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Sample records for mulches

  1. Trap-mulching Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Sorenson, Clyde E; Waldvogel, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), management is constrained, in large part, by polydomy where nestmates are distributed extensively across urban landscapes, particularly within mulch. Management with trap-mulching is a novel approach derived from trap-cropping where ants are repelled from a broad domain of nest sites to smaller defined areas, which are subsequently treated with insecticide. This concept was field-tested with mulch surrounding ornamental trees replaced with a narrow band of pine (Pinus spp.) needle mulch (trap) within a much larger patch of repellent aromatic cedar (Juniperus spp.) mulch. After ants reestablished around the trees, the pine needle mulch band was treated with 0.06% fipronil (Termidor). Poor results were obtained when the trap extended from the tree trunk to the edge of the mulched area. When the trap was applied as a circular band around the tree trunk reductions in the number of foraging ants were recorded through 14 d compared with an untreated mulch control, but not for longer periods. Reductions in the number of ant nests within mulch were no different between the trap mulch and any of the other treatments. We conclude that trap-mulching offers limited benefits, and that successful management of Argentine ants will require implementation of complementary or perhaps alternative strategies.

  2. Nanoparticles from Degradation of Biodegradable Plastic Mulch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Markus; Sintim, Henry; Bary, Andy; English, Marie; Schaefer, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Plastic mulch films are commonly used in crop production. They provide multiple benefits, including control of weeds and insects, increase of soil and air temperature, reduction of evaporation, and prevention of soil erosion. The use of plastic mulch film in agriculture has great potential to increase food production and security. Plastic mulch films must be retrieved and disposed after usage. Biodegradable plastic mulch films, who can be tilled into the soil after usage offer great benefits as alternative to conventional polyethylene plastic. However, it has to be shown that the degradation of these mulches is complete and no micro- and nanoparticles are released during degradation. We conducted a field experiment with biodegradable mulches and tested mulch degradation. Mulch was removed from the field after the growing season and composted to facilitate degradation. We found that micro- and nanoparticles were released during degradation of the mulch films in compost. This raises concerns about degradation in soils as well.

  3. Trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption using sustainable organic mulch.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zongsu; Seo, Youngwoo

    2010-09-15

    Soluble substrates (electron donors) have been commonly injected into chlorinated solvent contaminated plume to stimulate reductive dechlorination. Recently, different types of organic mulches with economic advantages and sustainable benefits have received much attention as new supporting materials that can provide long term sources of electron donors for chlorinated solvent bioremediation in engineered biowall systems. However, sorption capacities of organic mulches for chlorinated solvents have not been studied yet. In this study, the physiochemical properties of organic mulches (pine, hardwood and cypress mulches) were measured and their adsorption capacity as a potential media was elucidated. Single, binary and quaternary isotherm tests were conducted with trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trans-dichloroethylene (trans-DCE) and cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE). Among the three tested mulches, pine mulch showed the highest sorption capacity for the majority of the tested chemicals in single isotherm test. In binary or quaternary isotherm tests, competition among chemicals appears to diminish the differences in Q(e) for tested mulches. However, pine mulch also showed higher adsorption capacity for most chemicals when compared to hardwood and cypress mulches in the two isotherm tests. Based upon physicochemical properties of the three mulches, higher sorption capacity of pine mulch over hardwood and cypress mulches appears to be attributed to a higher organic carbon content and the lower polarity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Remediation potential of mulch for removing lead.

    PubMed

    Jang, A; Bishop, P L

    2012-01-01

    Hardwood bark mulch has good physicochemical properties for the adsorption of lead (Pb(II)). Batch tests were conducted to obtain the sorption coefficient of Pb(II) in mulch. The results of the Freundlich model were not in as good agreement as for the case of the Langmuir model. In addition, a laboratory-scale mulch permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system was designed for the treatment of Pb(II)-contaminated groundwater. The mulch PRB system, using a mulch layer, can potentially be used in the subsurface for cost-effective and in situ transformation of the Pb(II) into environmentally acceptable forms. From the Pb(II) breakthrough curve, the mulch becomes saturated more quickly at higher flow rates.

  5. Rolled cotton mulch as an alternative mulching material for transplanted cucurbit crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch is commonly used in transplanted vegetable crop production in the southeastern U. S. Cantaloupe and watermelon growers use a system of hybrid transplants, grown on narrow LDPE mulch-covered seedbeds with overhead irrigation, and use the mulch cover for only one...

  6. [Soil evaporation under perforated plastic mulch].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Wenyan; Shao, Ming'an

    2005-03-01

    In arid and semiarid regions of northwestern China, where evaporation exceeds precipitation, perforated plastic mulches are widely used to decrease soil water evaporation. To determine the effects of various perforated plastic mulches on soil water evaporation after irrigation, a soil column experiment was conducted, which consisted of six mulches with different perforated rates and four levels of irrigation, and the soil water evaporation from each soil column was measured. The results showed that with 100% perforated mulch, the cumulative evaporation was 2.8-48.5 times higher than that of the control, and increased with increasing irrigation amount. There was a linear relationship between cumulative evaporation and time, which followed the Gardner's theory of bare soil evaporation. A three-factor (evaporation time, perforated rate and irrigation amount) function of cumulative evaporation and the functions of relative cumulative evaporation and cumulative evaporation per unit hole area film were established, which fitted the observed data very well.

  7. Soil Quality and Colloid Transport under Biodegradable Mulches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintim, Henry; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Ghimire, Shuresh; Flury, Markus; Bary, Andy; Schaeffer, Sean; DeBruyn, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Polyethylene (PE) mulch is commonly used in agriculture to increase water use efficiency, to control weeds, manage plant diseases, and maintain a favorable micro-climate for plant growth. However, producers need to retrieve and safely dispose PE mulch after usage, which creates enormous amounts of plastic waste. Substituting PE mulch with biodegradable plastic mulches could alleviate disposal needs. However, repeated applications of biodegradable mulches, which are incorporated into the soil after the growing season, may cause deterioration of soil quality through breakdown of mulches into colloidal fragments, which can be transported through soil. Findings from year 1 of a 5-year field experiment will be presented.

  8. Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Snoddy, Edward T; Appel, Arthur G

    2013-02-01

    Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Because this species is a peridomestic pest, mulch preferences may be a key part of an integrated pest management program for homeowners. Five mulches were used: cypress, oak leaf litter, pine straw, rubber, and topsoil. Large arena experiments showed that adult male Asian cockroaches preferred oak leaf litter and pine straw, while adult females preferred oak leaf litter and rubber mulches. Nymphal stages preferred rubber (48.3-62.5% for small and medium instars, respectively) to all other mulches. All stages of the Asian cockroach showed very little preference to topsoil (0%) and cypress mulch (6.3%). Ebeling choice box tests confirmed lack of preference or repellency of adult males to topsoil (17.8 +/- 3.6%) and rubber mulch (15.7 +/- 3.6%). Continuous exposure experiments indicated that pine straw was significantly more toxic to adult males than other mulches (66.7 +/- 18.4% mortality at 7 d). Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach may be mediated by characteristics of the interstitial spaces in the different mulches. Rubber mulch afforded smaller, more humid spaces that were inaccessible to adults. Because cypress mulch was least preferred by nymphs and adults, use of cypress mulch in an integrated pest management program around homes may help to reduce Asian cockroach populations and limit insecticide exposure to humans, animals, and the environment.

  9. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  10. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  11. 7 CFR 2902.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 2902.56 Section 2902.56... Items § 2902.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a protective... procurement preference for qualifying biobased mulch and compost materials. By that date, Federal...

  12. [Effects of tillage and mulching on orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liao, Yun-Cheng; Gao, Mao-Sheng; Yin, Rui-Jing

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage system (no-tillage, rotary tillage, and plow tillage) and mulching (straw mulch, sod mulch, and film mulch) on the orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau. Under different tillage system, the soil moisture content in 0-1 m layer differed significantly in May, with the sequence of no-tillage (14.28%) > rotary tillage (14.13%) > plow tillage (13.57%), but had less difference in September. Straw mulch induced significantly higher soil moisture content than sod mulch, film mulch, and no-mulch. Among the treatments tillage plus mulching, no-tillage plus straw mulch resulted in the greatest soil water storage. The average soil temperature at daytime was in order of film mulch > no-mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch, and the change range of soil temperature was no-mulch > film mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch. Soil water storage under different mulching treatments was not always negatively correlated with soil temperature, but depended on the water conservation effect and heat-preserved capacity of mulching material. Above all, the main conservation tillage system for the orchards in Loess Plateau would be no tillage plus straw mulch.

  13. To mulch or not to mulch? Effects of gravel mulch toppings on plant establishment and development in ornamental prairie plantings.

    PubMed

    Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, North American prairie vegetation has served as a design model for highly attractive, low-cost and low-maintenance plantings in German urban green spaces. Where mixed-planting techniques, gravel mulch toppings and non-selective maintenance techniques such as mowing are used, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective alternative design concepts for public green space management. In this study, we investigated the establishment success of different mixtures of prairie species plantings on two sites with different soil conditions: topsoil and topsoil with graywacke gravel topping. We documented significantly higher average mortality rates on gravel mulch sites in the first year after establishment. Further development of mortality was not significantly different between sites. Weed species were always more numerous on topsoil sites and had an obvious effect on the visual impact of the plantings. The mulch created an effective barrier for wind-dispersed germinators. Soil temperatures down to 30 cm were significantly higher on gravel mulch sites throughout the year, stimulating more vital plant growth and a prolonged growing season. Our results emphasize the importance of considering these kinds of practical issues during the planning process as they are critical to the success or failure of the design.

  14. To mulch or not to mulch? Effects of gravel mulch toppings on plant establishment and development in ornamental prairie plantings

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, North American prairie vegetation has served as a design model for highly attractive, low-cost and low-maintenance plantings in German urban green spaces. Where mixed-planting techniques, gravel mulch toppings and non-selective maintenance techniques such as mowing are used, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective alternative design concepts for public green space management. In this study, we investigated the establishment success of different mixtures of prairie species plantings on two sites with different soil conditions: topsoil and topsoil with graywacke gravel topping. We documented significantly higher average mortality rates on gravel mulch sites in the first year after establishment. Further development of mortality was not significantly different between sites. Weed species were always more numerous on topsoil sites and had an obvious effect on the visual impact of the plantings. The mulch created an effective barrier for wind-dispersed germinators. Soil temperatures down to 30 cm were significantly higher on gravel mulch sites throughout the year, stimulating more vital plant growth and a prolonged growing season. Our results emphasize the importance of considering these kinds of practical issues during the planning process as they are critical to the success or failure of the design. PMID:28166269

  15. Herbicide dissipation from low density polyethylene mulch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine herbicide dissipation when applied to low density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch for dry scenarios vs. washing off with water. In field studies, halosulfuron, paraquat, carfentrazone, glyphosate, and flumioxazin were applied to black 1.25-mil LDPE at...

  16. STORMWATER FILTRATION USING MULCH AND JUTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using readily available, low-cost natural filter naterials for stormwater (SW) treatment. Generic (hardwood) mulch and processed jute fiber were evaluated for the removal of metallic and organic pollutants from urban SW runoff samples colle...

  17. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  18. STORMWATER FILTRATION USING MULCH AND JUTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using readily available, low-cost natural filter naterials for stormwater (SW) treatment. Generic (hardwood) mulch and processed jute fiber were evaluated for the removal of metallic and organic pollutants from urban SW runoff samples colle...

  19. Power mulchers can apply hardwood bark mulch

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1971-01-01

    Two makes of power mulchers were evaluated for their ability to apply raw or processed hardwood bark mulch for use in revegetating disturbed soils. Tests were made to determine the uniformity of bark coverage and distance to which coverage was obtained. Moisture content and particle-size distribution of the barks used were also tested to determine whether or not these...

  20. Mulch tillage for conserving soil water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mulching is the practice of maintaining organic or inorganic materials on or applying them to the soil surface. It is an ancient practice, but through the years clean tillage that incorporated crop residues and also controlled weeds became the norm. Frequent and deep tillage often was promoted to co...

  1. [Effect of plastic film mulching on crop yield and nitrogen efficiency in semiarid areas].

    PubMed

    Li, S; Li, F; Song, Q; Wang, J

    2001-04-01

    The effect of plastic film mulching, water storage in soil profile before sowing, and nitrogen fertilization on crop yield and nitrogen efficiency was examined in this paper. The study site was on the cultivated lossial soil in semiarid areas with 415 mm of annual rainfall and the test crop was spring wheat, Triticum aestivum. In order to study the effect of plastic film mulching, 4 levels of mulching were designed, including mulching of 0, 30 and 60 days after sowing and mulching over the whole growing period. The results showed that increase of soil water storage, plastic film mulching and nitrogen fertilization increased crop yield significantly(alpha < 0.01), and their effect followed in the order of nitrogen fertilization > increase of water storage > plastic film mulching. The effect of mulching on crop yield varied with water storage, nitrogen fertilization and mulching periods. When the water storage was low, there was no significant difference in crop yield between mulching and no mulching, although mulching increased crop yield slightly, and the nitrogen efficiency was higher for no mulching and mulching 30 days. When the water storage was high, the difference between the yield of mulching 60 days and no mulching was significant, but no difference in nitrogen efficiency was found for mulching 30 days, 60 days and over whole growing period. It was suggested that mulching over whole growing period was of less significance in practice.

  2. The use of biodegradable mulch for tomato and broccoli production: Crop yield and quality, mulch deterioration, and growers' perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Jeremy Scott

    Biodegradable mulch may offer the benefits of polyethylene mulch for crop production with the added benefit of biodegradability. Four studies were carried out in Mount Vernon, WA to evaluate biodegradable mulch for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) production. The first study compared four biodegradable mulch treatments: BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus (cellulose product), and SB-PLA-10/11/12 (experimental, non-woven fabric), to polyethylene mulch and bare ground in high tunnels and in the open field for tomato yield and fruit quality over three growing seasons. Biodegradable plastic films produced yields and fruit quality comparable to polyethylene. Moreover, high tunnels increased total and marketable fruit weight five and eight times, respectively, compared to the open field. The second study quantified relationships among visual assessment parameters and mulch mechanical properties. Visual assessments and mechanical property tests of polyethylene, BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus, and SB-PLA-10/11/12, were made over three growing seasons. Regression analyses found the strongest relationship overall (r2 = 0.41) to be between the percent of initial breaking force in the machine direction and log 10 of percent visual deterioration. However, evaluating mulch products individually and increasing sample frequency are recommended for future research. The third study evaluated three biodegradable mulch products, BioAgri, Crown 1, and SB-PLA-11, after soil-incorporation. The average area of recovered mulch fragments decreased for all mulch products over time. The number of mulch fragments initially increased for all mulch products, with the greatest number of Crown 1 and BioAgri fragments recovered 132 and 299 days after incorporation, respectively. At 397 days after soil-incorporation, the total area of recovered fragments of Crown 1 and BioAgri was 0% and 34% of the theoretical maximum area, respectively. The fourth study

  3. Reflective mulch enhances ripening and health compounds in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela A; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-08-15

    The objective of the study was to improve fruit quality, including health compounds, by improving light utilization for fruit crops under hail net. Four reflective mulches including plastics such as Extenday® and a bio-degradable paper were spread in the alleyways of a cv. 'Gala Mondial' apple orchard on 10 August 2010 5 weeks before anticipated harvest. Reflective mulch affected neither fruit firmness nor sugar, but accelerated starch breakdown, indicative of riper fruits (smaller Streif index), compared with the uncovered grass alleyway (control). Reflective mulches also improved fruit quality such as red coloration of cv. 'Gala Mondial' apples. This was due to significantly enhanced flavonoids and anthocyanins. Flavonoids increased up to 52.4% in the Extenday® treatment (29.2 nmol cm(-2) in the grass control versus 44.5 nmol cm(-2) fruit peel with reflective mulch). Similarly, reflective mulch improved anthocyanin content in cv. 'Gala Mondial' peel up to 66% compared to grass control (14.5 nmol cm(-2) in control fruit versus 24.1 nmol cm(-2) with reflective mulch). The reflective mulch did not affect chlorophyll and carotenoid content in the 'Gala' fruit peel. Overall, the application of reflective mulches improved fruit quality in terms of better coloration and health compounds and accelerated ripening, leading to higher market value. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  5. Herbicide retention in soil as affected by sugarcane mulch residue.

    PubMed

    Selim, H M; Zhou, L; Zhu, H

    2003-01-01

    Reducing surface and subsurface losses of herbicides in the soil and thus their potential contamination of water resources is a national concern. This study evaluated the effectiveness of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) residue (mulch cover) in reducing nonpoint-source contamination of applied herbicides from sugarcane fields. Specifically, the effect of mulch residue on herbicide retention was quantified. Two main treatments were investigated: a no-till treatment and a no-mulch treatment. The amounts of extractable atrazine [2-chloro-4-(isopropylamino)-6-ethylamino-s-triazine], metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one], and pendimethalin [N-(ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitroaniline] from the mulch residue and the surface soil layer were quantified during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. Significant amounts of applied herbicides were intercepted by the mulch residue. Extractable concentrations were at least one order of magnitude higher for the mulch residue compared with that retained by the soil. Moreover, the presence of mulch residue on the sugarcane rows was highly beneficial in minimizing runoff losses of the herbicides applied. When the residue was not removed, a reduction in runoff-effluent concentrations, as much as 50%, for atrazine and pendimethalin was realized. Moreover, the presence of mulch residue resulted in consistently lower estimates for rates of decay or disappearance of atrazine and pendimethalin in the surface soil.

  6. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  7. Maize water use in living mulch systems with stover removal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Constraints to maize stover biomass harvest may be mitigated by using a living mulch (LM) to offset C exports and control soil erosion. Living mulches can compete with the main crop for resources, particularly water. The objectives of this research were to quantify soil water dynamics and maize wate...

  8. Evaluation of alternative mulches for blueberry over five production seasons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a calcifuge (acid-loving) plant that responds favorably to mulching with organic matter (OM). Until recently, most blueberry plantings in our region were grown with a mulch of douglas-fir sawdust, with additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer applied to comp...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening and...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening and...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening and...

  12. Mulch effects on highbush blueberry under organic management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A long-term organic blueberry trial was planted in October 2006 in Aurora, Oregon to investigate the effect of mulch on soil and plant nutrient status, plant growth, berry yield, irrigation requirements, and weed control efficacy. Mulch treatments were applied at planting and included 1) weed mat ...

  13. Soil microbial activity as influenced by compaction and straw mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siczek, A.; Frąc, M.

    2012-02-01

    Field study was performed on Haplic Luvisol soil to determine the effects of soil compaction and straw mulching on microbial parameters of soil under soybean. Treatments with different compaction were established on unmulched and mulched with straw soil. The effect of soil compaction and straw mulching on the total bacteria number and activities of dehydrogenases, protease, alkaline and acid phosphatases was studied. The results of study indicated the decrease of enzymes activities in strongly compacted soil and their increase in medium compacted soil as compared to no-compacted treatment. Mulch application caused stimulation of the bacteria total number and enzymatic activity in the soil under all compaction levels. Compaction and mulch effects were significant for all analyzed microbial parameters (P<0.001).

  14. [Effectiveness of perforated film mulching on maize field in rainfall reception and soil ventilation].

    PubMed

    Chi, Baoliang; Huang, Xuefang; Zhang, Dongmei

    2006-04-01

    To improve the light rain availability and soil ventilation in semi-arid area, this paper studied the effectiveness of perforated plastic film mulching on maize field. The results showed that perforated plastic film mulching had the benefits of receiving rainfall and supplementing soil moisture. Soil CO2 content increased with increasing area of mulching, and was lower under perforated plastic film mulching than under common plastic film mulching. A negative correlation was observed between maize root vitality and soil CO2 content. The maize yield under perforated film mulching was 8.98% higher than that under common film mulching.

  15. KSU mulch underplanter-development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Suderman, D.; Clark, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    A low-cost mulch planter was developed that attaches to the sweep units of undercutter plows. Fertilizer is applied either below or to each side and below the planted crop. The air-blown crop seed is placed at planting depth via a delivery tube that is pulled along beneath the soil. The front end of the tube is hinged at its attachment point to provide vertical and horizontal rotation. The press wheels support the rear end of the tube and thus provide the function of depth control as well as soil firming. 12 refs.

  16. Image Analysis to Estimate Mulch Residue in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carmen; Mancebo, Ignacio; Saa, Antonio; Moreno, Marta M.

    2014-01-01

    Mulching is used to improve the condition of agricultural soils by covering the soil with different materials, mainly black polyethylene (PE). However, problems derived from its use are how to remove it from the field and, in the case of it remaining in the soil, the possible effects on it. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic (BD) or paper (PP), as mulch, which could present an alternative, reducing nonrecyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues in the ground is one of the basic requirements to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. This study has the goal of evaluating the residue of several mulch materials over a crop campaign in Central Spain through image analysis. Color images were acquired under similar lighting conditions at the experimental field. Different thresholding methods were applied to binarize the histogram values of the image saturation plane in order to show the best contrast between soil and mulch. Then the percentage of white pixels (i.e., soil area) was used to calculate the mulch deterioration. A comparison of thresholding methods and the different mulch materials based on percentage of bare soil area obtained is shown. PMID:25309953

  17. Image analysis to estimate mulch residue in soil.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Carmen; Mancebo, Ignacio; Saa, Antonio; Moreno, Marta M

    2014-01-01

    Mulching is used to improve the condition of agricultural soils by covering the soil with different materials, mainly black polyethylene (PE). However, problems derived from its use are how to remove it from the field and, in the case of it remaining in the soil, the possible effects on it. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic (BD) or paper (PP), as mulch, which could present an alternative, reducing nonrecyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues in the ground is one of the basic requirements to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. This study has the goal of evaluating the residue of several mulch materials over a crop campaign in Central Spain through image analysis. Color images were acquired under similar lighting conditions at the experimental field. Different thresholding methods were applied to binarize the histogram values of the image saturation plane in order to show the best contrast between soil and mulch. Then the percentage of white pixels (i.e., soil area) was used to calculate the mulch deterioration. A comparison of thresholding methods and the different mulch materials based on percentage of bare soil area obtained is shown.

  18. Comparison of copper levels in runoff from fresh-market vegetable production using polyethylene mulch or a vegetative mulch.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; McConnell, Laura L; Heighton, Lynne P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Isensee, Allan R; Teasdale, John R; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Hapeman, Cathleen J

    2002-01-01

    Runoff from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production with polyethylene mulch has been implicated in the failure of commercial shellfish farms in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States. Copper, applied in the form of copper hydroxide, is the most widely used fungicide-bactericide for control of tomato diseases and recently has been detected in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) watershed. Elevated levels of copper have been shown to have adverse effects on shellfish, finfish, and other aquatic organisms. This research evaluates the off-site movement of copper with the dissolved phase and the particulate phase of runoff from controlled field plots containing tomato plants grown in either polyethylene mulch or a vegetative mulch, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Overall, runoff collected from polyethylene mulch plots contained significantly (p < or = 0.05) greater loads of dissolved- and particulate-phase copper than runoff from hairy vetch mulch plots. However, the loss of copper associated with the particulate phase was significantly greater (p < or = 0.05) than that associated with the dissolved phase of runoff from both mulch treatments, with the particulate phase accounting for more than 80% of the copper loads. The reported toxicity of copper to aquatic organisms and the greater runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site loading of copper measured in runoff from the polyethylene mulch suggests that this management practice is less sustainable and may have a more harmful impact on aquatic ecosystems.

  19. [Effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield under straw mulch].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yajun; Li, Shengxiu; Li, Shiqing; Tian, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhaohui; Zheng, Xianfeng; Du, Jianjun

    2005-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a Hongyou soil of Yangling to investigate the effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on wheat yield under straw mulch. The results showed that under straw mulch, N fertilization contributed more to the increase of wheat yield than irrigation, because soil moisture condition was improved greatly. The interaction between irrigation and nitrogen fertilization was negative in no-mulch treatment, but positive under straw mulch. For dryland, more attention should be paid to the input of nutrients when straw mulch was applied. High moisture content in soil profile before sowing and sufficient N input were essential for good harvest when field was not mulched. Under straw mulch, the irrigation rate for a maximum yield was reduced, and the optimum time of irrigation was postponed. Wheat grain yield had no relation to the irrigation during jointing stage in both no-mulch and straw mulch treatments.

  20. Effect of aromatic cedar mulch on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foraging activity and nest establishment.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Heike E; Silverman, Jules

    2003-06-01

    In the laboratory, Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), mortality was positively correlated to the length of an aromatic cedar mulch section that had to be crossed before food could be reached. When ants could access food without crossing the mulch, mortality was not correlated to mulch section length. In the field, Argentine ants showed a tendency to avoid aromatic cedar mulch as a nesting substrate. In plant beds alongside buildings the number of ant nests (pockets containing brood) found was not significantly different between aromatic cedar and cypress mulch. However, when pine straw mulch around oak trees was replaced with aromatic cedar or cypress mulch, a similar number of ant nests was found in the cypress mulch as in the original pine straw, whereas numbers in aromatic cedar mulch were significantly lower. Also, fewer ants were trailing on the trees surrounded by aromatic cedar mulch compared with cypress mulch or the original pine straw. The number of ants attracted to apple jelly baits placed alongside the buildings did not differ between mulch types; neither did the number of ant trails crossing the mulch beds around the buildings. We suggest that aromatic cedar mulch may help control Argentine ants and reduce insecticide input when applied in combination with conventional control methods.

  1. Growing Season Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Flooded Non-Mulching and Non-Flooded Mulching Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Run-hua; Wang, Xiu-jun; Chen, Fang; Tian, Chang-yan

    2012-01-01

    There is much interest in the role that agricultural practices might play in sequestering carbon to help offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, limited information exists regarding the potential for increased carbon sequestration of different management strategies. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast carbon dioxide exchange in traditional non-mulching with flooding irrigation (TF) and plastic film mulching with drip irrigation (PM) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields in northwest China. Net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) were measured during the growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. As compared with TF, PM significantly increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP (340 g C m−2 season−1) of cotton, and decreased the Rh (89 g C m−2 season−1) (p<0.05). In a growing season, PM had a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEP of ∼ 429 g C m−2 season−1 than the TF. These results demonstrate that conversion of this type of land use to mulching practices is an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in the short term in cotton systems of arid areas. PMID:23226376

  2. Growing season carbon dioxide exchange in flooded non-mulching and non-flooded mulching cotton.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Run-hua; Wang, Xiu-jun; Chen, Fang; Tian, Chang-yan

    2012-01-01

    There is much interest in the role that agricultural practices might play in sequestering carbon to help offset rising atmospheric CO₂ concentrations. However, limited information exists regarding the potential for increased carbon sequestration of different management strategies. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast carbon dioxide exchange in traditional non-mulching with flooding irrigation (TF) and plastic film mulching with drip irrigation (PM) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields in northwest China. Net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (R(h)) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) were measured during the growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. As compared with TF, PM significantly increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP (340 g C m⁻² season⁻¹) of cotton, and decreased the R(h) (89 g C m⁻² season⁻¹) (p<0.05). In a growing season, PM had a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEP of ∼ 429 g C m⁻² season⁻¹ than the TF. These results demonstrate that conversion of this type of land use to mulching practices is an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in the short term in cotton systems of arid areas.

  3. Image Analysis to Estimate Mulch Residual on Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Valencia, Carmen; Moreno Valencia, Marta; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Organic farmers are currently allowed to use conventional polyethylene mulch, provided it is removed from the field at the end of the growing or harvest season. To some, such use represents a contradiction between the resource conservation goals of sustainable, organic agriculture and the waste generated from the use of polyethylene mulch. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic or paper as mulch, which could present an alternative to polyethylene in reducing non-recyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues on the ground is one of the basic requisites to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. Determination the extent of mulch residue on the field is an exhausting job while there is not a distinct and accurate criterion for its measurement. There are several indices for estimation the residue covers while most of them are not only laborious and time consuming but also impressed by human errors. Human vision system is fast and accurate enough in this case but the problem is that the magnitude must be stated numerically to be reported and to be used for comparison between several mulches or mulches in different times. Interpretation of the extent perceived by vision system to numerals is possible by simulation of human vision system. Machine vision comprising image processing system can afford these jobs. This study aimed to evaluate the residue of mulch materials over a crop campaign in a processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) crop in Central Spain through image analysis. The mulch materials used were standard black polyethylene (PE), two biodegradable plastic mulches (BD1 and BD2), and one paper (PP1) were compared. Meanwhile the initial appearance of most of the mulches was sort of black PE, at the end of the experiment the materials appeared somewhat discoloured, soil and/or crop residue was impregnated being very difficult to completely remove them. A digital camera

  4. Pulmonary responses after wood chip mulch exposure.

    PubMed

    Wintermeyer, S F; Kuschner, W G; Wong, H; D'Alessandro, A; Blanc, P D

    1997-04-01

    Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome (ODTS) is a flu-like syndrome that can occur after inhalation of cotton, grain, wood chip dusts, or other organic dusts or aerosols. We investigated whether inflammatory pulmonary responses occur, even after relatively brief, low-level wood chip mulch exposure. Six volunteers were exposed to wood chip mulch dust. Total dust and/or endotoxin levels were measured in five subjects. Pulmonary function and peripheral blood counts were measured before and after exposure in each subject. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in each subject after exposure, and cell, cytokine, and protein concentrations were measured. Control BAL without previous exposure was also performed on three of the subjects. Three of six subjects had symptoms consistent with ODTS. No clinically relevant or statistically significant changes in pulmonary function tests after exposure were found. Three subjects manifested a marked elevation in neutrophil percentage in their BAL (range, 10 to 57%). When these three subjects underwent control BAL, the postexposure comparison demonstrated an increase in neutrophil levels of 154 +/- 89 x 10(3)/mL (mean +/- standard error; P = 0.22). The mean increase in BAL interleukin-8 levels after exposure, compared with paired control values, was 11.2 +/- SE 2.5 pg/mL (P = 0.047). There was also an increase in BAL interleukin-6 levels that reached borderline significance (6.4 +/- SE 2.0 pg/mL; P = 0.08). Tumor necrosis factor levels were increased in all three subjects' BAL as well (0.4 +/- SE 0.2 pg/mL), but this change was not statistically significant (P = 0.2). Our findings of increased BAL proinflammatory cytokine and neutrophil levels are consistent with the theory that cytokine networking in the lung may mediate ODTS.

  5. Effects of aromatic cedar mulch on the Argentine ant and the odorous house ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Meissner, H E; Silverman, J

    2001-12-01

    In laboratory studies, the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say), avoided aromatic cedar mulch as a nesting substrate. Both ant species were killed when confined with fresh aromatic cedar mulch in sealed containers. However, when confined with cedar mulch that had been aged outdoors for up to 140 d, mortality of L. humile was complete regardless of mulch age, whereas T. sessile mortality declined significantly over the mulch-aging period. Argentine ant susceptibility to aromatic cedar mulch was also greater than that of the odorous house ant when colonies were restricted to mulch in open trays. In addition, commercial aromatic cedar oil was lethal to both ant species. Our results suggest that aromatic cedar mulch may serve as an effective component of a comprehensive urban ant management program.

  6. 30 CFR 816.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been regraded and..., soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing practices are not...

  7. 30 CFR 816.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been regraded and..., soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing practices are not...

  8. 30 CFR 817.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... practices. Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been... if seasonal, soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing...

  9. 30 CFR 816.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been regraded and..., soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing practices are not...

  10. 30 CFR 816.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been regraded and..., soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing practices are not...

  11. 30 CFR 817.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... practices. Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been... if seasonal, soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing...

  12. 30 CFR 817.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practices. Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been... if seasonal, soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing...

  13. 30 CFR 816.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been regraded and..., soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing practices are not...

  14. 30 CFR 817.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... practices. Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been... if seasonal, soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing...

  15. 30 CFR 817.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... practices. Suitable mulch and other soil stabilizing practices shall be used on all areas that have been... if seasonal, soil, or slope factors result in a condition where mulch and other soil stabilizing...

  16. Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Timothy G; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tolaymat, Thabet; Stook, Kristin

    2003-06-20

    The production of landscape mulch is a major market for the recycling of yard trash and waste wood. When wood recovered from construction and demolition (C&D) debris is used as mulch, it sometimes contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The presence of CCA-treated wood may cause some potential environmental problems as a result of the chromium, copper, and arsenic present. Research was performed to examine the leachability of the three metals from a variety of processed wood mixtures in Florida. The mixtures tested included mixed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities and mulch purchased from retail outlets. The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was performed to examine the leaching of chromium, copper and arsenic. Results were compared to Florida's groundwater cleanup target levels (GWCTLs). Eighteen of the 22 samples collected from C&D debris processing facilities leached arsenic at concentrations greater than Florida's GWCTL of 50 microg/l. The mean leachable arsenic concentration for the C&D debris samples was 153 microg/l with a maximum of 558 microg/l. One of the colored mulch samples purchased from a retail outlet leached arsenic above 50 microg/l, while purchased mulch samples derived from virgin materials did not leach detectable arsenic (<5 microg/l). A mass balance approach was used to compute the potential metal concentrations (mg/kg) that would result from CCA-treated wood being present in wood mulch. Less than 0.1% CCA-treated wood would cause a mulch to exceed Florida's residential clean soil guideline for arsenic (0.8 mg/kg).

  17. [Effects of mulching on soil moisture in a dryland winter wheat field, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying-Dan; Chai, Shou-Xi; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Chen, Yu-Zhang; Yang, Chang-Gang; Huang, Cai-Xia; Chang, Lei; Pang, Lei

    2013-11-01

    This paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil moisture in a semi-arid rainfed area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China. Seven treatments were installed, i. e., mulching plastic film in summer (T1), mulching plastic film in autumn (T2), mulching 5 cm long wheat straw in summer (T3), mulching whole wheat straw in summer (T4), mulching plastic film in summer plus wheat straw (T5), mulching used plastic film after harvest (T6), and un-mulching (CK). In T6, the soil moisture in different layers at different crop growth stages was all higher than that in CK. In the other five mulching treatments, the soil moisture in 0-90 cm layer before flowering stage was obviously higher, but that in 0-90 cm layer after flowering stage and in 90-200 cm layer during the whole growth season was lower than that of CK. The soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in T6 during the whole growth period was significantly higher than that in CK, with a difference of 0.9%, but the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in other mulching treatments was lower. As compared with plastic film mulching, straw mulching increased the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer. The soil moisture under mulching with used plastic film after harvest was higher than that under mulching with new plastic film. As compared to CK, the grain yield of winter wheat with plastic film mulching was increased by 20.3%-29.0%, and that With straw mulching was increased by 5.0%-16.7%. There was a significant positive correlation between the crop productivity and the soil water consumption during the growth period (r = 0.77*).

  18. Effect of Mulch Surface Color on Root-knot of Tomato Grown in Simulated Planting Beds.

    PubMed

    Fortnum, B A; Kasperbauer, M J; Decoteau, D R

    2000-03-01

    The effect of different-colored polyethylene mulches on quantity and spectra of reflected light, plant morphology, and root-knot disease was studied in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in simulated planting beds. Tomato plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita at initial populations (Pi) of 0, 1,000, 10,000, or 50,000 eggs/plant, and grown in a greenhouse for 50 days over white, red, or black mulch. Soil temperature was kept constant among the mulch treatments by placing an insulation barrier between the colored mulch and the soil surface. Soil temperature varied less than 0.5 degrees C between soil chambers at solar noon. Tomatoes grown over white mulch received more reflected photosynthetic light and had greater shoot weights (27%), root weights (32%), and leaf area (20%) than plants grown over black mulch. Plants grown over red mulch received a higher far-red-to-red ratio in the reflected light. Mulch color altered the plant's response to root-knot nematode infection by changing the distribution of mass in axillary shoots. At high Pi, axillary leaf area and leaf weight were greater in tomato grown over white mulch than when grown over red mulch. The root-gall index was lower for plants grown over white mulch than similar plants grown over red mulch.

  19. Reflective and black mulch increase yield in pumpkins under virus disease pressure.

    PubMed

    Brust, G E

    2000-06-01

    Experiments were conducted over a 4-yr period that examined the effect reflective, black, and no-mulch had on aphid populations, incidence of virus infected pumpkin plants, and yield of pumpkin. Three different planting dates and their effect on viral infection and yield were also investigated. The use of reflective mulches significantly reduced the number of alates landing in these rows compared with black- or no-mulch rows. The reduction in aphid numbers resulted in a reduction in the percent of plants infected with virus. Approximately 10 times more plants were infected with virus in the black and no-mulch plots than in the reflective mulch plots in mid- to late July. However, by the end of August, all treatments had near 100% of plants infected with virus. This delay in viral infection in reflective mulch plots resulted in a 45 and 120% increase in pumpkin yield compared with black mulch and no-mulch plots, respectively. First plantings always had greater yields than later plantings. The interaction between mulch type and planting time was significant. Reflective mulches increased yields overall, but significantly increased yields compared with black or no-mulch in second and third plantings. The use of reflective mulch combined with timely planting is a cost effective way of delaying virus problems and increasing pumpkin yields in midwestern United States.

  20. Effect of Mulch Surface Color on Root-knot of Tomato Grown in Simulated Planting Beds

    PubMed Central

    Fortnum, B. A.; Kasperbauer, M. J.; Decoteau, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of different-colored polyethylene mulches on quantity and spectra of reflected light, plant morphology, and root-knot disease was studied in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in simulated planting beds. Tomato plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita at initial populations (Pi) of 0, 1,000, 10,000, or 50,000 eggs/plant, and grown in a greenhouse for 50 days over white, red, or black mulch. Soil temperature was kept constant among the mulch treatments by placing an insulation barrier between the colored mulch and the soil surface. Soil temperature varied less than 0.5 °C between soil chambers at solar noon. Tomatoes grown over white mulch received more reflected photosynthetic light and had greater shoot weights (27%), root weights (32%), and leaf area (20%) than plants grown over black mulch. Plants grown over red mulch received a higher far-red-to-red ratio in the reflected light. Mulch color altered the plant's response to root-knot nematode infection by changing the distribution of mass in axillary shoots. At high Pi, axillary leaf area and leaf weight were greater in tomato grown over white mulch than when grown over red mulch. The root-gall index was lower for plants grown over white mulch than similar plants grown over red mulch. PMID:19270954

  1. Mulching effects on vegetation recovery following high severity wildfire in north-central Washington State, USA

    Treesearch

    Erich Kyle Dodson; David W. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Straw mulch application after high severity wildfire has gained favor in recent years due to its efficacy in reducing soil erosion hazards. However, possible collateral effects of mulching on post-fire vegetation recovery have received relatively little study. We assessed mulching effects on plant cover and species richness, tree seedling establishment, and...

  2. Effects of mulch on plant and soil recovery after wildfire in the eastern Great Basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Straw mulch is often applied after wildfire to reduce soil erosion and potentially increase soil moisture and thus plant recruitment. However, the efficacy of mulch treatments is poorly known, particularly in Great Basin ecosystems. We examined the effects of straw mulch application on the Black fir...

  3. Waste cotton as a biodegradable mulching material for transplanted watermelon and cantaloupe production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch is commonly used in transplanted vegetable crop production in the southeastern U. S. Cantaloupe and watermelon growers use a system of hybrid transplants, grown on narrow LDPE mulch-covered seedbeds with overhead irrigation, and use the mulch cover for only one...

  4. Fertilizer and Mulch Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Exposed harsells Subsoils

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1977-01-01

    Fertilizing and mulching of eroded Hartsells soil increased height and diameter of yellow-poplars. To see if chemical infertility of exposed Hartsells subsoils limits yellow-poplar growth and to test fertilizer and mulch as remedial agents, seedlings were planted on undisturbed soil, soil with the topsoil removed, and soil with the topsoil removed but mulched with leaf...

  5. Mulching fuels treatments promote understory plant communities in three Colorado, USA, coniferous forest types

    Treesearch

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Monique E. Rocca; Michael Battaglia; Charles C. Rhoades; Michael G. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Mulching fuels treatments have been increasingly implemented by forest managers in the western USA to reduce crown fire hazard. These treatments use heavy machinery to masticate or chip unwanted shrubs and small-diameter trees and broadcast the mulched material on the ground. Because mulching treatments are relatively novel and have no natural analog, their ecological...

  6. Evaluation of commercial landscaping mulch for possible contamination from CCA.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Gary; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy; Shibata, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is found in construction and demolition (C&D) debris, and a common use for wood recycled from C&D debris is the production of mulch. Given the high metals concentrations in CCA-treated wood, a small fraction of CCA-treated wood can increase the metal concentrations in the mulch above regulatory thresholds. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of contamination of CCA-treated wood in consumer landscaping mulch and to determine whether visual methods or rapid X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology can be used to identify suspect mulch. Samples were collected throughout the State of Florida (USA) and evaluated both visually and chemically. Visual analysis focused on documenting wood-chip size distribution, whether the samples were artificially colored, and whether they contained plywood chips which is an indication that the sample was, in part, made from recycled C&D wood. Chemical analysis included measurements of total recoverable metals, leachable metals as per the standardized synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and XRF analysis. Visual identification methods, such as colorant addition or presence of plywood, were found effective to preliminarily screen suspect mulch. XRF analysis was found to be effective for identifying mulch containing higher than 75 mg/kg arsenic. For mulch samples that were not colored and did not contain evidence of C&D wood, none exceeded leachable metal concentrations of 50 microg/L and only 3% exceeded 10 mg/kg for recoverable metals. The majority of the colored mulch made from recycled C&D wood contained from 1% to 5% CCA-treated wood (15% maximum fraction) resulting in leachable metals in excess of 50 microg/L and total recoverable metals in excess of 10 mg/kg. The maximum arsenic concentration measured in the mulch samples evaluated was 230 mg/kg, which was above the Florida residential direct exposure regulatory guideline of 2.1 mg/kg.

  7. Alfalfa living mulch advances biological control of soybean aphid.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicholas P; O'neal, Matthew E; Singer, Jeremy W

    2007-04-01

    Despite evidence for biological control in North America, outbreaks of the invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), continue to occur on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Our objectives were to determine whether natural enemies delay aphid establishment and limit subsequent population growth and whether biological control can be improved by altering the within-field habitat. We hypothesized that a living mulch would increase the abundance of the aphidophagous community in soybean and suppress A. glycines establishment and population growth. We measured natural enemy and A. glycines abundance in soybean grown with and without an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) living mulch. Soybean grown with an alfalfa living mulch had 45% more natural enemies and experienced a delay in A. glycines establishment that resulted in lower peak populations. From our experiments, we concluded that the current natural enemy community in Iowa can delay A. glycines establishment, and an increase in aphidophagous predator abundance lowered the rate of A. glycines population growth preventing economic populations (i.e., below the current economic threshold) from occurring. Incorporation of a living mulch had an unexpected impact on A. glycines population growth, lowering the aphids' intrinsic rate of growth, thus providing a bottom-up suppression of A. glycines. We suggest future studies of living mulches or cover crops for A. glycines management should address both potential sources of suppression. Furthermore, our experience suggests that more consistent biological control of A. glycines may be possible with even partial resistance that slows but does not prevent reproduction.

  8. [Molluscicidal effect of plastic film mulch covering method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Han-cheng; Zhong, Cheng-hui; Wan, Guo-qing; Cheng, Bing; Wang, Yu-xiang; Tian, Rui-ling; Cheng, Ai-dong; Xia, Zhu-guo; Yang, Shuang; Ding, Zhao-jun; Cai, Shun-xiang

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of the plastic film mulch covering method. In the barren land with a lot of Oncomelania hupensis snails, 3 experimental groups were set up, in which respectively using 3 different methods: a simple plastic film mulch covering method, film assisted with ammonium bicarbonate, and film assisted with amine molluscicide. In the canals, two experimental groups were set up, in which respectively using 2 different methods: simple plastic film mulch covering method and film assisted with ammonium bicarbonate. In above-mentioned areas, obstacles were cleared artificially. In each experiment group, 4 observation spots were set up, and 100 living snails were pot in each spot, and then, the plastic film mulch was evenly covered. The status of the snails was observed 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after the intervention. In the barren land, the snail death rates of the simple plastic film group were 20.77% and 96.92% 15 days and 30 days after the intervention, respectively. The snail death rate of the film assisted with amine molluscicide group was 80.46% 3 days after the intervention. In all the experiment groups, the snail death rates were from 96.92 to 100% 30 days after the intervention. The plastic film mulch covering method has a great molluscicide effect in the hill subtype and water network type of schistosomiasis epidemic areas.

  9. Biodegradable plastic agricultural mulches and key features of microbial degradation.

    PubMed

    Brodhagen, Marion; Peyron, Mark; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra Ann

    2015-02-01

    The development of biodegradable plastic mulch films for use in agriculture has been ongoing for decades. These films consist of mixtures of polymers with various additives. As a result, their physical and chemical properties differ from those of the pure polymers often used for in vitro enzymatic and microbial degradation studies, raising questions about the biodegradation capability of mulch films. Currently, standards exist for the biodegradation of plastics in composting conditions but not in soil. Biodegradation in soil or compost depends on a complex synergy of biological and abiotic degradative processes. This review discusses the physicochemical and structural properties of biodegradable plastic mulches, examines their potential for on-site decomposition in light of site-to-site variance due to environmental and biological conditions, and considers the potential for long-term effects on agroecosystem sustainability and functionality.

  10. Association of Cellulytic Enzyme Activities in Eucalyptus Mulches with Biological Control of Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Downer, A J; Menge, J A; Pond, E

    2001-09-01

    ABSTRACT A series of samples were taken from mulched and unmulched trees starting at the surface of mulch or soil to a 15 cm soil depth, forming a vertical transect. Saprophytic fungi isolated from the soil samples on rose bengal medium and surveyed visually were most abundant in mulches and at the interface of mulch and soil (P < 0.05). Microbial activity as assayed by the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate was significantly greater in mulch layers than in soils. Cellulase and laminarinase enzyme activities were greatest in upper mulch layers and rapidly decreased in soil layers (P < 0.05). Enzyme activities against Phytophthora cinnamomi cell walls were significantly greater in mulch than in soil layers. When Phytophthora cinnamomi was incubated in situ at the various transect depths, it was most frequently lysed at the interface between soil and mulch (P < 0.001). Roots that grew in mulch layers were significantly less infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi than roots formed in soil layers. In mulched soil, roots were commonly formed at the mulch-soil interface where Phytophthora populations were reduced, whereas roots in unmulched soil were numerous at the 7.5 cm depth where Phytophthora cinnamomi was prevalent. Enzyme activities were significantly and positively correlated with each other, microbial activity, and saprophytic fungal populations, but significantly and negatively correlated with Phytophthora recovery.

  11. Runoff loss of pesticides and soil: a comparison between vegetative mulch and plastic mulch in vegetable production systems.

    PubMed

    Rice, P J; McConnell, L L; Heighton, L P; Sadeghi, A M; Isensee, A R; Teasdale, J R; Abdul-Baki, A A; Harman-Fetcho, J A; Hapeman, C J

    2001-01-01

    Current vegetable production systems use polyethylene (plastic) mulch and require multiple applications of agrochemicals. During rain events, runoff from vegetable production is enhanced because 50 to 75% of the field is covered with an impervious surface. This study was conducted to quantify off-site movement of soil and pesticides with runoff from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plots containing polyethylene mulch and a vegetative mulch, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth). Side-by-side field plots were instrumented with automated flow meters and samplers to measure and collect runoff, which was filtered, extracted, and analyzed to determine soil and pesticide loss. Seasonal losses of two to four times more water and at least three times as much sediment were observed from plots with polyethvlene mulch (55.4 to 146 L m(-2) and 247 to 535 g m(-2), respectively) versus plots with hairy vetch residue (13.7 to 75.7 L m(-2) and 32.8 to 118 g m(-2), respectively). Geometric means (+/-standard deviation) of total pesticide loads for chlorothalonil (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) and alpha-and beta-endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin 3-oxide) for a runoff event were 19, 6, and 9 times greater from polyethylene (800+/-4.6, 17.6+/-3.9, and 39.1+/-4.9 microg m(-2), respectively) than from hairy vetch mulch plots (42+/-6.0, 2.8+/-5.0, and 4.3+/-4.6 microg m(-2), respectively) due to greater concentrations and larger runoff volumes. The increased runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site loading of pesticides measured in runoff from the polyethylene mulch suggests that this management practice is less sustainable and may have a harmful effect on the environment.

  12. Influence of Container Mulches on Irrigation and Nutrient Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted in 2005 and repeated in 2006 to determine the influence of mulch products and controlled release fertilizer (CRF) placement on irrigation and nutrition requirements of container-grown crops. Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla 'Fasan' and 'Endless Summer') were grown in 2.7...

  13. Mulching machines for pre-commercial thinning and fuel reduction

    Treesearch

    Jason D. Thompson

    2002-01-01

    Wildfires in the western United States and Florida over the last several years have highlighted the vulnerability of dense overstocked stands to fire. As a result, landowners, land managers, and researchers alike are interest ed in methods to reduce hazardous fuels in forest stands. Mechanical reduction of under-story and mid-story fuels by mulching or chipping is an...

  14. Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

  15. Rolled cover crop mulches for organic corn and soybean production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in cover crop mulches has increased out of both economic and soil conservation concerns. The number of tractor passes required to produce corn and a soybean organically is expensive and logistically challenging. Farmers currently use blind cultivators, such as a rotary hoe or flex-tine harr...

  16. Preliminary observations of sugarcane trash degradation for repurposing as mulch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A potential use for sugarcane trash is to convert it to mulch. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a compost enhancer or nitrogen would accelerate degradation of leaf trash. Trash was obtained from a sugarcane grower, and was treated with water only, a commercial compost starter composed o...

  17. Surface fuel loadings within mulching treatments in Colorado coniferous forests

    Treesearch

    Mike A. Battaglia; Monique E. Rocca; Charles C. Rhoades; Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Recent large-scale, severe wildfires in the western United States have prompted extensive mechanical fuel treatment programs to reduce potential wildfire size and severity. Fuel reduction prescriptions typically target non-merchantable material so approaches to mechanically treat and distribute residue on site are becoming increasingly common. We examined how mulch...

  18. Changes in lignin content of leaf litters during mulching.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhenfu; Akiyama, Takuya; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Matsumoto, Yuji; Iiyama, Kenji; Watanabe, Satomi

    2003-11-01

    Alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation, ozonation and methoxyl content determinations were applied to decomposing leaf litter of Ginkgo biloba L., Cinnamomum camphora sieb., Zelkova serrata Makino and Firmiana simplex W. F. Wight, respectively, during mulching to investigate the properties and estimate changes in lignin composition and content. Since the Klason lignin residue originated from components highly resistant to degradation by acid, the methoxyl content of Klason residue was used to estimate the lignin content of leaf litter. Quantitative analysis of presumed lignin-derived fragments, by use of alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation methods, suggested that the estimated lignin content approximates that of the real lignin content of leaves, which is greatly overestimated by the Klason procedure. The estimated lignin contents ranged from 3.9 to 10.0% while the Klason lignan residue varied from 37.1 to 46.7% in un-mulched leaf litter. The absolute amounts of the measured lignin somewhat decreased during mulching, while the structure of lignin remaining in leaf litters after mulching was considered not to be very different from its original structure.

  19. Economic assessment of different mulches in conventional and water-saving rice production systems.

    PubMed

    Jabran, Khawar; Hussain, Mubshar; Fahad, Shah; Farooq, Muhammad; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharrby, Hesham; Nasim, Wajid

    2016-05-01

    Water-saving rice production systems including alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and aerobic rice (AR) are being increasingly adopted by growers due to global water crises. Application of natural and artificial mulches may further improve water economy of water-saving rice production systems. Conventionally flooded rice (CFR) system has been rarely compared with AWD and AR in terms of economic returns. In this 2-year field study, we compared CFR with AWD and AR (with and without straw and plastic mulches) for the cost of production and economic benefits. Results indicated that CFR had a higher production cost than AWD and AR. However, application of mulches increased the cost of production of AWD and AR production systems where plastic mulch was expensive than straw mulch. Although the mulching increased the cost of production for AWD and AR, the gross income of these systems was also improved significantly. The gross income from mulched plots of AWD and AR was higher than non-mulched plots of the same systems. In conclusion, AWD and AR effectively reduce cost of production by economizing the water use. However, the use of natural and artificial mulches in such water-saving environments further increased the economic returns. The maximized economic returns by using straw mulch in water-saving rice production systems definitely have pragmatic implications for sustainable agriculture.

  20. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-11-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth.

  1. Effects of Plastic Mulch on Soil Heat Flux and Energy Balance in a Cotton Field in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Lu, H.; Ming, G.

    2016-12-01

    Surface energy balance (SEB) is a basic principle for all the atmospheric circulation models, and surface soil heat flux (G0) is an important component of energy balance. Plastic mulch is widely used in arid regions and alters land surface processes. In this study, hourly/daily G0 and SEB over a mulched cotton field were analyzed in northwest China. The net radiation beneath the mulch was simulated using transmitted down short-wave and down long-wave radiation through the mulch, up short-wave and up long-wave radiation from the soil beneath mulch. The results show that: (1) On the hourly time scale, G0 in mulched soil is much smaller than that in non-mulched soil, day and night. This implies that mulch prevents energy going into the soil during the daytime and reduces soil heat loss at night. On the daily time scale, G0 is similar in mulched and non-mulched soil. (2) During the seedling emergence period when the cotton is small, the energy balance closure over mulched soil (0.79) is slightly smaller than that over non-mulched soil (0.81). (3) Comparing to soil temperature in non-mulched soil, there's a time offset on soil temperature in mulched soil at the same depth which will bring a hysteresis on G0 and SEB.

  2. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

  3. [Effects of different patterns surface mulching on soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in an apple orchard].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Hao, Ming-De; She, Xiao-Yan

    2010-02-01

    Taking a nine-year-old Fuji apple orchard in Loess Plateau as test object, this paper studied the effects of different patterns surface mulching (clean tillage, grass cover, plastic film mulch, straw mulch, and gravel mulch) on the soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in this orchard. Grass cover induced the lowest differentiation of soil moisture profile, while gravel mulch induced the highest one. In treatment gravel mulch, the soil moisture content in apple trees root zone was the highest, which meant that there was more water available to apple trees. Surface mulching had significant effects on soil temperature, and generally resulted in a decrease in the maximum soil temperature. The exception was treatment plastic film mulch, in which, the soil temperature in summer exceeded the maximum allowable temperature for continuous root growth and physiological function. With the exception of treatment plastic film mulch, surface mulching increased the soil CO2 flux, which was the highest in treatment grass cover. Surface mulching also affected the proportion of various branch types and fruit yield. The proportion of medium-sized branches and fruit yield were the highest in treatment gravel mulch, while the fruit yield was the lowest in treatment grass cover. Factor analysis indicated that among the test surface mulching patterns, gravel mulch was most suitable for the apple orchards in gully region of Loess Plateau.

  4. Modelling the dissipation and leaching of two herbicides in decomposing mulch of crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Sohaib; Iqbal, Akhtar; Lafolie, François; Recous, Sylvie; Benoit, Pierre; Garnier, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Conservation agricultural practices are increasingly adopted because of ecosystem services such as conservation of soil and water resources. These farming systems are characterized mainly by the presence of mulch made of residues of harvested or cover crops on soil surface. The mulch can intercept and retain applied pesticides depending on pesticide molecule and rainfall timing. The pesticide wash-off from mulch is considered a key process in pesticide fate and can have effects on degradation and transport processes. This work highlights a modelling approach to study the pesticide wash-off from mulch residues and their further transport in soil under two rainfall regimes. Transformation and leaching of two herbicides, s-metolachlor and glyphosate, was studied and simulated by Pastis-mulch model. A pesticide module describing pesticide degradation in mulch and soil was coupled to a transport model including a mulch module. The model was tested to simulate the pesticide dissipation, wash-off from mulch and further leaching in soil. Pesticide degradation parameters in mulch were estimated from incubation experiments with 14C-labelled molecules in small cylinders. The model was then tested using the data obtained through a soil column experiment (reconstructed soil cores :15 cm diameter x 35 cm depth), a mulch of Zea mais + Doliquos lablab and with two treatments varied by water regimes: i) frequent rain (temperate, twice a week) with week intensity (6 mm/hr); and ii) occasional rain (tropical, twice a month) with stronger intensity (20 mm/hr). Columns were incubated at 20 °C for 84 days to monitor soil water, C, N and pesticide dynamics. Model successfully simulated the experimental data of pesticide dissipation in mulch residues. Results showed that the rain regime affected more S-metolachlor than glyphosate behavior. The simulated results indicated also that the dynamics in mulch of the two molecules differed according to the rain treatment. Glyphosate showed a

  5. Tomato response to starter fertilizer, polyethylene mulch, and level of soil phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Grubinger, V.P.; Minotti, P.L.; Wien, H.C.; Turner, A.D. . Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-03-01

    Unmulched and polyethylene-mulched tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with and without starter fertilizer (SF) in four field experiments. The field varied as to residual P level and the amount of P incorporated before planting. No benefits from SF were obtained on a soil with high residual P that was moderately fertilized with P before transplanting or on a soil with low residual P that was heavily fertilized with P. A positive effect from SF was observed only when residual P was low and no P was broadcast, and this was true in mulched and unmulched plots. No significant SF by mulch interaction was obtained in these experiments even though mulching consistently increased shoot P concentrations and fruit yield. The mulch was beneficial even under conditions where unmulched tomato leaves contained 0.4% P 3 weeks after transplanting, indicating that factors in addition to improved P nutrition are also involved in the mulch effect.

  6. [Effects of straw mulching on CO2 flux in wintry fallow paddy field].

    PubMed

    Yin, Chun-mei; Xie, Xiao-li; Wang, Kai-rong

    2008-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of straw mulching on the CO2 flux in a wintry fallow paddy field at Taoyuan Agro-ecological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results showed that the effects of straw mulching mainly exerted in two ways. First, it positively affected soil temperature, making the CO2 flux increased obviously. Straw mulching gave a net emission of 2.68 g CO2 x m(-2) x d(-1), while no mulching gave a net fixation of 1.99 g CO2 x m(-2) x d(-1), the difference between them being very significant (P < 0.01). Second, straw mulching decreased the biomass of weeds and the photosynthetically active radiation they absorbed, which in turn resulted in an increase of CO2 flux. Under straw mulching, the water content in surface soil layer (0-15 cm) increased by 9% or more, but no significant change was observed in CO2 flux.

  7. [Controlling effects of dual mulching on soil moisture in an apple orchard].

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Suo, Gai-Di; Ding, Ya-Dong

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the controlling effects of dual mulching on soil moisture in an apple orchard on the Weibei rainfed highland, soil moisture in the 0-600 cm soil profile of the apple orchard was measured under four mulching treatments (plastic film plus straw, plastic film and straw mulches, as well as a non-mulching control) , and meanwhile the apple yield and branch growth increment were analyzed statistically. Results showed that the dual mulching treatment had the best effect on soil moisture conservation, and the soil water storage in such a soil profile was 6.7% higher than the control treatment. Long-term dual mulching could effectively alleviate soil desiccation occurring in deep soil layer in the region, and the monthly averaged soil water storage in stable layer (240-600 cm) was 64.22 mm higher than that of the control treatment. Both plastic film plus straw and plastic film mulches were able to reduce the temporal fluctuation of soil moisture in shallow soil (0-60 cm) and enhance the temporal stability of soil moisture in the layer. Compared with the single mulching treatments, the dual mulching treatment could effectively decrease the vertical variation of soil moisture in the profile and improve the stability of the vertical soil moisture distribution. The apple yield under the dual mulching treatment was evidently increased by 48.2%, as compared with the control treatment. All the analyses showed that dual mulching had more advantages in controlling soil moisture and improving apple yield than single mulching.

  8. Interactions of Metarhizium anisoplae and tree-based mulches in repellence and mycoses against Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Zhong; Fuxa, James R; Richter, Arthur; Ring, Dennis

    2008-06-01

    The use of mulch in urban landscapes has increased in the United States for the past decade. Tree-based organic mulches can supply Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki with food, moisture, and shelter. The current research contributes to mulch management technology in termite control. A choice test arena was designed to determine the repellence and mortality caused by commercial mulches treated with different concentrations of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) against C. formosanus. Each of six tree-based mulches (pine bark, pine straw, bald cypress, eucalyptus, water oak, and melaleuca) was coated with six conidial concentrations ranging from 1 x 10(3) to 1 x 10(8) conidia/ml. The foragers of C. formosanus were repelled significantly by the fungal-treated mulch substrates; the proportion of termites on fungal-treated mulch was usually <20% during the 28-d test. By day 28, >99% of the termites were killed in test arenas containing a chamber with mulch treated with 10(7) or 10(8) conidia/ml. M. anisopliae significantly reduced mulch consumption by 34-71%. Mulch consumption by the termites was negatively correlated with fungal concentration, and the type of mulch also affected consumption. The differences in termite foraging activities, mortality, and food consumption among mulches were usually confounded by differences in fungal concentrations of M. anisopliae. The results indicate that repellence and virulence of M. anisopliae conidia should significantly reduce the suitability of these six mulches as a habitat for C. formosanus.

  9. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  10. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  11. [Effects of plastic film mulching on soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration in an oasis cotton field].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-xiang; Zhao, Cheng-yi; Jia, Hong-tao; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Tian-he; Yang, Yu-guang; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration between mulched and non-mulched cotton fields by using closed chamber method and diffusion chamber technique. Soil CO2 efflux and CO2 concentration exhibited a similar seasonal pattern, decreasing from July to October. Mulched field had a lower soil CO2 efflux but a higher CO2 concentration, compared to those of non-mulched fields. Over the measurement period, cumulative CO2 efflux was 1871.95 kg C . hm-2 for mulched field and 2032.81 kg C . hm-2 for non-mulched field. Soil CO2 concentration was higher in mulched field (ranging from 5137 to 25945 µL . L-1) than in non- mulched field (ranging from 2165 to 23986 µL . L-1). The correlation coefficients between soil CO2 concentrations at different depths and soil CO2 effluxes were 0.60 to 0.73 and 0.57 to 0.75 for the mulched and non-mulched fields, indicating that soil CO2 concentration played a crucial role in soil CO2 emission. The Q10 values were 2.77 and 2.48 for the mulched and non-mulched fields, respectively, suggesting that CO2 efflux in mulched field was more sensitive to the temperature.

  12. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge. PMID:26586114

  13. Survival of Escherichia coli in common garden mulches spiked with synthetic greywater.

    PubMed

    Boyte, S; Quaife, S; Horswell, J; Siggins, A

    2017-05-01

    Reuse of domestic wastewater is increasingly practiced as a means to address global demands on fresh water. Greywater is primarily reused via subsurface irrigation of gardens, where the soil environment is seen to be an integral part of the treatment process. The fate of biological contaminants (i.e. pathogens) in the soil is reasonably well understood, but their persistence and survival in soil cover layers is largely unexplored. This study investigated the ability of Escherichia coli to survive in common soil cover layers. Three garden mulches were investigated: pea straw mulch, a bark-based mulch and a coconut husk mulch. Each mulch was treated with an E. coli solution, a synthetic greywater with E. coli, or a freshwater control. Escherichia coli was applied at 1 × 10(4)  most probable number (MPN) per g dry weight mulch. Subsamples were temporally analysed for E. coli. The bark and coconut husk mulches showed a steady decline in E. coli numbers, while E. coli increased in the pea straw mulch for the duration of the 50 days experiment, peaking at 1·8 × 10(8)  MPN per g dry weight mulch. This study highlighted the importance of selection of a suitable material for covering areas that are subsurface irrigated with greywater.

  14. Polyethylene mulch stimulates early root growth and nutrient uptake of transplanted tomatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Wien, H.C.; Minotti, P.L.; Grubinger, V.P. . Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-03-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown on polyethylene (PE) mulch in New York State frequently have more branches and increased mineral nutrient uptake and yield than plants not mulched. In four field experiments conducted on a silt loam soil, clear PE mulch stimulated root extension shortly after transplanting. One week after transplanting, roots were significantly longer for mulched than for unmulched plants in all four experiments, whereas above ground dry matter differences did not become significant until 14 days after transplanting in two of four trials. Mulching increased branching, hastened flowering on basal branches, and increased concentration of major nutrients in the above ground parts. In the field, stimulation of above ground growth due to mulch might be brought about by warming of the stem by air escaping from the planting hole in the mulch. However, an experiment with black, white, or clear mulch, in which the planting hole was either left uncovered or covered with soil, showed no effect of hole closure on branching even though air temperature near the stem was increased when holes were left uncovered. The results taken together imply that the increased above ground growth observed with mulching is a consequence of enhanced root growth and nutrient uptake.

  15. [Effects of straw mulching and irrigation on solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat farmland].

    PubMed

    Li, Quanqi; Chen, Yuhai; Wu, Wei; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhou, Xunbo; Dong, Qingyu; Yu, Songlie

    2006-02-01

    The study showed that straw mulching decreased the basic seedlings and tillers of winter wheat and the leaf area index (LAI) at earlier growth stage, but increased the LAI at latter growth stage. Straw mulching and irrigation reduced the transmittance and reflectance of PAR, resulting in the increase of PAR capture ratio mainly at the height of 40-60 cm. The solar energy utilization ratio of grain was decreased by straw mulching, while that of stem and leaf was increased. The total solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat could also be increased by straw mulching.

  16. [Effects of straw mulching on soil moisture and watermelon yield in dryland].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Xia; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Yang, Bao-Ping; Han, Qing-Fang

    2014-07-01

    To explore the effects of straw mulching on soil moisture and yield of watermelon, corn straw was used as mulching materials, and three straw mulch treatments were performed, i. e., whole mulch (WM), rows mulch (SM) and root domain mulch (RM), and non-mulching as control. The results indicated that WM and RM treatments increased significantly soil water storage in 0-120 cm of soil layer under root domain and rows compared with the control during watermelon growth period, and soil water storage of RM was higher than that of SM after growing tendril. Effects of all straw mulch treatments on soil moisture were most obvious from watermelon post-growing tendril to pre-swelling and maturity. With the growth and development of watermelon, the three straw mulch treatments improved soil moisture around root domain, resulting in increased watermelon yields. Compared with the CK, the WM, SM and RM treatments significantly improved the yield and the water use efficiency of watermelon by 24.8%, 11.5% and 15.1%, and 42.7%, 24.3% and 29.4%. The WM with 13500 kg x hm(-2) straw was recommended for watermelon production in arid areas due to its favorable effect on soil storage moisture, yield and water use efficiency.

  17. Atrazine sorption-desorption hysteresis by sugarcane mulch residue.

    PubMed

    Selim, H M; Zhu, H

    2005-01-01

    Sorption and desorption kinetics are essential components for modeling the movement and retention of applied agricultural chemicals in soils and the fraction of chemicals susceptible to runoff. In this study, we investigated the retention characteristics of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) mulch residue for atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) based on studies of sorption-desorption kinetics. A sorption kinetic batch method was used to quantify retention of the mulch residue for a wide range of atrazine concentrations and reaction times. Desorption was performed following 504 h of sorption using successive dilutions, followed by methanol extraction. Atrazine retention by the mulch residue was well described using a linear model where the partitioning coefficient (K(d)) increased with reaction time from 10.40 to 23.4 cm3 g(-1) after 2 and 504 h, respectively. Values for mulch residue K(d) were an order of magnitude higher than those found for Commerce silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) where the sugarcane crop was grown. A kinetic multireaction model was successful in describing sorption behavior with reaction time. The model was equally successful in describing observed hysteretic atrazine behavior during desorption for all input concentrations. The model was concentration independent where one set of model parameters, which was derived from all batch results, was valid for the entire atrazine concentration range. Average atrazine recovery following six successive desorption steps were 63.67 +/- 4.38% of the amount adsorbed. Moreover, a hysteresis coefficient based on the difference in the area between sorption and desorption isotherms was capable of quantifying hysteresis of desorption isotherms.

  18. [Toxicity of niclosamide with plastic film mulching to fish].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Qing; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Zhong, Bo; Tang, Shu-Gui; Cao, Chun-Li; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jian-Guo; Fu, Tao; Bao, Zi-Ping

    2011-02-01

    To observe the toxicity of niclosamide with plastic film mulching to fish. A ditch with Oncomelania snails was selected as the study site, and it was divided into a control group and a molluscicide group. After the river closure, the molluscicidal group was sprayed with niclosamide with a dosage of 2 g/m2, and then covered with plastic film; no molluscicide measure was implemented in the control group. The toxicity of the molluscicide to carp fish in resting and flowing water environment was observed. In flowing water, the death rates of carp fry of the molluscicidal and control groups showed no statistical difference 7 d after the film mulching (P = 0. 680), and no carp fry died in the 2 groups after plastic film taking off for 4 d. The death rates of carp fry between the 3 sites (with a distance of 50, 100 and 150 m from the molluscicidal group, respectively) and the control group had no statistical difference 7 d after film mulching (P = 0.955), and no dead fry was discovered 4 d after taking off the film. In downstream, for the death rates of carp fry, there was no difference between the molluscicidal group and the control group (P = 0.376). The death rates of snails before and after the molluscicidal experiment showed a significant difference (P < 0.01). The technology of niclosamide molluscicide with plastic film mulching can not only improve the molluscicidal effect, but also avoid the toxicity to fish, which is suitable for special environment such as a fish pond.

  19. Removal of selected pollutants from aqueous media by hardwood mulch.

    PubMed

    Ray, Asim B; Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Tafuri, Anthony N

    2006-08-21

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mixture, including copper (Cu(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), chromium (Cr(6+)), lead (Pb(2+)), zinc (Zn(2+)), 1,3 dichlorobenzene (DCB), naphthalene (NP), fluoranthene (FA), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). Masses of the pollutants sorbed depended upon the pollutant species, contact time, and initial concentration which varied from 20 to 100%. Sorption rates of the metals, in general, were more rapid than those of the organics; however, mass removals (percent) of the organics, in contrast to those of the metals, were independent of their initial concentrations. With the exception of Cd, percentages (weight) of the metals removed declined as their initial concentrations decreased. None of the sorbed pollutants desorbed to any significant extent upon extended washing with water. It is quite feasible that in the presence of mulch the uptake of these pollutants by the aquatic species will be reduced significantly.

  20. Post-fire mulching and soil hydrological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    In general, one of the major threats after a forest fire is the increased erosion. This can occur due to the erosive impact of rainfall after a drastic reduction of vegetation cover or to changes in soil surface properties that contribute to enhanced runoff flow. There is a consensus among researchers that one of the best ways to reduce this risk is to apply a mulch cover (straw, shredded wood or other materials) immediately after fire. In this study, we studied the effectiveness of various types of mulch materials for the reduction of runoff and soil loss during the first 3 years after a forest fire, in plots of different sizes, with special attention to water repellency and physical properties of the soil surface. In general, straw mulch reduced both runoff and erosion rate more than other treatments. However, the effect was much more important on larger plots. This may be due to specific processes and impacts on sediment connectivity and surface water flow. Therefore, the effect of the scale seems to be an important factor in the management of burnt soils.

  1. [Relationships of water conservation through mulching in fallow period with wheat nitrogen transportation and crop yield in dryland].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhi-qiang; Zhao, Hong-mei; Li, Guang; Ren, Ai-xia; Hao, Xing-yu; Yang, Zhen-ping

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of different mulching times (30 or 60 d after previous wheat harvest) and mulching methods (whole-mulching, half-mulching and no- mulching) on wheat plant N absorption and assimilation after deep plowing in fallow period on dryland. The results showed that mulching improved water storage efficiency in fallow period and soil water storage of 0-300 cm at sowing stage significantly. Mulching in fallow period, especially the whole-mulching, increased the N accumulation amount of each growth stage, N translocation amount and rate before anthesis (NABA) , and N accumulation amount after anthesis (NAAA) and grain N. Yield, N uptake efficiency (NUPE), N partial factor productivity (NPFP) and N harvest index (NHI) were all significantly increased under mulching, and whole-mulching had better effects. Mulching at 30 d after previous wheat harvest significantly increased the soil water storage of 0-300 cm at sowing stage and the water storage efficiency in fallow period compared with mulching at 60 d after previous wheat harvest. Compared with mulching at 60 d after previous wheat harvest, mulching at 30 d increased the N accumulation amount of each growth stage, the N accumulation amount in leaf and shoot at maturity, the NABA of stem + sheath, leaf and shoot and the yield. The soil water at the depth of 0-300 cm at sowing stage was positively correlated to N mobilization amount before anthesis and N accumulation amount after anthesis. The N mobilization amount of stem + sheath had a remarkable direct effect on its yield with the direct path coefficient of 0.619. In summary, mulching in fallow period increased the soil moisture at sowing stage to promote N absorption and utilization, increase yield and improve quality, and whole-mulching in advance had better effects.

  2. Yield Responses of Wheat to Mulching Practices in Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-fang; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-01-01

    Improving farming practices of soil and water conservation has profound effects on the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in dryland farming regions of the Loess Plateau in China. Mulching has proven to be an effective practice to increase crop yield, and possibly contribute to replenishing groundwater. This evaluation study collected and analyzed the data of 1849 observations published in 38 papers using meta-analysis to investigate effects of the mulching practices on wheat yield in terms of different rainfall and regions in comparison with conventional tillage. The main results of the study follow. The effects of the mulching practices were ranked in the order of RFM (ridge–furrow mulching) > MTMC (mulching with two materials combined) > MOM (mulching with other materials) > WSM (wheat straw mulching) > FM (flat mulching). The effects of the mulching practices at the different levels of rainfall during the wheat growing season were in the order: (< 150 mm) > (> 250 mm) > (150–250 mm). The effects of the mulching practices in the different regions were in the order of Henan > Shanxi > Shaanxi > Gansu. WSM, MTMC and FM performed better in improving wheat yield for rainfall of < 150, 150–250 and > 250 mm during the growing season, respectively. The wheat yield with FM, MTMC, MOM and MOM was higher than those with the other mulching practices in Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan and Shanxi. The wheat yield with RFM was 27.4% higher than that with FM, indicating that RFM was the most effective practice to improve wheat yield among all the practices. These findings have important implications for choosing appropriate crop field management to improve wheat yield. PMID:26020965

  3. Yield responses of wheat to mulching practices in dryland farming on the Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-fang; Chen, Juan; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-01-01

    Improving farming practices of soil and water conservation has profound effects on the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in dryland farming regions of the Loess Plateau in China. Mulching has proven to be an effective practice to increase crop yield, and possibly contribute to replenishing groundwater. This evaluation study collected and analyzed the data of 1849 observations published in 38 papers using meta-analysis to investigate effects of the mulching practices on wheat yield in terms of different rainfall and regions in comparison with conventional tillage. The main results of the study follow. The effects of the mulching practices were ranked in the order of RFM (ridge-furrow mulching) > MTMC (mulching with two materials combined) > MOM (mulching with other materials) > WSM (wheat straw mulching) > FM (flat mulching). The effects of the mulching practices at the different levels of rainfall during the wheat growing season were in the order: (< 150 mm) > (> 250 mm) > (150-250 mm). The effects of the mulching practices in the different regions were in the order of Henan > Shanxi > Shaanxi > Gansu. WSM, MTMC and FM performed better in improving wheat yield for rainfall of < 150, 150-250 and > 250 mm during the growing season, respectively. The wheat yield with FM, MTMC, MOM and MOM was higher than those with the other mulching practices in Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan and Shanxi. The wheat yield with RFM was 27.4% higher than that with FM, indicating that RFM was the most effective practice to improve wheat yield among all the practices. These findings have important implications for choosing appropriate crop field management to improve wheat yield.

  4. Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation; Part I: Effectiveness at reducing hillslope erosion rates

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; Sarah A. Lewis; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Louise E. Ashmun; Robert E. Brown

    2013-01-01

    Mulch treatments often are used to mitigate post-fire increases in runoff and erosion rates but the comparative effectiveness of various mulches is not well established. The ability of mulch treatments to reduce sediment yields from natural rainfall and resulting overland flow was measured using hillslope plots on areas burned at high severity following four wildfires...

  5. Wood chip mulch thickness effects on soil water, soil temperature, weed growth, and landscape plant growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wood chip mulches are used in landscapes to reduce soil water evaporation and competition from weeds. A study was conducted over a three-year period to determine soil water content at various depths under four wood chip mulch treatments and to evaluate the effects of wood chip thickness on growth of...

  6. Growth profile of Chamaedorea cataractarum (Cascade Palm)seedlings with different colored plastic mulch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of colored plastic mulch on the growth of Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. (Cascade Palm). The seedlings placed in soil were compared with those placed in red and blue mulch. The plant growth was monitored for plant height, thickness at the base ...

  7. Effects of straw mulch on soil water and winter wheat production in dryland farming.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhang; Ting, Wei; Haixia, Wang; Min, Wang; Xiangping, Meng; Siwei, Mou; Rui, Zhang; Zhikuan, Jia; Qingfang, Han

    2015-06-02

    The soil water supply is the main factor that limits dryland crop production in China. In a three-year field experiment at a dryland farming experimental station, we evaluated the effects of various straw mulch practices on soil water storage, grain yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Field experiments were conducted with six different mulch combinations (two different mulch durations and three different mulch amounts): high (SM1; 9000 kg ha(-1)), medium (SM2; 6000 kg ha(-1)), and low (SM3; 3000 kg ha(-1)) straw mulch treatments for the whole period; and high (SM4), medium (SM5) and low (SM6) straw mulch treatments during the growth period only, where the control was the whole period without mulch (CK). Throughout the whole growth period of the three-year experiment, the average soil water content in the 0-200 cm soil layer increased by 0.7-22.5% compared with CK, while the WUE increased significantly by 30.6%, 32.7% and 24.2% with SM1, SM2, and SM3, respectively (P < 0.05). The yield increased by 13.3-23.0% when mulch was provided during the growth period, while the WUE increased by 15.2%, 17.2% and 18.0% with SM4, SM5, and SM6, respectively, compared with CK.

  8. A method for estimating maximum static rainfall retention in pebble mulches used for soil moisture conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongtao; Lei, Tingwu; Jiang, Zhiyun; Horton, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Mulching of agricultural fields and gardens with pebbles has long been practiced to conserve soil moisture in some semi-arid regions with low precipitation. Rainfall interception by the pebble mulch itself is an important part of the computation of the water balance for the pebble mulched fields and gardens. The mean equivalent diameter (MED) was used to characterize the pebble size. The maximum static rainfall retention in pebble mulch is based on the water penetrating into the pores of pebbles, the water adhering to the outside surfaces of pebbles and the water held between pebbles of the mulch. Equations describing the water penetrating into the pores of pebbles and the water adhering to the outside surface of pebbles are constructed based on the physical properties of water and the pebble characteristics. The model for the water between pebbles of the mulch is based on the basic equation to calculate the water bridge volume and the basic coordination number model. A method to calculate the maximum static rainfall retention in the pebble mulch is presented. Laboratory rain simulation experiments were performed to test the model with measured data. Paired sample t-tests showed no significant differences between the values calculated with the method and the measured data. The model is ready for testing on field mulches.

  9. Living Mulch Nutritive Value in a Corn-Soybean-Forage Rotation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Living mulches can function to supply forage in multifunctional cropping systems. Information quantifying nutritive value of forage plants in living mulch cropping systems is limited. The objective of this research was to quantify the nutritive value of forages from different plant functional groups...

  10. Machine for row-mulching logging slash to enhance site-a concept

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch; Dan W. McKenzie

    1975-01-01

    Proposes that stumps, tops, and branches residual after logging pine plantations be hogged to build mulch beds spaced on about 2.5-m centers, thereby eliminating pile and burn operations. Growth of seedlings planted through mulch beds should be accelerated because of moisture conservation, weed suppression, and minimum disturbance of topsoil.

  11. Machine for row-mulching logging slash to enhance site- a concept

    Treesearch

    P. Koch; D.W. McKenzie

    1977-01-01

    Proposes that stumps, tops, and branches residual after logging pine plantations be hogged to build mulch beds spaced on about 2.5-m centers, thereby eliminating pile and bum operations. Growth of seedlings planted through mulch beds should be accelerated because of moisture conservation, weed suppression, and minimum disturbance of topsoil.

  12. Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osage orange wood(OO)was combined with poly(lactic acid)(PLA)to form a polymer composite intended for use as an agricultural mulch film. The PLA-OO mechanical properties were comparable to existing mulch film products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing ...

  13. Effects of straw mulch on soil water and winter wheat production in dryland farming

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhang; Ting, Wei; Haixia, Wang; Min, Wang; Xiangping, Meng; Siwei, Mou; Rui, Zhang; Zhikuan, Jia; Qingfang, Han

    2015-01-01

    The soil water supply is the main factor that limits dryland crop production in China. In a three-year field experiment at a dryland farming experimental station, we evaluated the effects of various straw mulch practices on soil water storage, grain yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Field experiments were conducted with six different mulch combinations (two different mulch durations and three different mulch amounts): high (SM1; 9000 kg ha−1), medium (SM2; 6000 kg ha−1), and low (SM3; 3000 kg ha−1) straw mulch treatments for the whole period; and high (SM4), medium (SM5) and low (SM6) straw mulch treatments during the growth period only, where the control was the whole period without mulch (CK). Throughout the whole growth period of the three-year experiment, the average soil water content in the 0–200 cm soil layer increased by 0.7–22.5% compared with CK, while the WUE increased significantly by 30.6%, 32.7% and 24.2% with SM1, SM2, and SM3, respectively (P < 0.05). The yield increased by 13.3–23.0% when mulch was provided during the growth period, while the WUE increased by 15.2%, 17.2% and 18.0% with SM4, SM5, and SM6, respectively, compared with CK. PMID:26035528

  14. Effects of mesquite control and mulching treatments on herbage production on semiarid shrub-grasslands

    Treesearch

    Stacy Pease; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Effects of complete removal of mesquite overstory, complete removal of mesquite overstory with control of post-treatment sprouts, and retention of the mesquite overstory as a control on herbage production are described. Mulching treatments included applications of a chip mulch, a commercial compost, lopped-and-scattered mesquite branchwood, and an untreated control....

  15. Mulch your tomatoes to fight weeds, retain soil moisture and save money

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An on-farm experiment was conducted to determine whether different types of mulches were a cost-effective means of weed management in organic tomato production. Three mulch treatment, bare soil, straw and grass, were applied to drip-irrigated tomatoes at a depth of 7.5 cm. Weed biomass was reduced s...

  16. Mulches aid in regenerating California and Oregon forests: past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Ole T. Helgerson

    1990-01-01

    The use of mulches as a reforestation tool in Oregon and California began primarily in the late 1950's. Many types of mulches were tried including sheets of plastic, newspaper, and plywood; various thicknesses of bark, sawdust, sand, and straw; sprayed-on petroleum resin; and even large plastic buckets. Most proved to be ineffective, costly or both. Early trials...

  17. [Effect of different mulching on spring corn yield and on soil environment in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Fang, Riyao; Tong, Yanan; Liang, Dongli; Fang, Juan

    2003-11-01

    Effects of different mulching on spring corn yield and on soil environment in Loess Plateau, Heyang County were studied. The results showed that different mulching could increase the corn yield significantly. Soil water contents were increased remarkably except normal plastic film mulching, and the upper soil layer kept wet for a long time. Mulching could also reduce temperature difference of day and night, keep soil surface from direct precipitation lash, and maintain better soil structure. Compared with straw mulching, normal plastic film and no mulching, water osmosis plastic film could increase the yield by 6.4%, 23.6% and 29.1%, the water use efficiency 21.5, 20.2, 17.4 and 16.7 kg.mm-1.hm-2, respectively. Straw mulching could remarkably increase soil organic matter and soil fertility. Water osmosis plastic film had the same effect of increasing temperature as normal plastic film. While air temperature was more than 35 degrees C, water osmosis plastic film had the function of reducing extreme temperature, but long term mulching would promote excessive mineralization of soil organic nitrogen and leaching of NO3(-)-N.

  18. Vegetation trends in a young ponderosa pine plantation treated by manual release and mulching

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1997-01-01

    On an above-average site in northern California, a complex plant community was treated by manual release in 2- and 5-foot radii, one and three times. Mulching with a small (3-footsquare) paper / asphalt mulch and a control were additional treatments. Results for a 10-year period are presented for shrubs, a subshrub (whipplea), ferns, forbs, and grasses. No single...

  19. Effects of three mulch treatments on initial postfire erosion in north-central Arizona

    Treesearch

    George H. Riechers; Jan L. Beyers; Peter R. Robichaud; Karen Jennings; Erin Kreutz; Jeff Moll

    2008-01-01

    Mulching after wildfires is a common treatment designed to protect bare ground from raindrop impact and reduce subsequent erosion. We tested the effectiveness of three mulching methods on the Indian Fire near Prescott, Arizona, USA. The first method felled all fire-killed trees, chipped the logs and limbs, and spread the chips across the hillslope with a mobile...

  20. [Effects of gravel mulch technology on soil erosion resistance and plant growth of river flinty slope].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xie, San-Tao; Ruan, Ai-Dong; Bian, Xun-Wen

    2008-03-01

    Aiming at the technical difficulties such as the stability and water balance in the ecological rehabilitation of river flinty slope, a gravel mulch technology was proposed, with the effects of different gravel mulch treatments on the soil anti-erosion capacity, soil water retention property, and plant growth investigated by anti-erosion and pot experiments. The results showed that mulching with the gravels 1.5-2 cm in size could obviously enhance the soil anti-erosion capacity, soil water retention property and plant biomass, but no obvious differences were observed between the mulch thickness of 5 cm and 8 cm. It was indicated that mulching with the gravels 1.5-2 cm in size and 5 cm in thickness was an effective and economical technology for the ecological rehabilitation of river flinty slope.

  1. Effects of Mulching on Soil Properties and Growth of Tea Olive (Osmanthus fragrans).

    PubMed

    Ni, Xue; Song, Weiting; Zhang, Huanchao; Yang, Xiulian; Wang, Lianggui

    2016-01-01

    Different mulches have variable effects on soil physical properties and plant growth. This study aimed to compare the effects of mulching with inorganic (round gravel, RG), organic (wood chips, WC), and living (manila turf grass, MG) materials on soil properties at 0-5-cm and 5-10-cm depths, as well as on the growth and physiological features of Osmanthus fragrans L. 'Rixianggui' plants. Soil samples were collected at three different time points from field plots of O. fragrans plants treated with the different mulching treatments. Moisture at both soil depths was significantly higher after mulching with RG and WC than that in the unmulched control (CK) treatment. Mulching did not affect soil bulk density, pH, or total nitrogen content, but consistently improved soil organic matter. The available nitrogen in the soil increased after RG and WC treatments, but decreased after MG treatment during the experimental period. Mulching improved plant growth by increasing root activity, soluble sugar, and chlorophyll a content, as well as by providing suitable moisture conditions and nutrients in the root zone. Plant height and trunk diameter were remarkably increased after mulching, especially with RG and WC. However, while MG improved plant growth at the beginning of the treatment, the 'Rixianggui' plants later showed no improvement in growth. This was probably because MG competed with the plants for water and available nitrogen in the soil. Thus, our findings suggest that RG and WC, but not MG, improved the soil environment and the growth of 'Rixianggui' plants. Considering the effect of mulching on soil properties and plant growth and physiology, round gravel and wood chips appear to be a better choice than manila turf grass in 'Rixianggui' nurseries. Further studies are required to determine the effects of mulch quality and mulch-layer thickness on shoot and root growths.

  2. Effects of Mulching on Soil Properties and Growth of Tea Olive (Osmanthus fragrans)

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xue; Song, Weiting; Zhang, Huanchao; Yang, Xiulian; Wang, Lianggui

    2016-01-01

    Different mulches have variable effects on soil physical properties and plant growth. This study aimed to compare the effects of mulching with inorganic (round gravel, RG), organic (wood chips, WC), and living (manila turf grass, MG) materials on soil properties at 0–5-cm and 5–10-cm depths, as well as on the growth and physiological features of Osmanthus fragrans L. ‘Rixianggui’ plants. Soil samples were collected at three different time points from field plots of O. fragrans plants treated with the different mulching treatments. Moisture at both soil depths was significantly higher after mulching with RG and WC than that in the unmulched control (CK) treatment. Mulching did not affect soil bulk density, pH, or total nitrogen content, but consistently improved soil organic matter. The available nitrogen in the soil increased after RG and WC treatments, but decreased after MG treatment during the experimental period. Mulching improved plant growth by increasing root activity, soluble sugar, and chlorophyll a content, as well as by providing suitable moisture conditions and nutrients in the root zone. Plant height and trunk diameter were remarkably increased after mulching, especially with RG and WC. However, while MG improved plant growth at the beginning of the treatment, the ‘Rixianggui’ plants later showed no improvement in growth. This was probably because MG competed with the plants for water and available nitrogen in the soil. Thus, our findings suggest that RG and WC, but not MG, improved the soil environment and the growth of ‘Rixianggui’ plants. Considering the effect of mulching on soil properties and plant growth and physiology, round gravel and wood chips appear to be a better choice than manila turf grass in ‘Rixianggui’ nurseries. Further studies are required to determine the effects of mulch quality and mulch-layer thickness on shoot and root growths. PMID:27508410

  3. [Effects of straw mulching on the soil aggregates in dryland wheat field under no-tillage].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Sun, Hong-Xia; Han, Qing-Fang; Wang, Min; Zhang, Rui; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Nie, Jun-Feng; Liu, Ting

    2012-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of full period and growth period straw mulching with an amount of 3000, 6000, and 9000 kg x hm(-2) on the soil aggregates in a no-tillage dryland wheat field in Weibei Loess Pleateau of Shaanxi Province, taking no full period straw mulching as the control. In the 0-40 cm soil layer, the content of > 5 mm aggregates increased with depth, while that of <5 mm aggregates was in adverse. Under straw mulching, the total contents of > 0.25 mm mechanical stable aggregates (DR0.25) and of > 0.25 mm water stable aggregates (WR0.25) were significantly higher than the control, with an increase of 13.0%-26.4% and 18.6%-45.6%, respectively and the largest increment in the treatment 6000 kg x hm(-2) of straw mulching. Straw mulching increased the soil organic matter content, and the latter had a significant positive correlation with the WR0.25 content. All the straw mulching treatments decreased the soil unstable aggregate index (E(LT)) which was the lowest in treatment 6000 kg x hm(-2) of straw mulching. This study showed that straw mulching could increase the >0.25 mm aggregates and organic matter contents in 0-40 cm soil layer and improve the soil structural stability, and mulching with an amount of 6000 kg x hm(-2) had the best effect, being a reasonable straw mulching mode to be applied in the agricultural production in Weibei Loess Plateau.

  4. Deterioration pattern of six biodegradable, potentially low-environmental impact mulches in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Marta M; González-Mora, Sara; Villena, Jaime; Campos, Juan A; Moreno, Carmen

    2017-09-15

    Polyethylene plastic mulches are widely used in agriculture due to the countless advantages they have. However, the environmental problems associated with their use have led us to look for alternative mulch materials which degrade naturally and quickly, impact the environment less and function satisfactorily. To this end, biodegradable plastics and paper mulches are being used, but aspects related to their degradation should be studied more in-depth. This work provides the deterioration pattern of six biodegradable mulch materials (i.e. vegetable starch, polylactic acid plastic films or paper mulches) in horticultural crop in the edaphoclimatic conditions of Central Spain in two situations: over the lifetime of the mulches and after being incorporated into the soil. In the first situation, the deterioration levels were evaluated by recording the puncture resistance, weight and area covered in the above-soil and the in-soil part, and after soil incorporation by the number of fragments, their surfaces and weight. In the above-soil part, biodegradable plastics experienced further deterioration, particularly with no crop, while the paper mulch remained practically intact. However, the in-soil paper experienced complete and rapid degradation. At 200 days after soil incorporation, mulch residues were scarce, with the environmental effects it entails. These findings offer practical implications regarding the type of crop. The measurement of the surface covered, rather than the weight, was shown to be a more reliable indicator of the degradation of mulches. Furthermore, visual estimation was found to underestimate the functionality of mulches in comparison to that of the measurement of the surface covered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of distinct mulch application rates and schemes under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Sergio; Abrantes, Joao; Crema, Isabela; Keizer, Jacob; de Lima, Joao

    2017-04-01

    Post-fire forest residue mulching using eucalypt bark strands have been proven effective for reducing hillslope runoff and erosion in field plots of different sizes. Application rates of around 8-10 Mg ha-1 achieved about 80% of protective soil surface. Lower application rates, however, would reduce costs and, possibly, also allow faster application, which could be especially critical in late summer high-severity fires. Such lower rates could be achieved by applying less mulch per unit area, by applying mulch in specific zones (strips) and by removing the finest fractions, especially since these can be expected to contribute little to reduce erosion risk. The objective of this laboratory study was to identify the threshold, or the minimum application rate, at which a new mulch blend (without the fraction ≤4 cm) would effectively control runoff and erosion. Two levels of ground cover by forest residue mulch (50 and 70%) and three mulch strips (of 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3) at the bottom of the flume were tested against the untreated bare soil, by applying simulated rainfall and simulated inflow. The seven treatments were replicated three times using a 2.7 m x 0.3 m soil flume with a 40% slope, filled with a dry loamy sand soil. Each experiment included: (i) a "Dry" soil run comprising 20 min of simulated rainfall at a rate of 56 mm h-1; (ii) a "Wet" soil run with the same rainfall characteristics; (iii) a "Flow" run combining 20 min of rainfall with three inflows at increasing rates (52, 110, 232 mm h-1) on nearly saturated soil. The results showed that runoff, interrill and rill erosion were strongly reduced by covering 3/3 and 2/3 of the flume with mulch at 70% ground cover (overall mulch application rates of 2.6 and 1.3 Mg ha-1). The 1/3 mulch strip at 70% mulch cover (application rate of 1 Mg ha-1) also reduced significantly erosion but not runoff. The mulch strips at 50% were less effective, and only the application over the whole plot was able to reduce interrill and

  6. Mycoflora of wood chips to be used as mulch

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover-Litty, H.; Hanlin, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and fourteen species of fungi in 82 genera were identified from 2500 wood chips examined. Species of Trichoderma, Fusarium, Chaetomium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Graphium accounted for 48.6% of the isolates. None of the other species occurred in more than 5% of the wood chips. T. species accounted for nearly one-fifth of all colonies recorded. A. fumigatus was very common in both self-heated and ambient temperature piles. The possible threat to persons working around mulch piles from A. fumigatus is discussed. 29 references.

  7. Adsorption and desorption behavior of selected pesticides as influenced by decomposition of maize mulch.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Sohaib; Garnier, Patricia; Rumpel, Cornelia; Parent, Serge E; Benoit, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Assessing pesticide fate in conservation agricultural systems requires a detailed understanding of their interaction with decomposing surface crop residues (mulch). Adsorption and desorption behavior of glyphosate, s-metolachlor and epoxiconazole was investigated on maize mulch residues decomposed under laboratory and field conditions. Our conceptual approach included characterization of chemical composition and hydrophobicity of mulch residues in order to generate parameters to predict sorption behavior. Adsorption of s-metolachlor and epoxiconazole greatly increased with mulch decomposition, whereas glyphosate adsorption was less affected but its desorption was increased. Mulch characteristics including aromaticity, hydrophobicity and polarity indices were strongly correlated to Koc of the non-ionic pesticides. A predictive model based on compositional data (CoDa) analysis revealed that the sorption capacity of decomposing mulch can be predicted from descriptors such as aromatic and alkyl C corresponding respectively to lignin and NDF biochemical fractions. The decomposition degree of mulch residues should be taken into account while predicting the fate of pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aroma of fresh strawberries is enhanced by ripening over red versus black mulch.

    PubMed

    Loughrin, John H; Kasperbauer, Michael J

    2002-01-02

    Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) is a high-value food crop, the aroma of which is important in consumer satisfaction. We hypothesized that the concentration of fresh strawberry aroma compounds could be enhanced by growing the berries over a red plastic mulch that was formulated to reflect more far-red (FR) and red light (R) and a higher FR/R photon ratio than is reflected by standard black plastic mulch. Strawberries of the cultivars "Chandler" and "Sweet Charlie" were grown in trickle-irrigated field plots over the two colors of mulch. The berries were harvested when ripe, and aroma compounds were isolated by dynamic headspace sampling. Entrained compounds were quantified by gas chromatography and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Twenty-three compounds were identified, and most of them were aliphatic esters. Strawberries that ripened over the red mulch during periods of sunny weather had significantly higher concentrations of aroma compounds than berries grown over the black plastic mulch. Total levels of aroma compounds from berries grown over red plastic mulch were higher for both Chandler and Sweet Charlie. We postulate that FR and R in light reflected from the red mulch acted through the natural phytochrome system to modify gene expression enough to result in greater concentration of aroma compounds in fresh strawberries.

  9. Soil Physical Characteristics and Biological Indicators of Soil Quality Under Different Biodegradable Mulches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, S. M.; Flury, M.; Sintim, H.; Bandopadhyay, S.; Ghimire, S.; Bary, A.; DeBruyn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Application of conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch in crop production offers benefits of increased water use efficiency, weed control, management of certain plant diseases, and maintenance of a micro-climate conducive for plant growth. These factors improve crop yield and quality, but PE must be retrieved and safely disposed of after usage. Substituting PE with biodegradable plastic mulches (BDM) would alleviate disposal needs, and is potentially a more sustainable practice. However, knowledge of potential impacts of BDMs on agricultural soil ecosystems is needed to evaluate sustainability. We (a) monitored soil moisture and temperature dynamics, and (b) assessed soil quality upon usage of different mulches, with pie pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) as the test crop. Experimental field trials are ongoing at two sites, one at Northwestern Washington Research and Extension Center, Mount Vernon, WA, and the other at East Tennessee Research and Education Center, Knoxville, TN. The treatments constitute four different commercial BDM products, one experimental BDM; no mulch and PE served as the controls. Soil quality parameters being examined include: organic matter content, aggregate stability, water infiltration rate, CO2 flux, pH, and extracellular enzyme activity. In addition, lysimeters were installed to examine the soil water and heat flow dynamics. We present baseline and the first field season results from this study. Mulch cover appeared to moderate soil temperatures, but biodegradable mulches also appeared to lose water more quickly than PE. All mulch types, with the exception of cellulose, reduced the diurnal fluctuations in soil temperature at 10cm depth from 1 to 4ºC. However, volumetric water content ranged from 0.10 to 0.22 m3 m-3 under the five biodegradable mulches compared to 0.22 to 0.28 m3 m-3 under conventional PE. Results from the study will be useful for management practices by providing knowledge on how different mulches impact soil physical and

  10. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yufang; Chen, Yingying; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L.) field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer) and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition). The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological quality of the

  11. Microbial Functional Diversity, Biomass and Activity as Affected by Soil Surface Mulching in a Semiarid Farmland.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yufang; Chen, Yingying; Li, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Mulching is widely used to increase crop yield in semiarid regions in northwestern China, but little is known about the effect of different mulching systems on the microbial properties of the soil, which play an important role in agroecosystemic functioning and nutrient cycling. Based on a 4-year spring maize (Zea mays L.) field experiment at Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial activity and crop to various management systems. The treatments were NMC (no mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), GMC (gravel mulching with inorganic N fertilizer), FMC (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer) and FMO (plastic-film mulching with inorganic N fertilizer and organic manure addition). The results showed that the FMO soil had the highest contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dehydrogenase activity, microbial activity and Shannon diversity index. The relative use of carbohydrates and amino acids by microbes was highest in the FMO soil, whereas the relative use of polymers, phenolic compounds and amines was highest in the soil in the NMC soil. Compared with the NMC, an increased but no significant trend of biomass production and nitrogen accumulation was observed under the GMC treatment. The FMC and FMO led a greater increase in biomass production than GMC and NMC. Compare with the NMC treatment, FMC increased grain yield, maize biomass and nitrogen accumulation by 62.2, 62.9 and 86.2%, but no significant difference was found between the FMO and FMC treatments. Some soil biological properties, i.e. microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, being sensitive to the mulching and organic fertilizer, were significant correlated with yield and nitrogen availability. Film mulching over gravel mulching can serve as an effective measure for crop production and nutrient cycling, and plus organic fertilization additions may thus have improvements in the biological quality of the

  12. [Effects of mulching and fertilization on winter wheat field soil moisture in dry highland region of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Zi-Hui; Chen, Hui-Lin; Wang, Zhao-Hui

    2009-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field in Weibei dry highland region of Loess Plateau to study the effects of different mulching and fertilization treatments on soil moisture regime. The treatments were 1) no fertilization, 2) conventional fertilization, 3) recommended fertilization, 4) recommended fertilization + manure, 5) recommended fertilization + plastic mulch on soil ridges, 6) recommended fertilization + plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows, and 7) recommended fertilization + straw mulch on entire plot. Soil moisture content was determined regularly with a neutron probe. Among the treatments, recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows in dry season (spring) resulted in the greatest increase of soil water storage and maintained the storage to the critical stage crops needed, followed by recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges. These two treatments could store more precipitation in field, and would benefit the development of rainfed agriculture in dry highland region of Loess Plateau. As for recommended fertilization plus manure, it had the least increase of soil water storage, with a difference of 48.2 mm to the recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows in dry season.

  13. [Effects of plastic film mulching on soil temperature and moisture and on yield formation of spring wheat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Fengmin; Song, Qiuhua; Li, Shiqing

    2003-02-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of plastic film mulching on soil temperature and moisture, and on yield formation of spring wheat. The results showed that plastic film mulching could increase soil temperature with "U" variances in the whole growth period of spring wheat. Plastic film mulching could also increase soil available water by restraining evaporation and elevating deep water to the layer useable for roots. The promotion of soil temperature and soil water content under plastic film mulching was favorable to the development and water use of spring wheat in its earlier stage. Root developments were restrained when mulching in later stage of spring wheat, with decreases in crop water consumption and water use efficiency, and there was no significant effects on yield formation. The spring wheat yields under control (CK), pre-sowing irrigation (W), mulching for whole stage (M), pre-sowing irrigation adding mulching for 30 days (WM30), pre-sowing irrigation adding mulching for 60 days (WM60), and pre-sowing irrigation adding mulching for whole stage (WMw) were 2 554, 2,424, 2,750, 3,138, 3,305, and 3,123 kg.hm-2, respectively, and the optimum mulching time was at 40-60 days.

  14. Effects of straw and plastic film mulching on greenhouse gas emissions in Loess Plateau, China: A field study of 2 consecutive wheat-maize rotation cycles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixin; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Afeng; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Gong; Sun, Benhua; Pi, Xiaomin; Dyck, Miles; Si, Bingcheng; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Mulching practices have long been used to modify the soil temperature and moisture conditions and thus potentially improve crop production in dryland agriculture, but few studies have focused on mulching effects on soil gaseous emissions. We monitored annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the regime of straw and plastic film mulching using a closed chamber method on a typical winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Xiaoyan 22) and summer-maize (Zea mays L. cv Qinlong 11) rotation field over two-year period in the Loess Plateau, northwestern China. The following four field treatments were included: T1 (control, no mulching), T2 (4000kgha(-1) wheat straw mulching, covering 100% of soil surface), T3 (half plastic film mulching, covering 50% of soil surface), and T4 (complete plastic film mulching, covering 100% of soil surface). Compared with the control, straw mulching decreased soil temperature and increased soil moisture, whereas plastic film mulching increased both soil temperature and moisture. Accordingly, straw mulching increased annual crop yields over both cycles, while plastic film mulching significantly enhanced annual crop yield over cycle 2. Compared to the no-mulching treatment, all mulching treatments increased soil CO2 emission over both cycles, and straw mulching increased soil CH4 absorption over both cycles, but patterns of soil N2O emissions under straw or film mulching are not consistent. Overall, compared to T1, annual GHG intensity was significantly decreased by 106%, 24% and 26% under T2, T3 and T4 over cycle 1, respectively; and by 20%, 51% and 29% under T2, T3 and T4 over cycle 2, respectively. Considering the additional cost and environmental issues associated with plastic film mulching, the application of straw mulching might achieve a balance between food security and GHG emissions in the Chinese Loess Plateau. However, further research is required to investigate the perennial influence of different mulching applications.

  15. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides.

  16. Plastic-Film Mulching for Enhanced Water-Use Efficiency and Economic Returns from Maize Fields in Semiarid China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wei, Ting; Cai, Tie; Ali, Shahzad; Han, Qingfang; Ren, Xiaolong; Jia, Zhikuan

    2017-01-01

    Film mulch has gradually been popularized to increase water availability to crops for improving and stabilizing agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Northwest China. To find more sustainable and economic film mulch methods for alleviating drought stress in semiarid region, it is necessary to test optimum planting methods in same cultivation conditions. A field experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of different plastic film mulch methods on soil water, soil temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), yield and revenue. The treatments included: (i) the control, conventional flat planting without plastic film mulch (CK); (ii) flat planting with maize rows (60 cm spacing) on plastic film mulch (70 cm wide); (iii) furrow planting of maize (60 cm spacing), separated by consecutive plastic film-mulched ridges (each 50 cm wide and 15 cm tall); (iv) furrow planting of maize (60 cm spacing), separated by alternating large and small plastic film-mulched ridges (large ridges: 70 cm wide and 15 cm tall, small ridges 50 cm wide and 10 cm tall); and (v) furrow-flat planting of maize (60 cm spacing) with a large plastic film-mulched ridge (60 cm wide and 15 cm tall) alternating with a flat without plastic film-mulched space (60 cm wide). Topsoil temperature (5–25 cm) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in field plots with plastic film mulch than the control (CK), and resulted in greater soil water storage (0–200 cm) up to 40 days after planting. Maize grain yield and WUE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher with the furrow planting methods (consecutive film-mulched ridges and alternating film-mulched ridges) than the check in both years. Maize yield was, on average, 29% (p < 0.05) greater and 28% (p < 0.05) greater with these furrow planting methods, while the average WUE increased by 22.8% (p < 0.05) with consecutive film-mulched ridges and 21.1% (p < 0.05) with alternating film-mulched ridges. The 2-year average net income increased

  17. Plastic-Film Mulching for Enhanced Water-Use Efficiency and Economic Returns from Maize Fields in Semiarid China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wei, Ting; Cai, Tie; Ali, Shahzad; Han, Qingfang; Ren, Xiaolong; Jia, Zhikuan

    2017-01-01

    Film mulch has gradually been popularized to increase water availability to crops for improving and stabilizing agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Northwest China. To find more sustainable and economic film mulch methods for alleviating drought stress in semiarid region, it is necessary to test optimum planting methods in same cultivation conditions. A field experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of different plastic film mulch methods on soil water, soil temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), yield and revenue. The treatments included: (i) the control, conventional flat planting without plastic film mulch (CK); (ii) flat planting with maize rows (60 cm spacing) on plastic film mulch (70 cm wide); (iii) furrow planting of maize (60 cm spacing), separated by consecutive plastic film-mulched ridges (each 50 cm wide and 15 cm tall); (iv) furrow planting of maize (60 cm spacing), separated by alternating large and small plastic film-mulched ridges (large ridges: 70 cm wide and 15 cm tall, small ridges 50 cm wide and 10 cm tall); and (v) furrow-flat planting of maize (60 cm spacing) with a large plastic film-mulched ridge (60 cm wide and 15 cm tall) alternating with a flat without plastic film-mulched space (60 cm wide). Topsoil temperature (5-25 cm) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in field plots with plastic film mulch than the control (CK), and resulted in greater soil water storage (0-200 cm) up to 40 days after planting. Maize grain yield and WUE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher with the furrow planting methods (consecutive film-mulched ridges and alternating film-mulched ridges) than the check in both years. Maize yield was, on average, 29% (p < 0.05) greater and 28% (p < 0.05) greater with these furrow planting methods, while the average WUE increased by 22.8% (p < 0.05) with consecutive film-mulched ridges and 21.1% (p < 0.05) with alternating film-mulched ridges. The 2-year average net income increased by

  18. Tillage, mulch and N fertilizer affect emissions of CO2 under the rain fed condition.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010-2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

  19. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising.

  20. [Application value of organic ground surface mulch in urban forestry construction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Qie, Guangfa; Peng, Zhenhua

    2005-11-01

    This paper summarized the development process of organic ground surface mulch, and analyzed its important application value (such as the functions of improving soil physical and chemical properties, promoting plant growth, beautifying urban landscape, and preventing soil dust, etc.), and its values in protecting environment and benefiting economy. The problems in the application process of organic ground surface mulch were discussed, and the actual impendence and broad development space of its production and application in our urban forestry construction were pointed out.

  1. Tillage, Mulch and N Fertilizer Affect Emissions of CO2 under the Rain Fed Condition

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010–2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010–11 relative to the year 2011–12. During cropping year 2010–11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011–12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options. PMID:24086256

  2. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  3. ‘White revolution’ to ‘white pollution’—agricultural plastic film mulch in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, E. K.; He, W. Q.; Yan, C. R.

    2014-09-01

    Plastic film mulching has played an important role in Chinese agriculture due to its soil warming and moisture conservation effects. With the help of plastic film mulch technology, grain and cash crop yields have increased by 20-35% and 20-60%, respectively. The area of plastic film coverage in China reached approximately 20 million hectares, and the amount of plastic film used reached 1.25 million tons in 2011. While producing huge benefits, plastic film mulch technology has also brought on a series of pollution hazards. Large amounts of residual plastic film have detrimental effects on soil structure, water and nutrient transport and crop growth, thereby disrupting the agricultural environment and reducing crop production. To control pollution, the Chinese government urgently needs to elevate plastic film standards. Meanwhile, research and development of biodegradable mulch film and multi-functional mulch recovery machinery will help promote effective control and management of residual mulch pollution.

  4. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer.

  5. Assessment of aliphatic-aromatic copolyester biodegradable mulch films. Part I: field study.

    PubMed

    Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Fernandez, R Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the use of new biodegradable films in agriculture under open field conditions. Three biodegradable mulch films made from modified biodegradable polyester of different thicknesses and colors (black and white) and a conventional low density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch film were used to cover the beds of tomato plants. Changes in physical appearance of the films were recorded as well as changes in their mechanical, optical, and physical properties. Once tomato harvest was completed, the conventional LDPE mulch film was removed and all the tomato plants were cut using a mower. The biodegradable mulch films were plowed into the soil. The change in the appearance of the film was recorded and samples of each film after plowing were characterized according to the properties mentioned above. After the biodegradable films photodegraded, cross-link formation occurred within the films which promoted brittleness. Titanium dioxide, an additive used to produce white color in the films, catalyzed the photodegradation, while carbon black used for black color stabilized the photodegradation. The white films started to degrade after two weeks while it took about eight weeks for the black films to significantly degrade. The black biodegradable film seems to be a more promising alternative as a mulch film because of the comparable yields and weed suppression ability to conventional mulch film.

  6. Effect of Tithonia diversifolia mulch on Atta cephalotes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nests.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jonathan; Montoya-Lerma, James; Calle, Zoraida

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an insecticidal effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray (Asterales: Asteraceae) foliage on workers of Atta cephalotes L. and inhibitory effects of this plant on the growth of the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (A. Müler) Singer. To evaluate the potential of T. diversifolia as a biological control treatment of this important pest, we assessed the effect of green manure (mulch) of this plant on natural nests of A. cephalotes, in Cali, Colombia. Three treatments were randomly assigned to 30 nests: 1) green mulch of T. diversifolia, 2) green mulch of Miconia sp., Ruiz & Pav. and 3) unmulched control. Every 2 wk for 6 mo, the surface of the nests was completely covered with leaves. Physical and chemical parameters of nest soil were assessed before the first and after the last application of the mulch. Ant foraging in T. diversifolia-treated nests decreased by 60% after the initial applications of the mulch, while nest surface area decreased by 40%. When the nests covered with T. diversifolia were opened, it was observed that the superficial fungus chambers had been relocated at a greater depth. In addition, microbial activity and soil pH increased by 84% and 12%, respectively, in nests covered with plant residues. In conclusion, the continued use of T. diversifolia mulch reduces foraging activity and negatively affects the internal conditions of the colonies, thereby inducing the ants to relocate the fungus chambers within the nests.

  7. Effects of stubble and mulching on soil erosion by wind in semi-arid China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Peifei; Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is a growing challenge for agricultural production in Northern China. To explore the effect of variation in stubble height and mulching biomass on soil erosion caused by wind, we conducted a field experiment using a quadratic rotation combination design. Results showed that the quantity of straw mulch was the dominant factor affecting soil erosion, and stubble height was of secondary importance. The soil water content in stubble and straw mulching treatments was higher than in a control treatment at 0–20 cm soil, and the tendency in the amount of soil water content was opposite to the amount of wind erosion (r = −0.882, n = 10, p < 0.01). The change in soil water content observed in the stubble and mulch treatments at the 15–20 cm depth was higher than the change from 0–5 cm to 5–10 cm. Combined, the influence of a stubble height of 34 cm and mulch quantity of 4260 kg·ha−1 lowered the amount of erosion to 0.42 t·ha−1, and increased the corn yield to 11900 kg·ha−1. We determined that those were the most appropriate levels of stubble height and straw mulch for crop fields in the semi-arid regions of Northern China. PMID:27426048

  8. Effect of Tithonia diversifolia Mulch on Atta cephalotes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nests

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jonathan; Montoya-Lerma, James; Calle, Zoraida

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an insecticidal effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray (Asterales: Asteraceae) foliage on workers of Atta cephalotes L. and inhibitory effects of this plant on the growth of the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (A. Müler) Singer. To evaluate the potential of T. diversifolia as a biological control treatment of this important pest, we assessed the effect of green manure (mulch) of this plant on natural nests of A. cephalotes, in Cali, Colombia. Three treatments were randomly assigned to 30 nests: 1) green mulch of T. diversifolia, 2) green mulch of Miconia sp., Ruiz & Pav. and 3) unmulched control. Every 2 wk for 6 mo, the surface of the nests was completely covered with leaves. Physical and chemical parameters of nest soil were assessed before the first and after the last application of the mulch. Ant foraging in T. diversifolia-treated nests decreased by 60% after the initial applications of the mulch, while nest surface area decreased by 40%. When the nests covered with T. diversifolia were opened, it was observed that the superficial fungus chambers had been relocated at a greater depth. In addition, microbial activity and soil pH increased by 84% and 12%, respectively, in nests covered with plant residues. In conclusion, the continued use of T. diversifolia mulch reduces foraging activity and negatively affects the internal conditions of the colonies, thereby inducing the ants to relocate the fungus chambers within the nests. PMID:25843585

  9. Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure; 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure + 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  10. Effects of stubble and mulching on soil erosion by wind in semi-arid China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Peifei; Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian

    2016-07-18

    Soil erosion is a growing challenge for agricultural production in Northern China. To explore the effect of variation in stubble height and mulching biomass on soil erosion caused by wind, we conducted a field experiment using a quadratic rotation combination design. Results showed that the quantity of straw mulch was the dominant factor affecting soil erosion, and stubble height was of secondary importance. The soil water content in stubble and straw mulching treatments was higher than in a control treatment at 0-20 cm soil, and the tendency in the amount of soil water content was opposite to the amount of wind erosion (r = -0.882, n = 10, p < 0.01). The change in soil water content observed in the stubble and mulch treatments at the 15-20 cm depth was higher than the change from 0-5 cm to 5-10 cm. Combined, the influence of a stubble height of 34 cm and mulch quantity of 4260 kg·ha(-1) lowered the amount of erosion to 0.42 t·ha(-1), and increased the corn yield to 11900 kg·ha(-1). We determined that those were the most appropriate levels of stubble height and straw mulch for crop fields in the semi-arid regions of Northern China.

  11. Altered transfer of heavy metals from soil to Chinese cabbage with film mulching.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-li; Yuan, Jin; Sheng, G Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The influence of film mulching on the migration of metals from soil to cabbage was investigated. Following a 50-day growth in field plots mulched or unmulched, root-zone soils and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) were sampled for metal analysis. Mulching slightly decreased the soil mobile (acid-extractable) Cd, but increased its transfer from root to the cabbage parts. As an essential element, Cu was readily transferred to the cabbage parts. While mulching decreased the soil mobile Zn, reduced soil pH resulted in its enhanced soil-to-root migration. This, however, did not increase the transfer of Zn within cabbage. Although mulching increased the soil mobile Pb by 200%, an increase in Pb in cabbage leaves but a decrease in stem result presumably from the enhanced foliar uptake of atmospheric Pb. This study suggests that mulching may promote the accumulation of toxic metals such as Cd and Pb in cabbage and therefore increase crop risks to human health.

  12. Effects of stubble and mulching on soil erosion by wind in semi-arid China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Peifei; Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Soil erosion is a growing challenge for agricultural production in Northern China. To explore the effect of variation in stubble height and mulching biomass on soil erosion caused by wind, we conducted a field experiment using a quadratic rotation combination design. Results showed that the quantity of straw mulch was the dominant factor affecting soil erosion, and stubble height was of secondary importance. The soil water content in stubble and straw mulching treatments was higher than in a control treatment at 0–20 cm soil, and the tendency in the amount of soil water content was opposite to the amount of wind erosion (r = ‑0.882, n = 10, p < 0.01). The change in soil water content observed in the stubble and mulch treatments at the 15–20 cm depth was higher than the change from 0–5 cm to 5–10 cm. Combined, the influence of a stubble height of 34 cm and mulch quantity of 4260 kg·ha‑1 lowered the amount of erosion to 0.42 t·ha‑1, and increased the corn yield to 11900 kg·ha‑1. We determined that those were the most appropriate levels of stubble height and straw mulch for crop fields in the semi-arid regions of Northern China.

  13. Grass mulching effect on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of three agricultural soils in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adekalu, K O; Olorunfemi, I A; Osunbitan, J A

    2007-03-01

    Mulching the soil surface with a layer of plant residue is an effective method of conserving water and soil because it reduces surface runoff, increases infiltration of water into the soil and retard soil erosion. The effectiveness of using elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as mulching material was evaluated in the laboratory using a rainfall simulator set at rainfall intensities typical of the tropics. Six soil samples, two from each of the three major soil series representing the main agricultural soils in South Western Nigeria were collected, placed on three different slopes, and mulched with different rates of the grass. The surface runoff, soil loss, and apparent cumulative infiltration were then measured under each condition. The results with elephant grass compared favorably with results from previous experiments using rice straw. Runoff and soil loss decreased with the amount of mulch used and increased with slope. Surface runoff, infiltration and soil loss had high correlations (R = 0.90, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively) with slope and mulch cover using surface response analysis. The mean surface runoff was correlated negatively with sand content, while mean soil loss was correlated positively with colloidal content (clay and organic matter) of the soil. Infiltration was increased and soil loss was reduced greatly with the highest cover. Mulching the soils with elephant grass residue may benefit late cropping (second cropping) by increasing stored soil water for use during dry weather and help to reduce erosion on sloping land.

  14. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and granulomatous lung disease in a mulch gardener

    PubMed Central

    Lanspa, Michael J; Hatton, Nathan D

    2014-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman who gardens regularly with rotting bark mulch presented with exertional dyspnea, diffusion impairment, and radiographic abnormalities (centrilobular nodules, tree-in-bud and ground glass opacities, calcified mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes) on a computed tomogram. Moderate lymphocytosis was noted on bronchoalveolar lavage. Surgical biopsy of her lung revealed granulomatous changes, and biopsies grew Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a fungus that causes white rot in tree bark. She was treated with voriconazole and instructed to avoid gardening, which led to radiographic and symptomatic improvement. She had recurrence of symptoms when she started doing yard work again. P. chrysosporium has been demonstrated to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis in animal models. This case is the first documented report of P. chrysosporium associated with granulomatous lung disease in a human. PMID:25473549

  15. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and granulomatous lung disease in a mulch gardener.

    PubMed

    Lanspa, Michael J; Hatton, Nathan D

    2014-03-01

    A 50-year-old woman who gardens regularly with rotting bark mulch presented with exertional dyspnea, diffusion impairment, and radiographic abnormalities (centrilobular nodules, tree-in-bud and ground glass opacities, calcified mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes) on a computed tomogram. Moderate lymphocytosis was noted on bronchoalveolar lavage. Surgical biopsy of her lung revealed granulomatous changes, and biopsies grew Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a fungus that causes white rot in tree bark. She was treated with voriconazole and instructed to avoid gardening, which led to radiographic and symptomatic improvement. She had recurrence of symptoms when she started doing yard work again. P. chrysosporium has been demonstrated to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis in animal models. This case is the first documented report of P. chrysosporium associated with granulomatous lung disease in a human.

  16. [Effects of soil surface mulching on the growth and physiological characteristics of grafted and non-grafted cucumbers in solar greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Sheng; Liang, Yinli; Wang, Juyuan; Dai, Quanhou; Du, Sheni; You, Haixia; Chen, Jiarui

    2006-06-01

    This paper studied the effects of wheat straw mulching, plastic film mulching, and wheat straw plus plastic film mulching on the growth and physiological characteristics of grafted and non-grafted Cucumis sativus in solar greenhouse. The results showed that compared with the control, the plant height, stem diameter, photosynthetic rate, and root vitality of grafted C. sativus under wheat straw plus plastic film mulching, plastic film mulching, and wheat straw mulching were increased by 91, 71 and 57 cm, 0.127, 0.086 and 0.111 cm, 2.63, 2.08 and 1.36 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), and 0.98, 0.48 and 0.8 mg TTC x g(-1) FW, respectively, while non-grafted C. sativus had a less increment. The chlorophyll content of grafted C. sativus under wheat straw plus plastic film mulching and wheat straw mulching was 1.8% and 3.15% higher than the control, respectively, but that under plastic film mulching was 3.8% less than the control. Soil surface mulching increased the dry weight per plant, early yield, and total yield. Under wheat straw plus plastic film mulching, plastic film mulching, and wheat straw mulching, the individual yield of grafted C. sativus was 16%, 5.3% and 3.4% higher than that of non-grafted C. sativus, respectively.

  17. Mulches aid in regenerating California and Oregon forests: Past, present, and future. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Helgerson, O.T.

    1990-09-01

    The use of mulches as a reforestation tool in Oregon and California begin primarily in the late 1950's. Many types of mulches were tried in cluding sheets of plastic, newspaper, and plywood etc.. Early trials tended to use small, short-lived materials that aided conifer seedling survial, but not growth. Compared to other weed-control techniques available at the time, mulches were rather expensive. Current trends are to apply longer-lived, somewhat larger mulches of mostly sheet materials made of reinforced paper, polyester, or polypropylene.

  18. Ground and rove beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) are affected by mulches and weeds in highbush blueberries.

    PubMed

    Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J

    2012-10-01

    Biological control of insects by predators may be indirectly influenced by management practices that change the invertebrate community in agroecosystems. In this study we examined effects that mulching and weeding have on predatory beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae) and their potential prey in a highbush blueberry field. We compared beetle communities in unweeded control plots to those that were weeded and/or received a single application of compost or pine needle mulch. Compost mulch and weeding significantly affected the carabid community while the staphylinid community responded to compost and pine needle mulches. Effects because of mulch tended to intensify in the year after mulch application for both families. Estimates of species richness and diversity for Carabidae and Staphylinidae were similar in all plot types, but rarefaction curves suggested higher Carabidae richness in unmulched plots despite fewer individuals captured. Carnivorous Carabidae, dominated by Pterostichus melanarius, were most frequently captured in compost plots both years, and omnivores were most frequently captured in unweeded compost. Density of millipedes, the most abundant potential prey, was generally greater in mulched plots, whereas seasonal abundance of small earthworms varied among mulch types. Our results have potential implications for biological control in mulched highbush blueberries depending on beetle consumption rates for key pests and how rates are affected by alternative prey.

  19. Impact of mulches and growing season on indicator bacteria survival during lettuce cultivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aixia; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-05-02

    In fresh produce production, the use of mulches as ground cover to retain moisture and control weeds is a common agricultural practice, but the influence that various mulches have on enteric pathogen survival and dispersal is unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different mulching methods on the survival of soil and epiphytic fecal indicator bacteria on organically grown lettuce during different growing seasons. Organically managed lettuce, cultivated with various ground covers--polyethylene plastic, corn-based biodegradable plastic, paper and straw mulch--and bare ground as a no-mulch control, was overhead inoculated with manure-contaminated water containing known levels of generic Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Leaves and soil samples were collected at intervals over a two week period on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14, and quantitatively assessed for E. coli, fecal coliforms and Enterococcus spp. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures and an exponential decline with asymptote survival model. Indicator bacterial concentrations in the lettuce phyllosphere decreased over time under all treatments, with more rapid E. coli declines in the fall than in the spring (p<0.01). Persistence of E. coli in spring was correlated with higher maximum and minimum temperatures in this season, and more regular rainfall. The survival model gave very good fits for the progression of E. coli concentrations in the phyllosphere over time (R(2)=0.88 ± 0.12). In the spring season, decline rates of E. coli counts were faster (2013 p=0.18; 2014 p<0.005) for the bare ground-cultivated lettuce compared to mulches. In fall 2014, the E. coli decline rate on paper mulch-grown lettuce was higher (p<0.005). Bacteria fluctuated more, and persisted longer, in soil compared to lettuce phyllosphere, and mulch type was a factor for fecal coliform levels (p<0.05), with higher counts retrieved under plastic mulches in all trials, and higher enterococci

  20. Soil water repellency under stones, forest residue mulch and bare soil following wildfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Prats, Sérgio A.; van Keulen, Daan; Vieira, Diana C. S.; Silva, Flávio C.; Keizer, Jan J.; Verheijen, Frank G. A.

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a physical property that is commonly defined as the aptitude of soil to resist wetting. It has been documented for a wide range of soil and vegetation types, and can vary with soil organic matter (SOM) content and type, soil texture, soil moisture content (SMC) and soil temperature. Fire can induce, enhance or destroy SWR and, therefore, lead to considerable changes in soil water infiltration and storage and increase soil erosion by water, thereby weakening soil quality. In Portugal, wildfires occur frequently and affect large areas, on average some 100000 ha per year, but over 300000 ha in extreme years such as 2003 and 2005. This can have important implications in geomorphological and hydrological processes, as evidenced by the strong and sometimes extreme responses in post-fire runoff and erosion reported from various parts of the world, including Portugal. Thereby, the application of mulches from various materials to cover burned areas has been found to be an efficient stabilization treatment. However, little is known about possible side effects on SWR, especially long term effects. Forest SWR is very heterogeneous, as a result of variation in proximity to trees/shrubs, litter type and thickness, cracks, roots, and stones. This study targeted the spatial heterogeneity of soil water repellency under eucalypt plantation, five years after a wildfire and forest residue mulching application. The main objectives of this work were: 1) to assess the long-term effect of mulching application on the strength and spatial heterogeneity of topsoil SWR, by comparing SWR on bare soil, under stones, and under mulching remains; 2) to assess SWR at 1 cm depth between O and Ah horizons. The soil surface results showed that untreated bare soil areas were slightly more water repellent than mulched areas. However, under stones there were no SWR differences between mulched and control areas. At 1 cm depth, there was a marked mulching effect on SWR, even

  1. Laboratory experiments on the effectiveness of straw mulch on soil degradation processes under simulated rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, João; Montenegro, Abelardo; de Lima, João

    2013-04-01

    Several relevant hydrological processes (e.g. runoff, sediment transport, soil moisture) were investigated in laboratory to evaluate the effectiveness of distinct rice straw mulching densities on reducing soil degradation and conserving soil water. Mulching cover has been used as a common management practice to improve water use efficiency and soil conservation in agricultural lands of semiarid regions characterized by irregular storm patterns with intense and short rainfall events. Soil degradation and nutrient losses are a main threat for agricultural lands, reducing soil fertility, land productivity and eventually leading to the unsustainability of agricultural production systems. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a free drainage rectangular soil flume (3.0 × 0.3 m2) with a sandy loam soil from the right bank of Mondego River, in Coimbra (Portugal) and three soil surface conditions: 1) bare soil; 2) low mulching cover with 2 ton/ha density; and 3) high mulching cover with 4 ton/ha density. A steady single downward-oriented full-cone nozzle was used to simulate several rainfall events with different intensities and patterns in an intermittent way. A set of infrared bulbs placed above the soil flume were used to enhance evaporation between two successive rainfall events. The results clearly show that rice straw mulching and the characteristics of the rainfall events strongly affected infiltration, surface runoff and erosion. High mulching cover condition stabilized soil temperature better than the bare soil condition and increased significantly soil moisture. Mulching has conferred protection to the superficial layer of the soil, reducing the formation of rills and the transport of sediments, leading to the reduction of the degradation processes.

  2. Degradation of sustainable mulch materials in two types of soil under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen; Aceituno, Patricia; Campos, Juan; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Mulching is a technique used in cultivation worldwide, especially for vegetable crops, for reducing weed growth, minimising or eliminating soil erosion, and often for enhancing total yields. Manufactured plastic films, mainly polyethylene (PE), have been widely used for this purpose due to their excellent mechanical properties, light weight and relatively low prices in recent years. However, the use of PE is associated with serious environmental problems related to its petrochemical origin and its long shelf-life, which causes a waste problem in our crop fields. For this reason, the use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as alternative to PE is increasing nowadays, especially in organic farming. However, these materials can suffer an undesirable early degradation (and therefore not fulfilling their function successfully), greatly resulting from the type of soil. For this reason, this study aimed to analyse the degradation pattern of different mulch materials buried in two types of soils, clay and sand, under laboratory conditions (25°C, dark surroundings, constant humidity). The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 µm); black biopolymers (15 µm): 2) maize starch-based, 3) potato starch-based, 4) polylactic acid-based, 5) black paper, 85 g/m2. Periodically (every 15-20 days), the weight and surface loss of the different materials were recorded. The results indicate that mulch degradation was earlier and higher in the clay soil, especially in the paper and in the potato starch-based materials, followed by the maize starch-based mulch, while polylactic acid-based suffered the least and the latest degradation. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, degradation. Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of agricultural mulches for reducing post-wildfire wind erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, P. R.; Jennewein, J.; Sharratt, B. S.; Lewis, S. A.; Brown, R. E.

    2017-08-01

    Post-wildfire soil erosion can be caused by water or aeolian processes, yet most erosion research has focused on predominantly water-driven erosion. This study investigates the effectiveness of three agricultural mulches, with and without a tackifier, on aeolian sediment transport processes. A wind tunnel was used to simulate post-wildfire wind erosion at three wind speeds (6, 11 and 18 m s-1). Shallow trays containing soil collected after a wildfire were treated with chopped rice, wheat or chopped wheat mulch; mulch treatments were also compounded with liquid treatments, tackifier to water ratios of 1:6, 1:3 and water. The mulch treatments were generally easily moved at all wind speeds with cover reductions greater than 90% at the highest wind speed. As expected, sediment loss was greatest for the bare soil treatment, ranging from 6.5 g m-2 at the lowest wind speed which increases to 6258 g m-2 at the highest wind speed. Adding wheat or chopped wheat mulch significantly reduced sediment loss by an order or magnitude (698 and 298 g m-2, respectively) at the highest wind speed. Adding chopped rice straw reduced sediment loss by a half to 3573 g m-2 at the highest wind speed, but the effect was not significant due to mobilization of the mulch. The most effective sediment loss mitigation was achieved with liquid tackifier treatments when applied to bare soil and when compounded with various mulch treatments, particularly at the highest wind speed. These results may aid management decisions when mitigating aeolian sediment transport after wildfires.

  4. [Effect of hyacinth mulching on rice (Oryza sativa L.) uptake and utilization of nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-jiang; Chen, Liu-gen; Zhu, Pu-ping; Sheng, Jing; Zhang, Yue-fang; Zheng, Jian-chu

    2011-05-01

    Nitrogen is the most important element for rice growth, and hyacinth can absorb large quantities of nitrogen and accumulate in their tissues. The field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hyacinth mulching on rice nitrogen (N) concentration, uptake, efficiency and allocation at different growth stages. Taked Yun 2645 as a material, the nitrogen uptake and utilization of rice were evaluated under two different levels of N input: low (LN, 120 kg x hm(-2)) and normal N (NN, 240 kg x hm(-2)) in 2009. Main results showed that: (1) Compared with AMB, hyacinth mulching significantly increased N concentration in rice plant over the season, hyacinth mulching significantly increased nitrogen accumulation in rice plant, and the increasing rate was gradual addition from mid-tillering to heading, but from heading to maturity the increasing rate was gradual decline. (2) Hyacinth mulching had no obvious effect on nitrogen allocation pattern in leaves and stems of rice over the season, significantly decreased nitrogen allocation pattern in spikes. (3) Except mid-tillering, hyacinth mulching resulted in the significant decrease in N use efficiency for biomass (NUEp) over the season and in N use efficiency for grain yield (NUEg) at grain maturity, but no effect was observed on nitrogen harvest index (NHI). (4) Nitrogen concentration and accumulation at most growth stages of rice increased with increasing N supply (p < 0.05 or 0.01), but NUEp and NUEg showed the opposite trends. 1(5) nteractions between hyacinth mulching x N were not observed for N uptake and utilization. Hyacinth mulching increased N concentration and N uptake, decreased NUEp and NUEg at most growth stages of rice.

  5. Analysis on Fungal Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Continuous Cropping Potato Subjected to Different Furrow-Ridge Mulching Managements.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuhao; Yeboah, Stephen; Xu, Xuexue; Liu, Yuhui; Yu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about fungi diversity following different planting patterns could improve our understanding of soil processes and thus help us to develop sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of different furrow-ridge mulching techniques on fungal diversity in rhizosphere soil under continuous cropping system. The investigated treatments were: flat plot without mulch (CK); flat plot with mulch (T1); on-ridge planting with full mulch (T2); on-furrow planting with full mulch (T3); on-ridge planting with half mulch (T4); and on-furrow planting with half mulch (T5). NGS (Illumina) methods and ITS1 sequences were used in monitoring fungi diversity of the potato rhizosphere soil. The fungi diversity in the rhizosphere soil was ranked in the order T5 > T2 > T4 > T1 > CK at the early growth stage and T2 > T3 > T1 > T4 > CK at the late growth stage of potato. The fungal communities found in the rhizosphere soil were Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and other unidentified fungal communities. Among the fungal community in the rhizosphere soil, Ascomycota was found to be dominant fungi population, with the highest percentage (89%) in the T5 soil whereas the T2 soils had the lowest percentage (67%). The Fusarium abundance in fully-mulched treated soils was higher than in half-mulched treated soil. The dominant genus in the T4 soil was Mortierella, whereas lower populations (1-2%) of Scutellinia, Cryphonectria, Acremonium, and Alternaria were found in that treatment. Among the eumycetes, the dominant fungal class in all treated soils was the Sordariomycetes, which ranged from 57 to 85% in T2 and T5 soils, respectively. The Fusarium percentages in half-mulched treated soils (T4 and T5) were 55 and 28% lower than that of complete mulched treated soils (T2 and T3), respectively. The cluster analysis results showed that, CK, T4, and T5 treated soils and T1, T2, and T3 treated soils had similarities in microbial

  6. Analysis on Fungal Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Continuous Cropping Potato Subjected to Different Furrow-Ridge Mulching Managements

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shuhao; Yeboah, Stephen; Xu, Xuexue; Liu, Yuhui; Yu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about fungi diversity following different planting patterns could improve our understanding of soil processes and thus help us to develop sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of different furrow-ridge mulching techniques on fungal diversity in rhizosphere soil under continuous cropping system. The investigated treatments were: flat plot without mulch (CK); flat plot with mulch (T1); on-ridge planting with full mulch (T2); on-furrow planting with full mulch (T3); on-ridge planting with half mulch (T4); and on-furrow planting with half mulch (T5). NGS (Illumina) methods and ITS1 sequences were used in monitoring fungi diversity of the potato rhizosphere soil. The fungi diversity in the rhizosphere soil was ranked in the order T5 > T2 > T4 > T1 > CK at the early growth stage and T2 > T3 > T1 > T4 > CK at the late growth stage of potato. The fungal communities found in the rhizosphere soil were Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and other unidentified fungal communities. Among the fungal community in the rhizosphere soil, Ascomycota was found to be dominant fungi population, with the highest percentage (89%) in the T5 soil whereas the T2 soils had the lowest percentage (67%). The Fusarium abundance in fully-mulched treated soils was higher than in half-mulched treated soil. The dominant genus in the T4 soil was Mortierella, whereas lower populations (1–2%) of Scutellinia, Cryphonectria, Acremonium, and Alternaria were found in that treatment. Among the eumycetes, the dominant fungal class in all treated soils was the Sordariomycetes, which ranged from 57 to 85% in T2 and T5 soils, respectively. The Fusarium percentages in half-mulched treated soils (T4 and T5) were 55 and 28% lower than that of complete mulched treated soils (T2 and T3), respectively. The cluster analysis results showed that, CK, T4, and T5 treated soils and T1, T2, and T3 treated soils had similarities in microbial

  7. [Effect of ground mulch managements on soil bacterial community structure and diversity in the non-irrigated apple orchard in Weibei Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuexing; Wen, Xiaoxia; Sun, Yulin; Zhang, Junli; Lin, Xiaoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2015-07-04

    We studied the changes in soil bacterial communities induced by ground mulch managements at different apple growth periods. We adopted the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with PCR-amplified 16S rRNA fragments to determine soil bacterial community structure and diversity. Soil bacterial community structure with different ground mulch managements were significantly different. Both the mulch management strategies and apple growth periods affected the predominant groups and their abundance in soil bacterial communities. Grass mulch and cornstalk mulch treatments had higher bacterial diversity and richness than the control at young fruit period and fruit expanding period, whereas film mulch treatment had no significant difference compared with the control. During mature period, bacterial diversity in the control reached its maximum, which may be ascribed to the rapid growth and reproduction of the r-selection bacteria. The clustering and detrended correspondence analysis revealed that differences in soil bacterial communities were closely correlated to apple growth periods and ground mulch managements. Soil samples from the grass mulch and cornstalk mulch treatments clustered together while those mulched with plastic film treatment were similar to the control. The most abundant phylum in soil bacterial community was Proteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes. Some other phyla were also detected, such as Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. Mulching with plant (Grass/Cornstalk) had great effects on soil bacterial community structure and enhanced the diversity while film mulch management had no significant effects.

  8. [Effects of different organic matter mulching on water content, temperature, and available nutrients of apple orchard soil in a cold region].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The effects of different organic matter covers on soil physical-chemical properties were investigated in a 'Hanfu' apple orchard located in a cold region. Four treatments were applied (weed mulching, rice straw mulching, corn straw mulching, and crushed branches mulching), and physical-chemical properties, including orchard soil moisture and nutrient contents, were compared among treatment groups and between organic matter-treated and untreated plots. The results showed that soil water content increased in the plots treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the arid season. Cover with organic matter mulch slowed the rate of soil temperature increase in spring, which was harmful to the early growth of fruit trees. Organic matter mulching treatments decreased the peak temperature of orchard soil in the summer and increased the minimum soil temperature in the fall. pH was increased in soils treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the corn straw mulching treatment, which occurred as a response to alleviating soil acidification to achieve near-neutral soil conditions. The soil organic matter increased to varying extents among treatment groups, with the highest increase observed in the weed mulching treatment. Overall, mulching increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the soil, but the alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the rice straw mulching treatment was lower than that of the control.

  9. Cultural control of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) in transplanted cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) by varying application timing and type of thin-film mulches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigated field trials were conducted in Tifton, GA at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station to determine the effectiveness of timing of applying thin-mulches and mulching materials in suppressing yellow nutsedge in transplanted cantaloupe production. Thin-film mulches were applied to freshly tilled...

  10. Using QuickBird imagery to detect cover and spread of post-fire straw mulch after the 2006 Tripod Fire, Washington, USA

    Treesearch

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural straw mulch is a commonly applied treatment for protecting resources at risk from runoff and erosion events after wildfires. High-resolution QuickBird satellite imagery was acquired after straw mulch was applied on the 2006 Tripod Fire in Washington. We tested whether the imagery was suitable for remotely assessing the areal coverage of the straw mulch...

  11. Soybean nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in response to soil compaction and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siczek, A.; Lipiec, J.

    2009-04-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume crops such as soybean plays a key role in supplying nitrogen for agricultural systems. In symbiotic associations with Bradyrhizobium japonicum soybean can fix up to 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1. This reduces the need for expensive and often environmentally harmful because of leaching nitrogen fertilization. However both soybean nodulation and nitrogen fixation are sensitive to soil conditions. One of the critical soil constraints is soil compaction. Increasing use of heavy equipment and intensive cropping in modern agriculture leads to excessive soil compaction. Compaction often is found as a result of field operations that have to be performed in a very short period of time and when soils are wet and more susceptible to compaction. This results in unfavourable water content, temperature, aeration, pore size distribution, strength for plant growth and microbial activity. The surface mulching can alleviate the adverse effect of the environmental factors on soil by decreasing fluctuation of soil temperature, increasing moisture by controlling evaporation from the soil surface, decreasing bulk density, preventing soil crusting. The effect of mulch on soil conditions largely depends on soil compaction and weather conditions during growing season. The positive effect of the straw mulch on soil moisture has been seen under seasons with insufficient rainfalls. However thicker layers of mulch can act as diffusion barrier, especially when the mulch is wet. Additionally, low soil temperature prevalent during early spring under mulch can impede development of nodule, nodule size and delay onset of nodulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the straw mulch on nodulation and nitrogen fixation of soybean in variously compacted soil. The experimental field was 192 m2and was divided into three parts composed of 6 micro-plots with area 7 m2. Three degrees of soil compaction obtained in each field part through tractor passes were

  12. Coffee husk mulch on soil erosion and runoff: experiences under rainfall simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Ramón, H.; Quizembe, S. J.; Ibáñez-Asensio, S.

    2014-05-01

    The high erosion rates found in the agriculture land make valuable the use of mulches to control the soil and water losses. Coffee husk (Coffee canephora var. robusta) can be one of those mulches. This paper evaluates how to apply the mulch in order to obtain, with the same doses, the best effectiveness. An experimental factorial design 4 × 3 × 2 with two replicates was designed in a greenhouse with a total amount of 48 treatments. All the samples were deposited in trays of 0.51 m2 and applied a simulated rain of 122 mm h-1 during 21 min. The factors examined were: four soil classes; three treatments: buried (B), surface (S) and non-residue (C), and the presence (WC) or absence (WOC) of the soil surface crusting. The coffee husk residue (S and B treatments) reduced runoff by 10.2% and 46% respectively, soil losses by 78.3% and 88.7% and sediment concentration by 77% and 84.4%. The infiltration rate increased on average by 104% and 167%, and time to runoff by 1.58 and 2.07 min respectively. The coffee husk mulch (S and B) avoided the influence of crust. Coffee husk is an efficient mulch to reduce the soil and water losses.

  13. The removal of heavy metals in urban runoff by sorption on mulch.

    PubMed

    Jang, Am; Seo, Youngwoo; Bishop, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    A series of adsorption experiments was conducted in order to assess the ability of three mulches to remove several of the heavy metal ions typically encountered in urban runoff. Three types of mulch, cypress bark (C), hardwood bark (H), and pine bark nugget (P), were selected as potential sorbents to capture heavy metals in urban runoff. The hardwood bark (H) mulch had the best physicochemical properties for adsorption of heavy metal ions. In addition, because of its fast removal rate and acceptably high capacity for all the heavy metal ions, it was concluded that the H mulch is the best of the three adsorbents for treatment of urban runoff containing trace amounts of heavy metals. In order to investigate the sorption isotherm, two equilibrium models, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, were analyzed. The sorption of these metals on H mulch conformed to the linear form of the Langmuir adsorption equation. At pH 5 and 6, the Langmuir constants (S(m)) for each metal were found to be 0.324 and 0.359 mmol/g (Cu); 0.306 and 0.350 mmol/g (Pb); and 0.185 and 0.187 mmol/g (Zn) at 25 degrees C.

  14. Biodegradable mulch performed comparably to polyethylene in high tunnel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jeremy S; Miles, Carol A; Andrews, Preston K; Inglis, Debra A

    2014-07-01

    High tunnels in the cool climate of north western Washington state improve the growing environment for crops otherwise suited to warmer climates. Biodegradable mulch may improve the sustainability of high tunnel vegetable production if it performs comparably to polyethylene. Four biodegradable mulch treatments (BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus and SB-PLA-10/11/12) were compared to black polyethylene and bare ground in high tunnels and open field settings to assess the impact of production system and mulch treatment on weed control, tomato yield, and fruit quality. Fewer weeds grew in high tunnels than in the open field. High tunnels increased total and marketable fruit yields and increased individual fruit weight. High tunnel production increased juice content and pH of tomato fruit, but decreased total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and total phenolics compared to the open field. All mulch treatments except SB-PLA-10 controlled weeds. BioAgri, BioTelo and polyethylene increased total yields by 20%, though marketability was reduced 14% compared to bare ground and WeedGuardPlus treatments. High tunnels can improve tomato yield and affect fruit quality in north western Washington. Biodegradable plastic mulches performed comparably to polyethylene in weed control, tomato yield, and fruit quality and may, therefore, improve the sustainability of high tunnel vegetable production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Dynamics of indigenous microbial populations of butter head lettuce grown in mulch and on bare soil.

    PubMed

    Ponce, A G; Agüero, M V; Roura, S I; Del Valle, C E; Moreira, M R

    2008-08-01

    The native microflora of lettuce cultivated in mulch and on bare soil and its evolution during storage at optimal condition were evaluated. Inner, mid, and outer leaves of the lettuce heads were analyzed separately and the evolution of the microbial populations were fitted to Gompertz and logistic models. The cultivation method (bare soil and mulch) introduced differences in the initial counts, evolution, and tolerance to refrigeration temperatures for some of the microbial populations under study. Most microbial populations from mulch lettuce presented a decline or little growth under refrigerated storage. However, populations from bare soil lettuce presented some growth phase during storage. Lactic acid bacteria from bare soil lettuce presented significant growth after 8 d of storage while LAB from mulch grown lettuce did not. Concurrently with the LAB growth, there was a decline in the coliform counts in bare soil grown lettuce. At the end of storage, the inner and mid leaves of mulch lettuce presented lower counts of psychrotrophic bacteria, LAB, and yeast and molds.

  16. [Spatial and temporal variation of soil temperature extremum under plastic mulch in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Shao, Ming'an

    2004-11-01

    The upper and lower limit values of soil temperature affect crop growth and development greatly. Observations on the soil maximal and minimal temperatures under different mulching and cropping conditions in Xinjiang showed that during crop growth period in 1998 and 1999, soil temperature extremums were both at 0 cm, and varied with different observation time. The soil minimal temperature under plastic mulch was higher than that without mulch, indicating that plastic mulch could remarkably increase soil temperature. The diurnal variation of soil minimal temperature could be expressed by quadratic function, while the maximal temperature at 14:00 and 20:00 could be expressed by ellipse function and linear function of soil depth, respectively. Soil temperature extremums correlated linearly with air temperature under different conditions. The correlation between soil minimal temperature and air temperature was higher for bare soil than for mulched soil, and higher for maize field than for cotton field, while the correlation between soil maximal temperature and air temperature was lower than that between soil minimal temperature and air temperature.

  17. Application of mulch for treating metals in urban runoff: batch and column test.

    PubMed

    Jang, A; Lee, S W; Seo, Y; Kim, K W; Kim, I S; Bishop, P L

    2007-01-01

    Among the many methods available for the removal of heavy metals in urban nonpoint source pollution (NSP), adsorption has been shown to be an economically feasible alternative. To adsorb the amount of heavy metals in runoff, filtration of runoff through a specially constructed filter system is one possible treatment method. The mulch layer in a specially constructed filter system functions through adsorptive-filtration, where some pollutants are immobilised through sorption and some pollutants associated with suspended solids are immobilised through filtration. Therefore, the major interest of this study was to investigate the possibility of utilising mulch for the adsorption of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead and zinc for a solution typical of those found in urban runoff using the flask-type adsorption batch tests and laboratory column tests. From the equilibrium sorption batch tests, it was observed that the adsorption of heavy metals on mulch with the same initial concentrations of metals in the solution decreased in the order Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cd(II) regardless of changes in pH. In column tests, the breakthrough curves for various heavy metals' adsorption by mulch showed that the binding strength of the following metal ions onto mulch was as follows: Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cd(II).

  18. In situ bioremediation through mulching of soil polluted by a copper-nickel smelter.

    PubMed

    Kiikkilä, O; Perkiömäki, J; Barnette, M; Derome, J; Pennanen, T; Tulisalo, E; Fritze, H

    2001-01-01

    Bioremediation of a heavy metal-polluted soil was investigated in a 3-yr field experiment by adding mulch to a polluted forest floor. The mulch consisted of a mixture of compost and woodchips. The remediation treatment decreased the toxicity of the soil solution to bacteria as determined by the [3H]-thymidine incorporation technique, that is, by measuring the growth rate of soil bacteria extracted from unpolluted humus after exposing them to soil solution containing heavy metals from the experimental plots. Canonical correlation analysis was performed in order to identify the chemical and microbiological changes in the soil. The pH of the mulched organic layer increased by one unit. The concentration of complexed Cu increased and that of free Cu2+ decreased in the soil solution from the mulch treatment. According to basal respiration and litter decomposition, microbial activity increased during the 3 yr following the remediation treatment. The [3H]-thymidine incorporation technique was also used to study the growth rate and tolerance of bacteria to Cu. The bacterial growth rate increased and the Cu tolerance decreased on the treated plots. The structure of the microbial community, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, remained unchanged. The results indicate that remediation of the polluted soil had occurred, and that adding a mulch to the forest floor is a suitable method for remediating heavy metal-polluted soil.

  19. Measuring and modeling maize evapotranspiration under plastic film-mulching condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sien; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Lu; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Li, Fusheng; Du, Taisheng; Tong, Ling; Wang, Sufen; Ingman, Mark; Guo, Weihua

    2013-10-01

    Plastic film-mulching techniques have been widely used over a variety of agricultural crops for saving water and improving yield. Accurate estimation of crop evapotranspiration (ET) under the film-mulching condition is critical for optimizing crop water management. After taking the mulching effect on soil evaporation (Es) into account, our study adjusted the original Shuttleworth-Wallace model (MSW) in estimating maize ET and Es under the film-mulching condition. Maize ET and Es respectively measured by eddy covariance and micro-lysimeter methods during 2007 and 2008 were used to validate the performance of the Penman-Monteith (PM), the original Shuttleworth-Wallace (SW) and the MSW models in arid northwest China. Results indicate that all three models significantly overestimated ET during the initial crop stage in the both years, which may be due to the underestimation of canopy resistance induced by the Jarvis model for the drought stress in the stage. For the entire experimental period, the SW model overestimated half-hourly maize ET by 17% compared with the eddy covariance method (ETEC) and overestimated daily Es by 241% compared with the micro-lysimeter measurements (EL), while the PM model only underestimated daily maize ET by 6%, and the MSW model only underestimated half-hourly maize ET by 2% and Es by 7% during the whole period. Thus the PM and MSW models significantly improved the accuracy against the original SW model and can be used to estimate ET and Es under the film-mulching condition.

  20. [Effects of different mulches on rhizosphere temperature, growth, and physiological properties of fluecured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhihong; Yi, Jianhua; Sun, Zaijun

    2006-11-01

    With greenhouse plastic film, rice straw plus greenhouse plastic film, soil-mulching plastic film, rice straw, rice straw plus sun-shading net, and sun-shading net as test mulches, this paper studied their effects on the rhizosphere temperature, growth, and physiological properties of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that after mulching for 22 days, the accumulative rhizosphere temperature at the depth of 5 cm was the highest (424.75 degrees C) for greenhouse plastic film and the lowest (378.75 degrees C) for rice straw plus sun-shading net, while that at the depth of 15 cm was the highest (396.75 degrees C) for greenhouse plastic film and the lowest (368.31 degrees C) for sun-shading net. With the increase of accumulative rhizosphere temperature, the dry weight of above- and underground parts, photosynthesis, and root vigor of flue-cured tobacco tended to increase, and at the 10th day after mulches removal, root biomass had the largest increment in the treatment of soil-mulching plastic film and the smallest increment in the treatment of rice straw plus sun-shading net.

  1. A comparison of three erosion control mulches on decommissioned forest road corridors in the northern Rocky Mountains, United States

    Treesearch

    R. B. Foltz

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the erosion mitigation effectiveness of agricultural straw and two wood-based mulches for four years on decommissioned forest roads. Plots were installed on the loosely consolidated, bare soil to measure sediment production, mulch cover, and plant regrowth. The experimental design was a repeated measures, randomized block on two soil types common in...

  2. Mulching as a countermeasure for crop contamination within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yera, T.S.; Vallejo, R.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G.; Omelyanenko, N.; Ivanov, Y.

    1999-03-15

    The effect of mulch soil cover on crop contamination by {sup 137}Cs was studied within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Experiments were performed with oats (Avena sativa) over a three year period. In 1992 soil surface was covered by a plastic net. In 1993 two straw mulch treatments were applied at a dose rate of 200 g m{sup {minus}2} using {sup 137}Cs contaminated and clean straw, respectively. A similar mulch treatment was applied in 1994, and two mulch doses of clean straw were tested. Protection of the soil with a plastic net significantly increased crop yield and reduced crop contamination. When clean straw was used as a mulch layer, a significant decrease of about 30--40% in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was observed. Mulching with {sup 137}Cs contaminated straw did not reduce crop contamination, probably due to an increase in soil available {sup 137}Cs released from the contaminated mulch. Mulching has been shown to be an effective treatment both for reducing {sup 137}Cs plant contamination and improving crop yield. Therefore, it can be considered as a potential countermeasure in a post-accident situation.

  3. Above- and below-ground microclimate of grow tubes in an organic mulch-incorporated, raised bed system for blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grow tubes are well established in forestry and are gaining attention in establishing some woody perennial crops. To date, microclimate descriptions have addressed the above-ground environment, but a mulched raised bed system with organic mulch-incorporated soil requires both above- and below-ground...

  4. [Effects of ground surface mulching in tea garden on soil water and nutrient dynamics and tea plant growth].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-tao; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhao-tang

    2011-09-01

    Taking a 2-year-old tea garden in Qingdao of Shandong Province as test object, this paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil water and nutrient dynamics and tea plant growth. Four treatments were installed, i.e., no mulching (CK), straw mulching (T1), plastic film mulching (T2), and straw plus plastic film mulching (T3). Comparing with CK, mulching could keep the soil water content at a higher level, and enhance the water use efficiency. In treatments T1 and T3, the tea growth water use efficiency and yield water use efficiency increased by 43%-48% and 7%-13%, respectively, compared with CK. Also in treatments T1 and T3, the contents of soil organic matter, available-N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N increased significantly, with the soil fertility improved, and the leaf nitrate-N content and nitrate reductase activity increased, which promoted the tea growth and yield (12%-13% higher than CK) and made the peak period of bud growth appeared earlier. Considering the tea growth and yield, water and nutrient use efficiency, environment safety and economic benefit, straw mulching could be an effective ground surface mulching mode for young tea garden.

  5. Short- and medium-term effects of fuel reduction mulch treatments on soil nitrogen availability in Colorado conifer forests

    Treesearch

    C. C. Rhoades; M. A. Battaglia; M. E. Rocca; M. G. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical fuel reduction treatments have been implemented on millions of hectares of western North American forests. The redistribution of standing forest biomass to the soil surface by mulching treatments has no ecological analog, and this practice may alter soil processes and forest productivity. We evaluated the effects of mulch addition on soil nitrogen...

  6. Evaluation of compost/mulch as highway embankment erosion control in Louisiana at the plot-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakr, Noura; Weindorf, David C.; Zhu, Yuanda; Arceneaux, Allen E.; Selim, H. M.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryTotal suspended solids (TSS) and associated turbidity in runoff water are considered the most problematic nonpoint source pollutant of Louisiana surface waters. With high precipitation in Louisiana, attention should be given to controlling highway right-of-way erosion. The use of compost/mulch for erosion control enhances soil conservation and substantially reduces erosion. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of compost/mulch placement on runoff water quality on roadsides. Our hypothesis was that the use of compost/mulch would significantly reduce TSS and turbidity in runoff from highway right-of-ways in Louisiana. Two locations constituting four sites and eight individual plots were chosen; one in an active highway construction area and another in an established area plagued by continual rill and sheet erosion. Thicknesses of compost/mulch (5 and 10 cm), slope inclination (10-34%), and tillage practices (till vs. no-till) were evaluated. Runoff, triggered by storm water events, was collected using ISCO auto-samplers from June 2010 to August 2011 and the samples were analyzed for TSS, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, and pH. The results of factor analysis showed that the compost/mulch thickness was the most influential variable affecting water quality. Two samples t-test results indicated that TSS and turbidity were significantly different across all comparative variables; construction activities, compost/mulch applications, and tillage practices. The results confirmed the effectiveness of compost/mulch cover as a successful best management practice. Specifically decreases in TSS of 70% and 74% were achieved for the 5 cm and 10 cm compost/mulch application when compared to no compost/mulch, respectively. Light tillage application increased TSS as much as 67%. Therefore, light tillage is not recommended since it decreased the effectiveness of compost/mulch in reducing runoff and sediment losses.

  7. Dynamic Changes of Soil Surface Organic Carbon under Different Mulching Practices in Citrus Orchards on Sloping Land

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chiming; Liu, Yi; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Zhang, Runhua; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Xinxin; Jiang, Min; Brooks, Margot; Chen, Fang; Li, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Mulching management has been used in many places all over the world to improve agricultural sustainability. However, the cycling of carbon in the soil under applications of mulch on sloping arable land is not yet fully understood. A four-year field experiment was carried out in Xiaofuling watershed of Danjiangkou reservoir in China. The object was to evaluate the effects of the application of straw mulch (ST) and grass mulch (GT) on dynamic changes in soil organic carbon and its fractions. Results showed that mulch applied on the soil surface increased the contents of SOC and its active fractions in the soil. Compared to the control without cover (CK), ST and GT treatments increased the contents of SOC, LOC, DOC, POC and EOC by 14.73%, 16.5%, 22.5%, 41.5% and 21%, respectively, in the 0–40 cm soil layer, and by 17%, 14%, 19%, and 30%, respectively, in the 0–100 cm soil layer. The contents of organic carbon and its active fractions decreased with increasing soil depth in all of the treatments. SOC was accumulated in the period of December to the following March. The contents of soil DOC and LOC were high in January to March, while the contents of soil POC and EOC were high in June to September. The relative contents of soil organic carbon fractions were POC > EOC > LOC > DOC over the four years. Straw mulching had no significant effect on the changes in soil organic carbon active fractions during the different periods. Based on this long-term field experiment in Danjiangkou reservoir, we found that straw mulching had a significant effect on soil, increasing SOC content and stock in slopping arable land, and that live grass mulching was more effective than rice straw mulching. We discuss possible optimal periods for the implementation of mulching practices on sloping land. PMID:28030551

  8. Dynamic Changes of Soil Surface Organic Carbon under Different Mulching Practices in Citrus Orchards on Sloping Land.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chiming; Liu, Yi; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Zhang, Runhua; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Xinxin; Jiang, Min; Brooks, Margot; Chen, Fang; Li, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Mulching management has been used in many places all over the world to improve agricultural sustainability. However, the cycling of carbon in the soil under applications of mulch on sloping arable land is not yet fully understood. A four-year field experiment was carried out in Xiaofuling watershed of Danjiangkou reservoir in China. The object was to evaluate the effects of the application of straw mulch (ST) and grass mulch (GT) on dynamic changes in soil organic carbon and its fractions. Results showed that mulch applied on the soil surface increased the contents of SOC and its active fractions in the soil. Compared to the control without cover (CK), ST and GT treatments increased the contents of SOC, LOC, DOC, POC and EOC by 14.73%, 16.5%, 22.5%, 41.5% and 21%, respectively, in the 0-40 cm soil layer, and by 17%, 14%, 19%, and 30%, respectively, in the 0-100 cm soil layer. The contents of organic carbon and its active fractions decreased with increasing soil depth in all of the treatments. SOC was accumulated in the period of December to the following March. The contents of soil DOC and LOC were high in January to March, while the contents of soil POC and EOC were high in June to September. The relative contents of soil organic carbon fractions were POC > EOC > LOC > DOC over the four years. Straw mulching had no significant effect on the changes in soil organic carbon active fractions during the different periods. Based on this long-term field experiment in Danjiangkou reservoir, we found that straw mulching had a significant effect on soil, increasing SOC content and stock in slopping arable land, and that live grass mulching was more effective than rice straw mulching. We discuss possible optimal periods for the implementation of mulching practices on sloping land.

  9. Mixed woodchips and paper as a mulch for strip-mined land revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.E.; Maddox, J.B.

    1980-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of combined hammermilled woodchips and paper mulch on establishment of vegetation. A secondary objective was to determine the application cost differences, if any, between the woodchips-paper mulch mix (WPM) and a standard mulch (Turfiber). The test was conducted on a Campbell County strip mine site in east Tennessee. WPM, applied at rates of (1) 1120 kg/ha, (2) 1680 kg/ha, and (3) 2241 kg/ha were compared with the standard recommended rate of Turfiber (1680 kg/ha). Vegetative cover produced during the first growing season with the lowest rate of WPM was as good as that produced on plots using the currently recommended rate of Turfiber. The recommended rate of Turfiber cost $1582 per hectare to apply, while comparible vegetative cover was obtained by using 1120 kg/ha of WPM at a cost of $1095 -- a savings of $487 per hectare.

  10. Remediation of RDX- and HMX-contaminated groundwater using organic mulch permeable reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farrukh; Schnitker, Stephen P; Newell, Charles J

    2007-02-20

    Organic mulch is a complex organic material that is typically populated with its own consortium of microorganisms. The organisms in mulch breakdown complex organics to soluble carbon, which can then be used by these and other microorganisms as an electron donor for treating RDX and HMX via reductive pathways. A bench-scale treatability study with organic mulch was conducted for the treatment of RDX- and HMX-contaminated groundwater obtained from a plume at the Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD) in Pueblo, Colorado. The site-specific cleanup criteria of 0.55 ppb RDX and 602 ppb HMX were used as the logical goals of the study. Column flow-through tests were run to steady-state at the average site seepage velocity, using a 70%:30% (vol.:vol.) mulch:pea gravel packing to approach the formation's permeability. Significant results included: (1) Complete removal of 90 ppb influent RDX and 8 ppb influent HMX in steady-state mulch column effluent; (2) pseudo-first-order steady-state kinetic rate constant, k, of 0.20 to 0.27 h(-1) based on RDX data, using triplicate parallel column runs; (3) accumulation of reduced RDX intermediates in the steady-state column effluent at less than 2% of the influent RDX mass; (4) no binding of RDX to the column fill material; and (5) no leaching of RDX, HMX or reduction intermediates from the column fill material. The results of the bench-scale study will be used to design and implement a pilot-scale organic mulch/pea gravel permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at the site.

  11. Effect of different mulch materials on the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in an organic pepper crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Peco, Jesús; Campos, Juan; Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The use biodegradable materials (biopolymers of different composition and papers) as an alternative to conventional mulches has increased considerably during the last years mainly for environmental reason. In order to assess the effect of these materials on the soil microbial activity during the season of a pepper crop organically grown in Central Spain, the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured in laboratory. The mulch materials tested were: 1) black polyethylene (PE, 15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. Soil samples (5-10 cm depth) under the different mulches were taken at different dates (at the beginning of the crop cycle and at different dates throughout the crop season). Additionally, samples of bare soil in a manual weeding and in an untreated control were taken. The results obtained show the negative effect of black PE on the DHA activity, mainly as result of the higher temperature reached under the mulch and the reduction in the gas interchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The values corresponding to the biodegradable materials were variable, although highlighting the low DHA activity observed under Bioflex®. In general, the uncovered treatments showed higher values than those reached under mulches, especially in the untreated control. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, dehydrogenase activity (DHA). Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  12. Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón

    2014-05-01

    Mulching is the most common technique used worldwide by vegetable growers in protected cultivation. For this purpose, several plastic materials have been used, with polyethylene (PE) being the most widespread. However, PE is produced from petroleum derivatives, it is not degradable, and thus pollutes the environment for periods much longer than the crop duration (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011), which are very important negative aspects especially for organic farmers. A large portion of plastic films is left on the field or burnt uncontrollably by the farmers, with the associated negative consequences to the environment (Moreno and Moreno, 2008). Therefore, the best solution is to find a material with a lifetime similar to the crop duration time that can be later incorporated by the agricultural system through a biodegradation process (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011). In this context, various biodegradable materials have been considered as alternatives in the last few years, including oxo-biodegradable films, biopolymer mulches, different types of papers, and crop residues (Kasirajan and Ngouajio, 2012). In this work we evaluate the evolution of different properties related to mulch degradation in both the buried and the superficial (exposed) part of mulch materials of different composition (standard black PE, papers and black biodegradable plastics) in summer vegetable crops under organic management in Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain). As results, it is remarkable the early deterioration suffered by the buried part of the papers, disappearing completely in the soil at the end of the crop cycles and therefore indicating the total incorporation of these materials to the soil once the crop has finished. In the case of the degradation of the exposed mulch, small differences between crops were observed. In general, all the materials were less degraded under the plants than when receiving directly the solar radiation. As conclusion, biodegradable mulches degrade

  13. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue

  14. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an

  15. Conservation strategies on citrus plantation in eastern Spain. Catch crops, geotextiles and mulches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Dominguez, Alfons; Giménez Morera, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Tillage (6 %), and herbicides (89 %) are the most widespread soil management methods in eastern Spain citrus orchards. The bare soils, the high intensity thunderstorms and the steep slopes result in high erosion rates. Over the last 3 years an experimental station has been developed at Montesa municipality in order to determine the effect of different types of mulch, geotextiles and catch crops. Rainfall simulation experiments on 20 m2 plots shown that soil losses can be control by catch crops (85 %), chipped pruned branches (89 %), straw mulch (97 %) and geotextiles (99 %). Then, vegetation can contribute to control the soil and water losses on the highly erodible soil of Mediterranean orchards.

  16. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % (P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be

  17. Full-Scale Experimental Investigation to Quantify Building Component Ignition Vulnerability from Mulch Beds Attacked by Firebrand Showers.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Samuel L; Suzuki, Sayaka; Nii, Daisaku

    2017-03-01

    Structure ignition by wind-driven firebrand showers is an important fire spread mechanism in large outdoor fires. Experiments were conducted with three common mulch types (shredded hardwood mulch, Japanese Cypress wood chips, and pine bark nuggets) placed adjacent to realistic-scale reentrant corners. In the first series of experiments, mulch beds were placed adjacent to a re-entrant corner constructed with wood studs and lined with oriented strand board (OSB) as the sheathing. The premise behind conducting experiments with no siding treatments applied was predicated on the notion that bare OSB mulch contact would be a worst-case scenario, and therefore, a wall assembly in the most vulnerable state to mulch ignition. In the second series of experiments, vinyl siding was applied to the re-entrant corner assemblies (wood studs/OSB/moisture barrier/vinyl siding), and the influence of vertical separation distance (102 mm or 203 mm) on wall ignition from adjacent mulch beds was determined. The vertical separation distance was maintained by applying gypsum board to the base of the re-entrant corner. The siding itself did not influence the ignition process for the mulch beds, as the mulch beds were the first to ignite from the firebrand showers. In all experiments, it was observed that firebrands produced smoldering ignition in the mulch beds, this transitioned to flaming ignition, and the re-entrant corner assembly was exposed to the flaming mulch beds. With no siding treatments applied, the flaming mulch beds ignited the re-entrant corner, and ignition was observed to propagate to the back side of re-entrant corner assembly under all wind speeds (6 m/s to 8 m/s). With respect to the re-entrant corners fitted with vinyl siding, the mulch type, vertical separation distance, and wind speed were important parameters as to whether flaming ignition was observed to propagate to the back-side of a reentrant corner assembly. Mulches clearly pose an ignition hazard to structures

  18. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  19. Impact of reflective mulch on yield of strawberry plants and incidence of damage by tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Rhainds, N; Kovach, J; Dosa, E L; English-Loeb, G

    2001-12-01

    The current study investigated the impact of reflective mulch on yield of strawberry plants and incidence of damage by tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), for three strawberry cultivars: 'Honeoye', 'Earliglow', and two sibling Dayneutrals ('Tribute' and 'Tristar', herein considered as one cultivar). Of all cultivars tested, Honeoye was the most productive and least susceptible to tarnished plant bug. For Earliglow and Honeoye, reflective mulch enhanced productivity of strawberry plants and suppressed density of nymphs per flower cluster and proportion of damaged fruits, but did not significantly impact numbers of nymphs or damaged fruits per hectare, Results with Dayneutrals were not consistently significant. Both in the presence or absence of reflective mulch, proportion of damaged fruits increased with increasing density of nymphs per flower cluster and with decreasing number of fruits harvested per row section, suggesting that planting productive strawberry cultivars or maintaining cultural practices that promote high yield may provide an effective line of defense against tarnished plant bug. These results also suggest that reflective mulch may suppress incidence of damage by tarnished plant bug both directly, by reducing number of nymphs per flower cluster, and indirectly, by enhancing productivity of strawberry plants. Economic analyses evaluating costs and benefits of using reflective mulch, as well as studies investigating mechanisms that underlie the impact of reflective mulch on yield and incidence of damage by tarnished plant bug, are still needed before reflective mulch can be implemented as a management strategy in commercial strawberry fields.

  20. Metalized polyethylene mulch to repel Asian citrus psyllid, slow spread of huanglongbing and improve growth of new citrus plantings.

    PubMed

    Croxton, Scott D; Stansly, Philip A

    2014-02-01

    Greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a debilitating disease of citrus caused by Candidatus Liberibactor asiaticus and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. HLB now occurs worldwide in all major citrus growing regions except the Mediterranean and Australia. Management relies principally on insecticidal control of the ACP vector, but is insufficient, even for young trees which are most susceptible to the disease. We tested the ability of metalized polyethylene mulch to repel adult ACP as well as effects on incidence of HLB and early tree growth. Metalized mulch significantly reduced ACP populations and HLB incidence compared to whiteface mulch or bare ground. In addition, metalized mulch, together with the associated drip irrigation and fertigation system, increased soil moisture, reduced weed pressure, and increased tree growth rate. Metalized mulch slows spread of ACP and therefore HLB pressure on young citrus trees. Metalized mulch can thereby augment current control measures for young trees based primarily on systemic insecticides. Additional costs could be compensated for by increased tree growth rate which would shorten time to crop profitability. These advantages make a compelling case for large-scale trials using metalized mulch in young citrus plantings threatened by HLB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Polyethylene mulch modifies greenhouse microclimate and reduces infection of phytophthora infestans in tomato and Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shtienberg, D; Elad, Y; Bornstein, M; Ziv, G; Grava, A; Cohen, S

    2010-01-01

    The individual and joint effects of covering the soil with polyethylene mulch before planting and fungicides commonly used by organic growers on tomato late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) were studied in three experiments conducted from 2002 to 2005. Application of fungicides resulted in inconsistent and insufficient late blight suppression (control efficacy +/- standard error of 34.5 +/- 14.3%) but the polyethylene mulch resulted in consistent, effective, and highly significant suppression (control efficacy of 83.6 +/- 5.5%) of the disease. The combined effect of the two measures was additive. In a second set of three experiments carried out between 2004 and 2006, it was found that the type of polyethylene mulch used (bicolor aluminized, clear, or black) did not affect the efficacy of late blight suppression (control efficacy of 60.1 to 95.8%) and the differences in the effects among the different polyethylene mulches used were insignificant. Next, the ability of the mulch to suppress cucumber downy mildew (caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis) was studied in four experiments carried out between 2006 and 2008. The mulch effectively suppressed cucumber downy mildew but the effect was less substantial (control efficacy of 34.9 +/- 4.8%) than that achieved for tomato late blight. The disease-suppressing effect of mulch appeared to come from a reduction in leaf wetness duration, because mulching led to reductions in both the frequency of nights when dew formed and the number of dew hours per night when it formed. Mulching also reduced relative humidity in the canopy, which may have reduced sporulation.

  2. Mulch effects on runoff and sediment production at the hillslope scale in the High Park Fire, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Kampf, S. K.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; MacDonald, L. H.; Gleason, H.

    2015-12-01

    The 2012 High Park Fire (HPF) burned 330 km2 of Front Range forests surrounding the Cache la Poudre River just upstream of the municipal water supply intakes for the cities of Fort Collins and Greeley. From 2012-2014, millions of dollars were spent on mulch treatments to stabilize burned soils and protect water supplies. The objective of this research is to evaluate how runoff and sediment production vary with precipitation (P) on two unmulched and two mulched hillslopes of the HPF during the 2014 summer thunderstorm season. The four hillslopes are moderate to severely burned zero-order catchments 0.2-0.4 ha in area. Sediment fences were installed at the base of each hillslope to collect bedload sediment; each fence was fitted with a V-notch weir and a series of flow splitters to collect proportional samples of runoff and suspended sediment. Runoff and sediment were captured during 3-7 events for the unmulched sites and 1-9 events for the mulched sites; some P events that produced bedload sediment did not produce measurable runoff. The 30-minute maximum P intensity thresholds for runoff and sediment production were lower for unmulched (10 mm hr-1) than mulched hillslopes (16 mm hr-1). Runoff ratios were similar for the unmulched (0.01-0.10) and mulched sites (0.00-0.08), but total sediment yield (bedload + suspended load; Mg ha-1) for the unmulched sites was up to three times greater (0.02-1.54) than the mulched sites (0.01-0.50. The ratio of suspended sediment to bedload was similar for the unmulched (0.24-1.97) and mulched sites (0.16-2.52). The results of this research suggest that (1) bedload sediment measurements under-represent hillslope sediment production, and (2) mulching may reduce sediment production in zero-order catchments, but the magnitude of the mulch effect varies by catchment and by rain event.

  3. [Effects of different film mulch and ridge-furrow cropping patterns on yield formation and water translocation of rainfed potato].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shu-Hao; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Pu, Yu-Lin; Du, Quan-Zhong

    2011-02-01

    This paper studied the effects of different film mulch and ridge-furrow cropping patterns on the yield formation and water translocation of rainfed potato in the semi-arid area of west Loess Plateau. Comparing with those under traditional harrowed bedding without film mulch (T1), the potato yield under harrowed bedding with film mulching (T2), completely mulched alternating narrow and wide ridges with furrow planting (T3), completely mulched alternating narrow and wide ridges with ridge planting (T4), mulched raised bedding with furrow planting (T5), and mulched raised bedding with bedding planting (T6) was increased by 50.1%, 75.9%, 86.8%, 69.6%, and 60. 6%, and the water use efficiency (WUE) was increased by 47.0%, 82.7%, 84.0%, 75.2%, and 54.3% respectively, with the increments being the highest under T4 and T3. All the film much and ridge-furrow cropping patterns improved the yield component of potato, and T4 and T3 were most beneficial to the increase of mid and big tubers, tuber number per plant, and tuber yield per plant, and to the decrease of the proportions of green and blet tubers. It was concluded that completely mulched alternating narrow and wide ridges with ridge planting (T4) and completely mulched alternating narrow and wide ridges with furrow planting (T3) were the two better cropping patterns in water-saving and high yielding for potato cultivation in semiarid areas.

  4. [Effects of bio-mulching on rhizosphere soil microbial population, enzyme activity and tree growth in poplar plantation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiu-Jun; Fang, Sheng-Zuo; Xie, Bao-Dong; Hao, Juan-Juan

    2008-06-01

    Coriaria nepalensis, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiuscukum, Imperata cylindrical var. major, and Quercus fabric were used as mulching materials to study their effects on the rhizosphere soil microbial population and enzyme activity and the tree growth in poplar plantation. The results showed that after mulching with test materials, the populations of both bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were more than those of the control. Of the mulching materials, I. cylindrical and Q. fabric had the best effect, with the numbers of bacteria and fungi being 23.56 and 1.43 times higher than the control, respectively. The bacterial and fungal populations in rhizosphere soil increased with increasing mulching amount. When the mulching amount was 7.5 kg m(-2), the numbers of bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were 0.5 and 5.14 times higher than the control, respectively. Under bio-mulching, the bacterial and fungal populations in rhizosphere soil had a similar annual variation trend, which was accorded with the annual fluctuation of soil temperature and got to the maximum in July and the minimum in December. The urease and phosphatase activities in rhizosphere soil also increased with increasing mulching amount. As for the effects of different mulching materials on the enzyme activities, they were in the order of C. nepalensis > P. aquilinum > I. cylindrical > Q. fabric. The annual variation of urease and phosphatase activities in rhizosphere soil was similar to that of bacterial and fungal populations, being the highest in July and the lowest in December. Bio-mulching promoted the tree height, DBH, and biomass of poplar trees significantly.

  5. Coffee husk mulch on soil erosion and runoff: experiences under rainfall simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Ramón, H.; Quizembe, S. J.; Ibáñez-Asensio, S.

    2014-08-01

    The high erosion rates found in the agriculture land make valuable the use of mulches to control the soil and water losses. Coffee husk (Coffea canephora var. robusta) can be one of those mulches. This paper evaluates how to apply the mulch in order to obtain the best effectiveness. An experimental factorial design 4 × 3 × 2 with two replicates was designed in a greenhouse with a total number of 48 cases. All the samples were deposited in trays of 0.51 m2 and applied a simulated rain of 122 mm h-1 during 21 min. The factors examined were the following: four soil classes; three treatments - buried (B), surface (S) and non-residue (C) - and the presence (WC) or absence (WOC) of the soil surface crusting. The coffee husk residue (S and B treatments) reduced runoff by 10.2 and 46% respectively, soil losses by 78.3 and 88.7% and sediment concentration by 77 and 84.4%. The infiltration rate increased on average by 104 and 167%, and time to runoff by 1.58 and 2.07 min respectively. Coffee husk is an efficient mulch to reduce the soil and water losses, although it could not completely cushion the influence of crust.

  6. Evaluation of Old and New Commercial Mulches for Termite Management in Alabama

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wood-feeding subterranean termites are the most destructive pests attacking homes. Commercial cellulose-based mulches are often used around houses and plants. Consequently, they increase the risk of houses/plants being attacked by termites. This study investigated the resistance/susceptibility of a ...

  7. Vegetation response after post-fire mulching and native grass seeding

    Treesearch

    Penelope Morgan; Marshell Moy; Christine A. Droske; Leigh B. Lentile; Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; Andrew T. Hudak

    2014-01-01

    Post-fire mulch and seeding treatments, often applied on steep, severely burned slopes immediately after large wildfires, are meant to reduce the potential of erosion and establishment of invasive plants, especially non-native plants, that could threaten values at risk. However, the effects of these treatments on native vegetation response post fire are little studied...

  8. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative ...

  9. REMEDIATION OF TCE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER BY A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FILLED WITH PLANT MULCH (BIOWALL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier filled with plant mulch was installed at Altus Air Force Base (in Oklahoma, USA) to treat trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination in ground water emanating from a landfill. The barrier was constructed in June 2002. It was 139 meters long, 7 ...

  10. Use of post-harvest/processed sugarcane bagasse as a vegetable mulch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research was conducted in 2015 to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for vegetable production. Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 2.7 million mt of bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaini...

  11. RATE OF TCE DEGRADATION IN PASSIVE REACTIVE BARRIERS CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH (BIOWALLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews a case study at Altus AFB on the extent of treatment of TCE in a passive reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch. It presents data from a tracer test to estimate the rate of ground water flow at the site, and the residence time of water and TCE in...

  12. Water Balance and Nitrate Leaching for Corn in Kura Clover Living Mulch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping systems with improved environmental performance are needed in the Midwestern United States. Corn (Zea mays L.) grown in kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) living mulch is a relatively new cropping system which may have potential to meet that need. Our objectives were to determine the...

  13. Corn performance under managed drought stress and in a kura clover living mulch intercropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A corn (Zea mays L.) and kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) intercropping system provides ecological services but competition for water between the grain crop and the living mulch crop leads to reduced corn yields. Our objectives in this study were to determine (i) if drought-tolerant corn ca...

  14. Living Mulch Forage Yield and Botanical Composition in a Corn-Soybean-Forage Rotation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managing forages as living mulches during row crop production requires suppressing the forages to produce economical crop yields. The objective of this research was to identify forage plants with varied growth habit, persistence, and yield potential to provide desirable ecosystem functions and high ...

  15. Emergence of blueberry maggot flies (Diptera: tephritidae) from mulches and soil at various depths.

    PubMed

    Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J

    2012-04-01

    Control of blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran, typically is achieved with insecticides targeting adult flies before females oviposit in ripening fruit. Management strategies targeting other life stages have received less attention. We tested effects of compost or pine needle mulches on emergence of blueberry maggot flies under laboratory and field conditions. Few flies emerged from pupae that were buried under 20 cm of pine needles in all experiments, but burial in 20 cm of compost did not always result in low fly emergence. Burial of pupae in 5 cm of compost or pine needles did not reduce fly emergence compared with 1 cm in soil. Low emergence with increased mulch depth appeared to be primarily because of failure of flies to ascend to the surface after they exited puparia. Low emergence also was associated with high moisture levels causing rotten, discolored pupae, particularly in the laboratory in compost. No flies emerged from pupae buried in 1 cm of pine needles in the field. In this case no flies exited puparia, likely because high temperatures (>30°C) at the surface killed pupae. Thus, mulch application under highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) after maggots drop from berries can reduce emergence success of flies from buried pupae, but the level of control will depend on mulch depth and may vary with rainfall and temperature.

  16. Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osage orange wood was combined with poly(lactic acid) to form a polymer composite intendedfor use as an agricultural mulch film. The mechanical properties were comparable to existing products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing season. PLA-OO composites...

  17. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  18. RATE OF TCE DEGRADATION IN PASSIVE REACTIVE BARRIERS CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH (BIOWALLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews a case study at Altus AFB on the extent of treatment of TCE in a passive reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch. It presents data from a tracer test to estimate the rate of ground water flow at the site, and the residence time of water and TCE in...

  19. REMEDIATION OF TCE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER BY A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FILLED WITH PLANT MULCH (BIOWALL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier filled with plant mulch was installed at Altus Air Force Base (in Oklahoma, USA) to treat trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination in ground water emanating from a landfill. The barrier was constructed in June 2002. It was 139 meters long, 7 ...

  20. The effects of color plastic mulches and row covers on the growth and yield of okra

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench'Clemson Spineless'] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in shorter, AL. Okra was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (3...

  1. Long-Term Capacity of Plant Mulch to Remediate Trichloroethylene in Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive reactive barriers are commonly used to treat groundwater that is contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). A number of passive reactive barriers have been constructed with plant mulch as the reactive medium. The TCE is removed in these barr...

  2. Effect of pine-bark mulch on lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) water demand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) growers seeking an alternative and/or a complement to supplemental irrigation require accurate crop-specific information on the water conserving benefits of mulch. Twenty-eight weighing lysimeters equipped with soil moisture monitors were used at 5 sites ...

  3. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative ...

  4. Sustainability of TCE Removal in the Mulch Biowalls at Altus AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A permeable mulch biowall was installed in June 2002 at Landfill 3 (LF-03), Operable Unit 1 (OU-1), Altus AFB, Oklahoma. The demonstration was conducted by Parsons for the AFCEE Technology Transfer Outreach Office. The biowall is approximately 455 feet long, by 24 feet deep, by...

  5. The influence of prehistoric Anasazi cobble-mulch agricultural features of northern Rio Grande landscapes

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Periman

    1996-01-01

    Research concerning ancient Pueblo Indian farming, specifically the innovation of cobble-mulch gardens, suggests a manipulation of the local environment on a landscape level that helped create existing ecosystems. This agricultural technology, which consisted of a protective layer of gravel covering the productive soil, trapped seasonal runoff moisture in field areas,...

  6. Straw mulch prevents loss of fall-sown seeds to cold temperatures and wildlife predation

    Treesearch

    J. Wichman; R. Hawkins; P.M. Pijut

    2005-01-01

    A combination of cover crops and straw mulch effectively protect fall-sown hardwood seeds from cold temperature damage and predation at our nursery in central Indiana. Before using this treatment, we experienced 30% to 90% crop losses on a regular basis, but now our seedbed densities are consistently at target and the resulting seedlings are larger. Specialized...

  7. Rice hull mulch affects germination of bittercress and creeping woodsorrel in container plant culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mulches are commonly used to control weeds in container nursery crops, especially in sites where preemergence herbicides are either not labeled or potentially phytotoxic to the crop. Parboiled rice hulls have been shown to provide effective weed control when applied 1.25 to 2.5 cm deep over the con...

  8. Sustainability of TCE Removal in the Mulch Biowalls at Altus AFB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A permeable mulch biowall was installed in June 2002 at Landfill 3 (LF-03), Operable Unit 1 (OU-1), Altus AFB, Oklahoma. The demonstration was conducted by Parsons for the AFCEE Technology Transfer Outreach Office. The biowall is approximately 455 feet long, by 24 feet deep, by...

  9. Cellulosic ethanol production with a living mulch: Effect on nitrate leaching

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol from corn stover may become a reality soon. Complete stover harvest may maximize short term economic gain but could cause serious losses of soil organic matter and increases in soil erosion. Growing corn in a kura clover living mulch may permit complete s...

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of agricultural mulches for reducing post-wildfire wind erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Post-wildfire soil erosion can be caused by water or aeolian processes yet most erosion research has focused on predominantly water-driven erosion. This study investigates the effectiveness of three agricultural mulches, with and without a tackifier, on aeolian sediment transport processes. A wind t...

  11. Long-Term Capacity of Plant Mulch to Remediate Trichloroethylene in Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive reactive barriers are commonly used to treat groundwater that is contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). A number of passive reactive barriers have been constructed with plant mulch as the reactive medium. The TCE is removed in these barr...

  12. Plastic Mulches and Row Covers on the grow and production of Summer Squash.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Summer squash [Cucurbita pepo (L) ‘Prelude II’] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in Shorter, AL. The summer squash was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (...

  13. Soil Fate of Agricultural Fumigants in Raised-Bed, Plastic-Mulch Crop Production Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil concentrations and degradation rates of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) in the vapor and nonvapor phase were determined under fumigant application scenarios representative of commercial raised bed, plastic mulched veget...

  14. Mesquite removal and mulching impacts on herbage production on a semidesert grass-shrub rangeland

    Treesearch

    Stacy Pease; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Leonard F. DeBano

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to determining the effects of velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina) removal, control of the resulting basal sprouts, and mulching treatments on herbage production (standing biomass) and selected soil chemicals (nutrients) shown to affect herbage production on the Santa Rita Experimental Range. Mesquite control...

  15. Mesquite removal and mulching treatment impacts on herbage production and selected soil chemical properties

    Treesearch

    Stacy Pease; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2003-01-01

    Determining the effects of mesquite (Prosopis velutina) overstory removal, posttreatment control of sprouting, and mulching treatments on herbage production (standing biomass) and selected soil chemical properties on the Santa Rita Experimental Range were the objectives of this study. Mesquite control consisted of complete overstory removals with and without the...

  16. Performance and environmental impact of biodegradable polymers as agricultural mulching films.

    PubMed

    Touchaleaume, François; Martin-Closas, Lluís; Angellier-Coussy, Hélène; Chevillard, Anne; Cesar, Guy; Gontard, Nathalie; Gastaldi, Emmanuelle

    2016-02-01

    In the aim of resolving environmental key issues such as irreversible soil pollution by non-biodegradable and non-recoverable polyethylene (PE) fragments, a full-scale field experiment was set up to evaluate the suitability of four biodegradable materials based on poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) (PBAT) to be used as sustainable alternatives to PE for mulching application in vineyard. Initial ultimate tensile properties, functional properties during field ageing (water vapour permeability and radiometric properties), biodegradability and agronomical performance of the mulched vines (wood production and fruiting yield) were studied. In spite of their early loss of physical integrity that occurred only five months after vine planting, the four materials satisfied all the requested functional properties and led to agronomic performance as high as polyethylene. In the light of the obtained results, the mulching material lifespan was questioned in the case of long-term perennial crop such as grapevine. Taking into account their mulching efficiency and biodegradability, the four PBAT-based studied materials are proven to constitute suitable alternatives to the excessively resistant PE material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Purple Nutsedge Tuber Productivity as Affected by Organic Mulches in a Watermelon Production System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research was conducted in Isabela, Puerto Rico, to determine the tuber productivity of the weed purple nutsedge (PN) and the yield of ‘Crimson Sweet' watermelon when grown with or without organic soil bed mulches [hays of millet (Pennisetum glaucum), nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), sunnhemp (Crotalaria...

  18. Growth of Planted Yellow-Poplar After Vertical Mulching and Fertilization on Eroded Soils

    Treesearch

    J.B. Baker; B.G. Blackmon

    1976-01-01

    Fertilization and vertical mulching improved height growth of yellow-poplars planted on eroded soils. A growing demand for hardwood timber accompanied by a diminishing land base has prompted land managers to consider planting hardwoods on marginal sites such as the eroded soils in the Silty Uplands of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Many of these areas were well...

  19. Effect of rice hull mulch on nutrient concentration of fertilized irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parboiled rice hulls are an effective mulch for controlling weeds in nursery containers. A layer of rice hulls between 1.25 and 2.5 cm deep has been shown to provide effective control of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa), and creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata...

  20. Bark mulch promotes establishment of vegetation on minesoils with south and west exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, K.L.; Sencindiver, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    In early July 1976, a non-topsoiled head-of-hollow fill in Breathitt County, Kentucky, was seeded to grasses and legumes. From July 12 to July 16, a hardwood bark mulch was applied in a band around this fill. After late August 1976, the mulched areas were nearly fully sodded, regardless of aspect. South- and west-facing unmulched slopes were nearly void of vegetation. At this time, the north-facing slope had the best vegetative cover even though no mulch had been applied. By the end of the second growing season, nearly the entire head-of-hollow fill was well vegetated, regardless of aspect or whether mulch had been applied. The mulch protected the exposed minesoil from erosion during the first year and speeded the establishment of vegetative cover on the south- and west-facing slopes. On a nearby mountain top removal tract, hardwood bark and black locust chips were compared on gentle north- and south-facing slopes. After to growing seasons, vegetative cover was much heavier on the north-facing than on the south-facing slopes. In April 1985, almost 9 years after these tracts had been seeded, it was apparent that the south- and west-facing slopes had a much heavier vegetative cover than the north-facing slopes. The initial slow growth of vegetation on the south-facing slopes apparently had been more than overcome by (1) greater growth potential due to more available sunlight and warmer temperatures, and (2) greater fertility due to the better survival of legumes. 8 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Effects of gravel mulch on emergence of galleta grass seedlings. Oral summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office, Technology Development and Program Management Division, has identified the need to clean up several sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range contaminated with surface plutonium. An important objective of the project identified as the Plutonium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop technologies to stabilize and restore the disturbed sites after decontamination. Revegetation of these contaminated sites will be difficult due to their location in the arid Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. The major factors which will affect successful plant establishment and growth at these sites are limited and sporadic precipitation, limited soil water, extreme air and soil temperatures, limited topsoil, and herbivory . Research has shown that providing microsites for seed via mulching can aid in plant emergence and establishment. Since many of the soils at the sites slated for plutonium decontamination have a large percentage of gravel in the upper 10 cm of soil, the use of gravel as mulch could provide microsites for seed and stabilize soils during subsequent revegetation of the sites. In July 1992, EG&G/EM Environmental Sciences Department initiated a greenhouse study to examine the possible benefits of gravel mulch. The specific objectives of this greenhouse study were to: (1) determine the effects seedling emergence and soil water, and (2) determine effects of irrigation rates on seedling emergence for gravel mulches and other conventional seedbed preparation techniques. A secondary objective was to determine the depth of gravel mulch that was optimal for seedling emergence. Results from this greenhouse study will assist in formulating specific reclamation plans for sites chosen for cleanup.

  2. Characterization of wood mulch and leachate/runoff from three wood recycling facilities.

    PubMed

    Kannepalli, Sarat; Strom, Peter F; Krogmann, Uta; Subroy, Vandana; Giménez, Daniel; Miskewitz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale open storage of wood mulch is common practice at wood recycling facilities. During rain and snow melt, leachate with soluble compounds and suspended particles is released from mulch stockpiles. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities to evaluate its potential to contaminate receiving waterbodies. Wood mulch (n = 30) and leachate/runoff (n = 26) samples were collected over 1.5 years from three wood recycling facilities in New Jersey, USA. Differences by site were found (p < 0.05) for most of the 21 constituents tested in the solid wood mulch samples. Biochemical oxygen demand (range <20-3000 mg/L), chemical oxygen demand (134-6000 mg/L) and total suspended solids (69-401 mg/L) median concentrations of the leachate/runoff samples were comparable to those of untreated domestic wastewater. Total Kjeldahl N, total P and fecal coliform median values were slightly lower than typical wastewater values. Dose-response studies with leachate/runoff samples using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos showed that mortality and developmental defects typically did not occur even at the highest concentration tested, indicating low toxicity, although delayed development did occur. Based on this study, leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities should not be released to surface waters as it is a potential source of organic contamination and low levels of nutrients. A study in which runoff from a controlled drainage area containing wood mulch of known properties is monitored would allow for better assessment of the potential impact of stormwater runoff from wood recycling facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rice performance and water use efficiency under plastic mulching with drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Yang, Ru; Chen, Lin; Jia, Biao; Cui, Jing; Fan, Hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Li

    2013-01-01

    Plastic mulching with drip irrigation is a new water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its productivity and water-saving capacity. This study aimed to assess the production potential, performance, and water use efficiency (WUE) of rice under plastic mulching with drip irrigation. Field experiments were conducted over 2 years with two rice cultivars under different cultivation systems: conventional flooding (CF), non-flooded irrigation incorporating plastic mulching with furrow irrigation (FIM), non-mulching with furrow irrigation (FIN), and plastic mulching with drip irrigation (DI). Compared with the CF treatment, grain yields were reduced by 31.76-52.19% under the DI treatment, by 57.16-61.02% under the FIM treatment, by 74.40-75.73% under the FIN treatment, which were mainly from source limitation, especially a low dry matter accumulation during post-anthesis, in non-flooded irrigation. WUE was the highest in the DI treatment, being 1.52-2.12 times higher than with the CF treatment, 1.35-1.89 times higher than with the FIM treatment, and 2.37-3.78 times higher than with the FIN treatment. The yield contribution from tillers (YCFTs) was 50.65-62.47% for the CF treatment and 12.07-20.62% for the non-flooded irrigation treatments. These low YCFTs values were attributed to the poor performance in tiller panicles rather than the total tiller number. Under non-flooded irrigation, root length was significantly reduced with more roots distributed in deep soil layers compared with the CF treatment; the DI treatment had more roots in the topsoil layer than the FIM and FIN treatments. The experiment demonstrates that the DI treatment has greater water saving capacity and lower yield and economic benefit gaps than the FIM and FIN treatments compared with the CF treatment, and would therefore be a better water-saving technology in areas of water scarcity.

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of mulch application to store carbon belowground: Short-term effects of mulch application on soluble soil and microbial C and N in agricultural soils with low and high organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Janet; Heiling, Maria; Resch, Christian; Gruber, Roman; Dercon, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural soils have the potential to contain a large pool of carbon and, depending on the farming techniques applied, can either effectively store carbon belowground, or further release carbon, in the form of CO2, into the atmosphere. Farming techniques, such as mulch application, are frequently proposed to increase carbon content belowground and improve soil quality and can be used in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas levels, such as in the "4 per 1000" Initiative. To test the effectiveness of mulch application to store carbon belowground in the short term and improve soil nutrient quality, we maintained agricultural soils with low and high organic carbon content (disturbed top soil from local Cambisols and Chernozems) in greenhouse mesocosms (70 cm deep with a radius of 25 cm) with controlled moisture for 4 years. Over the 4 years, maize and soybean were grown yearly in rotation and mulch was removed or applied to soils once plant material was harvested at 2 ton/ha dry matter. In addition, soil disturbance was kept to a minimum, with only surface disturbance of a few centimeters to keep soil free from weeds. After 4 years, we measured effects of mulch application on soluble soil and microbial carbon and nitrogen in the mesocosms and compared effects of mulch application versus no mulch on soils from 0-5 cm and 5-15 cm with low and high organic matter. We predicted that mulch would increase soil carbon and nitrogen content and mulch application would have a greater effect on soils with low organic matter than soils with high organic matter. In soils with low organic carbon content and larger predicted potential to increase soil carbon, mulch application did not increase soluble soil or microbial carbon or nitrogen compared to the treatments without mulch application. However, mulch application significantly increased the δ13C of both microbial and soluble soil carbon in these soils by 1 ‰ each, indicating a shift in belowground processes, such as increased

  5. Utilization of a biodegradable mulch sheet produced from poly(lactic acid)/ecoflex/modified starch in mandarin orange groves.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Yuya; Maeda, Takuya; Ito, Osamu; Maeda, Yasukatsu; Kunioka, Masao

    2009-08-17

    We have developed a mulch sheet made by inflation molding of PLA, Ecoflex((R)) and modified starch, which all have different biodegradabilities. A field test of use as an agricultural mulch sheet for mandarin oranges was carried out over two years. The mechanical properties of the mulch sheet were weakened with time during the field test, but the quality of the mandarin oranges increased, a result of the controlled degradation of the sheet. The most degradable modified starch degraded first, allowing control of the moisture on the soil. Accelerator mass spectroscopy was used for evaluation of the biomass carbon ratio. The biomass carbon ratio decreased by degradation of the biobased materials, PLA and modified starch in the mulch sheet.

  6. Plant-growth response to various combinations of mulches and spoil substrates on a Walker County, Alabama, surface coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.; Gabrielson, F.C.; Hughes, T.H.

    1982-05-01

    In 1978-1979, Walker County, Alabama, was the site of an experiment designed to assess plant growth and soil erosion. The experiment utilized 6 mulch treatments applied to each of 3 coal surface mine substrates. The mulches (wood fiber, hardwood bark, pine bark, waste compost, paper-slag, and no mulch application) were randomly combined with either A + B horizon soil, shale, or a mixture of the two. The resulting 18 plots were replicated on two slopes (N-S). A standard seed-fertilizer regimen was applied to all plots. Plots were read in June and October 1979 for species composition, density, and plane cover. Overall grass growth, as measured by plane cover, was best on mixed substrate, and growth was not significantly different between shale and topsoil plots. Density and cover provided by volunteer species varied according to slope, substrate, and mulch combinations. Overall, numbers of spoil arthropods did not show great differences according to slope or substrate.

  7. Influence of an organic mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and herb and essential oil yields in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens).

    PubMed

    Ram, Muni; Ram, D; Roy, S K

    2003-05-01

    In a field study, conducted at Lucknow ( 26.5 degrees N, 80.5 degrees E and 120 m altitude), India for two years (1996-1997 and 1997-1998), eight treatment combinations of two variables of organic mulch (paddy straw at 7 t/ha and no mulch) and four levels of fertilizer nitrogen (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha) were examined to observe the effect of organic mulching on N-use efficiency and essential oil yield in a multi-harvested geranium crop. Results revealed that application of paddy straw mulch increased the herb and essential oil yields in geranium by 23% and 27%, respectively, over the unmulched control at planted crop harvest. Corresponding values at regenerated crop harvest were 18.7% and 19.2%. A significant response to N was observed with 160 kgN/ha in mulched plot over the same level of N in the unmulched plot. Using paddy straw mulch, nitrogen uptake by plants of planted and regenerated crops was increased by 33% and 28.4%, respectively, over the unmulched control. Apparent N recoveries by planted and regenerated crops were estimated to be 33.7% and 22.7% for the unmulched control, as against 40% and 29.2% with paddy straw mulch at 160 kgN/ha. The quality of essential oil of geranium in terms of its major constituents, citronellol and geraniol, was not affected by the use of organic mulching and nitrogen fertilization and these constituents were found to be of a standard acceptable in international trade. It was concluded from this study that use of an organic mulch with 160 kgN/ha proved better in terms of economising 80 kgN/ha to produce an economic yield of 96.1 kg geranium oil from two harvests under subtropical conditions of the north Indian plains. At 160 kgN/ha, paddy straw mulch application permitted the geranium crop to produce 18.4 kg/ha more oil which gave an additional return of Rs. 53,600/ha than that of unmulched control. Paddy straw mulch and nitrogen fertilization had no adverse effect on the quality of essential oil of geranium.

  8. Arsenic leaching from mulch made from recycled construction and demolition wood and impacts of iron-oxide colorants.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy G; Jacobi, Gary A

    2006-08-15

    Mulch made from recycled construction and demolition (C&D) wood has been reported to contain elevated levels of arsenic from inadvertent inclusion of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. Such mulch is also commonly colored with iron oxide, a compound known to bind arsenic. The objectives of this study were to quantify the releases of arsenic from mulch made from C&D wood, to evaluate the impacts of an iron-oxide colorant in potentially decreasing arsenic leaching rates, and to evaluate the relative significance of additional variables on leachate concentrations. Atotal of 3 sets of mulch samples (0%, 5%, or 100% CCA-treated wood) were prepared containing a sample either with or without colorant addition. Each sample was subjected to two tests: a field leaching test and the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). Results showed that arsenic concentrations in the field leachate from the 0% treated wood mulches were consistently low (<0.003-0.013 mg/L) whereas leachates from 5 and 100% treated wood mulches were characterized by higher arsenic concentrations (0.059-2.23 mg/L for 5%; 0.711-22.7 mg/L for 100%). The mass of arsenic leached from the field samples during the 1-year monitoring period was between 10 and 15% of the initial mass of arsenic. The colorant reduced the leaching of arsenic by more than 20% for the field leachate and 50% for the SPLP leachate, on average. However, the study showed that the effect may not last for long periods. Besides colorant addition other factors were observed to affect the amount of arsenic leached from contaminated mulch. These include the proportion of CCA-treated wood in the mulch, time, and pH of rainfall.

  9. Water-use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Fang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259-7898 kg ha-1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic.

  10. Effects of hardwood bark, wood fiber and straw mulches on temperature and moisture content of mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, R.F.; Carpenter, S.B.; Graves, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    Spoil temperatures at 7.5, 15, and 30 cm depths and spoil moisture content at 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm depths were measured under various mulching treatments on north- and south-slope sites during the growing season. Temperatures were measured with Soiltest Standard Soil Moisture-Temperature Cells and moisture was determined with a neutron probe. Mulching materials evaluated were: hardwood bark (5.0 cm depth), wood fiber mulch (1.7 mt/ha), wood fiber mulch with a latex binder (1.7 mt/ha) and straw (3.4 mt/ha) held in place by erosion netting. Temperatures near the surface (7.5 cm depth) under the various mulches generally ranked in the order: control > wood fiber = straw > bark. Temperatures on the south slope averaged about 1/sup 0/C higher. The maximum temperature observed (34/sup 0/C) was in an unmulched control plot on the south slope in June. Moisture content at 15 cm for the various mulches generally ranked in the order: bark > wood fiber = straw > control.

  11. Water–use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-fang; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-01-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259–7898 kg ha−1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic. PMID:26192158

  12. Water-use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-fang; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-07-20

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259-7898 kg ha(-1) for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic.

  13. Changes in soil parameters under continuous plastic mulching in strawberry cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Katherine; Diehl, Dörte; Scopchanova, Sirma; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2016-04-01

    Plastic mulching (PM) is a widely used practice in modern agriculture because they generate conditions for optimal yield rates and quality. However, information about long-term effects of PC on soil quality parameters is scarce. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of three different mulching managements on soil quality parameters. Sampling and methodology: Three different managements were studied: Organic mulching (OM), 2-years PM and 4-years PM. Soil samples were collected from irrigated fields in 0-5, 5-10 and 10-30 cm depths and analyzed for water content (WC), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total soil carbon (Ctot) and cation exchange capacity (CECeff). Results and discussion: Mulching management has an influence on soil parameters. The magnitude of the effects is influenced by the type (organic agriculture practice vs. plastic mulching practice) and duration of the mulching. PM modified the water distribution through the soil column. WC values at the root zone were in average 10% higher compared to those measured at the topsoil. Under OM, the WC was lower than under PM. The pH was mainly influenced by the duration of the managements with slightly higher values after 4 than after 2-years PM. Under PM, aqueous extracts of the topsoil (0-5 cm depth) contained in average with 8.5±1.8 mg/L higher DOC than in 10-30 cm depth with 5.6±0.5 mg/L, which may indicate a mobilization of organic components in the upper layers. After 4-years PM, Ctot values were slightly higher than after 2-years PM and after OM. Surprisingly, after 4-years PM, CECeff values were with 138 - 157 mmolc/kg almost 2-fold higher than after 2-years PM and OM which had with 74 - 102 mmolc/kg comparable CECeff values. Long-term PM resulted in changes of soil pH and slightly increased Ctot which probably enhanced the CECeff of the soil. However, further investigations of the effect of PM on stability of soil organic matter and microbial community structure are needed.

  14. Effects of organic amendments and mulches on soil microbial communities in quarry restoration under semiarid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Pastorelli, Roberta; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Fabiani, Arturo; Bastida López, Felipe; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Mining activities generate loss of the quality of the environment and landscape specially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem reclamation in such highly disturbed mining areas is the development of functional soils with appropriate levels of organic matter. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, 9 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (compost from solid urban residues-DOW-, sludge from urban water treatment-SS-, control-NA-) and different mulches (fine gravel-GM-, wood chips-WM-, control-NM-) with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot, 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. After 5 years from the start of the experiment, we evaluated how microbial community composition responded to the organic amendments and mulches. Microbial community composition of both bacteria and fungi was determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that PLFAs were significantly affected by organic amendments but not by the mulches or interaction of both factors. Experimental plots with DOW showed significantly higher level of fungal PLFAs than those with SS and NA, even higher than the reference undisturbed soil. However, any plot with organic amendments did not reach the content of bacterial PLFAs of the reference soils. The bacterial diversity (evaluated by diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles) was greater in soil samples taken under NA and GM. Comparing these indices in fungal DGGE, we found greater values for soil samples taken under DOW and without mulches. Results from UPGMA analysis showed significant differences in the structure of soil bacterial communities from the different treatments

  15. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation and mulch of contrasting chemical composition on the yield of cassava under humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Okon, Iniobong E; Solomon, Marian G; Osonubi, Oluwole

    2010-04-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus deserticola, and leaf mulch from Gliricidia sepium and Senna siamea on the yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in a degraded alfisol of southwestern Nigeria was investigated. Inoculation in conjunction with mulching increased cassava tuber yield by 40-278% over the control. The highest yield was obtained with G. sepium and S. siamea mulch applied together in equal proportions. The results are explained in the light of the growth-enhancing effects of AMF, encouraged by the ameliorating effects of mulch on the soil structure and nutrient contents.

  16. Compensation effect of winter wheat grain yield reduction under straw mulching in wide-precision planting in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhui; Ren, Yujie; Gao, Chao; Yan, Zhenxing; Li, Quanqi

    2017-03-16

    Climate change and the growing demand for food security force growers to identify ways both to improve food production and to reduce agricultural carbon emissions. Although straw mulching is known to decrease CO2 emissions, winter wheat grain yield in the North China Plain was declined under straw mulching. In an effort to determine the most effective way to increase winter wheat yield under straw mulching, a field experiment was conducted using two planting patterns (wide-precision planting and conventional-cultivation planting) and two straw mulching rates (0 and 0.6 kg/m(2)). The results showed the wide-precision planting/non-mulching treatment significantly increased the leaf area index more than the other three treatments at the early growth stage. This treatment improved aboveground dry matter accumulation and was conducive to increased spike weight in the late growth stage. By contrast, straw mulching significantly reduced winter wheat grain yields by lowering both spike number and 1000-grain weight at the mature plant stage. In the wide-precision planting/mulching treatment, a significantly increased spike number compensated for grain yield losses. The results support the idea that wide-precision planting combined with straw mulching has the potential to decrease the winter wheat grain yield reduction previously observed with straw mulching in the North China Plain.

  17. The effects of mulching on soil erosion by water. A review based on published data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Jordán, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Among the soil conservation practices that have been recently implemented, mulching has been successfully applied in different contexts (Jordán et al., 2011), such as agricultural lands (García-Orenes et al. 2009; Prosdocimi et al., 2016), fire-affected areas (Prats et al., 2014; Robichaud et al., 2013) and anthropic sites (Hayes et al., 2005), to reduce water and soil losses rates. In these contexts, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas of the world (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; Sadeghi et al., 2015). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as unsustainable farming practices and land-use changes on large scales (Cerdà, 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Although the beneficial effects of mulching are known, their quantification needs further research, especially in those areas where soil erosion by water represents a severe threat. In literature, there are still some uncertainties about how to maximize the effectiveness of mulching in the reduction of soil and water loss rates. First, the type of choice of the vegetative residues is fundamental and drives the application rate, cost, and consequently, its effectiveness. Second, it is important to assess application rates suitable for site-specific soil and environment conditions. The percentage of area covered by mulch is another important aspect to take into account, because it has proven to influence the reduction of soil loss. And third, the role played by mulching at catchment scale, where it plays a key role as barrier for breaking sediment and runoff connectivity. Given the seriousness of soil erosion by water and the uncertainties that still concern the correct use of mulching, this work aims to evaluate the effects of mulching on soil erosion rates and water losses in agricultural

  18. Effects of five mulch materials on microclimatic conditions affecting the establishment of vegetation on minesoil

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, T.R.; Wittwer, R.F.

    1980-12-01

    The influence of five mulch materials (hardwood bark, hardwood bark with chicken manure, hardwood bark with composted sewage, pelletized grass by-products, and recycled magazine stock) on microclimate and their effect on the revegetation of mine spoils was evaluated. Four tree species (black walnut, Juglan nigra L., boxelder, Acer negundo L., Ohio buckeye, Aesculus glabra Willd., and eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L.) were spot-seeded and a forage mixture of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., orchard grass, Dactylis glomerata L., Dutch white clover, Trifolium repens L., and birdsfoot refoil, Lotus cornicalatans L. was broadcast as a cover. Minesoil temperature and moisture, germination, survival and height growth of trees, and percent cover by forages were variables measured. Chemical analysis for mineral content of the five mulch materials was obtained.

  19. Evaluation of three watering and mulching techniques on transplanted trees at Adobe Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.

    1983-06-01

    On the basis of these transplant studies, it is recommended that a minimal irrigation schedule be followed in the future for transplanted specimens. Transplanting early in the year reduces the watering requirements. Furthermore, after a one month adjustment period, trees watered once a month did well. Removal of supplemental water should be gradual, so as not to cause shock to the trees. Stone mulch appears to be both durable and effective as a mulching material, and can be cost effective if readily available on site. Fencing is a requirement for Palo Verde and Mesquite transplants but can be foregone on Creosote. Management following transplanting should include regular site inspections for signs of insect infestation and for watering problems. Inspection personnel should watch for signs that transplants have been watered adequately and the fences are intact and not restricting tree growth.

  20. Effects of ionic crosslinking on physical and mechanical properties of alginate mulching films.

    PubMed

    Liling, Guo; Di, Zheng; Jiachao, Xu; Xin, Gao; Xiaoting, Fu; Qing, Zhang

    2016-01-20

    The effect of different ionic crosslinking parameters on the thickness, radiometric profiles, and mechanical and water vapor permeation (WVP) properties of alginate mulching films was investigated. Crosslinking by Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Ca(2+) (but not Al(3+)) increased the tensile strength and light transmission and decreased the WVP of the films. Among the films, those crosslinked by Ca(2+) had the greatest tensile strength and exhibited the highest elongation and light transmission. Furthermore, the WVP and light transmission decreased gradually with increasing Ca(2+) concentration, and the maximum tensile strength and elongation were obtained for 2% (w/v) of Ca(2+). However, the WVP of the films increased gradually with increasing crosslinking time, and the elongation saturated after 2 min. These results suggest that alginate films crosslinked by 2% (w/v) calcium chloride for 2 min had the best overall performance and therefore have the potential to be used as entirely biodegradable agricultural mulching films.

  1. [Population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated on aerobic soil with mulching].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Haijun; Shen, Qirong; Feng, Ke

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated both on aerobic and waterlogged soil conditions. The results showed that the whole growth duration of rice growing on aerobic soil was one week longer than that on waterlogged soil. Shorter and narrower leaves and smaller LAI of rice population were found on aerobic soil than on waterlogged soil, which resulted in a decreased photosynthesis, smaller amount and lighter weight of rice grains on aerobic soil, compared with those on waterlogged soil. Among the aerobic treatments, more tillers, lower percentage of filled grains and shorter duration of grain forming were found on soils covered with plastic film than on soils covered with semi-decomposed straw or without mulching. The rice grain yield was decreased in the order of waterlogged soil > aerobic soil covered with plastic film > aerobic soil covered with semi-decomposed straw > aerobic soil without mulching.

  2. MULCHES AND OTHER COVER MATERIALS TO REDUCE WEED GROWTH IN CONTAINER-GROWN NURSERY STOCK.

    PubMed

    Rys, F; Van Wesemael, D; Van Haecke, D; Mechant, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent EU-wide implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), alternative methods to reduce weed growth in container-grown nursery stock are needed to cut back the use of herbicides. Covering the upper layer of the substrate is known as a potential method to prevent or reduce weed growth in plant containers. As a high variety of mulches and other cover materials are on the market, however, it is no longer clear for growers which cover material is most efficient for use in containers. Therefore, we examined the effect on weed growth of different mulches and other cover materials, including Pinus maritima, P. sylvestris, Bio-Top Basic, Bio-Top Excellent, coco chips fine, hemp fibres, straw pellets, coco disk 180LD and jute disk. Cover materials were applied immediately after repotting of Ligustrum ovalifolium or planting of Fagus sylvatica. At regular times, both weed growth and side effects (e.g., plant growth, water status of the substrate, occurrence of mushrooms, foraging of birds, complete cover of the substrate and fixation) were assessed. All examined mulches or other cover materials were able to reduce weed growth on the containers during the whole growing season. Weed suppression was even better than that of a chemical treated control. Although all materials showed some side effects, the impact on plant growth is most important to the grower and depends not only on material characteristics (e.g., biodegradation, nutrient leaching and N-immobilisation) but also on container size and climatic conditions. In conclusion, mulches and other cover materials can be a valuable tool within IPM to lower herbicide use. To enable a deliberate choice of which cover material is best used in a specific situation more research is needed on lifespan and stability as well as on economic characteristics of the materials.

  3. Biodegradation of poly(hydroxy butanoic acid) copolymer mulch films in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukade, Pranav

    Agricultural mulch films that are used to cover soil of crop rows contribute to earlier maturation of crops and higher yield. Incineration and landfill disposals are the most common means of disposal of the incumbent polyethylene (PE) mulch films; however, these are not environment friendly options. Biodegradable mulch films that can be rototilled into the soil after crop harvest are a promising alternative to offset problems such as landfill disposal, film retrieval and disposal costs. In this study, an in-house laboratory scale test method was developed in which the rate of disintegration, as a result of biodegradation of films based on polyhydroxybutanoic acid (PHB) copolymers was investigated in a soil environment using the residual weight loss method. The influence of soil composition, moisture levels in the soil, and industry-standard anti-microbial additive in the film composition on the rate of disintegration of PHB copolymer films was investigated. The soil composition has significant effect on the disintegration kinetics of PHB copolymer films, since the increasing compost levels in the soil lowered the rate of disintegration of the film. Also, with the increase in moisture level up to a threshold limit, the microbial activity and, hence, the rate of disintegration increased. Lastly, the developed lab-scale test protocol was found to be sensitive to even small concentrations of industry-standard antimicrobial additive in the film composition.

  4. Palm tree mulch as substrate for primary treatment wetlands processing high strength urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Melián, J A; González-Bordón, A; Martín-González, M A; García-Jiménez, P; Carrasco, M; Araña, J

    2014-06-15

    The life span of subsurface flow treatment wetlands is determined by the clogging of the substrate. Thus, the influent should undergo primary treatment to reduce loadings of suspended solids and dissolved organic matter. An-organic based substrate should be less prone to clogging because of its remarkably higher porosity and plasticity. Mulch obtained from branches of the Canarian palm tree (Phoenix canariensis) has been tested as substrate for mixed flow, intermittently fed treatment wetland mesocosms processing high strength urban wastewater. The effect of the presence of plants (Phragmites and Cyperus), influent pressure and hydraulic loading rate was studied. The best removals (SS: 89%, COD: 77%, turbidity: 82%) have been obtained with planted reactors treating highly concentrated influents at the lower hydraulic loading rates tested. The palm tree mulch units achieved similar removals of SS, COD and turbidity to one having gravel as substrate and planted with common reed. Mulch obtained from stems of giant reed (Arundo donax) provided similar removals of SS and turbidity but that of COD was lower. The combination of organic-based TWs with gravel-based ones provided high removals (SS: 95%, COD: 78%, turbidity: 95%) while the risk of clogging was strongly reduced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The monitoring of biofilm formation in a mulch biowall barrier and its effect on performance.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngwoo; Bishop, Paul L

    2008-01-01

    Lab scale mulch biofilm biowall barriers were constructed and tested to monitor the effect of biofilm formation on the performance of the biobarrier. Naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), was used as the model compound. With column reactors, the amounts of viable naphthalene degraders and biofilm formation were monitored, as was the performance of the biobarrier. The sorption capacity of the mulch, the increase in biomass and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content of the biofilm created a strong affinity for naphthalene and induced an increase in the number of slowly growing hydrocarbon degraders, resulting in a higher degradation rate and more stable PAH removal. Concentration profiles of pore water naphthalene and electron acceptors indicated that dissolved oxygen (DO) was preferentially used as the electron acceptor, and the greatest removal occurred at the inlet to the column reactor where DO was highest. However, when using nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor, both biofilm formation and continual degradation of naphthalene also occurred. Microprofiles of DO in the biofilm revealed that oxygen transport in the biofilm was limited, and there might be sequential utilization of nitrate for naphthalene removal in the anoxic zones of the biofilm. These results provide insight into the distribution of viable biomass and biofilm EPS production in engineered permeable reactive mulch biobarriers.

  6. Reducing insecticide and fungicide loads in runoff from plastic mulch with vegetative-covered furrows.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Sadeghi, Ali M; McConnell, Laura L; Coffman, C Benjamin; Teasdale, John R; Abdul-Baki, Aref; Starr, James L; McCarty, Gregory W; Herbert, Rachel R; Hapeman, Cathleen J

    2007-02-21

    A common management practice for the production of fresh-market vegetables utilizes polyethylene (plastic) mulch because it increases soil temperature, decreases weed pressure, maintains soil moisture, and minimizes soil contact with the product. However, rain events afford much more erosion and runoff because 50-75% of the field is covered with an impervious surface. A plot study was conducted to compare and to quantify the off-site movement of soil, insecticides, and fungicides associated with runoff from plots planted with Sunbeam tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) using the conventional polyethylene mulch management practice vs an alternative management practice-polyethylene mulch-covered beds with cereal rye (Secale cereale) planted in the furrows between the beds. The use of cereal rye-covered furrows with the conventional polyethylene system decreased runoff volume by more than 40%, soil erosion by more than 80%, and pesticide loads by 48-74%. Results indicate that vegetative furrows are critical to minimizing the negative aspects of this management practice.

  7. The monitoring of biofilm formation in a mulch biowall barrier and its effect on performance

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Youngwoo; Bishop, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Lab scale mulch-biofilm biowall barriers were constructed and tested to monitor the effect of biofilm formation on the performance of the biobarrier. Naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), was used as the model compound. With column reactors, the amounts of viable naphthalene degraders and biofilm formation were monitored, as was the performance of the biobarrier. The sorption capacity of the mulch, the increase in biomass and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content of the biofilm created a strong affinity for naphthalene and induced an increase in the number of slowly growing hydrocarbon degraders, resulting in a higher degradation rate and more stable PAH removal. Concentration profiles of pore water naphthalene and electron acceptors indicated that dissolved oxygen (DO) was preferentially used as the electron acceptor, and the greatest removal occurred at the inlet to the column reactor where DO was highest. However, when using nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor, both biofilm formation and continual degradation of naphthalene also occurred. Microprofiles of DO in the biofilm revealed that oxygen transport in the biofilm was limited, and there might be sequential utilization of nitrate for naphthalene removal in the anoxic zones of the biofilm. These results provide insight into the distribution of viable biomass and biofilm EPS production in engineered permeable reactive mulch biobarriers. PMID:17681588

  8. Straw Mulching Reduces the Harmful Effects of Extreme Hydrological and Temperature Conditions in Citrus Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions. PMID:24489844

  9. Developing a sustainable agro-system for central Nepal using reduced tillage and straw mulching.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Kishor; Sharma, Subodh; Bajracharya, Roshan M; Rajbhandari, Neeranjan P

    2008-08-01

    In Nepal, soil erosion under maize (Zea mays) agro-ecosystems is most critical during the pre-monsoon season. Very few field experiments have been conducted on reduced tillage and rice straw (Oryza sativa) mulching, although these conservation approaches have been recommended. Thus, a five replicate field experiment was established in 2001 at Kathmandu University (1500 m above sea level) on land with 18% slope to evaluate the efficiency of reduced tillage and mulching on soil and nutrient losses and maize yield. The results showed non-significant differences among conservation approaches on runoff and maize yield. Mulching and reduced tillage significantly lowered annual and pre-monsoon soil and nutrient losses compared to conventional tillage. Soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen losses associated with eroded sediment were significantly higher in conventional tillage. However, due to limited availability and high opportunity cost of rice straw, reduced tillage would be a better option for soil and nutrient conservation without sacrificing economic yield in upland maize agro-ecosystems.

  10. Straw mulching reduces the harmful effects of extreme hydrological and temperature conditions in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions.

  11. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area.

  12. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass.

  13. Optimization of disintegration behavior of biodegradable poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) copolymer mulch films in soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Viabhav

    Biodegradation of polymeric films used for mulch film applications in agriculture not only eliminates problems of sorting out and disposal of plastics films, but also ensures increased yields in crop growth and cost reduction. One such polymer which is completely biodegradable in the soil is poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer, which is a promising alternative to non-biodegradable incumbent polyethylene mulch films. The purpose of mulch film made of poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymers is to sustain itself during the crop growth and disintegrate and eventually biodegrade back to nature after the crop cycle is over. The disintegration phase of the biodegradation process was evaluated for poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer incorporated with no additive, antimicrobial additives, varying amount of crystallinities, another biodegradable polymer, and in different soils, with or without varying soil moisture content. The tools used for quantification were weight loss and visual observation. The test method was standardized using repeatability tests. The onset of disintegration was optimized with addition of right anti-microbial additives, higher crystallinity of film, blending with other biodegradable polymers, compared to virgin poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer film. The onset of disintegration time was reduced when soil moisture content was reduced. After the onset of disintegration, the polymer film was physically and mechanically deteriorated, withering away in soil, which is possible to tailor with the crop growth cycle.

  14. Landscape mulches and termite nutritional ecology: growth and survival of incipient colonies of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Zhong

    2007-04-01

    Alate swarms are one of the major visible signs of the expansion of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in an area. Successful establishment of an incipient colony is thought to mainly rely on available food resources and moisture. The large-scale use of tree-based mulches in landscapes may inadvertently contribute to local establishment and growth of C. formosanus colonies. This research investigated the nutritional ecology of incipient colonies of C. formosanus feeding on seven tree-based, weathered, and nonweathered landscape mulches: pine straw, pine bark, cedar wood, water oak, eucalyptus, cypress, and melaleuca. Incipient colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pine straw, either weathered or nonweathered, produced significantly more progeny over the course of 1-yr feeding than colonies feeding on the other mulches tested. Regardless of weathered or not, the incipient colonies feeding on pine straw, eucalyptus, bald cypress, and water oak mulches had significantly greater survival rates after 360 d (53-77%) than colonies feeding on the other mulches tested (0-13%), but colonies feeding on nonweathered water oak had significantly lower survival (8%) than those kept on weathered water oak (58%). Colony fitness values were significantly different between the weathering treatment groups and among the different types of mulches. With regard to colony growth characteristics, three distinct growth patterns were identified: a high number of progeny (>100) with high colony survival rate (>50%), a medium number of progeny (12-50) with high colony survival rate (>50%), and a small number of progeny (0-10) with low colony survival rate (<5%). These findings suggest that different types of mulch substrates could significantly impact the nutritional ecology of the founding pairs and the successful establishment of incipient colonies during the swarming season.

  15. Mid-term and scaling effects of forest residue mulching on post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W; Martins, Martinho António Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2016-12-15

    Mulching is an effective post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatment. Experiments with forest residue mulch have demonstrated that it increased ground cover to 70% and reduced runoff and soil loss at small spatial scales and for short post-fire periods. However, no studies have systematically assessed the joint effects of scale, time since burning, and mulching on runoff, soil loss, and organic matter loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of scale and forest residue mulch using 0.25m(2) micro-plots and 100m(2) slope-scale plots in a burnt eucalypt plantation in central Portugal. We assessed the underlying processes involved in the post-fire hydrologic and erosive responses, particularly the effects of soil moisture and soil water repellency. Runoff amount in the micro-plots was more than ten-fold the runoff in the larger slope-scale plots in the first year and decreased to eight-fold in the third post-fire year. Soil losses in the micro-plots were initially about twice the values in the slope-scale plots and this ratio increased over time. The mulch greatly reduced the cumulative soil loss measured in the untreated slope-scale plots (616gm(-2)) by 91% during the five post-fire years. The implications are that applying forest residue mulch immediately after a wildfire can reduce soil losses at spatial scales of interest to land managers throughout the expected post-fire window of disturbance, and that mulching resulted in a substantial relative gain in soil organic matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of minimum tillage and mulching on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and water content of clayey and sandy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve; Walker, Sue; Hove, Lewis

    Rainfed smallholder agriculture in semi-arid areas of southern Africa is subject to numerous constraints. These include low rainfall with high spatial and temporal variability, and significant loss of soil water through evaporation. An experiment was established at Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to determine the effect of mulching and minimum tillage on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and soil water content. The experiment was run for two years at two sites: clay (Matopos Research Station fields) and sand (Lucydale fields) soils, in a 7 × 3 factorial combination of mulch rates (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 t ha -1) and tillage methods (planting basins, ripper tine and conventional plough). Each treatment was replicated three times at each site in a split plot design. Maize residue was applied as mulch before tillage operations. Two maize varieties, a hybrid (SC 403) and an open pollinated variety (ZM 421), were planted. Maize yield and soil water content (0-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were measured under each treatment. On both soil types, neither mulching nor tillage method had a significant effect on maize grain yield. Tillage methods significantly influenced stover production with planting basins giving the highest stover yield (1.1 t ha -1) on sandy soil and conventional ploughing giving 3.6 t ha -1 on clay soil during the first season. The three tillage methods had no significant effect on seasonal soil water content, although planting basins collected more rainwater during the first half of the cropping period. Mulching improved soil water content in both soil types with maximum benefits observed at 4 t ha -1 of mulch. We conclude that, in the short term, minimum tillage on its own, or in combination with mulching, performs as well as the farmers’ traditional practices of overall ploughing.

  17. Effects of Mulching and Nitrogen on Soil Nitrate-N Distribution, Leaching and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mulching and nitrogen are critical drivers of crop production for smallholders of the Loess Plateau in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mulching and nitrogen fertilizer on the soil water content, soil nitrate-N content and vertical distribution in maize root-zone. The experiment was conducted over two consecutive years and used randomly assigned field plots with three replicates. The six treatments consisted of no fertilizer without plastic film (CK), plastic film mulching with no basal fertilizer and no top dressing (MN0), basal fertilizer with no top dressing and no mulching (BN1), plastic film mulching and basal fertilizer with no top dressing (MN1), basal fertilizer and top dressing with no mulching (BN2) and plastic film mulching with basal fertilizer and top dressing (MN2). In the top soil layers, the soil water content was a little high in the plastic film mulching than that without mulching. The mean soil water content from 0 to 40 cm without mulching were 3.35% lower than those measured in the corresponding mulching treatments in 31 days after sowing in 2012. The mulching treatment increased the soil nitrate-N content was observed in the 0–40-cm soil layers. The results indicate that high contents of soil nitrate-N were mainly distributed at 0–20-cm at 31 days after sowing in 2012, and the soil nitrate-N concentration in the MN2 treatment was 1.58 times higher than that did not receive fertilizer. The MN2 treatment greatly increased the soil nitrate-N content in the upper layer of soil (0–40-cm), and the mean soil nitrate-N content was increased nearly 50 mg kg−1 at 105 days after sowing compared with CK treatment in 2012. The soil nitrate-N leaching amount in MN1 treatment was 28.61% and 39.14% lower than BN1 treatment, and the mulch effect attained to 42.55% and 65.27% in MN2 lower than BN2 in both years. The yield increased with an increase in the basal fertilizer, top dressing and plastic film mulching, and the

  18. Effects of Mulching and Nitrogen on Soil Nitrate-N Distribution, Leaching and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiukang; Xing, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Mulching and nitrogen are critical drivers of crop production for smallholders of the Loess Plateau in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mulching and nitrogen fertilizer on the soil water content, soil nitrate-N content and vertical distribution in maize root-zone. The experiment was conducted over two consecutive years and used randomly assigned field plots with three replicates. The six treatments consisted of no fertilizer without plastic film (CK), plastic film mulching with no basal fertilizer and no top dressing (MN0), basal fertilizer with no top dressing and no mulching (BN1), plastic film mulching and basal fertilizer with no top dressing (MN1), basal fertilizer and top dressing with no mulching (BN2) and plastic film mulching with basal fertilizer and top dressing (MN2). In the top soil layers, the soil water content was a little high in the plastic film mulching than that without mulching. The mean soil water content from 0 to 40 cm without mulching were 3.35% lower than those measured in the corresponding mulching treatments in 31 days after sowing in 2012. The mulching treatment increased the soil nitrate-N content was observed in the 0-40-cm soil layers. The results indicate that high contents of soil nitrate-N were mainly distributed at 0-20-cm at 31 days after sowing in 2012, and the soil nitrate-N concentration in the MN2 treatment was 1.58 times higher than that did not receive fertilizer. The MN2 treatment greatly increased the soil nitrate-N content in the upper layer of soil (0-40-cm), and the mean soil nitrate-N content was increased nearly 50 mg kg-1 at 105 days after sowing compared with CK treatment in 2012. The soil nitrate-N leaching amount in MN1 treatment was 28.61% and 39.14% lower than BN1 treatment, and the mulch effect attained to 42.55% and 65.27% in MN2 lower than BN2 in both years. The yield increased with an increase in the basal fertilizer, top dressing and plastic film mulching, and the grain

  19. [Effects of plastic mulch on soil moisture and temperature and limiting factors to yield increase for dryland spring maize in the North China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-Yao; Zhang, Li-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Jian-Ming; Fan, Feng-Cui; Shi, Yu-Fang

    2014-11-01

    Four treatments, including ridge tillage with plastic mulch (RP), ridge tillage without mulch (RB), flat tillage with plastic mulch (FP) and flat tillage without mulch (FB), were carried out to examine the tillage type and mulch on the effects of soil moisture and temperature, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of dry land spring maize in the North China. Results showed that the average soil temperature was increased by 1-3 °C and the accumulated soil temperature was increased by 155.2-280.9 °C from sowing to tasseling by plastic mulch, and the growing duration was extended by 5.9-10.7 d. The water conservation effect of plastic mulch was significant from sowing to the seedling establishment, with WUE being increased by 81.6%-136.4% under mulch as compared with that without mulch. From the seedling to jointing stage, which coincided with the dry period in the region, soil water utilization by the maize under mulch could reach the depth of 80-100 cm, and its WUE was about 17.0%-21.6% lower than the maize without mulch, since the latter was affected by dry stress. With the coming of rainy season around the trumpeting stage, soil water in each treatment was replenished and maintained at relative high level up to harvest. Yield of maize was increased by 9.5% under RP as compared with RB. However, yield was reduced by 5.0% under FP, due to the plastic film under flat tillage prevented the infiltration of rainfall and waterlogging occurred. No significant difference in yield was found between RB and FB. Higher yield of spring maize was limited because of the mismatching in water supply and demand characterized by soil water shortage before the rainy season and abundant soil water storage after the rainy season.

  20. Occurrence and Dispersal of Indicator Bacteria on Cucumbers Grown Horizontally or Vertically on Various Mulch Types.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Shirley A; Callahan, Mary Theresa; Pagadala, Sivaranjani

    2016-10-01

    No data exist on the impact of cultivation practices on food safety risks associated with cucumber. Cucumbers are typically grown horizontally over a mulch cover, with fruit touching the ground, but this vining plant grows well in vertical systems. To assess whether production system affects bacterial dispersal onto plants, field trials were conducted over 2 years. Cucumber cultivar 'Marketmore 76' was grown horizontally on plastic, straw, or bare ground or vertically on trellises installed on bare ground in soil previously amended with raw dairy manure. Fruit, flower, leaf, and soil samples were collected to quantify Escherichia coli , thermotolerant coliforms, and enterococci by direct plating. E. coli isolates were characterized by BOX-PCR to evaluate relatedness among strains. Although thermotolerant coliforms and enterococci were significantly less abundant on fruit in year 1 (P < 0.05), this result was not seen in year 2 when more rain was recorded. Instead, fruit from straw-mulched beds had higher levels of enterococci compared with fruit grown on bare ground (P < 0.05). Leaves on bare ground occasionally had more bacteria than did leaves on plastic mulch beds (P < 0.05). Production system did not impact flower-associated bacterial levels. E. coli isolates (n =127) were genotyped, generating 21 distinct fingerprints. Vertical production did not appear to be a barrier for E. coli dispersal to the crop, as suggested by numerous related isolates from soil and flowers on bare ground, straw-mulched, and trellised beds (subcluster B1). None of the isolates from soil and flowers in this subcluster were related to isolates recovered from fruit, showing that flower colonization does not necessarily lead to fruit colonization. One cluster of isolates contained those from flowers and fruits but not soil, indicating a source other than manure-amended soil. Straw may be a source of E. coli ; a number of closely related E. coli isolates were retrieved from soil and fruits

  1. Rice Performance and Water Use Efficiency under Plastic Mulching with Drip Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Yang, Ru; Chen, Lin; Jia, Biao; Cui, Jing; Fan, Hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Li

    2013-01-01

    Plastic mulching with drip irrigation is a new water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its productivity and water-saving capacity. This study aimed to assess the production potential, performance, and water use efficiency (WUE) of rice under plastic mulching with drip irrigation. Field experiments were conducted over 2 years with two rice cultivars under different cultivation systems: conventional flooding (CF), non-flooded irrigation incorporating plastic mulching with furrow irrigation (FIM), non-mulching with furrow irrigation (FIN), and plastic mulching with drip irrigation (DI). Compared with the CF treatment, grain yields were reduced by 31.76–52.19% under the DI treatment, by 57.16–61.02% under the FIM treatment, by 74.40–75.73% under the FIN treatment, which were mainly from source limitation, especially a low dry matter accumulation during post-anthesis, in non-flooded irrigation. WUE was the highest in the DI treatment, being 1.52–2.12 times higher than with the CF treatment, 1.35–1.89 times higher than with the FIM treatment, and 2.37–3.78 times higher than with the FIN treatment. The yield contribution from tillers (YCFTs) was 50.65–62.47% for the CF treatment and 12.07–20.62% for the non-flooded irrigation treatments. These low YCFTs values were attributed to the poor performance in tiller panicles rather than the total tiller number. Under non-flooded irrigation, root length was significantly reduced with more roots distributed in deep soil layers compared with the CF treatment; the DI treatment had more roots in the topsoil layer than the FIM and FIN treatments. The experiment demonstrates that the DI treatment has greater water saving capacity and lower yield and economic benefit gaps than the FIM and FIN treatments compared with the CF treatment, and would therefore be a better water-saving technology in areas of water scarcity. PMID:24340087

  2. Modeling water flow and nitrate dynamics in a plastic mulch vegetable cultivation system using HYDRUS-2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, Vilim; Romić, Davor; Romić, Marija; Matijević, Lana; Mallmann, Fábio J. K.; Robinson, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Growing vegetables commercially requires intensive management and involves high irrigation demands and input of agrochemicals. Plastic mulch application in combination with drip irrigation is a common agricultural management technique practiced due to variety of benefits to the crop, mostly vegetable biomass production. However, the use of these techniques can result in various impacts on water and nutrient distribution in underlying soil and consequently affect nutrient leaching towards groundwater resources. The aim of this work is to estimate the effect of plastic mulch cover in combination with drip irrigation on water and nitrate dynamics in soil using HYDRUS-2D model. The field site was located in Croatian costal karst area on a Gleysol (WRB). The experiment was designed according to the split-plot design in three repetitions and was divided into plots with plastic mulch cover (MULCH) and control plots with bare soil (CONT). Each of these plots received applications of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer: 70, 140, and 210 kg per ha. All plots were equipped with drip irrigation and cropped with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Bianca F1). Lysimeters were installed at 90 cm depth in all plots and were used for monitoring the water and nitrate outflow. HYDRUS-2D was used for modeling the water and nitrogen outflow in the MULCH and CONT plots, implementing the proper boundary conditions. HYDRUS-2D simulated results showed good fitting to the field site observed data in both cumulative water and nitrate outflow, with high level of agreement. Water flow simulations produced model efficiency of 0.84 for CONT and 0.56 for MULCH plots, while nitrate simulations showed model efficiency ranging from 0.67 to 0.83 and from 0.70 to 0.93, respectively. Additional simulations were performed with the absence of the lysimeter, revealing faster transport of nitrates below drip line in the CONT plots, mostly because of the increased surface area subjected to precipitation

  3. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-15

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  4. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  5. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage. PMID:27976710

  6. Using pruning residues as mulch: analysis of its adoption and process of diffusion in Southern Spain olive orchards.

    PubMed

    Calatrava, Javier; Franco, Juan Agustín

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyses both the processes of adoption and diffusion of the practice of using the chopped residues of pruning as mulch in the olive orchards of the Southern Spanish province of Granada, one of the major olive-producing areas in the world. Many olive groves in the area are located on steep areas where the risk of soil erosion is high. A majority of farmers have adopted no tillage, as an alternative to traditional tillage, combined with either vegetation soil covers or, more frequently, using the chopped pruning residues as mulch. The data used comes from a survey carried out in 2005 to 215 olive farmers. From farmers' responses we estimate a binomial probit model to identify some socio-economic and institutional factors related to the decision to use the practice of mulching on a regular basis. We also estimate several diffusion models that describe the spatial and temporal spread of mulching among farmers. Our results show that mulching using the pruning residues is adopted by 43% of the surveyed farmers. The diffusion process of this practice has been very intense since the middle nineties, and seems to have been based on the interactions among farmers in the area of study rather than in other external source of information. Some of the relevant identified factors that affect the probability of adoption of this practice are farmer's experience, the level of soil degradation in the farm or the continuity of farming by some relative. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Guide for the use of organic materials as mulches in reclamation of coal-mine soils in the eastern United States. General technical report (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Slick, B.M.; Curtis, W.R.

    1985-04-23

    The report provides information, recommendations, and guidelines for the use of organic materials as mulches in reclamation of coal minesoils in the Eastern United States. Includes a brief description of the environmental impacts of coal surface mining, the problems associated with disposal of organic wastes, and a discussion of mulch in relation to erosion, soil properties, and plant growth.

  8. Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation; Part II: Effectiveness in reducing runoff and sediment yields from small catchments

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Sarah A. Lewis; Louise E. Ashmun; Robert E. Brown; Peter M. Wohlgemuth

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural straw, hydromulch, and wood shred or wood strand mulches increasingly are being used as post-fire hillslope treatments, but the differences in effectiveness among these mulch treatments are not fully understood. Following the 2002 Hayman fire in central Colorado and the 2003 Cedar fire in southern California, matched catchments were monitored for five to...

  9. Post-fire erosion control mulches alter belowground processes and nitrate reductase activity of a perennial forb, heartleaf arnica (Arnica cordifolia)

    Treesearch

    Erin M. Berryman; Penelope Morgan; Peter R. Robichaud; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Four years post-wildfire, we measured soil and plant properties on hillslopes treated with two different mulches (agricultural wheat straw and wood strands) and a control (unmulched, but burned). Soil total N was about 40% higher and microbial respiration of a standard wood substrate was nearly twice as high in the mulched plots compared to the unmulched plots. Greater...

  10. Evaluation of organic and plastic mulches for purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)suppression in a sustainable watermelon production system in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted in Isabela, Puerto Rico, to determine the efficacy of eight organic mulches (dry shoots of millet, purple nutsedge, sunnhemp, sorghum, cowpea, cogongrass, bahiagrass, and rye) and two plastic mulches (black and IRT) to suppress purple nutsedge growth on the soil beds in a...

  11. [Effects of mulching patterns on soil water, broomcorn millet growth, photosynthetic charac- teristics and yield in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China].

    PubMed

    Su, Wang; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Qu, Yang; Li, Cui; Miao, Jia-Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Li; Liu, Jian-Hua; Feng, Bai-Li

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of mulching patterns on soil water, growth, photosynthetic characteristics, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of broomcorn millet in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China. In a three-year field experiment from 2011 to 2013, we compared four different mulching patterns with traditional plat planting (no mulching) as the control (CK). The mulching patterns included W ridge covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (SG), common ridge covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (LM), double ridges covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (QM), and the traditional plat planting covered with straw (JG). The results showed that the soil water storage in 0-100 cm layer was significantly higher in all mulching patterns than in CK, particularly in SG then followed by LM, QM and JG, and the differences among the mulching patterns reached a significant level at the different growth stages of broomcorn millet. Among all mulching patterns, SG had the greatest effect on the growth and photosynthesis of broomcorn millet, respectively increasing the yield and WUE by 55.9% and 64.9% over CK, and the differences among the mulching patterns also reached a significant level. Therefore, SG was recommended as an efficient planting pattern for broomcorn millet production in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China.

  12. Effectiveness of two contrasting mulching rates to reduce post-fire soil and organic matter losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Flavio; Prats, Sergio; Vieira, Diana; Puga, João; Lopes, Rita; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Caetano, Ana; Campos, Isabel; Keizer, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire-affected soils can reveal strong responses in runoff generation and associated soil (fertility) losses, thereby constituting a major threat to the typically shallow and poor forest soils of the Portuguese mountain areas. Mulching with logging residues from these forests has proven to provide a protective soil cover that is highly effective in reducing post-fire runoff and especially erosion (Prats et al., 2012, 2014, 2016a, 2016b). However, these past experiments have all applied comparatively large amounts of forest residues, in the order of 10 Mg ha-1, so that the relationship between application rate and effectiveness is still poorly known. Such relationship would nonetheless be of crucial importance for the employment of forest residue mulching in practice, as one of the possible emergency stabilization measures to be contemplated in post-fire land management of a recently-burned area. Further research gaps that exist in relation to post-fire forest residue mulching include its effectiveness in reducing soil fertility losses (C, N, P; Ferreira et al., 2016a, 2016b) and in minimizing export of contaminants (especially PAHs and metals; Campos et al., 2016), and its (secondary) impacts on soil biological activity and diversity (Puga et al., 2016) and on forest productivity (including through the addition of organic matter to the soil surface, partially replacing the burned litter layer; Prats et al. 2016b). In the framework of the EU-project RECARE, the effectiveness of two contrasting mulching rates with forest logging residues has been tested following a wildfire that on August 9th - 10th 2015 consumed some 715 ha of eucalypt plantations in the Semide municipality, central Portugal. Commercially-available logging residues (chopped bark and twigs) from eucalypt plantations were purchased, transported to the study site and applied to six out of nine 16 m2 erosion bounded plots that had been installed in a burned eucalypt plantation using a randomized

  13. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes.

  14. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of Green Manure Intercropping and Straw Mulching on Winter Rape Rhizosphere Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Wang, Long-chang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sai; Du, Juan; Zhao, Lin-lu

    2016-03-15

    Under the background of global warming, the farmland soil respiration has become the main way of agricultural carbon emissions. And green manure has great potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. However, in purple soil region of Southwest, China, soil respiration under green manure remains unclear, especially in the winter and intercropping. Through the green manure ( Chinese milk vetch) intercropping with rape, therefore, we compared the effects of rape rhizosphere under straw mulching. The soil organic carbon and soil respiration were examined. The results showed, compared with straw mulching, root separation was the major influencing factors of soil organic carbon on rape rhizosphere. Soil organic carbon was significantly decreased by root interaction. In addition, straw mulching promoted while green manure intercropping inhibited the soil respiration. Soil respiration presented the general characteristics of fall-rise-fall due to the strong influence of rape growth period. Therefore, it showed a cubic curve relationship with soil temperature.

  16. Impact of plastic mulching on nitrous oxide emissions in China's arid agricultural region under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongxiang; Tao, Hui; Jia, Hongtao; Zhao, Chengyi

    2017-06-01

    The denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model is a useful tool for integrating the effects of agricultural practices and climate change on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural ecosystems. In this study, the DNDC model was evaluated against observations and used to simulate the effect of plastic mulching on soil N2O emissions and crop growth. The DNDC model performed well in simulating temporal variations in N2O emissions and plant growth during the observation period, although it slightly underestimated the cumulative N2O emissions, and was able to simulate the effects of plastic mulching on N2O emissions and crop yield. Both the observations and simulations demonstrated that the application of plastic film increased cumulative N2O emissions and cotton lint yield compared with the non-mulched treatment. The sensitivity test showed that the N2O emissions and lint yield were sensitive to changes in climate and management practices, and the application of plastic film made the N2O emissions and lint yield less sensitive to changes in temperature and irrigation. Although the simulations showed that the beneficial impacts of plastic mulching on N2O emissions were not gained under high fertilizer and irrigation scenarios, our simulations suggest that the application of plastic film effectively reduced soil N2O emissions while promoting yields under suitable fertilizer rates and irrigation. Compared with the baseline scenario, future climate change significantly increased N2O emissions by 15-17% without significantly influencing the lint yields in the non-mulched treatment; in the mulched treatment, climate change significantly promoted the lint yield by 5-6% and significantly reduced N2O emissions by 14% in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Overall, our results demonstrate that the application of plastic film is an efficient way to address increased N2O emissions and simultaneously enhance crop yield in the future.

  17. [Effects of different mulching measures on winter wheat field soil respiration in Loess Plateau dry land region].

    PubMed

    Guan, Qing; Wang, Jun; Song, Shu-Ya; Liu, Wen-Zhao

    2011-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different mulching measures on the diurnal and seasonal variations of winter wheat field soil respiration in dry land region of Loess Plateau. Four treatments were installed, i. e., 300 kg x hm(-2) straw mulching (M300), 600 kg x hm(-2) straw mulching (M600), plastic film mulching (PM), and no mulching (CK). In all treatments, the soil respiration rate had a decreasing trend from autumn to winter, but increased rapidly after winter and peaked at jointing stage. Comparing with CK, treatments mulching promoted the soil respiration obviously from wintering to maturing stage, with significant differences between treatment PM and the others. The average soil respiration rate in treatments M300, and M600 in whole growth period was 1. 52 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) and 1. 47 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), being 10. 2% and 6.6% higher than the CK (1.38 micromol CO2 x m(-2) s(-1)) , respectively, and that in treatment PM was 3. 63 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), 163% higher than CK. The diurnal variation of soil respiration rate in CK and in M300 and M600 presented a single peak curve and peaked at 12:00 and 14:00, respectively, but for PM treatment, the diurnal variation of soil respiration rate was similar with that in CK at jointing stage while presented a bimodal curve at maturing stage, with the peaks at 12:00 and 16:00, respectively. Soil respiration rate had an exponential correlation with soil temperature, and a parabolic correlation with soil moisture.

  18. Analysis of the degradation of biodegradable mulches in a pepper crop under organic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Carmen; González, Sara; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as an alternative to polyethylene is increasing nowadays, particularly in organic farming, due to environmental factors. It is necessary to test their functionality under field conditions by identifying, for example, the undesirable early degradation which commonly takes place in some of these biodegradable materials. In this sense, it is quite common and easy to apply the use of visual scales to estimate the level of deterioration of mulches, which can be subjective. Therefore, the objectives of this work are: i) To study the degradation of different mulch materials under field conditions by measuring the soil surface they covered. ii) To compare these soil surface values with the overall assessment of their functionality obtained by visual scales. The trial was performed in an organically grown pepper crop in Ciudad Real (Central Spain) in the 2014 spring-summer season. The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. To assess the evolution of the soil surface covered by the mulches, a total of 560 photographs of the superficial (exposed) part and 196 photographs of the buried part of the materials (1415x2831 pixels, 28 pixels/cm) were analyzed by using Adobe Photoshop CS at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90,120, 145 days after transplanting. Additionally, four experts evaluated the functionality of these materials based on the photographs according to a scale from 1 (completely deteriorated material) to 9 (intact material). The results show: i) The superficial part corresponding to the polyethylene and the

  19. Surface Drainage and Mulching Drip-Irrigated Tomatoes Reduces Soil Salinity and Improves Fruit Yield

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Maomao; Zhu, Lvdan; Jin, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    A study on the effects of mulched drip irrigation combined with surface drainage on saline soil and tomatoes was conducted in coastal areas of eastern China, where the crops are subjected to excessive salt. The treatments contained three irrigation rates—200, 250 and 300 m3/ha—and three drain ditch depths—10, 20 and 30 cm. The contents of soil salinity, organic matter and available nutrient were observed, and the tomato plant height, stem diameter and leaf area index during different growth periods were recorded. Results showed that the total removal rate of salt from soil at a 0–1 m depth was 8.7–13.2% for the three drainages. Compared with the control, the treatments increased the content of available N (by 12.1–47.1%) and available K (by 5.0–21.9%) in the soils inside the mulch and decreased the content of available N (by 3.4–22.1%) and available K (by 7.5–16.4%) in the soils outside the mulch. For tomatoes, the plant height and the stem diameter was increased significantly by the irrigations but was not significantly affected by the drainages, and the leaf area index was increased by 0.39~1.76, 1.10~2.90 and 2.80~6.86 respectively in corresponding to the seedling, flowering and fruit-set stage. Moreover, yield-increase rates of 7.9–27.6% were found for the treatments compared to the control with a similar amount of applied water. PMID:27153110

  20. Cover crop mulch and weed management influence arthropod communities in strip-tilled cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Alexandria; Brainard, Daniel C; Haramoto, Erin R; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2013-04-01

    Cover crop mulch and weeds create habitat complexity in agricultural fields that may influence arthropods. Under strip-tillage systems, planting rows are tilled and preestablished cover crops can remain between rows. In field experiments conducted in Michigan in 2010 and 2011, a preestablished oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop was allowed to grow between rows of strip-tilled cabbage and killed at 0, 9-14, or 21-27 d after transplanting (DAT). The effects of herbicide intensity and oat kill date on arthropods, weeds, and crop yield were examined. Two levels of herbicide intensity (low or high) were used to manipulate habitat vegetational complexity, with low weed management intensity resulting in more weeds, particularly in 2010. Oat kill date manipulated the amount of cover crop mulch on the soil surface. Later oat kill dates were associated with higher natural enemy abundance. Reduced herbicide intensity was associated with (1) lower abundance of several key cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.) pests, and (2) greater abundance of important natural enemy species. Habitats with both later oat kill dates and reduced herbicide intensity contained (1) fewer herbivores with chewing feeding guilds and more specialized diet breadths, and (2) greater abundance of active hunting natural enemies. Oats reduced cabbage yield when oat kill was delayed past 9-14 DAT. Yields were reduced under low herbicide intensity treatments in 2010 when weed pressure was greatest. We suspect that increased habitat complexity associated with oat mulches and reduced herbicide intensity enhances biological control in cabbage, although caution should be taken to avoid reducing yields or enhancing hyperparasitism.

  1. Food web responses to augmenting the entomopathogenic nematodes in bare and animal manure-mulched soil.

    PubMed

    Duncan, L W; Graham, J H; Zellers, J; Bright, D; Dunn, D C; El-Borai, F E; Porazinska, D L

    2007-06-01

    Factorial treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) and composted, manure mulches were evaluated for two years in a central Florida citrus orchard to study the post-application biology of EPN used to manage the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus. Mulch treatments were applied once each year to study the effects of altering the community of EPN competitors (free-living bactivorous nematodes) and antagonists (nematophagous fungi (NF), predaceous nematodes and some microarthro-pods). EPN were augmented once with Steinernema riobrave in 2004 and twice in 2005. Adding EPN to soil affected the prevalence of organisms at several trophic levels, but the effects were often ephemeral and sometimes inconsistent. EPN augmentation always increased the mortality of sentinel weevil larvae, the prevalence of free-living nematodes in sentinel cadavers and the prevalence of trapping NF. Subsequent to the insecticidal effects of EPN augmentation in 2004, but not 2005, EPN became temporarily less prevalent, and fewer sentinel weevil larvae died in EPN-augmented compared to non-augmented plots. Manure mulch had variable effects on endoparasitic NF, but consistently decreased the prevalence of trapping NF and increased the prevalence of EPN and the sentinel mortality. Both temporal and spatial abundance of NF were inversely related to the prevalence of Steinernema diaprepesi, whereas Heterorhabditis zealandica prevalence was positively correlated with NF over time. The number of weevil larvae killed by EPN was likely greatest in 2005, due in part to non-target effects of augmentation on the endemic EPN community in 2004 that occurred during a period of peak weevil recruitment into the soil.

  2. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface Drainage and Mulching Drip-Irrigated Tomatoes Reduces Soil Salinity and Improves Fruit Yield.

    PubMed

    Hou, Maomao; Zhu, Lvdan; Jin, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    A study on the effects of mulched drip irrigation combined with surface drainage on saline soil and tomatoes was conducted in coastal areas of eastern China, where the crops are subjected to excessive salt. The treatments contained three irrigation rates-200, 250 and 300 m3/ha-and three drain ditch depths-10, 20 and 30 cm. The contents of soil salinity, organic matter and available nutrient were observed, and the tomato plant height, stem diameter and leaf area index during different growth periods were recorded. Results showed that the total removal rate of salt from soil at a 0-1 m depth was 8.7-13.2% for the three drainages. Compared with the control, the treatments increased the content of available N (by 12.1-47.1%) and available K (by 5.0-21.9%) in the soils inside the mulch and decreased the content of available N (by 3.4-22.1%) and available K (by 7.5-16.4%) in the soils outside the mulch. For tomatoes, the plant height and the stem diameter was increased significantly by the irrigations but was not significantly affected by the drainages, and the leaf area index was increased by 0.39~1.76, 1.10~2.90 and 2.80~6.86 respectively in corresponding to the seedling, flowering and fruit-set stage. Moreover, yield-increase rates of 7.9-27.6% were found for the treatments compared to the control with a similar amount of applied water.

  4. Food Web Responses to Augmenting the Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Bare and Animal Manure-Mulched Soil

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, L. W.; Graham, J. H.; Zellers, J.; Bright, D.; Dunn, D. C.; El-Borai, F. E.; Porazinska, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    Factorial treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) and composted, manure mulches were evaluated for two years in a central Florida citrus orchard to study the post-application biology of EPN used to manage the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus. Mulch treatments were applied once each year to study the effects of altering the community of EPN competitors (free-living bactivorous nematodes) and antagonists (nematophagous fungi (NF), predaceous nematodes and some microarthro-pods). EPN were augmented once with Steinernema riobrave in 2004 and twice in 2005. Adding EPN to soil affected the prevalence of organisms at several trophic levels, but the effects were often ephemeral and sometimes inconsistent. EPN augmentation always increased the mortality of sentinel weevil larvae, the prevalence of free-living nematodes in sentinel cadavers and the prevalence of trapping NF. Subsequent to the insecticidal effects of EPN augmentation in 2004, but not 2005, EPN became temporarily less prevalent, and fewer sentinel weevil larvae died in EPN-augmented compared to non-augmented plots. Manure mulch had variable effects on endoparasitic NF, but consistently decreased the prevalence of trapping NF and increased the prevalence of EPN and the sentinel mortality. Both temporal and spatial abundance of NF were inversely related to the prevalence of Steinernema diaprepesi, whereas Heterorhabditis zealandica prevalence was positively correlated with NF over time. The number of weevil larvae killed by EPN was likely greatest in 2005, due in part to non-target effects of augmentation on the endemic EPN community in 2004 that occurred during a period of peak weevil recruitment into the soil. PMID:19259487

  5. Secondary salinization and evapotranspiration under mulched drip irrigation condition in Tarim River basin of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Heping

    2013-04-01

    The secondary salinization induced by irrigation has been presented as a crucial threat to agriculture all over the world, especially in semi-arid and arid regions. Mulched drip irrigation (MDI), as a new micro-irrigation approach incorporating surface drip irrigation method and film mulching technique, has been widely applied in water scarce regions including Tarim River basin of northwestern China. However, salts are likely to build up in the surface soil due to the deficient leaching water in such an irrigation condition. To explore this new kind of secondary salinization issue, the oasis eco-hydrology experimental research station were established in 2008 in a cotton field of Xinjiang, northwestern China. More than 40,000 soil samples were collected to monitor soil moisture and salinity condition within the 1.5 meter depth. The patterns of soil salinity distribution under MDI along the horizontal direction as well as vertical direction have been explored. The results did show that secondary salinization tends to occur in the experimental field under mulched drip irrigation, and winter flush could leach most soil salt in the root zone into groundwater and keep salt balance to mitigate the soil salinization. Meanwhile, soil salt always migrates with the soil water flux such as irrigation and groundwater recharge. Therefore the understanding of water balance is of great importance for estimating soil salinity accumulation, of which evapotranspiration (ET) is the key process, especially in the semi-arid and arid area. In our study, in order to quantify the relation between salinity balance and water balance, ET were derived from a range of measurement systems including eddy covariance, soil water budget (gravimetric methods, Hydra probe, TDT probe and groundwater table sensor, et al.), sap flow and portable photosynthetic system during cotton growing period. Our study is unique in its focus on ET scale issue ranging from leaf and plant scale to field. The up

  6. Report for Full-Scale Mulch Wall Treatment of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Impacted Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    MW-33S MW-34S MW-31S MW-32S B301-MP5S ND B301- MP6S 1.2 SB9 SB7 SB3 SB5 SB2 HP4 SB1 HP1 A’ A MW-30S MW-27S 4/13/04 FULL-SCALE MULCH WALL Site B... MP6S 1.2 SB9 SB7 SB3 SB5 SB2 HP4 SB1 HP1 A’ A MW-30S MW-27S INSET MAP N Inset Scale (ft) 500 10000 Groundwater Flow 4 in steel gas main 24 in CMP

  7. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-06-22

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions.

  8. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-06-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions.

  9. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions. PMID:27329934

  10. [Effects of scale-like pit and mulching measures on soil moisture of dryland jujube orchard in North Shaanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Chen; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Gao, Xiao-Ding; Wang, Jia-Wen; Shi, Yin-Guang

    2014-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key factor affecting jujube growth in the semiarid Northern Shaanxi Province. The impacts of different engineering and mulching measures on soil moisture were investigated via in situ measurements in a typical dryland jujube orchard. The results showed that the mean soil moistures (0-180 cm) of scale-like pit + branch mulching, scale-like scale + straw mulching, and soil moisture of scale-like pit with no mulching were increased by 14.2%, 9.4%, and 4.8% than control, respectively. Different measures, especially for the scale-like pit + branch mulching, significantly increased the soil moisture in the soil surface (0-20 cm) and the main root zone layer (20-100 cm) during the jujube growth stage. Individual precipitation events had great impacts on soil moisture in the 0-100 cm, while its effect on soil moisture in deep layers was not apparent. There was no significant difference among the soil moistures in different soil depths of scale-like pit with no mulching when compared with the control under high, medium, and low soil humidity conditions. This study indicated that using the clipped jujube branches as mulching could both save materials cost and achieve the goal of reserving more water in dryland jujube orchard in north Shaanxi Province.

  11. Rice-Straw Mulch Reduces the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations on Kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21–36°C and to 18–32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants. PMID:24714367

  12. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  13. The visibility of using water boxes and mulch in dryland revegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor; Alrababah, Mohammad; Athamneh, Hanaa

    2017-04-01

    Drylands cover more than 41% of the world's surface area and are homeland for about one-third of the world's population, 90% of them in developing countries. Land degradation in the drylands is hot environmental topic as it impacts environmental quality and jeopardizes food security in developing countries. The climate of Jordan varies from dry sub-humid Mediterranean in northwestern areas to desert conditions over a distance of 100 km, where more than 90 % of the county's area receives annual rainfall of less than 200 mm. In Jordan revegetation programs are rainfed; rainfall in Jordan is characterized by variable nature, thus, these programs faces a major challenge of the low survival rate of transplanted seedlings. The present study ought to explore the visibility of using water boxes and plastic mulch as an innovative approach to enhance seedling survival and establishment of four forest tress species ( Carob, Cupressus, Quercus, and Pinus). The experiment results showed that Cupressus, and Pinus seedlings expressed the highest survival rate of 88% and 84 % respectively, flowed by Crob (64%) and Querrcus (16%). The plastic mulch significantly enhanced the seedling survival rate b y40 % over the control while the water boxes resulted in an increase of 32 % over the control.

  14. Molecular identification and characterization of the edible and medicinal Morchellaceae germplasm collection of "mulch morels".

    PubMed

    Ondrej, Vladan; Havránek, Pavel; Kitner, Miloslav; Nemcová, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    The accessions of the morel (Morchellaceae, Ascomycota) germplasm collection were genetically analyzed, in order to determine both their inter- and intraspecific relationships. This was done as a starting point for cultivation experiments, as well as to provide a genetic description of invasive morel populations linked to mulched garden patches, as compared with outdoor morels. The phylogenetic data, which was based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, divided the germplasm isolates and accessions from the sequence database into three groups of yellow morels, and three groups of black morels, involving a remarkable monotypic genus of half-free morels (Mitrophora semilibera), the groups Morchella conica and M. angusticeps. Both Morchella groups include morel samples that use mulch bark as a vector for their spread across gardens in various locations in the Czech Republic. The AFLP analysis supported the ITS-based phylogenetic data and determined the intraspecific genetic profile of these, as a rule, almost entirely unstudied isolates.

  15. Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth indicated that it secreted a BP-degrading enzyme, and has directly contributing to accelerating the degradation of film. Treatment with the culture filtrate decomposed 91.2 wt%, 23.7 wt%, and 14.6 wt% of PBSA, PBS, and commercially available BP polymer blended mulch film, respectively, on unsterlized soil within 6 days. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the transition of soil microbial community during film degradation revealed that the process was accompanied with drastic changes in the population of soil fungi and Acantamoeba spp., as well as the growth of inoculated strain B47-9. It has a potential for application in the development of an effective method for accelerating degradation of used plastics under actual field conditions. PMID:22856640

  16. Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants.

    PubMed

    Koitabashi, Motoo; Noguchi, Masako T; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsushima, Seiya; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2012-08-02

    To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth indicated that it secreted a BP-degrading enzyme, and has directly contributing to accelerating the degradation of film. Treatment with the culture filtrate decomposed 91.2 wt%, 23.7 wt%, and 14.6 wt% of PBSA, PBS, and commercially available BP polymer blended mulch film, respectively, on unsterlized soil within 6 days. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the transition of soil microbial community during film degradation revealed that the process was accompanied with drastic changes in the population of soil fungi and Acantamoeba spp., as well as the growth of inoculated strain B47-9. It has a potential for application in the development of an effective method for accelerating degradation of used plastics under actual field conditions.

  17. Impact of Kura Clover Living Mulch on Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Corn-Soybean System.

    PubMed

    Turner, Peter A; Baker, John M; Griffis, Timothy J; Venterea, Rodney T

    2016-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (NO), produced primarily in agricultural soils, is a potent greenhouse gas and is the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Efforts to reduce NO emissions are underway, but mitigation results have been inconsistent. The leguminous perennial kura clover ( M. Bieb.) (KC) can grow side-by-side with cash crops in rotational corn ( L.)-soybean ( L.) systems. With biological nitrogen fixation, KC provides land managers an opportunity to reduce external fertilizer inputs, which may diminish problematic NO emissions. To investigate the effect of a KC living mulch on NO emissions, automated soil chambers coupled to a NO analyzer were used to measure hourly fluxes from April through October in a 2-yr corn-soybean (CS) rotation. Emissions from the KC treatment were significantly greater than those from the conventional CS treatment despite the fact that the KC treatment received substantially less inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. A seasonal tradeoff was observed with the KC treatment wherein emissions before strip-tillage were reduced but were surpassed by high losses after strip-tillage and postanthesis. These results represent the first reported measurements of NO emissions from a KC-based living mulch. The findings cast doubt on the efficacy of KC for mitigating NO loss in CS systems. However, if KC reduces nitrate leaching losses, as has been reported elsewhere, it may result in lower indirect (offsite) NO emissions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Characterization and Potential Environmental Risks of Leachate from Shredded Rubber Mulches

    PubMed Central

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Hayashi, Ai; Denison, Michael S.; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine whether shredded rubber mulches (RM) posed water quality risks when used in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as bioretention basins, batch leaching tests were conducted to identify and quantify constituents in leachates from RM such as metal ions, nutrients, total organic carbon (TOC), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity (determined by the chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) bioassay) at varied temperature and initial pH values. The results indicate that aqueous extracts of RM contain high concentrations of zinc (Zn) compared with wood mulches (WM), and its concentration increased at lower pH and higher temperature. Although methanol extracts of RM displayed high AhR activity, none of the aqueous extracts of RM had significant activity. Hence, while unknown constituents that have significant AhR activity are present in RM, they appear to be not measurably extracted by water under environmental conditions relevant for stormwater (5 < pH < 9, 10 < T < 40°C). Our results suggests that organic constituents in water extracts of RM which have AhR activity may not be of significant concern while leaching of Zn from RM appears to be a potentially larger water quality issue for RM. PMID:19450864

  19. Characterization and potential environmental risks of leachate from shredded rubber mulches.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Hayashi, Ai; Denison, Michael S; Young, Thomas M

    2009-08-01

    In order to determine whether shredded rubber mulches (RM) pose water quality risks when used in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as bioretention basins, batch leaching tests were conducted to identify and quantify constituents in leachates from RM such as metal ions, nutrients, total organic carbon (TOC), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity (determined by the chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) bioassay) at varied temperature and initial pH values. The results indicate that aqueous extracts of RM contain high concentrations of zinc (Zn) compared with wood mulches (WM), and its concentration increased at lower pH and higher temperature. Although methanol extracts of RM displayed high AhR activity, none of the aqueous extracts of RM had significant activity. Hence, while unknown constituents that have significant AhR activity are present in RM, they appear to be not measurably extracted by water under environmental conditions relevant for stormwater (5

  20. [Effects of drip irrigation under mulching on cotton root and shoot biomass and yield].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying-Yu; Zhao, Cheng-Yi; Sheng, Yu; Li, Ju-Yan; Peng, Dong-Mei; Li, Zi-Liang; Feng, Sheng-Li

    2009-04-01

    By using bidirectional sampling method with soil drill, the effects of different amounts of drip irrigation (2618, 2947, 3600 and 4265 m3 x hm(-2)) under mulching on the root distribution, aboveground growth, and yield of cotton was studied in field. The results indicated that irrigation amount affected the root and shoot growth significantly. In all irrigation treatments, cotton root was mainly distributed in mulched area, occupying 60.65%-73.45% of total root biomass, while only 39.35%-26.55% was distributed in bare area. Water stress increased rooting depth, root biomass, and the extent of lateral rooting. Significant differences were observed in the biological characteristics and the biomass accumulation and allocation of cotton plant among different irrigation treatments. Over-irrigation (4265 m3 x hm(-2)) increased plant height, width of inverse fourth leaf, and amounts of branch and bud, and thus, accelerated biomass accumulation rate. Over-irrigation also increased the root/shoot ratio and the proportion of biomass allocated to vegetative organs, but increased the fruit abscission rate and therefore reduced the economic yield. It was suggested that both excessive soil moisture content and water stress could affect the biomass accumulation and allocation in different cotton organs and at various life stages. Under the conditions of our experiment, 3600 m3 x hm(-2) was the optimal irrigation amount.

  1. [Influence of mulching management on the relationships between foliar non-structural carbohydrates and N, P concentrations in Phyllostachys violascens stand].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zi-wu; Hu, Jun-jing; Yang, Qing-ping; Li, Ying-chun; Chen, Shuang-lin; Chen, Wei-jun

    2015-04-01

    To understand the physiological adaptive mechanism of Phyllostachys violascens to intensive mulching management, the effect of mulching management (CK, 1, 3 and 6 years) on the concentrations and ratios of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in bamboo foliage, and their stoichiometry was investigated. The results showed the concentrations of NSC and soluble sugar increased, while the starch content and N/P decreased markedly in bamboo stand with 1-year mulching, compared to CK stand, which suggested the N limitation to bamboo growth was strengthened. Foliar soluble sugar content decreased significantly, while the starch content increased dramatically, and the NSC content by per unit mass of N and P reached the maximum in the bamboo stand with 3-year mulching, compared to all other treatments. Foliar NSC and soluble sugar contents decreased significantly, while foliar starch content and N/P increased dramatically in the stand with 6-year mulching, which suggested the P limitation to bamboo growth was strengthened. Foliar NSC content was positively correlated with N and P concentrations in a short-term mulching management stand (≤ 3 years), while showed negative relationship with N/P. The foliar starch content in the stand with 6-year mulching was negatively correlated with N and P contents, while was positively correlated with N/P. The results indicated that short-term mulching management accelerated the accumulation of soluble sugar and decomposition of starch in foliage, thus the growth and activity of Ph. violascens was enhanced greatly. Long-term mulching management promoted the starch accumulation, which led to the transition from N limitation to P limitation for bamboo growth. In summary, long-term (6 years) mulching management caused the decrease of growth and activity of Ph. violascens dramatically, thus enhancing the bamboo stand degradation. The utilization efficiency of N and P reached the highest in the stand with 3-year

  2. Cover crop mulches influence biological control of the imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L., Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in cabbage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing structural complexity within crop fields can provide a way to manipulate pest abundance and biological control in agroecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of cover crop mulches in cabbage on the structure and function of an insect food web, investigating the role of cover crop species,...

  3. [Effects of deep plowing and mulch in fallow period on soil water and yield of wheat in dryland].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Min; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zhao, Hong-Mei; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A field test was carried out in Qiujialing Village, Wenxi, Shanxi from 2009 to 2011 to study the soil water movement of 0-300 cm layer, yield formation and water use efficiency (WUE) of wheat with deep plowing and mulching the whole ground immediately (no mulch as control) 15 days and 45 days after harvest. The results indicated that deep plowing and mulch in fallow period could improve soil water storage of the 100-180 cm layer before sowing, the soil water storage efficiency in fallow period, and soil water storage from pre-wintering stage to booting stage. Compared with deep plowing 15 days after wheat harvest, deep plowing 45 days after wheat harvest did better in improving soil water storage and water use efficiency, as well as ear number and yield, which was more conducive in the year with more precipitation. Generally, deep plowing and mulching after raining during fallow period could benefit the soil water storage and conservation, thus would be helpful to improve wheat yield in dryland.

  4. PERFORMANCE OF LABORATORY FLOW-THROUGH COLUMN SYSTEMS SIMULATING DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUND WATER BY A TREE MULCH BIOWALL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Air Force has developed a novel remedial technology for treatment of ground water that is contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The contamination is treated in a reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch. The barrier is constructed by excavating a trench across t...

  5. TRICHLOROETHYLENE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER IN FLOW-THROUGH COLUMNS SIMULATING A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a passive reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative re...

  6. Mulch and Hexazinone Herbicide Shorten the Time Longleaf Pine Seedlings are in the Grass Stage and Increase Height Growth

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood

    2000-01-01

    Herbaceous plant control with mulch or hexazinone herbicide influenced planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedling total height on a silt loam site in central Louisiana. The site had been sheared and windrowed in 1991, and rotary mowed before three treatments were...

  7. TRICHLOROETHYLENE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER IN FLOW-THROUGH COLUMNS SIMULATING A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a passive reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative re...

  8. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  9. In situ validation of fungal N translocation to cereal rye mulches under no-till soybean production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grass cover crop shoots can be used as a mulch to suppress weeds. Physical control (light and temperature) of weeds appear to be the primary mechanism with chemical control (allelopathy) playing a smaller role. However, limitations of nitrogen availability to weeds in a soybean crop have been identi...

  10. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  11. PERFORMANCE OF LABORATORY FLOW-THROUGH COLUMN SYSTEMS SIMULATING DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUND WATER BY A TREE MULCH BIOWALL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Air Force has developed a novel remedial technology for treatment of ground water that is contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The contamination is treated in a reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch. The barrier is constructed by excavating a trench across t...

  12. Influence of weed mat and surface sawdust mulch on soil nutrient availability and soil chemical properties under organic blueberry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed control represents one of the most important cultural management aspects for organic blueberry production. Two of the most common ways to control weeds in blueberries is by the use of surface sawdust mulch or by landscape fabric, often referred to as weed mat. Soil temperature and soil moisture...

  13. Evaluation of hay, green, and plastic mulches for the suppression of purple and yellow nutsedges in tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purple and yellow nutsedges (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) are the most troublesome weeds in the cropping systems in Florida and the Caribbean where they have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in different horticultural crops. Production systems based on plastic mulching and methyl...

  14. Differential effect of organic and plastic mulches on Cyperus rotundus suppression and Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge) [PN] is commonly referred to as one of the worst weeds of the world. In Puerto Rico, PN is among the most troublesome weeds in production systems where synthetic herbicides are not utilized. Alternative methods for PN management, such as mulching, may be valuable ...

  15. Cover crop residue and organic mulches provide weed control during limited-input no-till collard production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited input producers may adopt no-till production if sufficient weed suppression can be achieved. High-biomass producing cover crops used in conjunction with organic mulches may provide sufficient weed control in no-till vegetable production. Our objective was to quantify weed suppression from a ...

  16. High Biomass Cover Crops and Organic Mulch Effects on Soil Moisture and Weed Distribution during Collard Production.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional organic vegetable production relies on tillage for weed suppression, but organic producers may be likely to adopt no-till if sufficient weed suppression can be achieved. A combination of high residue cover crops with in situ organic mulches may provide vegetable growers with multiple be...

  17. Cover crop residue and organic mulches provide weed control during limited-input no-till collard production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited input producers may adopt no-till if sufficient weed suppression can be achieved. High-biomass producing cover crops used in conjunction with organic mulches may provide sufficient weed control in no-till vegetable production. Our objective was to quantify weed suppression from a summer co...

  18. [Effects of mulching and intercropping on temporal-spatial variation of soil temperature in tea plantation in subtropical hilly region].

    PubMed

    Peng, Wanxia; Song, Tongqing; Xiao, Runlin; Yang, Zhijian; Wang, Jiurong; Li, Shenghua; Xia, Yanjun

    2006-05-01

    The study of four years straw mulching and white clover intercropping in a tea plantation in subtropical hilly region showed that the soil temperature in the plantation presented a distinct dynamic temporal-spatial variation and hysteresis, which was greatly accorded with the fittest temperature of tea growth. Straw mulching and white clover intercropping altered the nature of soil thermal exchanging layer (soil surface), decreased daily temperature difference, enhanced the temperature stability in the same soil layer, and had duplex effects of lowering temperature when it went up and increasing and keeping temperature when it went down. The effectiveness was in the order of white clover intercropping > straw mulching > control, 13:00 > 19:00 >7:00,and lowering temperature > increasing and keeping temperature, and decreased with soil depth. Straw mulching and white clover intercropping adjusted the switching point of the temporal-spatial variation of soil temperature, and evidently decreased the emergence of harmful high temperature. During the period of continual high temperature, these measures markedly lowered soil temperature, and effectively shortened the duration of this period.

  19. Costs of establishing northern highbush blueberry in organic systems: impacts of planting method, fertilization, and mulch type

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A systems trial was established to evaluate factorial management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry. The practices include: flat and raised planting beds; feather meal and fish emulsion fertilizer applied at 29 and 57 kg/ha N; sawdust mulch, compost topped with sawdust m...

  20. Mulch and fertilizer management practices for organic production of highbush blueberry. I. Plant growth and allocation of biomass during establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of highbush blueberry. The practices included two bed types (flat and raised), two sources and rates of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emulsion applied at 29 and 57 kg/ha N), three mulches [sawdust, compost to...

  1. Mulch and fertilizer management practices for organic production of highbush blueberry. II. Impact on plant and soil nutrients during establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of highbush blueberry. The practices included two bed types (flat and raised), two sources and rates of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emulsion applied at 29 and 57 kg/ha N), three mulches [sawdust, compost to...

  2. [Effects of soil surface mulching on solar greenhouse grafted and own-rooted cucumber growth and soil environment].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Sheng; Liang, Yinli; Wang, Juyuan

    2005-12-01

    The study on the effects of different soil surface mulching models, including wheat straw mulching (WS), plastic film mulching (PF), and wheat straw plus plastic film mulching (WP), on the growth of solar greenhouse grafted and own-rooted cucumber and on soil environment showed that soil surface mulching not only increased the individuals of pistillate flower, improved its differentiation and development, shortened fruit-developing period, increased fruit weight, reduced fruit malformation percentage, but also raised total yield. Among the test mulching models, WP was better than WS and PF, and the effects were superior on grafted than on own-rooted cucumber. Soil surface mulching also had considerable effects on soil environment, but the effects varied with different modules. For example, under field condition, the diurnal change of soil temperature was a single-peak curve, with its peak higher and appeared at 14:30 in 5 cm and 10 cm soil depth, but lower and appeared later in deeper soil layers. In this study, WS lowered the maximum soil temperature and raised the minimum soil temperature, making soil temperature quite stable, while PF raised the maximum soil temperature much higher and enhanced the minimum soil temperature less than WS and WP, making the largest variation range of soil temperature. WP played a role of raising soil temperature and kept it stable. Similar to the diurnal change of soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm depth, that of soil respiration rate was also a single-peak curve. The soil respiration rate in all treatmentg was significantly higher than that of CK, and WP had a higher soil respiration rate than PF and WS. There was a significant positive correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm depth. By the end of the experiment, soil bulk density at the depth of 0-20 cm was measured, which was significantly lower in WS and WP than in CK and PF. The difference in soil bulk density was gradually inconspicuous

  3. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards.

    PubMed

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Jordán, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-03-15

    Soil and water loss in agriculture is a major problem throughout the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas. Non-conservation agricultural practices have further aggravated the situation, especially in vineyards, which are affected by one of the highest rates of soil loss among cultivated lands. Therefore, it is necessary to find the right soil practices for more sustainable viticulture. In this regard, straw mulching has proven to be effective in other crop and fire affected soils, but, nonetheless, little research has been carried out in vineyards. This research tests the effect of barley straw mulching on soil erosion and surface runoff on vineyards in Eastern Spain where the soil and water losses are non-sustainable. An experiment was setup using rainfall simulation tests at 55 mm h(-1) over 1h on forty paired plots of 0.24 m(2): twenty bare and twenty straw covered. Straw cover varied from 48 to 90% with a median value of 59% as a result of the application of 75 g of straw per m(2). The use of straw mulch resulted in delayed ponding and runoff generation and, as a consequence, the median water loss decreased from 52.59 to 39.27% of the total rainfall. The straw cover reduced the median sediment concentration in runoff from 9.8 to 3.0 g L(-1) and the median total sediment detached from 70.34 to 15.62 g per experiment. The median soil erosion rate decreased from 2.81 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1)h(-1) due to the straw mulch protection. Straw mulch is very effective in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff, and this benefit was achieved immediately after the application of the straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of a Biodegradable Mulch Sheet Produced from Poly(Lactic Acid)/Ecoflex®/Modified Starch in Mandarin Orange Groves

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yuya; Maeda, Takuya; Ito, Osamu; Maeda, Yasukatsu; Kunioka, Masao

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a mulch sheet made by inflation molding of PLA, Ecoflex® and modified starch, which all have different biodegradabilities. A field test of use as an agricultural mulch sheet for mandarin oranges was carried out over two years. The mechanical properties of the mulch sheet were weakened with time during the field test, but the quality of the mandarin oranges increased, a result of the controlled degradation of the sheet. The most degradable modified starch degraded first, allowing control of the moisture on the soil. Accelerator mass spectroscopy was used for evaluation of the biomass carbon ratio. The biomass carbon ratio decreased by degradation of the biobased materials, PLA and modified starch in the mulch sheet. PMID:19812715

  5. Comparison Between Ground Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities Foraging in the Straw Mulch of Sugarcane Crops and in the Leaf Litter of Neighboring Forests.

    PubMed

    Silva, N S; Saad, L P; Souza-Campana, D R; Bueno, O C; Morini, M S C

    2017-02-01

    In many sugarcane plantations in Brazil, the straw is left on the soil after harvesting, and vinasse, a by-product of the production of sugar and ethanol, is used for fertigation. Our goal was to compare ant community composition and species richness in the straw mulch of sugarcane crops with the leaf litter of neighboring forests. We tested the hypothesis that ant communities in the straw mulch of vinasse-irrigated sugarcane crops and in the forest leaf litter were similar, because the combination of straw mulching and vinasse irrigation has a positive effect on soil fauna. Straw mulch and leaf litter were collected from 21 sites and placed in Berlese funnels. In total, 61 species were found in the forest leaf litter, whereas 34 and 28 species were found in the straw mulch of sugarcane fields with and without vinasse, respectively. Ant communities differed between forest and crop fields, but the species in the sugarcane straw mulch were a subset of the species found in the forest leaf litter. Although vinasse is rich in organic matter, it did not increase ant diversity. Seven feeding and/or foraging types were identified and, among the different types, surface-foraging omnivorous ants were the most prevalent in all habitats. Vinasse-irrigated sugarcane straw mulch had more predatory species than mulch from vinasse-free fields, but fewer than forest leaf litter. However, this positive effect of vinasse irrigation should be carefully evaluated because vinasse has negative effects on the environment. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Reflective mulch and acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments relative to thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and tomato spotted wilt virus incidence in tomato.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Joseph, S V; Srinivasan, R

    2012-08-01

    Management of thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt (TSW) virus typically relies on tactics that either reduce the thrips vector numbers or change the plant's response to the virus to reduce economic loss. We attempted to quantify the interaction between two such tactics, reflective mulch and the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard), respectively, on a TSW-susceptible tomato hybrid. A split plot experiment was conducted in 2009 and 2010 where main-plots were three types of plastic mulch (two metalized reflective vs. black) and subplots consisted of a range of plant defense activator applications. TSW pressure varied over year with 80% of untreated plants having TSW in 2009 where as <7% of plants was infected in 2010. No significant interaction between mulch and subplots was found relative to thrips and marketable yield in either year. In 2009, the seasonal average of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) populations and incidence of TSW were significantly lower and yield significantly higher on both reflective mulches than on black mulch. Seasonal averages of thrips and fruit yield differed significantly among treatments of acibenzolar-S-methyl. However, there was a significant acibenzolar-S-methyl by mulch interaction relative to TSW incidence. In 2009, a minimum of acibenzolar-S-methyl at transplant plus foliar treatments at 10 and 20 d after transplant was required to significantly reduce TSW incidence compared with untreated plants before harvest. Under lower TSW pressure in 2010, average TSW incidence was significantly less in all plots treated with acibenzolar-S-methyl treated plots compared with the check. Acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments functioned better with the thrips reducing tactic, ultraviolet-reflective mulch. We propose that acibenzolar-S-methyl is less effective than metalized reflective mulch in reducing the incidence of TSW in tomato.

  7. Integrating a mini catchment with mulching for soil water management in a sloping jujube orchard on the semiarid Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. C.; Gao, X. D.; Zhao, X. N.; Wu, P. T.; Li, L. S.; Ling, Q.; Sun, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    Conserving more soil water is of great importance to the success of arid and semiarid orchards. On the hilly areas of the Loess Plateau of China, mini catchments, named fish-scale pits, are widely used in orchards for collecting surface runoff to infiltrate more soil water. However, the flat surface inside fish-scale pits would increase soil evaporation during non-rainfall periods. Therefore, we integrated fish-scale pits with mulching, a popular meaning to reduce soil evaporation, to test whether this integration could improve soil water conservation. The results showed that soil water deficit was observed for all treatments. However, soil water deficit was further intensified in the dry month. An index was used to represent the soil water supply from rainfall infiltration denoted WS. For the fish-scale pit with branch mulching treatment in the entire soil profile, the compensation degree of SWS were greater than 0. However, the CK treatment showed negative values in the 40-180 cm. In conclusion, integrating fish-scale pits with mulching could conserve significantly more soil water by increasing infiltration and decreasing evaporation compared to fish-scale pits alone. Since the mulching branches were trimmed jujube branches, the integration of fish-scale pit with branch mulching is recommended in jujube orchards in order to both preserve more soil water and reduce the cost of mulching materials.

  8. Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Effects of Raindrop Impact on Runoff and Infiltration from Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rain drop impact causes soil crust formation which, in turn, reduces infiltration rates and increases runoff, contributing to soil erosion, downstream flooding and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. This impulse breaks larger soil aggregates into smaller particles and disperses soil from its original position. The displaced soil particles self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming the crust. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Very little research has sought to quantify the effect that canopies and mulch can have on this phenomenon. This presentation presents preliminary findings from ongoing study conducted using rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to discuss green infrastructure facility maintenance and design strategies, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  9. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  10. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  11. The application of a mulch biofilm barrier for surfactant enhanced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngwoo; Lee, Woo-Hyung; Sorial, George; Bishop, Paul L

    2009-01-01

    Lab scale mulch biofilm barriers were constructed and tested to evaluate their performance for preventing the migration of aqueous and surfactant solubilized PAHs. The spatial distribution of viable PAH degrader populations and resultant biofilm formation were also monitored to evaluate the performance of the biobarrier and the prolonged surfactant effect on the PAH degrading microorganism consortia in the biobarrier. Sorption and biodegradation of PAHs resulted in stable operation of the system for dissolved phenanthrene and pyrene during 150 days of experimentation. The nonionic surfactant could increase the solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene significantly. However, the biobarrier itself couldn't totally prevent the migration of micellar solubilized phenanthrene and pyrene. The presence of surfactant and the resultant highly increased phenanthrene or pyrene concentration didn't appear to cause toxic effects on the attached biofilm in the biobarrier. However, the presence of surfactant did change the structural composition of the biofilm.

  12. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    SciTech Connect

    AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

    2000-02-01

    Cobble mulch and composted biosolids, greenwaste, and dairy manure were added to arid soil in an attempt to improve plant establishment and production, minimize erosion, increase evapotranspiration, and reduce leaching. Twenty-four plots (10 x 10 m) were established in a completely randomized block design (8 treatments, 3 plots per treatment). Treatments included (1) non-irrigated control, (2) irrigated control, (3) non-irrigated greenwaste compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (4) irrigated greenwaste compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (5) non-irrigated biosolids compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (6) irrigated biosolids compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (7) cobble-mulch, and (8) non-irrigated dairy manure compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot). Soil samples were collected from each plot for laboratory analyses to assess organic matter contents, macro-nutrient levels and trace metal contents, and nitrogen mineralization potential. All plots were seeded similarly with approximately equal portions of cool and warm season native grasses. The organic composts (greenwaste, biosolids, dairy manure) added to the soils substantially increased soil organic matter and plant nutrients including total nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the results of a laboratory study of the soils' nitrogen mineralization potential after the application of the various composts showed that the soil nitrogen-supplying capability decreased to non-amended soil levels by the start of the second growing season. Thus, from the standpoint of nitrogen fertilizer value, the benefits of the organic compost amendments appear to have been relatively short-lived. The addition of biosolids compost, however, did not produce significant changes in the soils' copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations and thus did not induce adverse environmental conditions due to excessive heavy metal concentrations. Supplemental irrigation water during the first and second growing seasons did not appear to increase plant biomass

  13. On the origin of rock fragment mulches on Vertisols: A case study from the Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeyersons, Jan; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku

    2006-06-01

    Many Vertisols in Tigray, Ethiopia, typically carry a discontinuous rock fragment (RF, size 0.5-> 40 · 10 - 2 m) cover with 10 to 100 RFs m - 2 . Such RF mulches are of agricultural and environmental significance because they influence the water balance in the underlying soils and the crop yield. Natural RF concentrations are mostly considered as eolian or hydraulic lag deposits, or as the result of lateral transport over the soil surface from a rock outcrop, upslope. In cultivated areas RF mulches can develop by tillage. This paper presents the case of a natural RF mulch whose lithology indicates that the RFs are up-squeezed by the local Vertisol. The study site is located in the pass of Enda Maryam, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia (39°8' E and 13°36' N). A circular area of 10 m diameter, about 200 m away from the water divide in the valley has been cleared annually between 01/1999 and 05/2003. During this period, 625 RFs, 17 being > 7.5 · 10 - 2 m in size, totalling a mass of nearly 62 kg, have been collected. After correction for measurement procedures, the rate of RF up-warping by the Vertisol at Enda Maryam is assessed at 5 RFs m - 2 in 3 years. At this rate of appearance, the formation of current RF concentrations on top of active valley Vertisols is only a matter of 10 1-2 years, provided the availability of RFs below the soil surface. Although important underground displacements were measured in the Vertisol between 01/1999 and 05/2002, the supposed link between up-squeezing of RFs and plastic deformations of 'chimney', 'diapir' or 'intrusion'-like type in the Vertisol could not be evidenced. Instead, RFs are clearly concentrated on the soil surface as well as in depth, along the existing vertical desiccation cracks, often > 1 m deep which display polygonal configurations at the soil surface. Further, bundles of slickensides containing some RFs, have been mapped at the base of the Vertisol. The slickenside configuration suggests that the RF-bearing substrate

  14. Fate and environmental impact of pesticides in plastic mulch production runoff: field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Andrea M; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2002-07-17

    Concentrations of copper, azinphosmethyl, chlorothalonil, and endosulfan sulfate ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1000 microg/L in runoff from tomato plastic mulch production. When this runoff entered local creeks, the copper concentration was as high as 22 microg/L, which exceeded the measured larval clam LC50 values of 21 and 12 microg/L Cu at 96 and 192 h, respectively. A greenhouse scale investigation of copper and toxicity demonstrated that sedimentation reduced total copper concentration in runoff by 90%, although the dissolved copper concentration was unchanged, averaging 139 +/- 55 microg/L. When runoff was applied to marine mesocosms containing grass shrimp and mummichog fish, unsettled runoff produced the greatest mortality, although even settled runoff caused more mortality than that in the control mesocosm receiving runoff without added copper. Desorption of soil-sorbed copper occurred quickly in saline water and contributed to toxicity. Copper toxicity in runoff can be reduced, but not eliminated, by sedimentation.

  15. [Effect of plastic film mulching on soil microbial biomass in spring wheat field in semi-arid loess area].

    PubMed

    Song, Qiuhua; Li, Fengmin; Liu, Hongsheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Shiqing

    2003-09-01

    This paper studied the effect of different periods of plastic film mulching (M0-no mulching, M30-mulching for 30 days, M60-mulching for 60 days, and M-mulching for whole growth period) on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) of spring wheat field in semi-arid loess plateau. The mean SMBC in 1999 and 2000 was 335.3 and 259.3 mg.kg-1 dry soil, respectively. It was 29.3% higher in 1999 than in 2000. The highest SMBC was recorded at the harvest stage in M treatment for the two years. In 1999, a wet year with more rainfall, the SMBC of M60 and M treatments was significantly higher than those of M0 and M30 in the mid-period of growth, reached its top at the end of the growth period. The highest grain yield was also achieved in M60. It was a dry year in 2000, but rainfall was rich in the latter growth period of spring wheat. SMBC increased at the beginning period of growth, and did not increase during the mid-growth period. It increased again during the latter period of growth, and showed a significant difference among the treatments. At the harvest stage of 2000, SMBC in M0 was the highest among all the treatments. It was similar between M and M60, and lower than that of M30. In the two years, the ratio of C/N ranged between 7.732-9.042, being lower than the threshold of 11.3, and the ratio of C/P was 300.8-719.6, being higher than the threshold of 300. The two parameters showed that the increase of SMBC was inhibited because of the competition of soil available nutrients between soil microbes and crops. These indicated that soil organic matter content was so shortage that it became the key factor to restrict crop productivity. Under this condition, increasing crop productivity through the input of chemical fertilizers would conceal the problem of soil degradation, and result in a further decrease of soil quality. A long term plastic film mulching would make the problem more serious.

  16. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Salt distribution under mulched drip irrigation in a cotton field of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Yao, X.; Zhong, R.; Hu, H.

    2012-12-01

    A 3-year experiment was conducted in Xinjiang, northwestern China, to investigate the specific pattern of salt distribution and accumulation associated with mulched drip irrigation in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. The experimental site was divided into three fields according to their distinct features of soil particle size distribution, and three replicators were designed in every field. Above 30,000 soil samples were collected throughout the experimental years, and this large number of soil samples help to answer the strong heterogeneity of soil salinity at the field scale and get the continuous salinity data under the destructive salinity measurement method. The results indicate that the soil salt migrates with water flux and accumulates at the periphery of the wetted soil mass, and the ration of the EC value in inter-film zone to wide-row zone at the end of growth period are 2.34, 1.78 and 1.24 for the three fields, respectively, which implies soil salt would transport to and accumulate in the inter film zone (IFM) more easily for sandy soil than clay soil along the horizontal direction. The field experiment shows the soil salt tends to build up at the interface of soil texture (where the soil texture changes rapidly from sandy at the upper layer to clay at the lower) , which means that layered pattern of soil particle size distribution dominates the vertical distribution pattern of soil salinity. The dimensionless index representing the specific salt distribution pattern associated with mulched drip irrigation was also introduced and modified, and the study shows that the index can well delineate the salt qualitative distribution along the vertical direction.

  18. The contribution of mulches to control high soil erosion rates in vineyards in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena; José Marqués, María; Novara, Agata

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion take place in degraded ecosystem where the lack of vegetation, drought, erodible parent material and deforestation take place (Borelli et al., 2013; Haregeweyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). Agriculture management developed new landscapes (Ore and Bruins, 2012) and use to trigger non-sustainable soil erosion rates (Zema et al., 2012). High erosion rates were measured in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), but it is also possible to develop managements that will control the soil and water losses, such as organic amendments (Marqués et al., 2005), plant cover (Marqués et al., 2007) and geotextiles (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). The most successful management to restore the structural stability and the biological activity of the agriculture soil has been the organic mulches (García Orenes et al; 2009; 2010; 2012). The straw mulch is also very successful on bare fire affected soil (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b), which also contributes to a more stable soil moisture content (García-Moreno et al., 2013). The objective of this research is to determine the impact of two mulches: wheat straw and chipped branches, on the soil erosion rates in a rainfed vineyard in Eastern Spain. The research site is located in the Les Alcusses Valley within the Moixent municipality. The Mean annual temperature is 13 ºC, and the mean annual rainfall 455 mm. Soil are sandy loam, and are developed at the foot-slope of a Cretaceous limestone range, the Serra Grossa range. The soils use to be ploughed and the features of soil erosion are found after each thunderstorm. Rills are removed by ploughing. Thirty rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in summer 2011 during the summer drought period. The simulated rainfall lasted during 1 hour at a 45 mmh-1 intensity on 1 m2 plots (Cerdà and Doerr, 2010; Cerdà and Jurgensen 2011). Ten experiments were carried out on the control plots (ploughed), 10 on straw mulch covered plots, and 10 on chipped branches covered

  19. Can growth-days predict the crop coefficient of cotton under mulched drip irrigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengju; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Zhang, Zhi; Dai, Chao

    2015-04-01

    Mulched drip irrigation (MDI) has now become popular in arid and semi-arid areas like Tarim River basin located in northwest of China. It has the advantages of saving water as well as increasing crop yield. As an important cash crop, cotton is widely planted in Tarim basin that usually adopts MDI. Irrigation management requires prediction of evapotranspiration (ET). It is usually calculated by FAO-56 method, in which the crop coefficient (Kc) is a necessary parameter needed to determined a prior. Theoretically the crop characteristics like LAI can serve as a direct indicator to determine Kc. Practically two other indicators of growing-degree-day (GDD) and growth-day (GD) are also used to determine Kc. In this study a 3-year experiment was conducted to quantify the weekly ETc and develop a crop coefficient (Kc) model for mulched drip-irrigated cotton based on eddy covariance observation. Two polynomial models were developed to predict the Kc as a function of growth days (r2=0.95) and growing degree-day (GDD) (r2=0.96) in the growth stage after seeding. A logarithmic function (r2=0.87) was used to describe the Kc variability with LAI increase. The results showed that both the three models fitted well with the Kc and the LAI values could fit the Kc well before the end growth stage. The LAI can better simulate Kc with daily step, but with weekly step the accuracy of LAI is lower than the other two variables. Our results showed that the growth-day is a reliable indicator to predict the cotton Kc under MDI, which provide a basis for transpiration modeling in cotton fields.

  20. Mulch flammability

    Treesearch

    Wayne Zipperer; Alan Long; Brian Hnton; Alexander Maranghides; William Mell

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of how horrible and devastating wildland fires are portrayed by the media, they are a natural disturbance that many native ecosystems depend on for regeneration. As the population of the United States increases, more individuals are building their homes in wildlands rather than urban landscapes. Homes built in undeveloped wildland vegetation create areas...

  1. Modelling the impact of climatic conditions and plant species on the nitrogen release from mulch of legumes at the soil surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudinat, Germain; Lorin, Mathieu; Valantin-morison, Muriel; Garnier, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Cover crops provide multiple services to the agro ecosystem. Among them, the use of legumes as cover crop is one of the solutions for limiting the use of herbicides, mineral fertilizers, and insecticides. However, the dynamic of mineralization is difficult to understand because of the difficulty of measuring nitrogen release from mulch in field. Indeed, residues are degraded at the soil surface as mulch, while the nitrogen uptake by the main crop occurred simultaneously in the soil. This work aims to study the dynamics of nitrogen mineralization from legume residues through i) the use of a model able to describe the physical and biological dynamic of mulch and ii) a data set from a field experiment of intercropping systems "oilseed rape-legumes" from different species (grass pea, lentil, Berseem clover, field pea, vetch). The objective of the simulations is to identify the variations of expected quantities of nitrogen from different legumes. The soil-plant model of mulch decomposition PASTIS-Mulch was used to determine the nitrogen supply from mulch available for rapeseed. These simulation results were compared to the data collected in the experimental field of Grignon (France). We performed analyzes of biochemical and physical characteristics of legume residues and monitored the evolution of mulches (moisture, density, cover surface, biomass) in fields. PASTIS simulations of soil temperature, soil moisture, mulch humidity and mulch decomposition were close to the experimental results. The PASTIS model was suitable to simulate the dynamic of legume mulches in the case of "rape - legume" associations. The model simulated nitrogen restitution of aerial and root parts. We found a more rapid nitrogen release by grass pea than other species. Vetch released less nitrogen than the other species. The scenarios for climate conditions were : i) a freezing in December that causes the destruction of plants, or a destruction by herbicide in March, ii) a strong or a weak rainy

  2. Time-dependent movement and distribution of chlorpyrifos and its metabolism in bamboo forest under soil surface mulching.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Zhong, Donglian; Mo, Runhong; Ni, Zhanglin; Tang, Fubin

    2014-07-16

    The dissipation and distribution of chlorpyrifos (CHP) granule formulation in bamboo forest under soil surface mulching conditions (CP) and noncovered cultivation conditions (NCP) from soil to product were investigated. In the CP treatment, the CHP granule with slow-release effect leached from the topsoil to the subsoil. Conversely, the CHP was fixed in the topsoil (0-5 cm layer) in the NCP treatment, and no obvious leaching effect could be observed. The residue of CHP could be found in bamboo shoots from CP treatment, mainly at the bottom part (5 cm length). CHP could be degraded into 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in the soil and bamboo shoots. In addition, the straw used as the mulching material with higher OM and pH had some regulatory role in changing the pH and OM characteristics of the soil. Thus the straw could indirectly affect the adsorption and degradation behavior of CHP and TCP in the soil.

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y). The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)); four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation); and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow is lower.

  4. Organic amendments and mulches influence the quality of restored mine soils and plant cover in semiarid regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles, Isabel; Contreras, Sergio; Lázaro-Suau, Roberto; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2017-04-01

    An experimental restoration was designed in a calcareous quarry in Sierra de Gádor, SE Spain, with the aim of determining useful semiarid restoration techniques. The factors tested were: a) organic amendments (sewage sludge, compost and no amendment), b) mulches (gravel, woodchip and no mulch), and c) three native species (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides). Nine combinations of organic amendments and mulches were established in plots of 15 x 5 m and 75 plants were planted in each plot. Plant survival and growth were measured at months 6, 24, 36 and 48 after planting. Moreover, the possible relationships between soil quality indicators (physico-chemical and microbiological properties, aggregate stability and infiltration rate) and changes in the planted vegetation caused by restoration treatments were explored. This study demonstrated that opencast mine revegetation with native species (M. tenacissima, A. terniflora and A. cytisoides) was successful in the boundary between arid and semiarid climate in only four years, compared to previous soil restoration treatment. The response of plant species was different, showing their own physiological mechanisms. M. tenacissima presented the highest survival rates although the two Anthyllis species had the highest growth rates. Despite organic amendments had not a positive effect on plant survival, these treatments increased plant growth. In particular, the improvement on chemical, microbiological and physical soil properties induced by sewage sludge and especially compost treatment, enhanced plant growth. However, changes induced by mulches on the physico-chemical soil properties did not provided clear evidences, either positive or negative, in plant establishment. Thus, the addition of organic matter from organic residues and revegetation with native species can improve the restoration success in SE Spain and perhaps similar regions worldwide under arid-semiarid climate.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil amended with 15N-labelled urea with nitrification inhibitor (Nitrapyrin) and mulch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aamir; Heiling, Maria; Zaman, Mohammad; Resch, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the key greenhouse and ozone (O3) depleting gases, constitutes 7% of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Its global warming potential is 310 times higher than that of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 16 times than methane (CH4) over a 100-year period. To develop mitigation tools for N2O emissions, and to investigate the relationship between gross N transformation and N2O emission from soil, it is imperative to understand N2O emission from soils as influenced by N inputs, environmental conditions and farm management practices. The use of nitrification inhibitor such as Nitrapyrin and crop residues (mulch) may have a role in mitigating N2O losses from soil because of their effects on nitrification and denitrification. It prevents hydrolytic action on urea and keeps nitrogen in ammonium form. To determine the effects of urea applied with nitrification inhibitor and mulch on N2O emissions from soil, an incubation experiment was conducted under controlled moisture of 60% water filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature (20±2oC) conditions. Soil samples (0-20 cm soil depth) collected from an arable site were treated with 15N-labelled urea (5 atom %) at 150 kg N/ha rate. The 5 treatments including control, (urea, urea with Nitrapyrin (800 g/100 kg urea), urea with mulch (5 tons/ha) and urea with Nitrapyrin and mulch) were replicated 4 times using 500 ml glass jars. The N2O isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution of 15N were measured by off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research). The preliminary results showed that nitrification inhibitor (Nitrapyrin) can be used to distinguish between different pathways of N2O production from soil. In addition to the site preference of the 15N promises to be a helpful tool to determine the source of the generated N2O.

  6. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  7. Rice straw mulch for post-fire erosion control: assessing non-target effects on vegetation communities

    Treesearch

    Kristen L. Shive; Becky L. Estes; Angela M. White; Hugh D. Safford; Kevin L. O' Hara; Scott L. Stephens

    2017-01-01

    Straw mulch is commonly used for post-fire erosion control in severely burned areas but this practice can introduce non-native species, even when certified weed-free straw is used. Rice straw has recently been promoted as an alternative to wheat under the hypothesis that non-native species that are able to grow in a rice field are unlikely to establish in dry forested...

  8. Evaluation of the effects of mulch on optimum sowing date and irrigation management of zero till wheat in central Punjab, India using APSIM.

    PubMed

    Balwinder-Singh; Humphreys, E; Gaydon, D S; Eberbach, P L

    2016-10-01

    Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions. Therefore, a simulation study was conducted using the APSIM model and 40 years of weather data to evaluate the effects of mulch, sowing date and irrigation management and their interactions on wheat grain yield, irrigation requirement (I) and water productivity with respect to irrigation (WPI) and evapotranspiration (WPET). The results suggest that the optimum wheat sowing date in central Punjab depends on both soil type and the presence or absence of mulch. On the sandy loam, with irrigation scheduled at 50% soil water deficit (SWD), the optimum sowing date was late October to early November for maximising yield, WPI and WPET. On the clay loam, the optimum date was about one week later. The effect of mulch on yield varied with seasonal conditions and sowing date. With irrigation at 50% SWD, mulching of wheat sown at the optimum time increased average yield by up to 0.5 t ha(-1). The beneficial effect of mulch on yield increased to averages of 1.2-1.3 t ha(-1) as sowing was advanced to 15 October. With irrigation at 50% SWD and 7 November sowing, mulch reduced the number of irrigations by one in almost 50% of years, a reduction of about 50 mm on the sandy loam and 60 mm on the clay loam. The reduction in irrigation amount was mainly due to reduced soil evaporation. Mulch reduced irrigation requirement by more as sowing was delayed, more so on the sandy loam than the clay loam

  9. Effects of Mulching Tolerant Plant Straw on Soil Surface on Growth and Cadmium Accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming’an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:25490210

  10. Temporal stability and variability of soil-water content in a gravel-mulched field in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenju; Cui, Zhen; Zhang, Jiyi; Jin, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing the spatiotemporal variability of soil-water content (SWC) is of paramount importance in many scientific fields and operational applications. We present a case study of the temporal stability and variability of SWC in a gravel-mulched field, a form of mulching that has been widely used by farmers on the loessial area of China for over 300 years, using Spearman correlation coefficients, frequency distributions and an index of temporal stability. SWC was measured weekly from May to August 2013 in the 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-50 cm layers. SWC was more variable in the surface soil, due to several environmental factors, and the variability gradually decreased with depth. A large sample size was needed for estimating the mean SWC of the field under dry conditions. High Spearman correlation coefficients between the SWCs measured on different sampling campaigns indicated a high temporal stability. The stability of the SWC spatial patterns over time and along the soil profile allowed us to identify a location representative of the field-mean SWC, with high coefficients of determination ranging between 0.8564 and 0.9325. The large-scale monitoring of SWC from few observations is thus feasible, which will aid the management of soil moisture in gravel-mulched fields in arid regions.

  11. Establishment of orchards with black polyethylene film mulching: effect on nematode and fungal pathogens, water conservation, and tree growth.

    PubMed

    Duncan, R A; Stapleton, J J; McKenry, M V

    1992-12-01

    Placement of a 3-m-wide, black, polyethylene film mulch down rows of peach (Prunus persica 'Red Haven' on 'Lovell' rootstock) and almond (Prunus dulcis 'Nonpareil' on 'Lovell') trees in the San Joaquin Valley of California resulted in irrigation water conservation of 75%, higher soil temperature in the surface 30 cm, a tendency toward greater root mass, elimination of weeds, and a greater abundance of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles in soil but reduced root galling when compared to the nonmulched control. Population levels of Pratylenchus hexincisus, a nematode found within tree roots, were reduced by mulching, as were those of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, which survived on old grape roots remaining from a previously planted vineyard, and Paratrichodorus minor, which probably fed on roots of various weed species growing in the nonmulched soil. Populations of Pythium ultimum were not significantly changed, probably also due to the biological refuge of the old grape roots and moderate soil heating level. Trunk diameters of peach trees were increased by mulching, but those of almond trees were reduced by the treatment. Leaf petiole analysis indicated that concentrations of mineral nutrients were inconsistent, except for a significant increase in Ca in both tree species.

  12. Establishment of Orchards with Black Polyethylene Film Mulching: Effect on Nematode and Fungal Pathogens, Water Conservation, and Tree Growth

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, R. A.; Stapleton, J. J.; McKenry, M. V.

    1992-01-01

    Placement of a 3-m-wide, black, polyethylene film mulch down rows of peach (Prunus persica 'Red Haven' on 'Lovell' rootstock) and almond (Prunus dulcis 'Nonpareil' on 'Lovell') trees in the San Joaquin Valley of California resulted in irrigation water conservation of 75%, higher soil temperature in the surface 30 cm, a tendency toward greater root mass, elimination of weeds, and a greater abundance of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles in soil but reduced root galling when compared to the nonmulched control. Population levels of Pratylenchus hexincisus, a nematode found within tree roots, were reduced by mulching, as were those of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, which survived on old grape roots remaining from a previously planted vineyard, and Paratrichodorus minor, which probably fed on roots of various weed species growing in the nonmulched soil. Populations of Pythium ultimum were not significantly changed, probably also due to the biological refuge of the old grape roots and moderate soil heating level. Trunk diameters of peach trees were increased by mulching, but those of almond trees were reduced by the treatment. Leaf petiole analysis indicated that concentrations of mineral nutrients were inconsistent, except for a significant increase in Ca in both tree species. PMID:19283045

  13. Study on stability of rake teeth inserting soil of chain rake type mulching film recovery machine based on Adams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wensong; Jian, Jianming; San, Yunlong; Lui, Rui; Li, Gang; Hou, Shulin

    2017-08-01

    Traditional rake type mulching film recycling machine has the problem of difficulty in unloading and packing film, poor continuity of the work. In order to solve such problems, this paper designs a kind of chain rake type mulching film recycling machine which can realize continuous raking film, collecting film, transporting film, shaking off soil, unloading film. Rake teeth is the basic part of chain rake mulching recycling machine. The stability of rake teeth's inserting soil is an important factor to ensure recovery efficiency of the plastic film recovery. By virtual prototype simulation, this paper study the influence of different factors on the stability of rake teeth inserting soil. The results are as follows: The speed of chain rake has no significant effect on the stability of rake teeth inserting soil; Reducing resistance of rake teeth in the process of working, is conducive to improve the stability of rake teeth inserting soil; Appropriate increasing elastic modulus of chain rake, is helpful to enhance the stability of rake teeth inserting soil.

  14. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming'an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  15. The effect of mulching and soil compaction on fungi composition and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frac, M.; Siczek, A.; Lipiec, J.

    2009-04-01

    The soil environment is the habitat of pathogenic and saprotrophic microorganisms. The composition of the microbial community are related to biotic and abiotic factors, such as root exudates, crop residues, climate factors, mulching, mineral fertilization, pesticides introduction and soil compaction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the mulching and soil compaction on the microorganism communities in the rhizosphere soil of soybean. The studies were carried out on silty loam soil (Orthic Luvisol) developed from loess (Lublin, Poland). The experiment area was 192m2 divided into 3 sections consisted of 6 micro-plots (7m2). Three levels of soil compaction low, medium and heavy obtained through tractor passes were compared. The soil was compacted and loosened within seedbed layer 2 weeks before sowing. Soybean "Aldana" seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and were sown with interrow spacing of 0.3m. Wheat straw (as mulch) was uniformly spread on the half of each micro-plot at an amount of 0.5kg m-1 after sowing. Rhizosphere was collected three times during growing season of soybean. Microbiological analyses were conducted in 3 replications and included the determination of: the total number of bacteria and fungi, the number of bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp., the genus identification of fungi isolated from rhizosphere of soybean. Results indicated a positive effect of mulching on the increase number of all groups of examined rhizosphere microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp.). The highest number of the microorganisms was found in the low and medium compacted soil and markedly decreased in the most compacted soil. Relatively high number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of low and medium compacted soil, particularly in mulched plots. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of

  16. Coordinating management of water, salinity and trace elements for cotton under mulched drip irrigation with brackish water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Chen, W.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Rational irrigation with brackish water can increase crop production, but irrational use may cause soil salinization. In order to understand the relationships among water, salt, and nutrient (including trace elements) and find rational schemes to manage water, salinity and nutrient in cotton fields, field and pot experiments were conducted in an arid area of southern Xinjiang, northwest China. Field experiments were performed from 2008 to 2015, and involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterwards. The average cotton yield of seven years varied between 3,575 and 5,095 kg/ha, and the irrigation water productivity between 0.91 and 1.16 kg/m3. With the progress of brackish water irrigation, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Na showed strong aggregation in topsoil at the narrow row, whereas the contents of Ca and K decreased in the order of inter-mulch gap, the wide inter row, and the narrow row. The contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ca and K in root soil reduced with cotton growth, whereas Na increased. Although mulched drip irrigation during the growing season resulted in an increase in salinity in the root zone, flood irrigation after harvesting leached the accumulated salts below background levels. Based on experiments a scheme for coordinating management of soil water, salt, and nutrient is proposed, that is, under the planting pattern of one mulch, two drip lines and four rows, the alternative irrigation plus a flood irrigation after harvesting or before seeding was the ideal scheme. Numerical simulations using solute transport model coupled with the root solute uptake based on the experiments and extended by another 20 years, suggest that the mulched drip irrigation using alternatively fresh and brackish water during the growing season and flood irrigation with fresh water after harvesting, is a sustainable irrigation practice that should not lead to soil salinization. Pot experiments with trace elements and different saline water showed

  17. Integrating a mini catchment with mulching for soil water management in a sloping jujube orchard on the semiarid Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongchen; Zhao, Xining; Gao, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    Conserving more soil water is of great importance to the success of arid and semiarid orchards. On the hilly areas of the Loess Plateau of China, mini catchments, named fish-scale pits, are widely used in orchards for collecting surface runoff to infiltrate more soil water. However, the flat surface inside fish-scale pits would increase soil evaporation during non-rainfall periods. Here we integrated fish-scale pits with mulching, a popular meanings to reduce soil evaporation, to test whether this integration could improve soil water conservation. To this end, we observed soil water in the 0-180 cm in a typical rain fed jujube orchard in the hilly region of the Loess Plateau. Four different treatments with three replicates of each were established including fish-scale pit with branch mulching (FB), fish-scale pit with straw mulching (FS), fish-scale pit without mulching (F) and no fish-scale pit and no mulching (CK). The results showed that the treatments FB, FS, and F increased soil water storages (SWS) in the 0-180 cm by 14.23%, 9.35% and 4.82%, respectively, compared to the CK during the growing season. It is noteworthy that the increases of SWS were mainly in the 0-100cm indicating relatively low levels of water was supplied by rainfall infiltration beneath. During the dry season (June), an apparent soil water deficit was observed for all treatments. Throughout the wet season (July and August) soil water was greatly compensated. However, soil water deficit occurred again in the dry month of September. An index was used to represent the soil water supply from rainfall infiltration denoted WS. During the growing season the FB and FS treatments showed positive WS in the whole profile while the F treatment showed positive values only in the 0-100 cm. However, positive WS values were only found in the 0-40 cm for the CK treatment. In conclusion, integrating fish-scale pits with branch/straw mulching could conserve significantly more soil water by increasing

  18. Integrating a mini catchment with mulching for soil water management in a sloping jujube orchard on the semiarid Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. C.; Gao, X. D.; Zhao, X. N.; Wu, P. T.; Li, L. S.; Ling, Q.; Sun, W. H.

    2016-02-01

    Conserving more soil water is of great importance to the sustainability of arid and semiarid orchards. Here we integrated fish-scale pits, semicircular mini-catchments for hill slope runoff collection, with mulches to test their effects on soil water storage in a 12-year-old dryland jujube orchard on the Loess Plateau of China, by using soil water measurements from April 2013 to November 2014. This experiment included four treatments: fish-scale pits with branch mulching (FB), fish-scale pits with straw mulching (FS), fish-scale pits without mulching (F), and bare land treatment (CK). Soil water was measured using the TRIME®-IPH time-domain reflectometer (TDR) tool in 20 cm intervals down to a depth of 180 cm, and was measured once every 2 weeks in the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. The results showed that fish-scale pits with mulching were better in soil water conservation. Average soil water storage (SWS, for short) of FB at soil layer depths of 0-180 cm increased by 14.23 % (2013) and 21.81 % (2014), respectively, compared to CK, but only increased by 4.82 % (2013) and 5.34 % (2014), respectively, for the F treatment. The degree of soil water compensation, WS, was employed here to represent to what extent soil water was recharged from precipitation at the end of the rainy season relative to that at the beginning of the rainy season. A positive (negative) WS larger (lower) soil water content at the end of rainy season than at the beginning. For the treatment of FB, the values of WS over the entire soil profile were greater than 0; for the treatment of F, negative values of WS were observed in depths of 60-100 cm in both years. However, the bare land treatment showed negative values in depths of 40-180 cm. This indicated that integrating fish-scale pits with mulching could significantly increase soil water storage by increasing infiltration and decreasing evaporation, and it showed greater soil water storage and degree of soil water compensation compared to fish

  19. Response of soil CO2 emission and summer maize yield to plant density and straw mulching in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanru; Liu, Xinhui; Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Lang, Kun; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2014-01-01

    Demand for food security and the current global warming situation make high and strict demands on the North China Plain for both food production and the inhibition of agricultural carbon emissions. To explore the most effective way to decrease soil CO2 emissions and maintain high grain yield, studies were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 summer maize growing seasons to assess the effects of wheat straw mulching on the soil CO2 emissions and grain yield of summer maize by adding 0 and 0.6 kg m(-2) to fields with plant densities of 100,000, 75,000, and 55,000 plants ha(-1). The study indicated that straw mulching had some positive effects on summer maize grain yield by improving the 1000-kernel weight. Meanwhile, straw mulching effectively controlled the soil respiration rate and cumulative CO2 emission flux, particularly in fields planted at a density of 75,000 plants ha(-1), which achieved maximum grain yield and minimum carbon emission per unit yield. In addition, soil microbial biomass and microbial activity were significantly higher in mulching treatments than in nonmulching treatments. Consequently, summer maize with straw mulching at 75,000 plants ha(-1) is an environmentally friendly option in the North China Plain.

  20. Response of Soil CO2 Emission and Summer Maize Yield to Plant Density and Straw Mulching in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanru; Liu, Xinhui; Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Lang, Kun; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2014-01-01

    Demand for food security and the current global warming situation make high and strict demands on the North China Plain for both food production and the inhibition of agricultural carbon emissions. To explore the most effective way to decrease soil CO2 emissions and maintain high grain yield, studies were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 summer maize growing seasons to assess the effects of wheat straw mulching on the soil CO2 emissions and grain yield of summer maize by adding 0 and 0.6 kg m−2 to fields with plant densities of 100 000, 75 000, and 55 000 plants ha−1. The study indicated that straw mulching had some positive effects on summer maize grain yield by improving the 1000-kernel weight. Meanwhile, straw mulching effectively controlled the soil respiration rate and cumulative CO2 emission flux, particularly in fields planted at a density of 75 000 plants ha−1, which achieved maximum grain yield and minimum carbon emission per unit yield. In addition, soil microbial biomass and microbial activity were significantly higher in mulching treatments than in nonmulching treatments. Consequently, summer maize with straw mulching at 75 000 plants ha−1 is an environmentally friendly option in the North China Plain. PMID:25147835

  1. Analysis of long-term degradation behaviour of polyethylene mulching films with pro-oxidants under real cultivation and soil burial conditions.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifaneia; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Kyrikou, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    Apart from the conventional polyethylene and the bio-based or mainly bio-based biodegradable in soil mulching films, polyethylene mulching films of controlled degradation in soil are already used in agriculture. The use of special pro-oxidants as additives is expected to accelerate the abiotic oxidation and the subsequent chain scission of the polymer under specific UV radiation or thermal degradation conditions, according to the literature. The role of pro-oxidants in the possible biodegradation of polyethylene has been theoretically supported through the use of controlled laboratory conditions. However, results obtained in real soil conditions, but also several laboratory test results, are not supporting these claims and the issue remains disputed. Mulching films made of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with pro-oxidants, after being used for one cultivation period in an experimental field with watermelon cultivation, were buried in the soil under real field conditions. This work presents the analysis of the degradation of the mulching films during the cultivation period as compared to the corresponding changes after a long soil burial period of 8.5 years. The combined effects of critical factors on the photochemical degradation of the degradable mulching LLDPE films with pro-oxidants under the cultivation conditions and their subsequent further degradation behaviour in the soil are analysed by testing their mechanical properties and through spectroscopic and thermal analysis.

  2. Assessment of aliphatic-aromatic copolyester biodegradable mulch films. Part II: laboratory simulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Fernandez, R Thomas

    2008-04-01

    In a previous paper, we demonstrated that the main mechanism of degradation of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) biodegradable mulch films when exposed to field conditions was crosslinking due to the photodegradation from solar radiation. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of crosslinking on the biodegradability of PBAT samples. PBAT films were subjected to UV photodegradation in laboratory simulated conditions to investigate the effects of crosslinking and other major changes in the structure and mechanical properties of the films. Crosslinking caused the films to become more brittle and produced a reduction of the tensile strength and percent elongation. Besides the crosslinking degradation mechanism, chain scission also occurred in the samples. After 45d of biodegradation test, the non-crosslinked PBAT sample reached 60% of mineralization. However, the percent mineralization was reduced when samples were crosslinked. The percent mineralization of samples with 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% gel content was 36%, 43%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. Our results indicate that crosslinking is a key process underlying the degradation of the PBAT film and did affect the biodegradability of the films, since the samples with greater amount of gel content generally showed less percent mineralization in the biodegradation tests.

  3. Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater by a permeable reactive barrier filled with plant mulch (Biowall).

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Wilson, John T; Shen, Hai; Henry, Bruce M; Kampbell, Donald H

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier filled with plant mulch was installed at Altus Air Force Base in Oklahoma, USA to treat trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination in groundwater emanating from a landfill. The barrier was constructed in June 2002. It was 139 meters long, 7 meters deep, and 0.5 meters wide. The barrier is also called a Biowall because one of the mechanisms for removal of TCE is anaerobic biodegradation. This study aimed at evaluating the performance of the pilot-scale Biowall after its installation. Data from over four years' monitoring indicated that the Biowall greatly changed geochemistry in the study area and stimulated TCE removal. The concentration of TCE in the Biowall and downgradient of the Biowall was greatly reduced as compared to that in ground water upgradient of the Biowall, while the concentration of cis-DCE in the Biowall and downgradient of the Biowall was much higher than that observed upgradient of the Biowall. Over time, the concentration of vinyl chloride in the Biowall and downgradient of the Biowall increased. Dehalococcoides DNA was detected within and downgradient of the Biowall, corresponding to the observation that vinyl chloride was produced at these locations. Results from a tracer study indicated that the regional groundwater flow pattern ultimately determined the flow direction in the area around the Biowall. The natural groundwater velocity was estimated at an average of 0.060 +/- 0.015 m/d.

  4. Vegetative responses under different soil amending mulches on western Kentucky strip mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, J.A.; Koon, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    In May of 1979, eleven test plots were established to test the effectiveness of mulch and grass and legume mixtures. Test plots of hardwood bark, whole tree chips, straw, hay, five wood fiber products, one soil sealant and a control were established with five grass and legume seed mixtures. Bark and whole tree chips were applied at 45 ton/a, straw and hay at 1 1/2 ton/a, five wood fiber products at 1500 pound/a and the soil sealant at 5 gal/a. Seed mixtures were about 40 pounds/a. Bark and whole tree chips were found to promote the best total ground cover. Bark was also found to promote the best legume cover. Hay promoted the best grass cover. The best seed mixture consisted of 15 pounds/a KY-31 tall fescue, 8 pounds/a Gladiator Alfalfa, 6 pounds/a hulled Korean Lespedeza, 3 pounds/a Timfor Timothy and 6 pounds/a of Medium Red Clover. In general, the wood fiber products did not develop a better grass-legume stand than the control. The soil sealant was generally worse than the control.

  5. Environmental behaviors of phoxim with two formulations in bamboo forest under soil surface mulching.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Ni, Zhanglin; Mo, Runhong; Shen, Danyu; Zhong, Donglian; Tang, Fubin

    2015-09-01

    Phoxim (emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and granules (G)) has been widely used in bamboo forests. The persistence and magnitude of phoxim residues in the crop and soil must be investigated to ensure human and environmental safety. The environmental behaviors of the two formulations were investigated in a bamboo forest under soil surface mulching conditions (CP) and non-covered cultivation conditions (NCP). The half-lives of phoxim in soil under the two conditions in soil were 4.1-6.2days (EC) and 31.5-49.5days (G), respectively. Phoxim in EC could be leached from the topsoil into the subsoil. A minimized leaching effect was observed for G under NCP. Inversely, an enhanced leaching effect was observed for G under CP. The G formulation resulted in more parent compound (in bamboo shoots) and metabolite (in soil) residues of phoxim than in the case of EC, especially under CP conditions. In addition, the intensity and duration of the formulation effect on soil pH adjustment from G were more obvious than that from EC. Results showed that the environmental behaviors (distribution, degradation, residue) of phoxim in the bamboo forest were significantly influenced by the type of formulation. The prolongation effect from phoxim G might cause persistence and long-term environmental risk. However, bamboo shoot consumption could be considered relatively safe after applying the recommended dose of the two phoxim formulations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effect of silver reflective mulch and a summer squash trap crop on densities of immature Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on organic bean.

    PubMed

    Smith, H A; Koenig, R L; McAuslane, H J; McSorley, R

    2000-06-01

    Polyethylene mulch with a reflective silver stripe and a yellow summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L., trap crop were tested alone and in combination as tactics to reduce densities of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring eggs and nymphs, and incidence of bean golden mosaic geminivirus on snap bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Egg densities were consistently higher on squash than on bean, but egg densities and virus incidence were not lower on bean grown with squash than on bean grown in monoculture. Silver reflective mulch reduced egg densities compared with bean grown on bare ground during the first week after crop emergence for 2 of the 3 yr that the study was conducted. However, egg suppression by silver mulch was not enhanced by the presence of a squash trap crop when both tactics were combined. The obstacles to suppressing B. argentifolii through the use of trap crops are discussed.

  7. Mulching to regenerate a harsh site: Effect on douglas-fir seedlings, forbs, grasses, and ferns. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.; Harrison, H.R.

    1994-09-01

    Douglas-fir seedlings on the Arcata District, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, in central coastal California, were planted in an effort to restore the natural forest to what was then pastureland. Douglas-fir seedlings were released from a complex forb-gass-fern plant community by applying very large (10-ft square) and very small (2-foot square) durable mulches one month after planting. In spite of high cost, the promising role of large mulches for establishing fast-growing Douglas-fir seedlings on a harsh site and the increased stability and sustainability that the future trees will bring to the more natural plant community give large mulches a place in the toolkit of ecosystem managers.

  8. Heat and water exchanges of fallow land covered with a plant-residue mulch layer: a modelling study using the three year MUREX data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Braud, I.; Thony, J. L.; Vauclin, M.; Calvet, J. C.

    2001-04-01

    The MUREX (Monitoring the Usable Soil Reservoir Experimentally) experiment was conducted on fallow land in the Southwest of France. A three year continuous data set, including climatic variables, energy fluxes, surface water content, soil moisture profiles, surface and soil temperature, and evolution of vegetation characteristics was collected. The field possessed a plant-residue mulch layer, formed naturally by the accumulation of decaying and dead biomass. The three-year data set was used to analyse and model the long-term water and heat exchanges of the field using the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atmosphere Transfer) model. The original version was modified to take into account heat and water transfer within the plant-residue mulch layer. The 1995 data set was used for calibration of unmeasured parameters. Years 1996 and 1997 were used for validation of the approach, using the same parameter set obtained in 1995. Model results and observations were in good agreement for the three years when the plant-residue (mulch) layer effect was considered. The model properly reproduced contrasting responses to different rainfall conditions. Model simulations were used to understand some physical processes modified by the mulch layer. A decrease of 5-10% of annual total evaporation was obtained, as compared to the residue free case, associated with a decrease in soil evaporation and increase of transpiration. The decrease in soil evaporation was responsible for higher surface soil moisture. Daily soil and air temperature profiles were shown to be considerably modified by the mulch layer, an inversion occurring within the mulch, leading to colder averages and a smaller amplitude for soil temperature.

  9. [Effects of plastic film mulching with double ridges and furrow planting on soil moisture and temperature and soybean yield on a semiarid dryland of Gansu Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-Ke; Wang, Li-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Hong

    2013-11-01

    Taking soybean cultivar Jindou 23 as test object, a field experiment was conducted at the Zhenyuan experimental station of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences to study the effects of various plastic mulching treatments on the soil moisture and temperature and soybean grain yield on a semiarid dryland of Northwest China. Four treatments were installed, i. e., plastic film mulching with double ridges and furrow planting (FMRFC), plastic film mulching without ridges and with furrow planting (FMFC), plastic film mulching with strip planting (FMSC), and no mulch strip planting (NMSC, CK). During the drought year (the precipitation in soybean growth period was 246.3 mm) and wet year (407 mm), the daily soil temperature in 0-20 cm layer in all mulching treatments varied in "S" shape, and its fluctuation became smaller with soybean growth. The mulching treatments raised the daily average soil temperature in 0-20 cm layer by an average of 0.5-2.5 degrees C from the seedling (VE-V3) to seed filling (R6) stage, with the average soil temperature in whole growth period raised by 1.3-1.6 degrees C. Both in dry year and in wet year, mulching treatments promoted the soil moisture consumption in 0-120 cm layer, by soybean, but increased the average soil moisture content and water storage in 0-200 cm layer by 1.2%-1.4% and 62.7-70.3 mm, respectively. As compared to CK, treatments FMRFC and FMFC had significant effects in improving the soil temperature and moisture environment in dry year, and greatly improved the yield-related traits such as plant height, branching number, pods per plant, and 100-seed mass. FMRFC increased the yield by 27.7%-51.1% and raised the water use efficiency (WUE) by 47.7%- 56.3%, whereas FMFC increased the yield by 10.2% -25.2% and raised the WUE by 33.3%-35.4%, as compared to CK. It was suggested that FMRFC and FMFC could be the most efficient planting systems for the soybean production in the dryland farming of Northwest China.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of wood shred and agricultural straw mulches as a treatment to reduce post-wildfire hillslope erosion in southern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, P. R.; Jordan, P.; Lewis, S. A.; Ashmun, L. E.; Covert, S. A.; Brown, R. E.

    2013-09-01

    After the 2009 Terrace Mountain fire near Kelowna, BC, Canada, wood shred and agricultural straw mulch effects on post-fire runoff and sediment yields were compared using three experimental techniques: rainfall simulations on 1-m2 plots, concentrated flow (rill) simulations on 9-m long plots, and sediment yields from natural rainfall on 30-m2 plots. All experimental plots were located on and along a planar hillslope burned at high severity. Experiments were conducted once a year for three consecutive years beginning in Sep 2009, except for the rainfall simulations which only were conducted the first two years. Although results varied by experiment and time since fire, both agricultural straw and wood shred mulch treatments performed similarly for reducing runoff and sediment; thus were combined into a single "treated" class for analyses. The mulch treatments were effective in reducing sediment yields as compared to the controls in all three experiments in 2009. In the rill simulation experiment, the mulch treatments significantly reduced overland flow velocity and increased the proportion of overland flow that infiltrated the soil before reaching the plot outlet. The elapsed time since the fire, which was strongly related to the increase in vegetative ground cover, was a significant factor for predicting sediment yields in the statistical models. Favorable spring rainfall in 2010 and 2011 supported rapid regrowth of vegetation, which recovered similarly on all plots regardless of treatment. The runoff and sediment yields on the treated plots were similar to those measured on the control plots a year later; we concluded that the mulch was, in effect, a surrogate for a year of recovery. Given that agricultural straw mulch is an established and effective post-fire hillslope treatment, it was important to find that wood shred mulch was similarly effective in reducing post-fire runoff and sediment yields. Thus, the choice of agricultural straw or wood shreds for a post

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions during biological soil disinfestation with different organic matter and plastic mulch films in laboratory-scale tests.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Morihiro; Kayano, Eisuke; Fujiwara, Taku; Nagare, Hideaki; Akao, Satoshi

    2015-10-23

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a greenhouse gas, may be more emitted as an intermediate product of denitrification during biological soil disinfestation. The biological soil disinfestation is a method to suppress soil-borne pathogens under reductive soil conditions produced by the application of organic matter and water irrigation with plastic film. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of different organic matter and mulch films on N2O emissions during biological soil disinfestation. Grey lowland soil amended with cattle compost plus rice bran (0.2%), rice husk (0.2%) or dent corn (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%) was incubated at 100% water-holding capacity with or without plastic films made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and triple-layer polyolefin (3PO) for 72 h at 50°C. Permeation of the two films was also measured at 25°C and 50°C. Results showed that incorporation of organic matter increased N2O emissions compared with no organic matter addition at 50°C. Incorporation of rice bran and dent corn with easily decomposable C and low C:N ratios increased N2O emissions for the first 12 h, but thereafter, available C supply from these amendments suppressed N2O emissions. Permeability of mulch films increased at a higher temperature and was larger for PVC than for 3PO. Our study indicated that rice husk should not be used for soil disinfestation and that application rates of organic matter must be determined based on their decomposability. Moreover, mulch film covering would not suppress N2O emission in biological soil disinfestation because of high temperature.

  12. Water treatment residual (WTR)-coated wood mulch for alleviation of toxic metals and phosphorus from polluted urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Soleimanifar, Hanieh; Deng, Yang; Wu, Laying; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum-based water treatment residual (WTR)-coated wood mulches were synthesized and tested for removal of heavy metals and phosphorus (P) in synthetic urban stormwater. WTRs are an industrial waste produced from coagulation in water treatment facilities, primarily composed of amorphous aluminum or iron hydroxides. Batch tests showed that the composite filter media could effectively adsorb 97% lead (Pb), 76% zinc (Zn), 81% copper (Cu) and 97% P from the synthetic stormwater (Pb = 100 μg/L, Zn = 800 μg/L, Cu = 100 μg/L, P = 2.30 mg/L, and pH = 7.0) within 120 min, due to the presence of aluminum hydroxides as an active adsorbent. The adsorption was a 2(nd)-order reaction with respect toward each pollutant. Column tests demonstrated that the WTR-coated mulches considerably alleviated the select pollutants under a continuous-flow condition over the entire filtration period. The effluent Pb, Zn, Cu, and P varied at 0.5-8.9%, 33.4-46.7%, 45.8-55.8%, and 6.4-51.9% of their respective initial concentrations with the increasing bed volume from 0 to 50. Synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests indicated that leached contaminants were all below the U.S. criteria, suggesting that the release of undesired chemicals under rainfall or landfilling conditions is not a concern during application. This study demonstrates that the WTR-coated mulches are a new, low-cost, and effective filter media for urban stormwater treatment. Equally important, this study provides a sustainable approach to beneficially reuse an industrial waste for environmental pollution control.

  13. The effect of cutting, mulching and applications of farmyard manure on nitrogen fixation in a red clover/grass sward.

    PubMed

    Hatch, D J; Goodlass, G; Joynes, A; Shepherd, M A

    2007-12-01

    In organic farming, maximising the amount of nitrogen (N) which is fixed and retained within the soil is of paramount importance for the yield of the following crop. The aim of this study was to establish the extent to which increased soil fertility, farmyard manure (FYM) applications and/or mulching, could adversely affect fixation. At two sites, situated in the South West (SW) and North East (NE) of England, N(2) fixation was estimated in 'organically' managed red clover/grass plots, both with and without green manure (i.e. surface mulched) and/or the addition of FYM. The FYM was incorporated into the seedbeds at both sites in autumn 2002 at the rate of 170 kg total Nha(-1), as either well-composted (SW site), or not actively-composted (NE site) manures. The same FYM application rate was repeated as top-dressings to both sites in autumn 2003. The plots were cut three or four times each year over two growing seasons. In the first harvest year (2003), incorporation of FYM had beneficial effects of increasing dry matter and N yields significantly at the first cut, but there were no significant differences in subsequent cuts. The same pattern was found in the second harvest year (2004) after the top dressings of FYM, suggesting that most of the N in both types of FYM was in recalcitrant forms. Over the two growing seasons, mulching did not affect red clover/grass dry matter or N yields, but did reduce the proportion of N(2) fixed, by up to 60 kg Nha(-1) when compared with plots from which the clover/grass herbage was cut and removed. Thus, the gain in N from FYM or green manure tended to be offset by a similar reduction in N(2) fixation. These results demonstrate the close association between the availability of soil N and the feed-back system which operates on N(2) fixation by red clover.

  14. Validation and application of a two-dimensional model to simulate soil salt transport under mulched drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Huiqing; Zhao, Chengyi; Sheng, Yu; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianchu; Li, Baoguo

    2017-04-01

    Water shortage and soil salinization increasingly become the main constraints for sustainable development of agriculture in Southern Xinjiang, China. Mulched drip irrigation, as a high-efficient water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in Southern Xinjiang for cotton production. In order to analyze the reasonability of describing the three-dimensional soil water and salt transport processes under mulched drip irrigation with a relatively simple two-dimensional model, a field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2015 at Aksu of Southern Xinjiang, and soil water and salt transport processes were simulated through the three-dimensional and two-dimensional models based on COMSOL. Obvious differences were found between three-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations for soil water flow within the early 12 h of irrigation event and for soil salt transport in the area within 15 cm away from drip tubes during the whole irrigation event. The soil water and salt contents simulated by the two-dimensional model, however, agreed well with the mean values between two adjacent emitters simulated by the three-dimensional model, and also coincided with the measurements as corresponding RMSE less than 0.037 cm3 cm-3 and 1.80 g kg-1, indicating that the two-dimensional model was reliable for field irrigation management. Subsequently, the two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the dynamics of soil salinity for five numerical situations and for a widely adopted irrigation pattern in Southern Xinjiang (about 350 mm through mulched drip irrigation during growing season of cotton and total 400 mm through flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting). The simulation results indicated that the contribution of transpiration to salt accumulation in root layer was about 75% under mulched drip irrigation. Moreover, flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting were of great importance for salt leaching of arable layer, especially in bare strip where

  15. A coupled model of soil water-heat-solute movement under the mulched drip irrigation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Gao, L.; Hu, H.

    2010-12-01

    : The mulched drip irrigation (MDI), first developed in northwestern part of China (Xinjiang Province) in the cotton field in 1996, can obtain higher yield while at the lower cost of water consumption and thus becomes popular rapidly. However, it has the potential risk of salinizing the arable soil. Also, plastic film can alter the energy balance at the ground surface and invoke the regime shifting of soil heat transfer. It is, therefore, necessary to simulate the inter-related movement of water, heat, and dissolvable solute in the soil under the MDI condition for the purpose of sustainable agricultural production as well as of climate change issue. With the different boundary condition and irrigation rate, the transportation and distribution features of water-heat-salt under the MDI condition are significantly different from those under the other irrigation methods. The existing tools such as HYDRUS and VS2DH(T) could not set up the special boundary condition relevant to MDI, e.g., the moving ponded area. A new two-dimensional numerical model of Richard’s equation and Convection-Dispersion equations was developed which coupled soil water, solute, and heat together. For the homogenous and isotropic porous media, the soil water-heat-solute movement under the MDI condition is considered as 2D problem. The Richards and solute convection-diffusive equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) through spatial semi-discretization, and so do the corresponding boundary conditions. The resultant ODEs are solved using a state-of-the-art solver, CVODE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The model is validated against the numerical examples as well as the field data. The results show the high numerical efficiency, the high simulation accuracy, and the flexibility of the model to mimic changing boundary conditions. Key words: numerical model, Richard’s equation, Convection-Diffusive equation, CVODE

  16. Effect of plastic mulching on mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome abundance in soil samples from asparagus crops.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, K; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Diehl, D; Ziegler, J; Geisen, R; Schaumann, G E

    2015-11-01

    Plastic mulching (PM) is widely used in modern agriculture because of its advantageous effects on soil temperature and water conservation, factors which strongly influence the microbiology of the soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PM on mycotoxin occurrence in relation with mycobiome abundance/diversity and soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from green (GA) and white asparagus (WA) crops, the last under PM. Both crops were cultivated in a ridge-furrow-ridge system without irrigation. Samples were analyzed for mycotoxin occurrence via liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Total colony-forming unit was indicative of mycobiome abundance, and analysis of mycobiome diversity was performed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. PM avoided the drop of soil temperature in winter and allowed higher soil temperature in early spring compared to non-covered soil. Moreover, the use of PM provided controlled conditions for water content in soil. This was enough to generate a dissimilar mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome diversity/abundance in covered and non-covered soil. Mycotoxin soil contamination was confirmed for deoxynivalenol (DON), range LOD to 32.1 ng/g (LOD = 1.1 ng/g). The DON values were higher under PM (average 16.9 ± 10.1 ng/g) than in non-covered soil (9.1 ± 7.9 ng/g); however, this difference was not statically significant (p = 0.09). Mycobiome analysis showed a fungal compartment up to fivefold higher in soil under PM compared to GA. The diversity of the mycobiome varied between crops and also along the soil column, with an important dominance of Fusarium species at the root zone in covered soils.

  17. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China. PMID:27806098

  18. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  19. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Lepp, Nicholas W

    2010-05-01

    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (approximately 900, 200 and 500 mg kg(-1), respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (<0.01% As, <0.001% other trace elements), but the effect of compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Real-time irrigation forecast of cotton mulched with plastic film under drip irrigation based on meteorological date].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-jun; Sun, Jing-sheng; Li, Ming-si; Zhang, Ji-yang; Wang, Jing-lei; Li, Dong-wei

    2015-02-01

    It is important to improve the real-time irrigation forecasting precision by predicting real-time water consumption of cotton mulched with plastic film under drip irrigation based on meteorological data and cotton growth status. The model parameters for calculating ET0 based on Hargreaves formula were determined using historical meteorological data from 1953 to 2008 in Shihezi reclamation area. According to the field experimental data of growing season in 2009-2010, the model of computing crop coefficient Kc was established based on accumulated temperature. On the basis of crop water requirement (ET0) and Kc, a real-time irrigation forecast model was finally constructed, and it was verified by the field experimental data in 2011. The results showed that the forecast model had high forecasting precision, and the average absolute values of relative error between the predicted value and measured value were about 3.7%, 2.4% and 1.6% during seedling, squaring and blossom-boll forming stages, respectively. The forecast model could be used to modify the predicted values in time according to the real-time meteorological data and to guide the water management in local film-mulched cotton field under drip irrigation.

  1. Isolation of Native Soil Microorganisms with Potential for Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films Used in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Bailes, Graham; Lind, Margaret; Ely, Andrew; Powell, Marianne; Moore-Kucera, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra; Brodhagen, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles throughout the soil matrix. Secondly, BDMs are not sold commercially as pure polymers, but rather as films containing additives (e.g. fillers, plasticizers and dyes) that may affect microbial growth. The procedures described herein were used for isolates acquired from soil-buried mulch films. Fungal isolates acquired from excavated BDMs were tested individually for growth on pieces of new, disinfested BDMs laid atop defined medium containing no carbon source except agar. Isolates that grew on BDMs were further tested in liquid medium where BDMs were the sole added carbon source. After approximately ten weeks, fungal colonization and BDM degradation were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were identified via analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This report describes methods for fungal isolation, but bacteria also were isolated using these methods by substituting media appropriate for bacteria. Our methodology should prove useful for studies investigating breakdown of intact plastic films or products for which plastic feedstocks are either unknown or not available. However our approach does not provide a quantitative method for comparing rates of BDM degradation. PMID:23712218

  2. Isolation of native soil microorganisms with potential for breaking down biodegradable plastic mulch films used in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Graham; Lind, Margaret; Ely, Andrew; Powell, Marianne; Moore-Kucera, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra; Brodhagen, Marion

    2013-05-10

    Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles throughout the soil matrix. Secondly, BDMs are not sold commercially as pure polymers, but rather as films containing additives (e.g. fillers, plasticizers and dyes) that may affect microbial growth. The procedures described herein were used for isolates acquired from soil-buried mulch films. Fungal isolates acquired from excavated BDMs were tested individually for growth on pieces of new, disinfested BDMs laid atop defined medium containing no carbon source except agar. Isolates that grew on BDMs were further tested in liquid medium where BDMs were the sole added carbon source. After approximately ten weeks, fungal colonization and BDM degradation were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were identified via analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This report describes methods for fungal isolation, but bacteria also were isolated using these methods by substituting media appropriate for bacteria. Our methodology should prove useful for studies investigating breakdown of intact plastic films or products for which plastic feedstocks are either unknown or not available. However our approach does not provide a quantitative method for comparing rates of BDM degradation.

  3. Trichloroethylene removal from groundwater in flow-through columns simulating a permeable reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai; Wilson, John T

    2007-06-01

    Groundwater contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative at several sites. A column study was conducted that simulated conditions in a PRB at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma. The reactive matrix was 50% (v/v) shredded tree mulch, 10% cotton gin trash, and 40% sand. The mean residence time of groundwater in the columns was 17 days. The estimated retardation factor for TCE was 12. TCE was supplied at concentrations near 20 microM. Over 793 days of operation, concentrations of TCE in the column effluents varied from 0.1% to 2% of the column influents. Concentrations of cis-DCE, vinyl chloride, ethylene, ethane, and acetylene could account for 1% of the TCE that was removed; however, up to 56% of 13C added as [1,2-13C] TCE in the column influents was recovered as 13C in carbon dioxide. After 383 and 793 d of operation, approximately one-half of the TCE removal was associated with abiotic reactions with FeS that accumulated in the reactive matrix.

  4. Aroma content of fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves is affected by light reflected from colored mulches.

    PubMed

    Loughrin, John H; Kasperbauer, Michael J

    2003-04-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb that is used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. Volatile compounds emitted from fully expanded fresh leaves grown in drip-irrigated plots that were covered with six colors of mulch were compared. The colors reflected a range of photosynthetic photon flux, far-red, red, and blue light from the soil surface to developing leaves. Our objective was to determine whether reflection from the different colors could influence concentrations of volatile compounds emitted from the fresh leaves. Volatile compounds were isolated by headspace sampling and quantified by gas chromatography. Twenty-six compounds were identified, of which the terpenoids linalool and 1,8-cineole comprised more than 50% of the total yield. Concentrations of volatile compounds from leaves that developed over green, blue, yellow, white, and red mulches followed the same patterns as they did for air-dried leaves of the same cultivar. However, the concentration of volatile compounds from fresh leaves was about 50-fold higher than those found in the previous study of air-dried leaves.

  5. Removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and peat: mechanisms and potential use for groundwater nitrate remediation.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    We conducted batch tests on the nature of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (121 degrees C for 2h each day for three consecutive days) for the cotton burr compost and autoclaving of all labware and the nitrate working solutions resulted in drastically different results compared to the non-autoclaved treatment. In the non-autoclaved cotton burr compost, added nitrate at 20 mg N l(-1) decreased rapidly and was not detected after 3d; whereas, the autoclaved cotton burr compost showed persistent nitrate above 15.5 mg N l(-1) even after 10d, which is comparable with nitrate concentrations above 17.6 mg N l(-1) in a treatment using NaN(3) at 1000 mg l(-1). Dewaxed cotton burr compost showed decreased nitrate reduction compared to the pristine cotton burr compost. No nitrate reduction was detected in the dewaxed sphagnum peat. It is concluded that nitrate removal in the organic media is controlled by microbiologically mediated processes. The use of readily available cotton burr and mulch composts may offer a cost-effective method of nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater.

  6. The Preparation and Applications of One Biodegradable Liquid Film Mulching by Oxidized Corn Starch-Gelatin Composite.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xugang; Shan, Zhihua; Chen, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Degraded gelatin (Gel) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) as abundant, recyclable, and biodegradable materials can be applied to agricultural production, which has been investigated in this research. Firstly, the prepared oxidized corn starch-gelatin (OCS-Gel) composite material was characterized through a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture, and a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The OCS-Gel was then used as a liquid film mulching for agricultural production, and the application performances (hygroscopicity, permeability, water retention, etc.) of the OCS-Gel were measured. Finally, the planting rapeseed experiments were carried out, and the germination and growing state of the rapeseed seeds were observed. The results from the structural analysis indicated that OCS-Gel enriches pore structure and exhibits high thermal stability up to 324.8 °C. In the application experiments, the OCS-Gel showed excellent properties of water-absorbing and water-retention and low permeability. In addition, the germination rate of the rapeseed seed reached 80 %, and the height of rapeseeds obviously increased in pot experiments after adding the liquid film mulching.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of wood shred and agricultural straw mulches as a treatment to reduce post-wildfire hillslope erosion in southern British Columbia, Canada

    Treesearch

    P. R. Robichaud; P. Jordan; S. A. Lewis; L. E. Ashmun; S. A. Covert; R. E. Brown

    2013-01-01

    After the 2009 Terrace Mountain fire near Kelowna, BC, Canada, wood shred and agricultural straw mulch effects on post-fire runoff and sediment yields were compared using three experimental techniques: rainfall simulations on 1-m2 plots, concentrated flow (rill) simulations on 9-m long plots, and sediment yields from natural rainfall on 30-m2 plots. All experimental...

  8. Evaluating the effects of mulch and irrigation amount on soil water distribution and root zone water balance using HYDRUS-2D

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drip irrigation under mulch is a major water-saving irrigation method that has been widely practiced for cotton production. The performance of such irrigation systems should be evaluated for proper design, management, operation, and efficient water use. The modeling approach has been used as a commo...

  9. Validation of the MULCH-II code for thermal-hydraulic safety analysis of the MIT research reactor conversion to LEU.

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Y. C.; Hu, L. W.; Olson, A. P.; Dunn, F. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division; MIT

    2007-01-01

    An in-house thermal hydraulics code was developed for the steady-state and loss of primary flow analysis of the MIT Research Reactor (MITR). This code is designated as MULti-CHannel-II or MULCH-II. The MULCH-II code is being used for the MITR LEU conversion design study. Features of the MULCH-II code include a multi-channel analysis, the capability to model the transition from forced to natural convection during a loss of primary flow transient, and the ability to calculate safety limits and limiting safety system settings for licensing applications. This paper describes the validation of the code against PLTEMP/ANL 3.0 for steady-state analysis, and against RELAP5-3D for loss of primary coolant transient analysis. Coolant temperature measurements obtained from loss of primary flow transients as part of the MITR-II startup testing were also used for validating this code. The agreement between MULCH-II and the other computer codes is satisfactory.

  10. Effect of rainfall regimes and mulch decomposition on the dissipation and leaching of S-metolachlor and glyphosate: a soil column experiment.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Sohaib; Iqbal, Akhtar; Deschamps, Marjolaine; Recous, Sylvie; Garnier, Patricia; Benoit, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Interception by plant residues is a major process affecting pesticide persistence and leaching in conservation agriculture. Dissipation and leaching of S-metolachlor and glyphosate was studied in repacked soil columns covered with a mulch of maize and lablab residues. The columns were submitted to two contrasting simulated rainfall regimes: one with light but frequent rain (LF) and one with less frequent but more intense rain (HI). In both treatments, columns received the same amount of rainwater by the end of the experiment. Decomposing crop residues on the soil surface retained more than 50% of the applied amount of pesticide. S-metolachlor dissipation in mulch residues was faster under the LF rainfall regime. This was attributed to more humid surface conditions, under which mulch decomposition was also faster. The formation of metabolites of both molecules was higher under the LF rainfall regime. However, leaching of S-metolachlor and its metabolites to deeper soil layers was greater under the HI rainfall regime, whereas they accumulated in the surface layer under the LF rainfall regime. Glyphosate remained in the surface soil layer because of its strong adsorption capacity, whereas aminomethylphosphonic acid leached down in small amounts without any difference between the two rainfall regimes. The impact of mulch residues on herbicide dissipation was strongly dependent on molecule type and rainfall regime. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Validation of the MULCH-II code for thermal-hydraulic safety analysis of the MIT research reactor conversion to LEU

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Y.-C.; Hu, L.-W. Olson, Arne P.; Dunn, Floyd E.

    2008-07-15

    An in-house thermal hydraulics code was developed for the steady-state and loss of primary flow analysis of the MIT Research Reactor (MITR). This code is designated as MULti-CHannel-II or MULCH-II. The MULCH-II code is being used for the MITR LEU conversion design study. Features of the MULCH-II code include a multi-channel analysis, the capability to model the transition from forced to natural convection during a loss of primary flow transient, and the ability to calculate safety limits and limiting safety system settings for licensing applications. This paper describes the validation of the code against PLTEMP/ANL 3.0 for steady-state analysis, and against RELAP5-3D for loss of primary coolant transient analysis. Coolant temperature measurements obtained from loss of primary flow transients as part of the MITR-II startup testing were also used for validating this code. The agreement between MULCH-II and the other computer codes is satisfactory. (author)

  12. Effect of Different Mulches under Rainfall Concentration System on Corn Production in the Semi-arid Areas of the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoli; Guo, Jingjing; Jia, Zhikuan

    2016-01-01

    The ridge and furrow farming system for rainfall concentration (RC) has gradually been popularized to improve the water availability for crops and to increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stabilizing high yields. In the RC system, plastic-covered ridges are rainfall harvesting zones and furrows are planting zones. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semi-arid agricultural areas. We conducted a four-year field study to determine the effects on corn production of mulching with 0.08-mm plastic film, maize straw, 8% biodegradable film, liquid film, bare furrow, and conventional flat (CF) farming. We found that RC significantly increased (P > 0.05) the soil moisture storage in the top 0-100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0-10 cm) during the corn-growing season. Combining RC with mulching further improved the rain-harvesting, moisture-retaining, and yield-increasing effects in furrows. Compared with CF, the four-year average yield increased by 1497.1 kg ha-1 to 2937.3 kg ha-1 using RC with mulch treatments and the WUE increased by 2.3 kg ha-1 mm-1 to 5.1 kg ha-1 mm-1.

  13. Effect of Different Mulches under Rainfall Concentration System on Corn Production in the Semi-arid Areas of the Loess Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaolong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoli; Guo, Jingjing; Jia, Zhikuan

    2016-01-01

    The ridge and furrow farming system for rainfall concentration (RC) has gradually been popularized to improve the water availability for crops and to increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stabilizing high yields. In the RC system, plastic-covered ridges are rainfall harvesting zones and furrows are planting zones. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semi-arid agricultural areas. We conducted a four-year field study to determine the effects on corn production of mulching with 0.08-mm plastic film, maize straw, 8% biodegradable film, liquid film, bare furrow, and conventional flat (CF) farming. We found that RC significantly increased (P > 0.05) the soil moisture storage in the top 0–100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0–10 cm) during the corn-growing season. Combining RC with mulching further improved the rain-harvesting, moisture-retaining, and yield-increasing effects in furrows. Compared with CF, the four-year average yield increased by 1497.1 kg ha–1 to 2937.3 kg ha–1 using RC with mulch treatments and the WUE increased by 2.3 kg ha–1 mm–1 to 5.1 kg ha–1 mm–1. PMID:26751619

  14. [Effects of soil wetting pattern on the soil water-thermal environment and cotton root water consumption under mulched drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-wei; Li, Ming-si; Liu, Dong; Lyu, Mou-chao; Jia, Yan-hui

    2015-08-01

    Abstract: To explore the effects of soil wetting pattern on soil water-thermal environment and water consumption of cotton root under mulched drip irrigation, a field experiment with three drip intensities (1.69, 3.46 and 6.33 L · h(-1)), was carried out in Shihezi, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The soil matric potential, soil temperature, cotton root distribution and water consumption were measured during the growing period of cotton. The results showed that the main factor influencing the soil temperature of cotton under plastic mulch was sunlight. There was no significant difference in the soil temperature and root water uptake under different treatments. The distribution of soil matrix suction in cotton root zone under plastic mulch was more homogeneous under ' wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern (W633). Under the 'wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern, the average difference of cotton root water consumption between inner row and outer row was 0.67 mm · d(-1), which was favorable to the cotton growing trimly at both inner and outer rows; for the 'narrow and deep' soil wetting pattern (W169), the same index was 0.88 mm · d(-1), which was unfavorable to cotton growing uniformly at both inner and outer rows. So, we should select the broad-shallow type soil wetting pattern in the design of drip irrigation under mulch.

  15. Effect of Different Mulches under Rainfall Concentration System on Corn Production in the Semi-arid Areas of the Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoli; Guo, Jingjing; Jia, Zhikuan

    2016-01-11

    The ridge and furrow farming system for rainfall concentration (RC) has gradually been popularized to improve the water availability for crops and to increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stabilizing high yields. In the RC system, plastic-covered ridges are rainfall harvesting zones and furrows are planting zones. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semi-arid agricultural areas. We conducted a four-year field study to determine the effects on corn production of mulching with 0.08-mm plastic film, maize straw, 8% biodegradable film, liquid film, bare furrow, and conventional flat (CF) farming. We found that RC significantly increased (P > 0.05) the soil moisture storage in the top 0-100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0-10 cm) during the corn-growing season. Combining RC with mulching further improved the rain-harvesting, moisture-retaining, and yield-increasing effects in furrows. Compared with CF, the four-year average yield increased by 1497.1 kg ha(-1) to 2937.3 kg ha(-1) using RC with mulch treatments and the WUE increased by 2.3 kg ha(-1) mm(-1) to 5.1 kg ha(-1) mm(-1).

  16. Impact of straw and rock-fragment mulches on soil moisture and early growth of holm oaks in a semiarid area

    Treesearch

    M. N. Jimenez; J. R. Pinto; M. A. Ripoll; A. Sanchez-Miranda; F. B. Navarro

    2017-01-01

    Planted seedlings and saplings usually exhibit low survival and growth rates under dry Mediterranean environments, especially late-successional species such as Quercus. In this work, we studied the effects of straw and rock fragment mulches on the establishment conditions of holm oak (Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Def.) Samp.) in SE Spain. Soil moisture was...

  17. Impacts of ridge-furrow rainfall concentration systems and mulches on corn growth and yield in the semiarid region of China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiao-Li; Jia, Zhi-Kuan

    2016-08-01

    Plastic-covered ridge-furrow farming systems for rainfall concentration (RC) improve the water availability for crops and increase the water use efficiency (WUE), thereby stabilizing high yields. In this study, we optimized the mulching patterns for RC planting to mitigate the risks of drought during crop production in semiarid agricultural areas. We conducted a 4-year field study to determine the RC effects on corn production of mulching in furrows with 8% biodegradable films (RCSB ), liquid film (RCSL ), bare furrow (RCSN ) and conventional flat (CF) farming. We found that RC significantly (P > 0.05) increased the soil moisture in the top 0-100 cm layer and the topsoil temperature (0-20 cm) during the corn-growing period. Mulching with different materials in planting furrows further improved the rain-harvesting, moisture-retaining and yield-increasing effects of RC planting. Compared with CF, the 4-year average total dry matter amount per plant for RCSB , RCSL and RCSN treatments increased by 42.1%, 30.8% and 17.2%, respectively. The grain yield increased by 59.7%, 53.4% and 32.6%, respectively. Plastic-covered ridge and furrow mulched with biodegradable film and liquid film is recommended for use in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China to alleviate the effects of drought on crop production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Yield-phenology relations and water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) in ridge-furrow mulching system in semiarid east African Plateau.

    PubMed

    Mo, Fei; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, Feng-Min; Nguluu, Simon N; Ren, Hong-Xu; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Jian; Kariuki, Charles W; Gicheru, Patrick; Kavagi, Levis; Cheruiyot, Wesly K; Xiong, You-Cai

    2017-06-12

    Yield-phenology relation is a critical issue affecting rainfed maize field productivity in semiarid east African Plateau (EAP). We first introduced Chinese ridge-furrow mulching (RFM) system to EAP, using three maize cultivars with early-, mid- and late-maturing traits as test materials. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a semiarid farm of Kenya from 2012 to 2013. Three treatments were designed: alternative ridge and furrow with transparent plastic mulching (FT), with black plastic mulching (FB) and without mulching (CK). We found that FT and FB significantly increased soil moisture and accelerated crop maturity across two growing seasons. Leaf area and shoot biomass were increased by 30.2% and 67.5% in FT, 35.2% and 73.5% in FB, respectively, compared with CK. Grain yield, water use efficiency and economic output were increased by 55.6%, 57.5% and 26.7% in FT, and 50.8%, 53.3% and 19.8% in FB, respectively. Optimal yield and economic benefit were observed in late-maturing cultivar due to increased topsoil temperature in FT in 2012 (cool), and in early-maturing cultivar owing to cooling effect in FB in 2013 (warm). Our study suggested RFM system, combined with crop phenology selection, be a promising strategy to boost maize productivity and profitability in semiarid EAP.

  19. Effects of high biomass cover crops and organic mulches on soil properties and collard yield three years after conversion to no-till

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic producers interested in the adoption of conservation tillage continue to face considerable challenges, particularly with regard to weed control. Previous work demonstrated that high biomass cover crops in conjunction with organic mulches can provide adequate weed control in a no-till system...

  20. Coupled effects of mulching and nitrogen fertilization on crop yield, residual soil nitrate, and water use efficiency of summer maize in the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanjun; Meng, Yan; Cai, Miao; Zhou, Jianbin

    2017-09-21

    Appropriate water-saving and nitrogen management strategies are critical for achieving sustainable agricultural development in dry sub-humid areas of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The present study was conducted in 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2012 based on a long-term field experiment and aimed to investigate the coupled impacts of mulching and N fertilization on maize yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and residual soil nitrate (RSN) accumulated in the soil profile (0-200 cm). The results demonstrated that mulch is conducive to increasing summer maize yield. The plastic film-mulched ridge and straw-mulched furrow (RF) treatment significantly increased maize yield across the studied period, while the straw mulch (SM) treatment did not significantly increase maize yield until the third experimental year. Compared with SM, the RF treatment showed more significant and positive effects on maize yield, WUE, and RSN accumulated in the 0-200 cm soil depth. N fertilization significantly increased maize yield and WUE, but no significant differences were observed when 120 and 240 kg N ha(-1) were applied. The N240 treatment was characterized by relatively high NO3(-)-N accumulation in 0-200 cm soil depth and low ratios of soil nitrate in the upper to the lower soil layers, indicating a considerable potential for NO3(-)-N leaching. Averaged across years, economic optimum N fertilizer rates (Nops) were 154, 148, and 150 kg N ha(-1) for the no mulch, RF, and SM treatments, respectively. This suggested that 25.8-51.2% of N rate can be reduced while maintaining an acceptably high maize yield. Additionally, understanding NO3(-)-N depth distribution in 0-100 cm soil profile can adequately predict and represent the characteristics of NO3(-)-N accumulated in the 100-200 cm and 0-200 cm soil layers because of their significant correlations, thus saving time and money. In conclusion, the practice of RF combined with properly reduced farmers' N rate (~ 150 kg N ha(-1)) is the preferred

  1. Assessment of farm soil, biochar, compost and weathered pine mulch to mitigate methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Syed, Rashad; Saggar, Surinder; Tate, Kevin; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the effective utility of volcanic pumice soil to mitigate both high and low levels of methane (CH4) emissions through the activity of both γ-proteobacterial (type I) and α-proteobacterial (type II) aerobic methanotrophs. However, the limited availability of volcanic pumice soil necessitates the assessment of other farm soils and potentially suitable, economical and widely available biofilter materials. The potential biofilter materials, viz. farm soil (isolated from a dairy farm effluent pond bank area), pine biochar, garden waste compost and weathered pine bark mulch, were inoculated with a small amount of volcanic pumice soil. Simultaneously, a similar set-up of potential biofilter materials without inoculum was studied to understand the effect of the inoculum on the ability of these materials to oxidise CH4 and their effect on methanotroph growth and activity. These materials were incubated at 25 °C with periodic feeding of CH4, and flasks were aerated with air (O2) to support methanotroph growth and activity by maintaining aerobic conditions. The efficiency of CH4 removal was monitored over 6 months. All materials supported the growth and activity of methanotrophs. However, the efficiency of CH4 removal by all the materials tested fluctuated between no or low removal (0-40 %) and high removal phases (>90 %), indicating biological disturbances rather than physico-chemical changes. Among all the treatments, CH4 removal was consistently high (>80 %) in the inoculated farm soil and inoculated biochar, and these were more resilient to changes in the methanotroph community. The CH4 removal from inoculated farm soil and inoculated biochar was further enhanced (up to 99 %) by the addition of a nutrient solution. Our results showed that (i) farm soil and biochar can be used as a biofilter material by inoculating with an active methanotroph community, (ii) an abundant population of α-proteobacterial methanotrophs is essential

  2. Yield Potential of Soil Water and Its Sustainability for Dryland Spring Maize with Plastic Film Mulch on the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    Plastic film mulch(PM) is an agronomic measure widely used in the dryland spring maize production system on the Loess Plateau of China. The measure can greatly increase yield of dryland maize due to its significant effects on soil water conservation. Few researches have been done to investigate how the yield potential is impacted by PM. The yield-water use (ET) boundary equation raised by French and Schultz provides a simple approach to calculate crop water limited yield potential and gives a benchmark for farmers in managing their crops. However, method used in building the equation is somewhat arbitrary and has no strict principle, which leads to the uncertainty of equation when it is applied. Though using PM can increase crop yield, it increases soil temperature, promotes crop growth and increases the water transpired by crop, which further leads to high water consumption as compared with crops without PM. This means that PM may lead to the overuse of soil water and hence is unsustainable in a long run. This research is mainly focused on the yield potential and sustainability of PMing for spring maize on the Loess Plateau. A principle that may be utilized by any other researchers was proposed based on French & Schultz's boundary equation and on part of quantile regression theory. We used a data set built by collecting the experimental data from published papers and analyzed the water-limited yield potential of spring maize on the Loess Plateau. Moreover, maize yield and soil water dynamics under PM were investigated by a long-term site field experiment. Results show that on the Loess Plateau, the water limited yield potential can be calculated using the boundary equation y = 60.5×(x - 50), with a platform yield of 15954 kghm-2 after the water use exceeds 314 mm. Without PMing, the water limited yield potential can be estimated by the boundary equation y = 47.5×(x - 62.3) , with a platform yield of 12840 kghm-2 when the water use exceeds 325 mm, which

  3. Effect of mungbean (Vigna radiate) living mulch on density and dry weight of weeds in corn (Zea mays) field.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, M Bakhtiari; Vazan, S; Darvishi, B; Golzardi, F; Farahani, M Esfini

    2011-01-01

    Living mulch is a suitable solution for weeds ecological management and is considered as an effective method in decreasing of weeds density and dry weight. In order to evaluate of mungbean living mulch effect on density and dry weight of weeds in corn field, an experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four blocks in Research Field of Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University in 2010. Main plots were time of mungbean suppression with 2,4-D herbicide in four levels (4, 6, 8 and 10 leaves stages of corn) and control without weeding and sub plots were densities of mungbean in three levels (50%, 100% and 150% more than optimum density). Density and dry weight of the weeds were measured in all plots with a quadrate (60 x 100 cm) in 10 days after tasseling. Totally, 9 species of weeds were identified in the field, which included 4 broad leave species that were existed in all plots. The results showed that the best time for suppression of mungbean is the 8 leaves stage of corn, which decreased density and dry weight of weeds, 53% and 51% in comparison with control, respectively. Increase of density of mungbean from 50% into 150% more than optimum density, decrease the density and dry weight of weeds, 27.5% and 22%, respectively. It is concluded that the best time and density for suppression mungbean was 8 leaves stage of corn, and 150% more than optimum density, which decreased density and dry weight of the weeds 69% and 63.5% in comparison with control, respectively.

  4. Effects of a killed-cover crop mulching system on sweetpotato production, soil pests, and insect predators in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D Michael; Harrison, Howard F

    2008-12-01

    Sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), are typically grown on bare soil where weeds and erosion can be serious problems. Conservation tillage systems using cover crop residues as mulch can help reduce these problems, but little is known about how conservation tillage affects yield and quality of sweetpotato or how these systems impact populations of beneficial and pest insects. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, in 2002-2004 to evaluate production of sweetpotatoes in conventional tillage versus a conservation tillage system by using an oat (Avena sativa L. (Poaceae)-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) (Fabaceae) killed-cover crop (KCC) mulch. The four main treatments were 1) conventional tillage, hand-weeded; 2) KCC, hand-weeded; 3) conventional tillage, weedy; and 4) KCC, weedy. Each main plot was divided into three subplots, whose treatments were sweetpotato genotypes: 'Ruddy', which is resistant to soil insect pests; and 'SC1149-19' and 'Beauregard', which are susceptible to soil insect pests. For both the KCC and conventional tillage systems, sweetpotato yields were higher in plots that received hand weeding than in weedy plots. Orthogonal contrasts revealed a significant effect of tillage treatment (conventional tillage versus KCC) on yield in two of the 3 yr. Ruddy remained resistant to injury by soil insect pests in both cropping systems; and it consistently had significantly higher percentages of clean roots and less damage by wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena complex, sweetpotato flea beetles, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than the two susceptible genotypes. In general, injury to sweetpotato roots by soil insect pests was not significantly higher in the KCC plots than in the conventionally tilled plots. Also, more fire ants, rove beetles, and carabid beetle were captured by pitfall traps in the KCC plots than in the conventional tillage plots during at least 1 yr of the study

  5. Predicting the effectiveness of different mulching techniques to reduce post-fire runoff and erosion in Mediterranean pine stands - does cover matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Diana; Nunes, João; Prats, Sergio; Serpa, Dalila; Keizer, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires have become a recurrent threat for many forest ecosystems of the Mediterranean. The characteristics of the Mediterranean climate with its warm and dry summers and mild and wet winters make it prone to wildfire occurrence as well as to post-fire soil erosion. Furthermore, climate change and continuation of current land management practices and planning are generally expected to further increase this threat. The wide recognition of the effects of wildfires to enhance runoff and erosion has created a strong demand for model-based tools for predicting the post-fire hydrological and erosion response and, in particular, for predicting the effectiveness of post-fire forestry operations to mitigate these responses. Such a tool should allow to identify areas with elevated risks of soil erosion and to evaluate which measures should be applied and when to minimize these risks. A key element in evaluating these measures is also their costs, in order to optimize the use of the limited resources that are typically available for post-fire land management. In this study, two "treatments" are compared with control conditions (i.e. doing nothing) after a wildfire with a moderate soil burn severity: (i) 4 erosion plots were treated with hydro-mulch, (ii) 4 erosion plots were untreated but had a high pine needle cover quickly after the fire, due to needle cast from scorched pine crowns (often referred to as "natural mulching") (iii) 4 plots were untreated and had a very reduced protective litter cover . The main objective of this study was to asses if the revised MMF model could effectively predict the impacts of hydro-mulching and natural mulching with pine needle on runoff generation and the associated soil losses. If MMF could predict well the impact of natural mulching, it could be very useful in limiting the areas that should be considered for specific soil mitigation measures, especially in the case of wildfires that affect large areas with moderate severity. The

  6. The growth of pines germinated from woodchip mulch in restored soils from semiarid SE Spain quarries is enhanced by organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles, Isabel; Lázaro-Suau, Roberto; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2017-04-01

    The use of pine woodchips in soil restoration in calcareous quarries is a relatively low-cost mulching technique to improve soil water conservation and decrease soil erosion, contributing to improve soil quality. Besides these two important effects, woodchip mulch is also a potential source of seeds which can germinate if environmental conditions during earlier stages are adequate. Pine germination has been observed in experimental plots treated with pine woodchips used as mulch in one of the driest regions in Europe (SE Spain). This side-effect provided an interesting opportunity to analyse the influence of topsoil and two organic wastes (compost from domestic organic waste and sewage sludge from urban water treatment plant) in mine soils on the germinated pines (Pinus halepensis Mill.) and the plant cover (revegetated native plants and spontaneous vegetation). Number, height and basal diameter of pines and the total plant cover were measured 6 years after the applications of topsoil and organic amendments. Results showed that organic wastes increased the pine growth and the total plant cover which could favour in turn the physico-chemical soil properties and its quality in the medium-long term. However, organic amendments negatively influencing the number of germinated pines. The likely growth of pine seedlings derived from the pine cones which come with pine woodchips used as mulch, when enhanced by organic amendments, adds a positive value in quarry restoration even under very dry climatic conditions. However, it is necessary to continue monitoring the development of vegetation to form a more precise idea about whether the development of the pines is globally beneficial, since the pines could outcompete the local native plants.

  7. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    PubMed

    Gong, Daozhi; Hao, Weiping; Mei, Xurong; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Caylor, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L.) fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK) and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR) on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI) and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3%) top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass), there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source) in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  8. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Daozhi; Hao, Weiping; Mei, Xurong; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Caylor, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L.) fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK) and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR) on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI) and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3%) top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass), there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source) in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions. PMID:26305354

  9. The effect of monoculture peanut and cassava/peanut intercropping on physical and chemical properties in peanut rhizosphere soil under the biochar application and straw mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Tian, Y.; Guo, X. F.; Chen, G. K.; He, H. Z.; Li, H. S.

    2017-03-01

    Cassava/peanut intercropping is a popular cultivation method in the south China, with the advantage of apparent yield increase. In order to analyze the effect of cassava/peanut intercropping on physical and chemical properties in peanut rhizosphere soil, the physical and chemical properties were investigated under the biochar application and straw mulching. The result showed that the Ph, organic materials content, available phosphorus content, available potassium content in peanut rhizosphere under the biochar application increased by 7.06%, 94.52%, 17.53%, 25.08% (monoculture peanut) and 8.47%, 89.94%, 17.93%, 22.87% (cassava/peanut intercropping) compared with Ck in the same planting patterns. In addition, the available nitrogen content, organic materials content, available phosphorus content, and available potassium content in peanut rhizosphere under the straw mulching increased by 89.80%, 60.92%, 5.95%, 9.98% (monoculture peanut) and 67.09%, 52.34%, 6.96%, 11.94% (cassava/peanut intercropping) compared with Ck in the same planting patterns. In the same treatment conditions, bulk density in peanut rhizosphere soil decreased and porosity and saturated permeability coefficient increased slightly. But there was no significant difference between the two. At the same time, cassava/peanut intercropping could increase soil nutrients. Therefore, it is beneficial to apply biochar and straw mulching, and the suitable intercropping row spacing is more beneficial to increase soil nutrient contents.

  10. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  11. Optimization of water and nitrogen application to menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) through sugarcane trash mulch in a sandy loam soil of semi-arid subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Ram, Dasha; Ram, Muni; Singh, Ranjeet

    2006-05-01

    Studies were carried out to optimize the use of water and nutrients by the crop with three moisture regimes [0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 irrigation water:cumulative pan evaporation (IW:CPE) ratios], two variables of organic mulch (control and sugarcane trash at 7 t/ha) and three levels of nitrogen (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha). Soil moisture regimes maintained at 1.2 IW:CPE ratio significantly increased the crop growth and herb and essential oil yields as compared with that of 0.9 IW:CPE ratio. The increase in herb yield due to 1.5 and 1.2 IW:CPE ratios was recorded to be 28.5% and 19%, respectively, over the irrigation given at 0.9 IW:CPE ratio, with the corresponding increase in essential oil yield to the extent of 23.5% and 15.5%. Interaction effect of moisture regimes and nitrogen rates indicated that increasing levels of irrigation at the highest level of N (200 kg/ha) improved essential oil yield of the crop. Application of N at 200 kg/ha in the mulched plots significantly enhanced the N uptake by the crop and essential oil yield over the control and 100 kg N/ha applied in the mulched/or unmulched plots and 200 kg N/ha applied in the unmulched plots. Application of organic mulch and nitrogen at 200 kg/ha improved the water use efficiency (WUE) in menthol mint crop. Higher moisture regimes maintained up to 1.2 IW:CPE ratio increased the WUE. The quality of essential oil in terms of its major constituent, menthol, improved slightly with 1.2 IW:CPE ratio as compared to 0.9 and 1.5 IW:CPE ratios at first and second harvests of the crop. It is recommended that menthol mint crop could be grown profitably by providing 16 irrigations, that is 80 cm water (based on 1.2 IW:CPE ratio) and nitrogen at 200 kg/ha in the sugarcane trash mulched plots, which could give a highest benefit:cost ratio from menthol mint cropping.

  12. Evaluation of evapotranspiration and deep percolation under mulched drip irrigation in an oasis of Tarim basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianwen; Jin, Menggui; Zhou, Nianqing; Huang, Jinou; Jiang, Simin; Telesphore, Habiyakare

    2016-07-01

    Mulched drip irrigation for cotton field is an effective measure for the utilization of saline water, and the regulation of soil water and salt. However, the reasonable methods for quantifying actual evapotranspiration (ET) and deep percolation of recharge to groundwater are still not very well understood, which restricts the accurate regulation of soil water and salt for cotton growth in oasis. In this paper, a set of experiments of mulched drip irrigation with brackish water were conducted in a typical arid region of Tarim basin in southern Xinjiang, China. The irrigation events were recorded, and ET and fluctuations of groundwater table were carefully measured for two consecutive irrigation periods of flowering and bolling stages. A group of upscaling conversion methods were used to quantify the ET, in which canopy structure was considered to estimate the transpiration from leaf scale to a unit of field scale. The groundwater table had a significant response to the irrigation events, thus the deep percolation was estimated using water-table fluctuation method (WTF). Results showed that during the two irrigation events of flowering and bolling stages, the total ET was 31.1 mm with the soil surface evaporation of only 0.4 mm. The total percolation of recharge to groundwater was 48.2 mm which contributed to the groundwater run-off of 22.1 mm. Transpiration of 30.7 mm accounted for 98.6% of the total ET of 31.1 mm and 34.3% of the irrigation water of 90.6 mm. Compared with transpiration, the deep percolation accounted for 53.2% of irrigation water, indicating a serious excessive irrigation that recharged to groundwater. Soil salt budget showed that the salt leached into groundwater was 1.56 times of the input from brackish irrigation water and fertilization during the two irrigation periods. Even for the irrigation practice with brackish water, the accumulated salt of soil profile could also be leached out under large amount of irrigation water (e.g. 90.6 mm for the

  13. The spatiotemporal characteristics of soil physio-chemical parameters and their influence on cotton growth under mulched drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of the physio-chemical parameters of soil and their impacts on crop growth are the key issues affecting precision agriculture. However, quantitative research in cotton fields under mulched drip irrigation is rare. One hundred experimental plots (6 m× 6 m) were set up for the above purpose in an agricultural experimental field in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Soil samples were collected to measure the soil texture, moisture and salinity at depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 80 cm in the near-tape zone and the inter-film zone in each experimental plot in March, April, June and September of 2012. The number and height of the cotton plants in June and the yield of cotton in September were also surveyed in 3 sample units (75 cm × 75 cm) in each experimental plot. The results indicate that the soil composition of clay and silt was highest at a soil depth of 5 to 20 cm due to the cultivation practices, and the Cv (coefficient of variation) values of soil texture increased with depth. The spring flush led to an 8% decrease in soil salinity and reduced the Cv values of soil salinity, soil moisture and soil texture. The Cv values of soil salinity and soil moisture increased as mulched drip irrigation was applied. The Cv values of soil salinity and moisture under the near tape zone were higher than under the interfilm zone; the difference was up to twofold in September. The validity of a theoretical semivariogram model of soil moisture is greater than that of texture, soil salinity and crop trait when comparing the estimation of the theoretical semivariogram with measured values. The influence of soil physiochemical characteristics on the number of cotton plants is largest in April, and their influence on the height of cotton plants is greatest in June. However, the influence of soil physiochemical characteristics on cotton yield is smaller than that on cotton number and height in April and June. The soil salt under the near tape

  14. [Effect of controlled release fertilizer on nitrous oxide emission from paddy field under plastic film mulching cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Lü, Shi-Hua; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Yuan, Jiang; Dong, Yu-Jiao

    2014-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of controlled release fertilizer on N2O emission in paddy field under plastic film mulching cultivation (PM) with water-saving irrigation. Results showed that in the rice growing season, cumulative N2O emissions from the plots applied with urea (PM+U) and with controlled release fertilizer (PM+CRF) were (38.2 +/- 4.4) and (21.5 +/- 5.2) mg N x m(-2), respectively. The N2O emission factors were 0.25% and 0.14% in the treatments PM+U and PM+CRF, respectively. The controlled release fertilizer decreased the total N2O emission by 43.6% compared with urea, of which 49.6% was reduced before the drying period. It also reduced the peak of N2O emission by 52.6%. However, it did not affect soil microbial biomass N and soil NH(4+)-N content at any rice growing stage, and grain yield either. No significant correlation was observed between N2O flux and soil Eh or soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm.

  15. The Effect of Natural Mulches on Crop Performance, Weed Suppression and Biochemical Constituents of Catnip and St. John's Wort.

    PubMed

    Duppong, L M; Delate, K; Liebman, M; Horton, R; Romero, F; Kraus, G; Petrich, J; Chowdbury, P K

    2004-01-01

    Because of expanding markets for high-value niche crops, opportunities have increased for the production of medicinal herbs in the USA. An experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 near Gilbert, IA, to study crop performance, weed suppression, and environmental conditions associated with the use of several organic mulches in the production of two herbs, catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L. 'Helos'). Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design and included a positive (hand-weeded) control, a negative (nonweeded) control, oat straw, a flax straw mat, and a nonwoven wool mat. Catnip plant height was significantly greater in the oat straw than the other treatments at 4 wk through 6 wk in 2001; at 4 to 8 wk in 2002, catnip plant height and width was significantly lower in the negative control compared with the other treatments. Catnip yield was significantly higher in the flax straw mat than all other treatments in 2001. In 2002, St. John's wort yields were not statistically different in any treatments. All weed management treatments had significantly fewer weeds than the non-weeded rows in 2002. Total weed density comparisons in each crop from 2 yr showed fewer weeds present in the flax straw and wool mat treatments compared with positive control plots. There was no significant weed management treatment effect on the concentration of the target compounds, nepetalactone in catnip and pseudohypericin-hypericin in St. John's wort, although there was a trend toward higher concentrations in the flax straw treatment.

  16. Light reflected from colored mulches affects aroma and phenol content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Loughrin, J H; Kasperbauer, M J

    2001-03-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb the leaves of which are used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. It was hypothesized that the size and chemical composition of sun-grown basil leaves could be influenced by the color of light reflected from the soil surface and by the action of the reflected light through the natural growth regulatory system within the growing plants. Leaf morphology, aroma compounds, and soluble phenolics were compared in basil that had been grown over six colors of polyethylene row covers. Altering the ratios of blue, red, and far-red light reflected to growing plants influenced both leaf morphology and chemistry. Leaves developing over red surfaces had greater area, moisture percentage (succulence), and fresh weight than those developing over black surfaces. Basil grown over yellow and green surfaces produced significantly higher concentrations of aroma compounds than did basil grown over white and blue covers. Leaves grown over yellow and green mulches also contained significantly higher concentrations of phenolics than those grown over the other colors. Clearly, the wavelengths (color) of light reflected to growing basil plants affected leaf size, aroma, and concentrations of soluble phenolics, some of which are antioxidants.

  17. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A.; Abdul-Baki, Aref A.; Sobolev, Anatoli P.; Goyal, Ravinder K.; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L.; Handa, Avtar K.; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotype×mulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit. PMID:18469323

  18. The soil-water flow system beneath a cotton field in arid north-west China, serviced by mulched drip irrigation using brackish water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianwen; Jin, Menggui; Huang, Jinou; Yuan, Jingjing

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was carried out in southern Xinjiang, China, to reveal soil-water flow pattern beneath a combined plastic-mulch (film) and drip-irrigation system using brackish water. The soil-water flow system (SWFS) was characterized from soil surface to the water table based on observed spatio-temporal distribution of total soil-water potential, water content and electric conductivity. Root suction provided a strong inner sink. The results indicated that SWFS determined the soil salinity and moisture distribution. Drip-irrigation events could leach excess salts from the root zone and provide soil conditions with a tolerable salinity level that supports the growth of cotton. High-salinity strips were formed along the wetting front and at the bare soil surface. Hydrogeology conditions, irrigation regime, climate, plant growth and use of mulch would affect potential sources and sinks, boundary conditions and the size of the SWFS. At depth 0-60 cm, the soil salinity at the end of the irrigation season was 1.9 times that at the beginning. Beneath the mulch cover, the soil-water content in the `wide rows' zone (55 cm between the two rows with no drip line) was higher than that in the `narrow rows' zone (15 cm between the two rows with a drip line) due to the strong root-water uptake. The downward water flow below the divergent curved surface of zero flux before irrigation, and the water-table fluctuation with irrigation events, indicated that excessive irrigation occurred.

  19. A comparison of methods for determining the cotton field evapotranspiration and its components under mulched drip irrigation conditions: photosynthesis system, sap flow, and eddy covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-scale, multi-technique study was conducted to measure evapotranspiration and its components in a cotton field under mulched drip irrigation conditions in northwestern China. Three measurement techniques at different scales were used: photosynthesis system (leaf scale), sap flow (plant scale), and eddy covariance (field scale). The experiment was conducted from July to September 2012. For upscaling the evapotranspiration from the leaf to the plant scale, an approach that incorporated the canopy structure and the relationships between sunlit and shaded leaves was proposed. For upscaling the evapotranspiration from the plant to the field scale, an approach based on the transpiration per unit leaf area was adopted and modified to incorporate the temporal variability in the relationships between the leaf area and the stem diameter. At the plant scale, the estimate of the transpiration based on the photosynthesis system with upscaling is slightly higher (18%) than that obtained by sap flow. At the field scale, the estimate of the transpiration obtained by upscaling the estimate based on sap flow measurements is also systematically higher (10%) compared to that obtained through eddy covariance during the cotton open boll growth stage when soil evaporation can be neglected. Nevertheless, the results derived from these three distinct methods show reasonable consistency at the field scale, which indicates that the upscaling approaches are reasonable and valid. Based on the measurements and the upscaling approaches, the evapotranspiration components were analyzed under mulched drip irrigation. During the cotton flower and bolling stages in July and August, the evapotranspiration are 3.94 and 4.53 mm day-1, respectively. The proportion of transpiration to evapotranspiration reaches 87.1% before drip irrigation and 82.3% after irrigation. The high water use efficiency is principally due to the mulched film above the drip pipe, the low soil water content in the inter

  20. Towards an integrated assessment of the impacts of forest residue mulching following wildfire in eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keizer, Jan Jacob; Abrantes, Nelson; Bastos, Ana; Brandsma, Micha; Campos, Isabel; Faria, Silvia; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; João Oliveira, Maria; Pimpão, Gabriel; Prats, Sergio; Puga, João; Ribeiro, Cristina; Rocha, João; Santos, Liliana; Serpa, Dalila; Silva, Flávio; Silva, Tiago; Valente, Sandra; Vieira, Diana

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 project RECARE (www.recare-project.eu) and, in particular, its WP6, the University of Aveiro partner has recently started testing two measures against the soil threat of post-fire erosion by water in an area in north-central Portugal, close to Coimbra that burnt during the summer of 2015. These measures - mulching with forest slash residues and contour ploughing - had been selected by the local and external stakeholders involved in the project, through two subsequent stakeholder workshops. While contour ploughing has still not taken place, the mulching was already carried out, using residues from eucalypt plantations as the burnt areas was dominated by eucalypt plantations, and applying them in a homogeneous fashion at two contrasting application rates, i.e. a "standard" rate of approximately 10 Mg ha-1 and a "reduced" rate of about 3 Mg ha-1. The standard rate was selected for having proved effective in reducing post-fire runoff and erosion in previous field studies in the region (Prats et al., 2012, 2014, 2015a), while the reduced rate had been found to be nearly as effective as the standard rate in a recent study in the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Coimbra (Prats et al., 2015b). Unlike the referred prior studies, however, the present study will also assess the impacts of mulching on two other soil threats - i.e. decline in soil organic matter and in soil biodiversity - and, ultimately, will compare the two measures in terms of their consequences for soil-based ecosystem services, using the framework being developed by RECARE (Schwilch et al. in Stolte et al., 2016). The proposed presentation will show the first results on the effects of the two mulch application rates on post-fire runoff as well as the associated losses of sediments, organic matter/C and nutrients (N, P), and on selected indicators of soil biological activity and diversity. Prats et al., 2015a (in press). LD&D (doi: 10.1002/ldr.2422) Prats et al., 2015

  1. [Effects of irrigation threshold on soil temperature in blossom and fruit-set periods of muskmelon under mulching-drip irrigation in greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Gong, Xue-Wen; Liu, Hao; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Cui, Jia-Xin

    2014-10-01

    It is very significant for muskmelon growth and production to maintain optimal conditions of soil moisture and temperature, especially during blossom and fruit-bearing periods. The object of this study was to analyze the effects of different soil water thresholds (T1: 55% of the field capacity, T2: 65% of the field capacity, T3: 75% of the field capacity, CK: 85% of the field capacity) on soil temperature under mulching-drip irrigation in greenhouse. Moreover, effects of the ratio of soil moisture to heat in the plough layer (0-20 cm) on muskmelon growth and fruit setting were investigated. Results indicated that during the flowering and fruit bearing periods, the order of mean soil temperature in the plough layer for the different treatments was T1 > T2 > T3 > CK. There was an inverse correlation between soil temperature in the plough layer and moisture. The maximum one-day variations for soil temperature on sunny day, rainy day and after irrigation were observed in the soil surface under the plastic film mulch, while the minimum happened in the soil layer of 20 cm outside the mulch. The soil temperature extreme was closely related with soil depth, and the difference in the extreme soil temperature between the soil surface and the soil layers of 10 and 20 cm was significant. The treatment T3, with the fastest plant growth rate, the minimum duration of fruit bearing and the maximum fruit setting rate, could be selected as the optimal treatment, and the ratio of soil moisture to heat in T3 was 1.62 mm · °C(-1). Therefore, taking into consideration the relationship between soil moisture and temperature during flowering and fruit bearing periods of muskmelon under mulching-drip irrigation, the ratio of soil water to heat in the plough layer should be kept at 1.62 mm · C(-1). The result would be very meaningful for drip-irrigated muskmelon production and management in greenhouse in North China.

  2. [Effects of plastic film mulching and rain harvesting modes on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, yield and water use efficiency of dryland maize].

    PubMed

    Li, Shang-Zhong; Fan, Ting-Lu; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Lei; Tang, Xiao-Ming; Dang, Yi; Zhao, Hui

    2014-02-01

    The differences on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, yield and water use efficiency of dryland maize were compared among full plastic film mulching on double ridges and planting in catchment furrows (FFDRF), half plastic film mulching on double ridges and planting in catchment furrows (HFDRF), plastic film mulching on ridge and planting in film-side (FS), and flat planting with no plastic film mulching (NM) under field conditions in dry highland of Loess Plateau in 2007-2012. The results showed that fluorescence yield (Fo), the maximum fluorescence yield (Fm), light-adapted fluorescence yield when PS II reaction centers were totally open (F), light-adapted fluorescence yield when PS II reaction centers closed (Fm'), the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), the actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (Phi PS II), the relative electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (qN) in maize leaves of FFDRF were higher than that of control (NM), and the value of 1-qP was lower than that of control, at 13:00, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters values of FFDRF was significantly higher than control, which were increased by 5.3%, 56.8%, 10.7%, 36.3%, 23.6%, 56.7%, 64.4%, 45.5%, 23.6% and -55.6%, respectively, compared with the control. Yield and water use efficiency of FFDRF were the highest in every year no matter dry year, normal year, humid year and hail disaster year. Average yield and water use efficiency of FFDRF were 12,650 kg x hm(-2) and 40.4 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2) during 2007-2012, increased by 57.8% and 61.6% compared with the control, respectively, and also significantly higher compared with HFDRF and PS. Therefore, it was concluded that FFDRF had significantly increased the efficiency of light energy conversion and improved the production capacity of dryland maize.

  3. Effect of Plastic Film Mulching on the Grain Filling and Hormonal Changes of Maize under Different Irrigation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Didi; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Yongping; Liao, Yuncheng; Wen, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) is widely utilized for maize production in China. However, the effect of PM on the grain yield of crops has not been established, and the biochemical mechanism underlying the increase or decrease in grain yield under PM is not yet understood. Grain filling markedly affects the grain yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PM on maize grain filling under different irrigation levels and the relationship of such effects with hormonal changes. In the present study, PM was compared with traditional nonmulching management (TN) under 220 mm, 270 mm and 320 mm irrigation amount, and the grain filling characters of the grains located in various parts of the ear and the hormonal changes in the grains were measured. The results indicated that at 220 mm irrigation, PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the middle and basal grains and decreased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. At 270 mm irrigation, the PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the all grains. At 320 mm irrigation, the PM only significantly increased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. The IAA, Z+ZR and ABA content in the grains was positively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates; however, the ETH evolution rate of the grains was negatively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates. These results show that the effect of PM on maize grain filling is related to the irrigation amount and that the grain position on the ear and the grain filling of the upper grains was more sensitive to PM and irrigation than were the other grains. In addition, the PM and irrigation regulated the balance of hormones rather than the content of individual hormones to affect the maize grain filling. PMID:25867028

  4. Effect of plastic film mulching on the grain filling and hormonal changes of maize under different irrigation conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Liu, Didi; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Yongping; Liao, Yuncheng; Wen, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) is widely utilized for maize production in China. However, the effect of PM on the grain yield of crops has not been established, and the biochemical mechanism underlying the increase or decrease in grain yield under PM is not yet understood. Grain filling markedly affects the grain yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PM on maize grain filling under different irrigation levels and the relationship of such effects with hormonal changes. In the present study, PM was compared with traditional nonmulching management (TN) under 220 mm, 270 mm and 320 mm irrigation amount, and the grain filling characters of the grains located in various parts of the ear and the hormonal changes in the grains were measured. The results indicated that at 220 mm irrigation, PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the middle and basal grains and decreased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. At 270 mm irrigation, the PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the all grains. At 320 mm irrigation, the PM only significantly increased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. The IAA, Z+ZR and ABA content in the grains was positively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates; however, the ETH evolution rate of the grains was negatively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates. These results show that the effect of PM on maize grain filling is related to the irrigation amount and that the grain position on the ear and the grain filling of the upper grains was more sensitive to PM and irrigation than were the other grains. In addition, the PM and irrigation regulated the balance of hormones rather than the content of individual hormones to affect the maize grain filling.

  5. The Effects of Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Growth and Water Use in Dry and Rainy Years in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Li, Congfeng; Liu, Huitao; Zhou, Peilu; Tao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Pu; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) has been widely used to improve maize (Zea mays L.) yields and water use efficiency (WUE) in Northeast China, but the effects of PM in a changing climate characterized by highly variable precipitation are not well understood. Six site-year field experiments were conducted in the dry and rainy years to investigate the effects of PM on maize growth, grain yield, and WUE in Northeast China. Compared to crops grown without PM treatment (control, CK), PM significantly increased the grain yield by 15-26% in the dry years, but no significant yield increase was observed in the rainy years. Yield increase in the dry years was mainly due to a large increase in dry matter accumulation pre-silking compared to the CK, which resulted from a greater dry matter accumulation rate due to the higher topsoil temperature and water content. As a result, the WUE of the crops that underwent PM (3.27 kg m-3) treatment was also increased by around 16% compared to the CK, although the overall evapotranspiration was similar between the two treatments. In the rainy years, due to frequent precipitation and scant sunshine, the topsoil temperature and water content in the field that received PM treatment was improved only at some stages and failed to cause higher dry matter accumulation, except at the 8th leaf stage. Consequently, the grain yield and WUE were not improved by PM in the rainy years. In addition, we found that PM caused leaf senescence at the late growth stage in both dry and rainy years. Therefore, in practice, PM should be applied cautiously, especially when in-season precipitation is taken into account. PMID:25970582

  6. [Effects of nitrogen management on yield, quality, nitrogen accumulation and its transportation of watermelon in gravel-mulched field].

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong-ming; Du, Shao-ping; Xue, Liang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen management on yield, quality, nitrogen and dry matter accumulation and transportation of watermelon in sand field were studied based on a field experiment. The results showed that too low or too high basal nitrogen fertilzation was unfavorable to seedling growth of watermelon in sand field, and no nitrogen application at vine extension or fruiting stages limited the formation of 'source' or 'sink'. At the same nitrogen rate, compared with the traditional T1 treatment (30% basal N fertilizer + 70% N fertilizer in vine extension), the nitrogen and dry matter accumulation of vegetative organs of T4 treatment (30% basal N fertilizer + 30% N fertilizer in vine extension + 40% N fertilizer in fruiting) and T6 treatment (100% basal N fertilizer + NAM) were reduced significantly, but the nitrogen and dry matter accumulation of fruit were increased significantly in the flushing period. The nitrogen transportation ratio and nitrogen contribution ratio of T4 were 33.6% and 12.0%, respectively. Compared to T1, the nitrogen harvest index, nitrogen fertilizer partial factor productivity and nitrogen fertilizer recovery efficiency of T4 and T6 treatments increased by 14.1% and 12.7%, 11.6% and 12.5%, 5.3% and 8.7%, respectively, and yield of watermelon increased by 11.6% and 12.5%, the soluble sugar, effective acid, the ratio of sugar and acid, Vc content increased by 16.5% and 11.7%, 4.5% and 2.8%, 19.4% and 13.4%, 35.6% and 19.0%, respectively. Therefore, T4 and T6 treatments were the optimal nitrogen fertilizer management mode which could not only achieve high yield and quality but also obtain high nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency in sand field. T6 treatment was the best nitrogen fertilizer management mode considering reduction of fertilizing labor intensity and extending service time of gravel-mulched field.

  7. The effects of plastic film mulching on maize growth and water use in dry and rainy years in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Li, Congfeng; Liu, Huitao; Zhou, Peilu; Tao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Pu; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) has been widely used to improve maize (Zea mays L.) yields and water use efficiency (WUE) in Northeast China, but the effects of PM in a changing climate characterized by highly variable precipitation are not well understood. Six site-year field experiments were conducted in the dry and rainy years to investigate the effects of PM on maize growth, grain yield, and WUE in Northeast China. Compared to crops grown without PM treatment (control, CK), PM significantly increased the grain yield by 15-26% in the dry years, but no significant yield increase was observed in the rainy years. Yield increase in the dry years was mainly due to a large increase in dry matter accumulation pre-silking compared to the CK, which resulted from a greater dry matter accumulation rate due to the higher topsoil temperature and water content. As a result, the WUE of the crops that underwent PM (3.27 kg m(-3)) treatment was also increased by around 16% compared to the CK, although the overall evapotranspiration was similar between the two treatments. In the rainy years, due to frequent precipitation and scant sunshine, the topsoil temperature and water content in the field that received PM treatment was improved only at some stages and failed to cause higher dry matter accumulation, except at the 8th leaf stage. Consequently, the grain yield and WUE were not improved by PM in the rainy years. In addition, we found that PM caused leaf senescence at the late growth stage in both dry and rainy years. Therefore, in practice, PM should be applied cautiously, especially when in-season precipitation is taken into account.

  8. Growth responses of Kentucky-31, Kenhy, and Kenwell tall fescues established under differing rates of wood fiber and hardwood bark mulches on eastern Kentucky surface mines

    SciTech Connect

    Koon, D.L.; Graves, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    In August, 1977 Kentucky-31, Kenwell, and the newly released Kenhy variety of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea (L.) Schreb.) were planted on Falcon Coal Company land in eastern Kentucky to evaluate their establishment and vegetative responses to wood fiber mulch (WFM) and hardwood tree bark. Each of the one-half acre plots were fertilized at a constant rate of four hundred (400) pounds of 16-32-8 fertilizer and seeded at the rate of twenty (20) pounds and four (4) pounds per acre with a tall fescue variety and sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) respectively. Plot mulch treatments included a control, 35 and 70 cubic yards per acre of hardwood bark, and 300 and 750 pounds per acre of WFM. Percent total ground cover and percent cover occupied by grasses and by legumes were collected for two growing seasons. Reduced seeding rates were utilized to increase the length of time for establishment so that each variety could be easily compared over several growing seasons, indicating adaptability for establishment on eastern Kentucky mine spoil.

  9. Diversity of Fungi on Decomposing Leaf Litter in a Sugarcane Plantation and Their Response to Tillage Practice and Bagasse Mulching: Implications for Management Effects on Litter Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiko; Niswati, Ainin; Swibawa, I G; Haryani, Sri; Gunito, Heru; Shimano, Satoshi; Fujie, Koichi; Kaneko, Nobuhiro

    2015-10-01

    To minimize the degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) content in conventional sugarcane cropping, it is important to understand how the fungal community contributes to SOM dynamics during the decomposition of sugarcane leaf litter. However, our knowledge of fungal diversity in tropical agroecosystems is currently limited. Thus, we determined the fungal community structure on decomposing sugarcane leaf litter and their response to different soil management systems using the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing method afforded by Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). The results indicate that no-tillage had positive effects on the relative abundance of Zygomycota and of some taxa that may prefer a moist environment over conventional tillage, whereas bagasse mulching decreased the richness of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and had positive effect on the relative abundance of slow-growing taxa, which may prefer poor nutrient substrates. Furthermore, a combination of no-tillage and bagasse mulching increased the abundance of unique OTUs. We suggest that the alteration of fungal communities through the changes in soil management practices produces an effect on litter decomposition.

  10. Cover crops and natural vegetation mulch effect achieved by mechanical management with lateral rotary mower in weed population dynamics in citrus.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Héctor Alonso San Martín; Filho, Ricardo Victoria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on practical weed management in order to reduce the use of herbicides thereby contributing to the sustainable development of citrus crop. The experiment was carried out under field conditions at the experimental area of the Department of Vegetal Production at the College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz," Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, during the season 2002-2003. Influence of mulches produced by four types of vegetations on the dynamic population of weeds in the line of citrus crop (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) was evaluated. The experimental design was of factorial randomized blocks (4 x 2), where the treatments were: (i) four types of vegetation: Dolichos lablab L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp, Penisetum glaucum (L.) Leeke, and the natural infestation composed basically by Panicum maximum Jacq.; and (ii) two types of fertilization: directed under canopy and broadcast. Mechanical management of the different vegetations was accomplished using a lateral rotary mower, KAMAQ, I model NINJA MAC 260, projected to release the green cut material under crop canopy, forming a mulch layer. The studied parameters were: (i) counting of weeds per m2 in the crop line after 30, 60, 90, 180, and 210 days following the cutting of existing vegetation; (ii) percentage of covered area by weeds; and (iii) some chemical properties of the soil. It was observed that the natural infestation showed a better weed control when compared with the other treatments, and that the broadcast fertilization, regardless of coverage used, presented a lower number of weeds.

  11. The effect of cyclic loading on the biomechanical characteristics of the femur-graft-tibia complex after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using Bone Mulch screw/WasherLoc fixation.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toshiharu; Tohyama, Harukazu; Minami, Akio; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2005-05-01

    The Bone Mulch screw/WasherLoc fixation system has attracted notice because of its possible advantages. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of this fixation system for the double-looped flexor tendon graft with those of two standard fixation techniques that had been commonly performed in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was carried out in each group using one of three different procedures (n=14 for each procedure). For each group, seven femur-graft-tibia complexes underwent submaximal cyclic displacement of 5000 cycles after an initial tension of 20N was applied. Then, tensile testing was performed for the complex at a single position, 45 degrees of knee flexion, in which the longitudinal axis of the graft coincided with the axis of the bone tunnels. The remaining seven complexes in each group were examined in the same tensile test without applying any cyclic displacement. At the 5000th cycle of the displacement, the peak load of the complex with the Bone Mulch screw/WasherLoc system was significantly higher than that with the Endobutton technique (P<0.0001). After 5000 cycles of displacement, the initial stiffness and the linear stiffness of the complex with the Bone Mulch screw/WasherLoc system were significantly higher than those with the double-looped tendon graft and the Endobutton technique (P<0.0001 for both comparisons), while those with the Bone Mulch screw/WasherLoc system were significantly lower than those with the patellar tendon graft with interference screws (initial stiffness: P=0.0004, linear stiffness: P=0.0007). The present study has clarified that the Bone Mulch screw/WasherLoc system provides high stiffness to the complex for the double-looped flexor tendon graft.

  12. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Goyal, Ravinder K; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotypexmulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit.

  13. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  14. [Effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the leaf photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Tao, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-feng

    2013-02-01

    Taking different genotype cotton varieties as test materials, a soil column culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Under the management mode W4N2, i.e., pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering in combining with basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) , actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Psi PSII), and photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) at full-flowering stage all decreased significantly, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was inhibited, as compared with those under common drip irrigation. From full-flowering stage to boll-opening stage, the chlorophyll content, gs, Pn, Psi PSII, and qp increased with increasing water and nitrogen supply, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was enhanced by compensation, which benefited the translocation and distribution of photosynthates to seed cotton. Under the fertilization mode of basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the seed cotton yield of Xinluzaol3 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + common drip irrigation (W3), but that of Xinluzao43 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering (W4). It was concluded that under the condition of pre-sowing irrigation, to appropriately decrease the water and nitrogen supply before full-flowering stage and increase the water and nitrogen supply at middle and late growth stages could extend the active photosynthesis duration and promote the photosynthates allocation to reproductive organ, which would fully exploit the yield-increasing potential of cotton with under-mulch

  15. [Coupling effects of partitioning alternative drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization on cotton dry matter accumulation and nitrogen use].

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang

    2013-02-01

    A field experiment with complete combination design was conducted to study the effects of partitioning alternative drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization on the dry matter accumulation and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton plant. Three levels of irrigation (260, 200, and 140 mm) and of nitrogen fertilizer (270, 180, and 90 kg.hm-2) were installed. The cotton dry mass was the highest in treatments medium nitrogen/high water and high nitrogen/high water. As compared with that in high nitrogen/high water treatment, the nitrogen use efficiency for dry matter accumulation in medium nitrogen/high water treatment was increased by 34.0% -44.6%, with an average of 34.7% , while the water use efficiency was decreased by 6.4% -10.7%, averagely 10.2%. As for the nitrogen accumulation in cotton plant, the nitrogen use efficiency was the highest in medium nitrogen/high water treatment, and the water use efficiency was the highest in high nitrogen/medium water treatment. Compared with high nitrogen/high water treatment, medium nitrogen/high water treatment increased the nitrogen use efficiency for cotton nitrogen accumulation by 29.0% -41.7%, but decreased the water use efficiency for cotton nitrogen accumulation by 5.5%-14.0%. Among the treatments of coupling water and nitrogen of higher cotton yield, treatment medium nitrogen/high water had the higher cotton nitrogen recovery rate, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, and apparent use efficiency than the treatments high nitrogen/medium water and high nitrogen/high water, but no significant differences were observed in the nitrogen absorption ratio and nitrogen physiological efficiency. Treatment medium nitrogen/high water was most beneficial to the coupling effects of water and nitrogen under partitioning alternate drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization.

  16. [Effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching on the net primary productivity, soil heterotrophic respiration, and net CO2 exchange flux of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Run-Hua; Lai, Dong-Mei; Yan, Zheng-Yue; Jiang, Li; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2012-04-01

    In April-October, 2009, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching (MD) on the net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) , and net CO2 exchange flux (NEF(CO2)) of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, taking the traditional flood irrigation with no mulching (NF) as the control. With the increasing time, the NPP, Rh, and NEF(CO2) in treatments MD and NF all presented a trend of increasing first and decreased then. As compared with NF, MD increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP of cotton, and decreased the Rh. Over the whole growth period, the Rh in treatment MD (214 g C x m(-2)) was smaller than that in treatment NF (317 g C x m(-2)), but the NEF(CO2) in treatment MD (1030 g C x m(-2)) was higher than that in treatment NF (649 g C x m(-2)). Treatment MD could fix the atmospheric CO2 approximately 479 g C x m(-2) higher than treatment NF. Drip irrigation with plastic mulching could promote crop productivity while decreasing soil CO2 emission, being an important agricultural measure for the carbon sequestration and emission reduction of cropland ecosystems in arid area.

  17. [Effects of water storage in deeper soil layers on the root growth, root distribution and economic yield of cotton in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Taking cotton cultivar Xinluzao 13 as test material, a soil column culture expenment was conducted to study the effects of water storage in deeper (> 60 cm) soil layer on the root growth and its relations with the aboveground growth of the cultivar in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch. Two levels of water storage in 60-120 cm soil layer were installed, i. e., well-watered and no watering, and for each, the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth period was controlled at two levels, i.e., 70% and 55% of field capacity. It was observed that the total root mass density of the cultivar and its root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer had significant positive correlations with the aboveground dry mass. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 70% of field capacity, the total root mass density under well-watered and no watering had less difference, but the root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer under well-watered condition increased, which enhanced the water consumption in deeper soil layer, increased the aboveground dry mass, and finally, led to an increased economic yield and higher water use efficiency. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 55% of field capacity and the deeper soil layer was well-watered, the root/shoot ratio and root length density in 40-120 cm soil layer and the root activity in 80-120 cm soil layer were higher, the water consumption in deeper soil layer increased, but it was still failed to adequately compensate for the negative effects of water deficit during growth season on the impaired growth of roots and aboveground parts, leading to a significant decrease in the economic yield, as compared with that at 70% of field capacity. Overall, sufficient water storage in deeper soil layer and a sustained soil moisture level of 65% -75% of field capacity during growth period could promote the

  18. Nitrapyrin addition mitigates nitrous oxide emissions and raises nitrogen use efficiency in plastic-film-mulched drip-fertigated cotton field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Liang, Yongchao; Chu, Guixin

    2017-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors (NIs) have been used extensively to reduce nitrogen losses and increase crop nitrogen nutrition. However, information is still scant regarding the influence of NIs on nitrogen transformation, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and nitrogen utilization in plastic-film-mulched calcareous soil under high frequency drip-fertigated condition. Therefore, a field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrapyrin (2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine) on soil mineral nitrogen (N) transformation, N2O emission and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a drip-fertigated cotton-growing calcareous field. Three treatments were established: control (no N fertilizer), urea (225 kg N ha-1) and urea+nitrapyrin (225 kg N ha-1+2.25 kg nitrapyrin ha-1). Compared with urea alone, urea plus nitrapyrin decreased the average N2O emission fluxes by 6.6-21.8% in June, July and August significantly in a drip-fertigation cycle. Urea application increased the seasonal cumulative N2O emission by 2.4 kg N ha-1 compared with control, and nitrapyrin addition significantly mitigated the seasonal N2O emission by 14.3% compared with urea only. During the main growing season, the average soil ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration was 28.0% greater and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) concentration was 13.8% less in the urea+nitrapyrin treatment than in the urea treatment. Soil NO3--N and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were more closely correlated than soil NH4+-N with soil N2O fluxes under drip-fertigated condition (P<0.001). Compared with urea alone, urea plus nitrapyrin reduced the seasonal N2O emission factor (EF) by 32.4% while increasing nitrogen use efficiency by 10.7%. The results demonstrated that nitrapyrin addition significantly inhibited soil nitrification and maintained more NH4+-N in soil, mitigated N2O losses and improved nitrogen use efficiency in plastic-film-mulched calcareous soil under high frequency drip-fertigated condition.

  19. [Effects of whole field-surface plastic mulching and planting in furrow on soil temperature, soil moisture, and corn yield in arid area of Gansu Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-li; Zhang, Xu-cheng; Song, Shang-you; Ma, Yi-Fan; Yu, Xian-feng; Liu, Yan-lan

    2011-10-01

    Taking spring corn (Zea mays) cultivar Shendan 16 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of the treatments whole-field surface plastic mulching and planting in furrow (PMF), whole-field surface sand mulching and flat planting (SM), and uncovered and flat planting (CK) on the soil temperature, soil moisture, and corn yield on the dry land of arid area (annual average precipitation 415 mm) in middle Gansu Province. Comparing with CK, treatments PMF and SM increased the average temperature in 0-25 cm soil layer before tasselling stage, with the highest increment in treatment PMF. As for the soil water consumption, its depth in the three treatments increased with increasing years of planting. In the first year of planting, the soil water consumption was the most in 20-120 cm soil layer; whereas in the second year, the consumption was the most in 120-200 cm soil layer, with the soil water loss being the highest in treatment PMF. Treatment PMF had the highest grain number, grain weight per spike, and 100-grain weight, followed by treatment SM, and CK. In 2009 and 2010, the average grain number, average grain weight per spike, and average 100-grain weight in treatment PMF were increased by 13.5% and 114.2%, 29.8% and 321.1%, and 14.4% and 95.4% respectively, as compared to treatments SM and CK, and the grain yield and water use efficiency in treatments PMF and SM were increased by 333.1% and 240.2%, and 290.6% and 227.6%, respectively, as compared to CK. After two years continuous cropping of corn, the soil water loss in 120-200 cm soil layer in treatment PMF was up to 72 mm, being significantly higher than that in treatments SM (45 mm) and CK (40 mm). It was suggested that PMF could increase the soil temperature at seedling-tasselling stage, promote the corn growth in its early growth period, improve the soil water use by corn, and consequently, increase the grain number per spike and 100-grain weight, manifesting a good effect in

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils amended by cover-crops and under plastic film mulching: Fluxes, emission factors and yield-scaled emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gil Won; Das, Suvendu; Hwang, Hyun Young; Kim, Pil Joo

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factor (EF) for N2O emission inventory from arable crops fertilized with different nitrogen sources are under increased scrutiny because of discrepancies between the default IPCC EFs and low EFs reported by many researchers. Mixing ratio of leguminous and non-leguminous cover crop residues incorporation and plastic film mulching (PFM) in upland soil has been recommended as a vital agronomic practice to enhance yield and soil quality. However, how these practices together affect N2O emissions, yield-scaled emissions and the EFs remain uncertain. Field experiments spanning two consecutive years were conducted to evaluate the effects of PFM on N2O emissions, yield-scaled emissions and the seasonal EFs in cover crop residues amended soil during maize cultivation. The mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seeds with 75% recommended dose (RD 140 kg ha-1) and 25% recommended dose (RD 90 kg ha-1), respectively, were broadcasted during the fallow period and 0, 25, 50 and 100% of the total aboveground harvested biomass that correspond to 0, 76, 152 and 304 kg N ha-1 were incorporated before maize transplanting. It was found that the mean seasonal EFs from cover crop residues amended soil under No-mulching (NM) and PFM were 1.13% (ranging from 0.81 to 1.23%) and 1.49% (ranging from 1.02 to 1.63%), respectively, which are comparable to the IPCC (2006) default EF (1%) for emission inventories of N2O from crop residues. The emission fluxes were greatly influenced by NH4+sbnd N, NO3--N, DOC and DON contents of soil. The cumulative N2O emissions markedly increased with the increase in cover crop residues application rates and it was more prominent under PFM than under NM. However, the yield-scaled emissions markedly decreased under PFM compared to NM due to the improved yield. With relatively low yield-scaled N2O emissions, 25% biomass mixing ratio of barley and hairy vetch (76 kg N ha-1) under PFM could be

  1. Two-season study of the influence of regulated deficit irrigation and reflective mulch on individual and total phenolic compounds of nectarines at harvest and during storage.

    PubMed

    Pliakoni, Eleni D; Nanos, George D; Gil, Maria I

    2010-11-24

    The influence of deficit irrigation (Deficit) and reflective mulch (Reflective) of Caldesi 2000 nectarines on the content of individual phenolic compounds was studied at harvest and during storage for 2, 4, and 6 weeks at 2 °C during two consecutive years (2007 and 2008). Individual phenolic groups in the edible fruit part consisted mainly of proanthocyanidins (200 mg/100 g fw), lower content of phenolic acids (17 mg/100 g fw), and minor content of flavonols (5 mg/100 g fw) and anthocyanins (1.2 mg/100 g fw). Deficit irrigation increased the content of total phenolics, including proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids, reaching similar amounts in both years. Sun-exposed fruit (upper part of canopy) showed higher content than shaded fruit (lower part of canopy). However, Reflective significantly increased the content of total phenolics, particularly phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins, of fruit located in the lower part of the canopy. During storage, Deficit and Reflective did not affect the content of phenolic acids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins when compared to the content at harvest. Optimizing cultural practices can be a way to increase the phenolic content of nectarines.

  2. Influence of metam sodium on the dissipation and residual biological activity of the herbicides EPTC and pebulate in surface soil under black plastic mulch.

    PubMed

    Stiles, C L; Sams, C E; Robinson, D K; Coffey, D L; Mueller, T C

    2000-10-01

    Metam sodium is a potential replacement for methyl bromide, which is used to control soil pests. Metam sodium rapidly breaks down in the soil to form methylisothiocyanate (MITC). Dissipation of the herbicides EPTC and pebulate in a silt loam soil under plastic mulch in the absence and presence of metam sodium was examined in field experiments in 1998 and 1999 at Knoxville, Tennessee. EPTC half-life (DT(50)) was 9 d, but when applied in conjunction with metam sodium DT(50) increased to 22 d. Similarly, average pebulate DT(50) was 8 d and increased to 23 d when applied in conjunction with metam sodium. This increase in herbicide DT(50) with the addition of metam sodium is thought to be due to a reduction in soil microorganisms that degrade EPTC and pebulate. EPTC applied with metam sodium injured tomato plants and reduced total crop yield more than EPTC, pebulate, or pebulate with metam sodium. The increased tomato injury may have been related to the greater and prolonged activity of EPTC and slower EPTC dissipation in the presence of metam sodium or MITC.

  3. Soil physical and X-ray computed tomographic measurements to investigate small-scale structural differences under strip tillage compared to mulch till and no-till

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlitz, Julia; Rücknagel, Jan; Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing application of conservation tillage techniques where the soil is no longer turned, but only loosened or left completely untilled. Dead plant material remains on the soil surface, which provides environmental and economic benefits such as the conservation of water, preventing soil erosion and saving time during seedbed preparation. There is a variety of conservation tillage systems, e.g. mulch till, no-till and strip tillage, which is a special feature. In strip tillage, the seed bed is divided into a seed zone (strip-till within the seed row: STWS) and a soil management zone (strip-till between the seed row: STBS). However, each tillage application affects physical soil properties and processes. Here, the combined application of classical soil mechanical and computed tomographic methods is used on a Chernozem (texture 0-30 cm: silt loam) to show small-scale structural differences under strip tillage (STWS, STBS) compared to no-till (NT) and mulch till (MT). In addition to the classical soil physical parameters dry bulk density and saturated conductivity (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) at soil depths 2-8 and 12-18 cm, stress-strain tests were carried out to map mechanical behavior. The stress-strain tests were performed for a load range from 5-550 kPa at 12-18 cm depth (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined on the stress-dry bulk density curves. Further, CT image cross sections and computed tomographic examinations (average pore size, porosity, connectivity, and anisotropy) were used from the same soil samples. For STBS and NT, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over the course of time compared to STWS and MT, which was more pronounced at 2-8 cm than at 12-18 cm depth. Despite higher dry bulk density, STBS displayed higher saturated conductivity in contrast to STWS, which can be attributed to higher earthworm abundance. In strip tillage, structural differences were identified

  4. [Regulation effect of water storage in deeper soil layers on root physiological characteristics and leaf photosynthetic traits of cotton with drip irrigation under mulch].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Du, Ming-Wei; Huang, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2009-06-01

    A soil column culture experiment was conducted under the ecological and climatic conditions of Xinjiang to study the effects of water storage in deeper (> 60 cm) soil layers on the root physiological characteristics and leaf photosynthetic traits of cotton variety Xinluzao 13. Two treatments were installed, i.e., well-watered and no watering. The moisture content in plough layer was controlled at 70% +/- 5% and 55% +/- 5% of field capacity by drip irrigation under mulch during growth season. It was shown that the water storage in deeper soil layers enhanced the SOD activity and the vigor of cotton root, and increased the water use efficiency of plant as well as the leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, and net photosynthesis rate, which finally led to a higher yield of seed cotton and higher water use efficiency. Under well-watered condition and when the moisture content in plough layer was maintained at 55% of field capacity, the senescence of roots in middle and lower soil layers was slower, and the higher root vigor compensated the negative effects of impaired photosynthesis caused by water deficit to some extent. The yield of seed cotton was lower when the moisture content in plough layer was maintained at 55% of field capacity than at 70% of field capacity, but no significant difference was observed in the water use efficiency. Our results emphasized the importance of pre-sowing irrigation in winter or in spring to increase the water storage of deeper soil layers. In addition, proper cultivation practices and less frequent drip irrigation (longer intervals between successive rounds of irrigation) were also essential for conserving irrigation water and achieving higher yield.

  5. [Effects of drought and re-watering on endogenous hormone contents of cotton roots and leaves under drip irrigation with mulch].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-hai; Han, Huan-yong; Zhang, Ya-li; Zhang, Wang-feng

    2013-04-01

    Under the climatic and ecological conditions of Xingjiang, Northwest China, different degrees of drought stress were installed during the growth stages of cotton, and the drip irrigation with mulch was adopted, aimed to study the effects of drought stress and re-watering on the endogenous hormones (abscisic acid, ABA; and zeatins, ZRs) contents of cotton roots and leaves and the stomatal conductance (gs) of cotton leaves. With the increase of drought stress at different growth stages, the ABA contents of cotton roots and leaves increased, while the ZRs contents of cotton roots and leaves and the gsand photosynthetic rate (Pn) of cotton leaves decreased, with greater decrements in the treatment of soil moisture content being 40% -45% of field capacity at early flowering-full flowering stage. After re-watering, the ABA contents of cotton roots and leaves d:d not have a decrease with the improvement of soil moisture regime, while the ZRs contents of cotton roots recovered rapidly or exceeded the control after 1-3 days of re-watering. There was a positive correlation between the ZRs contents of cotton roots and the gs of cotton leaves. In the treatment of soil moisture content being 50% -55% of field capacity at full budding-early flowering stage, the ZRs contents and gs of cotton leaves recovered more quickly and with greater increments. It was suggested that the higher ZRs contents of cotton roots after re-watering could be the main cause for the higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate of cotton leaves.

  6. [Effects of water and nitrogen regulation on the yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton in south Xinjiang, Northwest China under plastic mulched drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong; Bai, Dan; Zhai, Guo-Liang; Zong, Jie; Li, Ying; Cai, Jiu-Mao; Feng, Jun-Jie

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment with three irrigation amounts and five nitrogen application levels was conducted to investigate the effects of water and nitrogen regulation on the growth characteristics, yield component factors, and water and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton in south Xinjiang under mulched drip irrigation. With the increasing amount of irrigation, the plant height, leaf number on main stem, boll number, LAI, and dry matter accumulation in leaf and stem improved significantly, but the root growth was restrained. As compared with low and high irrigation amounts (4950 and 6750 mm x hm(-2), respectively), medium irrigation amount (5850 mm x hm(-2)) increased the available bolls per plant and the single boll mass averagely by 0.96 and 0.4 and by 0.22 and 0.11 g, respectively. When the nitrogen application level was 300 kg x hm(-2), as compared with other nitrogen application levels, the stem diameter increased significantly, and the growth of bud, boll, and root was accelerated. Moreover, the allocation ratio of dry matter from nutritional organs to reproductive organs under medium irrigation amount increased by 5.1% and 29.6% respectively, as compared with that under low and high irrigation amounts. Irrigation amount had significant effects on the cotton yield but little effects on the lint percentage, whereas nitrogen application level had definite effects on the cotton yield and lint percentage. However, low irrigation amount restrained the effects of nitrogen application on yield enhancement. In this experiment, when the irrigation amount was 5850 mm x hm(-2) and the nitrogen application level was 300 kg x hm(-2), the cotton grew healthily, the plant shape structure was optimized, the dry matter allocation to reproductive organs was promoted dramatically, the available bolls, single boll mass, and lint percentage increased, the cotton yield reached the highest (6992.33 kg x hm(-2)), and the water and nitrogen use efficiency amounted to 1.45 kg x m(-3) and 45

  7. [Effects of irrigation amount and frequency on soil water distribution and water use efficiency in a cotton field under mulched drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Xian; Yang, Jin-Song; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yu, Mei; Wang, Jin

    2011-12-01

    A 2-year (2009 and 2010) field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of irrigation amount (300, 375, and 450 mm) and irrigation frequency (once every 3-, 7-, and 10 days) on the soil water distribution and cotton water use efficiency (WUE) under mulched drip irrigation in North Xinjiang. When the irrigation amount was 375 mm, irrigation once every 3 days induced a higher water content in surface soil (0-20 cm) in the whole growth season of cotton but made the deeper (below 40 cm) soil not moistened enough. Irrigation once every 10 days benefited the irrigation water penetrated downward or sideways and made the deeper soil have a higher water content; however, this drip irrigation did not replenish water in time, and made the surface soil water content lower. Overall, drip irrigation once every 7 days benefited the uniform distribution of irrigation water in soil profile. Under the same irrigation frequencies, the larger the irrigation amount, the higher the soil water content. The cotton water consumption in all treatments had the similar pattern, i. e., lower at seedling stage (averagely < 1.7 mm x d(-1)), increased gradually since squaring stage and reached the maximum at full bloom stage (about 8.7 mm x d(-1)), and decreased at onen-boll staue (about 1.0 mm x d(-1). Under the natural condition, the total cotton water consumption had close correlation with irrigation amount but poor correlation with irrigation frequency, and the cotton WUE decreased significantly with increasing irrigation amount. When the irrigation amount was 300 mm, the WUE was higher but the yield production decreased markedly, whereas excessive irrigation (450 mm) had no significant yield-increasing effect but wasted water. It was suggested that irrigation with an amount of 375 mm and a frequency of once every 7- or 10 days could be an appropriate drip irrigation mode for the local cotton field under natural condition.

  8. The Effect of Natural Mulches on Crop Performance, Weed Suppression and Biochemical Constituents of Catnip and St. John’s Wort

    PubMed Central

    Duppong, L. M.; Delate, K.; Liebman, M.; Horton, R.; Romero, F.; Kraus, G.; Petrich, J.; Chowdbury, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    Because of expanding markets for high-value niche crops, opportunities have increased for the production of medicinal herbs in the USA. An experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 near Gilbert, IA, to study crop performance, weed suppression, and environmental conditions associated with the use of several organic mulches in the production of two herbs, catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) and St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. ‘Helos’). Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design and included a positive (hand-weeded) control, a negative (nonweeded) control, oat straw, a flax straw mat, and a nonwoven wool mat. Catnip plant height was significantly greater in the oat straw than the other treatments at 4 wk through 6 wk in 2001; at 4 to 8 wk in 2002, catnip plant height and width was significantly lower in the negative control compared with the other treatments. Catnip yield was significantly higher in the flax straw mat than all other treatments in 2001. In 2002, St. John’s wort yields were not statistically different in any treatments. All weed management treatments had significantly fewer weeds than the non-weeded rows in 2002. Total weed density comparisons in each crop from 2 yr showed fewer weeds present in the flax straw and wool mat treatments compared with positive control plots. There was no significant weed management treatment effect on the concentration of the target compounds, nepetalactone in catnip and pseudohypericin–hypericin in St. John’s wort, although there was a trend toward higher concentrations in the flax straw treatment. PMID:17047728

  9. Rapid change of AM fungal community in a rain-fed wheat field with short-term plastic film mulching practice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; He, Xinhua; Cheng, Gang; Ma, Xiaojun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2012-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PFM) is a widely used agricultural practice in the temperate semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. However, how beneficial soil microbes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in particular, respond to the PFM practice is not known. Here, a field experiment was performed to study the effects of a 3-month short-term PFM practice on AM fungi in plots planted with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi-2) in the Loess Plateau. AM colonization, spore density, wheat spike weight, and grain phosphorus (P) content were significantly increased in the PFM treatments, and these changes were mainly attributable to changes in soil properties such as available P and soil moisture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in PFM soils, but levels of AM fungal-related glomalin were similar between treatments. A total of nine AM fungal phylotypes were detected in root samples based on AM fungal SSU rDNA analyses, with six and five phylotypes in PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. Although AM fungal phylotype richness was not statistically different between treatments, the community compositions were different, with four and three specific phylotypes in the PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. A significant and rapid change in AM fungal, wheat, and soil variables following PFM suggested that the functioning of the AM symbiosis had been changed in the wheat field under PFM. Future studies are needed to investigate whether PFM applied over a longer term has a similar effect on the AM fungal community and their functioning in an agricultural ecosystem.

  10. The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    in the paddy fields after harvesting and the straw is being as a residue that damages the air quality when burnt, the water quality due to the decomposition and the methane production, and is not accepted in the field by the farmers. This is a new problem as few years ago the rice straw was use for animal feeding. Many attempts were developed in the last decade to remove and use the straw to avoid fires and water pollution (Iranzo et al., 2004; Silvestre et al., 2013). Our goal is to test if a residue such as the rice straw can be transformed as a resource: soil erosion control. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land (García Moreno et al., 2013), the soil losses in fire affected land (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b; Fernandez and Vega, 2014), and soil properties (García Orenes et al., 2009; 2010; Jordán et al., 2010; García Orenes 2012). Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0,25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The plots covered with straw had different straw mulch cover: from 10 to 100 % cover and from 0,005 g m2 to 300 g m2. The results show a positive effect of the straw cover that show an exponential relation between the straw cover and weight with the sediment yield. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 140,145-154. Borrelli, P., Märker, M., Schütt, B. 2013. Modelling post-tree-haversting soil erosion and sediment deposition potential in the Turano River Basin (Italian Central Apennine). Land Degradation & Development, DOI 10.1002/ldr.2214 Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil

  11. [Interactive impact of water and nitrogen on yield, quality of watermelon and use of water and nitrogen in gravel-mulched field].

    PubMed

    Du, Shao-ping; Ma, Zhong-ming; Xue, Liang

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop the optimal coupling model of water and nitrogen of watermelon under limited irrigation in gravel-mulched field, a field experiment with split-plot design was conducted to study the effects of supplementary irrigation volume, nitrogen fertilization, and their interactions on the growth, yield, quality and water and nitrogen use efficiency of watermelon with 4 supplementary irrigation levels (W: 0, 35, 70, and 105 m³ · hm⁻²) in main plots and 3 nitrogen fertilization levels (N: 0, 120, and 200 kg N · hm⁻²) in sub-plots. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate, yield, and water and nitrogen use efficiency of watermelon increased with the increasing supplementary irrigation, but the nitrogen partial productivity and nitrogen use efficiency decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level. The photosynthetic rate and quality indicators increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level as the nitrogen rate changed from 0 to 120 kg N · hm⁻², but no further significant increase as the nitrogen rate exceeded 120 kg · hm⁻². The interactive effects between water and nitrogen was significant for yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of watermelon, supplementary irrigation volume was a key factor for the increase yield compared with the nitrogen fertilizer, and the yield reached the highest for the W₇₀N₂₀₀ and W₁₀₅ N₁₂₀ treatments, for which the yield increased by 42.4% and 40.4% compared to CK. Water use efficiency (WUE) was improved by supplementary irrigation and nitrogen rate, the WUE of all nitrogen fertilizer treatments were more than 26 kg · m⁻³ under supplemental irrigation levels 70 m³ · hm⁻² and 105 m³ · hm⁻². The nitrogen partial productivity and nitrogen use efficiency reached the highest in the treatment of W₁₀₅N₁₂₀. It was considered that under the experimental condition, 105 m³ · hm⁻² of supplementary irrigation plus 120 kg · hm⁻² of nitrogen

  12. Rational Water and Nitrogen Management Improves Root Growth, Increases Yield and Maintains Water Use Efficiency of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongzhi; Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel K. Y.; Luo, Honghai

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N) applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE) under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1), deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2), pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3), pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4)] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha-1 in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1), 2:8 (N2)] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production. Previous investigations have shown a strong correlation between root activity and water consumption in the 40–120 cm soil layer. The W3 and especially W4 treatments significantly increased root length density (RLD), root volume density (RVD), root mass density (RMD), and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer. Cotton RLD, RVD, RMD was decreased by 13.1, 13.3, and 20.8%, respectively, in N2 compared with N1 at 70 days after planting (DAP) in the 0–40 cm soil layer. However, root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer at 140 DAP was 31.6% higher in N2 than that in N1. Total RMD, RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil were significantly and positively correlated with shoot dry weight. RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer was highest in the W4N2 treatments. Therefore increased water consumption in the deep soil layers resulted in increased shoot dry weight, seed cotton yield and WUE. Our data can be used to develop a water-N management strategy for optimal cotton yield and high WUE. PMID:28611817

  13. Rational Water and Nitrogen Management Improves Root Growth, Increases Yield and Maintains Water Use Efficiency of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongzhi; Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel K Y; Luo, Honghai

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N) applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE) under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1), deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2), pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3), pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4)] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha(-1) in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1), 2:8 (N2)] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production. Previous investigations have shown a strong correlation between root activity and water consumption in the 40-120 cm soil layer. The W3 and especially W4 treatments significantly increased root length density (RLD), root volume density (RVD), root mass density (RMD), and root activity in the 40-120 cm soil layer. Cotton RLD, RVD, RMD was decreased by 13.1, 13.3, and 20.8%, respectively, in N2 compared with N1 at 70 days after planting (DAP) in the 0-40 cm soil layer. However, root activity in the 40-120 cm soil layer at 140 DAP was 31.6% higher in N2 than that in N1. Total RMD, RLD and root activity in the 40-120 cm soil were significantly and positively correlated with shoot dry weight. RLD and root activity in the 40-120 cm soil layer was highest in the W4N2 treatments. Therefore increased water consumption in the deep soil layers resulted in increased shoot dry weight, seed cotton yield and WUE. Our data can be used to develop a water-N management strategy for optimal cotton yield and high WUE.

  14. Black plastic mulch combined with summer cover crop increases the yield and water use efficiency of apple tree on the rainfed Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Wen, Meijuan; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhai, Bingnian; Li, Ziyan

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit significantly limits dryland rainfed fruit production, so increasing water conservation is crucial for improving fruit productivity in arid and semiarid areas. In this study, we tested two treatments in an apple orchard: 1) PC treatment comprising black plastic mulch (BPM) (in-row) with weed control (inter-row); 2) and PGC treatment comprising BPM (in-row) combined with a summer cover crop (inter-row) of rape (Brassica campestris L.), which was sown in mid-June and was living from July to September. Under PGC, the inter-row soil water storage increased by 17.9% and 11.5% compared with PC after the harvest in 2013 and 2014, respectively, but there was no significant increase in 2015. The evapotranspiration (ET) from the inter-row areas during the cover crop period was lower under PGC than PC in 2013 (19.6%), 2014 (11.3%), and 2015 (13.3%). However, the differences in the total ET from the inter-row areas between the two treatments were not obvious, and the total ET from in-row areas was higher under PGC than PC due to the increased water uptake by apple trees under PGC. The apple yield, water use efficiency during the cover crop period (WUEg) and total water use efficiency (WUE) fluctuated during the experimental years. Compared with PC, the apple yield increased by 14.1%, 18.8%, and 26.7% under PGC in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. In addition, the WUEg was 26.4%, 24.7%, and 32.7% higher under PGC compared with PC in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. Thus, the WUE under PGC was 13.8% and 11.7% higher than that under PC in 2013 and 2014, respectively, but the difference was not significant in 2015 (p = 0.0527). Thus, BPM combined with a summer cover crop is recommended for decreasing the summer ET and promoting apple production in rainfed dryland areas where the rainy season is usually the hot season.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (p<0.05) annual GWP (CH4+ N2O) as compared to the traditional double-rice cropping system. Measurements of soil organic carbon contents before and three years after introduction of upland

  16. Certified organic herb mulching demonstration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of organo-pestiphytology (the study of organic weed control) is to investigate and develop weed control strategies that are fundamental to the cropping system rather than afterthoughts to a production system. The scarcity of approved organic herbicides reinforces the necessity for org...

  17. Diversity of grass-associated Microbacteriaceae isolated from the phyllosphere and litter layer after mulching the sward; polyphasic characterization of Subtercola pratensis sp. nov., Curtobacterium herbarum sp. nov. and Plantibacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Ulrich, Andreas; Schumann, Peter; Naumann, Dieter; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2002-09-01

    A representative selection of coryneform bacteria, isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses and the litter layer after mulching the sward, was characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic position in the family Microbacteriaceae, with particular reference to potentially plant-pathogenic bacteria. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates can be classified into six genotypes representing the genera Curtobacterium, Clavibacter, Subtercola and a subgroup, which was not affiliated to a known genus. One genotype, belonging to the genus Curtobacterium, had an identical 16S rDNA sequence to reference strains of the Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pathovars. Another genotype, closely related to the potentially pathogenic Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, could be distinguished from known species of the genus on the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization and is consequently proposed as a novel species, Curtobacterium herbarum sp. nov. (type strain P 420/07T DSM 14013T = LMG 19917T). Two genotypes assigned to Clavibacter showed a close relationship to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. tessellarius, a pathogenic bacterium causing foliar lesions on wheat. A further genotype, which clustered clearly in the genus Subtercola by comparison of 16S rDNA sequences, showed a hitherto undescribed B-type of peptidoglycan containing the diagnostic diamino acids ornithine and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, in the cell wall; this genotype is proposed as Subtercola pratensis sp. nov. (type strain P 229/10T = DSM 14246T = LMG 21000T). For one genotype, which formed a phylogenetically separate branch in the family of Microbacteriaceae showing chemotaxonomic similarities to the genus Rathayibacter, a novel genus, Plantibacter gen. nov., is proposed; the type species is Plantibacter flavus sp. nov. (type strain P 297/02T = DSM 14012T = LMG 19919T).

  18. [Border effect and physiological characteristics of broomcorn millet under film mulching on ridge-furrow for harvesting rainwater model in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi, China].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Su, Wang; Li, Cui; Gao, Jin-Feng; Gao, Xiao-Li; Wang, Peng-Ke; Feng, Bai-Li; Chai, Yan

    2014-03-01

    To explore the border effect and physiological characteristic of broomcorn millet growing under different film mulching on ridge-furrow for harvesting rainwater models in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi, China, a three-year field experiment was conducted with four different widths of ridge and furrow, and the bare land flat sowing as the control (NM). The width of ridge and furrow varied as ridge: furrow = 40 cm: 40 cm (P40), 60 cm: 60 cm (P60), 80 cm: 80 cm (P80), and 100 cm:100 cm (P100). The results showed that the wider the width of furrow and ridge was, the stronger the border advantage and the border effect index of the yield were. With the increase in width of furrow and ridge, the yield increasing effect of side rows increased with the maximum of 207.7%, and the yield increasing effect of middle rows decreased with the minimum of 10.3%. P60 reached the highest yield within three years. The yield contribution rate of side rows was higher than that of middle rows (P < 0.05). The chlorophyll contents, Ch1 a/Ch1 b, and photosynthetic rate of side rows were higher than those of middle rows among the different harvesting rainwater models. The wider the width of furrow and ridge was, the stronger the photosynthetic capacity of side rows was, and the weaker the photosynthetic capacity of middle rows was. The optimal type of ridge and furrow was P60 in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi.

  19. Description of Microbacterium foliorum sp. nov. and Microbacterium phyllosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses and the surface litter after mulching the sward, and reclassification of Aureobacterium resistens (Funke et al. 1998) as Microbacterium resistens comb. nov..

    PubMed

    Behrendt, U; Ulrich, A; Schumann, P

    2001-07-01

    The taxonomic position of a group of coryneform bacteria isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses and the surface litter after sward mulching was investigated. On the basis of restriction analyses of 16S rDNA, the isolates were divided into two genotypes. According to the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, representatives of both genotypes were related at a level of 99.2% similarity and clustered within the genus Microbacterium. Chemotaxonomic features (major menaquinones MK-12, MK-11 and MK-10; predominating iso- and anteiso-branched cellular fatty acids; G+C content 64-67 mol%; peptidoglycan-type B2beta with glycolyl residues) corresponded to this genus as well. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed a reassociation value of less than 70% between representative strains of both subgroups, suggesting that two different species are represented. Although the extensive morphological and physiological analyses did not reveal any differentiating feature for the genotypes, differences in the presence of the cell-wall sugar mannose enabled the subgroups to be distinguished from one another. DNA-DNA hybridization with type strains of closely related Microbacterium spp. indicated that the isolates represent two individual species, which can also be differentiated from previously described species of Microbacterium on the basis of biochemical features. As a result of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, the species Microbacterium foliorum sp. nov., type strain P 333/02T (= DSM 12966T = LMG 19580T), and Microbacterium phyllosphaerae sp. nov., type strain P 369/06T (= DSM 13468T = LMG 19581T), are proposed. Furthermore, the reclassification of Aureobacterium resistens (Funke et al. 1998) as Microbacterium resistens (Funke et al. 1998) comb. nov. is proposed.

  20. The Effect of sewage sledge bio-char as mulch and top-soil incorporated on Soil Physical Characteristics and plant growth in a loss soil with high specific surface area in a temperate climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Hamed; Movahedi Naeini, Seyed Alireza; Mirzanejad, Mojan

    2015-04-01

    Incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils has been proposed as a potential best management practice (BMP) to increase crop yield and sequester atmospheric carbon (C). Furthermore, the production of biochar, referred to as pyrolysis, yields biofuel that can offset fossil fuels. Current research involving biochar and soil is field scale experiments. Here, sewage sledge biochar was incorporated into a field-scale soybean (Glycine max) system for analysis of soil mechanical and hydrological properties correlated with crop yield. A randomized complete block design was implemented with two biochar application rates: 0 Mg ha-1 (TC), and 25 Mg ha-1 (MTB25 Mulch and ITB25 Incorporated). All plots were tilled using a tractor and rotovator in order to attain uniform incorporation of biochar. A small adjacent field was managed with no-till practices (NTC) to quantify the effects of tillage. Biochar is an effective soil conditioner, evident by MTB25 soil bulk density 9% and 18.5% less than that of TC and NTC, respectively. Analysis of soil pore size distribution resulted in MTB25 with significantly increased macro-pores (1500 μm) related to water transmission and micro-pores (0.5 μm) related to water retention. Furthermore, plant available water capacity (AWC) of MTB25 significantly increased by 9.6% and 29% over TC and NTC, respectively. Biochar amendment (MTB25) increased saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by 33% and 78% over TC and NTC, respectively. Soybean above-ground biomass and grain yield of MTB25 resulted in respective 12.3% and 12.5% increases over TC. The results also showed that the ITB25 was less effective than MTB25. Correlation and linear regression analysis revealed significant positive trends with AWC, soil bulk density, total porosity, among other properties. Results suggest biochar is an effective soil amendment for temperate agricultural soils, yet long-term research will provide additional insight into the potential for biochar to improve soil

  1. PCE/TCE DEGRADATION USING MULCH BIOWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  2. PCE/TCE DEGRADATION USING MULCH BIOWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  3. Low and high input organic mulching trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many consumers consider organically grown produce a healthier and safer option over conventionally grown crops. Because of this, consumers are often willing to pay more for organically grown produce. However, production of organic fruits, vegetables, and herbs can be challenging, especially in cli...

  4. Aerial mulching techniques-trough fire

    Treesearch

    Robert. Faust

    2008-01-01

    The Trough fire occurred in August 2001 on the Mendocino National Forest of northern California. A burned area emergency rehabilitation team evaluated the fire effects on the watershed. Concerns were soil from the denuded slopes moving into streams affecting fishery values, reservoir sedimentation and storm runoff plugging culverts leading to road wash outs. Past...

  5. Treatment of RDX and/or HMX Using Mulch Biowalls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Biodegradation pathways of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine (RDX) by Clostridium acetobutylicum cell-free extract. Chemosphere, 2002. 50: p. 665-671... Clostridium , In: Biodegradation of Nitroaromatic Compounds and Explosives, J.C. Spain, J.B. Hughes, and H.-J. Knackmuss, Editors. 2000, Lewis Publishers/CRC...2000. Salt Lake City, UT. 23. Regan, K.M., and R.L. Crawford. Characterization of Clostridium bifermentans and its biotransformation of 2,4,6

  6. Treatment of RDX & HMX Plumes Using Mulch Biowalls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    by Clostridium acetobutylicum cell-free extract. Chemosphere, 2002. 50: p. 665-671. August 2008 ESTCP ER-0426 64 Final Technical...ER-0426 61 Final Technical Report 7. REFERENCES 1. Ahmad, F. and J.B. Hughes, Anaerobic Transformation of TNT by Clostridium , In...K.M. and R.L. Crawford, Characterization of Clostridium bifermentans and its biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5

  7. Co-pyrolyzing plastic mulch waste with animal manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrolyzing various livestock and agricultural wastes produces power and value-added byproducts. It also substantially reduces ultimate waste volume to be disposed of and improves soil fertility and promotes carbon sequestration via soil application of biochar. Researchers found that manure-derived ...

  8. Biotechnology application of organic mulch as an alternative to the plastic mulch-methyl bromide system for suppressing purple and yellow nutsedges in tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus (purple and yellow nutsedges, respectively) are among the most serious weed problems in many cropping systems in Florida and other parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Production systems based o...

  9. Use of organic mulch as an alternative to the plastic mulch-methyl bromide system for suppressing purple and yellow nutsedges in tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus (purple and yellow nutsedges, respectively) are among the most serious weed problems in many cropping systems in Florida and other parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Production systems based o...

  10. Termite Behavior: Measuring the Postanoxic Consumption Rates of Landscape Mulches by Eastern Subterranean Termites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, D. Parks

    2013-01-01

    Populations of the Eastern subterranean termite, "Reticulitermes flavipes," are widespread throughout most of the eastern United States. Subterranean termites have the ability to survive flooding conditions by lowering their metabolism. This lesson investigates the connection between the ability of termites to lower their metabolism to…

  11. PLANT MULCH TO TREAT TCE IN GROUND WATER IN A PRB (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past ten years, passive reactive barriers (PRBs) have found widespread application to treat chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. The traditional PRB commonly uses granular zero-valent iron and/or iron alloys as filling materials for treatment of chlorinated ...

  12. Utilizing cover crop mulches to re