik, Julian R.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between mucosal surfaces and microbial microbiota are key to host defense, health, and disease. These surfaces are exposed to high numbers of microbes and must be capable of distinguishing between those that are beneficial or avirulent and those that will invade and cause disease. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in these discriminatory processes has recently begun to expand as new studies bring to light the importance of epithelial cells and novel immune cell subsets such as Th17 T cells in these processes. Elucidating how these mechanisms function will improve our understanding of many diverse diseases and improve our ability to treat patients suffering from these conditions. In our voyage to discover these mechanisms, mucosal interactions with opportunistic commensal organisms such as the fungus Candida albicans provide insights that are invaluable. Here, we review current knowledge of the interactions between C. albicans and epithelial surfaces and how this may shape our understanding of microbial-mucosal interactions. PMID:21776285

  7. Local remodeling of synthetic extracellular matrix microenvironments by co-cultured endometrial epithelial and stromal cells enables long-term dynamic physiological function.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christi D; Hill, Abby S; Guo, Margaret; Stockdale, Linda; Papps, Julia P; Isaacson, Keith B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Griffith, Linda G

    2017-04-18

    Mucosal barrier tissues, comprising a layer of tightly-bonded epithelial cells in intimate molecular communication with an underlying matrix-rich stroma containing fibroblasts and immune cells, are prominent targets for drugs against infection, chronic inflammation, and other disease processes. Although human in vitro models of such barriers are needed for mechanistic studies and drug development, differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) needs of epithelial and stromal cells hinder efforts to create such models. Here, using the endometrium as an example mucosal barrier, we describe a synthetic, modular ECM hydrogel suitable for 3D functional co-culture, featuring components that can be remodeled by cells and that respond dynamically to sequester local cell-secreted ECM characteristic of each cell type. The synthetic hydrogel combines peptides with off-the-shelf reagents and is thus accessible to cell biology labs. Specifically, we first identified a single peptide as suitable for initial attachment of both endometrial epithelial and stromal cells using a 2D semi-empirical screen. Then, using a co-culture system of epithelial cells cultured on top of gel-encapsulated stromal cells, we show that inclusion of ECM-binding peptides in the hydrogel, along with the integrin-binding peptide, leads to enhanced accumulation of basement membrane beneath the epithelial layer and more fibrillar collagen matrix assembly by stromal cells over two weeks in culture. Importantly, endometrial co-cultures composed of either cell lines or primary cells displayed hormone-mediated differentiation as assessed by morphological changes and secretory protein production. A multiplex analysis of apical cytokine and growth factor secretion comparing cell lines and primary cells revealed strikingly different patterns, underscoring the importance of using primary cell models in analysis of cell-cell communication networks. In summary, we define a "one-size-fits-all" synthetic ECM that enables

  8. Cell reintegration: Stray epithelial cells make their way home.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tyler J; Bergstralh, Dan T

    2017-06-01

    Ongoing work shows that misplaced epithelial cells have the capacity to reintegrate back into tissue layers. This movement appears to underlie tissue stability and may also control aspects of tissue structure. A recent study reveals that cell reintegration in at least one tissue, the Drosophila follicular epithelium, is based on adhesion molecules that line lateral cell surfaces. In this article we will review these observations, discuss their implications for epithelial tissue development and maintenance, and identify future directions for study. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Phenotypic plasticity in normal breast derived epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Normal, healthy human breast tissue from a variety of volunteer donors has become available for research thanks to the establishment of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB). Multiple epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. Explant culture was utilized to isolate the cells from pieces of breast tissue. Selective media and trypsinization were employed to select either epithelial cells or stromal cells. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture. Results All of the primary, non-transformed epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Cells identified include stratified squamous epithelial, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural progenitors/neurons, immature muscle and melanocytes. The cells also express markers of embryonic stem cells. Conclusions The cell culture conditions employed select an epithelial cell that is pluri/multipotent. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed mimics that seen in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a subtype of triple negative breast cancer; and may provide clues to the origin of this particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The KTB is a unique biorepository, and the normal breast epithelial cells isolated from donated tissue have significant potential as new research tools. PMID:24915897

  10. Spontaneous Production of Immunoglobulin M in Human Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fanlei; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Jie; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Jing; Shao, Wenwei; Liao, Qinyuan; Ma, Teng; Geng, Li; Yin, C. Cameron; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that B-1 B cells are the main cell type that is responsible for the production of natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) and can respond to infection by increasing IgM secretion. However, we unexpectedly found that some epithelial cells also can express rearranged IgM transcript that has natural IgM characteristics, such as germline-encoded and restricted rearrangement patterns. Here we studied IgM expression in human non-B cells and found that IgM was frequently expressed by many human epithelial cancer cells as well as non-cancer epithelial cells. Moreover, CD79A and CD79B, two molecules that are physically linked to membranous IgM on the surface of B cells to form the B cell antigen receptor complex, were also expressed on the cell surface of epithelial cancer cells and co-located with IgM. Like the natural IgM, the epithelial cancer cell-derived IgM recognized a series of microbial antigens, such as single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, lipopolysaccharide, and the HEp-2 cell antigen. More important, stimulation of the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which mimics bacterial infection, substantially increased the secretion of IgM in human epithelial cancer cells. These findings indicate that human epithelial cancer cells as well as non-cancer epithelial cells can spontaneously produce IgM with natural antibody activity. PMID:23251529

  11. Expression of p75(NGFR), a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-08-29

    We investigated the expression of p75(NGFR), a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75(NGFR), BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (-)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75(NGFR) (-)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75(NGFR) (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75(NGFR) (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium.

  12. Stem cell therapy: A novel treatment approach for oral mucosal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Suma, G. N.; Arora, Madhu Pruthi; Lakhanpal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells have enormous potential to alleviate sufferings of many diseases that currently have no effective therapy. The research in this field is growing at an exponential rate. Stem cells are master cells that have specialized capability for self-renewal, potency and capability to differentiate to many cell types. At present, the adult mesenchymal stem cells are being used in the head and neck region for orofacial regeneration (including enamel, dentin, pulp and alveolar bone) in lieu of their proliferative and regenerative properties, their use in the treatment of oral mucosal lesions is still in budding stages. Moreover, there is scanty literature available regarding role of stem cell therapy in the treatment of commonly seen oral mucosal lesions like oral submucous fibrosis, oral lichen planus, oral ulcers and oral mucositis. The present review will focus on the current knowledge about the role of stem cell therapies in oral mucosal lesions and could facilitate new advancements in this area (articles were obtained from electronic media like PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane and Medline etc., from year 2000 to 2014 to review the role of stem cell therapy in oral mucosal lesions). PMID:25709329

  13. Promoter methylation in epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell populations isolated from breast milk.

    PubMed

    Browne, Eva P; Dinc, Signem E; Punska, Elizabeth C; Agus, Sami; Vitrinel, Ayca; Erdag, Gulay Ciler; Anderton, Douglas L; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among Turkish women and both the incidence and associated mortality appear to be increasing. Of particular concern is the percentage of young women diagnosed with breast cancer; roughly 20% of all breast cancer diagnoses in Turkey are in women younger than 40 years. Increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is a promising molecular biomarker, and human milk provides exfoliated breast epithelial cells appropriate for DNA methylation analyses. Comparisons between DNA methylation patterns in epithelial (epithelial-enriched) and nonepithelial (epithelial-depleted) cell fractions from breast milk have not been reported previously. In the present study, we examined promoter methylation of 3 tumor suppressor genes in epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell fractions isolated from breast milk of 43 Turkish women. Percentage methylation in the promoter region of Rass association domain family 1 (RASSF1), secreted frizzle related protein 1 (SFRP1), and glutathione-S-transferase class pi 1 was determined by pyrosequencing of the epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell fractions. Pyrosequencing identified a few subjects with significantly increased methylation in 1 or more genes. There was little correlation between the 2 cell fractions within individuals; only 1 woman had increased methylation for 1 gene (SFRP1) in both her enriched and depleted cell fractions. Methylation was positively associated with age for SFRP1 (epithelial-depleted fraction) and with body mass index for RASSF1 (epithelial-enriched cell fraction), respectively. Overall, results show that the methylation signals vary between different cell types in breast milk and suggest that breast milk can be used to assess DNA methylation patterns associated with increased breast cancer risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Scrib is required for epithelial cell identity and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Yamben, Idella F; Rachel, Rivka A; Shatadal, Shalini; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Warming, Soren; Griep, Anne E

    2013-12-01

    The integrity and function of epithelial tissues depend on the establishment and maintenance of defining characteristics of epithelial cells, cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity. Disruption of these characteristics can lead to the loss of epithelial identity through a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can contribute to pathological conditions such as tissue fibrosis and invasive cancer. In invertebrates, the epithelial polarity gene scrib plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell adhesion and polarity. In this study we asked if the mouse homolog, Scrib, is required for establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial identity in vivo. To do so, we conditionally deleted Scrib in the head ectoderm tissue that gives rise to both the ocular lens and the corneal epithelium. Deletion of Scrib in the lens resulted in a change in epithelial cell shape from cuboidal to flattened and elongated. Early in the process, the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and apical polarity protein, ZO-1, were downregulated and the myofibroblast protein, αSMA, was upregulated, suggesting EMT was occurring in the Scrib deficient lenses. Correlating temporally with the upregulation of αSMA, Smad3 and Smad4, TGFβ signaling intermediates, accumulated in the nucleus and Snail, a TGFβ target and transcriptional repressor of the gene encoding E-cadherin, was upregulated. Pax6, a lens epithelial transcription factor required to maintain lens epithelial cell identity also was downregulated. Loss of Scrib in the corneal epithelium also led to molecular changes consistent with EMT, suggesting that the effect of Scrib deficiency was not unique to the lens. Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGFβ signaling.

  15. Activation of Epithelial Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 by Interleukin 28 Controls Mucosal Healing in Mice With Colitis and Is Increased in Mucosa of Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Mircea T; Buchen, Barbara; Wandersee, Alexandra; Hundorfean, Gheorghe; Günther, Claudia; Bourjau, Yvonne; Doyle, Sean E; Frey, Benjamin; Ekici, Arif B; Büttner, Christian; Weigmann, Benno; Atreya, Raja; Wirtz, Stefan; Becker, Christoph; Siebler, Jürgen; Neurath, Markus F

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the roles of interleukin 28A (also called IL28A or interferon λ2) in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) activation, studying its effects in mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and intestinal mucosal healing. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6JCrl mice (controls), mice with IEC-specific disruption of Stat1 (Stat1IEC-KO), mice with disruption of the interferon λ receptor 1 gene (Il28ra(-/-)), and mice with disruption of the interferon regulatory factor 3 gene (Irf3(-/-)), with or without disruption of Irf7 (Irf7(-/-)). We used high-resolution mini-endoscopy and in vivo imaging methods to assess colitis progression. We used 3-dimensional small intestine and colon organoids, along with RNA-Seq and gene ontology methods, to characterize the effects of IL28 on primary IECs. We studied the effects of IL28 on the human intestinal cancer cell line Caco-2 in a wound-healing assay, and in mice colon wounds. Colonic biopsies and resected tissue from patients with IBD (n = 62) and patients without colon inflammation (controls, n = 23) were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain rection to measure expression of IL28A, IL28RA, and other related cytokines; biopsy samples were also analyzed by immunofluorescence to identify sources of IL28 production. IECs were isolated from patient tissues and incubated with IL28; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation was measured by immunoblots and confocal imaging. Lamina propria cells in colon tissues of patients with IBD, and mice with colitis, had increased expression of IL28 compared with controls; levels of IL28R were increased in the colonic epithelium of patients with IBD and mice with colitis. Administration of IL28 induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in primary human and mouse IECs, increasing with dose. Il28ra(-/-), Irf3(-/-), Irf3(-/-)Irf7(-/-), as well as Stat1IEC-KO mice, developed more severe colitis after administration of dextran sulfate sodium than control mice

  16. Characterization of Human Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Appendix……………………………………………………………………………… 11 Eirew,P., Stingl,J., Raouf,A., Turashvili,G., Aparicio ,S., Emerman,J.T., and Eaves,C.J. A method for... Aparicio , Joanne Emerman and Connie Eaves. A method for quantifying normal human mammary epithelial stem cells with in vivo regenerative ability...Abstracts Peter Eirew, John Stingl, Afshin Raouf, Gulisa Turshvili, Sam Aparicio , Joanne Emerman and Connie Eaves, “Identification of Human Mammary

  17. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3.

  18. Quercetin Blocks Airway Epithelial Cell Chemokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nanua, Suparna; Zick, Suzanna M.; Andrade, Juan E.; Sajjan, Umadevi S.; Burgess, John R.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2006-01-01

    Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, is an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that quercetin blocks airway epithelial cell chemokine expression via PI 3-kinase–dependent mechanisms. Pretreatment with quercetin and the PI 3–kinase inhibitor LY294002 each reduced TNF-α–induced IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (also called CCL2) expression in cultured human airway epithelial cells. Quercetin also inhibited TNF-α–induced PI 3-kinase activity, Akt phosphorylation, intracellular H2O2 production, NF-κB transactivation, IL-8 promoter activity, and steady-state mRNA levels, consistent with the notion that quercetin inhibits chemokine expression by attenuating NF-κB transactivation via a PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway. Quercetin also reduced TNF-α–induced chemokine secretion in the presence of the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, while inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)-2α, suggesting that quercetin attenuates chemokine expression by post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional mechanisms. Finally, we tested the effects of quercetin in cockroach antigen–sensitized and –challenged mice. These mice show MCP-1–dependent airways hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Quercetin significantly reduced lung MCP-1 and methacholine responsiveness. We conclude that quercetin blocks airway cell chemokine expression via transcriptional and post-transcriptional pathways. PMID:16794257

  19. Probiotics and commensals reverse TNF-alpha- and IFN-gamma-induced dysfunction in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Resta-Lenert, Silvia; Barrett, Kim E

    2006-03-01

    Commensal bacteria are crucial for the development of the mucosal immune system. Probiotics are commensals with special characteristics and may protect mucosal surfaces against pathogens. Pathogens cause significant phenotypic alterations in infected epithelial cells, and probiotics reverse these deleterious responses. We hypothesized that probiotics and/or commensals may also reverse epithelial damage produced by cytokines. Human intestinal epithelial cells were exposed basolaterally to interferon (IFN)-gamma (10(3) U/mL) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (10 ng/mL) for up to 48 hours and assessed for ion transport, transepithelial resistance (TER), and epithelial permeability in the presence or absence of probiotics (Streptococcus thermophilus [ST] and Lactobacillus acidophilus [LA]), or the commensal, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (BT). Agonist-stimulated chloride secretion was inhibited by IFN-gamma, an effect prevented by ST/LA or BT. The ability of ST/LA or BT to restore Cl(-) secretion was blocked by inhibitors of p38 MAPK, ERK1, 2, and PI3K. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the NKCC1 cotransporter were down-regulated by IFN-gamma, and ST/LA pretreatment reversed this effect. Both TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma significantly reduced TER and increased epithelial permeability, effects prevented by ST/LA or BT. A Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor synergistically potentiated effects of ST/LA or BT on TER and permeability, but p38, ERK1, 2, or PI3K inhibition did not. Finally, only probiotic-treated epithelial cells exposed to cytokines showed reduced activation of SOCS3 and STAT1,3. Deleterious effects of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma on epithelial function are prevented by probiotic, and to a lesser extent, commensal pretreatment. These data extend the spectrum of effects of such bacteria on intestinal epithelial function and may justify their use in inflammatory disorders.

  20. NK cells influence both innate and adaptive immune responses after mucosal immunisation with antigen and mucosal adjuvant*

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lindsay J; Clare, Simon; Dougan, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    NK cells were found to be recruited in a temporally controlled manner to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and the cervical lymph nodes of mice following intranasal immunisation with Ag85B-ESAT6 antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis mixed with Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin as adjuvant. These NK cells were activated and they secreted a diverse range of cytokines and other immunmodulators. Using antibody depletion targeting anti-asialo GM1, we found evidence for altered trafficking, impaired activation and cytokine secretion of dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils in immunised NK cell depleted mice compared to control animals. Analysis of antigen-specific immune responses revealed an attenuated antibody and cytokine response in immunised NK cell depleted animals. Systemic administration of rIL-6 but not rIFN-γ significantly restored immune responses in mice depleted of NK cells. In conclusion, cytokine production, particularly IL-6, via NK cells and NK cell activated immune populations, plays an important role in the establishment of local innate immune responses and the consequent development of adaptive immunity after mucosal immunisation. PMID:20220095

  1. Mucosal Immunity and B Cells in Teleosts: Effect of Vaccination and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parra, David; Reyes-Lopez, Felipe E.; Tort, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Fish are subjected to several insults from the environment, which may endanger animal survival. Mucosal surfaces are the first line of defense against these threats, acting as a physical barrier to protect the animal but also functioning as an active immune tissue. Thus, four mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (MALTs), which lead the immune responses in gut, skin, gills, and nose, have been described in fish. Humoral and cellular immunity, as well as their regulation and the factors that influence the response in these mucosal lymphoid tissues, are still not well known in most fish species. Mucosal B-lymphocytes and immunoglobulins (Igs) are key players in the immune response that takes place in those MALTs. The existence of IgT as a mucosal specialized Ig gives us the opportunity of measuring specific responses after infection or vaccination, a fact that was not possible until recently in most fish species. The vaccination process is influenced by several factors, being stress one of the main stimuli determining the success of the vaccine. Thus, one of the major goals in a vaccination process is to avoid possible situations of stress, which might interfere with fish immune performance. However, interaction between immune and neuroendocrine systems at mucosal tissues is still unknown. In this review, we will summarize the latest findings about B-lymphocytes and Igs in mucosal immunity and the effect of stress and vaccination on B-cell response at mucosal sites. It is important to point out that a limited number of studies have been published regarding stress in mucosa and very few about the influence of stress over mucosal B-lymphocytes. PMID:26236311

  2. Mucosal mast cells are indispensable for the timely termination of Strongyloides ratti infection.

    PubMed

    Reitz, M; Brunn, M-L; Rodewald, H-R; Feyerabend, T B; Roers, A; Dudeck, A; Voehringer, D; Jönsson, F; Kühl, A A; Breloer, M

    2017-03-01

    Mast cells and basophils are innate immune cells with overlapping functions that contribute to anti-helminth immunity. Mast cell function during helminth infection was previously studied using mast cell-deficient Kit-mutant mice that display additional mast cell-unrelated immune deficiencies. Here, we use mice that lack basophils or mucosal and connective tissue mast cells in a Kit-independent manner to re-evaluate the impact of each cell type during helminth infection. Neither mast cells nor basophils participated in the immune response to tissue-migrating Strongyloides ratti third-stage larvae, but both cell types contributed to the early expulsion of parasitic adults from the intestine. The termination of S. ratti infection required the presence of mucosal mast cells: Cpa3(Cre) mice, which lack mucosal and connective tissue mast cells, remained infected for more than 150 days. Mcpt5(Cre) R-DTA mice, which lack connective tissue mast cells only, and basophil-deficient Mcpt8(Cre) mice terminated the infection after 1 month with wild-type kinetics despite their initial increase in intestinal parasite burden. Because Cpa3(Cre) mice showed intact Th2 polarization and efficiently developed protective immunity after vaccination, we hypothesize that mucosal mast cells are non-redundant terminal effector cells in the intestinal epithelium that execute anti-helminth immunity but do not orchestrate it.

  3. Human mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells possess capacity for B-cell help.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael S; Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Iyer, Anita S; Hale, J Scott; Leung, Daniel T

    2017-08-14

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate-like T-cell subset, restricted by the nonclassic MHC class I-related protein MR1 and enriched at mucosal sites. Human studies have shown an association between MAIT cells and pathogen-specific antibody responses. In this study, we investigate the effect of human MAIT cells on B cells ex vivo. We found that supernatants from microbe- or cytokine-stimulated MAIT cells, when added to purified autologous B cells, increase frequencies of plasmablasts and promote IgA, IgG, and IgM production. We found effects to be mostly MR1-dependent and that the increases in plasmablasts are likely a result of increased differentiation from memory B cells. Furthermore, microbe-activated MAIT cell supernatant contains multiple cytokines known to stimulate B cells, including IL-6, -10, and -21. This study thus provides the first direct evidence of a newly identified role of MAIT cells in providing help to B cells. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. Lack of Interleukin-10-Mediated Anti-Inflammatory Signals and Upregulated Interferon Gamma Production Are Linked to Increased Intestinal Epithelial Cell Apoptosis in Pathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Diganta; Kenway-Lynch, Carys S.; Lala, Wendy; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Das, Arpita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that is important for maintenance of epithelial cell (EC) survival and anti-inflammatory responses (AIR). The majority of HIV infections occur through the mucosal route despite mucosal epithelium acting as a barrier to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, understanding the role of IL-10 in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis during HIV infection is of interest for better characterization of the pathogenesis of HIV-mediated enteropathy. We demonstrated here changes in mucosal IL-10 signaling during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques. Disruption of the epithelial barrier was manifested by EC apoptosis and loss of the tight-junction protein ZO-1. Multiple cell types, including a limited number of ECs, produced IL-10. SIV infection resulted in increased levels of IL-10; however, this was associated with increased production of mucosal gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), suggesting that IL-10 was not able to regulate AIR. This observation was supported by the downregulation of STAT3, which is necessary to inhibit production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and the upregulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3, which are important regulatory molecules in the IL-10-mediated AIR. We also observed internalization of the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) in mucosal lymphocytes, which could limit cellular availability of IL-10 for signaling and contribute to the loss of a functional AIR. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that internalization of IL-10R with the resultant impact on IL-10 signaling and dysregulation of the IL-10-mediated AIR might play a crucial role in EC damage and subsequent SIV/HIV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an important immunomodulatory cytokine plays a key role to control inflammatory function and homeostasis of the gastrointestinal mucosal immune system. Despite recent advancements in the study of IL-10 and its role in HIV

  5. AMP-18 protects barrier function of colonic epithelial cells: role of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh-Reitz, Margaret M.; Huang, Erick F.; Musch, Mark W.; Chang, Eugene B.; Martin, Terence E.; Kartha, Sreedharan; Toback, F. Gary

    2005-01-01

    AMP-18, a novel gastric antrum mucosal protein, and a synthetic peptide of amino acids 77-97, have mitogenic and motogenic properties for epithelial cells. The possibility that AMP-18 is also protective was evaluated in the colonic mucosa of mice and monolayer cultures of human colonic epithelial Caco2/bbe (C2) cells. Administration of AMP peptide to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury delayed the onset of bloody diarrhea, and reduced weight loss. Treatment of C2 cells with AMP peptide protected monolayers against decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) induced by the oxidant monochloramine, indomethacin, or DSS. A molecular mechanism for these barrier-protective effects was sought by asking if AMP peptide acted on specific tight junction (TJ) proteins. Immunoblots of detergent-insoluble fractions of C2 cells treated with AMP peptide exhibited increased accumulation of specific TJ proteins. Occludin immunoreactivity was also increased in detergent-insoluble fractions obtained from colonic mucosal cells of mice injected with AMP peptide. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (CF) supported the capacity of AMP peptide to enhance accumulation of occludin and ZO-1 in TJ domains of C2 cell monolayers, and together with immunoblot analysis showed that the peptide protected against loss of these TJ proteins following oxidant injury. AMP peptide also protected against a fall in TER during disruption of actin filaments by cytochalasin D, and stabilized perijunctional actin during oxidant injury when assessed by CF. These findings suggest that AMP-18 could protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by acting on specific TJ proteins and stabilizing perijunctional actin. PMID:15961882

  6. [Research progress of corneal epithelial basal cells and basement membrane].

    PubMed

    Qu, J H; Sun, X G

    2016-09-11

    The cylinder cells at the bottom of corneal epithelial cells are basal cells. Their cytoplasm contains keratin intermediate filament which is important in secretion of basement membrane. Corneal epithelial dysfunction due to diabetes or ocular surgery is intimately related with basal cell abnormality. Corneal epithelial basement membrane is a highly specific extracellular matrix which is made up of lamina lucida and lamina densa. It plays an extremely important role in renewal and restoration. Many ocular abnormalities and diseases have been described to relate to the corneal epithelial basement membrane, such as traumatic recurrent corneal erosion, corneal dystrophy and keratoconus. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 703-707).

  7. Pulmonary Epithelial Cell-Derived Cytokine TGF-β1 Is a Critical Cofactor for Enhanced Innate Lymphoid Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Laura; Byrne, Adam J.; Shea, Thomas J.; Buckley, James S.; Pease, James E.; Herledan, Gaelle M.F.; Walker, Simone A.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary homeostasis and pathogen defense and play a crucial role in the initiation of allergic immune responses. Maintaining the balance between homeostasis and inappropriate immune activation and associated pathology is particularly complex at mucosal sites that are exposed to billions of potentially antigenic particles daily. We demonstrated that epithelial cell-derived cytokine TGF-β had a central role in the generation of the pulmonary immune response. Mice that specifically lacked epithelial cell-derived TGF-β1 displayed a reduction in type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), resulting in suppression of interleukin-13 and hallmark features of the allergic response including airway hyperreactivity. ILCs in the airway lumen were primed to respond to TGF-β by expressing the receptor TGF-βRII and ILC chemoactivity was enhanced by TGF-β. These data demonstrate that resident epithelial cells instruct immune cells, highlighting the central role of the local environmental niche in defining the nature and magnitude of immune reactions. PMID:26588780

  8. Henipavirus pathogenesis in human respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2013-03-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection.

  9. Henipavirus Pathogenesis in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J. Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection. PMID:23302882

  10. Glucocorticoid receptor in human respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pujolsa, Laura; Mullol, Joaquim; Picado, Cèsar

    2009-01-01

    Inhaled and intranasal glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most common and effective drugs for controlling symptoms and airway inflammation in respiratory diseases such as allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with/without nasal polyps, and asthma, and the respiratory epithelium is a primary target of GC anti-inflammatory actions. GC effects are mediated through the GC receptor (GR). In humans, one single GR gene gives rise to two main GR products, namely GRalpha and GRbeta, which are subject to translational and posttranslational modifications. GRalpha is expressed in virtually all human cells and tissues, including respiratory epithelial cells, and - at least in vitro - is downregulated by GC. GRalpha mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of GC by activating transcription of anti-inflammatory genes through binding of GRalpha to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) located in the promoter region of target genes, repressing transcription of proinflammatory genes through direct interaction between GRalpha and proinflammatory transcription factors, such as AP-1 and NF-kappaB (transrepression), and also by destabilizing the mRNA of proinflammatory mediators. GRbeta acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of GRalpha-mediated transactivation and transrepression in certain in vitro studies with transfected cells. The GRbeta message is expressed at low levels in numerous tissues and its protein is mainly expressed in inflammatory cells, although it has also been detected in airway epithelial cells. Increased GRbeta expression has been reported in bronchial asthma and nasal polyposis, and after incubation of cells with certain proinflammatory stimuli. However, the role of GRbeta in modulating GC sensitivity in vivo has been highly debated and is as yet unclear.

  11. Coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multilineage stroma via polyploid giant cells during immortalization and transformation of mullerian epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwu; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Sood, Anil; Bast, Robert C.; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells are generally considered to be derived primarily from the host's normal mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow. However, the origins of stromal cells have been quite controversial. To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. Here we show that immortalized or HRAS-transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl2. The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS-transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. PMID:27382431

  12. LL-37 causes cell death of human nasal epithelial cells, which is inhibited with a synthetic glycosaminoglycan.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Pulsipher, Abigail; Davis, Brock M; Alt, Jeremiah A

    2017-01-01

    LL-37 is an immune peptide that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the upper airways. Elevated levels of LL-37 have been linked to cell death and inflammatory diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are polysaccharides that are found on respiratory epithelial cells and serve important roles in mucosal surface repair. Recent findings suggest that a synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GM-0111) can protect against LL-37-induced sinonasal mucosal inflammation and cell death in a murine model of acute RS. Herein, we elucidated the mechanisms by which LL-37 causes sinonasal inflammation and how GM-0111 can prevent these mechanisms. When challenged with LL-37, human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpCs) and mouse macrophages (J774.2) demonstrated increased release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, as well as cell death and lysis. These cellular responses were all blocked dose-dependently by pre-treatment with GM-0111. We identified that LL-37-induced cell death is associated with caspase-1 and -8 activation, but not activation of caspase-3/7. These responses were again blocked by GM-0111. Our data suggest that LL-37 causes cellular death of HNEpCs and macrophages through the pro-inflammatory necrotic and/or pyroptotic pathways rather than apoptosis, and that a GM-0111 is capable of inhibiting these pro-inflammatory cellular events.

  13. Transepithelial transport and mucosal defence II: secretion of IgA.

    PubMed

    Kraehenbuhl, J P; Neutra, M R

    1992-06-01

    In this second article on mucosal defence and transepithelial transport, Jean-Pierre Kraehenbuhl and Marian Neutra discuss the part played by a special class of antibody, polymeric IgA, in the protection of mucosal surfaces lining the digestive, respiratory and genital tracts, and the implications for mucosal vaccines. Polymeric IgA crosslinks luminal antigens or pathogens, thus preventing their interaction with epithelial cells. Following stimulation by antigen in the organized mucosal lymphoid tissue, effector B lymphocytes enter the circulation and migrate to distant mucosal or glandular sites, where they differentiate into polymeric-IgA-producing plasma cells. These antibodies reach the environment by transport across the epithelial cells of mucosal and glandular tissues.

  14. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  15. The impact of lactoferrin with different levels of metal saturation on the intestinal epithelial barrier function and mucosal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Majka, Grzegorz; Więcek, Grażyna; Śróttek, Małgorzata; Śpiewak, Klaudyna; Brindell, Małgorzata; Koziel, Joanna; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Strus, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Translocation of bacteria, primarily Gram-negative pathogenic flora, from the intestinal lumen into the circulatory system leads to sepsis. In newborns, and especially very low birth weight infants, sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The results of recently conducted clinical trials suggest that lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein that is abundant in mammalian colostrum and milk, may be an effective agent in preventing sepsis in newborns. However, despite numerous basic studies on lactoferrin, very little is known about how metal saturation of this protein affects a host's health. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to elucidate how iron-depleted, iron-saturated, and manganese-saturated forms of lactoferrin regulate intestinal barrier function via interactions with epithelial cells and macrophages. For these studies, a human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, was used. In this model, none of the tested lactoferrin forms induced higher levels of apoptosis or necrosis. There was also no change in the production of tight junction proteins regardless of lactoferrin metal saturation status. None of the tested forms induced a pro-inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells or in macrophages either. However, the various lactoferrin forms did effectively inhibit the pro-inflammatory response in macrophages that were activated with lipopolysaccharide with the most potent effect observed for apolactoferrin. Lactoferrin that was not bound to its cognate receptor was able to bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide. Lactoferrin was also able to neutralize microbial-derived antigens, thereby potentially reducing their pro-inflammatory effect. Therefore, we hypothesize that lactoferrin supplementation is a relevant strategy for preventing sepsis.

  16. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  17. Effect of topical microbicides on infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binding to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, Susan; Monsour, Michael; Dowland, Amanda; Guenthner, Patricia C; Hancock, Kelly; Ou, Chin-Yi; Dezzutti, Charlene S

    2007-06-01

    Topical microbicides (cellulose acetate 1,2 benzene dicarboxylate [CAP], PRO 2000, SPL7013, and UC781) are being investigated to reduce the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). These products were shown to prevent the transfer of infectious HIV-1 from urogenital and colorectal epithelial cell lines to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, it was unclear if the topical microbicides rendered the virus noninfectious and/or reduced the binding to the epithelial cells. To test this, epithelial cells were cultured with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of topical microbicides or their placebos. The cells were washed, RNA lysates were made, and real-time PCR was performed for HIV-1. PRO 2000 and SPL7013 significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the amount of bound HIV-1 to the colorectal epithelial cell line across clades A, B, C, and CRF01-AE. While none of the products reduced the binding of HIV-1 clades A and C to the urogenital cell line, CAP, PRO 2000, and SPL7013 significantly (P epithelial cells and possible shedding into mucosal secretions. Therefore, functional virological assays in addition to measuring viral RNA should be included when clinically evaluating topical microbicide use by infected persons.

  18. Increased Mucosal CD4+ T Cell Activation in Rhesus Macaques following Vaccination with an Adenoviral Vector

    PubMed Central

    Bukh, Irene; Calcedo, Roberto; Roy, Soumitra; Carnathan, Diane G.; Grant, Rebecca; Qin, Qiuyue; Boyd, Surina; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Veeder, Christin L.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Betts, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The possibility that vaccination with adenovirus (AdV) vectors increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of HIV acquisition within the Step trial. Modeling this within rhesus macaques is complicated because human adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5), are not endogenous to macaques. Here, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector (simian adenovirus 7 [SAdV-7]) enhances mucosal T cell activation within rhesus macaques. Following intramuscular SAdV-7 vaccination, we observed a pronounced increase in SAdV-7-specific CD4+ T cell responses in peripheral blood and, more dramatically, in rectal mucosa tissue. Vaccination also induced a significant increase in the frequency of activated memory CD4+ T cells in SAdV-7- and HAdV-5-vaccinated animals in the rectal mucosa but not in peripheral blood. These fluctuations within the rectal mucosa were also associated with a pronounced decrease in the relative frequency of naive resting CD4+ T cells. Together, these results indicate that peripheral vaccination with an AdV vector can increase the activation of mucosal CD4+ T cells, potentially providing an experimental model to further evaluate the role of host-vector interactions in increased HIV acquisition after AdV vector vaccination. IMPORTANCE The possibility that vaccination with a human adenovirus 5 vector increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition within the Step trial. In this study, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector in rhesus macaques enhances mucosal CD4+ T cell activation, the main cell target of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/HIV. The results showed that vaccination with an adenoviral vector indeed increases activation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and potentially increases susceptibility to SIV

  19. Regulation of intestinal epithelial cells transcriptome by enteric glial cells: impact on intestinal epithelial barrier functions.

    PubMed

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Mahé, Maxime M; Teusan, Raluca; Léger, Jean; Guisle, Isabelle; Houlgatte, Rémi; Neunlist, Michel

    2009-11-02

    Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions and the signalling pathways involved in their effects are currently unknown. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying the impact of EGC upon IEC transcriptome by performing microarray studies. EGC induced significant changes in gene expression profiling of proliferating IEC after 24 hours of co-culture. 116 genes were identified as differentially expressed (70 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated) in IEC cultured with EGC compared to IEC cultured alone. By performing functional analysis of the 116 identified genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we showed that EGC induced a significant regulation of genes favoring both cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion as well as cell differentiation. Consistently, functional studies showed that EGC induced a significant increase in cell adhesion. EGC also regulated genes involved in cell motility towards an enhancement of cell motility. In addition, EGC profoundly modulated expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and cell survival, although no clear functional trend could be identified. Finally, important genes involved in lipid and protein metabolism of epithelial cells were shown to be differentially regulated by EGC. This study reinforces the emerging concept that EGC have major protective effects upon the IEB. EGC have a profound impact upon IEC transcriptome and induce a shift in IEC phenotype towards increased cell adhesion and cell differentiation. This concept needs to be further validated under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  20. Neutrophils are a major source of the epithelial barrier disrupting cytokine oncostatin M in patients with mucosal airways disease.

    PubMed

    Pothoven, Kathryn L; Norton, James E; Suh, Lydia A; Carter, Roderick G; Harris, Kathleen E; Biyasheva, Assel; Welch, Kevin; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Conley, David B; Liu, Mark C; Kato, Atsushi; Avila, Pedro C; Hamid, Qutayba; Grammer, Leslie C; Peters, Anju T; Kern, Robert C; Tan, Bruce K; Schleimer, Robert P

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown that oncostatin M (OSM) levels are increased in nasal polyps (NPs) of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), as well as in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, after segmental allergen challenge in allergic asthmatic patients. We also showed in vitro that physiologic levels of OSM impair barrier function in differentiated airway epithelium. We sought to determine which hematopoietic or resident cell type or types were the source of the OSM expressed in patients with mucosal airways disease. Paraffin-embedded NP sections were stained with fluorescence-labeled specific antibodies against OSM, GM-CSF, and hematopoietic cell-specific markers. Live cells were isolated from NPs and matched blood samples for flow cytometric analysis. Neutrophils were isolated from whole blood and cultured with the known OSM inducers GM-CSF and follistatin-like 1, and OSM levels were measured in the supernatants. Bronchial biopsy sections from control subjects, patients with moderate asthma, and patients with severe asthma were stained for OSM and neutrophil elastase. OSM staining was observed in NPs, showed colocalization with neutrophil elastase (n = 10), and did not colocalize with markers for eosinophils, macrophages, T cells, or B cells (n = 3-5). Flow cytometric analysis of NPs (n = 9) showed that 5.1% ± 2% of CD45(+) cells were OSM(+), and of the OSM(+) cells, 56% ± 7% were CD16(+)Siglec-8(-), indicating neutrophil lineage. Only 0.6 ± 0.4% of CD45(+) events from matched blood samples (n = 5) were OSM(+), suggesting that increased OSM levels in patients with CRS was locally stimulated and produced. A majority of OSM(+) neutrophils expressed arginase 1 (72.5% ± 12%), suggesting an N2 phenotype. GM-CSF levels were increased in NPs compared with those in control tissue and were sufficient to induce OSM production (P < .001) in peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro. OSM(+) neutrophils were also observed at increased levels in biopsy

  1. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L.; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts to repair epithelial injury. Indeed, single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. In contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate was inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may play a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

  2. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF164) ameliorates intestinal epithelial injury in vitro in IEC-18 and Caco-2 monolayers via induction of TGF-beta release from epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bulut, K; Pennartz, C; Felderbauer, P; Ansorge, N; Banasch, M; Schmitz, F; Schmidt, W E; Hoffmann, P

    2006-06-01

    VEGF is a glycoprotein with various (e.g. angiogenic) activities. So far, research has focused on its angiogenic properties. VEGF receptors are localized on epithelial cells of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and also on Caco-2 and IEC-18 cells. Our aim was to evaluate the role of VEGF on intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) migration and proliferation by utilizing an established in vitro model. IEC-18 and Caco-2 monolayers were wounded with a razor blade as described previously. Cells were incubated in medium w/o rat VEGF(164). After 24 h, migration was assessed by counting cells across the wound edge. Migration was blocked with neutralizing TGF-beta(1) antibodies. IEC proliferation was assessed using the MTT (3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) test. Semi-quantitative changes of the TGF-beta(1) mRNA expression were evaluated before and after stimulation of the cells with VEGF(164) by RT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and the Wilcoxon test. VEGF(164) significantly induced epithelial cell migration in Caco-2 and IEC-18 cells compared to control. TGF-beta(1) antibodies completely abolished this VEGF-induced cell migration. TGF-beta(1) mRNA significantly increased in IEC-18 and Caco-2 cells after stimulation with VEGF. VEGF significantly inhibited epithelial cell proliferation in IEC-18 and in Caco-2 cells, indicating that the observed effects on cell migration were not due to any proliferate effects. VEGF effects on epithelial cell migration play an important part in epithelial cell restitution by maintaining mucosal homeostasis after mucosal injury. This effect is mediated by TGF-beta(1). Our results obtain another possible role for increased VEGF levels in the intestinal mucosa of patients with IBD as reported recently by others.

  4. Pavlovian Conditioning of Rat Mucosal Mast Cells to Secrete Rat Mast Cell Protease II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Glenda; Marshall, Jean; Perdue, Mary; Siegel, Shepard; Bienenstock, John

    1989-01-01

    Antigen (egg albumin) injections, which stimulate mucosal mast cells to secrete mediators, were paired with an audiovisual cue. After reexposure to the audiovisual cue, a mediator (rat mast cell protease II) was measured with a sensitive and specific assay. Animals reexposed to only the audiovisual cue released a quantity of protease not significantly different from animals reexposed to both the cue and the antigen; these groups released significantly more protease than animals that had received the cue and antigen in a noncontingent manner. The results support a role for the central nervous system as a functional effector of mast cell function in the allergic state.

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ρlvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  6. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  7. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  8. Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Able to Trigger Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Laura; Mazzetta, Francesca; Martinelli, Daniela; Valente, Sabatino; Alimandi, Maurizio; Raffa, Salvatore; Santino, Iolanda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some bacterial pathogens to activate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition normally is a consequence of the persistence of a local chronic inflammatory response or depends on a direct interaction of the pathogens with the host epithelial cells. In this study we monitored the abilities of the K. pneumoniae to activate the expression of genes related to EMT-like processes and the occurrence of phenotypic changes in airway epithelial cells during the early steps of cell infection. We describe changes in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased HIF-1α mRNA expression in cells exposed to K. pneumoniae infection. We also describe the upregulation of a set of transcription factors implicated in the EMT processes, such as Twist, Snail and ZEB, indicating that the morphological changes of epithelial cells already appreciable after few hours from the K. pneumoniae infection are tightly regulated by the activation of transcriptional pathways, driving epithelial cells to EMT. These effects appear to be effectively counteracted by resveratrol, an antioxidant that is able to exert a sustained scavenging of the intracellular ROS. This is the first report indicating that strains of K. pneumoniae may promote EMT-like programs through direct interaction with epithelial cells without the involvement of inflammatory cells. PMID:26812644

  9. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Rebecca N.; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.; Duncan, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell–Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell–derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell–Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell–derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

  10. Ouabain modulates epithelial cell tight junction

    PubMed Central

    Larre, Isabel; Lazaro, Amparo; Contreras, Ruben G.; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Ponce, Arturo; Flores-Benitez, David; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; Castillo, Aída; Shoshani, Liora; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial cells treated with high concentrations of ouabain (e.g., 1 μM) retrieve molecules involved in cell contacts from the plasma membrane and detach from one another and their substrates. On the basis of this observation, we suggested that ouabain might also modulate cell contacts at low, nontoxic levels (10 or 50 nM). To test this possibility, we analyzed its effect on a particular type of cell–cell contact: the tight junction (TJ). We demonstrate that at concentrations that neither inhibit K+ pumping nor disturb the K+ balance of the cell, ouabain modulates the degree of sealing of the TJ as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and the flux of neutral 3 kDa dextran (JDEX). This modulation is accompanied by changes in the levels and distribution patterns of claudins 1, 2, and 4. Interestingly, changes in TER, JDEX, and claudins behavior are mediated through signal pathways containing ERK1/2 and c-Src, which have distinct effects on each physiological parameter and claudin type. These observations support the theory that at low concentrations, ouabain acts as a modulator of cell–cell contacts. PMID:20534449

  11. Enteric glia promote intestinal mucosal healing via activation of focal adhesion kinase and release of proEGF

    PubMed Central

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Chevalier, Julien; Mahé, Maxime M.; Wedel, Thilo; Urvil, Petri; Derkinderen, Pascal; Savidge, Tor

    2011-01-01

    Wound healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa is essential for the maintenance of gut homeostasis and integrity. Enteric glial cells play a major role in regulating intestinal barrier function, but their role in mucosal barrier repair remains unknown. The impact of conditional ablation of enteric glia on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mucosal damage and on healing of diclofenac-induced mucosal ulcerations was evaluated in vivo in GFAP-HSVtk transgenic mice. A mechanically induced model of intestinal wound healing was developed to study glial-induced epithelial restitution. Glial-epithelial signaling mechanisms were analyzed by using pharmacological inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, and genetically engineered intestinal epithelial cells. Enteric glial cells were shown to be abundant in the gut mucosa, where they associate closely with intestinal epithelial cells as a distinct cell population from myofibroblasts. Conditional ablation of enteric glia worsened mucosal damage after DSS treatment and significantly delayed mucosal wound healing following diclofenac-induced small intestinal enteropathy in transgenic mice. Enteric glial cells enhanced epithelial restitution and cell spreading in vitro. These enhanced repair processes were reproduced by use of glial-conditioned media, and soluble proEGF was identified as a secreted glial mediator leading to consecutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and focal adhesion kinase signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Our study shows that enteric glia represent a functionally important cellular component of the intestinal epithelial barrier microenvironment and that the disruption of this cellular network attenuates the mucosal healing process. PMID:21350188

  12. Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1.

    PubMed

    Gudipaty, S A; Lindblom, J; Loftus, P D; Redd, M J; Edes, K; Davey, C F; Krishnegowda, V; Rosenblatt, J

    2017-03-02

    Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state. Here we show that mammalian epithelial cell division occurs in regions of low cell density where cells are stretched. By experimentally stretching epithelia, we find that mechanical stretch itself rapidly stimulates cell division through activation of the Piezo1 channel. To stimulate cell division, stretch triggers cells that are paused in early G2 phase to activate calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, thereby activating the cyclin B transcription that is necessary to drive cells into mitosis. Although both epithelial cell division and cell extrusion require Piezo1 at the steady state, the type of mechanical force controls the outcome: stretch induces cell division, whereas crowding induces extrusion. How Piezo1-dependent calcium transients activate two opposing processes may depend on where and how Piezo1 is activated, as it accumulates in different subcellular sites with increasing cell density. In sparse epithelial regions in which cells divide, Piezo1 localizes to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, whereas in dense regions in which cells extrude, it forms large cytoplasmic aggregates. Because Piezo1 senses both mechanical crowding and stretch, it may act as a homeostatic sensor to control epithelial cell numbers, triggering extrusion and apoptosis in crowded regions and cell division in sparse regions.

  13. Symbiont-derived sphingolipids modulate mucosal homeostasis and B cells in teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    Sepahi, Ali; Cordero, Héctor; Goldfine, Howard; Esteban, Maria Ángeles; Salinas, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria and mucosal immunoglobulins have co-evolved for millions of years in vertebrate animals. Symbiotic bacteria products are known to modulate different aspects of the host immune system. We recently reported that Flectobacillus major is a predominant species that lives in the gill and skin mucosal surfaces of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). F. major is known to produce sphingolipids of a unique molecular structure. Here we propose a role for F. major and its sphingolipids in the regulation of B cell populations in rainbow trout, as well as an essential role for sphingolipids in trout mucosal homeostasis. We found that F. major-specific IgT titers are confined to the gill and skin mucus, whereas F. major-specific IgM titers are only detected in serum. Live F. major cells are able to stimulate sustained IgT expression and secretion in gills. F. major sphingolipids modulate the growth of trout total skin and gill symbiotic bacteria. In vivo systemic administration of F. major sphingolipids changes the proportion of IgT+ to IgM+ B cells in trout HK. These results demonstrate the key role of the symbiont F. major and its sphingolipids in mucosal homeostasis via the modulation of mucosal and systemic Igs and B cells. PMID:27966609

  14. Symbiont-derived sphingolipids modulate mucosal homeostasis and B cells in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Sepahi, Ali; Cordero, Héctor; Goldfine, Howard; Esteban, Maria Ángeles; Salinas, Irene

    2016-12-14

    Symbiotic bacteria and mucosal immunoglobulins have co-evolved for millions of years in vertebrate animals. Symbiotic bacteria products are known to modulate different aspects of the host immune system. We recently reported that Flectobacillus major is a predominant species that lives in the gill and skin mucosal surfaces of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). F. major is known to produce sphingolipids of a unique molecular structure. Here we propose a role for F. major and its sphingolipids in the regulation of B cell populations in rainbow trout, as well as an essential role for sphingolipids in trout mucosal homeostasis. We found that F. major-specific IgT titers are confined to the gill and skin mucus, whereas F. major-specific IgM titers are only detected in serum. Live F. major cells are able to stimulate sustained IgT expression and secretion in gills. F. major sphingolipids modulate the growth of trout total skin and gill symbiotic bacteria. In vivo systemic administration of F. major sphingolipids changes the proportion of IgT(+) to IgM(+) B cells in trout HK. These results demonstrate the key role of the symbiont F. major and its sphingolipids in mucosal homeostasis via the modulation of mucosal and systemic Igs and B cells.

  15. Mucosal BCG Vaccination Induces Protective Lung-Resident Memory T Cell Populations against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo, Carolina; Zedler, Ulrike; Kühl, Anja A.; Lozza, Laura; Saikali, Philippe; Sander, Leif E.; Vogelzang, Alexis; Kupz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown. Using a mouse model of TB, we compared protection and lung cellular infiltrates of parenteral and mucosal BCG vaccination. Adoptive transfer and gene expression analyses of lung airway cells were performed to determine the protective capacities and phenotypes of different memory T cell subsets. In comparison to subcutaneous vaccination, intratracheal and intranasal BCG vaccination generated T effector memory and TRM cells in the lung, as defined by surface marker phenotype. Adoptive mucosal transfer of these airway-resident memory T cells into naive mice mediated protection against TB. Whereas airway-resident memory CD4+ T cells displayed a mixture of effector and regulatory phenotype, airway-resident memory CD8+ T cells displayed prototypical TRM features. Our data demonstrate a key role for mucosal vaccination-induced airway-resident T cells in the host defense against pulmonary TB. These results have direct implications for the design of refined vaccination strategies. PMID:27879332

  16. Heterogeneity and stochastic growth regulation of biliary epithelial cells dictate dynamic epithelial tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kamimoto, Kenji; Kaneko, Kota; Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Okada, Hajime; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2016-07-19

    Dynamic remodeling of the intrahepatic biliary epithelial tissue plays key roles in liver regeneration, yet the cellular basis for this process remains unclear. We took an unbiased approach based on in vivo clonal labeling and tracking of biliary epithelial cells in the three-dimensional landscape, in combination with mathematical simulation, to understand their mode of proliferation in a mouse liver injury model where the nascent biliary structure formed in a tissue-intrinsic manner. An apparent heterogeneity among biliary epithelial cells was observed: whereas most of the responders that entered the cell cycle upon injury exhibited a limited and tapering growth potential, a select population continued to proliferate, making a major contribution in sustaining the biliary expansion. Our study has highlighted a unique mode of epithelial tissue dynamics, which depends not on a hierarchical system driven by fixated stem cells, but rather, on a stochastically maintained progenitor population with persistent proliferative activity.

  17. HIV-associated disruption of tight and adherens junctions of oral epithelial cells facilitates HSV-1 infection and spread.

    PubMed

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals.

  18. HIV-Associated Disruption of Tight and Adherens Junctions of Oral Epithelial Cells Facilitates HSV-1 Infection and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:24586397

  19. Prominent role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in mucosal T cell-independent IgA induction.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yukiko; Asano, Jumpei; Sato, Taku; Liu, Jiajia; Iwata, Makoto; Ohteki, Toshiaki

    2011-02-25

    Although both conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), the roles of pDCs in the gut remain largely unknown. Here we show a critical role for pDCs in T cell-independent (TI) IgA production by B cells in the GALT. When pDCs of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches (PPs) (which are representative GALT) were cultured with naive B cells to induce TI IgA class switch recombination (CSR), IgA production was substantially higher than in cocultures of these cells with cDCs. IgA production was dependent on APRIL and BAFF production by pDCs. Importantly, pDC expression of APRIL and BAFF was dependent on stromal cell-derived type I IFN signaling under steady-state conditions. Our findings provide insight into the molecular basis of pDC conditioning to induce mucosal TI IgA production, which may lead to improvements in vaccination strategies and treatment for mucosal-related disorders.

  20. Corneal epithelial stem cells: deficiency and regulation.

    PubMed

    Secker, Genevieve A; Daniels, Julie T

    2008-09-01

    The corneal epithelium is continuously renewed by a population of stem cells that reside in the corneoscleral junction, otherwise known as the limbus. These limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) are imperative for corneal maintenance with deficiencies leading to in-growth of conjunctival cells, neovascularisation of the corneal stroma and eventual corneal opacity and visual loss. One such disease that has traditionally been thought to be due to LESC deficiency is aniridia, a pan-ocular congenital eye disease due to mutations in the PAX6 gene. Corneal changes or aniridia related keratopathy (ARK) seen in aniridia are typical of LESC deficiency. However, the pathophysiology behind ARK is still ill defined, with current theories suggesting it may be caused by a deficiency in the stem cell niche and adjacent corneal stroma, with altered wound healing responses also playing a role (Ramaesh et al, International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 37:547-557, 2005) or abnormal epidermal differentiation of LESC (Li et al., The Journal of Pathology 214:9, 2008). PAX6 is considered the master control gene for the eye and is required for normal eye development with expression continuing in the adult cornea, thus inferring a role for corneal repair and regeneration (Sivak et al., Developments in Biologicals 222:41-54, 2000). Studies of models of Pax6 deficiency, such as the small eyed (sey) mouse, should help to reveal the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms involved in normal LESC function.

  1. STUDIES ON AN EPITHELIAL (GLAND) CELL JUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Loewenstein, Werner R.; Kanno, Yoshinobu

    1964-01-01

    Membrane permeability of an epithelial cell junction (Drosophila salivary gland) was examined with intracellular microelectrodes and with fluorescent tracers. In contrast to the non-junctional cell membrane surface, which has a low permeability to ions (10-4 mho/cm2), the junctional membrane surface is highly permeable. In fact, it introduces no substantial restriction to ion flow beyond that in the cytoplasm; the resistance through a chain of cells (150 Ω cm) is only slightly greater than in extruded cytoplasm (100 Ω cm). The diffusion resistance along the intercellular space to the exterior, on the other hand, is very high. Here, there exists an ion barrier of, at least, 104Ω cm2. As a result, small ions and fluorescein move rather freely from one cell to the next, but do not leak appreciably through the intercellular space to the exterior. The organ here, rather than the single cell, appears to be the unit of ion environment. The possible underlying structural aspects are discussed. PMID:14206423

  2. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L.; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus. PMID

  3. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-04-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus.

  4. Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. )

    1989-01-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

  5. Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis-Causing Adenoviruses Induce MUC16 Ectodomain Release To Infect Ocular Surface Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Menon, Balaraj B; Zhou, Xiaohong; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James; Gipson, Ilene K

    2016-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV), species D in particular (HAdV-D), are frequently associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Although the infection originates at the ocular surface epithelium, the mechanisms by which HAdV-Ds bypass the membrane-associated mucin (MAM)-rich glycocalyx of the ocular surface epithelium to trigger infection and inflammation remain unknown. Here, we report that an EKC-causing adenovirus (HAdV-D37), but not a non-EKC-causing one (HAdV-D19p), induces ectodomain release of MUC16-a MAM with barrier functions at the ocular surface-from cultured human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. HAdV-D37, but not HAdV-D19p, is also found to decrease the glycocalyx barrier function of corneal epithelial cells, as determined by rose bengal dye penetrance assays. Furthermore, results from quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of viral genomic DNA using primers specific to a conserved region of the E1B gene show that, in comparison to infection by HAdV-D19p, infection by HAdV-D37 is significantly increased in corneal epithelial cells. Collectively, these results point to a MUC16 ectodomain release-dependent mechanism utilized by the EKC-causing HAdV-D37 to initiate infection at the ocular surface. These findings are important in terms of understanding the pathogenesis of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Similar MAM ectodomain release mechanisms may be prevalent across other mucosal epithelia in the body (e.g., the airway epithelium) that are prone to adenoviral infection. IMPORTANCE Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses that cause infections across all mucosal tissues in the body. At the ocular surface, HAdVs cause keratoconjunctivitis (E. Ford, K. E. Nelson, and D. Warren, Epidemiol Rev 9:244-261, 1987, and C. M. Robinson, D. Seto, M. S. Jones, D. W. Dyer, and J. Chodosh, Infect Genet Evol 11:1208-1217, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.04.031)-a highly contagious infection that accounts for nearly 60% of conjunctivitis cases

  6. Multi-functionality and plasticity characterize epithelial cells in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Buzgariu, W; Al Haddad, S; Tomczyk, S; Wenger, Y; Galliot, B

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets, a synapomorphy of all metazoans but porifers, are present as 2 layers in cnidarians, ectoderm and endoderm, joined at their basal side by an extra-cellular matrix named mesoglea. In the Hydra polyp, epithelial cells of the body column are unipotent stem cells that continuously self-renew and concomitantly express their epitheliomuscular features. These multifunctional contractile cells maintain homeostasis by providing a protective physical barrier, by digesting nutrients, by selecting a stable microbiota, and by rapidly closing wounds. In addition, epithelial cells are highly plastic, supporting the adaptation of Hydra to physiological and environmental changes, such as long starvation periods where survival relies on a highly dynamic autophagy flux. Epithelial cells also play key roles in developmental processes as evidenced by the organizer activity they develop to promote budding and regeneration. We propose here an integrative view of the homeostatic and developmental aspects of epithelial plasticity in Hydra. PMID:26716072

  7. Roles of mucosal mast cells in intestinal cell-mediated immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.; Cummins, A.G.; Munro, G.H.; Gibson, S.; Miller, H.R.

    1987-11-01

    Mucosal mast cells in rats with GvHR have been studied by cell counts, tissue levels of the specific protease RMCPII, and, as an index of MMC activation, serum RMCPII. In semi-allogeneic GvHR without host irradiation, GvHR produced modest increases in these three indices. In contrast, irradiation profoundly depleted MMC even though enteropathy was more severe than in non-irradiated hosts. We suggest that enteropathy is not dependent on the presence of MMC. In rats given cyclosporin A, lesions of GvHR were mild and numbers of MMC were low.

  8. TPN-associated intestinal epithelial cell atrophy is modulated by TLR4/EGF signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jennifer J.; Feng, Yongjia; Demehri, Farokh R.; Dempsey, Peter J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a close interaction between epidermal growth factor (EGF) and TLR signaling in the modulation of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation; however, how these signaling pathways adjust IEC proliferation is poorly understood. We utilized a model of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), or enteral nutrient deprivation, to study this interaction as TPN results in mucosal atrophy due to decreased IEC proliferation and increased apoptosis. We identified the novel finding of decreased mucosal atrophy in TLR4 knockout (TLR4KO) mice receiving TPN. We hypothesized that EGF signaling is preserved in TLR4KO-TPN mice and prevents mucosal atrophy. C57Bl/6 and strain-matched TLR4KO mice were provided either enteral feeding or TPN. IEC proliferation and apoptosis were measured. Cytokine and growth factor abundances were detected in both groups. To examine interdependence of these pathways, ErbB1 pharmacologic blockade was used. The marked decline in IEC proliferation with TPN was nearly prevented in TLR4KO mice, and intestinal length was partially preserved. EGF was significantly increased, and TNF-α decreased in TLR4KO-TPN versus wild-type (WT)-TPN mice. Apoptotic positive crypt cells were 15-fold higher in WT-TPN versus TLR4KO-TPN mice. Bcl-2 was significantly increased in TLR4KO-TPN mice, while Bax decreased 10-fold. ErbB1 blockade prevented this otherwise protective effect in TLR4KO-sTPN mice. TLR4 blockade significantly prevented TPN-associated atrophy by preserving proliferation and preventing apoptosis. This is driven by a reduction in TNF-α abundance and increased EGF. Potential manipulation of this regulatory pathway may have significant clinical potential to prevent TPN-associated atrophy.—Freeman, J. J., Feng, Y., Demehri, F. R., Dempsey, P. J., Teitelbaum, D. H. TPN-associated intestinal epithelial cell atrophy is modulated by TLR4/EGF signaling pathways. PMID:25782989

  9. Increased Expression of DUOX2 is an Epithelial Response to Mucosal Dysbiosis Required for Immune Homeostasis in Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Grasberger, Helmut; Gao, Jun; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Kitamoto, Sho; Zhang, Min; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Eaton, Kathryn A.; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Shreiner, Andrew B.; Merchant, Juanita L.; Owyang, Chung; Kao, John Y.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2), a hydrogen-peroxide generator at the apical membrane of gastrointestinal epithelia, is upregulated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) before the onset of inflammation, but little is known about its effects. We investigated the role of DUOX2 in maintaining mucosal immune homeostasis in mice. METHODS We analyzed the regulation of DUOX2 in intestinal tissues of germ-free vs conventional mice, mice given antibiotics or colonized with only segmented filamentous bacteria, mice associated with human microbiota, and mice with deficiencies in interleukin (IL)23 and 22 signaling. We performed 16S rRNA gene quantitative PCR of intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes of Duoxa−/− mice that lack functional DUOX enzymes. Genes differentially expressed in Duoxa−/− mice compared to co-housed wild type littermates were correlated with gene expression changes in early-stage IBD using gene set enrichment analysis. RESULTS Colonization of mice with segmented filamentous bacteria upregulated intestinal expression of DUOX2. DUOX2 regulated redox-signaling within mucosa-associated microbes and restricted bacterial access to lymphatic tissues of the mice, thereby reducing microbiota-induced immune responses. Induction of Duox2 transcription by microbial colonization did not require the mucosal cytokines IL17 or IL22, although IL22 increased expression of Duox2. Dysbiotic, but not healthy human microbiota, activated a DUOX2 response in recipient germ-free mice that corresponded to abnormal colonization of the mucosa with distinct populations of microbes. In Duoxa−/− mice, abnormalities in ileal mucosal gene expression at homeostasis recapitulated those in patients with mucosal dysbiosis. CONCLUSIONS DUOX2 regulates interactions between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosa to maintain immune homeostasis in mice. Mucosal dysbiosis leads to increased expression of DUOX2, which might be a marker of perturbed mucosal

  10. Collective epithelial migration and cell rearrangements drive mammary branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Andrew J; Brenot, Audrey; Duong, Myhanh; Chan, Bianca S; Werb, Zena

    2008-04-01

    Epithelial organs are built through the movement of groups of interconnected cells. We observed cells in elongating mammary ducts reorganize into a multilayered epithelium, migrate collectively, and rearrange dynamically, all without forming leading cellular extensions. Duct initiation required proliferation, Rac, and myosin light-chain kinase, whereas repolarization to a bilayer depended on Rho kinase. We observed that branching morphogenesis results from the active motility of both luminal and myoepithelial cells. Luminal epithelial cells advanced collectively, whereas myoepithelial cells appeared to restrain elongating ducts. Significantly, we observed that normal epithelium and neoplastic hyperplasias are organized similarly, suggesting common mechanisms of epithelial growth.

  11. Osteopontin traffic in hypoxic renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Dierk J; Sansome, Christine; Romanov, Victor I; Kowalski, Aaron J; Denhardt, David T; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a secretory RGD-containing phosphoprotein, is induced in acute renal injury where it plays a renoprotective role. To investigate in depth the mode of OPN secretion under stress conditions, we analyzed OPN traffic in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). Western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopy revealed trace amounts of OPN in intact cells, whereas cytoplasmic OPN levels were significantly increased after 24-48 h hypoxia. Immunoelectron microscopy of RPTEC showed predominantly apical localization of gold-labeled OPN under normal conditions. Hypoxia (24 h) increased 2.5-fold immunodetectable gold-labeled OPN at the apical plasma membrane; further reoxygenation (2 h) augmented apical and basolateral labeling 2- and 10-fold, respectively. Analysis of apical and basolateral medium conditioned by RPTEC grown on semipermeable membranes using a specially developed ELISA showed a global decrease in secreted OPN after hypoxia, which recovered following 2 h reoxygenation. Agents known to disrupt the function of the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A, monensin) or actin cytoskeleton (cytochalasin B) significantly inhibited OPN-GFP secretion in normoxic cells. In cells recovering from hypoxia, however, OPN secretion required functional Golgi apparatus, but was not affected by cytochalasin B. These findings demonstrate that stress inhibits OPN secretion by the process dependent on the functional Golgi apparatus and actin cytoskeleton; recovery restores OPN secretion, although its polarity may become perturbed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Hochuekkito, a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, and its Polysaccharide Portion Stimulate G-CSF Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Moriya, Michiyo; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2010-09-01

    Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicines are taken orally due to which the gastric mucosal immune system may act as one of the major targets for the expression of pharmacological activity. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. The cross talk that occurs between these compartments serves to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the cross talk. In this study, the effect of Hochuekkito (HET), one of Kampo medicines, on cytokine secretion of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. When murine normal colonic epithelial cell-line MCE301 cells were stimulated with HET, the contents of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the conditioned medium were significantly increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The enhanced G-CSF gene transcription in MCE301 cells by the stimulation of HET was observed by RT-PCR. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET was also observed in C3H/HeJ mice-derived primary cultured colonic epithelial cells. When the HET was fractionated, only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5) enhanced the G-CSF secretion of MCE301 cells, and the activity of F-5 lost after the treatment of periodate that can degrade the carbohydrate moiety. These results suggest that HET enhances secretion of G-CSF from colonic epithelial cells and the polysaccharide is one of the active ingredients of HET. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET may partly contribute to the clinically observed various pharmacological activities of HET including immunomodulating activity.

  13. Seeding of recipient-originated epithelial cells attenuates epithelial to mesenchymal transition in rat tracheal allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xun; Yan, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhipei; Li, Xiaofei

    2015-06-01

    The specific role and mechanism of epithelium in the progression of obliterative airway disease (OAD) after tracheal allotransplantation remain poorly understood. In this study, we used rat heterotopic tracheal transplantation to investigate the mechanism of epithelial cell seeding during the process of OAD. Prospective, basic science. Research laboratory. In total, 120 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and 90 Wistar rats were used. Tracheas from SD rats were implanted into SD rats (syngeneic, n = 30) or Wistar rats (allogeneic, n = 30), and SD rat tracheas (seeded with Wistar rat-derived epithelial cells 6 days after transplantation) were transplanted into Wistar rats (seeded allogeneic, n = 30). Grafts were harvested at 7, 14, or 30 days after transplantation for histologic, quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction or Western blot analyses. Syngrafts retained normal histologic structures, while the corresponding allografts demonstrated less ciliated epithelia and more lumenal occlusion. Seeding of epithelial cells ameliorated the histologic changes, reduced the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcriptional factors and mesenchymal markers, and dampened the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylation of smad3. Seeding of recipient epithelial cells inhibits the progression of OAD by attenuating EMT via TGF-β-Smad signaling in rat heterotopic tracheal allografts. Clinically, the injection of recipient-originated epithelial cells might provide new insights into the treatment for OAD after tracheal allotransplantation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  14. Cytomatrix synthesis in MDCK epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.J.; Low, R.B.; Woodcock-Mitchell, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Detailed information regarding the synthesis rates of individual protein components is important in understanding the assembly and dynamics of the cytoskeletal matrix of eukaryotic cells. As an approach to this topic, the dual isotope technique of Clark and Zak, was employed to measure fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) in growing and quiescent cultures of MDCK epithelial cells. Cell protein was labeled to equilibrium with (14C)leucine over several days and then pulse-labeled for 4 hours with (3H)leucine. FSRs (as percent per hour) were calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of cell extracts or individual proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the 3H/14C ratio of free leucine in the medium. Synthesis of total cell protein rose from approximately 1.4%/hour in quiescent cells to 3.5%/hour in the growing cultures. The latter rate was sufficient to account for the rate of protein accumulation and a low level of turnover in the growing cultures. The FSR of the buffered-Triton soluble extract was higher and the cytoskeletal FSR significantly lower than that for total protein in quiescent monolayers. This difference, however, was not observed in growing cultures. A distinct pattern of differences was seen in the FSRs of individual cytoskeletal proteins in the quiescent cultures. Vimentin synthesis was significantly lower than that of the keratins and the keratin FSRs were not obviously matched in pairwise fashion. Unexpectedly, the FSRs of alpha- and beta-tubulin diverged in quiescent cells with alpha-tubulin turnover exceeding beta-tubulin. Likewise, components of the microfilament lattice showed unequal fractional synthesis rates, myosin and alpha-actinin being faster than actin. In addition, the FSR for globular actin exceeded that of the cytoskeletal associated form.

  15. Mechanistic roles of epithelial and immune cell signaling during the development of colitis-associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2016-01-01

    To date, substantial evidence has shown a significant association between inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). The incidence/prevalence of IBD is higher in western countries including the US, Australia, and the UK. Although CAC development is generally characterized by stepwise accumulation of genetic as well as epigenetic changes, precise mechanisms of how chronic inflammation leads to the development of CAC are largely unknown. Preceding intestinal inflammation is one of the major influential factors for CAC tumorigenesis. Mucosal immune responses including activation of aberrant signaling pathways both in innate and adaptive immune cells play a pivotal role in CAC. Tumor progression and metastasis are shaped by a tightly controlled tumor microenvironment which is orchestrated by several immune cells and stromal cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, T cells, and myofibroblasts. In this article, we will discuss the contributing factors of epithelial as well as immune cell signaling in initiation of CAC tumorigenesis and mucosal immune regulatory factors in the colonic tumor microenvironment. In depth understanding of these factors is necessary to develop novel anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies for CAC in the near future. PMID:27110580

  16. [Mouthrinse in oral mucositis in the context of allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Kröner, Anja; Aerts, Erik; Schanz, Urs; Spirig, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Oral mucositis is a common side effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality and higher costs. It also has an impact on the quality of patients' lives. In the stem cell transplantation ward of a Swiss university hospital, patients are instructed according to current guidelines for mouthwash and their mouth status is evaluated daily. How do patients experience oral mucositis and what factors influence their behaviour to perform the mouth rinsing regularly? In this qualitative part of a concurrent nested mixed methods research, 14 patients were interviewed using an interview guide. Data was analysed using content analysis methods. The results showed that, oral mucositis cannot be viewed separately from illness, isolation and care. The mucositis was only a heavy burden for patients with a severe occurrence. For patients with lower grade occurrences, other symptoms were more important. The research identified motivating and debilitating factors for a regular mouth rinsing, which is one of the most important preventive procedures. This study highlights how important it is to view oral mucositis in the context of the transplantation and that knowledge about motivating and hindering factors can support the nurses in caring for the patients. Improvement of patient self-management is a key aspect.

  17. Technical note: Isolation and characterization of porcine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dahanayaka, S; Rezaei, R; Porter, W W; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Bazer, F W; Hou, Y Q; Wu, Z L; Wu, G

    2015-11-01

    Within the mammary gland, functional synthesis of milk is performed by its epithelial (alveolar) cells. The availability of a stable mammary epithelial cell line is essential for biochemical studies to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nutritional regulation of lactation. Therefore, porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) were isolated from mammary glands of a 9-mo-old nonpregnant and nonlactating gilt and cultured to establish a nonimmortalized cell line. These cells were characterized by expression of cytokeratin-18 (an intermediate filament specific for epithelial cells), β-casein (a specific marker for mammary epithelial cells), and α-lactalbumin. In culture, the PMEC doubled in number every 24 h and maintained a cobblestone morphology, typical for cultured epithelial cells, for at least 15 passages. Addition of 0.2 to 2 μg/mL prolactin to culture medium for 3 d induced the production of β-casein and α-lactalbumin by PMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we have successfully developed a useful PMEC line for future studies of cellular and molecular regulation of milk synthesis by mammary epithelial cells of the sow.

  18. Contemporary HIV Vaccines: Tissue Resident T-Cells and Strategies to Prevent Mucosal Infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hyon-Xhi; Kent, Stephen J; De Rose, Robert

    2016-01-01

    HIV is primarily transmitted to women via the cervicovaginal mucosa, with the infection remaining localized for several days prior to systemic dissemination and irreversible damage to the immune system. The early phase during which HIV infection is localized and exhibits little or no viral diversity presents a vantage point for HIV vaccines that stimulate T-cell mediated clearance. CD(8+) resident memory T-cells (TRM) are positioned at mucosal entry sites and are established upon resolution of infection by mucosal pathogens. TRM cells are long-lived and locally patrol mucosal tissues. Upon antigenic reactivation, the sentinel-like functions of TRM cells mediate rapid clearance of subsequent infection by recruitment of additional immune cells from circulation and initiate a tissue-wide antiviral state, thus preventing the recurrence of disease. These properties are ideally suited for an HIV vaccine aimed at halting the infection cycle of HIV during the earliest phases. In this review, we summarize recent vaccine developments from parallel research areas incorporating the use of live mucosal vectors complemented with chemokine-regulating compounds, which can induce the seeding of the vaginal mucosa with TRM cells. We present the proposition that similar novel vaccine regimens can be translated into approaches for future HIV vaccines aimed at inducing heightened immunity in vaginal tissues against HIV.

  19. Epithelial NF-kappaB enhances transmucosal fluid movement by altering tight junction protein composition after T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yueming; Clayburgh, Daniel R; Mittal, Navdha; Goretsky, Tatiana; Dirisina, Ramanarao; Zhang, Zheng; Kron, Michelle; Ivancic, David; Katzman, Rebecca B; Grimm, Gery; Lee, Goo; Fryer, Jonathan; Nusrat, Asma; Turner, Jerrold R; Barrett, Terrence A

    2010-01-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), aberrant activation of innate and adaptive immune responses enhances mucosal permeability through mechanisms not completely understood. To examine the role of epithelial nuclear factor (NF-kappaB) in IBD-induced enhanced permeability, epithelial-specific IkappaBalpha mutant (NF-kappaB super repressor) transgenic (TG) mice were generated. NF-kB activation was inhibited in TG mice, relative to wild-type mice, following T cell-mediated immune cell activation using an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, epithelial NF-kappaB super repressor protein inhibited diarrhea and blocked changes in transepithelial resistance and transmucosal flux of alexa350 (0.35 kDa) and dextran3000 (3 kDa). In vivo perfusion loop studies in TG mice revealed reversed net water secretion and reduced lumenal flux of different molecular probes (bovine serum albumin, alexa350, and dextran3000). Cell-imaging and immunoblotting of low-density, detergent-insoluble membrane fractions confirmed that tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-1 and zona occludens-1) are internalized through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that IBD-associated diarrhea results from NF-kappaB-mediated tight junction protein internalization and increased paracellular permeability. Thus, reduction of epithelial NF-kappaB activation in IBD may repair defects in epithelial barrier function, reduce diarrhea, and limit protein (eg, serum albumin) losses. Epithelial NF-kappaB activation induced by mucosal T cells, therefore, actively plays a role in opening paracellular spaces to promote transmucosal fluid effux into the intestinal lumen.

  20. Mucosal BCG Vaccination Induces Protective Lung-Resident Memory T Cell Populations against Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, Carolina; Zedler, Ulrike; Kühl, Anja A; Lozza, Laura; Saikali, Philippe; Sander, Leif E; Vogelzang, Alexis; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Kupz, Andreas

    2016-11-22

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown. Using a mouse model of TB, we compared protection and lung cellular infiltrates of parenteral and mucosal BCG vaccination. Adoptive transfer and gene expression analyses of lung airway cells were performed to determine the protective capacities and phenotypes of different memory T cell subsets. In comparison to subcutaneous vaccination, intratracheal and intranasal BCG vaccination generated T effector memory and TRM cells in the lung, as defined by surface marker phenotype. Adoptive mucosal transfer of these airway-resident memory T cells into naive mice mediated protection against TB. Whereas airway-resident memory CD4(+) T cells displayed a mixture of effector and regulatory phenotype, airway-resident memory CD8(+) T cells displayed prototypical TRM features. Our data demonstrate a key role for mucosal vaccination-induced airway-resident T cells in the host defense against pulmonary TB. These results have direct implications for the design of refined vaccination strategies. BCG remains the only licensed vaccine against TB. Parenterally administered BCG has variable efficacy against pulmonary TB, and thus, improved prevention strategies and a more refined understanding of correlates of vaccine protection are required. Induction of memory T cells has been shown to be essential for protective TB vaccines. Mimicking the natural infection route by mucosal vaccination has been known to generate superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the

  1. Cell Chirality Induces Collective Cell Migration in Epithelial Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    During early development, epithelial cells form a monolayer sheet and migrate in a uniform direction. Here, we address how this collective migration can occur without breaking the cell-to-cell attachments. Repeated contraction and expansion of the cell-to-cell interfaces enables the cells to rearrange their positions autonomously within the sheet. We show that when the interface tension is strengthened in a direction that is tilted from the body axis, cell rearrangements occur in such a way that unidirectional movement is induced. We use a vertex model to demonstrate that such anisotropic tension can generate the unidirectional motion of cell sheets. Our results suggest that cell chirality facilitates collective cell migration during tissue morphogenesis.

  2. Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Is Involved in Clopidogrel-Induced Apoptosis of Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zong-Dan; Cao, Wei-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Bing; Hu, Ke-Wei; Gao, Xin; Wang, Shu-Kui; He, Bang-Shun; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Xie, Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background The widespread use of clopidogrel alone or in combination with aspirin may result in gastrointestinal mucosal injury, clinically represented as recurrent ulceration and bleeding complications. Our recent work suggested that clopidogrel significantly induced human gastric epithelial cell (GES-1) apoptosis and disrupted gastric mucosal barrier, and that a p38 MAPK inhibitor could attenuate such injury. However, their exact mechanisms are largely unknown. Methods The GES-1 cells were used as a model system, the effects of clopidogrel on the whole gene expression profile were evaluated by human gene expression microarray and gene ontology analysis, changes of the mRNA and protein expression were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, and cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Results Gene microarray analysis identified 79 genes that were differentially expressed (P<0.05 and fold-change >3) when cells were treated with or without clopidogrel. Gene ontology analysis revealed that response to stress and cell apoptosis dysfunction were ranked in the top 10 cellular events being affected, and that the major components of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis pathway – CHOP and TRIB3– were up-regulated in a concentration- and time-dependent manner when cells were treated with clopidogrel. Pathway analysis demonstrated that multiple MAPK kinases were phosphorylated in clopidogrel-treated GES-1 cells, but that only SB-203580 (a p38-specific MAPK inhibitor) attenuated cell apoptosis and CHOP over-expression, both of which were induced by clopidogrel. Conclusions Increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response is involved in clopidogrel-induced gastric mucosal injury, acting through p38 MAPK activation. PMID:24058556

  3. Intestinal Epithelial Cells Modulate CD4 T Cell Responses via the Thymus Leukemia Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Algood, Holly M. Scott; Singh, Kshipra; Parekh, Vrajesh V.; Ryan, Kaitlyn E.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Wilson, Keith T.; Van Kaer, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is comprised of a monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) which provide, among other functions, a physical barrier between the high antigen content of the intestinal lumen and the sterile environment beyond the epithelium. IEC express a non-classical MHC class I molecule known as the thymus leukemia (TL) antigen. TL is known to interact with CD8αα-expressing cells, which are abundant in the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment. In this report we provide evidence indicating that expression of TL by IEC modulates the cytokine profile of CD4+ T cells favoring IL-17 production. We show in an adoptive transfer model of colitis that donor-derived cells become more pathogenic when TL is expressed on IEC in recipient animals. Moreover, TL+IEC promote development of IL-17-mediated responses capable of protecting mice from Citrobacter rodentium infection. We also show that modulation of IL-17-mediated responses by TL+IEC is controlled by the expression of CD8α on CD4+ T cells. Overall, our results provide evidence for an important interaction between IEC and CD4+ T cells via TL, which modulates mucosal immune responses. PMID:21900182

  4. Transcytosis of HIV-1 through vaginal epithelial cells is dependent on trafficking to the endocytic recycling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kinlock, Ballington L; Wang, Yudi; Turner, Tiffany M; Wang, Chenliang; Liu, Bindong

    2014-01-01

    While it is accepted that viruses can enter epithelial cells by endocytosis, the lack of an established biological mechanism for the trafficking of infectious virions through vaginal epithelial cells and their release from the plasma membrane has contributed to ongoing controversy about whether endocytosis is a mere artifact of some cell culture systems and whether squamous vaginal epithelial cells are even relevant as it pertains to HIV-1 transmission. In this study, we investigated the intracellular trafficking pathway that HIV-1 exploits to transcytose vaginal epithelial cells. The reduction of endosome tubulation by recycling endosome inhibitors blocked transcytosis of HIV-1 in a cell culture and transwell system. In addition, we demonstrate that although heat-inactivated virus was endocytosed as efficiently as native virus, heat-inactivated virus was trafficked exclusively to the lysosomal pathway for degradation following endocytosis. Lysosomal protease-specific inhibitors blocked the degradation of inactivated virions. Immunofluorescence analysis not only demonstrated that HIV-1 was inside the cells but the different colocalization pattern of native vs. heat inactivated virus with transferrin provided conclusive evidence that HIV-1 uses the recycling pathway to get across vaginal epithelial cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the precise intracellular trafficking pathway utilized by HIV-1 in epithelial cells, confirms that HIV-1 transcytosis through vaginal epithelial cells is a biological phenomenon and brings to light the differential intracellular trafficking of native vs heat-inactivated HIV-1 which with further exploration could prove to provide valuable insights that could be used in the prevention of transcytosis/transmission of HIV-1 across the mucosal epithelia.

  5. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-07-15

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite.

  6. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

  7. Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

  8. Role of caspase-3/E-cadherin in helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongmei; Du, Jie; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Yuanjian

    2017-08-29

    This study was designed to investigate the role of caspase-3/E-cadherin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) -induced gastric epithelial apoptosis in cells, animal models and clinical gastritis patients. In cultured gastric mucosal epithelial cells, gastric glandular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice, H. pylori infection significantly induced apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells, down-regulated full-length E-cadherin and Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulated cleaved-caspase-3, E-cadherin/carboxy-terminal fragment 3 and Bax expression. Z-DEVD-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-3, attenuated the effect of H. pylori. E-cadherin overexpression significantly inhibited the apoptosis of GES-1 and SGC-7901 cells induced by the H. pylori. The results from clinical studies also showed down-regulation of E-cadherin, up-regulation of cleaved-caspase-3 expression and increased apoptosis in gastric tissues from gastritis patients with H. pylori infection. These results suggest that the caspase-3/E-cadherin pathway is involved in the apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells induced by H. pylori.

  9. Cell death at the intestinal epithelial front line.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Maria Eugenia; Grabinger, Thomas; Brunner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents the largest epithelial surface in our body. This single-cell-layer epithelium mediates important functions in the absorption of nutrients and in the maintenance of barrier function, preventing luminal microorganisms from invading the body. Due to its constant regeneration the intestinal epithelium is a tissue not only with very high proliferation rates but also with very prominent physiological and pathophysiological cell death induction. The normal physiological differentiation and maturation of intestinal epithelial cells leads to their shedding and apoptotic cell death within a few days, without disturbing the epithelial barrier integrity. In contrast excessive intestinal epithelial cell death induced by irradiation, drugs and inflammation severely impairs the vital functions of this tissue. In this review we discuss cell death processes in the intestinal epithelium in health and disease, with special emphasis on cell death triggered by the tumour necrosis factor receptor family. © 2015 FEBS.

  10. Induction of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in human vaginal epithelial cells in response to TLR ligands and TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Theresa; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Yousefieh, Nazita; Schriver, Suzanne D; Cote, Lyn C; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2012-06-01

    Mucosal inflammation caused by infections of the female lower genital tract is considered to be an important cofactor for HIV transmission. We hypothesize that COX-2, a key inflammation-related enzyme, is involved in these responses and is upregulated by microbial ligands and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Human vaginal epithelial cells (VK-2/E6E7) and ectocervical biopsy tissues were stimulated with TLR ligands and the cytokine TNF-α, used as surrogates of vaginal infections, and assessed for COX-2 expression and activity by microarray, real-time RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. TLR agonists and TNF-α induce transcriptional and translational expression of COX-2 in vaginal cells. TLR ligands, MALP2, Pam3CSK4, LTA, and imiquimod induced high epithelial COX-2 expression, while zymosan and poly dI:dC induced very low enzyme expression. Induced mRNA and protein expression correlated with increased COX-2 activity, which led to increased levels of PGE(2) in the cell culture supernatant. These cell-based findings were confirmed in primary cervicovaginal tissue explants. Induction of COX-2 expression and activity and the consequent increased levels of prostaglandins are common inflammatory pathways in human cervicovaginal epithelial cells and tissues in response to diverse TLR ligands and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings are relevant to the understanding of genital mucosal inflammation, its potential treatment, and its possible relationship with increased tissue susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Gremlin Activates the Smad Pathway Linked to Epithelial Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Diez, Raquel; Rodrigues-Diez, Raúl R.; Lavoz, Carolina; Carvajal, Gisselle; Droguett, Alejandra; Garcia-Redondo, Ana B.; Rodriguez, Isabel; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Mezzano, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Gremlin is a developmental gene upregulated in human chronic kidney disease and in renal cells in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one process involved in renal fibrosis. In tubular epithelial cells we have recently described that Gremlin induces EMT and acts as a downstream TGF-β mediator. Our aim was to investigate whether Gremlin participates in EMT by the regulation of the Smad pathway. Stimulation of human tubular epithelial cells (HK2) with Gremlin caused an early activation of the Smad signaling pathway (Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and Smad-dependent gene transcription). The blockade of TGF-β, by a neutralizing antibody against active TGF-β, did not modify Gremlin-induced early Smad activation. These data show that Gremlin directly, by a TGF-β independent process, activates the Smad pathway. In tubular epithelial cells long-term incubation with Gremlin increased TGF-β production and caused a sustained Smad activation and a phenotype conversion into myofibroblasts-like cells. Smad 7 overexpression, which blocks Smad 2/3 activation, diminished EMT changes observed in Gremlin-transfected tubuloepithelial cells. TGF-β neutralization also diminished Gremlin-induced EMT changes. In conclusion, we propose that Gremlin could participate in renal fibrosis by inducing EMT in tubular epithelial cells through activation of Smad pathway and induction of TGF-β. PMID:24949470

  12. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masferrer, Emili; Ferrándiz-Pulido, Carla; Masferrer-Niubò, Magalí; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alfredo; Gil, Inmaculada; Pont, Antoni; Servitje, Octavi; García de Herreros, Antonio; Lloveras, Belen; García-Patos, Vicenç; Pujol, Ramon M; Toll, Agustí; Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a phenomenon in epithelial tumors that involves loss of intercellular adhesion, mesenchymal phenotype acquisition and enhanced migratory potential. While the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process has been extensively linked to metastatic progression of squamous cell carcinoma, studies of the role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma containing high risk human papillomaviruses are scarce. Moreover, to our knowledge epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involvement in human penile squamous cell carcinoma, which can arise through transforming HPV infections or independently of HPV, has not been investigated. We evaluated the presence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers and their relationship to HPV in penile squamous cell carcinoma. We assessed the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition related transcription factors Twist, Zeb1 and Snail by immunohistochemical staining in 64 penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. HPV was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Simultaneous loss of membranous E-cadherin expression and vimentin over expression were noted in 43.5% of penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. HPV was significantly associated with loss of membranous E-cadherin but not with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Recurrence and mortality rates were significantly higher in cases showing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Our findings indicate that in penile squamous cell carcinoma epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is associated with poor prognosis but not with the presence of HPV. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of HIV-1 Nef on virus co-receptor expression and cytokine release in human bladder, laryngeal, and intestinal epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Maria Giovanna; Falzano, Loredana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Fiorentini, Carla; Giordani, Luciana; Viora, Marina

    2011-06-01

    HIV infections are mainly acquired by mucosal transmission, through oral, rectal, or genital mucosa. Epithelial cells (EC) are the first cells encountered by HIV during infection through sexual transmission and breastfeeding. EC express several receptors critical for both primary HIV infection and secondary transmission. The regulation of co-receptor expression correlates with changes in susceptibility to infection by HIV-1 strains with different tropism. Moreover, inflammatory responses at mucosal surfaces after HIV-1 transmission may influence disease outcome. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein on mucosal EC, using unstimulated or IFN-γ-stimulated HEp-2, T24, and Caco2 cell lines as models for homeostatic or inflamed mucosal tracts. We found that Nef significantly upregulated the expression of CXCR4 on the Caco-2 cell surface and the expression of galactosylceramide on the T24 cell surface. In addition, Nef significantly upregulated IL-6 production by T24 and Caco-2 cells, and TNF-α release by all three cell lines analyzed. Notably, Nef abrogated the IFN-γ-induced modulation of co-receptor expression and cytokine secretion. Our findings suggest that Nef differently regulates co-receptor expression and cytokine secretion at the epithelial level, depending on the anatomical derivation of the cells and the inflammatory status.

  14. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

  15. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  16. Quantification of mucosal mononuclear cells in tissues with a fluorescent bead-based polychromatic flow cytometry assay.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R Keith; Evans, Tristan I; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E; Connole, Michelle; Carville, Angela; Johnson, R Paul

    2011-03-31

    Since the vast majority of infections occur at mucosal surfaces, accurate characterization of mucosal immune cells is critically important for understanding transmission and control of infectious diseases. Standard flow cytometric analysis of cells obtained from mucosal tissues can provide valuable information on the phenotype of mucosal leukocytes and their relative abundance, but does not provide absolute cell counts of mucosal cell populations. We developed a bead-based flow cytometry assay to determine the absolute numbers of multiple mononuclear cell types in colorectal biopsies of rhesus macaques. Using 10-color flow cytometry panels and pan-fluorescent beads, cells were enumerated in biopsy specimens by adding a constant ratio of beads per mg of tissue and then calculating cell numbers/mg of tissue based on cell-to-bead ratios determined at the time of sample acquisition. Testing in duplicate specimens showed the assay to be highly reproducible (Spearman R=0.9476, P<0.0001). Using this assay, we report enumeration of total CD45(+) leukocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, NK cells, CD14(+) monocytes, and myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in colorectal biopsies, with cell numbers in normal rhesus macaques varying from medians of 4486 cells/mg (T cells) to 3 cells/mg (plasmacytoid dendritic cells). This assay represents a significant advancement in rapid, accurate quantification of mononuclear cell populations in mucosal tissues and could be applied to provide absolute counts of a variety of different cell populations in diverse tissues.

  17. Clinical implications of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Luis A; Blanco, Moisés; Castosa, Raquel; Concha, Ángel; Valladares, Manuel; Calvo, Lourdes; Figueroa, Angélica

    2015-09-28

    In the last few years, the role of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer biology research has gained increasing attention. This concept refers to the ability of the epithelial cells to dynamically switch between different phenotypic cellular states. This programme is particularly relevant during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer progression. During colonization, epithelial cells first activate the EMT programme to disseminate from a primary tumour to reach a distant tissue site. During this process, cells are transported into the circulation and are able to escape the immune system of the host. Then, a reverse process called mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) occurs on cells that settle in the distant organs. Although epithelial cell plasticity has an important impact on tumour biology, the clinical relevance of this concept remains to be recapitulated. In this review, we will update the current state of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression and its clinical implications for the design of therapeutic strategies, the acquisition of multidrug resistance, and future perspectives for the management of cancer patients.

  18. Human Growth Hormone Promotes Corneal Epithelial Cell Migration in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Wirostko, Barbara; Sullivan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Corneal wound healing is a highly regulated process that requires the proliferation and migration of epithelial cells and interactions between epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts. Compounds that can be applied topically to the ocular surface and that have the capability of activating corneal epithelial cells to proliferate and/or migrate would be useful to promote corneal wound healing. We hypothesize that human growth hormone (HGH) will activate Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription-5 (STAT5) signaling and promote corneal wound healing by enhancing corneal epithelial cell and fibroblast proliferation and/or migration in vitro. The purpose of this study is to test these hypotheses. Methods We studied cell signaling, proliferation and migration using an immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line and primary human corneal fibroblasts in vitro. We also examined whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone known to mediate many of HGH’s growth promoting actions, may play a role in this effect. Results We show that HGH activates STAT5 signaling and promotes corneal epithelial cell migration in vitro. The migratory effect requires an intact communication between corneal epithelia and fibroblasts, and is not mediated by IGF-1. Conclusion HGH may represent a topical therapeutic to promote corneal epithelial wound healing. This warrants further investigation. PMID:25782399

  19. The mucosal immune system for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Aayam; Azegamia, Tatsuhiko; Kiyonoa, Hiroshi

    2014-11-20

    Mucosal surfaces are continuously exposed to the external environment and therefore represent the largest lymphoid organ of the body. In the mucosal immune system, gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), including Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles, play an important role in the induction of antigen-specific immune responses in the gut. GALTs have unique organogenesis characteristics and interact with the network of dendritic cells and T cells for the simultaneous induction and regulation of IgA responses and oral tolerance. In these lymphoid tissues, antigens are up taken by M cells in the epithelial layer, and antigen-specific immune responses are subsequently initiated by GALT cells. Nasopharynx- and tear-duct-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs and TALTs) are key organized lymphoid structures in the respiratory tract and ocular cavities, respectively, and have been shown to interact with each other. Mucosal surfaces are also characterized by host-microbe interactions that affect the genesis and maturation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues and the induction and regulation of innate and acquired mucosal immune responses. Because most harmful pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces by ingestion, inhalation, or sexual contact, the mucosa is a candidate site for vaccination. Mucosal vaccination has some physiological and practical advantages, such as decreased costs and reduced risk of needle-stick injuries and transmission of bloodborne diseases, and it is painless. Recently, the application of modern bioengineering and biochemical engineering technologies, including gene transformation and manipulation systems, resulted in the development of systems to express vaccine antigens in transgenic plants and nanogels, which will usher in a new era of delivery systems for mucosal vaccine antigens. In this review, based on some of our research group's thirty seven years of progress and effort, we highlight the unique features of mucosal immune

  20. Human mucosal-associated invariant T cells contribute to antiviral influenza immunity via IL-18–dependent activation

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Liyen; Wang, Zhongfang; Sant, Sneha; Koutsakos, Marios; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Liu, Ligong; Fairlie, David P.; Crowe, Jane; Rossjohn, Jamie; Xu, Jianqing; Doherty, Peter C.; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes known to elicit potent immunity to a broad range of bacteria, mainly via the rapid production of inflammatory cytokines. Whether MAIT cells contribute to antiviral immunity is less clear. Here we asked whether MAIT cells produce cytokines/chemokines during severe human influenza virus infection. Our analysis in patients hospitalized with avian H7N9 influenza pneumonia showed that individuals who recovered had higher numbers of CD161+Vα7.2+ MAIT cells in peripheral blood compared with those who succumbed, suggesting a possible protective role for this lymphocyte population. To understand the mechanism underlying MAIT cell activation during influenza, we cocultured influenza A virus (IAV)-infected human lung epithelial cells (A549) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, then assayed them by intracellular cytokine staining. Comparison of influenza-induced MAIT cell activation with the profile for natural killer cells (CD56+CD3−) showed robust up-regulation of IFNγ for both cell populations and granzyme B in MAIT cells, although the individual responses varied among healthy donors. However, in contrast to the requirement for cell-associated factors to promote NK cell activation, the induction of MAIT cell cytokine production was dependent on IL-18 (but not IL-12) production by IAV-exposed CD14+ monocytes. Overall, this evidence for IAV activation via an indirect, IL-18–dependent mechanism indicates that MAIT cells are protective in influenza, and also possibly in any human disease process in which inflammation and IL-18 production occur. PMID:27543331

  1. Clinical relevance of circulating mucosal-associated invariant T cell levels and their anti-cancer activity in patients with mucosal-associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hye-Mi; Park, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Jong; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kee, Hae Jin; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an antimicrobial MR1-restricted T cell subset and play an important role in immune defense response to bacteria. However, little is known about the role of MAIT cells in cancer. The aims of this study were to examine the level and function of MAIT cells in cancer patients and to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels. Ninety-nine patients with cancer and 20 healthy controls were included in this study. Circulating MAIT cell levels were significantly reduced in patients with mucosal-associated cancers (MACs), such as gastric, colon and lung cancers, but their capacities for IFN-γ, IL-17, or TNF-α production were preserved. This MAIT cell deficiency was significantly correlated with N staging and carcinoembryonic antigen level. Percentages of MAIT cells were significantly higher in cancer tissue than in peripheral blood and immunofluorescent labeling showed MAIT cell infiltration into colon cancer tissues. Circulating MAIT cells exhibited high levels of CCR6 and CXCR6, and their corresponding chemokines, such as CCL20 and CXCL16, were strongly expressed in colon cancer tissues. Activated MAIT cells not only had lymphokine-activated killer activity, but they also had direct cytotoxicity on K562 cells via degranulation of granzyme B and perforin. This study primarily demonstrates that circulating MAIT cells are reduced in MAC patients due to migration to mucosal cancer tissues and they have the potential to kill cancer cells. In addition, this circulating MAIT cell deficiency is related to the degree of cancer progression in mucosal tissues. PMID:27517754

  2. Tsr Chemoreceptor Interacts With IL-8 Provoking E. coli Transmigration Across Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Li, Manshu; Xu, Yonghao; Islam, Diana; Khang, Julie; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Lee, Warren; Szaszi, Katalin; Zhong, Nanshan; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Li, Yimin; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial colonization of epithelial surfaces and subsequent transmigration across the mucosal barrier are essential for the development of infection. We hypothesized that the methyl-accepting proteins (MCPs), known as chemoreceptors expressed on Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial surface, play an important role in mediating bacterial transmigration. We demonstrated a direct interaction between human interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Tsr receptor, a major MCP chemoreceptor. Stimulation of human lung epithelial cell monolayer with IL-8 resulted in increased E. coli adhesion and transmigration of the native strain (RP437) and a strain expressing only Tsr (UU2373), as compared to a strain (UU2599) with Tsr truncation. The augmented E. coli adhesion and migration was associated with a higher expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 and production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and a lower expression of the tight junction protein claudin-1 and the plasma membrane protein caveolin-1 in lung epithelial cells. An increased E. coli colonization and pulmonary cytokine production induced by the RP437 and UU2373 strains was attenuated in mice challenged with the UU2599 strain. Our results suggest a critical role of the E. coli Tsr chemoreceptor in mediating bacterial colonization and transmigration across human lung epithelium during development of pulmonary infections. PMID:27506372

  3. Free and complexed‐secretory immunoglobulin A triggers distinct intestinal epithelial cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Safavie, F.; Fasano, A.; Sztein, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies play an important role in protecting the mucosal surfaces against pathogens and maintaining homeostasis with the commensal microbiota. Because a substantial portion of the gut microbiota is coated with SIgA, we hypothesized that microbiota–SIgA complexes are important for the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Here we investigated the relationship between microbiota–SIgA complexes and inflammatory epithelial cell responses. We used a multi‐cellular three‐dimensional (3D) organotypical model of the human intestinal mucosa composed of an intestinal epithelial cell line and primary human lymphocytes/monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. We also used human SIgA from human colostrum, and a prominent bacterial member of the first colonizers, Escherichia coli, as a surrogate commensal. We found that free and microbiota‐complexed SIgA triggered different epithelial responses. While free SIgA up‐regulated mucus production, expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and secretion of interleukin‐8 and tumoir necrosis factor‐α, microbiota‐complexed SIgA mitigated these responses. These results suggest that free and complexed SIgA have different functions as immunoregulatory agents in the gut and that an imbalance between the two may affect gut homeostasis. PMID:27084834

  4. Human Mucosal Mast Cells Capture HIV-1 and Mediate Viral trans-Infection of CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ai-Ping; Jiang, Jin-Feng; Wei, Ji-Fu; Guo, Ming-Gao; Qin, Yan; Guo, Qian-Qian; Ma, Li; Liu, Bao-Chi; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gastrointestinal mucosa is the primary site where human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades, amplifies, and becomes persistently established, and cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 plays a pivotal role in mucosal viral dissemination. Mast cells are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and are early targets for invasive pathogens, and they have been shown to have increased density in the genital mucosa in HIV-infected women. Intestinal mast cells express numerous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and have been shown to combat various viral, parasitic, and bacterial infections. However, the role of mast cells in HIV-1 infection is poorly defined. In this study, we investigated their potential contributions to HIV-1 transmission. Mast cells isolated from gut mucosal tissues were found to express a variety of HIV-1 attachment factors (HAFs), such as DC-SIGN, heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), and α4β7 integrin, which mediate capture of HIV-1 on the cell surface. Intriguingly, following coculture with CD4+ T cells, mast cell surface-bound viruses were efficiently transferred to target T cells. Prior blocking with anti-HAF antibody or mannan before coculture impaired viral trans-infection. Cell-cell conjunctions formed between mast cells and T cells, to which viral particles were recruited, and these were required for efficient cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission. Our results reveal a potential function of gut mucosal mast cells in HIV-1 dissemination in tissues. Strategies aimed at preventing viral capture and transfer mediated by mast cells could be beneficial in combating primary HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE In this study, we demonstrate the role of human mast cells isolated from mucosal tissues in mediating HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T cells. This finding facilitates our understanding of HIV-1 mucosal infection and will benefit the development of strategies to combat primary HIV-1 dissemination. PMID:26719250

  5. Infection of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Protects Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of cathelicidins in response to a β-glucan in intestinal epithelial cells from rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Paulina; Wacyk, Jurij; Morales-Lange, Byron; Rojas, Verónica; Guzmán, Fanny; Dixon, Brian; Mercado, Luis

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize intestinal immune mechanisms involved in the response to β-glucans in rainbow trout. Among the immune effectors regulated in response to immunostimulants, host defense peptides (HDPs) are abundantly expressed in epithelial linings, suggesting their important role in the mucosal immune response. Therefore, the immunomodulatory properties of expressed HDPs in the epithelial intestinal cells of rainbow trout in response to the β-glucan, zymosan, were assessed. The results showed that zymosan increased the production of the HDP, cathelicidin, and the cytokine, IL-1β, in the intestinal epithelial RTgutGC cell line at the transcript and protein levels. Thus, cathelicidin-2 variants were produced and were shown to (i) induce the production of IL-1β in RTgutGC cells and (ii) display a synergic effect with zymosan in IL-1β upregulation. Importantly, the colocalization of both rtCATH-2 and IL-1β was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells of rainbow trout fed with a 0.3% zymosan-supplemented diet. We propose that trout cathelicidins are expressed by intestinal epithelial cells and exert immunomodulatory effects to improve the local intestinal immune response triggered by immunostimulants.

  7. Antagonistic effect of Candida albicans and IFNγ on E-cadherin expression and production by human primary gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Audoy, Julie; Chmielewski, Witold

    2012-11-01

    Caused mainly by Candida albicans, oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common oral complication associated with HIV disease worldwide. Host defenses against C. albicans essentially fall into two categories: specific immune mechanisms and local oral mucosal epithelial cell defenses. Since oral mucosa is the first line of defense in the form of a physical barrier against C. albicans invasion, and since epithelial cells are involved in anti-Candida innate immunity through different cytokines, we wanted to determine whether C. albicans alters E-cadherin expression and production, and whether interferon-γ (INFγ), a TH1 cytokine, is involved in the anti-Candida defense. Using primary human gingival epithelial cells, we demonstrated that C. albicans significantly decreased E-cadherin mRNA expression and protein production. This effect was basically obtained at later infective periods (24 and 48h). Interestingly, when IFNγ was added to C. albicans infected epithelial cell cultures, it prevented the side effect of C. albicans on E-cadherin mRNA expression and protein production and deposition. All together, these results suggested concomitant interactions between oral epithelial cells and IFNγ against C. albicans infection.

  8. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  9. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  10. Regulation of DMBT1 via NOD2 and TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells modulates bacterial recognition and invasion.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, Philip; Sina, Christian; End, Caroline; Renner, Marcus; Lyer, Stefan; Till, Andreas; Hellmig, Stephan; Nikolaus, Susanna; Fölsch, Ulrich R; Helmke, Burkhard; Autschbach, Frank; Schirmacher, Peter; Kioschis, Petra; Hafner, Mathias; Poustka, Annemarie; Mollenhauer, Jan; Schreiber, Stefan

    2007-06-15

    Mucosal epithelial cell layers are constantly exposed to a complex resident microflora. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by pathogen binding. This report describes the regulation and function of DMBT1 in intestinal epithelial cells, which form the primary immunological barrier for invading pathogens. We report that intestinal epithelial cells up-regulate DMBT1 upon proinflammatory stimuli (e.g., TNF-alpha, LPS). We demonstrate that DMBT1 is a target gene for the intracellular pathogen receptor NOD2 via NF-kappaB activation. DMBT1 is strongly up-regulated in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients with wild-type, but not with mutant NOD2. We show that DMBT1 inhibits cytoinvasion of Salmonella enterica and LPS- and muramyl dipeptide-induced NF-kappaB activation and cytokine secretion in vitro. Thus, DMBT1 may play an important role in the first line of mucosal defense conferring immune exclusion of bacterial cell wall components. Dysregulated intestinal DMBT1 expression due to mutations in the NOD2/CARD15 gene may be part of the complex pathophysiology of barrier dysfunction in Crohn's disease.

  11. Genetics and epithelial cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, J.R.; Buchwald, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the advances being made in the study of the physiology, cell biology, and molecular genetics of cystic fibrosis. Emphasis is placed on various areas of research that involve epithelial cells (e.g., the CF-specific phenotypes exhibited by epithelial cells, abnormalities in epithelium ion transport, chloride channel regulation in CF epithelial.) Coverage is presented on the current status of CF, including data on the incidence of the disease, its mode of inheritance, chromosomal localization, genetic heterogeneity, and screening and management.

  12. Growth of corneal epithelial cells over in situ therapeutic contact lens after simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET).

    PubMed

    Bhalekar, Swapnil; Sangwan, Virender S; Basu, Sayan

    2013-06-27

    An 11-year-old boy underwent simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) from the healthy right eye to his left eye for total limbal stem cell deficiency. One month later, corneal surface epithelialised and whitish plaques overlying the transplants were seen inferiorly. Those plaques were adherent to the surface of the contact lens and underlying corneal surface had smooth elevations. Similar findings were noted in a 23-year man following cyanoacrylate glue application for corneal perforation. On histological and immunohistochemical analysis, cells lining the contact lenses were identified as corneal epithelial cells. These cases illustrate epithelial cell growth on the contact lens and epithelial hyperplasia on corresponding surface of the cornea. Exorbitant proliferation of the epithelial cells may be owing to young age; therefore, early contact lens removal after SLET in young age, can possibly avoid epithelial hyperplasia. This also reiterates the possibility of using contact lens as a scaffold to grow epithelial cells.

  13. Immunostimulated Arginase II Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Reduces Nitric Oxide Production and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Maria M.; Nuthakki, Sushma; Cui, Hongmei; Jin, Yi; Liu, Yusen; Nelin, Leif D.

    2017-01-01

    Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent local cytotoxicity to mucosal epithelial cells has been proposed as a putative mechanism involved in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) metabolize L-arginine to either nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (NOS) or to L-ornithine and urea by arginase. L-ornithine is the first step in polyamine synthesis important for cell proliferation, while NO production can lead to apoptosis. We hypothesized that in IECs immunostimulation increases both NOS and arginase expression, and that arginase activity mitigates NO production and apoptosis. Rat intestinal epithelial cells (rIEC-6) were immunostimulated by either incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone for 24 h or by incubation with conditioned media (CM) for 24 h. CM was obtained from RAW 264.7 cells (a macrophage cell line) treated with LPS (E. coli 0127:B8; 1 μg/ml) for 4 h. The rIEC-6 stimulated with LPS or with CM had significantly higher levels of inducible NOS (iNOS) protein, NO production, and arginase II protein than did the control cells. Direct LPS stimulation of rIEC-6 produced a less robust increase in iNOS expression and NO (represented as nitrite percent of control) than did CM stimulation. Inhibition of arginase using Nω hydroxyl-L-arginine (NOHA) further increased stimulated NO production in rIEC-6. Viable cell numbers were significantly lower in CM stimulated cells after 24 h than in controls, and inhibition of arginase activity with NOHA resulted in a further significant decrease in viable cell numbers. We conclude that immunostimulated arginase expression of rIEC-6 cells tempers cytokine-induced iNOS-derived NO production and apoptosis. PMID:28299311

  14. Immunostimulated Arginase II Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Reduces Nitric Oxide Production and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Maria M; Nuthakki, Sushma; Cui, Hongmei; Jin, Yi; Liu, Yusen; Nelin, Leif D

    2017-01-01

    Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent local cytotoxicity to mucosal epithelial cells has been proposed as a putative mechanism involved in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) metabolize L-arginine to either nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (NOS) or to L-ornithine and urea by arginase. L-ornithine is the first step in polyamine synthesis important for cell proliferation, while NO production can lead to apoptosis. We hypothesized that in IECs immunostimulation increases both NOS and arginase expression, and that arginase activity mitigates NO production and apoptosis. Rat intestinal epithelial cells (rIEC-6) were immunostimulated by either incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone for 24 h or by incubation with conditioned media (CM) for 24 h. CM was obtained from RAW 264.7 cells (a macrophage cell line) treated with LPS (E. coli 0127:B8; 1 μg/ml) for 4 h. The rIEC-6 stimulated with LPS or with CM had significantly higher levels of inducible NOS (iNOS) protein, NO production, and arginase II protein than did the control cells. Direct LPS stimulation of rIEC-6 produced a less robust increase in iNOS expression and NO (represented as nitrite percent of control) than did CM stimulation. Inhibition of arginase using N(ω) hydroxyl-L-arginine (NOHA) further increased stimulated NO production in rIEC-6. Viable cell numbers were significantly lower in CM stimulated cells after 24 h than in controls, and inhibition of arginase activity with NOHA resulted in a further significant decrease in viable cell numbers. We conclude that immunostimulated arginase expression of rIEC-6 cells tempers cytokine-induced iNOS-derived NO production and apoptosis.

  15. Cultured epithelial cells response to phototherapy with low intensity laser.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Fernanda P; Mehnert, Dolores U; Monezi, Telma A; Zezell, Denise M; Schubert, Mark M; Eduardo, Carlos P; Marques, Márcia M

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the intracellular response of epithelial cells to phototherapy. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the effect of phototherapy with low-energy lasers with different wavelengths and powers on cultured epithelial cell growth under different nutritional conditions. Epithelial cell cultures (Vero cell line) grown in nutritional deficit in culture medium supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were irradiated with low-energy laser from one to three times with a GaAlAs laser (660 nm) and InGaAlP (780 nm), 40 and 70 mW, respectively, with 3 or 5 J/cm2. Cell growth was indirectly assessed by measuring the cell mitochondrial activity. Nonirradiated cell cultures grown in nutritional regular medium supplemented with 10% FBS produced higher cell growth than all cultures grown in nutritional deficit irradiated or not. The overall cell growth of cultures grown under nutritionally deficit conditions was significantly improved especially when irradiated with 780 nm for three times. Phototherapy with the laser parameters tested increases epithelial cell growth rate for cells stressed by growth under nutritionally deficient states. This cell growth improvement is directly proportional to the number of irradiations; however, was not enough to reach the full cell growth potential rate of Vero epithelial cell line observed when growing under nutritional regular condition. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Microfluidic approaches for epithelial cell layer culture and characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Thuenauer, Roland; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Römer, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, epithelial cell layers line most body cavities and form selective barriers that regulate the exchange of solutes between compartments. In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. In addition, analytical tools to monitor biologically relevant parameters can be directly integrated on-chip. In this review we summarise recently developed biochip designs for culturing epithelial cell layers. Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. Furthermore, we review approaches to integrate tools to analyse and manipulate epithelia and endothelia in microfluidic biochips, including methods to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy, methods to detect substances undergoing trans-epithelial transport via fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry, techniques to mechanically stimulate cells via stretching and fluid flow-induced shear stress, and methods to carry out high-resolution imaging of vesicular trafficking with light microscopy. Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. PMID:24668405

  17. Effects of arginine on intestinal epithelial cell integrity and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mi; Ye, Lulu; Hou, Qihang; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-11-14

    Arginine is a multifaceted amino acid that is critical to the normal physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Oral arginine administration has been shown to improve mucosal recovery following intestinal injury. The present study investigated the influence of extracellular arginine concentrations on epithelial cell barrier regulation and nutrition uptake by porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). The results show that reducing arginine concentration from 0·7 to 0·2 mm did not affect the transepithelial electrical resistance value, tight-junction proteins (claudin-1, occludin, E-cadherin), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) and mucin-1 expression. Furthermore, reducing arginine concentration stimulated greater expression of cationic amino acid transporter (CAT1), excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT3) and alanine/serine/cysteine transporter (ASCT1) mRNA by IPEC-J2 cells, which was verified by elevated efficiency of amino acid uptake. Glucose consumption by IPEC-J2 cells treated with 0·2 mm-arginine remained at the same physiological level to guarantee energy supply and to maintain the cell barrier. This experiment implied that reducing arginine concentration is feasible in IPEC-J2 cells guaranteed by nutrient uptake and cell barrier function.

  18. VACCINES. A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two waves of protective memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Stary, Georg; Olive, Andrew; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Gondek, David; Alvarez, David; Basto, Pamela A; Perro, Mario; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Shi, Jinjun; Yethon, Jeremy A; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Starnbach, Michael N; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-06-19

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection induces protective immunity that depends on interferon-γ-producing CD4 T cells. By contrast, we report that mucosal exposure to ultraviolet light (UV)-inactivated Ct (UV-Ct) generated regulatory T cells that exacerbated subsequent Ct infection. We show that mucosal immunization with UV-Ct complexed with charge-switching synthetic adjuvant particles (cSAPs) elicited long-lived protection in conventional and humanized mice. UV-Ct-cSAP targeted immunogenic uterine CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs), whereas UV-Ct accumulated in tolerogenic CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs. Regardless of vaccination route, UV-Ct-cSAP induced systemic memory T cells, but only mucosal vaccination induced effector T cells that rapidly seeded uterine mucosa with resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells). Optimal Ct clearance required both T(RM) seeding and subsequent infection-induced recruitment of circulating memory T cells. Thus, UV-Ct-cSAP vaccination generated two synergistic memory T cell subsets with distinct migratory properties.

  19. Mucosal infection of neonatal rhesus monkeys with cell-free SIV.

    PubMed

    Baba, T W; Koch, J; Mittler, E S; Greene, M; Wyand, M; Penninck, D; Ruprecht, R M

    1994-04-01

    Although the mechanisms for maternal transmission are unknown, approximately half of the infants congenitally infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seem to become infected late in gestation or during delivery. Previously, we have developed a rhesus monkey model for congenital infection by injecting cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) directly into amniotic fluid. Our results suggested that fetal infection may have occurred via skin or mucous membrane exposure. Mucosal surfaces have also been implicated as a portal of virus entry by a study in which the presence of serosanguinous fluid in neonatal gastric aspirates correlated with an increased rate of HIV-1 transmission. To test whether cell-free virus could transverse intact neonatal mucosal surfaces, we administered SIVmac251 orally to four rhesus monkey neonates within 1 hr following cesarean section delivery. All four neonates developed viremia and were positive by cocultivation and PCR. Seroconversion occurred in three of the four neonates. The SIV dose given was within physiological range as shown by end-point dilution of virus stock and viremic plasma samples of juvenile rhesus monkeys. This primate model for mucosal transmission of cell-free virus features a high infection rate, thus making studies of mucosal immunity and the development of strategies to prevent intrapartum virus transmission possible.

  20. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tugizov, Sharof M.; Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adult populations is rare. However, HIV spread across fetal/neonatal oropharyngeal epithelia could be important in mother-to-child transmission. Analysis of HIV transmission across polarized adult and fetal oral epithelial cells revealed that HIV transmigrates through both adult and fetal cells. However, only virions that passed through the fetal cells – and not those that passed through the adult cells – remained infectious. Analysis of expression of anti-HIV innate proteins beta-defensins 2 and 3, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in adult, fetal, and infant oral epithelia showed that their expression is predominantly in the adult oral epithelium. Retention of HIV infectivity after transmigration correlated inversely with the expression of these innate proteins. Inactivation of innate proteins in adult oral keratinocytes restored HIV infectivity. These data suggest that high-level innate protein expression may contribute to the resistance of the adult oral epithelium to HIV transmission. PMID:21056450

  1. Activation of Rho GTPases by Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Induces Macropinocytosis and Scavenging Activity in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Carla; Falzano, Loredana; Fabbri, Alessia; Stringaro, Annarita; Logozzi, Mariaantonia; Travaglione, Sara; Contamin, Stéphanette; Arancia, Giuseppe; Malorni, Walter; Fais, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    Macropinocytosis, a ruffling-driven process that allows the capture of large material, is an essential aspect of normal cell function. It can be either constitutive, as in professional phagocytes where it ends with the digestion of captured material, or induced, as in epithelial cells stimulated by growth factors. In this case, the internalized material recycles back to the cell surface. We herein show that activation of Rho GTPases by a bacterial protein toxin, the Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), allowed epithelial cells to engulf and digest apoptotic cells in a manner similar to that of professional phagocytes. In particular, we have demonstrated that 1) the activation of all Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 by CNF1 was essential for the capture and internalization of apoptotic cells; and 2) such activation allowed the discharge of macropinosomal content into Rab7 and lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 acidic lysosomal vesicles where the ingested particles underwent degradation. Taken together, these findings indicate that CNF1-induced “switching on” of Rho GTPases may induce in epithelial cells a scavenging activity, comparable to that exerted by professional phagocytes. The activation of such activity in epithelial cells may be relevant, in mucosal tissues, in supporting or integrating the scavenging activity of resident macrophages. PMID:11452003

  2. Stochastic Terminal Dynamics in Epithelial Cell Intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob; Reichl, Lars; Kong, Deqing; Zhang, Yujun; Grosshans, Joerg; Wolf, Fred

    2015-03-01

    We found that the constriction of epithelial cell contacts during intercalation in germ band extension in Drosophila embryos follows intriguingly simple quantitative laws. The mean contact length < L > follows < L > (t) ~(T - t) α , where T is the finite collapse time; the time dependent variance of contact length is proportional to the square of the mean; finally the time dependent probability density of the contact lengths remains close to Gaussian during the entire process. These observations suggest that the dynamics of contact collapse can be captured by a stochastic differential equation analytically tractable in small noise approximation. Here, we present such a model, providing an effective description of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of contact collapse. All model parameters are fixed by measurements of time dependent mean and variance of contact lengths. The model predicts the contact length covariance function that we obtain in closed form. The contact length covariance function closely matches experimental observations suggesting that the model well captures the dynamics of contact collapse.

  3. An LGG-derived protein promotes IgA production through upregulation of APRIL expression in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Liu, L; Moore, D J; Shen, X; Peek, R M; Acra, S A; Li, H; Ren, X; Polk, D B; Yan, F

    2017-03-01

    p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived protein, transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, leading to amelioration of intestinal injury and inflammation. To elucidate mechanisms by which p40 regulates mucosal immunity to prevent inflammation, this study aimed to determine the effects and mechanisms of p40 on regulation of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) expression in intestinal epithelial cells for promoting immunoglobulin A (IgA) production. p40 upregulated April gene expression and protein production in mouse small intestine epithelial (MSIE) cells, which were inhibited by blocking EGFR expression and kinase activity. Enteroids from Egfr(fl/fl), but not Egfr(fl/fl)-Vil-Cre mice with EGFR specifically deleted in intestinal epithelial cells, exhibited increased April gene expression by p40 treatment. p40-conditioned media from MSIE cells increased B-cell class switching to IgA(+) cells and IgA production, which was suppressed by APRIL receptor-neutralizing antibodies. Treatment of B cells with p40 did not show any effects on IgA production. p40 treatment increased April gene expression and protein production in small intestinal epithelial cells, fecal IgA levels, IgA(+)B220(+), IgA(+)CD19(+), and IgA(+) plasma cells in lamina propria of Egfr(fl/fl), but not of Egfr(fl/fl)-Vil-Cre, mice. Thus p40 upregulates EGFR-dependent APRIL production in intestinal epithelial cells, which may contribute to promoting IgA production.

  4. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C.; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  5. The effect of mechanical extension stimulation combined with epithelial cell sorting on outcomes of implanted tissue-engineered muscular urethras.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Deng, Chen-Liang; Zhao, Ren-Yan; Wang, Ying; Cao, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Urethral defects are common and frequent disorders and are difficult to treat. Simple natural or synthetic materials do not provide a satisfactory curative solution for long urethral defects, and urethroplasty with large areas of autologous tissues is limited and might interfere with wound healing. In this study, adipose-derived stem cells were used. These cells can be derived from a wide range of sources, have extensive expansion capability, and were combined with oral mucosal epithelial cells to solve the problem of finding seeding cell sources for producing the tissue-engineered urethras. We also used the synthetic biodegradable polymer poly-glycolic acid (PGA) as a scaffold material to overcome issues such as potential pathogen infections derived from natural materials (such as de-vascular stents or animal-derived collagen) and differing diameters. Furthermore, we used a bioreactor to construct a tissue-engineered epithelial-muscular lumen with a double-layer structure (the epithelial lining and the muscle layer). Through these steps, we used an epithelial-muscular lumen built in vitro to repair defects in a canine urethral defect model (1 cm). Canine urethral reconstruction was successfully achieved based on image analysis and histological techniques at different time points. This study provides a basis for the clinical application of tissue engineering of an epithelial-muscular lumen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Free fucose is a danger signal to human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wai Ling; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2008-03-01

    Fucose is present in foods, and it is a major component of human mucin glycoproteins and glycolipids. l-Fucose can also be found at the terminal position of many cell-surface oligosaccharide ligands that mediate cell-recognition and adhesion-signalling pathways. Mucin fucose can be released through the hydrolytic activity of pathogens and indigenous bacteria, leading to the release of free fucose into the intestinal lumen. The immunomodulating effects of free fucose on intestinal epithelial cells (enterocyte-like Caco-2) were investigated. It was found that the presence of l-fucose up regulated genes and secretion of their encoded proteins that are involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, possibly via the toll-like receptor-2 signalling pathway. These include TNFSF5, TNFSF7, TNF-alpha, IL12, IL17 and IL18. Besides modulating immune reactions in differentiated Caco-2 cells, fucose induced a set of cytokine genes that are involved in the development and proliferation of immune cells. These include the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) BMP2, BMP4, IL5, thrombopoietin and erythropoietin. In addition, the up regulated gene expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 may help to promote epithelial cell restitution in conjunction with the enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-beta mRNA. Since the exogenous fucose was not metabolised by the differentiated Caco-2 cells as a carbon source, the reactions elicited were suggested to be a result of the direct interaction of fucose and differentiated Caco-2 cells. The presence of free fucose may signal the invasion of mucin-hydrolysing microbial cells and breakage of the mucosal barrier. The intestinal epithelial cells respond by up regulation and secretion of cytokines, pre-empting the actual invasion of pathogens.

  7. Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sunil Paramel; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Ragunathan, Yoithapprabhunath Thukanayakanpalayam; Lakshmi, Suman Jhansi; Nallusamy, Jaisanghar; Joseph, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation. The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC. A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands. In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia. According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours.

  8. Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Ragunathan, Yoithapprabhunath Thukanayakanpalayam; Lakshmi, Suman Jhansi; Nallusamy, Jaisanghar; Joseph, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation. Aim The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC. Materials and Methods A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands. Results In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia. Conclusion According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours. PMID:27630945

  9. Epithelium-Innate Immune Cell Axis in Mucosal Responses to SIV

    PubMed Central

    Shang, L.; Duan, L.; Perkey, K. E.; Wietgrefe, S.; Zupancic, M.; Smith, A. J.; Southern, P. J.; Johnson, R. P.; Haase, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    In the SIV-rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 transmission to women, one hallmark of the mucosal response to exposure to high doses of SIV is CD4 T cell recruitment that fuels local virus expansion in early infection. In this study, we systematically analyzed the cellular events and chemoattractant profiles in cervical tissues that precede CD4 T cell recruitment. We show that vaginal exposure to the SIV inoculum rapidly induces chemokine expression in cervical epithelium including CCL3, CCL20, and CXCL8. The chemokine expression is associated with early recruitment of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are co-clustered underneath the cervical epithelium. Production of chemokines CCL3 and CXCL8 by these cells in turn generates a chemokine gradient that is spatially correlated with the recruitment of CD4 T cells. We further show that the protection of SIVmac239Δnef vaccination against vaginal challenge is correlated with the absence of this epithelium-innate immune cell-CD4 T cell axis response in the cervical mucosa. Our results reveal a critical role for cervical epithelium in initiating early mucosal responses to vaginal infection, highlight an important role for macrophages in target cell recruitment and provide further evidence of a paradoxical dampening effect of a protective vaccine on these early mucosal responses. PMID:27435105

  10. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J.; Doran, Peter P.

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  11. Culture, Immortalization, and Characterization of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Hatton, Mark P.; Khandelwal, Payal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Meibomian gland epithelial cells are essential in maintaining the health and integrity of the ocular surface. However, very little is known about their physiological regulation. In this study, the cellular control mechanisms were explored, first to establish a defined culture system for the maintenance of primary epithelial cells from human meibomian glands and, second, to immortalize these cells, thereby developing a preclinical model that could be used to identify factors that regulate cell activity. Methods. Human meibomian glands were removed from lid segments after surgery, enzymatically digested, and dissociated. Isolated epithelial cells were cultured in media with or without serum and/or 3T3 feeder layers. To attempt immortalization, the cells were exposed to retroviral human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and/or SV40 large T antigen cDNA vectors, and antibiotic-resistant cells were selected, expanded, and subcultured. Analyses for possible biomarkers, cell proliferation and differentiation, lipid-related enzyme gene expression, and the cellular response to androgen were performed with biochemical, histologic, and molecular biological techniques. Results. It was possible to isolate viable human meibomian gland epithelial cells and to culture them in serum-free medium. These cells proliferated, survived through at least the fifth passage, and contained neutral lipids. Infection with hTERT immortalized these cells, which accumulated neutral lipids during differentiation, expressed multiple genes for lipogenic enzymes, responded to androgen, and continued to proliferate. Conclusions. The results show that human meibomian gland epithelial cells may be isolated, cultured, and immortalized. PMID:20335607

  12. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Impaired Mucosal Immune Responses in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aso, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruhara, Akitoshi; Takagaki, Kentaro; Oki, Katsuyuki; Ota, Megumi; Nose, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Hideki; Urushihata, Naoki; Sasanuma, Jinichi; Sano, Masayuki; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Aso, Rio; McGhee, Jerry R.; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Several clinical trials have shown the ability of AMSCs to regenerate these differentiated cell types. Age-associated dysregulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) immune system has been well documented. Our previous studies showed that impaired mucosal immunity in the GI tract occurs earlier during agingthan is seen in the systemic compartment. In this study, we examined the potential of AMSCs to restore the GI mucosal immune system in aged mice. Aged (>18 mo old) mice were adoptively transferred with AMSCs. Two weeks later, mice were orally immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) three times at weekly intervals. Seven days after the final immunization, when fecal extract samples and plasma were subjected to OVA- and CT-B-specific ELISA, elevated levels of mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and plasma IgG antibody (Ab) responses were noted in aged mouse recipients. Similar results were also seen aged mice which received AMSCs at one year of age. When cytokine production was examined, OVA-stimulated Peyer’s patch CD4+ T cells produced increased levels of IL-4. Further, CD4+ T cells from the lamina propria revealed elevated levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ production. In contrast, aged mice without AMSC transfer showed essentially no OVA- or CT-B-specific mucosal SIgA or plasma IgG Ab or cytokine responses. Of importance, fecal extracts from AMSC transferred aged mice showed neutralization activity to CT intoxication. These results suggest that AMSCs can restore impaired mucosal immunity in the GI tract of aged mice. PMID:26840058

  13. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line.

  14. Increased sulfation of glycoconjugates by cultured nasal epithelial cells from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, P W; Boat, T F; Cranfill, K; Yankaskas, J R; Boucher, R C

    1989-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory epithelia exhibit abnormal anion transport that may be linked to abnormal lung defense. In these studies, we investigated whether primary cultures of CF respiratory epithelial cells regulate abnormally the sulfate content of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMG) participating in airways' mucosal defense. HMG, including glycosaminoglycans and mucin-type glycoproteins released spontaneously into medium and HMG released from cell surfaces by trypsin, were metabolically labeled with 35SO4- and [6-3H]-glucosamine (GlcN) or 35SO4- and [3H]serine. All three classes of HMG from CF cells exhibited 35S/3H labeling ratios 1.5-4-fold greater than HMG from normal or disease control cells. Differences for labeling ratios of HMG from CF cells were shown to be the consequence of increased 35SO4- incorporation rather than decreased peptide synthesis and release or HMG glycosylation. The buoyant density of CF mucin-type HMG also was increased, consistent with increased sulfation. These observations suggest that oversulfation of a spectrum of HMG is a genetically determined characteristic of CF epithelial cells and may play an important pathophysiological role by altering the properties of mucous secretions and/or the interactions between selected bacteria and HMG at the airways' surface. Images PMID:2738159

  15. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in epithelial cells in vivo: rare detection of EBV replication in tongue mucosa but not in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Frangou, Phroso; Buettner, Maike; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2005-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted through saliva, but the cellular source is controversial. Putative reservoirs include oral epithelium and salivary glands. Tongue mucosal samples, salivary glands, and tongue carcinomas were studied, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, for evidence of EBV infection. EBV replication was seen in 1.3% of tongue mucosal samples. No latent infection was found at this site. EBV infection was detected neither in normal salivary glands nor in tongue carcinomas. Thus, EBV replication occurs infrequently in tongue epithelial cells, and salivary glands are unlikely to harbor EBV. EBV is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of tongue cancer.

  16. Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Stine F.; Hoffmann, Else K.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The physiological function of epithelia is transport of ions, nutrients, and fluid either in secretory or absorptive direction. All of these processes are closely related to cell volume changes, which are thus an integrated part of epithelial function. Transepithelial transport and cell volume regulation both rely on the spatially and temporally coordinated function of ion channels and transporters. In healthy epithelia, specific ion channels/transporters localize to the luminal and basolateral membranes, contributing to functional epithelial polarity. In pathophysiological processes such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to consider this especially for epithelia. Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this review we will focus on ion transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed. PMID:24009588

  17. Mucosally transplanted mesenchymal stem cells stimulate intestinal healing by promoting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manieri, Nicholas A.; Mack, Madison R.; Himmelrich, Molly D.; Worthley, Daniel L.; Hanson, Elaine M.; Eckmann, Lars; Wang, Timothy C.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is an emerging field of regenerative medicine; however, it is often unclear how these cells mediate repair. Here, we investigated the use of MSCs in the treatment of intestinal disease and modeled abnormal repair by creating focal wounds in the colonic mucosa of prostaglandin-deficient mice. These wounds developed into ulcers that infiltrated the outer intestinal wall. We determined that penetrating ulcer formation in this model resulted from increased hypoxia and smooth muscle wall necrosis. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) stimulated VEGF-dependent angiogenesis to prevent penetrating ulcers. Treatment of mucosally injured WT mice with a VEGFR inhibitor resulted in the development of penetrating ulcers, further demonstrating that VEGF is critical for mucosal repair. We next used this model to address the role of transplanted colonic MSCs (cMSCs) in intestinal repair. Compared with intravenously injected cMSCs, mucosally injected cMSCs more effectively prevented the development of penetrating ulcers, as they were more efficiently recruited to colonic wounds. Importantly, mucosally injected cMSCs stimulated angiogenesis in a VEGF-dependent manner. Together, our results reveal that penetrating ulcer formation results from a reduction of local angiogenesis and targeted injection of MSCs can optimize transplantation therapy. Moreover, local MSC injection has potential for treating diseases with features of abnormal angiogenesis and repair. PMID:26280574

  18. Airway epithelial cell wound repair mediated by alpha-dystroglycan.

    PubMed

    White, S R; Wojcik, K R; Gruenert, D; Sun, S; Dorscheid, D R

    2001-02-01

    Dystroglycans (DGs) bind laminin matrix proteins in skeletal and cardiac muscle and are expressed in other nonmuscle tissues. However, their expression in airway epithelial cells has not been demonstrated. We examined expression of DGs in the human airway epithelial cell line 1HAEo(-), and in human primary airway epithelial cells. Expression of the common gene for alpha- and beta-DG was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase/ polymerase chain reaction in 1HAEo(-) cells. Protein expression of beta-DG was demonstrated by both Western blot and flow cytometry in cultured cells. Localization of alpha-DG, using both a monoclonal antibody and the alpha-DG binding lectin wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA), was to the cell membrane and nucleus. We then examined the function of DGs in modulating wound repair over laminin matrix. Blocking alpha-DG binding to laminin in 1HAEo(-) monolayers using either glycosyaminoglycans or WGA attenuated cell migration and spreading after mechanical injury. alpha-DG was not expressed in epithelial cells at the wound edge immediately after wound creation, but localized to the cell membrane in these cells within 12 h of injury. These data demonstrate the presence of DGs in airway epithelium. alpha-DG is dynamically expressed and serves as a lectin to bind laminin during airway epithelial cell repair.

  19. Ion pump sorting in polarized renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Caplan, M J

    2001-08-01

    The plasma membranes of renal epithelial cells are divided into distinct apical and basolateral domains, which contain different inventories of ion transport proteins. Without this polarity vectorial ion and fluid transport would not be possible. Little is known of the signals and mechanisms that renal epithelial cells use to establish and maintain polarized distributions of their ion transport proteins. Analysis of ion pump sorting reveals that multiple complex signals participate in determining and regulating these proteins' subcellular localizations.

  20. Secretion of alpha 1-antitrypsin by alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Venembre, P; Boutten, A; Seta, N; Dehoux, M S; Crestani, B; Aubier, M; Durand, G

    1994-06-13

    We have investigated the ability of alveolar epithelial cells (human A549 cell line and rat type-II pneumocytes) to produce alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT). Northern blot analysis demonstrated the presence of an AAT-specific mRNA transcript in A549 cells. Unstimulated A549 cells secreted immunoreactive AAT at a rate of 0.51 +/- 0.04 ng/10(6) cells/h, with a modified glycosylation compared to serum AAT. AAT formed a complex with neutrophil elastase. Rat type-II pneumocytes secreted immunoreactive AAT. Our results suggest that alveolar epithelial cells could participate in antiprotease defense within the lung through local AAT production.

  1. An NK Cell Perforin Response Elicited via IL-18 Controls Mucosal Inflammation Kinetics during Salmonella Gut Infection

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Anna A.; Dolowschiak, Tamas; Sellin, Mikael E.; Felmy, Boas; Verbree, Carolin; Gadient, Sandra; Westermann, Alexander J.; Vogel, Jörg; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salome; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm) is a common cause of self-limiting diarrhea. The mucosal inflammation is thought to arise from a standoff between the pathogen's virulence factors and the host's mucosal innate immune defenses, particularly the mucosal NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome. However, it had remained unclear how this switches the gut from homeostasis to inflammation. This was studied using the streptomycin mouse model. S.Tm infections in knockout mice, cytokine inhibition and –injection experiments revealed that caspase-1 (not -11) dependent IL-18 is pivotal for inducing acute inflammation. IL-18 boosted NK cell chemoattractants and enhanced the NK cells' migratory capacity, thus promoting mucosal accumulation of mature, activated NK cells. NK cell depletion and Prf-/- ablation (but not granulocyte-depletion or T-cell deficiency) delayed tissue inflammation. Our data suggest an NK cell perforin response as one limiting factor in mounting gut mucosal inflammation. Thus, IL-18-elicited NK cell perforin responses seem to be critical for coordinating mucosal inflammation during early infection, when S.Tm strongly relies on virulence factors detectable by the inflammasome. This may have broad relevance for mucosal defense against microbial pathogens. PMID:27341123

  2. An NK Cell Perforin Response Elicited via IL-18 Controls Mucosal Inflammation Kinetics during Salmonella Gut Infection.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anna A; Dolowschiak, Tamas; Sellin, Mikael E; Felmy, Boas; Verbree, Carolin; Gadient, Sandra; Westermann, Alexander J; Vogel, Jörg; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salome; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm) is a common cause of self-limiting diarrhea. The mucosal inflammation is thought to arise from a standoff between the pathogen's virulence factors and the host's mucosal innate immune defenses, particularly the mucosal NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome. However, it had remained unclear how this switches the gut from homeostasis to inflammation. This was studied using the streptomycin mouse model. S.Tm infections in knockout mice, cytokine inhibition and -injection experiments revealed that caspase-1 (not -11) dependent IL-18 is pivotal for inducing acute inflammation. IL-18 boosted NK cell chemoattractants and enhanced the NK cells' migratory capacity, thus promoting mucosal accumulation of mature, activated NK cells. NK cell depletion and Prf-/- ablation (but not granulocyte-depletion or T-cell deficiency) delayed tissue inflammation. Our data suggest an NK cell perforin response as one limiting factor in mounting gut mucosal inflammation. Thus, IL-18-elicited NK cell perforin responses seem to be critical for coordinating mucosal inflammation during early infection, when S.Tm strongly relies on virulence factors detectable by the inflammasome. This may have broad relevance for mucosal defense against microbial pathogens.

  3. A LGG-derived protein promotes IgA production through up-regulation of APRIL expression in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Liping; Moore, Daniel J; Shen, Xi; Peek, Richard M.; Acra, Sari A; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao; Polk, D Brent; Yan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived protein, transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, leading to amelioration of intestinal injury and inflammation. To elucidate mechanisms by which p40 regulates mucosal immunity to prevent inflammation, this study aimed to determine the effects and mechanisms of p40 on regulation of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) expression in intestinal epithelial cells for promoting IgA production. p40 up-regulated April gene expression and protein production in mouse small intestine epithelial (MSIE) cells, which were inhibited by blocking EGFR expression and kinase activity. Enteroids from Egfrfl/fl , but not Egfrfl/fl-Vil-Cre mice with EGFR specifically deleted in intestinal epithelial cells, exhibited increased April gene expression by p40 treatment. p40-conditioned media from MSIE cells increased B cell class switching to IgA+ cells and IgA production, which was suppressed by APRIL receptor neutralizing antibodies. Treatment of B cells with p40 did not show any effects on IgA production. p40 treatment increased April gene expression and protein production in small intestinal epithelial cells, fecal IgA levels, IgA+B220+, IgA+CD19+, and IgA+ plasma cells in lamina propria of Egfrfl/fl, but not Egfrfl/fl-Vil-Cre mice. Thus, p40 up-regulates EGFR-dependent APRIL production in intestinal epithelial cells, which may contribute to promoting IgA production. PMID:27353252

  4. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rongbin; Li, Jijun; Johnson, Cameron W.; Rassoulian, Cyrus; Olumi, Aria F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common proliferative abnormality of the prostate affecting elderly men throughout the world. Epidemiologic studies have shown that diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing BPH, although whether anti-diabetic medications preventing the development of BPH remains to be defined. We have previously found that stromally expressed insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes benign prostatic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms. Here, we seek to understand if metformin, a first line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells through reducing the expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and regulating cell cycle. Methods BPE cell lines BPH-1 and P69, murine fibroblasts3T3 and primary human prostatic fibroblasts were cultured and tested in this study. Cell proliferation and the cell cycle were analyzed by MTS assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of IGF-1R was determined by western-blot and immunocytochemistry. The level of IGF-1 secretion in culture medium was measured by ELISA. Results Metformin (0.5-10mM, 6-48h) significantly inhibited the proliferation of BPH-1 and P69 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Treatment with metformin for 24 hours lowered the G2/M cell population by 43.24% in P69 cells and 24.22% in BPH-1 cells. On the other hand, IGF-1 (100ng/mL, 24h) stimulated the cell proliferation (increased by 28.81% in P69 cells and 20.95% in BPH-1 cells) and significantly enhanced the expression of IGF-1R in benign prostatic epithelial cells. Metformin (5mM) abrogated the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells induced by IGF-1. In 3T3 cells, the secretion of IGF-1 was significantly inhibited by metformin from 574.31pg/ml to 197.61pg/ml. The conditioned media of 3T3 cells and human prostatic fibroblasts promoted the proliferation of epithelial cells and the

  5. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  6. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with {sup 3}H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-{beta} did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 {times} 10{sup 6} sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined.

  7. Inhibition of corneal epithelial cell migration by cadmium and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Ubels, J.L.; Osgood, T.B. Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee )

    1991-02-01

    In a previous comparative study of corneal healing in fish, the authors observed that corneal epithelial healing occurs very rapidly in vivo in the marine teleost Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus (longhorn sculpin) with a 6-mm diameter wound on the mammalian cornea. This rapid healing which permits prompt restoration of the epithelial barrier is apparently an adaptation to the large ionic and osmotic gradients between the environment and the intraocular fluids of the fish. These observations suggested that epithelial healing in the sculpin cornea might be useful model in aquatic biomedical toxicology if an in vitro method for measurement of healing rates could be developed. In this report the authors demonstrate that sculpin eyes maintained in short-term organ culture have a rapid corneal epithelial healing response and that this model can be used to demonstrate the toxic effects of heavy metals on epithelial cell migration.

  8. Chlorhexidine induces DNA damage in rat peripheral leukocytes and oral mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Bazo, Ana Paula; da Silva Franchi, Carla Adriene; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Favero

    2004-10-01

    Chlorhexidine digluconate is widely used in dental practice for decreasing plaque control, controlling gingivitis and disinfecting root canals. However, the undesirable effects of chlorhexidine digluconate regarding its genotoxicity are conflicting in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of chlorhexidine digluconate in rat peripheral blood and oral mucosal cells by the single cell gel (comet) assay and micronucleus assay. Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: negative control; experimental group orally treated with 0.5 ml of 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, twice daily, during 8 days; and positive control, which received 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide at 0.5 g/l by drinking water. A statistically significant increase of DNA damage was observed in leukocytes and oral mucosal cells of the chlorhexidine digluconate treated group, as assessed by the comet assay. However, no increase of micronucleated cells was detected in reticulocytes from peripheral blood cells. Taken together, the data indicate that chlorhexidine digluconate is able to induce primary DNA damage in leukocytes and in oral mucosal cells, but no chromosome breakage or loss in erythrocytes.

  9. Left-right asymmetric cell intercalation drives directional collective cell movement in epithelial morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Emi; Isomura, Ayako; Shibata, Tatsuo; Kuranaga, Erina

    2015-12-01

    Morphogenetic epithelial movement occurs during embryogenesis and drives complex tissue formation. However, how epithelial cells coordinate their unidirectional movement while maintaining epithelial integrity is unclear. Here we propose a novel mechanism for collective epithelial cell movement based on Drosophila genitalia rotation, in which epithelial tissue rotates clockwise around the genitalia. We found that this cell movement occurs autonomously and requires myosin II. The moving cells exhibit repeated left-right-biased junction remodelling, while maintaining adhesion with their neighbours, in association with a polarized myosin II distribution. Reducing myosinID, known to cause counter-clockwise epithelial-tissue movement, reverses the myosin II distribution. Numerical simulations revealed that a left-right asymmetry in cell intercalation is sufficient to induce unidirectional cellular movement. The cellular movement direction is also associated with planar cell-shape chirality. These findings support a model in which left-right asymmetric cell intercalation within an epithelial sheet drives collective cellular movement in the same direction.

  10. Modulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in vitro by Astragalus polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun Li; Ren, Hui Jun; Liu, Meng Meng; Li, Xiao Gai; Sun, De Li; Li, Nan; Ming, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) can be used to treat general gastrointestinal disturbances including intestinal mucosal injury. However, the mechanism by which APS mediate this effect is unclear. In the present study, the effects of APS on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were assessed using an in vitro wounding model and colorimetric thiazolyl blue (MTT) assays. The effect of APS on IEC-6 cell differentiation was observed using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope, and the expression of differentiation-specific markers of IEC-6 cells, such as cytokeratin 18 (CK18), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tight junction protein ZO-2, and sucrase-isomaltase (SI), was determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and real-time PCR. In addition, APS-induced signaling pathways in IEC-6 cells were characterized. Our results indicated that APS significantly enhance migration and proliferation of IEC-6 cells in vitro. APS-treated IEC-6 cells have numerous microvilli on their apical surface and also highly express CK18, ALP, ZO-2, and SI. Moreover, APS-treated IEC-6 cells, in which the activity and expression level of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were significantly elevated, also exhibited an increase in cellular putrescine, whereas no significant increase in TGF-β levels was observed. These findings suggest that APS may enhance intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in vitro by stimulating ODC gene expression and activity and putrescine production, independent of TGF-β. Exogenous administration of APS may provide a new approach for modulating intestinal epithelial wound restitution in vivo.

  11. Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Differentiation In Vitro by Astragalus Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun Li; Ren, Hui Jun; Liu, Meng Meng; Li, Xiao Gai; Sun, De Li; Li, Nan; Ming, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) can be used to treat general gastrointestinal disturbances including intestinal mucosal injury. However, the mechanism by which APS mediate this effect is unclear. In the present study, the effects of APS on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were assessed using an in vitro wounding model and colorimetric thiazolyl blue (MTT) assays. The effect of APS on IEC-6 cell differentiation was observed using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope, and the expression of differentiation-specific markers of IEC-6 cells, such as cytokeratin 18 (CK18), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tight junction protein ZO-2, and sucrase-isomaltase (SI), was determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and real-time PCR. In addition, APS-induced signaling pathways in IEC-6 cells were characterized. Our results indicated that APS significantly enhance migration and proliferation of IEC-6 cells in vitro. APS-treated IEC-6 cells have numerous microvilli on their apical surface and also highly express CK18, ALP, ZO-2, and SI. Moreover, APS-treated IEC-6 cells, in which the activity and expression level of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were significantly elevated, also exhibited an increase in cellular putrescine, whereas no significant increase in TGF-β levels was observed. These findings suggest that APS may enhance intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in vitro by stimulating ODC gene expression and activity and putrescine production, independent of TGF-β. Exogenous administration of APS may provide a new approach for modulating intestinal epithelial wound restitution in vivo. PMID:25157577

  12. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  13. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M; Guédon, Eric; Lapaque, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health.

  14. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection.

    PubMed

    Herbert, De'Broski R; Yang, Jun-Qi; Hogan, Simon P; Groschwitz, Kathryn; Khodoun, Marat; Munitz, Ariel; Orekov, Tatyana; Perkins, Charles; Wang, Quan; Brombacher, Frank; Urban, Joseph F; Rothenberg, Marc E; Finkelman, Fred D

    2009-12-21

    Th2 cells drive protective immunity against most parasitic helminths, but few mechanisms have been demonstrated that facilitate pathogen clearance. We show that IL-4 and IL-13 protect against intestinal lumen-dwelling worms primarily by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule (RELM) beta. RELM-beta is essential for normal spontaneous expulsion and IL-4-induced expulsion of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which both live in the intestinal lumen, but it does not contribute to immunity against Trichinella spiralis, which lives within IEC. RELM-beta is nontoxic for H. polygyrus in vitro but directly inhibits the ability of worms to feed on host tissues during infection. This decreases H. polygyrus adenosine triphosphate content and fecundity. Importantly, RELM-beta-driven immunity does not require T or B cells, alternative macrophage activation, or increased gut permeability. Thus, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for host protection at the mucosal interface that explains how stimulation of epithelial cells by IL-4 and IL-13 contributes to protection against parasitic helminthes that dwell in the intestinal lumen.

  15. Invariant natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Elena; De Biasi, Sara; Simone, Anna Maria; Ferraro, Diana; Sola, Patrizia; Cossarizza, Andrea; Pinti, Marcello

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, and in several countries is a leading cause of permanent neurological disability in young adults, particularly women. MS is considered an autoimmune disease, caused by an aberrant immune response to environmental triggers in genetically susceptible subjects. However, the contribution of the innate or of the adaptive immune system to the development and progression of the disease has not yet been fully elucidated. Innate-like T lymphocytes are unconventional T cells that bridge the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, because they use a T cell receptor to sense external ligands, but behave like innate cells when they rapidly respond to stimuli. These cells could play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. Here, we focus on invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and we review the current knowledge on their biology and possible involvement in MS. Although several studies have evaluated the frequency and functions of iNKT and MAIT cells both in MS patients and in experimental mouse models, contradictory observations have been reported, and it is not clear whether they exert a protective or a pro-inflammatory and harmful role. A better understanding of how immune cells are involved in MS, and of their interactions could be of great interest for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  16. Differentiation of Club Cells to Alveolar Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dahai; Soh, Boon-Seng; Yin, Lu; Hu, Guangan; Chen, Qingfeng; Choi, Hyungwon; Han, Jongyoon; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chen, Jianzhu

    2017-01-01

    Club cells are known to function as regional progenitor cells to repair the bronchiolar epithelium in response to lung damage. By lineage tracing in mice, we have shown recently that club cells also give rise to alveolar type 2 cells (AT2s) and alveolar type 1 cells (AT1s) during the repair of the damaged alveolar epithelium. Here, we show that when highly purified, anatomically and phenotypically confirmed club cells are seeded in 3-dimensional culture either in bulk or individually, they proliferate and differentiate into both AT2- and AT1-like cells and form alveolar-like structures. This differentiation was further confirmed by transcriptomic analysis of freshly isolated club cells and their cultured progeny. Freshly isolated club cells express Sca-1 and integrin α6, markers commonly used to characterize lung stem/progenitor cells. Together, current study for the first time isolated highly purified club cells for in vitro study and demonstrated club cells’ capacity to differentiate into alveolar epithelial cells at the single-cell level. PMID:28128362

  17. Mucosally induced immunological tolerance, regulatory T cells and the adjuvant effect by cholera toxin B subunit.

    PubMed

    Sun, J-B; Czerkinsky, C; Holmgren, J

    2010-01-01

    Induction of peripheral immunological tolerance by mucosal administration of selected antigens (Ags) ('oral tolerance') is an attractive, yet medically little developed, approach to prevent or treat selected autoimmune or allergic disorders. A highly effective way to maximize oral tolerance induction for immunotherapeutic purposes is to administer the relevant Ag together with, and preferably linked to the non-toxic B subunit protein of cholera toxin (CTB). Oral, nasal or sublingual administration of such Ag/CTB conjugates or gene fusion proteins have been found to induce tolerance with superior efficiency compared with administration of Ag alone, including the suppression of various autoimmune disorders and allergies in animal models. In a proof-of-concept clinical trial in patients with Behcet's disease, this was extended with highly promising results to prevent relapse of autoimmune uveitis. Tolerization by mucosal Ag/CTB administration results in a strong increase in Ag-specific regulatory CD4(+) T cells, apparently via two separate pathways: one using B cells as APCs and leading to a strong expansion of Foxp3(+) Treg cells which can both suppress and mediate apoptotic depletion of effector T cells, and one being B cell-independent and associated with development of Foxp3(-) regulatory T cells that express membrane latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) and/or IL-10. The ability of CTB to dramatically increase mucosal Ag uptake and presentation by different APCs through binding to GM1 ganglioside (which makes most B cells effective APCs irrespective of their Ag specificity), together with CTB-mediated stimulation of TGF-beta and IL-10 production and inhibition of IL-6 formation may explain the dramatic potentiation of oral tolerance by mucosal Ags presented with CTB.

  18. Inhibition of HIV-1 Infectivity and Epithelial Cell Transfer by Human Monoclonal IgG and IgA Antibodies Carrying the b12 V Region1

    PubMed Central

    Mantis, Nicholas J.; Palaia, Jana; Hessell, Ann J.; Mehta, Simren; Zhu, Zhiyi; Corthésy, Blaise; Neutra, Marian R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Janoff, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Both IgG and secretory IgA Abs in mucosal secretions have been implicated in blocking the earliest events in HIV-1 transit across epithelial barriers, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. In this study, we report the production and characterization of a human rIgA2 mAb that carries the V regions of IgG1 b12, a potent and broadly neutralizing anti-gp120 Ab which has been shown to protect macaques against vaginal simian/HIV challenge. Monomeric, dimeric, polymeric, and secretory IgA2 derivatives of b12 reacted with gp120 and neutralized CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic strains of HIV-1 in vitro. With respect to the protective effects of these Abs at mucosal surfaces, we demonstrated that IgG1 b12 and IgA2 b12 inhibited the transfer of cell-free HIV-1 from ME-180 cells, a human cervical epithelial cell line, as well as Caco-2 cells, a human colonic epithelial cell line, to human PBMCs. Inhibition of viral transfer was due to the ability of b12 to block both viral attachment to and uptake by epithelial cells. These data demonstrate that IgG and IgA MAbs directed against a highly conserved epitope on gp120 can interfere with the earliest steps in HIV-1 transmission across mucosal surfaces, and reveal a possible mechanism by which b12 protects the vaginal mucosal against viral challenge in vivo. PMID:17709529

  19. Inflammatory colonic innate lymphoid cells are increased during untreated hiv-1 infection and associated with markers of gut dysbiosis and mucosal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Stephanie M; Castleman, Moriah J; Frank, Daniel N; Austin, Gregory L; Gianella, Sara; Cogswell, Andrew C; Landay, Alan L; Barker, Edward; Wilson, Cara C

    2017-08-18

    HIV-1 infection is associated with intestinal inflammation, changes in the enteric microbiota (dysbiosis) and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) damage. NKp44 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play an important role in epithelial barrier maintenance via the production of IL-22, but also display functional plasticity and can produce inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IFNg) in response to cytokine milieu and stimulatory signals. The objective of this pilot study was to enumerate frequencies of IL-22 and IFNg-expressing colonic NKp44 ILCs during untreated, chronic HIV-1 infection. A cross-sectional study was performed to compare numbers of cytokine-expressing ILCs in colonic biopsies of untreated, chronic HIV-1 infected (n=22) and uninfected (n=10) study participants. Associations between cytokine ILC and previously established measures of virological, immunological and microbiome indices were analyzed. Multi-color flow cytometry was used to measure the absolute number of colonic CD3NKp44CD56 ILCs expressing IL-22 or IFNg following in vitro mitogenic stimulation. Numbers of colonic NKp44 ILCs that expressed IFNg were significantly higher in HIV-1 infected versus uninfected persons and positively correlated with relative abundances of dysbiotic bacterial species in the Xanthomoadaceae and Prevotellaceae bacterial families and with colonic mDC and T cell activation. Higher numbers of inflammatory colonic ILCs during untreated chronic HIV-1 infection that associated with dysbiosis and colonic mDC and T cell activation suggest that inflammatory ILCs may contribute to gut mucosal inflammation and epithelial barrier breakdown, important features of HIV-1 mucosal pathogenesis.

  20. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing.

  1. Runx1 stabilizes the mammary epithelial cell phenotype and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Deli; Messier, Terri L.; Tye, Coralee E.; Dobson, Jason R.; Fritz, Andrew J.; Sikora, Kenneth R.; Browne, Gillian; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.

    2017-01-01

    Runx1 is a well characterized transcription factor essential for hematopoietic differentiation and Runx1 mutations are the cause of leukemias. Runx1 is highly expressed in normal epithelium of most glands and recently has been associated with solid tumors. Notably, the function of Runx1 in the mammary gland and how it is involved in initiation and progression of breast cancer is still unclear. Here we demonstrate the consequences of Runx1 loss in normal mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. We first observed that Runx1 is decreased in tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells. We also observed loss of Runx1 expression upon induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A (normal-like) cells. Furthermore depletion of Runx1 in MCF10A cells resulted in striking changes in cell shape, leading to mesenchymal cell morphology. The epithelial phenotype could be restored in breast cancer cells by re-expressing Runx1. Analyses of breast tumors and patient data revealed that low Runx1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. We addressed mechanisms for the function of Runx1 in maintaining the epithelial phenotype and find Runx1 directly regulates E-cadherin; and serves as a downstream transcription factor mediating TGFβ signaling. We also observed through global gene expression profiling of growth factor depleted cells that induction of EMT and loss of Runx1 is associated with activation of TGFβ and WNT pathways. Thus these findings have identified a novel function for Runx1 in sustaining normal epithelial morphology and preventing EMT and suggest Runx1 levels could be a prognostic indicator of tumor progression. PMID:28407681

  2. Runx1 stabilizes the mammary epithelial cell phenotype and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Hong, Deli; Messier, Terri L; Tye, Coralee E; Dobson, Jason R; Fritz, Andrew J; Sikora, Kenneth R; Browne, Gillian; Stein, Janet L; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S

    2017-03-14

    Runx1 is a well characterized transcription factor essential for hematopoietic differentiation and Runx1 mutations are the cause of leukemias. Runx1 is highly expressed in normal epithelium of most glands and recently has been associated with solid tumors. Notably, the function of Runx1 in the mammary gland and how it is involved in initiation and progression of breast cancer is still unclear. Here we demonstrate the consequences of Runx1 loss in normal mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. We first observed that Runx1 is decreased in tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells. We also observed loss of Runx1 expression upon induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A (normal-like) cells. Furthermore depletion of Runx1 in MCF10A cells resulted in striking changes in cell shape, leading to mesenchymal cell morphology. The epithelial phenotype could be restored in breast cancer cells by re-expressing Runx1. Analyses of breast tumors and patient data revealed that low Runx1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. We addressed mechanisms for the function of Runx1 in maintaining the epithelial phenotype and find Runx1 directly regulates E-cadherin; and serves as a downstream transcription factor mediating TGFβ signaling. We also observed through global gene expression profiling of growth factor depleted cells that induction of EMT and loss of Runx1 is associated with activation of TGFβ and WNT pathways. Thus these findings have identified a novel function for Runx1 in sustaining normal epithelial morphology and preventing EMT and suggest Runx1 levels could be a prognostic indicator of tumor progression.

  3. Hypo-responsiveness of interleukin-8 production in human embryonic epithelial intestine 407 cells independent of NF-{kappa}B pathway: New lessons from endotoxin and ribotoxic deoxynivalenol

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Yuseok Yang, Hyun; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2008-08-15

    Mucosal epithelium senses external toxic insults and transmits the danger signals into the epithelial cells in order to activate a broad range of inflammatory responses. However, pre-exposure to the commensal endotoxins can induce inflammatory tolerance and maintain the homeostasis without excessive immune responses. We recently reported that ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives elicited the pro-inflammatory response as the mucosal insults in human epithelial cells. Taking the knowledge into consideration, we tested the hypothesis that endotoxin pre-exposure can attenuate ribotoxin-induced epithelial interleukin-8 (IL-8) production via a tolerance mechanism. Pre-exposure to endotoxin repressed IL-8 release and its gene expression. However, inflammatory tolerance was not mediated by the attenuated NF-{kappa}B activation which has been generally recognized as the major mediator of LPS-mediated toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. Instead, pre-exposure to endotoxin was observed to trigger the delayed induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) which contributed to the diminished IL-8 production in the human epithelial cells. Moreover, endogenous PPAR-{gamma} agonist suppressed toxicant-mediated interleukin-8 production and IL-8 mRNA stability. Taken together, endotoxin induced hypo-production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in the human epithelial cells, which was associated with the delayed activation of PPAR-{gamma} expression by pre-existing endotoxin.

  4. Transcytotic passage of albumin through lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sabah, Judith R; Schultz, Bruce D; Brown, Zach W; Nguyen, Annelise T; Reddan, John; Takemoto, Larry J

    2007-03-01

    To characterize the transcytotic passage of albumin through lens epithelial cells. N/N 1003A rabbit lens epithelial cells were grown to a confluent monolayer on porous filter supports (Transwell Corning, Inc., Corning, NY). Monolayers were exposed apically to Alexa 488-labeled albumin (Alexa 488-BSA) in the absence and presence of endocytic inhibitors (filipin; dansylcadaverine [DCV]). Transcytotic passage of albumin was monitored for 4 hours by quantitating fluorescence in the basolateral compartment. The mechanism of albumin passage was studied by labeling cell monolayers and cryosections of whole rat lenses for clathrin or caveolin. The monolayer of cells formed a barrier to the passage of albumin, as shown by the 44% reduction in albumin passage in comparison to nonseeded membranes. Treatment with filipin or DCV reduced the passage of Alexa 488-BSA through lens epithelial cells by 73% and 66%, respectively. Confocal microscopy showed that albumin passage was predominantly transcellular and demonstrated colocalization of albumin with caveolin-1 and clathrin in lens epithelial and fiber cells. The Transwell apparatus is an excellent system to monitor transport systems across cell monolayers. In this study, rabbit lens epithelial cells formed a confluent monolayer that acted as a barrier to the passive diffusion of albumin. The kinetics of albumin movement across the monolayer and the inhibitor pharmacology suggests that lens cells actively transport albumin from the apical to the basolateral compartment. The inhibitory profile suggests the involvement of caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles in the transcytotic process.

  5. DA-6034 Induces [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, Hyewon; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-04-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca(2+) signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca(2+)]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca(2+)]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca(2+) entry from extracellular and Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling via extracellular Ca(2+) entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores in epithelial cells.

  6. Anatomical location and culture of equine corneal epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hidekazu; Kasashima, Yoshinori; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Wada, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    To identify morphologically the locations of equine corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs) and to culture these cells. We studied the eyes of 12 adult thoroughbred horses. Eye tissues were immunostained for two positive stem cell markers (p63, CK14) and one negative marker (CK3) to identify the locations of CESCs, so we could compare their immunostaining patterns with those of human stem cells previously reported. We compared the proliferation rates and morphological features of epithelial cells isolated from the corneal limbus and central cornea. Undifferentiated cells expressing the same immunostaining pattern as human CESCs were present in the equine corneal limbus. Cultured epithelial cells isolated from the limbus expressed the same immunostaining pattern that CESCs show histologically, but cells isolated from the central cornea did not proliferate and could not be evaluated. Equine CESCs were localized in the epithelial basal layer of the corneal limbus, where melanocytes reside. They could be cultured without loss of their undifferentiated nature. When collecting such stem cells, it may be useful to harvest and culture corneal epithelial tissues in the limbus where melanocytes serve as an indicator of the collecting area. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Oral mucosal progenitor cell clones resist in vitro myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Locke, Matthew; Davies, Lindsay C; Stephens, Phil

    2016-10-01

    Progenitor cells derived from the oral mucosa lamina propria (OMLP-PCs) demonstrate an ability to differentiate into tissue lineages removed from their anatomical origin. This clonally derived population of neural-crest cells have demonstrated potential to differentiate along mesenchymal and neuronal cell lineages.

  8. Mucosal and systemic anti-HIV immunity controlled by A20 in mouse dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bangxing; Song, Xiao-Tong; Rollins, Lisa; Berry, Lindsey; Huang, Xue F; Chen, Si-Yi

    2011-02-01

    Both mucosal and systemic immune responses are required for preventing or containing HIV transmission and chronic infection. However, currently described vaccination approaches are largely ineffective in inducing both mucosal and systemic responses. In this study, we found that the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20--an inducible feedback inhibitor of the TNFR, RIG-I, and TLR signaling pathways that broadly controls the maturation, cytokine production, and immunostimulatory potency of DCs--restricted systemically immunized DCs to induce both robust mucosal and systemic HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses. Mechanistic studies revealed that A20 regulated DC production of retinoic acid and proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting the expression of gut-homing receptors on T and B cells. Furthermore, A20-silenced, hyperactivated DCs exhibited an enhanced homing capacity to draining and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) after systemic administration. Thus, this study provides insights into the role of A20 in innate immunity. This work may allow the development of an efficient HIV vaccination strategy that is capable of inducing both robust systemic and mucosal anti-HIV cellular and humoral responses.

  9. Mucosal and systemic anti-HIV immunity controlled by A20 in mouse dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bangxing; Song, Xiao-Tong; Rollins, Lisa; Berry, Lindsey; Huang, Xue F.; Chen, Si-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Both mucosal and systemic immune responses are required for preventing or containing HIV transmission and chronic infection. However, currently described vaccination approaches are largely ineffective in inducing both mucosal and systemic responses. In this study, we found that the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 — an inducible feedback inhibitor of the TNFR, RIG-I, and TLR signaling pathways that broadly controls the maturation, cytokine production, and immunostimulatory potency of DCs — restricted systemically immunized DCs to induce both robust mucosal and systemic HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses. Mechanistic studies revealed that A20 regulated DC production of retinoic acid and proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting the expression of gut-homing receptors on T and B cells. Furthermore, A20-silenced, hyperactivated DCs exhibited an enhanced homing capacity to draining and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) after systemic administration. Thus, this study provides insights into the role of A20 in innate immunity. This work may allow the development of an efficient HIV vaccination strategy that is capable of inducing both robust systemic and mucosal anti-HIV cellular and humoral responses. PMID:21206085

  10. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chun-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Shelly; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  11. IL-17A Induces Pendrin Expression and Chloride-Bicarbonate Exchange in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kelly M.; Abraham, Valsamma; Spielman, Daniel; Kolls, Jay K.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Conner, Gregory E.; Cohen, Noam A.; Kreindler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4) as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease. PMID:25141009

  12. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected.

  13. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Mesothelial Cells in Tuberculous Pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Sung-Hoon; Hwang, Yong Il; Jang, Seung Hun; Kim, Cheol Hong; Jung, Ki-Suck; Min, Kwangseon; Lee, Jae Woong; Jang, Young Sook

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Tuberculous pleurisy is the most frequent extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. In spite of adequate treatment, pleural fibrosis is a common complication, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. This study is to determine whether epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mesothelial cells occurs in tuberculous pleurisy. Materials and Methods Normal pleural mesothelial cells, isolated from irrigation fluids during operations for primary spontaneous pneumothorax, were characterized by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These cells were treated in vitro with various cytokines, which were produced in the effluents of tuberculous pleurisy. The isolated cells from the effluents of tuberculous pleurisy were analyzed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis. Results The isolated cells from the irrigation fluid of primary spontaneous pneumothorax had epithelial characteristics. These cells, with transforming growth factor-β1 and/or interleukin-1β treatment, underwent phenotypic transition from epithelial to mesenchymal cells, with the loss of epithelial morphology and reduction in cytokeratin and E-cadherin expression. Effluent analysis from tuberculous pleurisy using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR demonstrated two phenotypes that showed mesenchymal characteristics and both epithelial & mesencymal characteristics. Conclusion Our results suggest that pleural mesothelial cells in tuberculous pleurisy have been implicated in pleural fibrosis through EMT. PMID:21155035

  14. Epithelial cell guidance by self-generated EGF gradients†

    PubMed Central

    Scherber, Cally; Aranyosi, Alexander J.; Kulemann, Birte; Thayer, Sarah P.; Toner, Mehmet; Iliopoulos, Othon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer epithelial cells often migrate away from the primary tumor to invade into the surrounding tissues. Their migration is commonly assumed to be directed by pre-existent spatial gradients of chemokines and growth factors in the target tissues. Unexpectedly however, we found that the guided migration of epithelial cells is possible in vitro in the absence of pre-existent chemical gradients. We observed that both normal and cancer epithelial cells can migrate persistently and reach the exit along the shortest path from microscopic mazes filled with uniform concentrations of media. Using microscale engineering techniques and biophysical models, we uncovered a self-guidance strategy during which epithelial cells generate their own guiding cues under conditions of biochemical confinement. The self-guidance strategy depends on the balance between three interdependent processes: epidermal growth factor (EGF) uptake by the cells (U), the restricted transport of EGF through the structured microenvironment (T), and cell chemotaxis toward the resultant EGF gradients (C). The UTC self-guidance strategy can be perturbed by inhibition of signalling through EGF-receptors and appears to be independent from chemokine signalling. Better understanding of the UTC self-guidance strategy could eventually help devise new ways for modulating epithelial cell migration and delaying cancer cell invasion or accelerating wound healing. PMID:22314635

  15. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    PubMed Central

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine. PMID:26828484

  16. Starved epithelial cells uptake extracellular matrix for survival

    PubMed Central

    Muranen, Taru; Iwanicki, Marcin P.; Curry, Natasha L.; Hwang, Julie; DuBois, Cory D.; Coloff, Jonathan L.; Hitchcock, Daniel S.; Clish, Clary B.; Brugge, Joan S.; Kalaany, Nada Y.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular matrix adhesion is required for normal epithelial cell survival, nutrient uptake and metabolism. This requirement can be overcome by oncogene activation. Interestingly, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR leads to apoptosis of matrix-detached, but not matrix-attached cancer cells, suggesting that matrix-attached cells use alternate mechanisms to maintain nutrient supplies. Here we demonstrate that under conditions of dietary restriction or growth factor starvation, where PI3K/mTOR signalling is decreased, matrix-attached human mammary epithelial cells upregulate and internalize β4-integrin along with its matrix substrate, laminin. Endocytosed laminin localizes to lysosomes, results in increased intracellular levels of essential amino acids and enhanced mTORC1 signalling, preventing cell death. Moreover, we show that starved human fibroblasts secrete matrix proteins that maintain the growth of starved mammary epithelial cells contingent upon epithelial cell β4-integrin expression. Our study identifies a crosstalk between stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells under starvation that could be exploited therapeutically to target tumours resistant to PI3K/mTOR inhibition. PMID:28071763

  17. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  18. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  19. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  20. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-10-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-LET radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic transformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  1. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Daroit, Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  2. Substance P induces CCN1 expression via histone deacetylase activity in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David Q; Hing, Tressia C; Chen, Jeremy; Ho, Samantha; Zhao, Dezheng; Targan, Stephan R; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2011-11-01

    We have shown that substance P (SP) and its neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) regulate intestinal angiogenesis by increasing expression of protein CYR61 (the cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61, or CCN1) in colonic epithelial cells. However, the mechanism involved in SP-induced CCN1 expression has not been studied, and the outcome of increased CCN1 expression in the development of colitis is not fully understood. Because histone deacetylase (HDAC) modulates transcription of several genes involved in inflammation, we investigated participation of HDAC in SP-induced CCN1 expression in human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells overexpressing NK-1R (NCM460-NK-1R) and in primary colonocytes. SP increased HDAC activity with deacetylation and dephosphorylation of nucleosome protein histone H3 in NCM460-NK-1R and/or primary colonocytes. Histone deacetylation and dephosphorylation was observed in colonic mucosa from irritable bowel disease patients. Similarly, colonic mucosal tissues from mice exposed to dextran sulfate sodium showed histone H3 deacetylation and dephosphorylation and increased HDAC activity that was reversed by the NK-1R antagonist CJ-12255. SP-induced increased CCN1 expression in NCM460-NK-1R cells was abolished by pharmacological HDAC inhibition. HDAC overexpression activated basal and SP-induced CCN1 promoter activity. Intracolonic CCN1 overexpression significantly ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, with reduction of proinflammatory cytokine expression in mice. Thus, SP-mediated CCN1 expression in the inflamed human and mouse colon involves increased HDAC activity. Our results strongly suggest that increased CCN1 expression may be involved in mucosal healing during colitis.

  3. Enhanced gene expression in epithelial cells transfected with amino acid-substituted gemini nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Singh, Jagbir; Wettig, Shawn; Foldvari, Marianna; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko

    2010-08-01

    Gemini surfactants are versatile gene delivery agents because of their ability to bind and compact DNA and their low cellular toxicity. Through modification of the alkyl tail length and the chemical nature of the spacer, new compounds can be generated with the potential to improve the efficiency of gene delivery. Amino acid (glycine and lysine) and dipeptide (glycyl-lysine and lysyl-lysine) substituted spacers of gemini surfactants were synthesized, and their efficiency of gene delivery was assessed in epithelial cells for topical cutaneous and mucosal applications. Three different epithelial cell lines, COS-7, PAM212 and Sf 1Ep cells, were transfected with plasmid DNA encoding for interferon gamma and green fluorescent protein complexed with the amino acid-substituted gemini compounds in the presence of 1,2 dioleyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine as a helper lipid. Gene expression was quantified by ELISA. Size, zeta potential and circular dichroism measurements were used to characterize the plasmid-gemini (PG) and plasmid-gemini surfactant-helper lipid (PGL) complexes. Gene expression was found to increase up to 72h and then declined by the 7th day. In general, the glycine-substituted surfactant showed consistently high gene expression in all three cell lines. Results of physicochemical and spectroscopic studies of the complexes indicate that substitution of the gemini spacer does not interfere with compaction of the DNA. The superior performance of these spacer-substituted gemini surfactants might be attributed to their better biocompatibility compared to the surfactants possessing unsubstituted spacers.

  4. Heterogeneity and stochastic growth regulation of biliary epithelial cells dictate dynamic epithelial tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kamimoto, Kenji; Kaneko, Kota; Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Okada, Hajime; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic remodeling of the intrahepatic biliary epithelial tissue plays key roles in liver regeneration, yet the cellular basis for this process remains unclear. We took an unbiased approach based on in vivo clonal labeling and tracking of biliary epithelial cells in the three-dimensional landscape, in combination with mathematical simulation, to understand their mode of proliferation in a mouse liver injury model where the nascent biliary structure formed in a tissue-intrinsic manner. An apparent heterogeneity among biliary epithelial cells was observed: whereas most of the responders that entered the cell cycle upon injury exhibited a limited and tapering growth potential, a select population continued to proliferate, making a major contribution in sustaining the biliary expansion. Our study has highlighted a unique mode of epithelial tissue dynamics, which depends not on a hierarchical system driven by fixated stem cells, but rather, on a stochastically maintained progenitor population with persistent proliferative activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15034.001 PMID:27431614

  5. Mucosal cytokine network in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Akira; Yagi, Yuhki; Shioya, Makoto; Nishida, Atsushi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are characterized by ongoing mucosal inflammation in which dysfunction of the host immunologic response against dietary factors and commensal bacteria is involved. The chronic inflammatory process leads to disruption of the epithelial barrier, and the formation of epithelial ulceration. This permits easy access for the luminal microbiota and dietary antigens to cells resident in the lamina propria, and stimulates further pathological immune cell responses. Cytokines are essential mediators of the interactions between activated immune cells and non-immune cells, including epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The clinical efficacy of targeting TNF-α clearly indicates that cytokines are the therapeutic targets in IBD patients. In this manuscript, we focus on the biological activities of recently-reported cytokines [Interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine family, IL-31 and IL-32], which might play a role through interaction with TNF-α in the pathophysiology of IBD. PMID:18777592

  6. Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cell Deficiency in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Soo; Jin, Hye-Mi; Cho, Young-Nan; Kim, Moon-Ju; Kang, Jeong-Hwa; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Ki-Jeong; Kee, Hae Jin; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been reported to play an important role in mucosal immunity. However, little is known about the roles of MAIT cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aims of this study were to examine the levels of circulating MAIT cells and their subsets in COPD patients and to investigate the potential relationship between clinical parameters and MAIT cell levels. Forty-five COPD patients and 57 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Circulating MAIT cells and their subset levels in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. Disease grades were classified according to the GOLD criteria for the assessment of severity of COPD. Circulating MAIT cell levels were found to be significantly reduced in COPD patients. In particular, this MAIT cell deficiency was more prominent in CD8+ and double-negative T cell subsets. Interestingly, elevated serum C-reactive protein level and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio were associated with MAIT cell deficiency in COPD patients. Furthermore, the circulating MAIT levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with moderate to severe COPD than in patients with mild COPD. Our data shows that MAIT cells are numerically deficient in the peripheral blood of patients with COPD. In addition, this MAIT cell deficiency was found to reflect inflammatory activity and disease severity. These findings provide important information for monitoring the changes in MAIT cell levels and for predicting the prognosis during the disease course.

  7. Polyamines and Gut Mucosal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Jennifer; Chang, Elizabeth T.; Wang, Jian-Ying; Rao, Jaladanki N.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa has the most rapid turnover rate of any tissue in the body and its integrity is preserved through the dynamic balance between cell migration, proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. To maintain tissue homeostasis of the GI mucosa, the rates of epithelial cell division and apoptosis must be highly regulated by various extracellular and intracellular factors including cellular polyamines. Natural polyamines spermidine, spermine and their precursor putrescine, are organic cations in eukaryotic cells and are implicated in the control of multiple signaling pathways and distinct cellular functions. Normal intestinal epithelial growth depends on the available supply of polyamines to the dividing cells in the crypts, and polyamines also regulate intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis. Although the specific molecular processes controlled by polyamines remains to be fully defined, increasing evidence indicates that polyamines regulate intestinal epithelial integrity by modulating the expression of various growth-related genes. In this review, we will extrapolate the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the roles of polyamines in gut mucosal homeostasis and highlight progress in cellular and molecular mechanisms of polyamines and their potential clinical applications. PMID:25237589

  8. Ozone exposed epithelial cells modify cocultured natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.

    2013-01-01

    Ozone (O3) causes significant adverse health effects worldwide. Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are among the first sites within the respiratory system to be exposed to inhaled air pollutants. They recruit, activate, and interact with immune cells via soluble mediators and direct cell-cell contacts. Based on our recent observation demonstrating the presence of natural killer (NK) cells in nasal lavages, the goal of this study was to establish a coculture model of NECs and NK cells and examine how exposure to O3 modifies this interaction. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess immunophenotypes of NK cells cocultured with either air- or O3-exposed NECs. Our data show that coculturing NK cells with O3-exposed NECs decreased intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ), enhanced, albeit not statistically significant, IL-4, and increased CD16 expression on NK cells compared with air controls. Additionally, the cytotoxicity potential of NK cells was reduced after coculturing with O3-exposed NECs. To determine whether soluble mediators released by O3-exposed NECs caused this shift, apical and basolateral supernatants of air- and O3-exposed NECs were used to stimulate NK cells. While the conditioned media of O3-exposed NECs alone did not reduce intracellular IFN-γ, O3 enhanced the expression of NK cell ligands ULBP3 and MICA/B on NECs. Blocking ULBP3 and MICA/B reversed the effects of O3-exposed NECs on IFN-γ production in NK cells. Taken together, these data showed that interactions between NECs and NK cells in the context of O3 exposure changes NK cell activity via direct cell-cell interactions and is dependent on ULBP3/MICA/B expressed on NECs. PMID:23241529

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELLS CULTURED IN SEMIPERMEABLE HOLLOW FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Newton, Danforth A.; Qiu, Yonhzhi; Wen, Xuejun; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; Baatz, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Cell culture methods commonly used to represent alveolar epithelial cells in vivo have lacked airflow, a 3-dimensional air-liquid interface, and dynamic stretching characteristics of native lung tissue—physiological parameters critical for normal phenotypic gene expression and cellular function. Here the authors report the development of a selectively semipermeable hollow fiber culture system that more accurately mimics the in vivo microenvironment experienced by mammalian distal airway cells than in conventional or standard air-liquid interface culture. Murine lung epithelial cells (MLE-15) were cultured within semipermeable polyurethane hollow fibers and introduced to controlled airflow through the microfiber interior. Under these conditions, MLE-15 cells formed confluent monolayers, demonstrated a cuboidal morphology, formed tight junctions, and produced and secreted surfactant proteins. Numerous lamellar bodies and microvilli were present in MLE-15 cells grown in hollow fiber culture. Conversely, these alveolar type II cell characteristics were reduced in MLE-15 cells cultured in conventional 2D static culture systems. These data support the hypothesis that MLE-15 cells grown within our microfiber culture system in the presence of airflow maintain the phenotypic characteristics of type II cells to a higher degree than those grown in standard in vitro cell culture models. Application of our novel model system may prove advantageous for future studies of specific gene and protein expression involving alveolar epithelial or bronchiolar